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Sample records for fry oncorhynchus tshawytscha

  1. Proteomic analysis of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ovarian fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Johnson

    Full Text Available The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species.

  2. Multigenerational outbreeding effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Sarah J; Love, Oliver P; Pitcher, Trevor E; Higgs, Dennis M; Heath, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Outbreeding, mating between genetically divergent individuals, may result in negative fitness consequences for offspring via outbreeding depression. Outbreeding effects are of notable concern in salmonid research as outbreeding can have major implications for salmon aquaculture and conservation management. We therefore quantified outbreeding effects in two generations (F1 hybrids and F2 backcrossed hybrids) of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) derived from captively-reared purebred lines that had been selectively bred for differential performance based on disease resistance and growth rate. Parental lines were crossed in 2009 to create purebred and reciprocal hybrid crosses (n = 53 families), and in 2010 parental and hybrid crosses were crossed to create purebred and backcrossed hybrid crosses (n = 66 families). Although we found significant genetic divergence between the parental lines (FST = 0.130), reciprocal F1 hybrids showed no evidence of outbreeding depression (hybrid breakdown) or favorable heterosis for weight, length, condition or survival. The F2 backcrossed hybrids showed no outbreeding depression for a suite of fitness related traits measured from egg to sexually mature adult life stages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of outbreeding effects in salmonids and supports the need for more research to better comprehend the mechanisms driving outbreeding depression.

  3. Vertebral column regionalisation in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, A; Perrott, M R; Davie, P S; Preece, M A; Wybourne, B; Ruff, N; Huysseune, A; Witten, P E

    2017-10-01

    Teleost vertebral centra are often similar in size and shape, but vertebral-associated elements, i.e. neural arches, haemal arches and ribs, show regional differences. Here we examine how the presence, absence and specific anatomical and histological characters of vertebral centra-associated elements can be used to define vertebral column regions in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). To investigate if the presence of regions within the vertebral column is independent of temperature, animals raised at 8 and 12 °C were studied at 1400 and 1530 degreedays, in the freshwater phase of the life cycle. Anatomy and composition of the skeletal tissues of the vertebral column were analysed using Alizarin red S whole-mount staining and histological sections. Six regions, termed I-VI, are recognised in the vertebral column of specimens of both temperature groups. Postcranial vertebrae (region I) carry neural arches and parapophyses but lack ribs. Abdominal vertebrae (region II) carry neural arches and ribs that articulate with parapophyses. Elastic- and fibrohyaline cartilage and Sharpey's fibres connect the bone of the parapophyses to the bone of the ribs. In the transitional region (III) vertebrae carry neural arches and parapophyses change stepwise into haemal arches. Ribs decrease in size, anterior to posterior. Vestigial ribs remain attached to the haemal arches with Sharpey's fibres. Caudal vertebrae (region IV) carry neural and haemal arches and spines. Basidorsals and basiventrals are small and surrounded by cancellous bone. Preural vertebrae (region V) carry neural and haemal arches with modified neural and haemal spines to support the caudal fin. Ural vertebrae (region VI) carry hypurals and epurals that represent modified haemal and neural arches and spines, respectively. The postcranial and transitional vertebrae and their respective characters are usually recognised, but should be considered as regions within the vertebral column of teleosts

  4. Coronary ligation reduces maximum sustained swimming speed in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, A P; Steffensen, J F

    1987-01-01

    The maximum aerobic swimming speed of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was measured before and after ligation of the coronary artery. Coronary artery ligation prevented blood flow to the compact layer of the ventricular myocardium, which represents 30% of the ventricular mass, and produced...

  5. Coronary ligation reduces maximum sustained swimming speed in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, A P; Steffensen, J F

    1987-01-01

    The maximum aerobic swimming speed of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was measured before and after ligation of the coronary artery. Coronary artery ligation prevented blood flow to the compact layer of the ventricular myocardium, which represents 30% of the ventricular mass, and produced...... a statistically significant 35.5% reduction in maximum swimming speed. We conclude that the coronary circulation is important for maximum aerobic swimming and implicit in this conclusion is that maximum cardiac performance is probably necessary for maximum aerobic swimming performance....

  6. Stress of formalin treatment in juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri)

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    Wedemeyer, Gary; Yasutake, W.T.

    1973-01-01

    The physiological stress of 200 ppm formalin treatments at 10 C is more severe in the juvenile steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) than in the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). In the steelhead, a marked hypochloremia follows a 1-hr treatment and recovery requires about 24 hr. During longer treatments, hypercholesterolemia together with reduced regulatory precision, hypercortisolemia, alkaline reserve depletion, and hypocapnia unaccompanied by a fall in blood pH occur — suggestive of compensated respiratory alkalosis. In the spring chinook, hypochloremia and reduced plasma cholesterol regulatory precision are the significant treatment side effects but recovery requires only a few hours.Formalin treatments also cause epithelial separation, hypertrophy, and necrosis in the gills of both fishes but again, consistent with the physiological dysfunctions, these are more severe in the steelhead.

  7. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

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    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  8. Adaptive genetic markers discriminate migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid continued gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Jacobson, Dave P; Kurth, Ryon; Dill, Allen J; Banks, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Neutral genetic markers are routinely used to define distinct units within species that warrant discrete management. Human-induced changes to gene flow however may reduce the power of such an approach. We tested the efficiency of adaptive versus neutral genetic markers in differentiating temporally divergent migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid high gene flow owing to artificial propagation and habitat alteration. We compared seven putative migration timing genes to ten microsatellite loci in delineating three migratory groups of Chinook in the Feather River, CA: offspring of fall-run hatchery broodstock that returned as adults to freshwater in fall (fall run), spring-run offspring that returned in spring (spring run), and fall-run offspring that returned in spring (FRS). We found evidence for significant differentiation between the fall and federally listed threatened spring groups based on divergence at three circadian clock genes (OtsClock1b, OmyFbxw11, and Omy1009UW), but not neutral markers. We thus demonstrate the importance of genetic marker choice in resolving complex life history types. These findings directly impact conservation management strategies and add to previous evidence from Pacific and Atlantic salmon indicating that circadian clock genes influence migration timing.

  9. Outbreaks of phaeohyphomycosis in the chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caused by Phoma herbarum.

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    Faisal, Mohamed; Elsayed, Ehab; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Silva, Victor; Mendoza, Leonel

    2007-01-01

    Phoma herbarum has been associated with two outbreaks of systemic mycosis in hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) fingerlings. Affected fish exhibited abnormal swimming behavior, exophthalmia, multiple rounded areas of muscle softening, protruded hemorrhagic vents, and abdominal swelling. In all affected fish, swimbladders were filled with whitish creamy viscous fungal mass, surrounded by dark red areas in swimbladder walls, kidneys, and musculature. Clinical and histopathological examinations suggest that the infection may have started primarily in the swimbladder and then spread to the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and surrounding musculature. Consistent microscopical findings included broad septate branched fungal hyaline hyphae, 5-12 microm in diameter within the swimbladder, stomach, and often within and adjacent to blood vessels. Profuse growths of woolly brown fungal colonies were obtained from swimbladders and kidneys on Sabouraud medium. On corn meal agar the formation of pycnidia, characteristic of Phoma spp., was detected within 10 days of incubation. Morphological and molecular analyses identified this fungus as Phoma herbarum. This report underscores systemic fungal infections as a threat to raceway-raised salmon.

  10. Recovery of barotrauma injuries in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from exposure to pile driving sound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon M Casper

    Full Text Available Juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, were exposed to simulated high intensity pile driving signals to evaluate their ability to recover from barotrauma injuries. Fish were exposed to one of two cumulative sound exposure levels for 960 pile strikes (217 or 210 dB re 1 µPa(2·s SEL(cum; single strike sound exposure levels of 187 or 180 dB re 1 µPa(2⋅s SEL(ss respectively. This was followed by an immediate assessment of injuries, or assessment 2, 5, or 10 days post-exposure. There were no observed mortalities from the pile driving sound exposure. Fish exposed to 217 dB re 1 µPa(2·s SEL(cum displayed evidence of healing from injuries as post-exposure time increased. Fish exposed to 210 dB re 1 µPa(2·s SEL(cum sustained minimal injuries that were not significantly different from control fish at days 0, 2, and 10. The exposure to 210 dB re 1 µPa(2·s SEL(cum replicated the findings in a previous study that defined this level as the threshold for onset of injury. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that one or two Mild injuries resulting from pile driving exposure are unlikely to affect the survival of the exposed animals, at least in a laboratory environment.

  11. Gauging resource exploitation by juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in restoring estuarine habitat

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    Davis, Melanie; Ellings, Christopher S.; Woo, Isa; Hodgson, Sayre; Larsen, Kimberly A.; Nakai, Glynnis

    2018-01-01

    In the context of delta restoration and its impact on salmonid rearing, success is best evaluated based on whether out-migrating juvenile salmon can access and benefit from suitable estuarine habitat. Here, we integrated 3 years of post-restoration monitoring data including habitat availability, invertebrate prey biomass, and juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) physiological condition to determine whether individuals profited from the addition of 364 ha of delta habitat in South Puget Sound, Washington, United States. Productivity in the restored mudflat was comparable to reference sites 3 years after dike removal, surpassing a mean total of 6 million kJ energy from invertebrate prey. This resulted from the development of a complex network of tidal channels and a resurgence in dipteran biomass that was unique to the restoration area. Consequently, a notable shift in invertebrate consumption occurred between 2010 and 2011, whereby individuals switched from eating primarily amphipods to dipteran flies; however, dietary similarity to the surrounding habitat did not change from year to year, suggesting that this shift was a result of a change in the surrounding prey communities. Growth rates did not differ between restored and reference sites, but catch weight was positively correlated with prey biomass, where greater prey productivity appeared to offset potential density-dependent effects. These results demonstrate how the realized function of restoring estuarine habitat is functionally dependent. High prey productivity in areas with greater connectivity may support healthy juvenile salmon that are more likely to reach the critical size class for offshore survival.

  12. Costs of living for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an increasingly warming and invaded world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Lauren M.; Olden, Julian D.; Duda, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid environmental change in freshwater ecosystems has created a need to understand the interactive effects of multiple stressors, with temperature and invasive predators identified as key threats to imperiled fish species. We tested the separate and interactive effects of water temperature and predation by non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) on the lethal (mortality) and sublethal (behavior, physiology, and growth) effects for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in seminatural stream channel experiments. Over 48 h trials, there was no difference in direct predation with warmer temperatures, but significant interactive effects on sublethal responses of juvenile salmon. Warmer temperatures resulted in significantly stronger and more variable antipredator responses (surface shoaling and swimming activity), while physiological indicators (plasma glucose, plasma cortisol) suggested suppression of physiological mechanisms in response to the combined stressors. These patterns corresponded with additive negative growth in predation, temperature, and combined treatments. Our results suggest that chronic increases in temperature may not increase direct predation over short periods, but can result in significant sublethal costs with negative implications for long-term development, disease resistance, and subsequent size-selective mortality of Pacific salmon.

  13. Impact of Ichthyophonus infection on spawning success of Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Toshihide; Kahler, Eryn; Borba, Bonnie M; Burton, Tamara

    2013-11-06

    We examined the impacts of Ichthyophonus infection on spawning success of Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at spawning grounds of the Chena and Salcha Rivers, Alaska, USA. During the period 2005 to 2006, 1281 salmon carcasses (628 male, 652 female) were collected throughout the spawning season and from the entire spawning reaches of the Chena and Salcha Rivers. For each fish, infection status was determined by culture method and visual inspection of lesions of heart tissue as uninfected (culture negative), infected without lesions (culture positive with no visible lesions), and infected with lesions (culture positive with visible lesions), and spawning status was determined by visually inspecting the percentage of gametes remaining as full-spawned (50%). Among the 3 groups, the proportion of full-spawned (i.e. spawning success) females was lower for those infected without lesions (69%) than those uninfected (87%) and infected with lesions (86%), but this did not apply to males (uninfected 42%, infected without lesions 38%, infected with lesions 41%). At the population level, the combined (infected and uninfected) proportion of female spawning success was 86%, compared to 87% when all females were assumed uninfected. These data suggest that while Ichthyophonus infection slightly reduces spawning success of infected females, its impact on the spawning population as a whole appears minimal.

  14. Validation of a freshwater Otolith microstructure pattern for Nisqually Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

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    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound (Washington) evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Extensive restoration of the Nisqually River delta ecosystem has taken place to assist in recovery of the stock since estuary habitat is a critical transition zone for juvenile fall Chinook salmon. A pre-restoration baseline that includes the characterization of life history strategies, estuary residence times, growth rates and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and to determine restoration success. Otolith microstructure analysis was selected as a tool to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth and residence in the Nisqually River estuary. The purpose of the current study is to incorporate microstructural analysis from the otoliths of juvenile Nisqually Chinook salmon collected at the downstream migrant trap within true freshwater (FW) habitat of the Nisqually River. The results from this analysis confirmed the previously documented Nisqually-specific FW microstructure pattern and revealed a Nisqually-specific microstructure pattern early in development (“developmental pattern”). No inter-annual variation in the microstructure pattern was visually observed when compared to samples from previous years. Furthermore, the Nisqually-specific “developmental pattern” and the FW microstructure pattern used in combination during analysis will allow us to recognize and separate with further confidence future unmarked Chinook salmon otolith collections into Nisqually-origin (natural or unmarked hatchery) and non-Nisqually origin categories. Freshwater mean increment width, growth rate and residence time were also calculated.

  15. Migratory Patterns of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to a Large, Free-flowing River Basin

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    Eiler, John H.; Evans, Allison N.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, virtually pristine river basin. These returns have declined dramatically since the late 1990s, and information is needed to better manage the run and facilitate conservation efforts. A total of 2,860 fish were radio tagged during 2002–2004. Most (97.5%) of the fish tracked upriver to spawning areas displayed continual upriver movements and strong fidelity to the terminal tributaries entered. Movement rates were substantially slower for fish spawning in lower river tributaries (28–40 km d-1) compared to upper basin stocks (52–62 km d-1). Three distinct migratory patterns were observed, including a gradual decline, pronounced decline, and substantial increase in movement rate as the fish moved upriver. Stocks destined for the same region exhibited similar migratory patterns. Individual fish within a stock showed substantial variation, but tended to reflect the regional pattern. Differences between consistently faster and slower fish explained 74% of the within-stock variation, whereas relative shifts in sequential movement rates between “hares” (faster fish becoming slower) and “tortoises” (slow but steady fish) explained 22% of the variation. Pulses of fish moving upriver were not cohesive. Fish tagged over a 4-day period took 16 days to pass a site 872 km upriver. Movement rates were substantially faster and the percentage of atypical movements considerably less than reported in more southerly drainages, but may reflect the pristine conditions within the Yukon River, wild origins of the fish, and discrete run timing of the returns. Movement data can provide numerous insights into the status and management of salmon returns, particularly in large river drainages with widely scattered fisheries where management actions in the lower river potentially impact harvests and escapement farther upstream. However, the substantial variation

  16. Increased mitochondrial DNA diversity in ancient Columbia River basin Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbi M Johnson

    Full Text Available The Columbia River and its tributaries provide essential spawning and rearing habitat for many salmonid species, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Chinook salmon were historically abundant throughout the basin and Native Americans in the region relied heavily on these fish for thousands of years. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 1800s, salmon in the basin experienced broad declines linked to overfishing, water diversion projects, habitat destruction, connectivity reduction, introgression with hatchery-origin fish, and hydropower development. Despite historical abundance, many native salmonids are now at risk of extinction. Research and management related to Chinook salmon is usually explored under what are termed "the four H's": habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and hydropower; here we explore a fifth H, history. Patterns of prehistoric and contemporary mitochondrial DNA variation from Chinook salmon were analyzed to characterize and compare population genetic diversity prior to recent alterations and, thus, elucidate a deeper history for this species. A total of 346 ancient and 366 contemporary samples were processed during this study. Species was determined for 130 of the ancient samples and control region haplotypes of 84 of these were sequenced. Diversity estimates from these 84 ancient Chinook salmon were compared to 379 contemporary samples. Our analysis provides the first direct measure of reduced genetic diversity for Chinook salmon from the ancient to the contemporary period, as measured both in direct loss of mitochondrial haplotypes and reductions in haplotype and nucleotide diversity. However, these losses do not appear equal across the basin, with higher losses of diversity in the mid-Columbia than in the Snake subbasin. The results are unexpected, as the two groups were predicted to share a common history as parts of the larger Columbia River Basin, and instead indicate that Chinook salmon in these subbasins

  17. Movement and habitat studies of chinook salmon and white sturgeon. [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Acipenser transmontanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    Swimming depths of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), in relation to hydroelectric dam created gas supersaturation levels in the Snake River, were evaluated using pressure-sensitive radiofrequency transmitters. Gas saturation levels in spring 1976 ranged from 120 to 130% and chinook salmon depth of travel averaged 6.4 m. In fall 1976 and spring 1977, when gas saturation levels were below 108%, average salmon depths of travel were 3.0 and 4.0 m, respectively. In all cases, average depth of travel was below the critical zone (110% effective saturation), but spring 1976 chinook salmon traveled significantly deeper than fall 1976 and spring 1977 salmon. Internal and external radio transmitter attachment techniques were compared and results indicated the methods are equally reliable given proper insertion and attachment procedures. Percent returning and travel times to upstream dams were compared between equal numbers of radiotagged and spaghetti-anchor tagged control salmon. There were no significant differences in percent return or travel times between control and externally tagged salmon, but procedural difficulties involving internally tagged salmon altered their behavior to preclude such comparisons. Presence and operation of hydroelectric dams delayed salmon passage through the river and appeared to alter upstream migratory behavior. Movements of radiotagged white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from 1975 through 1977 were highly seasonal, beginning in June and ending in October. River temperatures apparently influenced both seasonal and diurnal movement activities. Movements began in June after water temperatures passed 13/sup 0/C and ceased when temperatures reached 13/sup 0/C (again) in autumn each year. Information derived from sturgeon carrying temperature sensing transmitters, combined with position determinations, indicated apparent diurnal movement cycles for sturgeon.

  18. The influence of hydrology and waterway distance on population structure of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a large river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J B; Beacham, T D; Wetklo, M; Seeb, L W; Smith, C T; Flannery, B G; Wenburg, J K

    2010-04-01

    Adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha navigate in river systems using olfactory cues that may be influenced by hydrologic factors such as flow and the number, size and spatial distribution of tributaries. Thus, river hydrology may influence both homing success and the level of straying (gene flow), which in turn influences population structure. In this study, two methods of multivariate analysis were used to examine the extent to which four indicators of hydrology and waterway distance explained population structure of O. tshawytscha in the Yukon River. A partial Mantel test showed that the indicators of hydrology were positively associated with broad-scale (Yukon basin) population structure, when controlling for the influence of waterway distance. Multivariate multiple regression showed that waterway distance, supplemented with the number and flow of major drainage basins, explained more variation in broad-scale population structure than any single indicator. At an intermediate spatial scale, indicators of hydrology did not appear to influence population structure after accounting for waterway distance. These results suggest that habitat changes in the Yukon River, which alter hydrology, may influence the basin-wide pattern of population structure in O. tshawytscha. Further research is warranted on the role of hydrology in concert with waterway distance in influencing population structure in Pacific salmon.

  19. The effect of chronic chromium exposure on the health of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, Aida M. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Jackson Field Research Station, P.O. Box 1089, Jackson, WY 83001 (United States)]. E-mail: aida_farag@usgs.gov; May, Thomas [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Marty, Gary D. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-8732 (United States); Easton, Michael [International EcoGen Inc., 2015 McLallen Court, North Vancouver, BC, Canada V7P 3H6 (Canada); Harper, David D. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Jackson Field Research Station, P.O. Box 1089, Jackson, WY 83001 (United States); Little, Edward E. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Cleveland, Laverne [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States)

    2006-03-10

    This study was designed to determine fish health impairment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to chromium. Juvenile Chinook salmon were exposed to aqueous chromium concentrations (0-266 {mu}g l{sup -1}) that have been documented in porewater from bottom sediments and in well waters near salmon spawning areas in the Columbia River in the northwestern United States. After Chinook salmon parr were exposed to 24 and 54 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} for 105 days, neither growth nor survival of parr was affected. On day 105, concentrations were increased from 24 to 120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} and from 54 to 266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} until the end of the experiment on day 134. Weight of parr was decreased in the 24/120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatment, and survival was decreased in the 54/266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatment. Fish health was significantly impaired in both the 24/120 and 54/266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatments. The kidney is the target organ during chromium exposures through the water column. The kidneys of fish exposed to the greatest concentrations of chromium had gross and microscopic lesions (e.g. necrosis of cells lining kidney tububules) and products of lipid peroxidation were elevated. These changes were associated with elevated concentrations of chromium in the kidney, and reduced growth and survival. Also, variations in DNA in the blood were associated with pathological changes in the kidney and spleen. These changes suggest that chromium accumulates and enters the lipid peroxidation pathway where fatty acid damage and DNA damage (expressed as chromosome changes) occur to cause cell death and tissue damage. While most of the physiological malfunctions occurred following parr exposures to concentrations {>=}120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1}, nuclear DNA damage followed exposures to 24 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1}, which was the smallest concentration tested. The abnormalities measured during this study are particularly important because they are associated with impaired growth

  20. Network-scale spatial and temporal variation in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) redd distributions: patterns inferred from spatially continuous replicate surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Isaak; Russell F. Thurow

    2006-01-01

    Spatially continuous sampling designs, when temporally replicated, provide analytical flexibility and are unmatched in their ability to provide a dynamic system view. We have compiled such a data set by georeferencing the network-scale distribution of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) redds across a large wilderness basin (7330 km2) in...

  1. Using otolith chemical and structural analysis to investigate reservoir habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, S L; Kennedy, B P; Caudill, C C; Chittaro, P M

    2014-11-01

    Isotopic composition of (87) Sr:(86) Sr and natural elemental tracers (Sr, Ba, Mg, Mn and Ca) were quantified from otoliths in juvenile and adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to assess the ability of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to reconstruct juvenile O. tshawytscha rearing habitat and growth. Daily increments were measured to assess relative growth between natal rearing habitats. Otolith microchemistry was able to resolve juvenile habitat use between reservoir and natal tributary rearing habitats (within headwater basins), but not among catchments. Results suggest that 90% (n = 18) of sampled non-hatchery adults returning to the Middle Fork Willamette River were reared in a reservoir and 10% (n = 2) in natal tributary habitat upstream from the reservoir. Juveniles collected in reservoirs had higher growth rates than juveniles reared in natal streams. The results demonstrate the utility of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to distinguish among rearing habitats, including habitats in highly altered systems. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Using broad landscape level features to predict redd densities of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Methow River watershed, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    We used broad-scale landscape feature variables to model redd densities of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Methow River watershed. Redd densities were estimated from redd counts conducted from 2005 to 2007 and 2009 for steelhead trout and 2005 to 2009 for spring Chinook salmon. These densities were modeled using generalized linear mixed models. Variables examined included primary and secondary geology type, habitat type, flow type, sinuosity, and slope of stream channel. In addition, we included spring effect and hatchery effect variables to account for high densities of redds near known springs and hatchery outflows. Variables were associated with National Hydrography Database reach designations for modeling redd densities within each reach. Reaches were assigned a dominant habitat type, geology, mean slope, and sinuosity. The best fit model for spring Chinook salmon included sinuosity, critical slope, habitat type, flow type, and hatchery effect. Flow type, slope, and habitat type variables accounted for most of the variation in the data. The best fit model for steelhead trout included year, habitat type, flow type, hatchery effect, and spring effect. The spring effect, flow type, and hatchery effect variables explained most of the variation in the data. Our models illustrate how broad-scale landscape features may be used to predict spawning habitat over large areas where fine-scale data may be lacking.

  3. Challenge models for RTFS in rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2011-01-01

    forms of stress have shown to be reproducible. Bath challenge is more appropriate for vaccine testing, since natural transmission of infection is imitated and is also more suitable due to the small size of the fry. A bath-model using H2O2 as a stressor is currently being tested on 1.4g rainbow trout fry...... in four experimental groups: 1) no H2O2/no bath infection, 2) H2O2/no bath infection, 3) no H2O2/ bath infection and 4) H2O2/ bath infection. Mortality will be evaluated over approximately 25 days. The project is currently in its preliminary phase and presently focused on development of a model...

  4. Estimating Common Growth Patterns in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Diverse Genetic Stocks and a Large Spatial Extent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale A L Goertler

    Full Text Available Life history variation in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. supports species resilience to natural disturbances and fishery exploitation. Within salmon species, life-history variation often manifests during freshwater and estuarine rearing, as variation in growth. To date, however, characterizing variability in growth patterns within and among individuals has been difficult via conventional sampling methods because of the inability to obtain repeated size measurements. In this study we related otolith microstructures to growth rates of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha from the Columbia River estuary over a two-year period (2010-2012. We used dynamic factor analysis to determine whether there were common patterns in growth rates within juveniles based on their natal region, capture location habitat type, and whether they were wild or of hatchery origin. We identified up to five large-scale trends in juvenile growth rates depending on month and year of capture. We also found that hatchery fish had a narrower range of trend loadings for some capture groups, suggesting that hatchery fish do not express the same breadth of growth variability as wild fish. However, we were unable to resolve a relationship between specific growth patterns and habitat transitions. Our study exemplifies how a relatively new statistical analysis can be applied to dating or aging techniques to summarize individual variation, and characterize aspects of life history diversity.

  5. Genetic effects of ELISA-based segregation for control of bacterial kidney disease in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, J.J.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Chase, D.M.; Park, L.K.; Winton, J.R.; Campton, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated genetic variation in ability of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to resist two bacterial pathogens: Renibacterium salmoninarum, the agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and Listonella anguillarum, an agent of vibriosis. After measuring R. salmoninarum antigen in 499 adults by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we mated each of 12 males with high or low antigen levels to two females with low to moderate levels and exposed subsets of their progeny to each pathogen separately. We found no correlation between R. salmoninarum antigen level in parents and survival of their progeny following pathogen exposure. We estimated high heritability for resistance to R. salmoninarum (survival h2 = 0.890 ?? 0.256 (mean ?? standard error)) independent of parental antigen level, but low heritability for resistance to L. anguillarum (h2 = 0.128 ?? 0.078). The genetic correlation between these survivals (rA = -0.204 ?? 0.309) was near zero. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between survival and antigen levels among surviving progeny exposed to R. salmoninarum were both negative (rA = -0.716 ?? 0.140; rP = -0.378 ?? 0.041), indicating that variation in antigen level is linked to survival. These results suggest that selective culling of female broodstock with high antigen titers, which is effective in controlling BKD in salmon hatcheries, will not affect resistance of their progeny. ?? 2006 NRC.

  6. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon

  7. Assessing the accuracy of a polymerase chain reaction test for Ichthyophonus hoferi in Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipps, Christopher M; Burton, Tamara; Watral, Virginia G; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Kent, Michael L

    2006-01-30

    Ichthyophonus hoferi Plehn & Mulsow, 1911, is a cosmopolitan, protistan pathogen of marine fishes. It is prevalent in mature returning Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Yukon River watershed, and may be associated with prespawning mortality. We developed and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for I. hoferi using primers specific to the parasite's small subunit rDNA. The test has a minimum detection limit of approximately 10(-5) parasite spores per reaction and does not cross-react with the closely related salmon parasites Dermocystidium salmonis or Sphaerothecum destruens. Sensitivity and specificity of the PCR test used on somatic muscle and heart tissue for detecting infected fish were determined using 334 Chinook salmon collected from the Yukon River at 2 locations (Tanana and Emmonak) in 2003 and 2004. The true infection status of the fish was determined by testing somatic muscle, heart and kidney tissue using histological evaluation, culture, and PCR. The severity of infection was grouped into 2 categories, light and heavy infection. The probability of detecting a heavily infected fish (sensitivity of the test) was generally much higher than the probability of detecting light infection, suggesting that more than one tissue and/or method should be used to accurately detect light or early infection by I. hoferi. The probability of correctly identifying a negative fish (specificity of the test) was always greater than 94% regardless of the tissue used, infection severity, sampling site or year of collection.

  8. Differences in Ichthyophonus prevalence and infection severity between upper Yukon River and Tanana River chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R; Hershberger, P

    2006-08-01

    Two genetically distinct populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), were simultaneously sampled at the confluence of the Yukon and Tanana rivers in 2003. Upper Yukon-Canadian fish had significantly higher infection prevalence as well as more severe infections (higher parasite density in heart tissue) than the lower Yukon-Tanana River fish. Both populations had migrated the same distance from the mouth of the Yukon River at the time of sampling but had significantly different distances remaining to swim before reaching their respective spawning grounds. Multiple working hypotheses are proposed to explain the differences between the two stocks: (1) the two genetically distinct populations have different inherent resistance to infection, (2) genetically influenced differences in feeding behaviour resulted in temporal and/or spatial differences in exposure, (3) physiological differences resulting from different degrees of sexual maturity influenced the course of disease, and (4) the most severely infected Tanana River fish either died en route or fatigued and were unable to complete their migration to the Tanana River, thus leaving a population of apparently healthier fish.

  9. Behavioural response of pink salmon Fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha to fresh, weathered, and dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, A.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about fish behaviour in relation to oil spill contamination. In this study, out-migrant pink salmon fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha were subjected to varying concentrations of oil and sea water solutions, or uncontaminated sea water at a temperature of 7 degrees C. Fresh oil, artificially weathered oil, and dispersed oil samples were used. Twenty trials were run for concentrations of 48 aromatic and 30alkane hydrocarbons. The number of minutes spent in the uncontaminated water was significantly higher than sample areas. Fry avoided water-accommodated mixtures of Alaska North Slope crude oil in sea water at concentrations of 960 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon fresh oil and 873 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon dispersed oil. Concentrations corresponded to 75 per cent and 68 per cent of the median lethal concentration level. However, the fry did not avoid the weathered oil, which indicated that the fry may be sensitive to monoaromatic hydrocarbon components in the oil. It was concluded that oil pollution may alter pink salmon migration behaviour. 28 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  10. Neutral genetic variation in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) affects brain-to-body trade-off and brain laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Daniel D.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of heterozygosity can have detrimental effects on life history and growth characteristics of organisms but more subtle effects such as those on trade-offs of expensive tissues and morphological laterality, especially of the brain, have not been explicitly tested. The objective of the current study was to investigate how estimated differences in heterozygosity may potentially affect brain-to-body trade-offs and to explore how these heterozygosity differences may affect differential brain growth, focusing on directional asymmetry in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using the laterality and absolute laterality indices. Level of inbreeding was estimated as mean microsatellite heterozygosity resulting in four ‘inbreeding level groups’ (Very High, High, Medium, Low). A higher inbreeding level corresponded with a decreased brain-to-body ratio, thus a decrease in investment in brain tissue, and also showed a decrease in the laterality index for the cerebellum, where the left hemisphere was larger than the right across all groups. These results begin to show the role that differences in heterozygosity may play in differential tissue investment and in morphological laterality, and may be useful in two ways. Firstly, the results may be valuable for restocking programmes that wish to emphasize brain or body growth when crossing adults to generate individuals for release, as we show that genetic variation does affect these trade-offs. Secondly, this study is one of the first examinations to test the hypothesized relationship between genetic variation and laterality, finding that in Chinook salmon there is potential for an effect of inbreeding on lateralized morphology, but not in the expected direction. PMID:29308240

  11. Migratory Patterns of Wild Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to a Large, Free-Flowing River Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Eiler

    Full Text Available Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, virtually pristine river basin. These returns have declined dramatically since the late 1990s, and information is needed to better manage the run and facilitate conservation efforts. A total of 2,860 fish were radio tagged during 2002-2004. Most (97.5% of the fish tracked upriver to spawning areas displayed continual upriver movements and strong fidelity to the terminal tributaries entered. Movement rates were substantially slower for fish spawning in lower river tributaries (28-40 km d-1 compared to upper basin stocks (52-62 km d-1. Three distinct migratory patterns were observed, including a gradual decline, pronounced decline, and substantial increase in movement rate as the fish moved upriver. Stocks destined for the same region exhibited similar migratory patterns. Individual fish within a stock showed substantial variation, but tended to reflect the regional pattern. Differences between consistently faster and slower fish explained 74% of the within-stock variation, whereas relative shifts in sequential movement rates between "hares" (faster fish becoming slower and "tortoises" (slow but steady fish explained 22% of the variation. Pulses of fish moving upriver were not cohesive. Fish tagged over a 4-day period took 16 days to pass a site 872 km upriver. Movement rates were substantially faster and the percentage of atypical movements considerably less than reported in more southerly drainages, but may reflect the pristine conditions within the Yukon River, wild origins of the fish, and discrete run timing of the returns. Movement data can provide numerous insights into the status and management of salmon returns, particularly in large river drainages with widely scattered fisheries where management actions in the lower river potentially impact harvests and escapement farther upstream. However, the substantial variation

  12. Testing of candidate non-lethal sampling methods for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; McKibben, Constance L.; Conway, Carla M.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Applegate, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal pathogen testing can be a useful tool for fish disease research and management. Our research objectives were to determine if (1) fin clips, gill snips, surface mucus scrapings, blood draws, or kidney biopsies could be obtained non-lethally from 3 to 15 g Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (2) non-lethal samples could accurately discriminate between fish exposed to the bacterial kidney disease agent Renibacterium salmoninarum and non-exposed fish, and (3) non-lethal samples could serve as proxies for lethal kidney samples to assess infection intensity. Blood draws and kidney biopsies caused ≥5% post-sampling mortality (Objective 1) and may be appropriate only for larger fish, but the other sample types were non-lethal. Sampling was performed over 21 wk following R. salmoninarum immersion challenge of fish from 2 stocks (Objectives 2 and 3), and nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) results from candidate non-lethal samples were compared with kidney tissue analysis by nPCR, qPCR, bacteriological culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology/immunohistochemistry. R. salmoninarum was detected by PCR in >50% of fin, gill, and mucus samples from challenged fish. Mucus qPCR was the only non-lethal assay exhibiting both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity estimates >90% for distinguishing between R. salmoninarum-exposed and non-exposed fish and was the best candidate for use as an alternative to lethal kidney sample testing. Mucus qPCR R. salmoninarum quantity estimates reflected changes in kidney bacterial load estimates, as evidenced by significant positive correlations with kidney R. salmoninaruminfection intensity scores at all sample times and in both fish stocks, and were not significantly impacted by environmentalR. salmoninarum concentrations.

  13. Differences in Bacterial Population in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbum Fry after Transfer from Incubator to Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The microflora of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum fry from a commercial freshwater hatchery, along with important water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, was analysed. Samples for bacteriological analysis were taken from gill, heart and kidney, from the third to the eighth week after hatching. Pure bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, with Gram staining and biochemical tests. For final identification, the APILAB Plus programme (bioMérieux, France was used. The bacterial populations of rainbow trout fry changed depending on age. Most of the bacterial colonies were cultured from the gills (64.4 %, rather than the heart (21.8 % and kidney (13.8 %. The bacterial community of fry gills from an incubator was composed mostly of Gram-positive bacteria such as Renibacterium salmoninarum, Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium aquaticum. After the transfer of fry from incubator into the pools the Gram-negative bacteria increased in number and became the dominant microflora of rainbow trout fry and comprised more than 95 % of its bacterial flora. Flavibacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram-negative genera in fry in the incubator, whereas Aeromonas and Pseudomonas were the main isolates from rainbow trout fry until the end of the experiment.

  14. Effects of oil-contaminated prey on the feeding, growth, and related energetics on pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effect of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon

  15. Determination of Swimming Speeds and Energetic Demands of Upriver Migrating Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) in the Klickitat River, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington

    2002-08-30

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program during the fall of 2001. The objective was to study the migration and energy use of adult fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) traveling up the Klickitat River to spawn. The salmon were tagged with either surgically implanted electromyogram (EMG) transmitters or gastrically implanted coded transmitters and were monitored with mobile and stationary receivers. Swim speed and aerobic and anaerobic energy use were determined for the fish as they attempted passage of three waterfalls on the lower Klickitat River and as they traversed free-flowing stretches between, below, and above the falls. Of the 35 EMG-tagged fish released near the mouth of the Klickitat River, 40% passed the first falls, 24% passed the second falls, and 20% made it to Lyle Falls. None of the EMG-tagged fish were able to pass Lyle Falls, either over the falls or via a fishway at Lyle Falls. Mean swimming speeds ranged from as low as 52.6 centimeters per second (cm s{sup -1}) between falls to as high as 189 (cm s{sup -1}) at falls passage. Fish swam above critical swimming speeds while passing the falls more often than while swimming between the falls (58.9% versus 1.7% of the transmitter signals). However, fish expended more energy swimming the stretches between the falls than during actual falls passage (100.7 to 128.2 kilocalories [kcals] to traverse areas between or below falls versus 0.3 to 1.0 kcals to pass falls). Relationships between sex, length, and time of day on the success of falls passage were also examined. Average swimming speeds were highest during the day in all areas except at some waterfalls. There was no apparent relationship between either fish condition or length and successful passage of waterfalls in the lower Klickitat River. Female fall chinook salmon, however, had a much lower likelihood of

  16. Using remotely sensed imagery and GIS to monitor and research salmon spawning: A case study of the Hanford Reach fall chinook (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RH Visser

    2000-01-01

    The alteration of ecological systems has greatly reduced salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, for example, is a component of the last ecosystem in eastern Washington State that supports a relatively healthy population of fall chinook salmon ([Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], Huntington et al. 1996). This population of fall chinook may function as a metapopulation for the Mid-Columbia region (ISG 1996). Metapopulations can seed or re-colonize unused habitat through the mechanism of straying (spawning in non-natal areas) and may be critical to the salmon recovery process if lost or degraded habitat is restored (i.e., the Snake, Upper Columbia, and Yakima rivers). For these reasons, the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is extremely important for preservation of the species in the Columbia River Basin. Because this population is important to the region, non-intrusive techniques of analysis are essential for researching and monitoring population trends and spawning activities

  17. PCR testing can be as accurate as culture for diagnosis of Ichthyophonus hoferi in Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Toshihide; Kahler, Eryn; Borba, Bonnie M; Burton, Tamara

    2013-07-09

    We evaluated the comparability of culture and PCR tests for detecting Ichthyophonus in Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from field samples collected at 3 locations (Emmonak, Chena, and Salcha, Alaska, USA) in 2004, 2005, and 2006. Assuming diagnosis by culture as the 'true' infection status, we calculated the sensitivity (correctly identifying fish positive for Ichthyophonus), specificity (correctly identifying fish negative for Ichthyophonus), and accuracy (correctly identifying both positive and negative fish) of PCR. Regardless of sampling locations and years, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy exceeded 90%. Estimates of infection prevalence by PCR were similar to those by culture, except for Salcha 2005, where prevalence by PCR was significantly higher than that by culture (p < 0.0001). These results show that the PCR test is comparable to the culture test for diagnosing Ichthyophonus infection.

  18. Intersex occurrence in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss male fry chronically exposed to ethynylestradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Depiereux

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization--dpf to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2 were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms. Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes.

  19. Intersex Occurrence in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Male Fry Chronically Exposed to Ethynylestradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiereux, Sophie; Liagre, Mélanie; Danis, Lorraine; De Meulder, Bertrand; Depiereux, Eric; Segner, Helmut; Kestemont, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization – dpf) to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L) of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms). Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L) and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b) with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes. PMID:25033040

  20. Evidence of deepwater spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): spawning near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2000-01-01

    Fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by Washington Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in 1993 (Hymer 1997). Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and Ives island. Limited spawning ground surveys were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce Islands during 1994-1997 and based on these surveys it was believed that fall chinook salmon successfully spawned in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1,800 to 5,200 fish (Hymer 1997). Recently, chum salmon were also documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon O. kisutch were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999. There are several ongoing investigations to define the physical habitat characteristics associated with fall chinook and chum salmon spawning areas downstream of Bonneville Dam. A major concern is to determine what flows (i.e. surface elevations) are necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Our objective was to locate deepwater spawning locations in the main Columbia River channel and to collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at the site. This objective is consistent with the high priority that the Northwest Power Planning Council's Independent Advisory Board and the salmon managers have placed on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin

  1. Metabolic effects of dinoseb, diazinon and esfenvalerate in eyed eggs and alevins of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) determined by 1H NMR metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viant, Mark R.; Pincetich, Christopher A.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Pesticide pulses in the Sacramento River, California, originate from storm-water discharges and non-point source aquatic pollution that can last from a few days to weeks. The Sacramento River and its tributaries have historically supported the majority of California's Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning grounds. Three pesticides currently used in the Sacramento Valley - dinoseb, diazinon, and esfenvalerate - were chosen to model the exposure of salmon embryos to storm-water discharges. Static-renewal (96 h) exposures to eyed eggs and alevins resulted in both toxicity and significant changes in metabolism assessed in whole-embryo extracts by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy based metabolomics and HPLC with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The 96-h LC 5 values of eyed eggs and alevins exposed to dinoseb were 335 and 70.6 ppb, respectively, and the corresponding values for diazinon were 545 and 29.5 ppm for eyed eggs and alevins, respectively. The 96-h LC 5 of eyed eggs exposed to esfenvalerate could not be determined due to lack of mortality at the highest exposure concentration, but in alevins was 16.7 ppb. All esfenvalerate exposed alevins developed some degree of lordosis or myoskeletal abnormality and did not respond to stimulus or exhibit normal swimming behavior. ATP concentrations measured by HPLC-UV decreased significantly in eyed eggs due to 250 ppb dinoseb and 10 and 100 ppb esfenvalerate (p 1 H NMR metabolite fingerprints of eyed egg and alevin extracts revealed both dose-dependent and mechanism of action-specific metabolic effects induced by the pesticides. Furthermore, NMR based metabolomics proved to be more sensitive than HPLC-UV in identifying significant changes in sublethal metabolism of pesticide exposed alevins. In conclusion, we have demonstrated several benefits of a metabolomics approach for chemical risk assessment, when used in conjunction with a fish embryo assay, and have identified significant metabolic perturbations

  2. Estimating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance from beach seine data collected in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Hendrix, A. Noble

    2016-06-17

    Resource managers rely on abundance or density metrics derived from beach seine surveys to make vital decisions that affect fish population dynamics and assemblage structure. However, abundance and density metrics may be biased by imperfect capture and lack of geographic closure during sampling. Currently, there is considerable uncertainty about the capture efficiency of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by beach seines. Heterogeneity in capture can occur through unrealistic assumptions of closure and from variation in the probability of capture caused by environmental conditions. We evaluated the assumptions of closure and the influence of environmental conditions on capture efficiency and abundance estimates of Chinook salmon from beach seining within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay. Beach seine capture efficiency was measured using a stratified random sampling design combined with open and closed replicate depletion sampling. A total of 56 samples were collected during the spring of 2014. To assess variability in capture probability and the absolute abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon, beach seine capture efficiency data were fitted to the paired depletion design using modified N-mixture models. These models allowed us to explicitly test the closure assumption and estimate environmental effects on the probability of capture. We determined that our updated method allowing for lack of closure between depletion samples drastically outperformed traditional data analysis that assumes closure among replicate samples. The best-fit model (lowest-valued Akaike Information Criterion model) included the probability of fish being available for capture (relaxed closure assumption), capture probability modeled as a function of water velocity and percent coverage of fine sediment, and abundance modeled as a function of sample area, temperature, and water velocity. Given that beach seining is a ubiquitous sampling technique for

  3. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  4. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, K.D.; Martin, S.W.; Schuck, M.L.; Scholz, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  5. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, K.D.; Martin, S.W.; Schuck, M.L.; Scholz, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  6. Metabolic effects of dinoseb, diazinon and esfenvalerate in eyed eggs and alevins of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) determined by {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viant, Mark R [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Pincetich, Christopher A [Department of Environmental Toxicology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Tjeerdema, Ronald S [Department of Environmental Toxicology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States)

    2006-05-25

    Pesticide pulses in the Sacramento River, California, originate from storm-water discharges and non-point source aquatic pollution that can last from a few days to weeks. The Sacramento River and its tributaries have historically supported the majority of California's Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning grounds. Three pesticides currently used in the Sacramento Valley - dinoseb, diazinon, and esfenvalerate - were chosen to model the exposure of salmon embryos to storm-water discharges. Static-renewal (96 h) exposures to eyed eggs and alevins resulted in both toxicity and significant changes in metabolism assessed in whole-embryo extracts by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy based metabolomics and HPLC with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The 96-h LC{sub 5} values of eyed eggs and alevins exposed to dinoseb were 335 and 70.6 ppb, respectively, and the corresponding values for diazinon were 545 and 29.5 ppm for eyed eggs and alevins, respectively. The 96-h LC{sub 5} of eyed eggs exposed to esfenvalerate could not be determined due to lack of mortality at the highest exposure concentration, but in alevins was 16.7 ppb. All esfenvalerate exposed alevins developed some degree of lordosis or myoskeletal abnormality and did not respond to stimulus or exhibit normal swimming behavior. ATP concentrations measured by HPLC-UV decreased significantly in eyed eggs due to 250 ppb dinoseb and 10 and 100 ppb esfenvalerate (p < 0.05). Phosphocreatine, as measured by HPLC-UV, decreased significantly in eyed eggs due to 250 ppb dinoseb, 10 and 100 ppb esfenvalerate, and 100 ppm diazinon (p < 0.05). Principal components analyses of {sup 1}H NMR metabolite fingerprints of eyed egg and alevin extracts revealed both dose-dependent and mechanism of action-specific metabolic effects induced by the pesticides. Furthermore, NMR based metabolomics proved to be more sensitive than HPLC-UV in identifying significant changes in sublethal metabolism of pesticide

  7. Metabolic effects of dinoseb, diazinon and esfenvalerate in eyed eggs and alevins of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) determined by {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viant, Mark R. [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: M.Viant@bham.ac.uk; Pincetich, Christopher A. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Tjeerdema, Ronald S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States)

    2006-05-25

    Pesticide pulses in the Sacramento River, California, originate from storm-water discharges and non-point source aquatic pollution that can last from a few days to weeks. The Sacramento River and its tributaries have historically supported the majority of California's Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning grounds. Three pesticides currently used in the Sacramento Valley - dinoseb, diazinon, and esfenvalerate - were chosen to model the exposure of salmon embryos to storm-water discharges. Static-renewal (96 h) exposures to eyed eggs and alevins resulted in both toxicity and significant changes in metabolism assessed in whole-embryo extracts by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy based metabolomics and HPLC with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The 96-h LC{sub 5} values of eyed eggs and alevins exposed to dinoseb were 335 and 70.6 ppb, respectively, and the corresponding values for diazinon were 545 and 29.5 ppm for eyed eggs and alevins, respectively. The 96-h LC{sub 5} of eyed eggs exposed to esfenvalerate could not be determined due to lack of mortality at the highest exposure concentration, but in alevins was 16.7 ppb. All esfenvalerate exposed alevins developed some degree of lordosis or myoskeletal abnormality and did not respond to stimulus or exhibit normal swimming behavior. ATP concentrations measured by HPLC-UV decreased significantly in eyed eggs due to 250 ppb dinoseb and 10 and 100 ppb esfenvalerate (p < 0.05). Phosphocreatine, as measured by HPLC-UV, decreased significantly in eyed eggs due to 250 ppb dinoseb, 10 and 100 ppb esfenvalerate, and 100 ppm diazinon (p < 0.05). Principal components analyses of {sup 1}H NMR metabolite fingerprints of eyed egg and alevin extracts revealed both dose-dependent and mechanism of action-specific metabolic effects induced by the pesticides. Furthermore, NMR based metabolomics proved to be more sensitive than HPLC-UV in identifying significant changes in sublethal metabolism of pesticide

  8. Effects of canola meal on growth and digestion of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    OpenAIRE

    YİĞİT, Nalan Özgür; KOCA, Seval BAHADIR; BAYRAK, Halit; DULLUÇ, Arife; DİLER, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with rainbow trout fry (initial weight of 1.57 ± 0.01 g) to examine the effects of partial substitution of canola meal in prepared diets on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), nutrient digestibility, somatic indices, and survival rate. Five isonitrogenous (44% crude protein) and isocaloric (4000 kcal/kg digestible energy) diets were formulated to contain 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% canola meal against no canola meal (control group). A total of 375 rainbow trou...

  9. Protein level affects the relative lysine requirement of growing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Noelie; Govaerts, Bernadette; Abboudi, Tarik; Detavernier, Christel; De Saeger, Sarah; Larondelle, Yvan; Rollin, Xavier

    2009-07-01

    The effect of two digestible protein levels (310 and 469 g/kg DM) on the relative lysine (Lys; g Lys/kg DM or g Lys/100 g protein) and the absolute Lys (g Lys intake/kg 0.75 per d) requirements was studied in rainbow trout fry using a dose-response trial. At each protein level, sixteen isoenergetic (22-23 MJ digestible energy/kg DM) diets were tested, involving a full range (2-70 g/kg DM) of sixteen Lys levels. Each diet was given to one group of sixty rainbow trout fry (mean initial body weight 0.78 g) reared at 15 degrees C for 31 feeding d. The Lys requirements were estimated based on the relationships between weight, protein, and Lys gains (g/kg 0.75 per d) and Lys concentration (g/kg DM or g/100 g protein) or Lys intake (g/kg 0.75 per d), using the broken-line model (BLM) and the non-linear four-parameter saturation kinetics model (SKM-4). Both the model and the response criterion chosen markedly impacted the relative Lys requirement. The relative Lys requirement for Lys gain of rainbow trout estimated with the BLM (and SKM-4 at 90 % of the maximum response) increased from 16.8 (19.6) g/kg DM at a low protein level to 23.4 (24.5) g/kg DM at a high protein level. However, the dietary protein content affected neither the absolute Lys requirement nor the relative Lys requirement expressed as g Lys/100 g protein nor the Lys requirement for maintenance (21 mg Lys/kg 0.75 per d).

  10. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steven W.

    1992-07-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  11. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  12. Increased opercular rates of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry after exposure to the eater-soluble fraction of Prudhoe Bay crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R E [Chico State Univ., CA; Rice, S D

    1976-01-01

    The opercular rates of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry were measured during 24-h exposure to sublethal concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Opercular rates increased significantly for as long as 9 and 12 h after exposure to water-soluble fractions prepared from oil-water solutions of 2.83 and 3.46 ppM. The increases in rates were proportional to increases in dose. Recording changes in opercular rates appears to be a suitable method for detecting sublethal physiological effects of stress, because the observed changes occurred at approximately 20 percent of the 96 h-LC50.

  13. Establishment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Pacific basins of southern South America and its potential ecosystem implications Establecimiento del salmón Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha en cuencas del Pacífico sur de Sudamérica y sus potenciales implicancias ecosistémicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORIS SOTO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmon and trout species are not native to the southern hemisphere, however rainbow and brown trout have been established a century in southern South America. Yet most attempts to introduce anadromous salmon failed until the onset of aquaculture by 1980. Escapes of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon from aquaculture after 1990 have apparently produced increasingly important reproductive returns "naturalized", to upper basins in Chile and Argentina south of 39º S. In this paper we show data on the historic and spatial occurrence of chinook salmon in four Pacific basins during the past decade. Our objective is to establish the progress of the settlement forecasting some ecosystem disruptions in order to project and manage potential impacts. In Chile, sampling took place from 1995 to 2005 including rivers Petrohué, Poicas, and Río Negro-Hornopiren, and Lake Puyehue, in the X Region. In Argentina sampled rivers were Futaleufú, Carrenleufú and Pico. In Chile and Argentina reproductive Chinooks ranged in size between 73 and 130 cm total length, being the smallest sizes those of Lake Puyehue where the population is apparently landlocked. In Río Petrohué, the size of the runs varied from year to year reaching in the peak season of 1996 and 2004 up to 500 kg of fish along 100 m of riverbank. Temporal distribution of juvenile Chinooks suggested mainly a typical ocean type as they are gone to sea within the first year of age. As seen in Petrohue, reproductive populations could import significant quantities of marine derived nutrients as they do in their original habitats thus disturbing natural cycles and balances. Chinook establishment in these pristine watersheds in southern South America poses new challenges for decision makers and fishermen since they may develop a fishery in the Pacific Ocean with consequences to other fishery resources. Additionally they also become a resource for sport fishing. Therefore there is the need of developing

  14. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  15. Influence of the forms and levels of dietary selenium on antioxidant status and oxidative stress-related parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Godin, Simon; Liu, Haokun; Antony Jesu Prabhu, Philip; Bouyssière, Brice; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Médale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2015-06-28

    Se is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth, development and antioxidant defence. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary Se sources and levels on the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. First-feeding fry (initial body weight: 91 mg) were fed either a plant- or fishmeal-based diet containing 0·5 or 1·2 mg Se/kg diet supplemented or not with 0·3 mg Se/kg diet supplied as Se-enriched yeast or sodium selenite for 12 weeks at 17°C. Growth and survival of rainbow trout fry were not significantly affected by dietary Se sources and levels. Whole-body Se was raised by both Se sources and to a greater extent by Se-yeast. The reduced:oxidised glutathione ratio was raised by Se-yeast, whereas other lipid peroxidation markers were not affected by dietary Se. Whole-body Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was enhanced in fish fed Se-yeast compared to fish fed sodium selenite or non-supplemented diets. Activity and gene expression of this enzyme as well as gene expression of selenoprotein P (SelP) were reduced in fish fed the non-supplemented plant-based diet. Catalase, glutamate-cysteine ligase and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expressions were reduced by Se-yeast. These results suggest the necessity to supplement plant-based diets with Se for rainbow trout fry, and highlight the superiority of organic form of Se to fulfil the dietary Se requirement and sustain the antioxidant status of fish. GPX and SelP expression proved to be good markers of Se status in fish.

  16. Determination of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle-tissue of rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus-mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, J.E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1994-01-01

    Malachite green, an effective antifungal therapeutant used in fish culture, is a known teratogen. We developed a method to simultaneously detect both the chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle tissue of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). Homogenates of these tissues were fortified with [c-14] malachite green chloride and extracted with 1% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile or in methanol. The extracts were partitioned with chloroform, dried, redissolved in mobile phase, and analyzed by liquid chromatography (lc) with postcolumn oxidation of leuco malachite green to the chromatic form. Lc fractions were collected every 30 s for quantitation by scintillation counting. Recoveries of total [c-14] malachite green chloride residue were 85 and 98% in eggs fortified with labeled malachite green at concentrations of 0.5 And 1.00 Mug/g, respectively; 68% in fry similarly fortified at a concentration of 0.65 Mug/g; and 66% in muscle homogenate similarly fortified at a level of 1.00 Mug/g. The method was tested under operational conditions by exposing adult rainbow trout to 1.00 Mg/l [c-14] malachite green chloride bath for 1 h. Muscle samples analyzed by sample oxidation and scintillation counting contained 1.3 And 0.5 Mug/g total malachite green chloride residues immediately after exposure and after a 5-day withdrawal period, respectively.

  17. An immunohistochemical study of Flexibacter psychrophilus infection in experimentally and naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    An immunohistochemical method is described for the detection of Flexibacter psychrophilus in formalin-fixed, parafiin-wax-embedded fry of rainbow trout. Rabbit antiserum as well as rainbow trout hyperimmune serum were used in the study. The distribution and tissue localization of the bacterium wa...... are typically found during the chronic stage of the disease....... and experimentally infected fry showed that there was a localization of bacteria in the monocyte-macrophage system, in skin lesions, and in the retina and the choroid gland of the eye. The dermal changes included superficial or deep ulcers extending to the subcutaneous tissue or the musculature accompanied...... by inflammatory cell infiltrates in which polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells were shown to contain the bacterium in the cytoplasm by immunostaining. The eye changes were likewise a common finding in chronic cases with severe inflammatory changes in the retina and with numerous bacteria in inflammatory (mainly...

  18. AEROMONAS SPP BACTEREMIA OF RAINBOW TROUT FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS: BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSATIVE ORGANISM AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 20 NE tests Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type I was identified with an average probability of 99.9 % (one test against, as well as Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type II with an average probability of 99.5 % (one test against from liver, spleen, kidney, intestines and damaged eye. All of isolated and identified samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion method. The test showed that specimens were most sensitive on flumequin, and relatively less sensitive on chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Therapy was successfully applied with Flubactin®.

  19. Alternate Directed Anthropogenic Shifts in Genotype Result in Different Ecological Outcomes in Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch Fry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Domesticated and growth hormone (GH transgenic salmon provide an interesting model to compare effects of selected versus engineered phenotypic change on relative fitness in an ecological context. Phenotype in domestication is altered via polygenic selection of traits over multiple generations, whereas in transgenesis is altered by a single locus in one generation. These established and emerging technologies both result in elevated growth rates in culture, and are associated with similar secondary effects such as increased foraging, decreased predator avoidance, and similar endocrine and gene expression profiles. As such, there is concern regarding ecological consequences should fish that have been genetically altered escape to natural ecosystems. To determine if the type of genetic change influences fitness components associated with ecological success outside of the culture environments they were produced for, we examined growth and survival of domesticated, transgenic, and wild-type coho salmon fry under different environmental conditions. In simple conditions (i.e. culture with unlimited food, transgenic fish had the greatest growth, while in naturalized stream tanks (limited natural food, with or without predators domesticated fish had greatest growth and survival of the three fish groups. As such, the largest growth in culture conditions may not translate to the greatest ecological effects in natural conditions, and shifts in phenotype over multiple rather than one loci may result in greater success in a wider range of conditions. These differences may arise from very different historical opportunities of transgenic and domesticated strains to select for multiple growth pathways or counter-select against negative secondary changes arising from elevated capacity for growth, with domesticated fish potentially obtaining or retaining adaptive responses to multiple environmental conditions not yet acquired in recently generated transgenic

  20. Simultaneous demonstration of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and Flavobacterium psychrophilum in paraffin-embedded specimens of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry by use of paired immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, Ø.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1997-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum, which is the causative agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the causative agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), are both highly pathogenic for rainbow trout fry. Several...

  1. Effects of the proposed California WaterFix North Delta Diversion on flow reversals and entrainment of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) into Georgiana Slough and the Delta Cross Channel, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Romine, Jason G.; Pope, Adam C.; Evans, Scott D.

    2018-02-27

    The California Department of Water Resources and Bureau of Reclamation propose new water intake facilities on the Sacramento River in northern California that would convey some of the water for export to areas south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereinafter referred to as the Delta) through tunnels rather than through the Delta. The collection of water intakes, tunnels, pumping facilities, associated structures, and proposed operations are collectively referred to as California WaterFix. The water intake facilities, hereinafter referred to as the North Delta Diversion (NDD), are proposed to be located on the Sacramento River downstream of the city of Sacramento and upstream of the first major river junction where Sutter Slough branches from the Sacramento River. The NDD can divert a maximum discharge of 9,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) from the Sacramento River, which reduces the amount of Sacramento River inflow into the Delta.In this report, we conducted three analyses to investigate the effect of the NDD and its proposed operation on entrainment of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) into Georgiana Slough and the Delta Cross Channel (DCC). Fish that enter the interior Delta (the network of channels to the south of the Sacramento River) through Georgiana Slough and the DCC survive at lower rates than fish that use other migration routes (Sacramento River, Sutter Slough, and Steamboat Slough). Therefore, fisheries managers were concerned about the extent to which operation of the NDD would increase the proportion of the population entering the interior Delta, which, all else being equal, would lower overall survival through the Delta by increasing the fraction of the population subject to lower survival rates. Operation of the NDD would reduce flow in the Sacramento River, which has the potential to increase the magnitude and duration of reverse flows of the Sacramento River downstream of Georgiana Slough.In the first analysis, we

  2. Effects of the proposed California WaterFix North Delta Diversion on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Pope, Adam C.

    2018-05-11

    The California Department of Water Resources and Bureau of Reclamation propose new water intake facilities on the Sacramento River in northern California that would convey some of the water for export to areas south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereinafter referred to as the Delta) through tunnels rather than through the Delta. The collection of water intakes, tunnels, pumping facilities, associated structures, and proposed operations are collectively referred to as California WaterFix. The water intake facilities, hereinafter referred to as the North Delta Diversion (NDD), are proposed to be located on the Sacramento River downstream of the city of Sacramento and upstream of the first major river junction where Sutter Slough branches from the Sacramento River. The NDD can divert a maximum discharge of 9,000 cubic feet per second (ft3 /s) from the Sacramento River, which reduces the amount of Sacramento River inflow into the Delta. In this report, we conduct four analyses to investigate the effect of the NDD and its proposed operation on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). All analyses used the results of a Bayesian survival model that allowed us to simulate travel time, migration routing, and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through the Delta in response to NDD operations, which affected both inflows to the Delta and operation of the Delta Cross Channel (DCC). For the first analysis, we evaluated the effect of the NDD bypass rules on salmon survival. The NDD bypass rules are a set of operational rule curves designed to provide adaptive levels of fish protection by defining allowable diversion rates as a function of (1) Sacramento River discharge as measured at Freeport, and (2) time of year when endangered runs requiring the most protection are present. We determined that all bypass rule curves except constant low-level pumping (maximum diversion of 900 ft3 /s) could cause a sizeable decrease in survival by as

  3. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  4. A Practical Approach to Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Seed Production

    OpenAIRE

    , Orhan Çakır

    2002-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) grows faster and has great disease resistance. Therefore this species has been preferred to culture for years. Fry production, feeding and management of broodstock are explained practically in order to increase profitability.

  5. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  6. Evaluation of the immune response in rainbow trout fry, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), after waterborne exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum and/or hydrogen peroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Kania, P. W.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The immune response in rainbow trout fry against Flavobacterium psychrophilum was elucidated using an immersion-based challenge with or without prior exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Samples were taken from the head kidney 4, 48, 125 and 192 h after immersion, and the regulation of several...

  7. Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A rapid decline in temperature poses a major challenge for poikilothermic fish, as their entire metabolism depends on ambient temperature. The gene expression of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss having undergone such a cold shock (0◦C) was compared to a control (5◦C) in a microarray and quantitative real-time PCR ...

  8. Survival of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry to adulthood following a 10-day exposure to aromatic hydrocarbon water-soluble fraction of crude oil and release to the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtwell, I. K.; Fink, R.; Brand, D.; Alexander, R.; McAllister, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Potential effects of hydrocarbons on salmonids were investigated. In the course of the experiment pink salmon fry were exposed for 10 days to seawater containing varying controlled doses of the water-soluble fractions of North Slope crude oil, comprised primarily of monoaromatics. After exposure the fry were released into the Pacific Ocean to complete their life cycle. The experiments were replicated for three years following the original experiment. No consistent dose-dependent effect of the 10-day exposure on the growth and survival to maturity of the pink salmon was observed, although there was high mortality following each initial release. These results may be considered as one measure of resistance to exposure to contaminants, however, the method is not recommended for general use because it is based on a highly selected sample (i.e. those that survived the initial exposure), and the same results may not apply to populations that have not been subjected to intensive nonselective fishing pressures. In summary, the survival of some fraction of the population of pink salmon is evidence of the robustness of some of these fish, but it is at best a crude indicator of environmental health. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Differential immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at early developmental stages (larvae and fry) against the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Raida, Martin Kristian; Kania, Per Walter

    2012-01-01

    . We exposed 17 and 87 days post hatch larvae and fry (152 and 1118 degree days post hatch; avg. wt. 70 and 770 mg, respectively) to the bacterial pathogen, Yersinia ruckeri for 4 h by bath challenge. Samples were taken at 4, 24, 72 and 96 h post exposure for qPCR and immunohistochemical analyses...... to elucidate the immune response mounted by these young fish. Larvae showed no mortality although infected larvae at 48 h post exposure showed hyperaemia in the mouth region and inflammation on the dorsal side of the body. Gene expression studies showed an up-regulation of iNOS and IL-22 in infected larvae 24...... h post exposure but most of the investigated genes did not show any difference between infected and uninfected larvae. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated a high expression of IgT molecules in gills and CD8 positive cells in thymus of both infected and uninfected larvae. Infection of rainbow...

  10. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  11. Quality characteristics of battered and fried chicken: comparison of pressure frying and conventional frying

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rashmi; Pawar, Deepthi P.; Modi, Vinod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The marinated and battered chicken leg meat and breast meat were pressure fried and their physico-chemical qualities were compared to the conventional fried product (open pan deep fat frying). Shrinkage due to frying process was significantly lesser in case of pressure fried leg meat (PLM) and breast meat (PBM) as compared to products prepared by conventional frying leg meat (CLM) and breast meat (CBM). Also, juiciness of pressure fried chicken products was superior (p ≤ 0.05) than fried prod...

  12. Quality characteristics of battered and fried chicken: comparison of pressure frying and conventional frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rashmi; Pawar, Deepthi P; Modi, Vinod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The marinated and battered chicken leg meat and breast meat were pressure fried and their physico-chemical qualities were compared to the conventional fried product (open pan deep fat frying). Shrinkage due to frying process was significantly lesser in case of pressure fried leg meat (PLM) and breast meat (PBM) as compared to products prepared by conventional frying leg meat (CLM) and breast meat (CBM). Also, juiciness of pressure fried chicken products was superior (p ≤ 0.05) than fried products obtained by the conventional method. PLM and PBM had lower fat content (p ≤ 0.05) compared to conventionally fried CLM and CBM. Lipid oxidation was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in conventional frying as compared to pressure frying. Irrespective of the type of chicken meat, conventionally fried meat required higher shear force as compared to pressure fried products. Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella and E. coli were not detected. The study indicates the usefulness and superiority of pressure frying in comparison to conventional deep fat frying.

  13. Behavioral thermoregulation by juvenile spring and fall chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, during smoltification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, S.T.; Crawshaw, L.I.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Fall chinook salmon evolved to emigrate during the summer months. The shift in the temperature preference we observed in smolting fall chinook but not spring chinook salmon may reflect a phylogenetic adaptation to summer emigration by (1) providing directional orientation as fall chinook salmon move into the marine environment, (2) maintaining optimal gill function during emigration and seawater entry, and/or (3) resetting thermoregulatory set-points to support physiological homeostasis once smolted fish enter the marine environment. Phylogenetically determined temperature adaptations and responses to thermal stress may not protect fall chinook salmon from the recent higher summer water temperatures, altered annual thermal regimes, and degraded cold water refugia that result from hydropower regulation of the Columbia and Snake rivers. The long-term survival of fall chinook salmon will likely require restoration of normal annual thermographs and rigorous changes in land use practices to protect critical thermal refugia and control maximum summer water temperatures in reservoirs.

  14. An integrated linkage map reveals candidate genes underlying adaptive variation in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mckinney, G. J.; Seeb, L. W.; Larson, W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonids are an important cultural and ecological resource exhibiting near worldwide distribution between their native and introduced range. Previous research has generated linkage maps and genomic resources for several species as well as genome assemblies for two species. We first leveraged...

  15. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species.

  16. Effects of ration level on immune functions in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, S.W.; Pascho, R.J.; Murray, A.L.; Shearer, K.D.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and disease resistance in cultured salmonids can be affected by dietary manipulations. Careful attention to feeding levels may be important to avoid imbalances in nutrient levels that could ultimately impair a fish's ability to resist infectious microorganisms. In the current study, fish in three feed-level groups were fed an experimental diet either to satiation, 64% of satiation or 40% of satiation. A fourth group of fish were fed a commercial diet at the 64% of satiation level and served as controls. To evaluate certain indices of disease resistance in the test and control fish, a panel of assays was employed to measure humoral and cellular immune functions 30, 39 and 54 weeks after starting the dietary treatments. The panel included measures of blood hematocrit and leucocrit levels, plasma protein concentration and serum lysozyme and complement activity. Cellular analyses included differential blood leucocyte counts, NBT reduction and phagocytosis by pronephros macrophages and myeloperoxidase activity of pronephros neutrophils. No differences were observed in those indices between fish tested from the control-diet group (commercial diet fed at the 64% rate) and fish tested from the 64% feed-level group, except that fish fed the commercial diet had a greater concentration of plasma protein. Leucocrit values and plasma protein concentrations tended to increase among the experimental feed groups as the ration increased from 40% to satiation. More importantly, phagocytic activity by anterior kidney leucocytes was found to be inversely proportional to the feed level. Whereas the results of this study provide evidence that the salmonid immune system may be fairly robust with regard to available metabolic energy, the significant changes observed in phagocytic cell activity suggest that some cellular immune functions may be affected by the feed level.

  17. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the fried potato chips and French fries French fries. Blanching reduced in potato chips on average 76 percent and 68 percent of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50 degrees C for 70 minutes......) of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively) with French fry acrylamide content....

  18. Vertebral column deformities in farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets with either different levels of vitamin C, or diets enriched with glucan or chitin, from feeding start and 6 months onwards. At an average weight of 100 g, the trout were X-rayed to determine the deformity level. The investigations showed...... of deformities (4.8%). In all groups examined, the deformities were spread over the whole vertebral column. The deformities in the group fed the low vitamin C diet were more severe than those found in the other groups. An outbreak of the disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) caused by the bacterium...

  19. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  20. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  1. Fri os fra det onde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Johs. Nørregaard

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Ole Bordedals film: Fri os fra det onde. Filmen bruger provinsen som metafor for de menenskelige udkanter og eksistentielle randområder, ligesom han skildrer det ondes princip Udgivelsesdato: maj......Anmeldelse af Ole Bordedals film: Fri os fra det onde. Filmen bruger provinsen som metafor for de menenskelige udkanter og eksistentielle randområder, ligesom han skildrer det ondes princip Udgivelsesdato: maj...

  2. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [es

  3. Characterization of crispness of French fries by fracture and acoustic measurements, effect of pre-frying and final frying times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, T.; Primo-Martin, C.; Vliet, van T.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of pre-frying and final frying time on the crispness of French fries was evaluated by simultaneous analysis of the fracture and acoustic properties during instrumental simulation of human chewing. The analysis of the frequency distribution of the force and sound events corresponding to

  4. Illusioner om fri vilje. Neurovidenskabelige studier af fri vilje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg Kjerkegaard, Jonas; Bærentsen, Klaus B.

    2015-01-01

    En central antagelse for både filosofiske og folkepsykologiske begreber om fri vilje er, at bevidste processer, beslutninger og intentioner kan have effekt på ens handlinger. Eksperimenter udført af Benjamin Libet og andre er blevet hævdet at modbevise dette, hvorved fri vilje skulle være umulig...... at foretrække det ene frem for det andet. Eksperimenternes resultater er derfor uden betydning for spørgsmålet om fri vilje. Beslutningen om at deltage i eksperimenterne, og følge de eksperimentelle instrukser har betydning for deltagerne, og den fremlagte empiri viser, at deltagernes bevidste intentioner er...... kausalt effektive i forhold til de efterfølgende handlinger. Den "ubevidste" måde valgene træffes på i eksperimentalsituationen er en opfyldelse af de eksperimentelle instrukser. Eksperimenterne af Libet og efterfølgere viser sig alt i alt ikke at modbevise fri vilje. Analysen af eksperimenterne peger på...

  5. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be

  6. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Quality Attributes of Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayustaningwarno, Fitriyono; Dekker, Matthijs; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum frying of fruits enables frying at lower temperatures compared to atmospheric frying, thereby improving quality attributes of the fried product, such as oil content, texture, retention of nutrients, and color. Producing high-quality vacuum-fried fruit is a challenge, especially because of the

  7. Guidelines for monitoring and adaptively managing restoration of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) on the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R.J.; Duda, J.J.; Pess, G.R.; Zimmerman, M.; Crain, P.; Hughes, Z.; Wilson, A.; Liermann, M.C.; Morley, S.A.; McMillan, J.; Denton, K.; Warheit, K.

    2014-01-01

    As of January, 2014, the removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams on the Elwha River, Washington, represents the largest dam decommissioning to date in the United States. Dam removal is the single largest step in meeting the goals of the Elwha River Ecosystem and Fisheries Restoration Act of 1992 (The Elwha Act) — full restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem and its native anadromous fisheries (Section 3(a)). However, there is uncertainty about project outcomes with regards to salmon populations, as well as what the ‘best’ management strategy is to fully restore each salmon stock. This uncertainty is due to the magnitude of the action, the large volumes of sediment expected to be released during dam removal, and the duration of the sediment impact period following dam removal. Our task is further complicated by the depleted state of the native salmonid populations remaining in the Elwha, including four federally listed species. This situation lends itself to a monitoring and adaptive management approach to resource management, which allows for flexibility in decision-making processes in the face of uncertain outcomes.

  8. Sneaker “jack” males outcompete dominant “hooknose” males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small “sneaker” males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy un...

  9. Sneaker “jack” males outcompete dominant “hooknose” males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small “sneaker” males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the “fair raffle”) and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the “loaded raffle”). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker “jack” males against sperm from dominant “hooknose” males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. PMID:24455130

  10. Sequence features and phylogenetic analysis of the stress protein Hsp90α in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a poikilothermic vertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Winton, James R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    1999-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a chinook salmon Hsp90 cDNA; sequence analysis shows it to be Hsp90??. Phylogenetic analysis supports the hypothesis that ?? and ?? paralogs of Hsp90 arose as a result of a gene duplication event and that they diverged early in the evolution of vertebrates, before tetrapods separated from the teleost lineage. Among several differences distinguishing poikilothermic Hsp90?? sequences from their bird and mammal orthologs, the teleost versions specifically lack a characteristic QTQDQP phosphorylation site near the N-terminus. We used the cDNA to develop an RNA (Northern) blot to quantify cellular Hsp90 mRNA levels. Chinook salmon embryonic (CHSE-214) cells responded to heat shock with a rapid rise in Hsp90 mRNA through 4 h, followed by a gradual decline over the next 20 h. Hsp90 mRNA level may be useful as a stress indicator, especially in a laboratory setting or in response to acute heat stress.

  11. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Gregory W; Dauble, Dennis D; Chamness, Mickie A; Abernethy, Cary S; McKinstry, Craig A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs

  12. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  13. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus...

  14. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    : students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen...... with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past....

  15. Development of frozen-fried yam slices: Optimization of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frying conditions optimized with Box-Behnken experimental design were short pre-frying and frying conditions at high temperature characterized by prefrying temperature at 157-170°C during 5-9s and frying temperature at 181-188°C for 2min 15s-2min 30s; or long pre-frying and frying conditions at low temperature ...

  16. Kinetic model for the formation of acrylamide during the finish-frying of commercial french fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jane K; Balagiannis, Dimitrios P; Higley, Jeremy; Smith, Gordon; Wedzicha, Bronislaw L; Mottram, Donald S

    2012-09-12

    Acrylamide is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine during the preparation of French fries. The commercial preparation of French fries is a multistage process involving the preparation of frozen, par-fried potato strips for distribution to catering outlets, where they are finish-fried. The initial blanching, treatment in glucose solution, and par-frying steps are crucial because they determine the levels of precursors present at the beginning of the finish-frying process. To minimize the quantities of acrylamide in cooked fries, it is important to understand the impact of each stage on the formation of acrylamide. Acrylamide, amino acids, sugars, moisture, fat, and color were monitored at time intervals during the frying of potato strips that had been dipped in various concentrations of glucose and fructose during a typical pretreatment. A mathematical model based on the fundamental chemical reaction pathways of the finish-frying was developed, incorporating moisture and temperature gradients in the fries. This showed the contribution of both glucose and fructose to the generation of acrylamide and accurately predicted the acrylamide content of the final fries.

  17. Multispectral imaging of wok fried vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows how multispectral images can be used to assess color change over time in wok fried vegetables. We present results where feature selection was performed with sparse methods from the multispectral images to detect the color changes of wok fried carrots and celeriac stored at +5°C...

  18. Delay oil oxidation during frying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, N.M.M.; Shams Eldin, N.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Blend oil (mixed of refined sunflower and soy beans oils 1:1 w/w) containing add 200 ppm of rosemary leaves methanolic extract (rosemary extract) (RE) and 3% refined rice bran oil (RRBO), were used in frying process at 1800 degree c for 5 hrs/ day, four consecutive days to delay oil oxidation during frying. Therefore, rosemary extract (methanolic extract) was analyzed by HPLC technique for identification of flavonoids compounds (as a specific active compounds; gives high protection to frying oil). Physical and chemical properties, including refractive index(RI). Red color unit (R), viscosity, acidity (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) oxidized fatty acid (OFA), polymer content (PC), total polar components (TPC) and trans fatty acid (TFA) as eliadic acid were determined. The results indicated that; rosemary extract contained about eight flavonoids compounds (hypersoid, rutin, 3-OH flavon, luleotin, kempferol, sakarutin, querectrin and apeginin). Addition of RE or RRBO to frying oil caused delay oil oxidation during frying process compared with frying oil without any addition. Also, the results indicated that rosemary extract was more effective in reducing formation of PV, FFA, OFA, PC, TPC and TFA in frying oil than refined rice bran oil

  19. The warp and weft of Fries, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Flanigan, Katherine Janet

    1998-01-01

    Fries, Virginia exists because of the Fries Textile Mill. The closing of the mill calls into question the future of the community of Fries. The decline of the town can be tied to the closing of the mill. Conversely, the revitalization of the mill should help to reshape the town. Even as it stands empty, the mill continues to be a massive presence on the hillside overlooking the New River. It is possible to turn this symbol of the past into a hope for the future. Ab...

  20. A METHOD OF FRYING MINCED MEAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method of frying minced meat comprising the steps of providing a heated frying surface, providing a flow of discrete and separate particles of minced meat in a condition wherein the mean temperature of the flow of particles is less than 5 degrees centigrade, preferably less than 2 degrees...... centigrade and most preferably less than 0.5 degrees centigrade, and heating the discrete particles to the onset of frying conditions defined as a discernible change of the colour of the particle from the original red meat colour to a grey and brownish colour by bringing the discrete particles into contact...

  1. Manufactering of par-fried french-fries. Part 3: a blueprint to predict the maximum production yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    Very little research on the production yield of par-fried French-fries has been reported in the literature. This paper bridges the knowledge gap and outlines the development of a model to predict the maximum production yield of par-fried French-fries. This yield model can be used to calculate the

  2. Optimization of frying process in food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaglia, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of frying are fairly simple. Hot oil serves as a heat exchange medium in which heat is transferred to the food being fried. As a result, the heat converts water within the food to steam and melts the fat within the food. The steam and fat then migrate from the interior of the food through the exterior and into the oil. Conversely, some of the frying oil is absorbed into the food being fried. The chemistry occurring in the frying oil and in the food being fried includes a myriad of thermal and oxidative reactions involving lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and minor food constituents. Decomposition products by autoxidation above 100°C, polimerization without oxigen between 200-300°C and thermal oxidation at 200°C, can be produced in frying oil and their amounts are related to different chemical and physical parameters such as temperature, heating time, type of oil used and food being fried, oil turnover rate, management of the oil and finally type of equipment used. Different studies have remarked as the toxicity of these by-products, is due to their chemistry and concentration. Since the prime requirement in food quality is the safety of the products, attainable through preventive analysis of the risks and total control through all frying processes, in this work the critical points of particular importance are identify and showed: Oil composition, and in particular its antioxidant capacity. Proper fryer design. Food/oil ratio. Good manufactured practice. Beside the quality screening has to be direct towards the chemical quality evaluation by easy and rapid analysis of oil (colour, polar compounds, free fatty acids and antioxidant capacity and food fried (panel test and/or consumer test. Conclusion, to maintain high quality in the frying medium, choose efficient equipment, select a fat with desirable flavour and good antioxidant capacity, eliminate crackling as soon and often as possible, choose better components with minimal but

  3. On the possibility of nonfat frying using molten glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khusaibi, Mohammed; Ahmad Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-01-01

    Fried products impose a health concerns due to considerable amount of oil they contain. Production of snack foods with minimal oil content and good management of oil during frying to minimize the production of toxic compounds continue to be challenging aims. This paper aims to investigate the possibility of producing a fat-free food snack by replacing frying oil with a nonfat medium. Glucose was melted and its temperature was then brought to 185 °C and used to fry potato strips, to obtain a product referred here as glucose fries. The resulting product was compared with French fries prepared conventionally under conditions that resulted in similar final moisture content. The resulting products were also examined for crust formation, texture parameters, color development and glucose content. Stereo microscope images showed that similar crusts were formed in the glucose fries and French fries. Texture parameters were found to be similar for both products at 5 and 2 mm penetration depth. The maximum hardness at 2 mm penetration depth was also similar for both products, but different from cooked potato. The color development that characterized French fries was also observed in glucose fries. The glucose content in glucose fries was found to be twice the content of French fries, which is to be expected because glucose absorbed or adhered to the surface. In conclusion, glucose fries, with similar texture and color characteristics to that of French fries, can be prepared by using a nonfat frying medium. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ronald H; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-06-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen and Jakob Lange in Denmark. Volumes of color paintings and several exsiccati, most notably one edited by Lundell and Nannfeldt attached fungal portraits and preserved specimens (and often photographs) to Fries names. The result is a massive resource from which to harvest the name-concept relationship with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past.

  5. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French fries: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Luning, P A; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and reducing sugars were analyzed, the frying temperature and time were measured, and thawing practices were observed. The results obtained before and after instructions were provided to the food handlers were compared for restaurants as a group and for each restaurant. Frying instructions supported food handlers' decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175°C; all handlers started frying at the correct temperature. However, the effect of the instructions on the food handlers' decisions for frying time differed; most handlers increased the frying time beyond 240 s to achieve crispier French fries with a final color dictated by their preference. Providing instructions did not result in a significant difference in the mean concentration of acrylamide in French fries for the restaurants as a group. However, data analyzed for each restaurant revealed that when food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower (169 μg/kg) than that before instructions were provided (1,517 μg/kg). When food handlers did not complying with the frying instructions, mean acrylamide concentrations were even higher than those before instructions were provided. Two different strategies were developed to overcome the noncompliant behavior of food handlers: establishing requirements for the features of commercial fryers and strict monitoring of compliance with instructions.

  6. MACROZOOBENTHOS IN CARP FISH FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.

  7. Fries' goby, a European oddity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Miller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fries' Goby, Lesueurigobius friesii (Malm, 1874 is common on softer grounds of the more offshore eastern Atlantic continental shelf from Norway to Mauritania, and in the Mediterranean to the Sea of Marmora. The several species of the genus are unique among Lusitanian/Boreal gobiine gobies in coloration and caudal morphology as well as in the 'longitudinal' pattern of infraorbital free neuromast-organs and the lack of head lateral-line canals. A new classification of Old World longitudinal gobiines, based on these free neuromast patterns of both infraorbital and hyomandibular innervation, places Lesueurigobius as the Atlantic sister group to the other longitudinal gobiines, which are all Indo/West Pacific in distribution. The proposed cladogram, the first for the group, is based on synapomorphies in features of rostral mandibular line neuromast series f, the rows of the cheek, and vertebral number. Species of Lesueurigobius show an apparently apomorphic reduction in infraorbital row cp that is shared with three Indo-West Pacific genera (Silhouettea, Heteroplopomus and Platygobiopsis but, in Lesueurigobius , this is now believed to be plesiomorphic. Morphological character states were used to construct a cladogram which was discussed in relation to molecular findings that support Lesueurigobius as an outgroup to the Indo/West Pacific genera. The importance of the latter as tools for testing morphological phylogenies, rather than as conflicting classification, is strongly emphasised.

  8. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French Fries: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Luning, P.A.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and

  9. Effects of frying oils' fatty acids profile on the formation of polar lipids components and their retention in French fries over deep-frying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodan; Li, Jinwei; Wang, Yong; Cao, Peirang; Liu, Yuanfa

    2017-12-15

    The effects of frying oils' fatty acids profile on the formation of polar components and their retention in French fries and corresponding deep-fried oils were investigated in the present study, using oils with different fatty acids composition. Our analysis showed that the total polar compounds (TPCs) content in French fries was only slightly lower than that in deep-fried oils, indicating that there was no significant difference considering the amounts of TPCs in French fries and deep-fried oils. Our further analysis showed that different polar components in TPCs distributed differently in deep-fried oils and oils extracted from French fries. Specifically, the level of oligomeric and dimeric triacylglycerols was higher in French fries while oxidized triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols content was higher in deep-fried oils. The different retention of TPCs components in French fries may be explained by their interactions with carbohydrates, which are shown to enhance with the increase of hydrophobic property. Chemometric analysis showed that no correlation between the polar compounds level and saturated fatty acids profile was observed. Meanwhile, the polar compounds content was highly correlated with the formation of trans-C18:1, and a highly positive association between polar compounds and C18:2 content was also observed in palm oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep frying: the role of water from food being fried and acrylamide formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of acrylamide during food frying is generally influenced by food type, thermal treatment and equipment. The acrylamide concentration is increased when frying oils containing a higher level of polar materials or silicone or larger amounts of diglycerides. This effect may be caused by moisture escaping from food that has an enhancing effect on the heat transfer. It was noticed that if the moisture in the frying operation was bound by special adsorbents, the acrylamide content could be reduced by more than 50%. The effects of several additives like citric acid on the formation of acrylamide during frying of chips were also investigated. The mechanism of acrylamide formation in fried foods is discussed to explain these findings.

  11. Impact of vacuum frying on quality of potato crisps and frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Beverly; Hradecky, Jaromir; Hurkova, Kamila; Forstova, Veronika; Vaclavik, Lukas; Hajslova, Jana

    2018-02-15

    This research was focused on a critical assessment of vacuum frying as a technology enabling minimization of acrylamide formation in potato crisps and reducing undesirable chemical changes that occur in frying oil at high temperatures. The potato slices were fried in rapeseed oil under vacuum at 125°C and atmospheric pressure at 165°C. The experiments were performed on two potato varieties, Saturna and Impala. Vacuum frying reduced the formation of acrylamide by 98% and also other Maillard reaction products, specifically alkylpyrazines. Concurrently a lower extent of oxidative changes was observed in the frying oil, while 3-MCPD esters decreased fairly quickly during conventional frying. Sensory characteristics of the vacuum and conventionally fried potato crisps were evaluated by a 23-member panel. The majority of panellists preferred the flavour of 'conventional crisps', while only a few of them appreciated potato-like fresh flavour of 'vacuum crisps' and classified this product as 'tasty'. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Reciprocal subsidies and food web pathways leading to chum salmon fry in a temperate marine-terrestrial ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanuk, Tamara N; Levings, Colin D

    2010-04-08

    Stable isotope analysis was used to determine the relative proportions of terrestrial and marine subsidies of carbon to invertebrates along a tidal gradient (low-intertidal, mid-intertidal, high-intertidal, supralittoral) and to determine the relative importance of terrestrial carbon in food web pathways leading to chum salmon fry Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) in Howe Sound, British Columbia. We found a clear gradient in the proportion of terrestrially derived carbon along the tidal gradient ranging from 68% across all invertebrate taxa in the supralittoral to 25% in the high-intertidal, 20% in the mid-intertidal, and 12% in the low-intertidal. Stable isotope values of chum salmon fry indicated carbon contributions from both terrestrial and marine sources, with terrestrially derived carbon ranging from 12.8 to 61.5% in the muscle tissue of chum salmon fry (mean 30%). Our results provide evidence for reciprocal subsidies of marine and terrestrially derived carbon on beaches in the estuary and suggest that the vegetated supralittoral is an important trophic link in supplying terrestrial carbon to nearshore food webs.

  13. Geography and history of the frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton, I. D.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available How far back in time, frying with oil goes, it is difficult to tell. The rules for sacrifice in Leviticus, Chapter 2, the 3rd book in the Old Testament, which is commonly accepted to date from about 600 BC, distinguishes between bread baked in the oven and that cooked «on the griddle» or «in the pan». Roman authors also describe in the first century AD the frying of eggs. Writers in the Middle Ages, Cervantes and Chaucer both describe the cooking in oil. A number of common proverbs deal with frying in one's own grease in the 14th Century. Soyer describes the grid iron as a primitive utensil but with considerable possibilities in the use and variation of the cooking process. We need only to recall that splendid painting in the El Prado of the fried egg which Professor Varela used as a frontispiece for the first Frying of Food Conference in Madrid in 1986. Different types of oils can be used for the frying of food. Variations in the composition of vegetable oils can normally be traced back to climatic effects and the location of the growing plants. We can expect the height above sea level, the daylight hour length, the mean temperature and the genetic make up of the plant, all to have an effect. Cool conditions during seed maturation can increase the linoleic acid content In plants such as Guizotia Abyssinica to almost 85% of the oil. Similar results have been reported for peanuts grown at different latitudes in the United States.

  14. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color...°F or 21/2 minutes at 375°F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third...

  15. . . . und . . . Fried . . . und . . .: The Poetry of Erich Fried and the Structure of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Alter

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at the poetry of Erich Fried in the context of tensions within contemporary cultural studies. Fried's contemporaneity is linked to his status on the margins of various cultures, media, and ideologies—thus making both his life and his works appear as exemplary paradigms for the postmodern condition, with its various theoretical celebrations of "exile," "border crossing," "transgression," "deterritorialization," and so forth. Yet, at the same time, seemingly in contrast with his labile identity is Fried's rigid Marxist political ideological core which surfaces in his political poetry. Focusing, in particular, on Fried's poems directed against the Vietnam War, this essay seeks to situate the tension beteen these two positions as a deep structure already in his work.

  16. Enzymatic transesterification of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, S.; Hancsok, J. (Univ. of Pannonia, Veszprem (HU)), Email: hancsokj@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2009-07-01

    The research of converting used frying oils to less harmful products with much higher value was forced by environmental, human biological and economical reasons. One possible pathway of the transformation is the enzymatic transesterification. Through the research work used frying oils (UFO) and sunflower oils (SO) from different origins were first properly pre-treated. Then the previously mentioned feeds and different mixtures of them were transesterified in the presence of Novozym 435 enzyme catalyst under different process conditions. Characteristics of the produced methyl esters were evaluated according to the requirements of EN 14214:2009 standard. We determined that the transesterification of used frying oils is not expediential in the presence of enzyme catalyst because the significant decreasing of catalyst activity. We have found proper UFO and SO mixtures and combination of process conditions (pressure: atmospheric, temperature: 54 +-1 deg C; methanol to triglyceride molar ratio: 4:1; reaction time: 16 hours) resulting in high (>90 %) yield of monoesters. We clearly established that the best results through the enzymatic transesterification were obtained with the improved sunflower oils containing the highest amount (>88 %) of oleic acid and the used frying oils originated from this source. (orig.)

  17. Development and assessment of frying characteristics, chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completely randomized design was used to assess and compare frying characteristics, proximate and vitamin A contents between samples with bread types being the principal factor while Randomised complete Block design was used to assess sensory properties and consumer acceptability of the bread samples with ...

  18. Characteristics of PAHs from deep-frying and frying cooking fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Li, Jing; Wu, Bobo; Hao, Xuewei; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Xi

    2015-10-01

    Cooking fumes are an important indoor source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Because indoor pollution has a more substantial impact on human health than outdoor pollution, PAHs from cooking fumes have drawn considerable attention. In this study, 16 PAHs emitted through deep-frying and frying methods using rapeseed, soybean, peanut, and olive oil were examined under a laboratory fume hood. Controlled experiments were conducted to collect gas- and particulate-phase PAHs emitted from the cooking oil fumes, and PAH concentrations were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that deep-frying methods generate more PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (1.3 and 10.9 times, respectively) because they consume greater volumes of edible oil and involve higher oil temperatures relative to those of frying methods. In addition, the total B[a]Peq concentration of deep-frying is 2.2-fold larger than that of frying. Regarding the four types of edible oils studied, rapeseed oil produced more PAH emission than the other three oil varieties. For all of the cooking tests, three- and four-ringed PAHs were the main PAH components regardless of the food and oil used. Concerning the PAH partition between gas and particulate phase, the gaseous compounds accounted for 59-96 % of the total. Meanwhile, the particulate fraction was richer of high molecular weight PAHs (five-six rings). Deep-frying and frying were confirmed as important sources of PAH pollution in internal environments. The results of this study provide additional insights into the polluting features of PAHs produced via cooking activities in indoor environments.

  19. The effect of food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on oil blend degradation during repeated frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Álvarez, María Del Carmen; Molina-Hernández, Erika F; Hernández-Raya, José Concepción; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2012-11-01

    Oil that is reused multiple times for deep frying goes through changes in chemical composition and physical characteristics, affecting the quality of the fried foods. In this study, the effect of the food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on the degradation of an oil blend during the deep-fat frying of each food at 180°C during 12 days was determined, and the characteristics of the fried products were evaluated. The degradation of oil during repeated use was relatively faster when fish nuggets were fried than when French fries were fried, as higher values of total polar compounds were obtained. The results are useful for producers of French fries and fish nuggets, such as restaurants or fast foods sellers, providing them with practical guidelines within the permitted values established by the regulatory authorities. The studied foods have high economic importance and are different in their composition. Under the studied conditions, the tested oil blend may be used during 4 d (4 h per day) with a daily replenishment, without discarding the oil when frying fish nuggets, and must be discarded after 8 d when French fries are processed. This suggestion allows preparing safe fried foods for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Stability and antioxidant activity of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) tocotrienols during frying and in fried tortilla chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annatto tocotrienols (AnT3), which contain ~90% delta-tocotrienol (delta-T3), were added to mid-oleic sunflower oil used for frying tortilla chips over three days. The objectives were to evaluate their stability during frying and activity as antioxidants in frying oil and in tortilla chips during st...

  1. Color changes kinetics during deep fat frying of carrot slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin

    2018-05-01

    Heat and mass transfer phenomena take place during frying cause physicochemical changes, which affect the colour and surface of the fried products. The effect of frying temperature on the colour changes and heat transfer during deep fat frying of carrot has been investigated. The colour scale parameters redness (a*), yellowness (b*) and lightness (L*), and color change intensity (ΔE) were used to estimate colour changes during frying as a function of oil temperature. L* value of fried carrot decreased during frying. The redness of fried carrot decreased during the early stages of frying, while it increased afterwards (become more red). A first-order kinetic equation was used for each one of the three colour parameters, in which the rate constant is a function of oil temperatures. The results showed that oil temperature has a significant effect on the colour parameters. Different kinetic models were used to fit the experimental data and the results revealed that the quadratic model was the most suitable to describe the color change intensity (ΔE) (R > 0.96). Center temperature of carrot slice increased with increase in oil temperature and time during frying.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in frying oils and snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Navas, José A; Guardiola, Francesc; Conte, Lanfranco S; Moret, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    The high incidence of lung cancer observed among Chinese women has been associated with exposure to fumes from cooking oil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of potentially mutagenic substances emitted from cooking oils heated at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to investigate whether deep frying with different oils under different conditions leads to the development of PAHs either in the oil or in the fried product (snacks). PAH analysis was carried out with solid-phase extraction followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrofluorometric detection. Different oils were used to fry chips and extruded snacks in different industrial plants (continuous frying) at temperatures between 170 and 205 degrees C, and peanut oil was used to fry French fries and fish (discontinuous frying) at temperatures between 160 and 185 degrees C. No appreciable differences in PAH load was observed in the same oil before and after frying. Both before and after frying, the benzo[a]pyrene concentration in oils ranged from trace to 0.7 ppb. All the analyzed samples, including oils from fried snacks, had benzo[a]pyrene concentrations well below the 2 ppb limit recently proposed by the European Community.

  3. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. → Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. → Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. → Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  4. The drying of sewage sludge by immersion frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to dry sewage sludge using a fry-drying process. The frying experiments were carried out in commercial fryers modified by adding thermocouples to the setup. During frying, typical drying curves were obtained and it was verified that, in relation to the parameters: oil temperature, oil type and shape of the sample, the shape factor the most effect on the drying rate, at least within the range chosen for the variables studied. Oil uptake and calorific value were also analyzed. The calorific value of the samples increased with frying time, reaching values around 24MJ/kg after 600s of frying (comparable to biocombustibles such as wood and sugarcane bagasse. The process of immersion frying showed great potential for drying materials, especially sewage sludge, obtaining a product with a high energy content, thereby increasing its value as a combustible.

  5. Measurement of Deterioration of Frying Oil Using Electrical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    羽倉, 義雄; 佐々木, 芳浩; 鈴木, 寛一

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the electrical properties of frying oil (relative dielectric constant and conductance) and its deterioration indicators (acid value, amounts of polymerized triacylglycerols and chromaticity) were examined, focusing on the changes in electrical properties that accompany deterioration. The samples of frying oil used in this experiment were collected from fried food processing sites (school, hospital and factory feeding centers) and were collected at closi...

  6. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Online resources. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) stocks in India. Ashoktaru Barat Prabhati K. Sahoo Rohit Kumar Javaid I. Mir Shahnawaz Ali Rabindar S. Patiyal Atul K. Singh. Volume 94 Online resources 2015 pp e13- ...

  7. Retention and distribution of polyphenols after pan-frying of French fries in oils enriched with olive leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, A; Salta, F N; Kalogeropoulos, N; Mylona, A; Ntalla, I; Andrikopoulos, N K

    2007-10-01

    Palm oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil were supplemented with an extract rich in polyphenols obtained from olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves at levels of 120 and 240 mg total polyphenols per kilogram of oil. Pan-frying of potatoes was performed in both the enriched and the nonsupplemented oils under domestic frying conditions. Total polyphenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, oleuropein was determined by HPLC analysis, while other individual polyphenols by GC/MS analysis. Fourteen polyphenol species were identified in the olive leaf extract, among which oleuropein predominated (1.25 g/kg olive leaves). All the enriched oils contained oleuropein before and after frying. Oleuropein as well as other polyphenol species were detected in all French fries cooked in enriched oils. Polyphenol intake by consuming French fries pan-fried in the enriched oils was calculated to be 6 to 31 times higher than that in the case of French fries fried in commercial oils, being dependent on the frying oil type.

  8. Deterioration of natural antioxidant species of vegetable edible oils during the domestic deep-frying and pan-frying of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Dedoussis, George V Z; Falirea, Ageliki; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Hatzinikola, Haristoula S

    2002-07-01

    In the present work, virgin olive oil, sunflower oil and a vegetable shortening were used as cooking oils for the deep-frying and pan-frying of potatoes, for eight successive sessions, under the usual domestic practice. Several chemical and physicochemical parameters (acidic value, peroxide value, total polar artefacts, total phenol content and triglyceride fatty acyl moiety composition) were assayed during frying operations in order to evaluate the status of the frying oils, which were found within expected ranges similar to those previously reported. The oil fatty acids were effectively protected from oxidation by the natural antioxidants. The frying oil absorption by the potatoes was quantitated within 6.1-12.8%, depending on the oil type and the frying process. The retention of alpha- and (beta + gamma)-tocopherols during the eight fryings ranged from 85-90% (first frying) to 15-40% (eighth frying), except for the (beta + gamma)-tocopherols of sunflower oil, which almost disappeared after the sixth frying. The deterioration during the successive frying of several phenolic species present in virgin olive oil is reported for the first time. The retention of total phenolics ranged from 70-80% (first frying) to 20-30% (eighth frying). Tannic acid, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol-elenolic acid dialdeydic form showed remarkable resistance in all frying sessions in both frying methods, while hydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosol-elenolic acid were the faster eliminated. The deterioration of the other phenolic species account for 40-50% and 20-30% for deep-frying and pan-frying, respectively, after three to four frying sessions, which are the most usual in the household kitchen. Deep-frying resulted in better recoveries of all the parameters examined. The correlation of the deterioration rate of the phenolic compounds and tocopherols during frying is discussed and the nutritional aspects of the natural antioxidant intake, through the oil absorbed by the potatoes, are

  9. Mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Determination of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in unfried and fried fish samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activies of copper, zinc etc. This paper presents results of finding on losses of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish. (author)

  10. EFFECT OF DEEP-FAT FRYING ON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diopamadr

    volatile fraction remains in the frying medium and is absorbed by the fried food ... weight of the oil sample (2.5 g) was dissolved in a mixture consisting of glacial acetic ... For peanut oil B, values of PV observed for all the 10 samples showed an ...

  11. Effect of dietary α-tocopherol + ascorbic acid, selenium, and iron on oxidative stress in sub-yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Walbaum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, T.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    A three-variable central composite design coupled with surface-response analysis was used to examine the effects of dietary ??-tocopherol + ascorbic acid (TOCAA), selenium (Se), and iron (Fe) on indices of oxidative stress in juvenile spring Chinook salmon. Each dietary factor was tested at five levels for a total of fifteen dietary combinations (diets). Oxidative damage in liver and kidney (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls) and erythrocytes (erythrocyte resistance to peroxidative lysis, ERPL) was determined after feeding experimental diets for 16 (early December) and 28 (early March) weeks. Only TOCAA influenced oxidative stress in this study, with most measures of oxidative damage decreasing (liver lipid peroxidation in December and March; ERPL in December; liver protein carbonyl in March) with increasing levels of TOCAA. We also observed a TOCAA-stimulated increase in susceptibility of erythrocytes to peroxidative lysis in March at the highest levels of TOCAA. The data suggest that under most circumstances a progressive decrease in oxidative stress occurs as dietary TOCAA increases, but higher TOCAA concentrations can stimulate oxidative damage in some situations. Higher levels of TOCAA in the diet were required in March than in December to achieve comparable levels of protection against oxidative damage, which may have been due to physiological changes associated with the parr-smolt transformation. Erythrocytes appeared to be more sensitive to variation in dietary levels of TOCAA than liver and kidney tissues. Using the March ERPL assay results as a baseline, a TOCAA level of approximately 350-600 mg/kg diet would provide adequate protection against lipid peroxidation under most circumstances in juvenile Chinook salmon. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  12. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat suitability criteria to measured and modeled habitat data from the Snake River study areas. Channel morphology data from the Wanapum reference reach and the Snake River study areas were evaluated to identify geomorphically suitable fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The results of this study indicate that a majority of the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study areas contain suitable fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat under existing hydrosystem operations. However, a large majority of the currently available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study areas is of low quality. The potential for increasing, through modifications to hydrosystem operations (i.e., minimum pool elevation of the next downstream dam), the quantity or quality of fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat appears to be limited. Estimates of the amount of potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Ice Harbor study area decreased as the McNary Dam forebay elevation was lowered from normal to minimum pool elevation. Estimates of the amount of potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Lower Granite study area increased as the Little Goose Dam forebay elevation was lowered from normal to minimum pool elevation; however, 97% of the available habitat was categorized within the range of lowest quality. In both the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study areas, water velocity appears to be more of a limiting factor than water depth for fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, with both study areas dominated by low-magnitude water velocity. The geomorphic suitability of both study areas appears to be compromised for fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, with the Ice Harbor study area lacking significant bedforms along the longitudinal thalweg profile and the Lower Granite study area lacking cross-sectional topographic diversity. To increase the quantity of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study area, modifications to hydroelectric dam operations beyond those evaluated in this study likely would be necessary. Modifications may include operational and structural changes, such as lowering downstream dam forebay elevations to less than minimum pool. There is a large amount of uncertainty as to whether or not such modifications could increase the quantity of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study area. The results from this study provide some certainty that the quantity and quality of fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the lower Snake River are not likely to be increased within the existing hydroelectric dam operations.

  13. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-06-10

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) program has the following goals (BPA, et al., 1997): (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Clearwater Subbasin anadromous fish resources; (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater Subbasin; (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project initiation; (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations; (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits; and (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal management of Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. The NPTH program was designed to rear and release 1.4 million fall and 625,000 spring Chinook salmon. Construction of the central incubation and rearing facility NPTH and spring Chinook salmon acclimation facilities were completed in 2003 and the first full term NPTH releases occurred in 2004 (Brood Year 03). Monitoring and evaluation plans (Steward, 1996; Hesse and Cramer, 2000) were established to determine whether the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery program is achieving its stated goals. The monitoring and evaluation action plan identifies the need for annual data collection and annual reporting. In addition, recurring 5-year program reviews will evaluate emerging trends and aid in the determination of the effectiveness of the NPTH program with recommendations to improve the program's implementation. This report covers the Migratory Year (MY) 2007 period of the NPTH Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) program. There are three NPTH spring Chinook salmon treatment streams: Lolo Creek, Newsome Creek, and Meadow Creek. In 2007, Lolo Creek received 140,284 Brood Year (BY) 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average weight of 34.9 grams per fish, Newsome Creek received 77,317 BY 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average of 24.9 grams per fish, and Meadow Creek received 53,425 BY 2006 direct stream release parr at an average of 4.7 grams per fish. Natural and hatchery origin spring Chinook salmon pre-smolt emigrants were monitored from September - November 2006 and smolts from March-June 2007. Data on adult returns were collected from May-September. A suite of performance measures were calculated including total adult and spawner escapement, juvenile production, and survival probabilities. These measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementation and provide information on the capacity of the natural environment to assimilate and support supplemented salmon populations.

  14. Vertical self-sorting behavior in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): evidence for family differences and variation in growth and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrein, Julia R.; Billman, E.J.; Cogliati, Karen M.; Chitwood, Rob S.; Noakes, David L. G.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Life history variation is fundamental to the evolution of Pacific salmon and their persistence under variable conditions. We discovered that Chinook salmon sort themselves into surface- and bottom-oriented groups in tanks within days after exogenous feeding. We hypothesised that this behaviour is correlated with subsequent differences in body morphology and growth (as measured by final length and mass) observed later in life. We found consistent morphological differences between surface and bottom phenotypes. Furthermore, we found that surface and bottom orientation within each group is maintained for at least one year after the phenotypes were separated. These surface and bottom phenotypes are expressed across genetic stocks, brood years, and laboratories and we show that the proportion of surface- and bottom-oriented offspring also differed among families. Importantly, feed delivery location did not affect morphology or growth, and the surface fish were longer than bottom fish at the end of the rearing experiment. The body shape of the former correlates with wild individuals that rear in mainstem habitats and migrate in the fall as subyearlings and the latter resemble those that remain in the upper tributaries and migrate as yearling spring migrants. Our findings suggest that early self-sorting behaviour may have a genetic basis and be correlated with other phenotypic traits that are important indicators for juvenile migration timing.

  15. Streamflow effects on spawning, rearing, and outmigration of fall-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) predicted by a spatial and individual-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, H.I.; Sale, M.J.; Cardwell, H.E.; Deangelis, D.L.; Bevelhimer, M.J.; Coutant, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    The thread posed to Pacific salmon by competing water demands is a great concern to regulators of the hydropower industry. Finding the balance between fish resource and economic objectives depends on our ability to quantify flow effects on salmon production. Because field experiments are impractical, simulation models are needed to predict the effects of minimum flows on chinook salmon during their freshwater residence. We have developed a model to simulate the survival and development of eggs and alevins in redds and the growth, survival, and movement of juvenile chinook in response to local stream conditions (flow, temperature, chinook and predator density). Model results suggest that smolt production during dry years can be increased by raising spring minimum flows

  16. Use of Dual Frequency Identification Sonar to Determine Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Escapement in the Secesh River, Idaho ; Annual Report, January 2008 – December 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management

    2009-06-26

    Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1992 (NMFS 1992). The Secesh River represents the only stream in the Snake River basin where natural origin (wild) salmon escapement monitoring occurs at the population level, absent a supplementation program. As such the Secesh River has been identified as a long term salmon escapement and productivity monitoring site by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management. Salmon managers will use this data for effective population management and evaluation of the effect of conservation actions on a natural origin salmon population. The Secesh River also acts as a reference stream for supplementation program comparison. Dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) was used to determine adult spring and summer Chinook salmon escapement in the Secesh River in 2008. DIDSON technology was selected because it provided a non-invasive method for escapement monitoring that avoided listed species trapping and handling incidental mortality, and fish impedance related concerns. The DIDSON monitoring site was operated continuously from June 13 to September 14. The first salmon passage was observed on July 3. DIDSON site total estimated salmon escapement, natural and hatchery fish, was 888 fish {+-} 65 fish (95% confidence interval). Coefficient of variation associated with the escapement estimate was 3.7%. The DIDSON unit was operational 98.1% of the salmon migration period. Adult salmon migration timing in the Secesh River occurred over 74 days from July 3 to September 14, with 5,262 total fish passages observed. The spawning migration had 10%, median, and 90% passage dates of July 8, July 16, and August 12, respectively. The maximum number of net upstream migrating salmon was above the DIDSON monitoring site on August 27. Validation monitoring of DIDSON target counts with underwater optical cameras occurred for species identification. A total of 860 optical camera identified salmon passage observations were identical to DIDSON target counts. However, optical cameras identified eight jack salmon (3 upstream, 5 downstream) less than 55 cm in length that DIDSON did not count as salmon because of the length criteria employed ({ge} 55 cm). Precision of the DIDSON technology was evaluated by comparing estimated net upstream salmon escapement and associated 95% confidence intervals between two DIDSON sonar units operated over a five day period. The DIDSON 1 salmon escapement was 145.7 fish ({+-} 2.3), and the DIDSON 2 escapement estimate was 150.5 fish ({+-} 5). The overlap in the 95% confidence intervals suggested that the two escapement estimates were not significantly different from each other. Known length salmon carcass trials were conducted in 2008 to examine the accuracy of manually measured lengths, obtained using DIDSON software, on high frequency files at a 5 m window length. Linear regression demonstrated a highly significant relationship between known lengths and manually measured salmon carcass lengths (p < 0.0001). A positive bias in manual length measurement of 6.8% to 8% existed among the two observers in the analysis. Total Secesh River salmon escapement (natural origin and hatchery) in 2008 was 912 fish. Natural origin salmon escapement in the entire Secesh River drainage was 847 fish. The estimated natural origin spawner abundance was 836 fish. Salmon spawner abundance in 2008 increased by three fold compared to 2007 abundance levels. The 10 year geometric mean natural origin spawner abundance was 538 salmon and was below the recommended viable population threshold level established by the ICTRT (2007). One additional Snake River basin salmon population was assessed for comparison of natural origin salmon spawner abundance. The Johnson Creek/EFSF Salmon River population had a 10 year geometric mean natural origin spawner abundance of 254 salmon. Salmon spawner abundance levels in both streams were below viable population thresholds. DIDSON technology has been used in the Secesh River to determine salmon escapement over the past five years. The results suggest that DIDSON technology is reliable and can be used to generate accurate and precise estimates of salmon escapement if appropriate methods are used.

  17. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of browning during deep-fat frying of blanched and unblanched potato chips by using the dynamic method and to find a relationship between browning development and acrylamide formation. Prior to frying, potato slices were blanched in hot water...... at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...... were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a(*). Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical...

  18. Avoidance of thermal effluent by juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshowytscha) and its implications in waste heat management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.H.

    1977-03-01

    Knowledge of behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to thermal discharges at power plants is essential to evaluate thermal exposure and subsequent effects on survival and ecological success. Instantaneous responses of juvenile salmon that encountered a simulated river-thermal plume interface were assessed in a model raceway with a thermal discharge. Fish movement and response to the discharge were recorded on videotape. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) tested under three discharge conditions (no plume, ambient plume and heated plume) avoided plume temperatures greater than 9 to 11 0 C above ambient. Fish occasionally oriented to the discharge current, but were not attracted to the thermal component of the plume when plume ΔT's were below the avoidance level of 11 0 C. Fish did not pass to the lower end of the raceway when plume ΔT exceeded 9 to 11 0 C. The responses noted in our experiments suggest organismic behavior may prevent juvenile salmon in nature from experiencing lethal conditions from thermal discharges and have application in waste heat management and utilization

  19. Bathypelagic percid fry, a strongly predominating fry community in a deep European reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajdlová, Zuzana; Jůza, Tomáš; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Seďa, Jaromír; Čech, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 787, č. 1 (2017), s. 341-352 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P266; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14316 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : echosounder * fry trawling * Gymnocephalus cernua * Perca fluviatilis * Sander lucioperca * shoals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  20. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension.

  1. How to Find the Fries Structures for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał K. Cyrański

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An efficient algorithm leading to the Fries canonical structure is presented for benzenoid hydrocarbons. This is a purely topological approach, which is based on adjacency matrices and the Hadamard procedure of matrix multiplication. The idea is presented for naphthalene, as an example. The Fries canonical-structures are also derived for anthracene, coronene, triphenylene, phenanthrene, benz[a]pyrene, and one large benzenoid system. The Fries concept can be convenient for obtaining Clar structures with the maximum number of sextets, which in turn effectively represent π-electron (delocalization in benzenoid hydrocarbons.

  2. Stir-Frying of Chinese Cabbage and Pakchoi Retains Health-Promoting Glucosinolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, Probo Y.; Oliviero, Teresa; Heising, Jenneke K.; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Stir-frying is a cooking method, originating from Asia, in which food is fried in small amount of very hot oil. Nowadays in many other parts of the world stir-frying is a very popular method to prepare vegetables, because it is fast and fried vegetables are tasty. However, the retention of

  3. Growth-Enhanced Transgenic Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Strains Have Varied Success in Simulated Streams: Implications for Risk Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH transgenic fish have accelerated growth and could improve production efficiency in aquaculture. However, concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish should they escape rearing facilities. While environmental effects have been examined in some GH transgenic models, there is a lack of information on whether effects differ among different constructs or strains of transgenic fish. We compared growth and survival of wild-type coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch fry, a fast-growing GH transgenic strain containing a metallothionein promoter (TMT, and three lines/strains containing a reportedly weaker histone-3 promoter (TH3 in hatchery conditions and semi-natural stream tanks with varying levels of natural food and predators. Rank order of genotype size and survival differed with varying environmental conditions, both within and among experiments. Despite accelerated growth in hatchery conditions, TMT fry gained little or no growth enhancement in stream conditions, had enhanced survival when food was limiting, and inconsistent survival under other conditions. Rank growth was inconsistent in TH3 strains, with one strain having highest, and two strains having the lowest growth in stream conditions, although all TH3 strains had consistently poor survival. These studies demonstrate the importance of determining risk estimates for each unique transgenic model independent of other models.

  4. Impact of pre-drying and frying time on physical properties and sensorial acceptability of fried potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Giorman; Cruz-Tirado, J P; Delgado, Kevin; Guzman, Yorvin; Castro, Franco; Rojas, Meliza Lindsay; Linares, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    In this work the effects of pre-drying and frying time on colour, oil, texture and sensorial acceptability (overall liking) of potato chips were evaluated. Potato chips were pre-dried for 0, 10, 20 and 30 min at 60 °C and fried in soybean oil at 190 °C for 60, 70 and 80 s. The colour parameters (L*, a* and b*) increased or decreased depending on the pre-drying and frying time. Hardness increased as the pre-drying and frying time increased. On the other hand, the water initially removed by pre-drying decrease the gradient of mass transfer (water-oil). The oil content reduced to (about 21%) in pre-dried samples when compared to control sample. Finally, sensorial evaluation showed that samples without pre-drying and/or fried for very short or very long times had low acceptance levels. The pre-drying and frying times influenced the colour, texture, water and oil content, and resulted into fried potato chips with better acceptance scores.

  5. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Bulb Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Maity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%. The lightness in terms of hunter L* value decreased significantly (P<0.05 during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C.

  6. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Bulb Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Tanushree; Bawa, A S; Raju, P S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF) chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%). The lightness in terms of hunter L (*) value decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C.

  7. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN FRY COUNTER DENGAN PENDEKATAN MODEL AIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Oktoriyana; Ujang Sumarwan; Hartoyo Hartoyo

    2014-01-01

    This research examined factors which are mentioned in various literatures that have influence on AIDA models to buy fry counter which are attention, interest, and desire. The model also influenced by perceived attributes, personal characteristics, and external factors. Furthermore, the analysis result become a basic for formulating the marketing strategy of fry counter as an innovative product. Analysis was carried out using Structural Equation Modeling. The data for this study were collected...

  8. Vertical transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): Isolation of virus from dead eggs and fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The control of epizootics of infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus in salmonid fishes is presently based on examination and certification of adult brood fish to prevent the introduction of virus-infected eggs into hatcheries (Canadian Fisheries and Marine Service 1976; McDaniel 1979). This strategy is based on the assumption that the virus is vertically transmitted in association with the gametes. However, evidence for vertical transmission of IHN virus is circumstantial, based mostly on the appearance of the disease outside the enzootic area (the west coast of North America) in fish hatched from eggs obtained from within that area (Plumb 1972; Holway & Smith 1973; Wolf, Quimby, Pettijohn & Landolt 1973; Sano, Nishimura, Okamoto, Yamazaki, Hanada & Watanabe1977; Carlisle, Schat & Elston 1979). An indirect demonstration of vertical transmission was made by placing known virus-free fish in the water above and below raceways containing fish that suffered an IHN epizootic in an effort to eliminate waterborne virus as a source of infection (Wingfield & Chan 1970). The fish placed below the raceway developed IHN, due to waterborne virus released from the affected fish in the raceway, but the fish placed above the raceway failed to develop IHN. These results suggested that the source of infection of the fish in the raceway was not the water supply, although it is possible that the virus was no longer present in the water supply at the time the sentinel fish were exposed to the water.

  9. Immunomodulation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry by bath exposure to a β-glucan from Euglena gracilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Early developmental stages of fish mostly depend on innate immune factors for their protection. Augmenting these factors by application of different immunostimulatory substances may be beneficial for rearing and survival of the early life stages of fish. Bath administration of stimulants leads to...

  10. Active Cooling of Oil after Deep-frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Yasaki, Naoko; Doi, Rena; Hasegawa, Etsuko

    2017-10-01

    Oil used for deep-frying is often left to stand after cooking. A major concern is oxidation during standing that might be avoidable, especially in the case of oil used repeatedly for commercial deep-frying as this involves large volumes that are difficult to cool in a conventional fryer. This paper describes a method to minimize oil oxidation. French fries were deep-fried and the oil temperature decreased in a manner typical for a commercial deep-fryer. The concentration of polar compounds generated from thermally oxidized oil remarkably increased at temperature higher than 100°C but little oxidation occurred below 60°C. Heating the oil showed that the peroxide and polar compound content did not increase when the oil was actively cooled using a running water-cooled Graham-type condenser system to cool the oil from 180°C to room temperature within 30 min. When French fries were fried and the oil was then immediately cooled using the condenser, the polar compound content during cooling did not increase. Our results demonstrate that active cooling of heated oil is simple and quite effective for inhibiting oxidation.

  11. Nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil can be used as a deep fat frying medium to reduce trans-fatty acid content in french fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Darla R; Thompson, Leslie D; Shriver, Brent J; Wu, Chih-Kang; Hoover, Linda C

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile, in particular trans-fatty acids, of french fries fried in nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil as compared with french fries fried in partially hydrogenated canola oil and french fries fried in partially hydrogenated soybean oil. Cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated canola oil, and partially hydrogenated soybean oil were subjected to a temperature of 177 degrees C for 8 hours per day, and six batches of french fries were fried per day for 5 consecutive days. French fries were weighed before frying, cooked for 5 minutes, allowed to drain, and reweighed. Oil was not replenished and was filtered once per day. Both the oil and the french fries were evaluated to determine fatty acid profiles, trans-fatty acids, and crude fat. A randomized block design with split plot was used to analyze the data collected. Least-squares difference was used as the means separation test. No significant differences were found between fries prepared in the three oil types for crude fat. Fatty acid profiles for the french fries remained stable. The french fries prepared in cottonseed oil were significantly lower in trans-fatty acids. The combined total of the trans-fatty acid content and saturated fatty acid content were lower in french fries prepared in cottonseed oil. Because deep fat frying remains a popular cooking technique, health professionals should educate the public and the food service industry on the benefits of using nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil as an alternative to the commonly used hydrogenated oils.

  12. Fat deterioration in deep fat frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, L.; Robert, P.; Izaurieta, M.; Romero, N.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work was to know the deterioration of fats employed in deep frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector in Santiago (Chile), before the recent Chilean legislation became official. 96 % of the samples corresponded to polyunsaturated vegetable oils, 76 % had more than 2 % linolenic acid and 23 % of total samples contained more than 25 % of polar compounds. To predict the percentage of polar compounds, equations were developed: for soybean oil and m...

  13. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss culture water recirculating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tube pieces and a natural degassing system; the sedimentation unit effluent was pumped up to a reservoir tank using a 2 HP centrifugal pump after being subject to gravity through the biofilter and to be then distributed to the 12 culture units to which a constant amount of air from a blower was injected. Results. The water treatment system removed 31% of total suspended solids, 9.5% of total ammonia nitrogen, and increased dissolved oxygen to the final effluent in 6.5%. An increase of 305% in biomass was calculated during 75 days, the mortality percentage registered throughout the study period was 4.9%. Conclusions. The water treatment system maintained the physicochemical water quality parameters within the values recommended for the species. The increase in weight and size, food conversion, mortality and biomass production reported normal values for rainbow trout fish culture in recirculating systems.

  14. Bio-Detergent oil derivative used frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Jesús Torres Ortega

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the global trend towards sustainable development for environmental friendly products such as biosurfactants shows an excellent performance. Anionic surface active agents can be produced from renewable natural raw materials such as vegetable oils mainly derived from palm oil. Methyl ester sulfonate is an active component of highly biodegradable detergents, one advantage compared with detergents derived from petrochemicals which generate a high pollutant load. This paper proposes the study of sulfonation with sulfur trioxide of esters derived from waste cooking oil which main component is palm oil. The falling film reactor allows determining the conditions of the process at pilot scale. The experimentation allowed an enhancement of empirical equations in the equipment implemented for this purpose and to determine some physicochemical properties. The comparison obtained for this same process with petrochemicals compounds indicates that the model could be applied to any film sulfonation but adjusting the parameters and specific conditions, such as the physicochemical properties of the compounds used, since the sulfonation process described in this work is one of the more complicated cases. The technological development presented here seeks to contribute with the industrial needs to promote green chemical industry for the production of biosurfactant from waste frying oil.

  15. Effect of the type of frying culinary fat on volatile compounds isolated in fried pork loin chops by using SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, María Rosario; Estévez, Mario; Morcuende, David; Cava, Ramón

    2004-12-15

    The effect of the type of frying culinary fat (olive oil, sunflower oil, butter, and pig lard) on volatile compounds isolated from fried pork loin chops (m. Longissimus dorsi) was measured by SPME-GC-MS. Frying modified the fatty acid composition of lipids from pork loin chops, which tended to be similar to that of the culinary fat used to fry. Volatile compounds formed from the oxidation of fatty acids increased, such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and hydrocarbons. Besides, each culinary fat used modified the volatile profiles in fried meat differently. Sunflower oil-fried pork loin chops presented the highest aldehyde aliphatic content, probably due to their highest content of polyunsaturated acids. Hexanal, the most abundant aldehyde in fried samples, presented the most elevated content in sunflower oil-fried pork loin chops. In addition, these samples presented more heterocyclic compounds from the Maillard reaction than other fried samples. Volatiles detected in olive oil-fried pork loin chops were mainly lipid-derived compounds such as pentan-1-ol, hexanal, hept-2-enal, nonanal, decanal, benzaldehyde, and nonan-2-one. Butter-fried pork loins were abundant in ketones with a high number of carbons (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one, undecan-2-one, tridecanone, and heptadecan-2-one). Pig lard-fried pork loin chops presented some Strecker aldehydes isolated in only these samples, such as 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal, and a sulfur compound (dimethyl disulfide) related to Strecker aldehydes.

  16. The effect of Cu2+ on osmoregulation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) assayed by changes in plasma salinity and gill lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Rosenkilde, Per

    1993-01-01

    Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.......Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  17. Thiamine content of eggs and lengths of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to abundance of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in eastern Lake ontario, 2003 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, H.G.; Rinchard, J.; O'Gorman, R.; Begnoche, L.J.; Bishop, D.L.; Greulich, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Early mortality syndrome in fry of Great Lakes salmonines is linked to reduced levels of thiamine in eggs, which reflects maternal consumption of forage fishes such as alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) that contain thiaminase, an enzyme that destroys thiamine. We assessed annual variations in abundance and condition of alewives and thiamine status of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario. We analyzed total thiamine in eggs of 20 coho salmon collected annually between 2003 and 2006 at the Salmon River Hatchery on the Salmon River, New York. Alewife abundance was assessed annually in southern and eastern Lake Ontario with bottom trawls during late April and early May. Mean thiamine concentration in eggs varied annually, with those collected in 2003 (2.5 nmol/g) being significantly higher than those collected in 2004 to 2006 (1.5 to 1.7 nmol/g). Although we did not test survival of fry, if reported threshold levels of thiamine for preventing mortality of Lake Michigan coho salmon fry apply, then many or most Lake Ontario coho salmon produced fry were likely to incur thiamine-deficiency mortality, especially during years 2004 to 2006. Comparison to indices of annual abundance of alewife in Lake Ontario with thiamine concentration in coho salmon eggs failed to show any significant correlations (P > 0.05). However, total length of female spawning coho salmon was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with increasing condition and estimated energy content of adult alewives in the previous spring. These results suggest that growth of coho salmon in Lake Ontario was first limited by energy intake, whereas the amount of thiamine provided by alewives was sufficient for growth (in length) but not for producing thiamine-adequate eggs.

  18. Frying process in the relation fat/degenerative diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the various components of the diet, fat receives very dose attention because of its relationship to several chronic degenerative diseases (CDD. Currently most of the available information on these relationships is derived from epidemiologic or experimental studies in which lipid intake is calculated using food composition tables. In most of these tables the quoted lipid content is that of raw food, whereas most foods are usually consumed only after being subjected to several culinary processes. Often there is no indication of the type of fat used in food processing in general or in frying in particular. But as it known, in the course of these processes the lipid content undergoes important qualitative and quantitative changes and not keeping them in mind may be the underlying cause of the difficulties an the confounding results in studies trying to establish the relationship between lipid intake an health. In the Mediterranean diet, about 50% of total dietary fat is derived not from the food itself but from the cooking fat, of which only a small fraction is eaten raw (as dressings and the greatest proportion is used in thermal culinary processes, mainly deep-frying. The scientific study of the process whereby fat penetrates into fried foods has shown the benefits of this cooking method. If the process is correctly carried out, the amount of fat ingested with fried foodstuffs is not greater than when other procedures involving fat are used (for example, sautening, stewing or canning in oil. Very schematically deep-frying is a technique that replaces a fraction of the water content of food by cooking fat. Consecuently, the fat composition of the fried lean foods will be the same as that cooking fat. The process is more complex with fatty foods, and there are not great changes in the total quantity of fat in the fried food before and after frying. However, there are notable quality changes and these depend on the concentration gradients

  19. Effect of Type of Food on the Trans Fatty Acids Formation and Characteristic of Oil during Frying Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, N.M.M.; Esmail, A.E.; Shams El Din, N.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physical and chemical changes which take place in blended oil (sunflower oil: soy bean oil 75: 25 w/w), therefore frying different types of food, such as fresh foods (potatoes, falafel, fish, meat and chicken) and semi-fried Foods (chicken bites koki (nuggets), shish pan koki and farm frites potato) during frying process for 20, 40 and 60 minutes at (180±5 degree C), also studying the effect of different types of food on the oil uptake and formation of trans fatty acids in oils during frying process. The obtained results as follows: the color (red unit), viscosity, acidity and peroxide value of investigated oils were increased during frying all foods (fresh and semi-fried foods), but the increase was more pronounced in case of frying semi-fried foods, while the refractive index of frying oil of semi-fried foods was decreased compared with control oil and frying oils of fresh food. The results indicated that a considerable range of oil uptake quantities during frying as a result of variation type of foods, among all food, finger potato extensive absorption of the frying oil during frying process compared with the other fresh foods, as a results the semi-fried foods will contain a higher percent of oil included the oil of its formation, that during its frying, it was absorbed a few amount of oil. These results indicated that, the percentage of formation trans fatty acid (eliadic acid) in frying oils after 20 and 60 minutes during frying semi-fried foods was more that than frying fresh foods. Also, the results observed that, the percentage of eliadic acid in frying oil of fresh potato was lower than the other frying oils of fresh food, additionally the quality of frying oil of fresh potato finger was the best compared to frying oil of the other food material

  20. Fries rearrangement of naphthyl benzoates; Ansoku kosan naphthyl no fries ten`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, J.; Haraguchi, Y.; Iwaki, T.; Yamana, Sasaki, H. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-10

    When 1-naphthyl benzoate (1{alpha}) was boiled with anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl3) in chlorobenzene, 2-benzoyl-l-naphthol(2) and 4-benzoyl-l-naphthol(3) were obtained as the rearrangement products. A product 1-benzoyl-2-naphthol (4) was given from 2-naphthyl benzoate (1{beta}) under the same reaction conditions. It seems that 2 and 3 are formed via intramolecular pathway from 1{alpha}. Other ester 1{beta} may proceed via both inter- and intramolecular pathways to give 4. Retro-Fries rearrangement of 2 and 3 to 1{alpha} took place in the presence of AlCl3 in boiling chlorobenzene. The compound 4 `however` was almost recovered the reaction of 4 with AlCl3 in chlorobenzene at refluxed temperature. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2004-01-01

    and 40 min; 90degreesC for 2 and 9 min); (iii) immersed in citric acid solutions of different concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) for half an hour. Glucose and asparagine concentration was determined in potato slices before frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the resultant fried potato chips...... on average 76% and 68% of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50degreesC for 70 min surprisingly had a very low acrylamide content (28 mum/kg) even when they were fried at 190degreesC. Potato immersion in citric acid solutions of 10 and 20 g/l reduced...

  2. Fried-Yennie gauge in dimensionally regularized QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Fried-Yennie gauge in QED is a covariant gauge with agreeable infrared properties. That is, the mass-shell renormalization scheme can be implemented without introducing artificial infrared divergences, and terms having spuriously low orders in α disappear in certain bound-state calculations. The photon propagator in the Fried-Yennie gauge has the form D β μν (k)=(-1/k 2 )[g μν +βk μ kν/k 2 ], where β is the gauge parameter. In this work, I show that the Fried-Yennie gauge parameter is β=2/(1-2ε) when dimensional regularization (with n=4-2ε dimensions of spacetime) is used to regulate the theory

  3. President Meri näitas USA-le vabaduse ilu / Daniel Fried ; interv. Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fried, Daniel, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    USA abivälisminister Daniel Fried USA välispoliitika ühest eesmärgist - demokraatia levitamisest maailmas, demokraatia olukorrast Venemaal ning USA ja Venemaa vahelistest suhetest. Lisa: Daniel Fried

  4. In situ biomonitoring of juvenile Chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) using biomarkers of chemical exposures and effects in a partially remediated urbanized waterway of the Puget Sound, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Eva [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way Northeast, Suite 100, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States); Kelley, Matthew; Zhou, Guo-Dong; He, Ling Yu; McDonald, Thomas; Wang, Shirley [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A and M Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843-1266 (United States); Duncan, Bruce [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Meador, James [Ecotoxicology Division, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Donnelly, Kirby [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A and M Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843-1266 (United States); Gallagher, Evan, E-mail: evang3@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way Northeast, Suite 100, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    In situ biomonitoring has been used to assess the effects of pollution on aquatic species in heavily polluted waterways. In the current study, we used in situ biomonitoring in conjunction with molecular biomarker analysis to determine the effects of pollutant exposure in salmon caged in the Duwamish waterway, a Pacific Northwest Superfund site that has been subject to remediation. The Duwamish waterway is an important migratory route for Pacific salmon and has received historic inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Juvenile pre-smolt Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caged for 8 days in the three contaminated sites in close proximity within the Duwamish were analyzed for steady state hepatic mRNA expression of 7 exposure biomarker genes encompassing several gene families and known to be responsive to pollutants, including cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2K1, glutathione S-transferase {pi} class (GST-{pi}), microsomal GST (mGST), glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), UDP-glucuronyltransferase family 1 (UDPGT), and type 2 deiodinase (type 2 DI, or D2). Quantitation of gene expression was accomplished by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in assays developed specifically for Chinook salmon genes. Gill PAH-DNA adducts were assessed as a chemical effects biomarker using {sup 32}P-postlabeling. The biomarkers in the field-caged fish were analyzed with respect to caged animals maintained at the hatchery receiving flow-through water. Chemical analysis of sediment samples from three field sampling sites revealed relatively high concentrations of total PAHs in one site (site B2, 6711 ng/g dry weight) and somewhat lower concentrations of PAHs in two adjacent sites (sites B3 and B4, 1482 and 1987 ng/g, respectively). In contrast, waterborne PAHs at all of the sampling sites were relatively low (<1 ng/L). Sediment PCBs at the sites ranged from a low of 421 ng/g at site B3

  5. Daniel Fried peab Euroopa vastust Gruusia sõjale tugevaks / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Eestit külastanud USA asevälisminister Daniel Fried leidis, et Euroopa reaktsioon Gruusias toimunule oli tugev ja efektiivne. Daniel Fried kohtus president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese, peaminister Andrus Ansipi ja välisminister Urmas Paetiga. Vt. samas: Daniel Fried: CV

  6. Effects of pan frying with different oils on some of the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids have been determined in raw and fried rainbow trout. Olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, margarine and butter were used in the frying process. Moisture content was decreased and protein, fat, ash and cholesterol contents were increased after frying. Differences ...

  7. Molecular testing of adult Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) for several RNA viruses demonstrates widespread distribution of piscine orthoreovirus in Alaska and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen; Thompson, Rachel L.; Evered, Joy; Kerwin, John; Meyers, Ted R.; Stewart, Bruce; Winton, James

    2018-01-01

    This research was initiated in conjunction with a systematic, multiagency surveillance effort in the United States (U.S.) in response to reported findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) RNA in British Columbia, Canada. In the systematic surveillance study reported in a companion paper, tissues from various salmonids taken from Washington and Alaska were surveyed for ISAV RNA using the U.S.-approved diagnostic method, and samples were released for use in this present study only after testing negative. Here, we tested a subset of these samples for ISAV RNA with three additional published molecular assays, as well as for RNA from salmonid alphavirus (SAV), piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV) and piscine orthoreovirus (PRV). All samples (n = 2,252; 121 stock cohorts) tested negative for RNA from ISAV, PMCV, and SAV. In contrast, there were 25 stock cohorts from Washington and Alaska that had one or more individuals test positive for PRV RNA; prevalence within stocks varied and ranged from 2% to 73%. The overall prevalence of PRV RNA-positive individuals across the study was 3.4% (77 of 2,252 fish tested). Findings of PRV RNA were most common in coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) and Chinook (O. tshawytscha Walbaum) salmon.

  8. Balti riikide vabadus ei ohusta Venemaad / Daniel Fried

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fried, Daniel, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: The Baltic Times, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 15. Ameerika Ühendriikide asevälisminister Euroopa ja Euraasia asjus Daniel Fried Balti riikide tunnustamisest, vabadusest ja suveräänsusest. Venemaa huvides on olla ümbritsetud rahulikest ja jõukatest demokraatiatest, ähvardustele ja sanktsioonidele ei tohi jätta ruumi

  9. Comparison of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils in continuous frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantzaris, T. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Some work carried out by the Turbitak Marmara Research Centre and the Yildiz Technical University in Istanbul, in collaboration with the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, involved large scale laboratory frying trials of two monounsaturated oils (olive oil and palm olein and two polyunsaturated oils (sunflower and soyabean on potato chips (French fries. The oils were tested in parallel in separate 6-litre fryers on five consecutive days of eight hours and 14 batches of 150g potatoes each. At the end of each day the fryers were cleared of any sediment and topped up with fresh oil (about 250g. The performance of the oils was assessed by 11 physical and chemical tests viz. colour, smoke-point, foam height, free fatty acid content, fatty acid composition, iodine value, peroxide value, anisidine value, totox, polymer content and polar compounds. The monounsaturated oils scored higher in most tests and were clearly superior but in some tests such as colour and FFA the polyunsaturated oils scored higher. Single, simple tests as practised in many commercial establishments can be misleading and multiple tests need careful interpretation. The shelf-life of the chips was not assessed as this food is normally eaten within a short time of preparation. But the tests indicate that fried products intended for longer storage and wide distribution, will have a better shelf-life if fried in monounsaturated oils.

  10. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  11. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    values for the three temperatures tested). Acrylamide formation decreased dramatically as the frying temperature decreased from 190 to 150 degrees C for all the pre-treatments tested. Color represented by the parameters L* and a* showed high correlations (r(2) of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively) with French...

  12. Comparison of physical workload in four Gari -frying working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All physical labour requires physical exertion which indicates the level of physical workload involved. This paper examines the energy expenditure in four working postures of gari-frying (garification) workers in southwestern Nigeria. The postures include sitting-beside (SB), sitting-in-front (SF), ...

  13. Acrylamide reduction under different pre-treatments in French fries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2007-01-01

    of similar to 40 g water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato strips were treated in one of the following ways: (i) immersed in distilled water for 0 min (control), 60 min and 120 min; (ii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iii) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution...... strips before frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed a reduction of acrylamide formation of 33%, 21% and 27% at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C, respectively, when they were compared against the control. Potato strips blanched at 50 degrees C for 80 min had the lowest acrylamide content when...... compared against strips blanched at different conditions and fried at the same temperature (135, 327 and 564 mu m acrylamide/kg for 150, 170 and 190 degrees C, respectively). Potato strip immersion in citric acid solution of 10 g/L reduced much more the acrylamide formation after frying than the strip...

  14. Assessment of total polar materials in Frying fats from Czech restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mlcek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-frying is commonly used as convenient technique for the preparation of foods. The frying oils and fats are absorbed by fried food and become a part of diet. The content of total polar materials was determined in frying oils and fats in 46 restaurants from South Moravia and the Olomouc regions. Twenty-eight samples were found with total polar materials with limit of rejection over 24%. The highest total polar materials values were observed in cooking fat; the lowest one was in vegetable shortening oil. This conclusion corresponds with frying temperatures, which were highest in cooking fat.

  15. The formation of potentially harmful compounds in churros, a Spanish fried-dough pastry, as influenced by deep frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, F J; Arribas-Lorenzo, G

    2008-07-15

    Colour, moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acrylamide (AA) were investigated in traditional Spanish churros. Samples were deep-fried in sunflower oil at lab-scale temperatures of 180, 190 and 200°C and for frying times of 2, 3, 5 and 7min. Fresh made churros were also obtained from local producers. HMF ranged from 1.2±0.02 to 221.4±2.02mg/kg for lab-scale experiments and an average of 74.3±47.5mg/kg was recorded in commercial samples. AA ranged from below the limit of quantitation to 90±0.6μg/kg for lab-scale experiments and an average of 46±24.5μg/kg was measured in commercial samples. Temperatures between 185 and 200°C are commonly used to obtain churros with an acceptable palatability and a crispy surface. However, HMF and AA levels increased nearly two-fold from 190 to 200°C at the same frying times, indicating that a more precise control of frying temperatures is required to minimize their formation. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microencapsulation of a putative probiotic Enterobacter species, C6-6, to protect rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against bacterial coldwater disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, B; Cain, K D; Nowak, B F; Bridle, A R

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), which has a major impact on salmonid aquaculture globally. An Enterobacter species, C6-6, isolated from the gut of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), has been identified as a potential probiotic species providing protection against BCWD. This study examined the effects of alginate microencapsulation on the protective efficacy of C6-6 against BCWD in vivo when administered to rainbow trout fry orally or by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Viable C6-6 bacteria were microencapsulated successfully, and this process (microencapsulation) did not significantly deteriorate its protective properties as compared to the administration of non-microencapsulated C6-6 bacteria. Both oral and IP delivery of C6-6 achieved significantly better protection than control treatments that did not contain C6-6 bacteria. The highest relative percent survival (RPS) resulted from IP delivery (71.4%) and was significantly greater than the highest oral RPS (38.6%). Successful intestinal colonization was not critical to protective effects of C6-6. The study showed that C6-6 administration, with or without encapsulation, was a viable choice for protecting fry from BCWD especially when administered intraperitoneally. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Feasibility of Continuous Frying System to Improve the Quality Indices of Palm Olein for the Production of Extruded Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam; Ahmad, Karimah

    2015-01-01

    Comparative frying studies on the processing of extruded product were conducted under intermittent and continuous frying conditions using two separate frying systems, i.e batch and pilot scale continuous fryers, respectively. Thermal resistance of palm olein were assessed for a total of 5 days of frying operation at 155°C - the unconventional frying temperature gave the product moisture content of 3% after intermittent and continuous frying for 2.5 min and 2 min, respectively. The formation of free fatty acid in palm olein in the case of intermittent frying was more than 2-fold higher compared to its counterpart (0.66%). Smoke point inversely evolved with oil acidity: the value dropped progressively from 215 to 177°C and from 219 to 188°C when extruded product was intermittently and continuously fried, respectively. In the light of induction period, repeated frying exhibited a gradual decrease in the value after 5 days of frying (12.2 h). Interestingly, continuous frying gave somewhat similar induction period, as demonstrated by fresh palm olein, across frying time. Frying at lower temperature, to some extent, provides opportunity for palm olein to retain 74% of its initial vitamin E during continuous frying. This benefit, however, is somehow denied when extruded product was processed under intermittent frying conditions--only 27% of vitamin E was remained at the end of frying session. Regardless of frying protocols, transient in polar compounds was minimal and hence comparable. The colour in the case of continuous frying appeared to be darker due to higher degree of oil utilisation for frying. The data obtained will provide useful information for food processors on how palm olein behaves when frying is undertaken under different frying protocols.

  18. Frying performance of two virgin oils from Cornicabra olives with different ripeness indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivero-David, R.; Mena, C.; Sánchez-Muniz, F.J.; Pérez-Jiménez, M.A.; Holgado, F.; Bastida, S.; Velasco, J.

    2017-01-01

    The frying performance of two virgin olive oils (VOO) from Cornicabra olives of different ripeness indices, 2.08 for VOO1 and 4.13 for VOO2, was evaluated. Thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic alterations were determined throughout 40 frying operations with potatoes. The initial oils showed similar fatty acid compositions and oxidative stability indices as determined by Rancimat, but VOO1 presented higher amounts of total polyphenols and tocopherols. The oils showed high and similar frying performance. No significant differences in the levels of polar compounds (PC) were found between the two oils during frying. Therefore, the frying stability of Cornicabra VOOs appears to be unconnected with olive fruit ripeness. The limit of degradation at 25% PC as established in different countries was calculated to occur at 55 frying operations in the two oils. As oil toxicity is related to the levels of compounds formed, the use of Cornicabra VOOs for frying is highly recommended. [es

  19. Formation of trans fatty acids during the frying of chicken fillet in corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meiyan; Yang, Ying; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong; Chen, Feng; Luo, Pengju George

    2014-05-01

    To assess effects of heated edible oils on intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs); the formation of TFAs in cooking conditions was investigated by a frying system model, in which chicken fillet was fried in a commercial corn oil at 170 °C, for 12 frying cycles. The main TFAs detected in chicken fillet were trans C18:2 fatty acids (FAs) and trans C18:3 FAs, which exhibited no significant differences among the frying cycles. Besides, the content of trans C18:1 FAs were very low in all samples on different frying cycles. The intake of TFAs was estimated to be 0.06 g/100 g when chicken fillet fried in this process was consumed. These results suggest that an ordinary frying process upon a commercial corn oil has little impact on the daily TFAs intake.

  20. Obituary: Robert E. Fried, 1930-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannery, Edward J.; Szkody, Paula

    2004-12-01

    Professionals and friends knew him as Captain Bob; he was the captain of his airplane, Birdie, and of his observatory, Braeside. He was a man of many talents, and he incorporated those talents into his two main passions in life: flying planes and doing astronomical research. Bob was born on December 14, 1930 in St. Paul, Minnesota to parents Dr. Louis and Emily Fried. His interest in astronomy began after he moved to Atlanta in the late 1950's as a pilot for Delta Airlines. It was there he joined the Atlanta Astronomy Club in 1960 and went on to become its President and also the President of the Astronomical League. Wanting a larger and better telescope than the usual department store variety, he took the advice of Patrick Moore, who suggested he build one himself. So he did. He obtained a military blank for a 16-inch Cassegrain and ground and polished the optics while the heavy parts were machined in the Delta Airlines shops after hours. His observatory protruded from the roof of his home and featured a modified silo dome, while the observer's controls were reminiscent of an airplane cockpit. When it became obvious that the Atlanta climate offered little support for serious Astronomy, Bob moved his family and observatory to a higher, clearer site in the Rockies. There he built a new dome on Flagstaff Mountain near Boulder. Subsequent to meeting and conspiring with fellow enthusiast Edward Mannery, who became his lifelong collaborator, Bob upgraded his system for digital photometry and began to obtain magnitudes to a few percent accuracy. After grumbling about the windy and cloudy weather of the Rockies, Bob tried a site near Lowell Observatory and then finally settled on the best home for Braeside in 1976, a short walk through the pines from the US Naval Observatory. He ultimately created a building he dubbed "The Monastery" after Mt. Wilson, that housed a bedroom, darkroom, electronics shop, machine shop, library and telescope control console and upgraded his

  1. Influence of the frying process on the real fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available As shown in the former presentation, one fact about repeated frying is that there comes a moment, when the oil used is no longer suitable for frying, that is discarded. The amount may be quite large depending, among other factors, on the composition of the oil itself and on that of the foodstuffs fried. This can be of practical significance for the total lipid intake, since the unsuitable oil is no longer ingested. It is difficult to know the amount of oil discarded for this reason and there is no scientific information in the literature on this subject. In this paper we try to know the quantitative and qualitative importance of the oil proceeding of repeated frying (RF which normally is discarded in relation to the total fat intake (Fl in Madrid, as well at domestic level (96 families as in catering (hospitals, restaurants and schools. For this purpose discarded oils proceeding of the frying of food were collected in the usual quantity, variety and conditions (only olive and sunflower oils were used, both in the households and in the institutions. In the oils, raw and discarded, we also determined their composition in fatty acids. Our results show that at domestic level, although the dispersion is big, the average values of the discarded oil are the 19.3 ± 18.4% of the inventoried oil. However, in the institutional frying, in which, of course, industrial fryer are utilised, the proportion of discarded oil was much bigger, some time doubling the quantity discarded at domestic level. Curiously, the discarded oils proceeding either from the households or from catering do not show significative differences regarding their composition in fatty acids with respect to raw oil. The reason is that the oils are discarded due to subjective reasons, although they probably might be utilised again. At this moment, we are trying to confirm this last statement. In conclusion, if you do not take into consideration this percentage of losses, when utilising the

  2. Mutagenicity of pan residues and gravy from fried meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvik, E; Nilsson, L; Fredholm, L; Levin, O; Nord, C E; Gustafsson, J A

    1987-02-01

    Lean pork meat was fried with or without the addition of frying-fat at 200 or 250 degrees C. The pan residues were collected by washing the hot pan with boiling water. When producing thickened gravy the water was substituted by a mixture of water and flour, milk and flour or cream and flour. The basic extracts were tested for mutagenicity in Ames' Salmonella test on strain TA98 with the addition of S9 mix. High amounts of mutagenicity were found in all samples. The amounts of mutagenicity in the pan residues were at a comparable level of the amounts found in the meat crusts. Thickening of the gravy caused only small changes in the mutagenicity.

  3. Production of bio diesel from chicken frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, E.T.; Fadhil, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different bio diesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better bio diesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v). The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.

  4. Survival of resistant starch during the processing of atmospheric and vacuum fried instant noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela VERNAZA

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective was to develop instant noodles (IN made by atmospheric and vacuum frying processes, with addition of 10% of three different sources of resistant starch: resistant starch type 2 (RS2, resistant starch type 3 (RS3 and green banana flour (GBF aiming the increasing of the fibre content. The IN obtained by atmospheric frying lost water faster and absorbed more fat. However, for both frying treatments, the RS3 noodles absorbed the least amount of oil. The greatest loss of RS occurred during the cooking stage. RS2 and GBF noodles presented a loss of RS of around 30% during steam cooking, while the RS3 approximately 18%. The frying process decreased RS content of noodles, however, during both frying process, the samples with the highest RS content at all frying times were noodles containing RS3. When comparing products obtained after 90 and 120 s of atmospheric and vacuum frying, respectively, it was observed that, although the frying time in vacuum process was longer, higher RS values were obtained for the three different formulations. The vacuum frying process has advantages due to the lower fat absorption (3% less, lighter colour and a reduced conversion of RS to digestible starch, compared to atmospheric frying.

  5. Fried Food Consumption and Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka V. Gadiraju

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fried food consumption and its effects on cardiovascular disease are still subjects of debate. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence on the association between fried food consumption and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and obesity and to recommend directions for future research. We used PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline searches to retrieve pertinent publications. Most available data were based on questionnaires as a tool to capture fried food intakes, and study design was limited to case-control and cohort studies. While few studies have reported a positive association between frequencies of fried food intake and risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes or hypertension, other investigators have failed to confirm such an association. There is strong evidence suggesting a higher risk of developing chronic disease when fried foods are consumed more frequently (i.e., four or more times per week. Major gaps in the current literature include a lack of detailed information on the type of oils used for frying foods, stratification of the different types of fried food, frying procedure (deep and pan frying, temperature and duration of frying, how often oils were reused and a lack of consideration of overall dietary patterns. Besides addressing these gaps, future research should also develop tools to better define fried food consumption at home versus away from home and to assess their effects on chronic diseases. In summary, the current review provides enough evidence to suggest adverse health effects with higher frequency of fried food consumption. While awaiting confirmation from future studies, it may be advisable to the public to consume fried foods in moderation while emphasizing an overall healthy diet.

  6. Comparative study of frying to other cooking techniques influence on the nutritive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bognár, A.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Frying is one of the oldest methods of food preparation. It improves the sensory quality of food by formation of aroma compounds, attractive colour, crust and texture. Undesirable changes involved are loss of nutritive quality e.g. due to degradation of heat - susceptible vitamins. The influence of common frying methods (frying in an oven, in a pan deep frying on cooking time and nutritive value of vegetables, potatoes, meat, poultry and fish is described and compared to other cooking methods (boiling, steaming, stewing. Frying of vegetables, potatoes and breaded meat, poultry and fish, no matter whether in a pan or by deep - frying, is associated with fat uptake (2 - 14 g per 100 g of raw food while non - breaded high fat food of animal origin loses fat during frying (2 - 30%. Data suggest that the fat quantity absorbed during frying increases up to a saturation limit which depends on the kind of food and on the amount of panade. Deep - fried meat, poultry and fish usually absorb less fat than meat, poultry and fish fried in a pan. The kind of fat had no essential influence on fat uptake. After frying of vegetable food and of breaded meat, poultry and fish, the content of protein, carbohydrates and minerals was nearly fully retained while boiling and steaming reduced the mineral content by 25-50%. In the majority of cases frying including deep frying also retained the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C better than boiling, steaming and stewing.

  7. The malleable gut microbiome of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Diet-dependent shifts of bacterial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, Stéphanie Céline; Ratten, Jenni-Marie; Beyer, Matt; Hasler, Mario; LaRoche, Julie; Schulz, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Plant-derived protein sources are the most relevant substitutes for fishmeal in aquafeeds. Nevertheless, the effects of plant based diets on the intestinal microbiome especially of juvenile Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are yet to be fully investigated. The present study demonstrates, based on 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling, that the intestinal microbiome of juvenile Rainbow trout is strongly affected by dietary plant protein inclusion levels. After first feeding of juveniles with either 0%, 50% or 97% of total dietary protein content derived from plants, statistically significant differences of the bacterial gut community for the three diet-types were detected, both at phylum and order level. The microbiome of juvenile fish consisted mainly of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria, and thus fits the salmonid core microbiome suggested in previous studies. Dietary plant proteins significantly enhanced the relative abundance of the orders Lactobacillales, Bacillales and Pseudomonadales. Animal proteins in contrast significantly promoted Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, Vibrionales, Fusobacteriales and Alteromonadales. The overall alpha diversity significantly decreased with increasing plant protein inclusion levels and with age of experimental animals. In order to investigate permanent effects of the first feeding diet-type on the early development of the microbiome, a diet change was included in the study after 54 days, but no such effects could be detected. Instead, the microbiome of juvenile trout fry was highly dependent on the actual diet fed at the time of sampling.

  8. Fri os fra dårlig ledelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac, Anita

    på arbejdspladserne. Fri os fra dårlig ledelse går i dybden med sammenhængen mellem stress, manglende trivsel og dårlig ledelse set ud fra et medarbejderperspektiv. Bogen giver svar på, hvad dårlig ledelse er, og hvordan fænomenet påvirker den enkelte medarbejder såvel som det generelle miljø på...

  9. Fried frailty phenotype assessment components as applied to geriatric inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Bieniek, Joanna; Wilczy?ski, Krzysztof; Szewieczek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Joanna Bieniek, Krzysztof Wilczynski, Jan Szewieczek Department of Geriatrics, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Background: Management of geriatric patients would be simplified if a universally accepted definition of frailty for clinical use was defined. Among definitions of frailty, Fried frailty phenotype criteria constitute a common reference frame for many geriatric studies. However, this reference frame has been tested primarily in ...

  10. Performance of Different Natural Antioxidant Compounds in Frying Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Aydenız

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the natural green tea extract, purified lycopene, purified resveratrol and purified γ-oryzanol were added into peanut oil and their antioxidant performances were evaluated during frying. Moreover, the sensory properties of fried dough were evaluated to determine the consumption feasibility. All natural antioxidants led to significant increase in the stability of the oil samples. The ranges of measurements in the treatment groups were as follows: free acidity 0.1–2.9 g of oleic acid per 100 g of oil, conjugated dienes 0.01–0.40 g per 100 g of oil, total polar material 8.8–73.8 g per 100 g of oil, total phenolics 0.1–4.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of oil, and antioxidant capacity 0.5–11.0 mM of Trolox equivalents per 100 g of oil. The fatty acid and sterol compositions indicated that antioxidant supplementation could slow the oxidative degradation of unsaturated fatty acids and reduce trans-acid formation. Frying oil enriched with purified γ-oryzanol had higher sterol levels than the other enriched oil samples. The obtained quality of oil protection was in descending order: purified γ-oryzanol, green tea extract and purified lycopene.

  11. Campylobacter in chicken livers and their destruction by pan frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, R; Hudson, J A; Graham, C

    2006-12-01

    To enumerate Campylobacter spp. on the external surface and internal portions of chicken livers, and to assess the cooking required to inactivate naturally present cells. Of 30 livers tested all yielded Campylobacter spp. on their surfaces and 90% were found to contain the organism in internal tissue. Four (13%) livers contained >10(4) MPN campylobacters, and an additional seven (23%) contained >10(3) MPN campylobacters per liver. The internal temperature of pan-fried livers under the conditions used reached a maximum of 70-80 degrees C, and maintaining this temperature for 2-3 min was necessary to inactivate naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. All isolates identified were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Chicken livers represent a potential source of human campylobacteriosis as they contained >10(4) MPN per liver in 13% of the samples tested. Pan-frying can produce an acceptable product that is safe to eat. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THIS STUDY: The data provided can be used in exposure assessments of Campylobacter in poultry products in terms of both quantitative data and assessing pan-frying and its ability to destroy campylobacters.

  12. Oxidative stability of biodiesel blends derived from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feroldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of biodiesel production is mainly linked to the price of raw material.This factor has favored the use of alternative fats and oils such as those used in frying. Since biodiesel can be obtained from several vegetable and animal raw materials, the physicochemical characteristics of the fuel may vary considerably. One of these characteristics is the fatty acid composition. It directly affects the oxidative stability of biodiesel, which can be impaired when the fuel undergoes exposure to sunlight, metals, oxygen and high temperatures. In order to improve the oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from waste frying oil some studies involving blends of different raw materials have been carried out. In this sense, this work aimed to assess the characteristics resulting from the blending of soybean waste frying oil with other waste biodiesels in what concerns to oxidation. The blends of fatty materials were obtained by means of a 2² factorial design. The induction periods of biodiesel blends were enough to meet the ASTM D6751 standard. Swine fat was responsible for the increase in the induction period values.

  13. Estrogenic response of bisphenol A in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Pedersen, Søren Nørby

    2000-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) previously shown to possess xenoestrogenic activities was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through a continuos flow system. The estrogenic response expressed as the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was measured during 12 days of exposure, using a direct...

  14. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by intra-arterial injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, and either urine or expired water. The data were then an...

  15. Greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias): A technical conservation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young

    2009-01-01

    Greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias) was once presumably distributed throughout the colder waters of the South Platte and Arkansas River basins in Colorado and southeastern Wyoming. Primarily a fluvial species, greenback cutthroat trout may have occupied 10,614 to 13,231 km of streams above 1,800 m in these basins. Nevertheless,...

  16. Diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms for identifying westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, S T; Novak, B J; Drinan, D P; Jennings, R deM; Vu, N V

    2011-03-01

    We describe 12 diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays for use in species identification among rainbow and cutthroat trout: five of these loci have alleles unique to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), three unique to westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarkii lewisi) and four unique to Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri). These diagnostic assays were identified using a total of 489 individuals from 26 populations and five fish hatchery strains. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Fried frailty phenotype assessment components as applied to geriatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieniek J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Bieniek, Krzysztof Wilczynski, Jan Szewieczek Department of Geriatrics, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Background: Management of geriatric patients would be simplified if a universally accepted definition of frailty for clinical use was defined. Among definitions of frailty, Fried frailty phenotype criteria constitute a common reference frame for many geriatric studies. However, this reference frame has been tested primarily in elderly patients presenting with relatively good health status. Objective: The aim of this article was to assess the usefulness and limitations of Fried frailty phenotype criteria in geriatric inpatients, characterized by comorbidity and functional impairments, and to estimate the frailty phenotype prevalence in this group. Patients and methods: Five hundred consecutive patients of the university hospital subacute geriatric ward, aged 79.0±8.4 years (67% women and 33% men, participated in this cross-sectional study. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and Fried frailty phenotype component evaluation were performed in all patients. Results: Multimorbidity (6.0±2.8 diseases characterized our study group, with a wide range of clinical conditions and functional states (Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living 72.2±28.2 and Mini-Mental State Examination 23.6±7.1 scores. All five Fried frailty components were assessed in 65% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] =60.8–69.2 (diagnostic group. One or more components were not feasible to be assessed in 35% of the remaining patients (nondiagnostic group because of lack of past patient’s body mass control and/or cognitive or physical impairment. Patients from the nondiagnostic group, as compared to patients from the diagnostic group, presented with more advanced age, higher prevalence of dementia, lower prevalence of hypertension, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, Mini

  18. ANALISIS POSITIONING RESTORAN CEPAT SAJI WARALABA FRIED CHICKEN DI BANJARMASIN BERDASARKAN PERSEPSI KONSUMEN (Studi Pada KFC Duta Mall, Texas Fried Chicken Duta Mall,AW Duta Mall Dan California Fried Chicken Rs Ulin Banjarmasin)

    OpenAIRE

    Prihatini Ade Mayvita; Ikhwan Faisal

    2016-01-01

    During  the  last  14  years,  the  growth  rate  of  fried  chicken  franchise  with  the concept of fast food restaurants in Banjarmasin is 12% per year. It is characterized by large number of outlets/stores of fried chicken franchise in Banjarmasin city as many as 10 outlets. Most of the existing outlets are in Duta Mall Banjarmasin.  This study aims to identify and analyze the competitive position of fried-chicken fast-food franchise restaurants based on the consumers’ perceptions (St...

  19. Calculation of the electron magnetic moment in Fried-Yennie-gauge QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The two-loop contribution to the electron magnetic moment is calculated in the Fried-Yennie gauge. This is the first treatment of the magnetic moment beyond one-loop order in a gauge other than the Feynman gauge. The Fried-Yennie gauge is infrared safe, and the calculation is done without introducing an infrared cutoff or photon mass. The Fried-Yennie-gauge result agrees with the Feynman-gauge result, as expected

  20. Relationship between total polar components and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fried edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Lan; Liu, Hai-Lan

    2017-09-01

    Deep-fried dough sticks (a Chinese traditional breakfast) were fried individually in peanut, sunflower, rapeseed, rice bran, soybean and palm oil without any time lag for 32 h (64 batches fried, each for 30 min) and fried oil samples were obtained every 2 h. The frying-induced changes in the levels of total polar compounds (TPC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated by edible oil polar compounds (EOPC) fast separation chromatographic system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The correlations were analysed of TPC with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), TPC and PAH4 (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) as well as TPC with PAH16 (USEPA 16 PAHs). The results revealed that the levels of TPC and PAHs in fried oil considerably increased with frying time, and the type of oil affected their formation, which could inform the choice of oil for frying. The total BaP equivalents (∑BaPeq) concentrations in fresh oil and in oil whose TPC exceeded 27% were 2.14-13.48 and 5.78-10.80 μg kg -1 , respectively, which means that the carcinogenic potency of frying oil was more pronounced than that of fresh oil. In addition, the TPC concentration was significantly correlated with the concentrations of the sum of the 16 PAHs, PAH4 and BaP, so that the levels of PAHs could be predicted according to the levels of TPC in fried oil. In European standards, the rejection point for TPC in frying oil should be recalculated when considered PAHs. In all, the concentration of PAHs is a vital factor for ensuring the safety of frying oil.

  1. Water velocity influences prey detection and capture by drift-feeding juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Piccolo; Nicholas F. Hughes; Mason D. Bryant

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of water velocity on prey detection and capture by drift-feeding juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead (sea-run rainbow trout,Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) in laboratory experiments. We used repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the effects of velocity, species, and the velocity x species interaction on prey capture...

  2. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF COTTONSEED AND GROUNDNUT OIL USED FOR FRYING BHAJIAS AND ITS SENSORY QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Gupta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep fried snacks, which evolved as snacks between meals include bhajia, samosa, etc are very popular in India and commercially exploited on a wide scale.Cottonseed and Groundnut oil frequently used in Gujarat for cooking purpose studied for its intermittent frying stability. Indian fried snack popularly known as ‘Bhajia’ fried for 5 min at an interval of 1 h; 5 times a day for 5 consecutive days and studied for its various sensory attributes using 9-point hedonic scale. Standard AOCS and AOAC methods were used to determine the quality of oil. Peroxide and p-anisidine values of both oils increased significantly p<0.001 during the 25 h of intermittent frying. Iodine value of cottonseed oil did not decrease throughout the intermittent frying period. Polar components increased 257.5% in cottonseed oil (CSO and 142.9% in groundnut oil (GNO.The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content increased significantly with the increase in frying hours.No significant change was seen in linoleic/palmitic acid ratio of both the oils during bhajias frying. The sensory qualities of bhajia fried at different intervals did not change significantly for various attributes namely flavor, taste, crispness, greasiness, odor, color, appearance and overall acceptability.

  3. Acrylamide reduction in fried potato slices and strips by using asparaginase in combination with conventional blanching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    then dried at 85°C for 10 min and immediately partially fried at 175°C for 1min. Finally, frozen par-fried potatoes were fried at 175°C for 3min to obtain French fries. Pre-drying of raw or blanched potato strips did not generate acrylamide formation as expected. Partial frying of pre-dried control potato...... strips generated 370μg/kg of acrylamide and the final frying determined French fries with 2075μg/kg of acrylamide. When control potato strips were treated with a 10000 ASNU/l asparaginase solution at 40°C for 20min, the acrylamide formation in French fries was reduced by 30%. When blanched potato strips...... were treated in the same way, the produced French fries have 60% less acrylamide content than blanched strips without the enzyme treatment. Soaking of blanched potato strips (75°C, 10min) in an 10000 ASNU/l asparaginase solution at 40°C for 20min is an effective way to reduce acrylamide formation after...

  4. Milkfish (Chanos chanos Fry Concession System in Bolinao, Pangasinan: Implications to Coastal Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Salmo III

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological and socioeconomic implications of the concession system on milkfish (Chanos chanos Forssk. fry in Bolinao, Pangasinan were evaluated from 1996 to 1999. Monitoring of landed catch from 1996 to 1998 showed that the seasonal trend and annual volume of catch varied widely during the three-year period. The fry season in 1996 and 1997 lasted seven months, starting from the second week of April to the second week of October. However, during the 1998 season, fry were available for eight months starting in the second week of March and ending in November. The peak period also varied considerably during the three-year period. In 1996, peak abundance of fry was observed in the last week of July while in 1997 and 1998, the peak was during the second week of May. The volume of total catch for the entire season also varied widely, from as low as ~400,000 fry (1997 to as high as 2,400,000 fry (1996. The concessionaire “postor” has the sole right to buy all fry caught within the municipal waters. Thus, s/he dictates the buying price. Moreover, the existing concession system has no mechanism to regulate harvest of milkfish fry gathering. This arrangement allows the concessionaire to enjoy huge economic benefits while the fry gatherers only get a minimal share in the income. To promote sustainable and equitable harvest of milkfish fry, a new access arrangement through a permit system was proposed by the fry gatherers. The proposed permit system will promote a sustainable harvest of milkfish fry through the implementation of a closed period during the fry season. Compared to the present concession system, the permit system is believed to be more equitable because of the abolition of the 1/3 cut levied by the concessionaire on the landed catch. The permit system also facilitates a mechanism that provides for transparency on the selling/buying price. More importantly, fry gatherers will have the opportunity to sell to buyers offering a relatively

  5. Frying temperatures and minor constituents of oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boskou, Dimitrios

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Two important classes of minor constituents of oils and fats are tocopherols and sterols. Both these classes are biologically active and they also affect the stability and performance of an oil at elevated temperatures. Tocopherols are phenolic antioxidants that react with free radicals and their concentration is reduced signifantly when the oil is heated. α-TocopheroI is lost faster during deep-fat frying than the beta, gamma and delta homologues. In the presence of stronger antioxidants, natural or synthetic, losses of α-tocopherol can be eliminated. Unchanged phytosterols naturally present in vegetable oils are believed to be beneficial for the health. Depending on the chemical structure, phytosterols may act as prooxidants or antioxidants. Sterols with an ethylidene group in the side chain have been found effective in retarding polymerisation at temperatures similar to those of deep-fat frying. Under unfavourable conditions (high temperature, presence of air oxidation products are formed from sterols and a marked increase in the oxidation rate of the fat is observed. Oxidation products of the main phytosterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, are: hydrocarbons (3,5-diene and 3,5,22-triene, mono-, di- and triunsaturated ketosteroids (4-en-3-one, 3,5-dien-7-one, 3,5,22-trien-7-one, 5,6-epoxy derivatives, 3,7-diols and pregnane derivatives. Other minor constituents which may affect the rate of degradation of unsaturated triacylglycerols at high temperatures are squalene, pigments and phospholipids. Squalene and phospholipids have both been reported to retard the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids under simulated frying conditions. High chlorophyll levels were found to increase the rate of tocopherol decomposition and formation of polymers in rape seed oil heated at 180°C.

  6. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and characteristics of fryers were recorded. Data showed that the use of par-fried potato strips with lower concentrations of reducing sugars than the commonly used potato strips was an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under standardised frying conditions. However, there was still large variation in the acrylamide concentrations in French fries, although the variation in reducing sugars concentrations in low and normal types of par-fried potato strips was very small and the frying conditions were similar. Factors that could affect the temperature-time profile of frying oil were discussed, such as setting a lower frying temperature at the end than at the start of frying, product/oil ratio and thawing practice. These need to be controlled in daily practice to reduce variation in acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumption of deep-fried foods and risk of prostate cancera,b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-heat cooking methods may increase the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). The addition of oil/fat, as in deep-frying, may be of particular concern, and has not specifically been investigated in relation to PCa. Potential mechanisms include the formation of potentially carcinogenic agents such as aldehydes, acrolein, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and acrylamide. Methods We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between tertiles of intake of deep-fried foods from a food frequency questionnaire (French fries, fried chicken, fried fish, doughnuts and snack chips) and PCa risk, adjusted for potential confounders, among 1,549 cases and 1,492 controls. We additionally examined associations with more aggressive PCa (defined as regional/distant stage, elevated Gleason score or prostate specific antigen level). Results Compared with French fries (OR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.11–1.69), fried chicken (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.04–1.62), fried fish (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.05–1.66), and doughnuts (OR=1.35; 95% CI, 1.11–1.66). There was no association for snack chips (OR=1.08; 95% CI, 0.89–1.32). Most of the estimates were slightly stronger for more aggressive disease (OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.04–1.92 for fried fish). Conclusion Regular consumption of select deep-fried foods is associated with increased PCa risk. Whether this risk is specific to deep-fried foods, or whether it represents risk associated with regular intake of foods exposed to high heat and/or other aspects of the Western lifestyle, such as fast food consumption, remains to be determined. PMID:23335051

  8. Consumption of deep-fried foods and risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Neuhouser, Marian L; Stanford, Janet L

    2013-06-01

    Evidence suggests that high-heat cooking methods may increase the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). The addition of oil/fat, as in deep-frying, may be of particular concern, and has not specifically been investigated in relation to PCa. Potential mechanisms include the formation of potentially carcinogenic agents such as aldehydes, acrolein, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and acrylamide. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between tertiles of intake of deep-fried foods from a food frequency questionnaire (French fries, fried chicken, fried fish, doughnuts and snack chips) and PCa risk, adjusted for potential confounders, among 1,549 cases and 1,492 controls. We additionally examined associations with more aggressive PCa (defined as regional/distant stage, elevated Gleason score or prostate-specific antigen level). Compared with French fries (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.11-1.69), fried chicken (OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62), fried fish (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05-1.66), and doughnuts (OR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11-1.66). There was no association for snack chips (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.32). Most of the estimates were slightly stronger for more aggressive disease (OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92 for fried fish). Regular consumption of select deep-fried foods is associated with increased PCa risk. Whether this risk is specific to deep-fried foods, or whether it represents risk associated with regular intake of foods exposed to high heat and/or other aspects of the Western lifestyle, such as fast food consumption, remains to be determined. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-01-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600

  10. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-05-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600.

  11. Modelling water evaporation during frying with an evaporation dependent heat transfer coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.; Somsen, D.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study a cylindrical crust-core frying model was developed including an evaporation rate dependent heat transfer coefficient. For this, we applied a Nusselt relation for cylindrical bodies and view the release of vapour bubbles during the frying process as a reversed fluidised bed. The

  12. Identification and olfactometry of French fries flavour extracted at mouth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, M.A.; Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify odour active compounds from French fries at mouth conditions. Volatile compounds were released from French fries by purge-and-trap, trapped on Tenax TA, and identified with GC–MS. GC–olfactometry was used to determine odour active compounds with a

  13. Production of surfactin by bacillus subtilis mtcc 2423 from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vedaraman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the obstacles in the way of wide scale industrial application of biosurfactants is the high production cost coupled with a low production rate. In order to lower the production cost surfactin production by Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423 was studied in submerged batch cultivation using waste frying oils. It was observed that the decrease in surface tension was 56.32%, 48.5% and 46.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Biomass formation was 4.36 g/L, 3.67 g/L and 4.67 g/L for glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Product yield (g product/g substrate was 2.1%, 1.49% and 1.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil as substrates. This process facilitates safe disposal of waste frying oil, as well reducing the production cost of surfactin.

  14. Shelf life prediction of canned fried-rice using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) arrhenius method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, M.; Bintang, R.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Nursiwi, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Susanto, A.; Angwar, M.; Triwiyono; Frediansyah, A.

    2017-12-01

    Research on shelf-life prediction of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius model has been conducted. The aim of this research to predict shelf life of canned-fried rice products. Lethality value of 121°C for 15 and 20 minutes and Total Plate count methods are used to determine time and temperatures of sterilization process.Various storage temperatures of ASLT Arrhenius method were 35, 45 and 55°C during 35days. Rancidity is one of the derivation quality of canned fried rice. In this research, sample of canned fried rice is tested using rancidity value (TBA). TBA value was used as parameter which be measured once a week periodically. The use of can for fried rice without any chemical preservative is one of the advantage of the product, additionaly the use of physicalproperties such as temperature and pressure during its process can extend the shelf life and reduce the microbial contamination. The same research has never done before for fried rice as ready to eat meal. The result showed that the optimum conditions of sterilization process were 121°C,15 minutes with total plate count number of 9,3 × 101 CFU/ml. Lethality value of canned fried rice at 121°C,15 minutes was 3.63 minutes. The calculated Shelf-life of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius method was 10.3 months.

  15. Assessment of Quality and Safety of Street-vended Fried West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the quality and safety of street-vended fried West African ilisha (Ilisha africana) from major markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. A total number of 100 fried fish samples obtained from ten major markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria were analysed in the laboratory for: proximate ...

  16. Impact of control behaviour on unacceptable variation in acrylamide in French fries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Jinap, S.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have identified high concentrations of acrylamide in French fries and they emphasised that there is much uncertainty about actual concentrations in French fries upon consumption. The aim of this study was to get insight in technological as well as people related factors that

  17. Degree-days as a tool for use in producing tilapia fry for sex inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonal sex inversion of newly hatched tilapia fry continues to be an important method to produce monosex male tilapia fingerlings. Large numbers of tilapia fry suitable for sex inversion can be produced by periodic complete harvest of earthen reproduction ponds. Traditionally, harvest interval was...

  18. The role of zooplankton in the feeding ecology of fish fry from some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyclopoid cope pods were the dominant food item of fry < 20 mm S.L., with the ... seas estuarine systems where the diet of fry has been intensively studied (e.g. ..... consumers in oceanic waters but in estuaries benthic herbivores and detritivores ... rine systems is via the zooplankton food chain (Blaber 1979;. Wooldridge ...

  19. Development of new antioxidant systems for frying oil and omega-3 oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of natural antioxidant systems for frying oil will be discussed in this presentation. This study aimed to utilize vegetable oils such as soybean oil for frying, of which the United States is the world’s largest producer. To overcome the vulnerability of soybean oil to oxidation due t...

  20. Crust morphology and crispness development during deep-fat frying of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Somsen, D.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Crust formation is an important factor in determining the crispness of French fries. This study aimed at unravelling detailed structural and textural properties of the crust in relation to crispness during frying as a function of the process temperature and time. X-ray tomography showed a larger

  1. Reliability of ^1^H NMR analysis for assessment of lipid oxidation at frying temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reliability of a method using ^1^H NMR analysis for assessment of oil oxidation at a frying temperature was examined. During heating and frying at 180 °C, changes of soybean oil signals in the ^1^H NMR spectrum including olefinic (5.16-5.30 ppm), bisallylic (2.70-2.88 ppm), and allylic (1.94-2.1...

  2. Polarimetric LIDAR with FRI sampling for target characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijerathna, Erandi; Creusere, Charles D.; Voelz, David; Castorena, Juan

    2017-09-01

    Polarimetric LIDAR is a significant tool for current remote sensing applications. In addition, measurement of the full waveform of the LIDAR echo provides improved ranging and target discrimination, although, data storage volume in this approach can be problematic. In the work presented here, we investigated the practical issues related to the implementation of a full waveform LIDAR system to identify polarization characteristics of multiple targets within the footprint of the illumination beam. This work was carried out on a laboratory LIDAR testbed that features a flexible arrangement of targets and the ability to change the target polarization characteristics. Targets with different retardance characteristics were illuminated with a linearly polarized laser beam and the return pulse intensities were analyzed by rotating a linear analyzer polarizer in front of a high-speed detector. Additionally, we explored the applicability and the limitations of applying a sparse sampling approach based on Finite Rate of Innovations (FRI) to compress and recover the characteristic parameters of the pulses reflected from the targets. The pulse parameter values extracted by the FRI analysis were accurate and we successfully distinguished the polarimetric characteristics and the range of multiple targets at different depths within the same beam footprint. We also demonstrated the recovery of an unknown target retardance value from the echoes by applying a Mueller matrix system model.

  3. Aerosol Production from Charbroiled and Wet-Fried Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Previous work in our laboratory focused on the chemical and optical characterization of aerosols produced during the dry-frying of different meat samples. This method yielded a complex ensemble of particles composed of water and long-chain fatty acids with the latter dominated by oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids. The present study examines how wet-frying and charbroiling cooking methods affect the physical and chemical properties of their derived aerosols. Samples of ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork were subject to both cooking methods in the laboratory, with their respective aerosols swept into a laminar flow cell where they were optically analyzed in the mid-infrared and collected through a gas chromatography probe for chemical characterization. This presentation will compare and contrast the nature of the aerosols generated in each cooking method, particularly those produced during charbroiling which exposes the samples, and their drippings, to significantly higher temperatures. Characterization of such cooking-related aerosols is important because of the potential impact of these particles on air quality, particularly in urban areas.

  4. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN FRY COUNTER DENGAN PENDEKATAN MODEL AIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Oktoriyana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research examined factors which are mentioned in various literatures that have influence on AIDA models to buy fry counter which are attention, interest, and desire. The model also influenced by perceived attributes, personal characteristics, and external factors. Furthermore, the analysis result become a basic for formulating the marketing strategy of fry counter as an innovative product. Analysis was carried out using Structural Equation Modeling. The data for this study were collected from 152 respondents who were fish farmers located in Sukabumi Regency, West Java Province. This research found that external and internal factors influenced positively perceived attributes faktors. The external and perceived attributes factors also influenced positively attention factor. The external factor had negative influence but internal and attention factors had positive influence on consumer’s interest. Perceived attributes and interest factors influenced positively desire factor. Managerial implications is elaborated in the discussion.

  6. Effects of oil-water mixed frying and pure-oil frying on the quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of oil-water mixed frying (OWF and pure-oil frying (POF on changes in quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop during six days of frying were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the changes in specific extinction coefficients, p-anisidine value, carbonyl value, viscosity and color of soybean oil were more pronounced in the case of POF, indicating that oil oxidative and polymeric degradation was retarded by OWF. Concerning fat content of chicken chop, lower (p<0.05 values were observed in the last three days in the case of OWF than POF. Meanwhile, OWF led to lower acrylamide formation in chops during the six days. Sensory evaluation showed that OWF provided chops with five attributes similar to those of chops fried by POF on the first day. As frying days increased, the decreases in scores for color, odor, flavor and overall acceptability were less in the case of OWF. In conclusion, OWF could be a worthwhile alternative for retarding oil deterioration and producing healthier and higher quality fried meat products.

  7. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying

  8. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-05-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ANALISIS POSITIONING RESTORAN CEPAT SAJI WARALABA FRIED CHICKEN DI BANJARMASIN BERDASARKAN PERSEPSI KONSUMEN (Studi Pada KFC Duta Mall, Texas Fried Chicken Duta Mall,AW Duta Mall Dan California Fried Chicken Rs Ulin Banjarmasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihatini Ade Mayvita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During  the  last  14  years,  the  growth  rate  of  fried  chicken  franchise  with  the concept of fast food restaurants in Banjarmasin is 12% per year. It is characterized by large number of outlets/stores of fried chicken franchise in Banjarmasin city as many as 10 outlets. Most of the existing outlets are in Duta Mall Banjarmasin.  This study aims to identify and analyze the competitive position of fried-chicken fast-food franchise restaurants based on the consumers’ perceptions (Study on KFC,  Texas  Fried  Chicken, AW  Duta  Mall  and  CFC  RS  Ulin  Banjarmasin. Perceptions formulated are based on the assessment of marketing mix, which consists of services, physical condition, Product, promotion, personal traits, Price, means of support, distribution and location. 100 respondents are taken as samples in this study, i.e. respondents who have eaten in the fourth Fried Chicken fast food franchise using the technique of non proportional stratified random sampling. Meanwhile, the technique of data analysis uses Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS. The findings from the analysis using Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS show inequality  positions  of  Fried  Chicken  franchise  restaurants,  Kentucky  Fried Chicken,  Texas  Chicken,  AW  and  California  Fried  Chicken,  based  on  their consumers’  perceptions:  1.  KFC  is  a  fried  chicken  franchise  restaurant  that has superiority over the ease in getting information for organizing parties, the rooms’ capacities, the frequency of advertisements, employee skills, appropriate Products with Prices. In addition, KFC also has special superiority over different/ unique fried chicken taste and more outlets than other fried chicken franchise restaurants; 2. Texas Fried chicken has superiority over the speed of Customer service,  cleanliness  of  the  room,  the  Product  pakaging  which  is  favorable  to consumers,  direct  gifts,

  10. Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles with oat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawladda Tiangpook

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Instant fried noodles have become one of the food products regularly consumed among people of all socioeconomic levels in both urban and rural areas. Oat bran is rich in β-glucan, a soluble fiber in oat. The objective of this study was to utilize oat bran, produced from dehulled oats by dry milling and cooking extrusion to improve the nutritional quality of wheat noodle and to evaluate the noodle quality. Three types of oat bran concentrate (OBC: OBCXF, OBCXEF, OBC native were used to replace wheat flour in noodle production, each type at the levels of 5, 10, and 15% (w/w. The experimental design was 3×3 factorial randomized complete block design. The flours and products were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, β- glucan, RVA and color. The texture of the products was determined using texture analyzer and sensory test. Protein contents of OBCXF, XEF, native and wheat flour were 22.05, 23.21, 22.00 and 13.16%, respectively. OBC β-glucan content was 16-17%. Increasing the amount of various OBC in the mixes caused the increase in protein content and β-glucan in the products. The texture of the noodles with 5% replacement with OBC was not significantly different from that of wheat noodle. The tensile force was in the range of 17.10-17.96 g. The sensory acceptability of the noodles replaced with 5-10% OBC was not significantly different from wheat noodle (p<0.05. Noodle with 10% OBC-XEF had the highest scores in texture, elasticity and accept- ability. Thus, instant fried noodle having its wheat partially replaced with 10-15% OBC contained β-glucan in the range of 0.80-1.27 g/serving (50 g, which met the FDA approved health claim which requires 0.75 g/ serving, and contained dietary fiber in the range of 3.0-4.5 g/serving. By using 10-15% OBC in the formulation, it was possible to satisfactorily make instant fried noodles.

  11. Analysis of used frying fats for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Used frying fats and oils with highly variable and uncontrolled quality are used for the production of biodiesel . The objective of this study was to define the analytical methods useful to obtaining information on the quality of the used frying oils as raw material for biodiesels as well as for the characterization of the biodiesels obtained from them. Twentyfour used frying oils from restaurants and domestic fryers were analyzed before and after transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. From a detailed analysis of the samples by means of a combination of adsorption and size exclusion chromatography, the quantitative importance of polymeric compounds was deduced both from the direct analysis of the oils and from their FAME. Excellent linear correlation between polar compounds and polar FAME (R=0.9768 was found. The possibilities of interferences from polar fatty acid in the standard method to determine the ester content are defined. Finally, determination of non-polar FAME by silica column is proposed as a good alternative to the gas chromatography method.Los aceites y grasas de fritura, que se caracterizan por tener una calidad muy variable, se utilizan como material prima para la producción de biodiesel. El objetivo de este estudio es definir la utilidad de los métodos analíticos desarrollados para los aceites y grasas de fritura para caracterizar el biodiesel obtenido. Veinticuatro aceites de fritura procedentes del sector de restauración y de fritura doméstica fueron analizados antes y después de su transesterificación a ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos. A partir de un análisis detallado mediante cromatografías de adsorción y exclusión, se deduce la importancia cuantitativa de los compuestos de polimerización tanto en el análisis directo de los aceites como en el análisis de los ésteres metílicos. Se encontró una excelente correlación lineal entre los compuestos polares y los ésteres metílicos polares

  12. Effect of low-temperature long-time and high-temperature short-time blanching and frying treatments on the French fry quality of six Irish potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngobese, Nomali Ziphorah; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Siwela, Muthulisi

    2017-02-01

    Processing conditions are an important determinant of French fry quality. However, the effect of low-temperature long-time (LTLT) and high-temperature short-time (HTST) blanching and frying treatments has not been investigated in many cultivars. The current study investigates the effect of the sequential application of these treatments on French fries processed from six Irish potato cultivars (Fianna, Innovator, Mondial, Navigator, Panamera and Savanna). Blanching was effected at 75 °C for 10 min or 85 °C for 5 min and frying was effected at 160 °C for 2 min or 180 °C for 1 min. These treatments resulted in significant differences in the quality of the fries across the cultivars. The blanching treatments had a greater impact on the French fry quality than the frying treatments. LTLT blanching resulted in lower oil (12-13% fresh mass basis [fmb]), and higher protein (3.5-4.3% fmb) and mineral content in the French fries processed from Innovator, compared to HTST blanching. This was accompanied by a crispier crust, which required a greater puncture force (1.2-2.1 N) for penetration. Blanching with the LTLT treatment before HTST frying resulted in French fries that were the most acceptable to consumers and these were from Fianna, Innovator and Mondial. The current study demonstrates that the effect of French fry processing conditions is cultivar-dependent.

  13. Evaluation of the influence of different heat-treatment methods on fatty acids content particulary trans isomers in french fries

    OpenAIRE

    Mojska, H.; Malecka, K.; Gielecinska, I.; Sitek, A.; Pawlicka, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of different heat treatment methods on trans fatty acids content in French fries. French fries were heat-treated by using a deep fryer, a frying pan, an oven and a microwave. The fatty acids content was analyzed by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography using MS detector (GC/MS). The highest increase in fat was determined in French fries prepared in deep fryer in comparison to raw French fries, whereas the lowest by using oven and micro...

  14. Effect of cooking method (baking compared with frying) on acrylamide level of potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazoğlu, T Koray; Savran, Derya; Gökmen, Vural

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooking method (baking compared with frying) on acrylamide level of potato chips was investigated in this study. Baking and frying experiments were conducted at 170, 180, and 190 degrees C using potato slices with a thickness of 1.4 mm. Raw potatoes were analyzed for reducing sugars and asparagine. Surface and internal temperatures of potato slices were monitored during the experiments to better explain the results. Fried and baked chips were analyzed for acrylamide content using an LC-MS method. The results showed that acrylamide level of potato chips prepared by frying increased with frying temperature (19.6 ng/g at 170 degrees C, 39 ng/g at 180 degrees C, and 95 ng/g at 190 degrees C). In baking, however, the highest acrylamide level was observed in potato chips prepared at 170 degrees C (47.8 ng/g at 170 degrees C, 19.3 ng/g at 180 degrees C, and 29.7 ng/g at 190 degrees C). The results showed that baking at 170 degrees C more than doubled the acrylamide amount that formed upon frying at the same temperature, whereas at 180 and 190 degrees C, the acrylamide levels of chips prepared by baking were lower than their fried counterparts.

  15. Effect of osmotic dehydration and vacuum-frying parameters to produce high-quality mango chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Yolanda; Moreira, Rosana G

    2009-09-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a fruit rich in flavor and nutritional values, which is an excellent candidate for producing chips. The objective of this study was to develop high-quality mango chips using vacuum frying. Mango ("Tommy Atkins") slices were pretreated with different maltodextrin concentrations (40, 50, and 65, w/v), osmotic dehydration times (45, 60, and 70 min), and solution temperatures (22 and 40 degrees C). Pretreated slices were vacuum fried at 120, 130, and 138 degrees C and product quality attributes (oil content, texture, color, carotenoid content) determined. The effect of frying temperatures at optimum osmotic dehydration times (65 [w/v] at 40 degrees C) was assessed. All samples were acceptable (scores > 5) to consumer panelists. The best mango chips were those pretreated with 65 (w/v) concentration for 60 min and vacuum fried at 120 degrees C. Mango chips under atmospheric frying had less carotenoid retention (32%) than those under vacuum frying (up to 65%). These results may help further optimize vacuum-frying processing of high-quality fruit-based snacks.

  16. Fat deterioration in deep fat frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson, L.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to know the deterioration of fats employed in deep frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector in Santiago (Chile, before the recent Chilean legislation became official. 96 % of the samples corresponded to polyunsaturated vegetable oils, 76 % had more than 2 % linolenic acid and 23 % of total samples contained more than 25 % of polar compounds. To predict the percentage of polar compounds, equations were developed: for soybean oil and mix soybean oil-canola the equation included viscosity or conjugated dienoic acids, while for sunflower oil viscosity and free fatty acids were considered. Sunflower oil, presented a different pattern of the altered groups that comprise the fraction of polar compounds, as compared with soybean and mix soybean-canola oils, these latter two showing significantly higher thermoxidative degradation. Among the diagnostic tests assayed, Oxifrit is recommended as a quick test for practical deterioration control.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer el deterioro de la materia grasa empleada en el proceso de fritura de patatas tipo «french fries» en el sector de restaurantes y pequeños establecimientos en Santiago (Chile antes de que la reciente legislación chilena fuera oficial. El 96 % de las muestras correspondió a aceites vegetales poliinsaturados, el 76 % contenían más de un 2 % de ácido linolénico y el 23 % del total de las muestras presentó más del 25 % de compuestos polares. Para predecir el porcentaje de compuestos polares, se desarrollaron ecuaciones que para el aceite de soja y mezcla soja-canola, incluyeron la viscosidad o los dienos conjugados, mientras que para el aceite de girasol se consideró la viscosidad y los ácidos grasos libres. El aceite de girasol mostró una distribución diferente de las especies alteradas que conforman la fracción de compuestos polares, en comparación al aceite de soja y mezcla soja

  17. Survey of parasites in threatened stocks of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon by examination of wet tissues and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jayde A; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Peterson, Tracy S; Rodnick, Kenneth J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-12-01

    We are conducting studies on the impacts of parasites on Oregon coastal coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kistuch). An essential first step is documenting the geographic distribution of infections, which may be accomplished by using different methods for parasite detection. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to (1) identify parasite species infecting these stocks of coho salmon and document their prevalence, density, and geographic distribution; (2) assess the pathology of these infections; and (3) for the first time, determine the sensitivity and specificity of histology for detecting parasites compared with examining wet preparations for muscle and gill infections. We examined 576 fry, parr, and smolt coho salmon in total by histology. The muscle and gills of 219 of these fish also were examined by wet preparation. Fish were collected from 10 different locations in 2006-2007. We identified 21 different species of parasites in these fish. Some parasites, such as Nanophyetus salmincola and Myxobolus insidiosus, were common across all fish life stages from most basins. Other parasites, such as Apophallus sp., were more common in underyearling fish than smolts and had a more restricted geographic distribution. Additional parasites commonly observed were as follows: Sanguinicola sp., Trichodina truttae , Epistylis sp., Capriniana piscium, and unidentified metacercariae in gills; Myxobolus sp. in brain; Myxidium salvelini and Chloromyxum majori in kidney; Pseudocapillaria salvelini and adult digenean spp. in the intestine. Only a few parasites, such as the unidentified gill metacercariae, elicted overt pathologic changes. Histology had generally poor sensitivity for detecting parasites; however, it had relatively good specificity. We recommend using both methods for studies or monitoring programs requiring a comprehensive assessment of parasite identification, enumeration, and parasite-related pathology.

  18. New vision technology for multidimensional quality monitoring of continuous frying of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Søren Blond; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2010-01-01

    . The vision technology can also detect even slight increases in the agglutination of the fried minced meat during the process. This agglutination is undesirable, but very difficult to measure on-line. The results indicate that multi-spectral vision technology may partially or totally Substitute visual......The potential of using multi-spectral vision technology for quality control in a continuous frying process was investigated. canonical discriminant analysis of the multi-spectral images of samples of fried minced meat and diced turkey Could clearly visualise the effect of different heat treatments...

  19. Japan FRI research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Introduction of research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire at FRI, Japan is done. FRI has a long history of studying oil tank and spilled oil fires. Many large oil fire tests were done. The purpose of these studies is different with research of response of oil spill, but the accumulation of this knowledge is useful for conducting elimination of spilled oil on the sea with burning. Therefore to do collaboration with fire science research groups, such as FRI is useful for future activities for response to oil spills

  20. High salinity tolerance in eggs and fry of a brackish Esox lucius population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.T.; Hansen, B.W.; Vismann, B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on the biology and physiology of pike, Esox lucius L., populations inhabiting saline environments is scarce. An experimental setup was used to examine egg development and fry behaviour and growth under varying salinity levels in a brackish-water pike population from the western Baltic Sea....... Eggs and fry developed at 8.5 psu, which is higher than hitherto reported for other populations. Fry exhibited stress behaviour and reduced growth when subjected to salinities above 13 psu. This indicates that early life stages of E. lucius tolerate ambient salinity conditions equivalent to the natural...

  1. PREHRAMBENA VRIJEDNOST KALIFORNIJSKE PASTRVE (Oncorhynchus mykiss) UZGOJENE U JADRANSKOM MORU

    OpenAIRE

    Janči, Tibor; Kanski, Danijel; Dulić, Marina; Marušić, Nives; Medić, Helga; Petrak, Tomislav; Vidaček, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Cilj ovog rada bio je određivanje kemijskog sastava fileta svježe i hladno dimljene kalifornijske pastrve (Oncorhynchus mykiss)uzgojene u Jadranskom moru mjerenjem udjela vode, masti, proteina, soli, pepela, sastava masnih kiselina s naglaskom na eikozapentaensku (EPA) i dokozaheksaensku (DHA) masnu kiselinu te fizikalnih karakteristika mjerenjem pH i određivanjem boje. Analize su izvršene na homogeniziranom mišićju nakon odvajanja kože i kostiju. Određivanje udjela vode, pepela, ukupne količ...

  2. Vertical transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum): isolation of virus from dead eggs and fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The control of epizootics of infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IIHN) virus in salmonid fishes is presently based on examination and certification of adult brood fish to prevent the introduction of virus-infected eggs into hatcheries (Canadian Fisherics and Marine Service 1976; McDaniel 1979). This strategy is based on the assumption that the virus is vertically transmitted in association with the gametes. However, evidence for vertical transmission of lHN virus is circumstantial, based mostly on the appearance of the disease outside the enzootic area (the west coast of North America) in fish hatched from eggs obtained from within that area (Plumb 1972; Holway & Smith 1973; Wolf, Quimby, Pettijohn & Landolt 1973, Sano, Nishimura, Okamoto, Yamazaki, Hanada & Watanabe 1977. Carlisle, Schat & Elston 1979). An indirect demonstration of vertical transmission was made by placing known virus-free fish in the water above and below raceways containing fish that suffered an IEEN epizootic in an cffort to climinate waterborne virus as a source of infection (Wingficid & Chan 1970). The fish placed below the raceway developed IHN, due to waterborne virus released from the affected fish in the raceway, but the fish placed above the raceway failed to develop IHN. These results suggested that the source of infection of the fish in the raceway was not the water supply, although it is possible that the virus was no longer present in the water supply at the time the sentinel fish were exposed to the water.

  3. Soybean level and probiotics in first feeding fry diets alter the ability of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to utilize high levels of soybean meal during grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inclusion rates of soybean meal in salmonid diets are currently kept low to minimize detrimental effects on growth, enteritis and immune responses. Probiotics have been used to treat both infectious and noninfectious enteritis in humans and other terrestrial animals and may represent a feasible met...

  4. Time course study of in situ expression of antigens following DNA-vaccination against VHS in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Lorenzen, Niels; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed as a time course study of fish vaccinated with 20 mu g plasmid DNA vaccine encoding either the VHSV G-protein or the VHSV N-protein. Samples of the injection site were collected sequentially over a 7-week period. The study revealed an intense positive staining by i...

  5. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 8-km, 1984 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of an 8-km global land cover product (DeFries et al. 1998). This subset was created for the study area of the Large Scale...

  6. LBA Regional Tree Cover from AVHRR, 1-km, 1992-1993 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of the 1-km global tree cover data set (DeFries et al. 1999) developed at the Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing Studies (LGRSS) at the...

  7. LBA Regional Tree Cover from AVHRR, 1-km, 1992-1993 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of the 1-km global tree cover data set (DeFries et al. 1999) developed at the Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing Studies...

  8. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 8-km, 1984 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of an 8-km global land cover product (DeFries et al. 1998). This subset was created for the study area of the Large Scale...

  9. Chemical constituents of Sweetpotato genotypes in relation to textural characteristics of processed French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) are growing in popularity but limited information is available on SPFF textural properties in relation to chemical composition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chemical components of different sweetpotato varieties and textural characteristics...

  10. Effect of deep-fat frying on sensory and textural attributes of pellet snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BahramParvar, Maryam; Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of several frying parameters on the quality of indirect expanded snacks were studied. Pellets, in two colors of yellow and green, were deep-fat fried at 150, 170, and 190 °C for 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 min; then, subjected to uniaxial compression test and sensory analysis. The results showed that hardness, fracture force and apparent modulus of elasticity reduced with increase in frying time and temperature due to puffing samples and decrease in crust thickness. In contrast, higher frying temperature improved the crispness of samples. Panelists preferred the flavor, color, and total acceptance of yellow samples to the green ones. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) of instrumental and sensory data provided important information for the correlation of objective and sensory properties.

  11. Single-loop renormalizations and properties of radiative corrections in the Fried-Yennie gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.; Eides, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Single-loop radiative corrections are studied in the Fried-Yennie gauge. It is shown that in this gauge the usual subtraction procedure on the mass shell does not require introduction of an infrared photon mass. The behavior of the diagrams containing radiative corrections near the mass shell is investigated, and it is shown that in the Fried-Yennie gauge this behavior is softer than in any other gauge and softer than the behavior of the corresponding graphs without radiative corrections

  12. Losses in -carotene and vitamin C due to frying of plantain ( Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slices of plantain (unripe and ripe) of 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thickness were fried at 130 ± 5, 150 ± 5 and 170 ± 5°C for 1 to 10 min in refined palm oil. The results obtained showed that -carotene and vitamin C contents decreased significantly with the elevation of the temperature and duration of frying (p<0.05). The decrease is ...

  13. Evidence of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry movement between fresh water and a brackish environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, I; Rohtla, M; Saks, L; Svirgsden, R; Kesler, M; Matetski, L; Vetemaa, M

    2017-08-01

    This study reports descent of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry from their natal streams to brackish waters of the Baltic Sea and their use of this environment as an alternative rearing habitat before ascending back to freshwater streams. To the authors' knowledge, residency in a brackish environment has not previously been demonstrated in S. salar fry. Recruitment success and evolutionary significance of this alternative life-history strategy are presently not known. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Jahren, A. Hope; Schubert, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Several issues, ranging from sustainability to health, may interest the consumers in the corn content of their food. However, because restaurants are excluded from the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, national chain restaurants provide nonspecific ingredient information and small businesses supply none. We measured the carbon isotope composition of fry oil in French fries purchased from 68 (67%) of the 101 national chain fast food restaurants on Oahu (i.e., McDonald’s, Burger Kin...

  15. Muscle wound healing in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2016-01-01

    We followed the progression of healing of deep excisional biopsy punch wounds over the course of 365 days in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by monitoring visual wound healing and gene expression in the healing muscle at regular intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 38 and 100 days post-wounding). In addit......We followed the progression of healing of deep excisional biopsy punch wounds over the course of 365 days in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by monitoring visual wound healing and gene expression in the healing muscle at regular intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 38 and 100 days post......-wounding). In addition, we performed muscle texture analysis one year after wound infliction. The selected genes have all previously been investigated in relation to vertebrate wound healing, but only few specifically in fish. The selected genes were interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and -β3......, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 and -13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), fibronectin (FN), tenascin-C (TN-C), prolyl 4-hydroxylase α1-chain (P4Hα1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), collagen type I α1-chain (ColIα1), CD41 and CD163. Wound healing progressed slowly in the presented study, which is at least...

  16. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto,; Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  17. Short-term salinity tolerance of northern pike, Esox lucius , fry, related to temperature and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity in combi......The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity...... in combination with temperatures of 10, 14 and 18 degrees C. A parametric survival model found a significant correlation between survival of pike fry and temperature and salinity, respectively. L(C)50 values after 72 h were between 11.2 and 12.2 ppt, being lowest at 10 degrees C. Pike fry did not survive more...

  18. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid composition alone. Corn oil was observed to be more stable than soybean oil, and rapeseed oil was better than olive oil. It was also observed that crude, non-refined oils were found to have a better heat stability than refin-ed oils. To estimate the effectiveness of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants, namely various tocopherols, tocopherol acetate and phytosterol fractions, phenolic compounds like quercetin, oryzanol, ferulic acid, gallates, BHT, BHA and other compounds like ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and squalene were added to refined sunflower and rape seed oil, and their oxidative stability at elevated temperature (OSET values determined. Both linoleic and oleic rich oils gave comparable results for the activity of the various compounds. alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol esters and BHA had low effects on oil stability at frying temperature, while ascorbyl palmitate and some phytosterol fractions were found to have the most stabilizing activity under frying conditions.

  19. Effect of Various Pretreatments on Quality Attributes of Vacuum-Fried Shiitake Mushroom Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqing Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pretreatments on the quality of vacuum-fried shiitake mushroom slices. Four different pretreatments addressed in this study were (1 blanching as control, (2 blanching and osmotic dehydration with maltodextrin (MD solution, (3 blanching, osmotic dehydration, and coating with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, (4 blanching and osmotic dehydration, followed by freezing. All samples were pretreated and then fried in palm oil at 90°C with vacuum degree of −0.095 MPa for 30 min. The results showed that pretreatments significantly (p0.05 differences of fried chip in the texture among the four different pretreatments. The aw values of all the fried chips were less than 0.38, indicating that the products had a long shelf life. Therefore, the blanching, osmotic dehydration, and coating pretreatment before vacuum frying was the most suitable pretreatment for vacuum-fried shiitake mushroom chips.

  20. Acrylamide Mitigation in Fried Kochchi Kesel Chips Using Free and Immobilized Fungal Asparaginase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskar Gurunathan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is formed when food products are fried at high temperature. Food researchers are constantly working on developing efficient methods for mitigating acrylamide in fried foods. In the present study, asparaginase from Aspergillus terreus was used for the pretreatment of kochchi kesel banana slices before frying to mitigate acrylamide formation during frying. The soaking and frying conditions were optimized using free and chitosan-immobilized asparaginase. The optimal soaking temperature and time were found to be 60 °C and 20 min, respectively. The optimal activity of free and chitosan-immobilized asparaginase was found to be 5 U/mL. The optimal frying temperature and time for both free and chitosan-immobilized asparaginase were found to be 180 °C for 25 min with an acrylamide mass fraction of 1866 and 954 µg/kg, respectively. The kinetics and thermodynamics of enzymatic mitigation of acrylamide in kochchi kesel chips were also studied. It was concluded that the chitosan-immobilized asparaginase pretreatment of kochchi kesel slices is an effective method for mitigation of acrylamide.

  1. Uptake and elimination of some radionuclides by eggs and fry of rainbow trout, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuichiro; Honda, Yoshihide

    1977-01-01

    Comparative studies on the uptake and elimination of radionuclides, 60 Co, 131 I, 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 106 Ru by the advanced fry and the fingerlings of rainbow trout were conducted under laboratory conditions. The general patterns of uptake of 60 Co, 131 I, 144 Ce, 106 RuNO-nitro and -binuclear complexes by both the advanced fry and the fingerlings were similar to each other. On the other hand, the uptake of 137 Cs by the advanced fry was more rapid than that by the fingerlings although the uptake of 106 RuNO-nitro complex by the advanced fry was much slower. The remarkable differences in rate of uptake and turnover rate for 137 Cs and in turnover rate for 144 Ce were observed between the advanced fry and the fingerlings. The concentration factors for 60 Co and 137 Cs in the fry increased with growth of the fish. However, this trend was not necessarily observed for 131 I, 144 Ce and 106 RuNO complexes. In comparison of the tissue uptake of the radionuclides, the high concentration factor for 60 Co, 106 RuNO complexes and 144 Ce in visera including digestive tract were observed, while for 131 I in the gills. (auth.)

  2. Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, A Hope; Schubert, Brian A

    2010-02-02

    Several issues, ranging from sustainability to health, may interest the consumers in the corn content of their food. However, because restaurants are excluded from the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, national chain restaurants provide nonspecific ingredient information and small businesses supply none. We measured the carbon isotope composition of fry oil in French fries purchased from 68 (67%) of the 101 national chain fast food restaurants on Oahu (i.e., McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Arby's, and Jack in the Box), and paired this with a similar number of small businesses (n = 66) to calculate minimum percent contribution of corn to total fry oil. We found that the majority (69%) of the national chain restaurants served fries containing corn oil, whereas this was true for only a minority (20%) of the small businesses. Corn oil is more expensive than soybean oil (for example) when purchased from a small business supplier, suggesting that large-scale corporate agreements are necessary to make corn oil frying cost-effective. When considering French fry oil along with corn-fed beef and chicken, as well as high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened soda, we see the pervasive influence of corn as an ingredient in national chain fast food.

  3. Effect of Guar Gum with Sorbitol Coating on the Properties and Oil Absorption of French Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bo; Fan, Daming; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Fan, Liuping

    2017-12-13

    This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO) and penetrated surface oil (PSO) of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content ( p French fries with guar gum and sorbitol reduced by 50.8%, 33.1% and 30.6%, respectively. CLSM photographs confirmed that STO significantly reduced after coating with guar gum and sorbitol, followed by PSO. In the process of frying, the coatings of guar gum or guar gum with sorbitol could effectively prevent oil from infiltrating the potato tissue, which can be seen in the SEM photographs. The barrier properties of French fries were enhanced by coating guar gum, and sorbitol was added to avoid pores and cracks. Blanching with calcium ion can significantly reduce the final moisture content of coating French fries.

  4. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya, E-mail: mahardika190@gmail.com; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto,; Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Universitas Negeri Semarang, Jalan Raya Sekaran Gunungpati 50229 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  5. Aldehydic acids in frying oils: formation, toxicological significance and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydic acids are generated in oxidized lipids as a result of decomposition of hydroperoxides by (β-scission reactions. Aldehydes are known to interact with proteins and DNA and to impair enzymatic functions. Aldehydic esters from oxidized lipids were reabsorbed to a significant extent in rats. This paper reviews the mechanism of formation of esterified aldehydic acids in frying oils and their physiological/toxicological effects. The paper also gives an overview of relevant basic analytical techniques that needs to be improved to establish reliable quantitative method (s.

    Ácidos aldehídicos son producidos en lípidos oxidados como resultado de la descomposición de hidroperóxidos por reacciones de (β-escición. Es conocido que los aldehídos interaccionan con las proteínas y el ADN y debilitan las funciones enzimáticas. Los esteres aldehídicos de lípidos oxidados fueron reabsorbidos en una cantidad significativa en ratas. Este artículo revisa los mecanismos de formación de ácidos aldehídicos esterificados en aceites de fritura y sus efectos fisiológicos/toxicológicos. El artículo también ofrece una visión de conjunto de las técnicas analíticas básicas que necesitan ser mejoradas para establecer métodos cuantitativos fiables.

  6. Acrylamide in deep-fried snacks of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide content in deep-fried snacks from 20 different production sites of South Indian province of Kerala (80 samples representing 4 important product categories) were determined using a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for this method were 1.04 and 3.17 μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of acrylamide obtained by using spiked samples ranged between 90% and 103%, which shows good extraction efficiency. Acrylamide concentrations in the four groups of snacks ranged from 82.0 to 4245.6 µg/kg for potato chips, 46.2-2431.4 µg/kg for jack chips, 24.8-1959.8 µg/kg for sweet plantain chips and 14.7-1690.5 µg/kg for plantain chips. These are the most widely consumed snacks in South India, and the results revealed reasonable levels of acrylamide in these foods, which indicated the general risk of consumer exposure.

  7. Effect of low-temperature long-time and high-temperature short-time blanching and frying treatments on the French fry quality of six Irish potato cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ngobese, Nomali Ziphorah; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Siwela, Muthulisi

    2017-01-01

    Processing conditions are an important determinant of French fry quality. However, the effect of low-temperature long-time (LTLT) and high-temperature short-time (HTST) blanching and frying treatments has not been investigated in many cultivars. The current study investigates the effect of the sequential application of these treatments on French fries processed from six Irish potato cultivars (Fianna, Innovator, Mondial, Navigator, Panamera and Savanna). Blanching was effected at 75 °C for 10...

  8. A novel role for pigment genes in the stress response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Uniza Wahid; Ø verli, Ø yvind; Hinkle, Patricia M.; Pasha, Farhan Ahmad; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Berget, Ingunn; Silva, Patricia I. M.; Kittilsen, Silje; Hö glund, Erik; Omholt, Stig W.; Vå ge, Dag Inge

    2016-01-01

    pigmentation gene, melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R), is strongly associated with distinct differences in steroidogenic melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA expression between high- (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

  9. BIOACCUMULATION AND ENANTIOSELECTIVE BIOTRANSFORMATION OF FIPRONIL BY RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary accumulation and enantioselective biotransformation was determined for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to fipronil, a widely used chiral pesticide. Measurement of the fish carcass tissue (whole fish minus GI tract and liver) showed a rapid accumulation of fip...

  10. Estrogenic Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential estrogenic activity of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was determined using separate screening and dose response studies with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results of this study indicate that some PFAAs may act as estrogens in fish.

  11. Gyrodactylid Ectoparasites in a Population of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel L; Hansen, Adam G; Chan, Maia M; Sanders, George E

    2014-01-01

    A colony of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a decentralized aquatic animal facility was noted to have an increase in morbidity and mortality (from 4 or 5 fish each month to 3 or 4 fish daily) approximately 2 wk after experimental procedures began. The primary clinical signs were erratic swimming behavior and ‘flashing’ of fish against surfaces within housing enclosures. Moribund and normal rainbow trout were presented alive for diagnostic evaluation; samples of water from housing enclosures were provided for water quality assessment. The trout were determined to be infected with gyrodactylids, a common monogenean ectoparasite of the skin and gills in both marine and freshwater fish. This case report describes the diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of gyrodactylids and husbandry modifications associated with the resolution of this clinical aquatic-animal case. PMID:24411786

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF AGE AT FIRST CALVING IN KARAN FRIES CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 571 Karan Fries (crossing Tharparkar and Sahiwal cows with American Holstein Friesian sires at NDRI, Karnal was studied for determination of optimum age at first calving (AFC. Least squares analysis (Harvey, 1975 was used to see the effect of sire, period and season of calving and was corrected for significant effect of non-genetic factors. The genetic and phenotypic parameters was estimated for the sires which had five or more progenies. The relationship between age at first calving with other traits were studied by using regression analysis and class interval method. The least squaqres means of age at first calving (AFC, first lactation 305 days or less milk yield (FL305Y, first lactation total milk yield (FLTMY, milk yield per day of first lactation length (MY/FLL and milk yield per day of first calving interval (MY/FCI was estimated as 940.98 ± 44.24 days, 3199+ 44.24 kgs, 3599.06 ± 54.96 kgs, 10.50 ± 0.14 kgs and 7.52 ± 0.26 kgs , respectively. The heritability estimates of these traits were moderate. The AFC had significant and positive phenotypic correlation with FL305Y, FLTMY, MY/FLL and MY/FCI. The genetic correlation of AFC with FLTMY was positive. Relationship between AFC and first lactation production traits could not be explained through regression analysis therefore class interval method was used to find at the relationship. Eight classes of AFC was used to find out the relationship. Optimum AFC was identified based on higher milk production and numbers of animals in various classes as 26-36 months. To determine the optimum range of AFC, much emphasis should be given as maximum profit rather than maximizing milk production.

  13. Preliminary economic assessment of the use of waste frying oils for biodiesel production in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, Elyssa G; Salam, Darine A

    2018-05-15

    In this study, a method for assessing the costs of biodiesel production from waste frying oils in Beirut, Lebanon, was investigated with the aim of developing an economic evaluation of this alternative. A hundred restaurant and hotel enterprises in Beirut were surveyed for promoting them in participating in the biodiesel supply chain, and for data collection on waste frying oils generation, disposal methods and frequency, and acquisition cost. Also, waste frying oils were collected and converted into biodiesel using a one-step base catalyzed transesterification process. Physicochemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were conforming to international standards. Data produced from laboratory scale conversion of waste frying oils to biodiesel, as well as data collected from the only biodiesel plant in Lebanon was used to determine the production cost of biodiesel. Geographic Information System was used to propose a real-time vehicle routing model to establish the logistics costs associated with waste frying oils collection. Comparing scenarios of the configuration collection network of waste frying oils, and using medium-duty commercial vehicles for collection, a logistics cost of US$/L 0.08 was optimally reached. For the calculation of the total cost of biodiesel production, the minimum, average, and maximum values for the non-fixed cost variables were considered emerging 81 scenarios for possible biodiesel costs. These were compared with information on the commercialization of diesel in Lebanon for the years 2011 through 2017. Although competitive with petroleum diesel for years 2011 to 2014, the total biodiesel cost presented less tolerance to declining diesel prices in the recent years. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the acquisition cost of waste frying oils is the key factor affecting the overall cost of biodiesel production. The results of this study validate the economic feasibility of waste frying oils' biodiesel production in the studied

  14. The Potential of Tiger Prawn Fry from Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Suroso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Most of the life cycle of tiger prawns were estuarine (Delta Mahakam. In the juvenile stage life in estuarine and the adult stage in marine. The research objective is to assess the potential of the tiger prawn fry catches in the Mahakam Delta, as a source of tiger prawn fry in the Mahakam Delta area farms. Research using interviews and descriptive analysis through monitoring with fishermen. The results showed that the fry tiger prawn from the Delta Mahakam there on the beaches or the edge of the sea where the water is shallow and slightly brackish, as in the Delta Mahakam. Fry can be captured by using rumpon. Tiger prawns fry from Delta Mahakam durability is relatively higher than fry from the hatchery. However, the number and continuity of fry very limited because it depends on the season. Abundance of fry is determined by the number of larvae produced in the wild and their survival is greatly influenced by the availability of food. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.43-46 [How to cite this article: Suroso, B., Hutabarat, J., and Afiati, N. (2013. The Potential of Tiger Prawn Fry from Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan Indonesia, International Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(1,43-46. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.43-46

  15. Effect of gamma-irradiation to prevent the spoilage of fried-Kamaboko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H; Siagian, E G [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1979-08-01

    The study was done to determine the effect of irradiation on the shelf life and quality of a fish meat jelly product named as Fried-Kamaboko which is sometimes called as Satsumaage. Fresh samples were packed and sealed in cellophane coated polyvinylchloride bag with nitrogen gas, and irradiated at 0, 300 and 500 krad followed by storage at 10/sup 0/C. The results showed that irradiation of 300 krad extended the shelf life of Fried-Kamaboko to be 20 days, in contrast to unirradiated samples which were kept only 3 to 6 days at 10/sup 0/C. The species of main microorganisms which grew in unirradiated samples were Micrococcus, Moraxella-Acinetobacter, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds. Irradiation of Fried-Kamaboko at 300 krad reduced the aforementioned flora to the yeasts. The most radio-resistant microorganisms of Fried-Kamaboko was brownish black Fungi identified as Spicaria, and its D/sub 10/ value was obtained to be 130 krad. No remarkable difference was observed between the irradiated Fried-Kamaboko and unirradiated ones with respect to the organoleptic evaluation. But off-odor was slightly induced with the dose of 500 krad irradiation.

  16. Effect of gamma-irradiation to prevent the spoilage of fried-Kamaboko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Siagian, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    The study was done to determine the effect of irradiation on the shelf life and quality of a fish meat jelly product named as Fried-Kamaboko which is sometimes called as Satsumaage. Fresh samples were packed and sealed in cellophane coated polyvinylchloride bag with nitrogen gas, and irradiated at 0, 300 and 500 krad followed by storage at 10 0 C. The results showed that irradiation of 300 krad extended the shelf life of Fried-Kamaboko to be 20 days, in contrast to unirradiated samples which were kept only 3 to 6 days at 10 0 C. The species of main microorganisms which grew in unirradiated samples were Micrococcus, Moraxella-Acinetobacter, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds. Irradiation of Fried-Kamaboko at 300 krad reduced the aforementioned flora to the yeasts. The most radio-resistant microorganisms of Fried-Kamaboko was brownish black Fungi identified as Spicaria, and its D 10 value was obtained to be 130 krad. No remarkable difference was observed between the irradiated Fried-Kamaboko and unirradiated ones with respect to the organoleptic evaluation. But off-odor was slightly induced with the dose of 500 krad irradiation. (author)

  17. A Monte Carlo risk assessment model for acrylamide formation in French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Enda; Butler, Francis; Gormley, Ronan; Brunton, Nigel

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the likely human exposure to the group 2a carcinogen, acrylamide, from French fries by Irish consumers by developing a quantitative risk assessment model using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Various stages in the French-fry-making process were modeled from initial potato harvest, storage, and processing procedures. The model was developed in Microsoft Excel with the @Risk add-on package. The model was run for 10,000 iterations using Latin hypercube sampling. The simulated mean acrylamide level in French fries was calculated to be 317 microg/kg. It was found that females are exposed to smaller levels of acrylamide than males (mean exposure of 0.20 microg/kg bw/day and 0.27 microg/kg bw/day, respectively). Although the carcinogenic potency of acrylamide is not well known, the simulated probability of exceeding the average chronic human dietary intake of 1 microg/kg bw/day (as suggested by WHO) was 0.054 and 0.029 for males and females, respectively. A sensitivity analysis highlighted the importance of the selection of appropriate cultivars with known low reducing sugar levels for French fry production. Strict control of cooking conditions (correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.35 for frying time and temperature, respectively) and blanching procedures (correlation coefficient -0.25) were also found to be important in ensuring minimal acrylamide formation.

  18. Elimination of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in artificially contaminated eggs through correct cooking and frying procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dagostim Savi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a serious foodborne disease associated with the presence of bacteria in eggs or foods containing raw eggs. However, the use of appropriate procedures of cooking and frying can eliminate this contamination. There are few studies on the elimination of contamination of Salmonella in hens' eggs through typical frying procedures, especially for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (or S. typhimurium. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate conditions for cooking and frying hens' eggs artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium, making them free of bacterial contamination. Hens' eggs were artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium and subjected to various processes of cooking, frying and food preparation. It was observed that the minimum time necessary to eliminate contamination through cooking procedures is 5 minutes after the water starts boiling, and also that, cooking in the microwave oven complete eliminates the bacterial contamination. When the eggs were fried on both sides, keeping the yolk hard, a complete bacterial elimination was observed. Mayonnaise prepared with vinegar presented a decrease in bacterial colonies when compared mayonese prepared with lemon.

  19. Impact of fried foods on macronutrient intake, with special reference to fat and protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry, CJ K.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment of protein is known to reduce protein quality and the destruction of certain amino acids. Fish and chips still remain a popular food source in Britain. Little work has been done on the changes in protein quality during fish frying. The paper will present results obtained from the assessment of protein quality using net protein utilisation (NPU in fried and steamed fish. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were given stock diet {RM1 expanded, SDS Ltd., Witham, Essex for 7 days at 30 days of age, groups of four were offered one of four diets that differed only in the type of fish and processing used. Diets contained 200g of fish protein, 550g carbohydrate (400g sucrose and 150g corn-meal, 50g mineral and vitamin mix and 200g fat/kg diet. The different fish species used were Cod and Plaice and the processing used was either steaming or frying. Although a fall in NPU was noted in fried fish compared to the steamed fish these changes in NPU could be reduced if the fish was covered with batter prior to frying.

  20. Indoor air quality in a restaurant kitchen using margarine for deep-frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Sait C; Toprak, Melis; Inal, Fikret; Cimrin, Arif H

    2015-10-01

    Indoor air quality has a great impact on human health. Cooking, in particular frying, is one of the most important sources of indoor air pollution. Indoor air CO, CO2, particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, including aldehydes, were measured in the kitchen of a small establishment where a special deep-frying margarine was used. The objective was to assess occupational exposure concentrations for cooks of such restaurants. While individual VOC and PM2.5 concentrations were measured before, during, and after frying events using active sampling, TVOC, PM10, CO, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity were continuously monitored through the whole period. VOC and aldehyde concentrations did not increase to considerable levels with deep-frying compared to the background and public indoor environment levels, whereas PM10 increased significantly (1.85 to 6.6 folds). The average PM2.5 concentration of the whole period ranged between 76 and 249 μg/m(3). Hence, considerable PM exposures could occur during deep-frying with the special margarine, which might be sufficiently high to cause health effects on cooks considering their chronic occupational exposures.

  1. Lack of mutagens in deep-fat-fried foods obtained at the retail level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L; Berg, C M; Shoptaugh, N H; Scott, V N

    1982-04-01

    The basic methylene chloride extract from 20 of 30 samples of foods fried in deep fat failed to elicit any mutagenic response that could be detected in the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The basic extracts of the remaining ten samples (all three chicken samples studied, two of the four potato-chip samples, one of four corn-chip samples, the sample of onion rings, two of six doughnuts, and one of three samples of french-fried potato) showed evidence of weak mutagenic activity. In these samples, amounts of the basic extract equivalent to 28.5-57 g of the original food sample were required to produce revertants at levels of 2.6-4.8 times the background level. Only two of the acidic methylene chloride extracts from the 30 samples exhibited mutagenic activity greater than 2.5 times the background reversion level, and in both cases (one corn-chip and one shrimp sample) the mutagenic response was quite weak. The basic extract of hamburgers fried in deep fat in a home-style fryer possessed higher levels of mutagenic activity (13 times the background reversion level). However, the mutagenic activity of deep-fried hamburgers is some four times lower than that of pan-fried hamburgers.

  2. Effect of frying temperature and time on image characterizations of pellet snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; BahramParvar, Maryam; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2015-05-01

    The development of non-destructive methods for the evaluation of food properties has important advantages for the food processing industries. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of frying temperature (150, 170, and 190 °C) and time (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 min) on image properties (L*, a* and b*, fractal dimension, correlation, entropy, contrast and homogeneity) of pellet snacks. Textures were computed separately for eight channels (RGB, R, G, B, U, V, H and S). Enhancing the frying time from 0.5 min to 2.5 min increased the fractal dimension; but its increase from 2.5 min to 4.5 min could not expand the samples. Then, the highest volume of pellet snacks was observed at 2.5 min. Features derived from the image texture contained better information than color features. The best result was for U channel which showed that increasing the frying time increased the contrast, entropy and correlation. Developing the frying temperature up to 170 °C decreased contrast, entropy and correlation of images; however these factors were increased when frying temperature was 190 °C. These results were invert for homogeneity.

  3. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during pan frying of beefsteak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Svendsen, Kristin

    2010-04-01

    Cooking with gas or electric stoves produces fumes, especially during frying, that contain a range of harmful and potentially mutagenic compounds as well as high levels of fine and ultrafine particles. The aim of this study was to see if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and higher mutagenic aldehydes which were collected in the breathing zone of the cook, could be detected in fumes from the frying of beefsteak. The frying was performed in a model kitchen in conditions similar to those in a Western European restaurant kitchen. The levels of PAHs (16 EPA standard) and higher aldehydes (trans,trans-2,4-decadienal, 2,4-decadienal, trans-trans-2,4-nonadienal, trans-2-decenal, cis-2-decenal, trans-2-undecenal, 2-undecenal) were measured during frying on an electric or gas stove with margarine or soya bean oil as the frying fat. The number concentration of particles electric stove causes increased occupational exposure to some of the components in cooking fumes which may cause adverse health effects.

  4. Vocal Fry Use in Adult Female Speakers Exposed to Two Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A; Summers, Connie; Walls, Sydney

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have identified the widespread use of vocal fry among American women. Popular explanations for this phenomenon appeal to sociolinguistic purposes that likely take significant time for second language users to learn. The objective of this study was to determine if mere exposure to this vocal register, as opposed to nuanced sociolinguistic motivations, might explain its widespread use. This study used multigroup within- and between-subjects design. Fifty-eight women from one of three language background groups (functionally monolingual in English, functionally monolingual in Spanish, and Spanish-English bilinguals) living in El Paso, Texas, repeated a list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of English and another list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of Spanish. Perceptual analysis identified each episode of vocal fry. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in their frequency of vocal fry use despite large differences in their amount of English-language exposure. All groups produced more vocal fry when repeating English than when repeating Spanish nonwords. Because the human perceptual system encodes for vocal qualities even after minimal language experience, the widespread use of vocal fry among female residents in the United States likely is owing to mere exposure to English rather than nuanced sociolinguistic motivations. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of physicochemical properties of rice flour on oil uptake of tempura frying batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.

  6. Development of a new method for the determination of residues of the neonictinoid insecticide imidacloprid in juvenile Chinook (Oncorhynchus tyshawytscha) using ELISA detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A.; Grue, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) has been proposed as an alternative to carbaryl for controlling indigenous burrowing shrimp on commercial oyster beds in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington. A focus of concern over the use of this insecticide in an aquatic environment is the potential for adverse effects from exposure to non-target species residing in the Bay, such as juvenile Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and cutthroat trout (O. clarki). Federal registration and State permiting approval for the use of IMI will require confirmation that the compound does not adversely impact these salmonids following field applications. This will necessitate an environmental monitoring program for evaluating exposure in salmonids following the treatment of beds. Quantification of IMI residues in tissue can be used for determining salmonid exposure to the insecticide. Refinement of an existing protocol using liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detection would provide the low limits of quantification, given the relatively small tissue sample sizes, necessary for determining exposure in individual fish. Such an approach would not be viable for the environmental monitoring effort in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor due to the high costs associated with running multiple analyses, however. A new sample preparation protocol was developed for use with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of IMI, thereby providing a low-cost alternative to LC-MS for environmental monitoring in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor. Extraction of the analyte from the salmonid brain tissue was achieved by Dounce homogenization in 4.0 mL of 20.0 mM Triton X-100, followed by a 6 h incubation at 50–55 °C. Centrifugal ultrafiltration and reversed phase solid phase extraction were used for sample cleanup. The limit of quantification for an average 77.0 mg whole brain sample was calculated at 18.2 μg kg-1 (ppb) with an average

  7. Comparison of three methods for determination of N-nitrosopyrrolidine in fried dry-cured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R A; Pensabene, J W; Fiddler, W

    1984-01-01

    The recently developed Eastern Regional Research Center ( ERRC ) dry column chromatographic procedure for determining N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) in fried cure-pumped bacon was evaluated for its applicability to fried dry-cured bacon. The method was then compared with 2 established procedures for volatile nitrosamine analysis in cured meat products: the multidetection thermal energy analyzer (MD) method and the mineral oil distillation (MOD) screening procedure. No significant difference (P less than 0.05) in NPYR values was found between the ERRC and MD procedures, but significant differences were found between the ERRC and MOD procedures and between the MOD and MD procedures. No artifactual nitrosamine formation was found in the ERRC procedure, but significant amounts were found in samples analyzed by the MOD procedure. The ERRC method was demonstrated to be rugged and very rapid. It is proposed that the ERRC method replace the MOD method as the official screening procedure for NPYR in fried bacon.

  8. A study on the production of biodiesel from used frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, M.; Ali, A.S.; Farhan, M.; Shabbir, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out to utilize waste frying oil for biodiesel production because it is cheap, easily available and renewable raw material. The used frying oil was analysed for water contents (0.43%) iodine value (52), sponification value (205), free fatty acids 8.7 (Xo) and acid value (0.8 mg KOH/g). Esterification and transesterification were conducted to convert free Fatty acids and triglycerides to methyl ester (biodiesel), respectively. One-step and two-step transertification reactions were carried out to measure the efficiency of these processes for biodiesel production. The biodiesel produced from used frying oil was examined for flash point (185 degree C) kinematic viscosity (4.86 mm/sup 2/s) and specific gravity (0.884 g/mL) that were meeting the limits of ASTM and Thai standards. Hence, it was proved to be a useful technique for biodiesel production at commercial scale. (author)

  9. CARBOHYDRATES IN VARIETIES OF STORED POTATOES AND INFLUENCE OF STORAGE ON QUALITY OF FRIED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this work deals with the issue of changes in carbohydrate representation of potato tubers at 11 varieties due to their storage. Time of storage effect on starch and reducing sugars content was examined. The lowest reducing sugar content was observed at the end of the storage at the variety of Markies (0.15%. Sensory quality of the fried potato chips and French fries was assessed by the international system (Colour cards for quality evaluation of potato chips. Best varieties, that showed (even after 6 months of storage the highest sensory assessment at French fries (9, were Agria and Vladan. In case of potato chips the highest rating was 7 points (Laura, Mark, Vladan after the storage time.

  10. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. 31 CFR 585.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the FRY (S&M). 585.205 Section 585.205 Money and Finance... exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the FRY (S&M). Except as otherwise authorized, no goods, technology (including technical data or other information controlled for export...

  12. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  13. Effect of fish and oil nature on frying process and nutritional product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorena, D. (Diana); Guembe, A. (Ainhoa); Mendizabal, T. (Tatiana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2010-01-01

    The modifications on a lean fish (cod-Gadus morhua) and a fatty fish (farmed salmon-Salmo salar) after the application of pan-frying using 2 types of oil with different lipid profile (extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) was the aim of this study. Fat content and total energetic value increased significantly after the frying process only in the lean fish, without relevant changes in the fatty fish. Extra virgin olive oil led to a higher fat absorption rate than sunflower oil in both fish...

  14. Immunization of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) with a crude lipopolysaccharide extract from Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control methods for Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the etiologic agent of bacterial coldwater disease (CWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome, are limited and oftentimes ineffective; hence, research efforts have focused on vaccine development. This study tested the hypothesis that a crude lipopolysacch...

  15. Formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids in thermoxidized olive and sunflower oils and quantitation in used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Joaquín; Marmesat, Susana; Bordeaux, Olivier; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Dobarganes, Carmen

    2004-07-14

    The formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids, arising from oleic and linoleic acids, were investigated in olive oil and conventional sunflower oil, representatives of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils, respectively, during thermoxidation at 180 degrees C for 5, 10, and 15 h. Six monoepoxy fatty acids, cis-9,10- and trans-9,10-epoxystearate, arising from oleic acid, and cis-9,10-, trans-9,10-, cis-12,13-, and trans-12,13-epoxyoleate, arising from linoleic acid, were analyzed by gas chromatography after oil derivatization to fatty acid methyl esters. Considerable amounts, ranging from 4.29 to 14.24 mg/g of oil in olive oil and from 5.10 to 9.44 mg/g of oil in sunflower oil, were found after the heating periods assayed. Results showed that the monoepoxides quantitated constituted a major group among the oxidized fatty acid monomers formed at high temperature. For similar levels of degradation, higher contents of the monoepoxides were found in olive oil than in sunflower oil. Ten used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets in Spain were analyzed to determine the contents of the monoepoxides in real frying oil samples. Levels ranged from 3.37 to 14.42 mg/g of oil. Results show that, for similar degradation levels, the monoepoxides were more abundant in the monounsaturated oils than in the polyunsaturated oils.

  16. Physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H

    2012-07-01

    After several years of feeding at sea, salmonids have an amazing ability to migrate long distances from the open ocean to their natal stream to spawn. Three different research approaches from behavioural to molecular biological studies have been used to elucidate the physiological mechanisms underpinning salmonid imprinting and homing migration. The study was based on four anadromous Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, migrating from the North Pacific Ocean to the coast of Hokkaido, Japan, as well as lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya, Hokkaido, where the lake serves as the model oceanic system. Behavioural studies using biotelemetry techniques showed swimming profiles from the Bering Sea to the coast of Hokkaido in O. keta as well as homing behaviours of lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya. Endocrinological studies on hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis of O. keta, and lacustrine O. nerka identified the hormonal changes during homing migration. Neurophysiological studies revealed crucial roles of olfactory functions on imprinting and homing during downstream and upstream migration, respectively. These findings are discussed in relation to the physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in anadromous and lacustrine salmonids. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Review: Physical, physical chemistries, chemical and sensorial characteristics of the several fruits and vegetables chips by low-temperature vacuum frying machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD, Sugiyarto, Solichatun, Susilowati A. 2013. Review: Physical, physical chemistries, chemical and sensorial characteristics of the several fruits and vegetables chips by low-temperature vacuum frying machine. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 84-100. Frying process is one of the oldest cooking methods and most widely practiced in the world. Frying process is considered as a dry cooking method because the process does not involve water. In frying process, oil conduction occurs at high temperature pressing water out of food in the form of bubbles. Fried foods last longer due to reduced water levels lead less decomposition by microbes, even fried foods can be enhanced nutritional value and quality of appearance. Food frying technology can extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables and frying oil enhances the flavors of the products, however, improper frying oil can have harmful effects on human health. Vacuum frying is a promising technology that may be an option for the production of novel snacks such as fruit and vegetable crisps that present the desired quality and respond to new health trends. This technique fry food at a low temperature and pressure so that the nutritional quality of the food is maintained and the quality of the used oil does not quickly declined and became saturated oils that are harmful to human health. This technique produces chips that have physical, physico-chemical, chemical, and sensory generally better than conventional deep-fat frying methods.

  18. Properties and stability of deep-fat fried chickpea products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozdemir, S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to develop new snack foods prepared from deep frying whole chickpeas and evaluating the properties and storage stability of the new products. The most remarkable results found were: moisture content (3.48–9.19%, water activity (0.1833–0.5936, hardness (3243–4056 g, L (42.01–65.79, a* (10.56–19.24, b* (30.80–42.20, free fatty acidity (0.2195–0.3467%, pero xide value (3.167–5.25 meq O2·kg−1, total phenolic (22.34–37.34 mgGA·100g−1 chickpea, antioxidant capacity (6.53–31.61 mmol Trolox·100g−1 chickpea, absorbed fat (13.46–13.92%, and caloric value (453.17–488.49 kcal·100g−1 chickpea. Hexanal, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, nonanal, benzaldehyde, p-cymene, and carvacrol were the major volatile compounds determined. The color, hardness, moisture content, water activity, free fatty acids, and peroxide value of the products were monitored for three months at room temperature. Consumer acceptance tests were conducted to reveal the changes which occurred during the storage period. All the products developed and evaluated in this study show potential in the market and industry, with the plain type being the preferred product.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron el desarrollo de nuevos aperitivos elaborados mediante fritura de garbanzos enteros y la evaluación de las propiedades y estabilidad de los nuevos productos durante el almacenamiento. Los resultados mas destacados fueron: contenido de humedad (3,48–9,19%, actividad de agua (0,1833–0,5936, dureza (3243–4056 g, L (42,01 a 65,79, a* (10.56–19,24, b* (30,80–42,20, ácidos grasos libres (0,2195–0,3467%, índice de peróxido (3,167 a 5,25 meq O2·kg −1, fenoles total (22,34–37,34 mgGA·100g−1 garbanzo, capacidad antioxidante (6.53– 31.61 mmol Trolox·100 g−1 garbanzos, grasa absorbida (13,46–13,92%, y el valor calórico (453,17 a 488,49 kcal·100 g−1 de garbanzos. Además, los componentes volátiles más importantes

  19. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS FARMED IN ADRIATIC SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Janči

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of fresh and cold smoked rainbow trout fillets (Oncorhynchus mykiss farmed in the Adriatic sea by measuring water, fat, protein, salt and ash content, fatty acid profile with an emphasis on eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA fatty acids. Physical characteristics were determined by pH and color measurements. Analysis was performed on homogenized fish muscles without skin and bones. Determination of moisture, ash, fat and protein was conducted according to AOAC (1995. Determination of fatty acid content of previously prepared methyl esters (HRN EN ISO 5509, 2004 was conducted by gas chromatography according to HRN EN ISO 5508 (1999. Results showed that fresh rainbow trout farmed in the Adriatic sea is an excellent protein source (21.21% but has slightly lower fat (5.21% and omega-3 fatty acid content (12.52 % compared to the results of other studies. Fat and omega-3 fatty acid content was not decreased by the process of cold smoking. Overall, fresh and smoked trout farmed in the Adriatic may be regarded as food high in nutritional value.

  20. Experimental vaccine against lactococcosis in cultured rainbowtrout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazzeni Jula, Gh.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus garvieae is the etiological agent of lactococcosis, an emerging disease which affects several fish species and causes important economic losses both in marine and freshwater aquaculture. Lactococcosis usually happens when water temperature increases over 15°C during the year. Normally, it causes a hyperacute and haemorrhagic septicemia in fish. This paper presents a procedure for producing experimental vaccine for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss lactococcosis including aspects such as pathogen characterization, pathogenicity, mass cultivation, safety, potency and field trial tests for immersion use. In the potency test, after challenging the vaccinated fish with live pathogenic bacteria (1×107 bacteria per milliliter of immersing solution and observing for 72 hours thereafter, 10% of fish died while the control group showed 60% mortality within the observation time. In the field trial from vaccination time onward till marketing of the fish, those mortalities that occurred in groups of vaccinated and non-vaccinated fish were recorded. Total death occurred in the vaccinated group was 11%, while in non vaccinated group this number was approaching 23%. This observation indicates a 50% reduction in mortality in the vaccinated group. This is the first report on experimental vaccine against lactococcosis in fish that is produced and tested in Iran.

  1. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  2. Virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Jason P; LaFrentz, Benjamin R

    2016-08-09

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and is responsible for significant economic losses in aquaculture. F. columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium, and 5 genetic types or genomovars have been described based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA gene. Previous research has suggested that genomovar II isolates are more virulent than genomovar I isolates to multiple species of fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In addition, improved genotyping methods have shown that some isolates previously classified as genomovar I, and used in challenge experiments, were in fact genomovar III. Our objective was to confirm previous results with respect to genomovar II virulence, and to determine the susceptibility of rainbow trout to other genomovars. The virulence of 8 genomovar I, 4 genomovar II, 3 genomovar II-B, and 5 genomovar III isolates originating from various sources was determined through 3 independent challenges in rainbow trout using an immersion challenge model. Mean cumulative percent mortality (CPM) of ~49% for genomovar I isolates, ~1% for genomovar II, ~5% for the II-B isolates, and ~7% for the III isolates was observed. The inability of genomovar II isolates to produce mortalities in rainbow trout was unanticipated based on previous studies, but may be due to a number of factors including rainbow trout source and water chemistry. The source of fish and/or the presence of sub-optimal environment may influence the susceptibility of rainbow trout to different F. columnare genomovars.

  3. Genetic diversity in Chilean populations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B Cárcamo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, was first introduced in Chile between 1905 and 1920 and is currently widely distributed in Chile from Antofagasta (23°S to Patagonia (55°S. The broad range of the geographic and climatic distributions of this species in Chile offers a unique opportunity to study the effect of naturalization of an introduced species on its genetic variability. It is of particular importance to observe the genetic variability of populations in the northern range of this species distribution, in a transition zone where a Mediterranean-type climate changes to an arid climate. The present study analyzed allozymic variability and distribution within and between populations of O. mykiss from the river basins of Elqui and Limari rivers, and six culture strains, using starch-gel protein electrophoresis. Populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the average values of He (0.045, polymorphism (13.9% and allele per locus (1.19 are similar to rainbow trout in its native distributional range. About 77.8% of the genetic variability was within population, similar to the variability reported for wild populations in the northern hemisphere. However, a marked genetic differentiation between wild populations was also found. This is likely to be the consequence of initial founder effects followed by subsequent introgression of resident populations caused by reseeding with trout of different origins in both basins.

  4. Biochemical responses to cadmium exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Patrick; Silvestri, Sonia; Ferlizza, Enea; Andreani, Giulia; Carpenè, Emilio; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Tiano, Luca; Isani, Gloria

    2017-11-01

    Cd is known for its carcinogenic effects, however its mechanism of toxicity and in particular its ability to promote oxidative stress is debated. In fact, although it is considered a redox-inactive metal, at high concentration Cd was shown to promote indirectly oxidative stress. In this study we investigated metal accumulation in ex vivo exposed trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) erythrocytes and Cd dose-dependent effect in terms of RBC viability, cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS levels as well as its effects on mitochondrial membrane depolarization, hemoglobin stability and precipitation. In the concentration range used, Cd did not affect cell viability. However, metal accumulation was associated with an increase in all oxidative indexes evaluated, except mitochondrial superoxide anion production that, on the contrary, was significantly decreased, probably due to a lowered respiration rate associated with interference of Cd with complex I, II and III, as suggested by the observed Cd-dependent mitochondrial membrane depolarization. On the other hand, hemoglobin destabilisation seems to be the major trigger of oxidative stress in this cell type. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. USA välisminister Daniel Fried : "Me ei taha nõrka Venemaad"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 12. mai 2007, lk. 5. USA asevälisminister Euroopa ja Euraasia küsimustes Daniel Fried märkis Saksamaal toimunud Euroopa foorumil, et Venemaaga suhtlemiseks ja koostöö tegemiseks on vaja luua ühine koostööraamistik

  6. Modeling of pancake frying with non-uniform heating source applied to domestic cookers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Serrano, F.; Sagues, C.; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu

    2016-01-01

    The design of domestic cooking stoves is usually optimized by performing time-consuming cooking experiments, often using frying of pancakes as a standard. Simulation of cooking processes may reduce the number of experiments used in the development of the cooking stoves, saving time and resources....

  7. Controlling the frying stability of vegetable oils with tocopherols and phytosterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyunsaturated vegetable oils are usually oxidatively stable for salad oils; however, in high stability applications such as frying, these oils are not resistant to the deteriorative processes of oxidation, hydrolysis and polymerization. To solve this problem in the past, oils were hydrogenated an...

  8. Order-α corrections to the decay rate of orthopositronium in the Fried-Yennie gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, G.S.; Salahuddin, A.A.; Schalm, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    The order-α correction to the decay rate of orthopositronium is obtained using the Fried-Yennie gauge. The result (mα 7 /π 2 ) [-1.987 84(11)] is consistent with but more accurate than the results of previous evaluations

  9. Electron beam-induced Fries rearrangement of arylsulfonamides and arylsulfonates in the crystalline state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Jun; Yuasa, Kanako; Yamashita, Takashi; Maekawa, Yasunari; Yoshida, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam (EB)-induced reactions of organic crystals containing a carbonyl or a sulfonyl group have been investigated. The EB irradiation of benzenesulfonanilide (BSA) in the crystalline state induced the Fries rearrangement to yield o- and p-aminodiphenylsulfones as the major and minor products, respectively. Several BSA derivatives also had the same reactivity, while benzanilide as the corresponding carbonyl compound did not rearrange under the same conditions. These results showed that the S-N bond could be cleaved selectively by EB irradiation but the C-N bond couldn't, which could take place only by the use of EB. The EB irradiation of phenyl p-toluenesulfonate (PTS) crystals gave not only Fries-type products but also the oxidation product. By comparing with the reactivity of liquid phenyl benzenesulfonate, the EB-induced Fries rearrangement was suggested to proceed under crystalline lattice restrictions. The G-values of arylsulfonamides and arylsulfonates were in the range of ca. 1-2 molecules per 100 eV of absorbed energy. This is the first Fries rearrangement via direct excitation by EB irradiation. (author)

  10. Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, John

    2002-01-01

    Presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries' recent analysis of the ways that two competing ideologies (deregulation and professionalization) are being employed in the United States to support teacher education reform, noting important differences between the United States and England in how these ideologies have been advanced…

  11. Marking pike fry otoliths with alizarin complexone and strontium : an evaluation of methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Grønkjær, P.; Nielsen, C.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory experiments demonstrated that both alizarin complexone and strontium are useful in mass marking of pike Esox lucius fry otoliths. Visual detection of alizarin complexone marks was considered more reliable than the quantitative analysis of strontium for differentiating marked and unmarked...

  12. Stress Effects in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fry on Pond Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from previous studies suggested that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry that were housed in very high traffic areas from hatch until reaching 9 g in size were able to survive experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri better than siblings who were hatched and raised in very low...

  13. [Processing and characterization of fried beans varieties Pinto 114, Suave 85 and Tórtola Inia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M L; Escobar, B; Estévez, A M

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was develop a snack product based on fried beans. For this purpose, three bean varieties were used: Pinto 114, Suave 85 and Tórtola Inia. The beans were treated with two soaking solutions, EDTA disodium salt and a mixture of NaOH/water, to determine if they had some effect on the product's final quality. On the other hand, before the beans were fried, some grains were given thermal treatment (blanched), leaving the other ones without this process (raw); this also had an effect on the final quality of the fried beans. Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of the final fried products were determined. For three beans varieties, the blanched products had higher water content, higher oil absorption, lower protein content and larger water activity. The soaking solutions had no effect on the quality of manufactured products. The sensory analysis determined that the best treatment for Pinto 114 and Tórtola Inia was NaOH/water-raw grain, and EDTA raw grain for Suave 85.

  14. Acrylamide content in French fries prepared in households: A pilot study in Spanish homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesias, Marta; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Holgado, Francisca; Morales, Francisco J

    2018-09-15

    An observational cross-sectional pilot study in 73 Spanish households was conducted to evaluate the impact of consumer practices on the formation of acrylamide during the preparation of French fries from fresh potatoes applying one stage frying. 45.2% of samples presented acrylamide concentrations above the benchmark level for French fries (500 µg/kg). 6.9% of samples exceeded 2000 µg/kg and the 95th percentile was 2028 µg/kg. The median and average values were significantly higher than the EFSA report for this food category, suggesting that the total exposure to acrylamide by the population could be underestimated. In this randomised scenario of cooking practices, the content of reducing sugar and asparagine did not explain the acrylamide levels. However, the chromatic parameter a ∗ of the fried potato was a powerful tool to classify the samples according to the acrylamide benchmark level regardless of the agronomical characteristics of the potato or the consumer practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alterations of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rezende Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical alterations in palm oil during continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks were evaluated using a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The acidity index, refractive index, concentration of polar compounds, viscosity, color, and absorbance (232 and 268 nm of 238 samples of the frying oil collected during 26 days of production were analyzed. For all of the analyses, the results of the oil were below the limits recommended for oil disposal, indicating that the processing conditions were safe and that under these experimental conditions the oil remained suitable for frying. The linear regressions were significant for refractive index, content of polar compounds, and lightness (L*. The content of polar compounds was determined using a cooking oil tester, and it had the best fit to the proposed model and can be used as an effective index for monitoring palm oil during the continuous par frying of breaded chicken snacks. The high turnover rate of the oil was important for maintaining the oil in good running conditions.

  16. On the mechanism by which oil uptake decreases crispy/crunchy behaviour of fried products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Visser, J.E.; Luyten, J.M.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    A large problem for fried snack products with a crispy crust and a soft moist interior is that the crust often loses its crispy character fast, in the order of 3¿20 min. As known during cooling of these snacks adherent oil will be sucked into the crust. The presence of oil in a cellular solid crispy

  17. Effect of Boiling and Frying on the Total Carbohydrate, Vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the total carbohydrate content of the boiled and fried sweet and Irish potatoes compared with their raw tubers. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the vitamin C content of the boiled and ...

  18. Selection Criteria and Methods for Testing Different Surface Materials for Contact Frying Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya

    Inner surfaces of industrial process equipment for food are often coated to give the surfaces particular properties with respect to adhesion and cleanability. Existing coating materials (PTFE (Teflon®) or silicone based polymers) suffer from drawbacks when used in contact frying, because these co...... surface materials for contact frying processes. The surfaces selected for this purpose cover a wide spectrum of materials that range from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), aluminium (Al Mg 5754), PTFE......, an experimental rig has been constructed which enabled a controlled fouling of different coatings on steel and aluminium substrates under realistic frying conditions. A subjective rating procedure was employed for screening different surfaces according to their non-stick properties when used for frying of a model...... defects and surface roughness play a significant role. The wear resistance of the coatings was tested by performing abrasive wear experiments. The ceramic coatings: TiAlN and ZrN were found to show the best wear resistance properties. The experiments also revealed the poor wear resistance of stainless...

  19. A New Device for Studying Deep-Frying Behavior of Batters and Resulting Crust Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.E.; Beukelaer, de H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2008-01-01

    The formation and properties of a crust during and after deep frying are difficult to study. Batter pickup (the amount of batter adhering to a product) and core properties affect crust formation and properties of the crust in such way that it is difficult to compare batters of different viscosity or

  20. Biosurfactant production by Mucor circinelloides on waste frying oil and possible uses in crude oil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanizadeh, Parvin; Moghimi, Hamid; Hamedi, Javad

    2017-10-01

    Biosurfactants are biocompatible surface active agents which many microorganisms produce. This study investigated the production of biosurfactants by Mucor circinelloides. The effects of different factors on biosurfactant production, including carbon sources and concentrations, nitrogen sources, and iron (II) concentration, were studied and the optimum condition determined. Finally, the strain's ability to remove the crude oil and its relationship with biosurfactant production was evaluated. The results showed that M. circinelloides could reduce the surface tension of the culture medium to 26.6 mN/m and create a clear zone of 12.9 cm diameter in an oil-spreading test. The maximum surface tension reduction was recorded 3 days after incubation. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved in the presence of 8% waste frying oil as a carbon source, 2 g/L yeast extract as a nitrogen source, and 0.01 mM FeSO 4 . M. circinelloides could consume 8% waste frying oil in 5 days of incubation, and 87.6% crude oil in 12 days of incubation. A direct correlation was observed between oil degradation and surface tension reduction in the first 3 days of fungal growth. The results showed that the waste frying oil could be recommended as an inexpensive oily waste substance for biosurfactant production, and M. circinelloides could have the potential to treat waste frying oil. According to the results, the produced crude biosurfactant or fungal strain could be directly used for the mycoremediation of crude oil contamination in oil fields.

  1. Statistical Quality Assessment of Pre-fried Carrots Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is increasingly being used for quality assessment of food items due to its non-invasive benefits. In this paper, we investigate the use of multispectral images of pre-fried carrots, to detect changes over a period of 14 days. The idea is to distinguish changes in quality from...

  2. Effect of deep frying on physicochemical properties of some edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of heating on some quality characteristics of sunflower oil, cotton seed oil and a mixture (1:1) of both oils have been investigated. Every sample was heated for up to 10 hours. The study included changes in colour, viscosity, some chemical properties (acid value, peroxide value, saponification number and iodine value), fatty acids and hydrocarbons composition. The colour of the three studied oils was changed as a result of deep frying at 180 degree C for up to 10 hours. Also, the viscosity of all oil samples showed gradual increase from the 1st up to the 10th hour of frying. The acid, peroxide and saponification values of oil samples were increased by extending the frying periods whereas iodine value was decreased up to 10 hours frying. The fatty acids composition was unstable and changed as a result of heat treatments. Saturated fatty acids were increased while unsaturated fatty acids were decreased. Furthermore, the hydrocarbon contents of the three oils showed obvious change after 10 hours of boiling. According to the data obtained, it could be concluded that extending the time of heating resulted in significant changes in the physicochemical properties of the oil and sunflower oil appear to be the most resistant to thermal treatment (2-3 hours

  3. Color and chemical properties of oil used for deep frying on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Tateishi, Sayuri; Chiue, Hiroko; Mori, Terutosi

    2012-01-01

    Acid value (AV), polar compound content (PC), carbonyl value (CV) and Gardner color of oil used for deep-frying in kitchens at a supermarket, lunch chain store, restaurant, eating house, and hospital were analyzed. All AVs obtained but one (3.38) were within the limit set by the Food Sanitation Act of Japan (AV ≤ 3, peroxide value ≤ 30). However, some oil samples had a PC over 25%, which is beyond the limit legislated by some European countries. When the relation between the Gardner color and the AV, PC, or CV of the oil was investigated, well correlated logarithmic regression curves were obtained from the oil of all kitchens except the hospital kitchen. However, the use of lard-containing canola oil without oil replenishment in the eating house increased color values rapidly. All of the values obtained from pure vegetable oil used almost daily were plotted on a graph. It was found that kitchen-by-kitchen differences in fryer, vegetable oil, frying temperature, heating time, and amounts and kinds of foods fried did not influence the relation between Gardner color value versus AV, PC or CV. In conclusion, frying vegetable oil used in large-scale kitchens without official inspection can be better controlled with Gardner color determination by the operators and administrators. This would improve the quality of the oil ingested by facility patrons.

  4. Performance of cellulose derivatives in deep-fried battered snacks: Oil barrier and crispy properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Sanz, T.; Steringa, D.W.; Salvador, A.; Fiszman, S.M.; Vliet, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The performance of batters containing cellulose derivatives (methyl cellulose (A4M), three hydroxypropylmethyl celluloses (E4M, F4M and K4M) with different degree of hydroxypropyl and/or methyl substitution and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) to produce crispy deep-fried snacks crusts was studied by

  5. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  6. Effects of rice batter on oil uptake and sensory quality coated fried okra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okra was coated and deep-fat fried with batters of flour sources, including rice flour, a mixture of rice flour, and small amounts of pregelatinized rice flour (PGRF), and, as a control, the traditional wheat flour. The addition of PGRF, up to 8%, enhanced batter viscosity and the coating properties...

  7. Anti-radical power gives insight into early lipid oxidation events during frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to use anti-radical power (ARP) to study early lipid oxidation events during frying. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH¿) test was used to determine the ARP. As oil does not dissolve completely in methanol, which is generally used for the DPPH¿ test, butanol

  8. Cuestión de tiempo: Michael Fried y el tiempo del arte moderno A matter of time: Michael Fried and modernist art the time of modernist art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz Soto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el siglo XIX, autores fundacionales del formalismo, como Fiedler o Hildebrand, contrapusieron estrictamente las artes plásticas, «puramente visuales», a las artes verbales del discurso, proscribiéndoles la narración y disociándolas de la temporalidad: se trata del «principio de exclusión del tiempo», vinculado al formalismo. Más tarde, el crítico «modernista» de arte Clement Greenberg planteó la instantaneidad, en tanto que opuesta a la duración, como modalidad ideal de la experiencia artística. Pero el historiador y crítico de arte Michael Fried, en sus textos de los años 60 sobre arte abstracto, se distancia de Greenberg, desarrollando un discurso sobre la temporalidad en las artes plásticas, con nociones como «tiempo visual»; y en sus posteriores textos historiográficos investiga las modalidades temporales de la representación pictórica. La aparente paradoja entre la crítica de Fried a la hipóstasis «literalista» de la duración en las tardovanguardias y el papel crucial que concede a Manet y a la instantaneidad en el origen del arte moderno, la resolveremos atendiendo a su reivindicación de la temporalidad durativa de «lo cotidiano». Así cabe comprender la concepción de la modalidad temporal característica de la modernidad y del arte moderno, a la que apunta su noción teórica de presentness.In the nineteenth century, seminal authors of Formalism, like Fiedler or Hildebrand, strictly compared the «purely visual» plastic arts to the discursive arts of verbal language, ruling out narrativity from plastic arts, which they dissociated from temporality - the formalist «principle of exclusion of time». Later on, «modernist» art critic Clement Greenberg claimed that instantaneousness, as opposed to duration, was the ideal modality for artistic experience. Art critic and historian Michael Fried did not share Greenberg's position, but developed instead a discourse about time in plastic arts. In his early

  9. Evidence of sex-bias in gene expression in the brain transcriptome of two populations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with divergent life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew C; McKinney, Garrett J; Thrower, Frank P; Nichols, Krista M

    2018-01-01

    Sex-bias in gene expression is a mechanism that can generate phenotypic variance between the sexes, however, relatively little is known about how patterns of sex-bias vary during development, and how variable sex-bias is between different populations. To that end, we measured sex-bias in gene expression in the brain transcriptome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the first two years of development. Our sampling included from the fry stage through to when O. mykiss either migrate to the ocean or remain resident and undergo sexual maturation. Samples came from two F1 lines: One from migratory steelhead trout and one from resident rainbow trout. All samples were reared in a common garden environment and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to estimate patterns of gene expression. A total of 1,716 (4.6% of total) genes showed evidence of sex-bias in gene expression in at least one time point. The majority (96.7%) of sex-biased genes were differentially expressed during the second year of development, indicating that patterns of sex-bias in expression are tied to key developmental events, such as migration and sexual maturation. Mapping of differentially expressed genes to the O. mykiss genome revealed that the X chromosome is enriched for female upregulated genes, and this may indicate a lack of dosage compensation in rainbow trout. There were many more sex-biased genes in the migratory line than the resident line suggesting differences in patterns of gene expression in the brain between populations subjected to different forces of selection. Overall, our results suggest that there is considerable variation in the extent and identity of genes exhibiting sex-bias during the first two years of life. These differentially expressed genes may be connected to developmental differences between the sexes, and/or between adopting a resident or migratory life history.

  10. Effect of phenolic extracts on trans fatty acid formation during frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamel, TH

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil (blend of refined and virgin and sunflower oil containing added methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary and olive vegetable water or the synthetic antioxidant BHA in combination with the extracts, were used in a frying process. Eight frying operations were performed at 180 °C with 24 hr intervals between fryings. During the frying period the trans fatty acids (TFA by capillary column gas chromatography (CC-GC were determined. Trans fatty acids of oleic and linoleic were increased with frying time in both the control oil samples. The rosemary additives (extracts alone and in combination with BHA decreased the level of trans fatty acids (mainly elaidic acid, while the addition of olive vegetable water did not have any effect.

    Aceite de oliva (mezcla de virgen y refinado y aceite de girasol con extractos fenólicos de romero seco y aguas de vegetación de aceituna, o con el antioxidante sintético BHA en combinación con los extractos, se usaron en proceso de fritura. Se realizaron 8 operaciones de fritura a 180°C con intervalos de 24 h. Se determinaron los ácidos grasos trans (TFA por cromatografía de gases en columna capilar (CC-GC. Los ácidos grasos trans de oleico y linoleico aumentaron con el tiempo de fritura en las muestras de aceite control. Los extractos de romero, solos y en combinación con BHA, disminuyeron los niveles de ácidos grasos trans (principalmente ácido elaídico mientras que la adicción de aguas de vegetación de aceituna no tuvo ningún efecto.

  11. Effect of baking and frying on the in vivo toxicity to rats of cornmeal containing fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth A; Meredith, Filmore I; Bacon, Charles W

    2003-08-27

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme) and other Fusarium species. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations in food products under some conditions; however, little is known about how cooking effects biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corncakes, and deep-fried fritters were made from cornmeal that was spiked with 5% w/w F. verticillioides culture material (CM). The cooked materials and the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal were fed to male rats (n = 5/group) for 2 weeks at high (20% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) or low (2% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) doses. A control group was fed a diet containing 20% w/w unspiked cornmeal. Toxic response to the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal and the cooked products included decreased body weight gain (high-dose only), decreased kidney weight, and microscopic kidney and liver lesions of the type caused by fumonisins. Fumonisin concentration, as determined by HPLC analysis, in the 20% w/w pan-fried corncake diet [92.2 ppm of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1))] was slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower than those of the 20% w/w baked cornbread (132.2 ppm of FB(1)), deep-fried fritter (120.2 ppm of FB(1)) and CM-spiked cornmeal (130.5 of ppm FB(1)) diets. Therefore, baking and frying had no significant effect on the biological activity or concentration of fumonisins in these corn-based products, and the results provided no evidence for the formation of novel toxins or "hidden" fumonisins during cooking.

  12. KIT RELIABILITY FOR CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF OILS IN FOOD FRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Oloni Kotchoni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Benin, West Africa, frying is one of the major ways of cooking. However, the chemical composition of the oil used in the food frying process contains unsaturated fatty acids and other by-products that compromise the oil quality making it toxic and often carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to check the reliability of kits in controlling three frying yams oil quality. The food frying was performed using oil in a discontinuous heating period of 15 min followed by three hours of cooling period for two experimental days. The temperature, and the oil chemical samplings were assessed with the kit every thirty minutes. In addition, selected oil chemical characteristics were determined to quantitatively and qualitatively appreciate the chemical modifications during the fast food versus the rapid food processing methods. Our findings indicate that water and volatile chemical compounds vary significantly for the first day of analysis from 0.18% to 1.6% for groundnut oil; from 0.14% to 1.4% for palm oil and from 0.17% to 1.6% for cotton oils. We detected a decrease of iodine index to 25%; 35.31% and 27.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. However, the peroxide index increases to 55.33%; 61.90% and 57.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. The increases of acid and saponification indices were also observed. Under conjugated effect of water temperature contained in the yam and air contact, the chemical characteristics of oil vary with the frying time. Our results reveal concordance consistent data with both the rapid methods and laboratory data set analysis.

  13. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxin; Hong, Yan; Han, Yanquan; Wang, Yongzhong; Xia, Lunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, and is also an important Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different processing methods can produce different processed gingers with dissimilar chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was applied to identify the complicated components from fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger extracts. All of the 27 compounds were identified from four kinds of ginger samples (fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger). Five main constituents (zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol) in these four kinds of ginger sample extracts were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA. Meanwhile, the antioxidant effect of fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized gingers were evaluated by three assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)). The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity of dried ginger was the highest, for its phenolic contents are 5.2-, 1.1- and 2.4-fold higher than that of fresh, stir-frying and carbonized ginger, respectively, the antioxidant activities' results indicated a similar tendency with phenolic contents: dried ginger>stir-frying ginger>fresh ginger>carbonized ginger. The processing contributed to the decreased concentration of gingerols and the increased levels of shogaols, which reducing the antioxidant effects in pace with processing. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and antioxidant activity, and provided a guide for choosing different kinds of ginger samples on clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Promoting growth of fry and adult fish by irradiating fish embryos with low-dose of Ra-Be neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongcheng; Zhang Yuhua; Wu Jilan

    1994-01-01

    Proper neutron dose can stimulate fries to grow. The optimum neutron fluence is from 9.2 x 10 5 cm -2 to 18 x 10 5 cm -2 . The yield of fries is increased by 16%-24% (silver carp fries) and 6%-30% (carp fries). The cultivated period of the treated silver carp fries is shortened by 28-45 days (1/3 to 1/2 period). The irradiated embryos of silver carp and carp are reared and produced for commercial adult fish in 1992

  15. Effects of jackbean seed meal on the intestinal mucosa of juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Rainbow trout. (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquacult. 161: 27 – 43. D'Mello JPF (1995). Anti-nutritional substances in legume seeds in: JPF D'Mello and C. Devendra (eds.). tropical Legumes in Animal.

  16. MODEL PERUBAHAN VOLUME KERIPIK BUAH SELAMA PROSES PENGGORENGAN SECARA VAKUM [Model for Volume Changes in Fruit Chips during Vacuum Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin1*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Expansion and puffing are specific characteristics of fried products critical for consumer preferences. To obtain expanded and puffed dried products that fit well with consumer acceptance criteria, it is necessary to pay attention to the process conditions which change the raw material characteristics during frying. The important changes include volume and density ratio of the products during frying. Hypothetically, these changes are due to water vaporization and the decrease dry matter in the products. The objective of this research is to develop a mathematical model of volume and density ratio changes for jack fruit during vacuum frying as a function of water and starch content reductions. Samples were vacuum fried at 70–100OC and pressure of 80-90 kPa for 15–60 min. The parameters observed were volume and density as well as water and starch contents of samples before and after vacuum frying. The results showed that the developed model can be used to predict changes in volume and density ratio of jack fruit during vacuum frying.

  17. Environmental Profile of the Swiss Supply Chain for French Fries: Effects of Food Loss Reduction, Loss Treatments and Process Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of food is responsible for major environmental impacts. Bearing this in mind, it is even worse when food is lost rather than consumed. In Switzerland, 46% of all processing potatoes and 53% of all fresh potatoes are lost on their way from field to fork. Our study therefore compares the environmental impacts of losses of fresh potatoes with those of French fries. With the aid of a Life Cycle Assessment, we assessed the impact categories “demand for nonrenewable energy resources”, “global warming potential”, “human toxicity”, “terrestrial ecotoxicity” and “aquatic ecotoxicity”. Our results show that 1 kg of potatoes consumed as French fries causes 3–5 times more environmental impacts than the same quantity of fresh potatoes, but also that the proportion of impacts relating to losses is considerably lower for French fries (5%–10% vs. 23%–39%. The great majority of processing potato losses occur before the resource-intensive, emission-rich frying processes and therefore the environmental “backpack” carried by each lost potato is still relatively small. Nonetheless, appropriate loss treatment can substantially reduce the environmental impact of potato losses. In the case of French fries, the frying processes and frying oil are the main “hot spots” of environmental impacts, accounting for a considerably higher proportion of damage than potato losses; it is therefore also useful to look at these processes.

  18. Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) habitat/limnologic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock

  19. Organic diets are equally good for rainbow trout fry as conventional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Ingerslev, Hans Christian; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the dominant fish species in Danish freshwater aquaculture and the annual production is about 30.000 tonnes. Only a minor part of this production is organic, but the proportion of farmed organic rainbow trout is continuously increasing. The aim of the projec...... ingredients are of organic or conventional origin. Furthermore, fish fed organic diets appear to acquire the same health status as fish fed conventional diets....

  20. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Pak Dek, Mohd Sabri; Tan, Chin Ping; Mohd Zainudin, Mohd Asraf; Wee Fang, Evelyn Koh

    2014-01-01

    Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO) and rice bran oil (RBO) during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α)-tocopherol, gamma (γ)-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p -oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying. PMID:26785067

  1. Anti-oxidative effect of turmeric on frying characteristics of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Ghosh, Santinath; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, is known to act as an anti-oxidant, anti-mutagen and anti-carcinogen. This study aimed to find out the thermal and oxidative stability of soybean oil when potatoes marinated with turmeric were deep fried in the oil. Two sets of experiment were carried out. In one set, 1 L of oil was heated for 24 h (8 h daily for 3 consecutive days) and 200 g of potato chips without any marination were fried each time twice daily. Foods were fried in batches to replicate the commercial practice of the food industries. The temperature maintained during the whole experiment was at 180-190 °C i.e. at the frying temperature. About 50 ml of the oil sample was collected after every 4 h. In the second set, another 1 L of soybean oil was heated for 24 h in the similar manner and potato chips marinated with turmeric was fried twice daily. Oil samples were collected as before and comparative studies were done. The chemical parameters like acid value, peroxide value, content of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) and fatty acid composition for all the oil samples of each set were determined. The comparative studies on peroxide value and content of HNE revealed that the antioxidant property of curcumin in turmeric helped in reducing the oxidation of the oil initially, but with increase in duration of time, the antioxidant potency got gradually reduced. The loss of unsaturated fatty acids were calculated from the fatty acid composition and it was found that loss of unsaturation in soybean oil where turmeric marinated potatoes were fried was 6.37 % while the controlled one showed 7.76 % loss after 24 h of heating. These results indicated higher thermal and oxidative stability of the soybean oil in presence of turmeric. However, the antioxidant effect gradually decreased with increase in duration of heating.

  2. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying; Seguimiento de las características fisicoquímicas de aceite de girasol y patatas durante frituras repetidas mediante microondas y freidora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [Spanish] Se estudia los efectos de frituras repetidas mediante microondas a diferentes niveles de potencia (360W, 600W, 900W) y frituras en freidora sobre la estabilidad del aceite de girasol y la calidad de las patatas fritas. El ciclo de fritura intermitente se repitió 15 veces al día durante cinco días consecutivos. Se determinó el perfil de ácidos grasos y las propiedades fisicoquímicas incluyendo ácidos grasos libre (FFA), coeficiente de extinción (K270

  3. Respirometry increases cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: implications for measurements of metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, L.; Rennie, M. D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent to which chasing, handling and confining Oncorhynchus mykiss to a small respirometer chamber during respirometric experiments is stressful and affects metabolic measurements. The study observed increased cortisol levels in animals tested using a chase protocol...

  4. Effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgaard, Maria Garver; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle was studied in the interval from -10 to -80°C on samples stored for 1 to 18 months. The following quantities were measured: drip loss, water holding capacity and water distribution...

  5. Observations on side-swimming rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a controlled 6-month study using six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS), it was observed that rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in all WRAS exhibited a higher-than-normal prevalence of side-swimming (i.e. controlled, forward swimming, but with misaligned orientation suc...

  6. Behavioral plasticity in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) with divergent coping styles: When doves become hawks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Gomez, M.de Lourdes; Kittilsen, S.; Höglund, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and heritable individual differences in reaction to challenges, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been extensively documented invertebrates. In fish, selection for divergent post-stress plasma Cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has yielded a low (LR) a...

  7. Excess posthypoxic oxygen consumption in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): recovery in normoxia and hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Steffensen, John Fleng; Aarestrup, Kim

    2012-01-01

    at which the standard metabolic rate becomes dependent upon the ambient oxygen content. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), this study quantified the excess posthypoxic oxygen consumption (EPHOC) occurring after exposure to oxygen availability below S(crit). Tests showed that S...

  8. Calcium-dependent behavioural responses to acute copper exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S.B.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, the present study demonstrated that: (1) calcium (Ca) increased the range of copper (Cu) concentrations that O. mykiss avoided; (2) Ca conserved the maintenance of pre-exposure swimming activity during inescapable acute (10 min) Cu exposure. Data showed th...

  9. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  10. Generation-scale movement patterns of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) in a stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young

    2011-01-01

    Movements by stream fishes have long been the subject of study and controversy. Although much discussion has focused on what proportion of fish adopt mobility within particular life stages, a larger issue involves the lifetime movements of individuals. I evaluated movements of different sizes and ages of Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus...

  11. The relationship between emergence from spawning gravel and growth in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg Andersson, Madelene; Laursen, Danielle Caroline; SILVA, P.I.M.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the timing of emergence from spawning gravel and growth after emergence was investigated in farmed Oncorhynchus mykiss. A relationship between the time of emergence and growth became evident after 6 months of rearing, where individuals with an intermediate emergence time...

  12. Estrogenic effect of dietary 4-tert-octylphenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine H; Pedersen, Søren N; Pedersen, Knud L

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic effect of dietary 4-tert-octylphenol (octylphenol) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was investigated. Octylphenol was administered orally to sexually immature rainbow trout every second day for 11 days in doses between 0.4 and 50 mgkg(-1)2 d(-1). Plasma vitellogenin was measured...

  13. Experimental validation of geosmin uptake in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Waldbaum) suggests biotransformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Edward; Schrama, Johan W.; Kooten, van Tobias; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F.; Kampen, Harm; Kampen, Harm; Heul, van de Jan W.; Verreth, Johan A.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2018-01-01

    The bioconcentration of waterborne geosmin in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Waldbaum) was assessed. Fifty rainbow trout with a mean (SD) weight of 226.6 (29.0) g and lipid content of 6.2 (0.6) % (w/w) were exposed to geosmin in static water for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 120 hr, with

  14. Retinal processing and opponent mechanisms mediating ultraviolet polarization sensitivity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsden, Samuel D.; Anderson, Leslie; Mussi, Martina; Kamermans, Maarten; Hawryshyn, Craig W.

    2008-01-01

    A number of teleost fishes have photoreceptor mechanisms to detect linearly polarized light. We studied the neuronal mechanism underlying this ability. It was found that a polarized signal could be detected in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) both in the electroretinogram (ERG) and in the

  15. Case report of an unusual heart abnormality in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An unusual heart abnormality in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was recently observed. During the course of a standard hydrogen peroxide treatment (100 ppm) of production rainbow trout (mean weight, 2-3 g) affected with an external bacterial infection, a small percentage of fish exhibited morbidi...

  16. Infection by Capriniana piscium (Buetschli, 1889) Jankovski, 1973, a cause of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) kill

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Z.; Kolářová, J.; Dyková, Iva; Hamáčková, J.; Kouřil, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2009), s. 92-97 ISSN 0108-0288 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ectocommensal ciliates * Capriniana piscium * Oncorhynchus mykiss * gill infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2009

  17. Use of streambed substrate as refuge by steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during simulated freshets

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. K. Ligon; Rodney Nakamoto; Bret Harvey; P. F. Baker

    2016-01-01

    A flume was used to estimate the carrying capacity of streambed substrates for juvenile steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss seeking refuge from simulated freshets. The simulated freshets had mean water column velocities of c. 1·1 m s−1. The number of O. mykiss finding cover...

  18. Effect of whole wheat flour on the quality, texture profile, and oxidation stability of instant fried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinlei; Zhou, Sumei; Yi, Cuiping; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2017-12-01

    The effects of whole wheat flour (WWF) on pasting properties of instant fried noodle dry mix and quality of final product were investigated in this research. Refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle was replaced by WWF at different levels. The peak and final viscosities were significantly and negatively correlated to WWF substitution level. With increasing WWF level, the hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and resilience values of instant fried noodles decreased by 11.63, 16.23, 16.67, 20.00%, respectively. WWF darkened noodle's surface color and increased its oil content (26.63%). A porous and less uniformed structure of the WWF instant fried noodles was observed by a scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the WWF incorporation lowered peroxide values of the instant fried noodles during storage. In conclusion, even though the oil content increased, WWF was helpful to inhibit the oil oxidation and produce instant fried noodles with softer texture and less sticky surface. Refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle was replaced by whole wheat flour (WWF), which is rich in dietary fibers, vitamins, and other bioactive compounds. The addition of WWF delayed the retrogradation tendency of starch in the dry mix. WWF-added instant noodles had softer texture, less sticky surface, and lower peroxide value. Based on the results of this study, the refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle could be partially replaced by WWF to make noodles with better texture profile and higher consumer acceptance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Impact of Air Frying on Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Oxidation in Sardines: Protective Effects of Aromatic Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda S; Sampaio, Geni R; Keller, Laura M; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; Chávez, Davy W H; Torres, Elizabeth A F S; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2017-12-01

    The high temperatures used to fry fish may induce thermo-oxidation of cholesterol, forming cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). COPs have been associated to coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases. Air fryers are an alternative thermal process technology to fry foods without oil, and are considered a healthier cooking method. This study is the 1st to evaluate the formation of COPs and the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in air-fried sardine fillets. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of fresh herbs added as natural antioxidants to sardines subjected to air frying. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), and a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) were added in quantities of 0%, 2%, and 4%. Air frying significantly decreased the content of essential PUFAs, and increased the levels of COPs from 61.2 (raw) to 283 μg/g (P addition of 4% of cheiro-verde in air-fried sardines presented the best protective effect against lipid oxidation. Fish is an important source of essential lipids. However, oxidized cholesterol products, which are formed during thermal processing, are potential hazards to human health. Air fryers present an alternative thermal process for frying food without oil, and this method of cooking is considered to be more convenient and healthier This study shows that the air frying increased the formation of cholesterol oxidation products and decreased the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in sardine fillets. However, the lipid oxidation is significantly reduced by adding fresh herbs, such as parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), or a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) that are natural antioxidants. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Modification of the FRI crack growth model formulation from a mathematical viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tsuneyuki; Koshiishi, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The FRI model of crack growth, which incorporates mechanical properties into the slip oxidation mechanism of crack advance, is an extension of the well-known Ford-Andresen model. When the exponent of the oxidation current decay curve is set close to 1, however, the FRI model gives an infinite crack growth rate. Here, the oxidation decay curve integral is revised to eliminate this divergence, and modified crack growth rate equations are derived. Also presented here is a procedure for determining the oxidation current parameters from the curve-fitting to measurements of crack growth rate. Parameter value determination and crack growth calculations are illustrated for cold-worked Type 316L stainless steel. (author)

  1. COMPARISON OF THE QUALITY OF VEGETABLE OILS DESIGNED FOR THE FRYING FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research was to investigate the quality of vegetable oils for cooking food. The analysis used two types of oils - oil Fritol and Promienna. Both oils were purchased commercially. Oil changes were observed at frying French fries. At the same changes were observed oil stored at room temperature and the temperature in the refrigerator. The determined parameters included the measurement of polar materials in oil with electronic device Testo 265 for measuring the quality of cooking oil. Determination of change in the texture of oil during the oil deterioration by device Texturometer TA.XT Plus and determination the peroxide value by STN EN ISO 3960:2007. The work is also evaluating the results of the studied parameters. In all compared cases based on the content of the TPM showed higher heat resistance oil Fritol and sample of oil stored in the refrigerator.doi:10.5219/210

  2. Alcohol biodiesel from frying oil residues; Biodiesel etilico a partir de oleo de fritura residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, Brunna Simoes; Marques, Luiz Guilherme da Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Inst. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais], E-mail: lguilherme@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the reaction optimization and production of biodiesel through the use of frying residual oil made available by the restaurant placed at the PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES-RJ), using ethanol, so that to permit the production of sustainable bio diesel. The environmental gains obtained by the utilization of residual oil, avoiding that this oil be released in the nature, and the economic gains coming from the generation and utilization of ethanol allowing the production of biodiesel be an viable alternative. The obtained results during laboratory tests shown that biodiesel produced from the transesterification in alkaline medium, of the frying residual oil collected presented a reaction yield of approximately 80% considering in mass.

  3. Quality characteristics of fried lamb nuggets from low-value meat cuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Milagros; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This study revealed the possibility of manufacturing prefried lamb nuggets from low-value cuts (flank) and evaluated the effect of formulation (50:50 vs. 20:80 of leg/flank cuts) and freezing (−20 ℃ for two months) on different quality parameters. Frying process produced a decrease of water content...... storage and subsequent final frying. Nuggets with a higher proportion of flank also showed lower shear force values. However, nuggets with both formulations showed similar sensory acceptance. Freezing storage of lamb meat nuggets for two months increased the levels of lipid oxidation indicators, but again...... not to a level high enough to influence the sensory perception by consumers. So that, frozen nuggets from both formulations showed similar consumer acceptance to freshly produced ones with quite good scores (3.46–3.86 out of 5). Thus, low-value lamb cuts are suitable for being processed into highly acceptable...

  4. Influence of organic diets and probiotics on an experimental Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection in rainbow trout fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Boye, Mette

    2012-01-01

    following exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of the Danish project OPTIFISH is to optimize growth and survival for organic cultured rainbow trout. OPTIFISH investigates how organic vs. non-organic diet types as well as diets with or without probiotics affect the intestine, the intestinal...... of fry to pathogens, e.g. F .psychrophilum. In the current experiment four diet types were tested on fry, a conventional type (Inicio®, BioMar A/S) with and without probiotics, as well as an organic type with and without probiotic. Bactocell® (Lallemand) was used as the probiotic. Studies were done...... been fed diets that were organic or conventional nor if the feed had been added probiotic. No significance in mortalities was seen between the diet groups. The bacteriological examinations showed that the bacterium had entered the fish, as it was found in inner organs in one fourth of the sampled fish...

  5. [Laser induced fluorescence spectrum characteristics of common edible oil and fried cooking oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Ge, Xian-ying; Gao, Li-lei

    2013-09-01

    In order to detect the trench oil the authors built a trench oil rapid detection system based on laser induced fluorescence detection technology. This system used 355 nm laser as excitation light source. The authors collected the fluorescence spectrum of a variety of edible oil and fried cooking oil (a kind of trench oil) and then set up a fluorescence spectrum database by taking advantage of the trench oil detection system It was found that the fluorescence characteristics of fried cooking oil and common edible oil were obviously different. Then it could easily realize the oil recognition and trench oil rapid detection by using principal component analysis and BP neural network, and the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 97.5%. Experiments showed that laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology was fast, non-contact, and highly sensitive. Combined with BP neural network, it would become a new technique to detect the trench oil.

  6. A comparison of cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from virgin and used frying oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shanableh, Filiz [Food Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Evcil, Ali; Govsa, Cemal [Mechanical Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Savasdylmac, Mahmut A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Booazici University (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    Bio-diesel can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. The purpose of this paper is to research and make the comparison of the cold flow properties of bio-diesel produced from refined-virgin frying vegetable oil (RVFVO) and waste frying vegetable oil (WFVO). As is known, bio-diesel fuel will have higher cloud points (CP), cold filter plugging points (CFPP) and pour points (PP) if it is derived from fat or oil which consists of significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds. Both RVFVO and WFVO were derived from the same cafeteria on a Near East University campus and converted to biodiesel fuel through base catalyzed transesterification reaction. As the current results show, there is no considerable difference in cold flow properties of the bio-diesel produced from RVFVO and WFVO. So WFVO seems be better positioned to serve as raw material in biodiesel production because of its lower cost and its environmental benefits.

  7. Data on kinetic, energy and emission performance of biodiesel from waste frying oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverio Catureba da Silva Filho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article “Environmental and techno-economic considerations on biodiesel production from waste frying oil in São Paulo city” (Silva Filho et al., 2018 [1]. This article presents the variation of the concentration of waste frying oil (WFO with the reaction time and temperature during the transesterification of WTOs collected in the residences and restaurants of the city of São Paulo. Then, the biodiesel samples were mixed with the S-10 diesel oil in order to obtain the B10, B20, B30, B40, B50, B75 and B100 blends, which were tested in a diesel engine and their power, fuel consumption and gas emissions (CO, CO2 and SO2 have been measured to verify their greenhouse effect and energy efficiency. Keywords: Biodiesel, Kinetic curves, Greenhouse gas emission, Energy efficiency

  8. One-loop renormalization and the properties of radiative corrections in the Fried-Yennie gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenbojm, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.; Ehjdes, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    One-loop radiative corrections in the Fried-Yennie gauge are investigated. It is shown that the usual on-mass-shell subtraction may be performed in this gauge without use of the infrared photon mass. The behaviour of the diagrams with corrections near the mass-shell is explored, this behaviour turns out to be in the Freid-Yennie gauge milder than in any other gauge and milder than the behaviour of the corresponding graphs without radiative corrections

  9. Effects of processing and storage conditions of cocoyam strips on the quality of fries

    OpenAIRE

    Oguntowo, Oyindamola; Obadina, Adewale O.; Sobukola, Olajide P.; Adegunwa, Mojisola O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The effects of blanching time and temperature on the sensory and textural properties of frozen cocoyam strips were studied for cocoyam varieties. The most preferred variety after sensory evaluation was blanched at 90?C for 5?min, reproduced, and frozen at a temperature of ?18?C for storage studies over a period of 12?weeks with Irish potato as control. Sensory evaluation and instrumental texture analysis of frozen fried samples were conducted at 3?weeks intervals for 12?weeks. Sensor...

  10. Changes in fat content of pork and beef after pan-frying under different conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Ina; Ovesen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    ) gained 0.4 g. Similar results were obtained for low- (8%) and high-fat (12%) beef patties. Meatballs (7.5% fat initially) gained up to 2.4 g fat/100 g raw product depending on the cooking conditions. The greatest fat loss was 7.2 g for high fat ground beef (12% fat), which was pan-fried and then rinsed...

  11. Evaluating non-stick properties of different surface materials for contact frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate non-stick and cleaning properties of the coatings. In accordance with industry standards pancake was selected as the food model for the non-stick properties. The performance of different frying surfaces (stainless steel, aluminium, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) and three ceramic coatings with two...... on their non-stick properties, so that the smoother surfaces gave a higher force of adhesion between pancake and surface....

  12. Fish protein hydrolysates: application in deep-fried food and food safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Four different processes (enzymatic, microwave-intensified enzymatic, chemical, and microwave-intensified chemical) were used to produce fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from Yellowtail Kingfish for food applications. In this study, the production yield and oil-binding capacity of FPH produced from different processes were evaluated. Microwave intensification significantly increased the production yields of enzymatic process from 42% to 63%. It also increased the production yields of chemical process from 87% to 98%. The chemical process and microwave-intensified chemical process produced the FPH with low oil-binding capacity (8.66 g oil/g FPH and 6.25 g oil/g FPH), whereas the microwave-intensified enzymatic process produced FPH with the highest oil-binding capacity (16.4 g oil/g FPH). The FPH from the 4 processes were applied in the formulation of deep-fried battered fish and deep-fried fish cakes. The fat uptake of deep-fried battered fish can be reduced significantly from about 7% to about 4.5% by replacing 1% (w/w) batter powder with FPH, and the fat uptake of deep-fried fish cakes can be significantly reduced from about 11% to about 1% by replacing 1% (w/w) fish mince with FPH. Food safety tests of the FPH produced by these processes demonstrated that the maximum proportion of FPH that can be safely used in food formulation is 10%, due to its high content of histamine. This study demonstrates the value of FPH to the food industry and bridges the theoretical studies with the commercial applications of FPH. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Loss in tocopherols and oxidative stability during the frying of frozen cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsini, Mara S.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at verifying tocopherols losses and oxidative stability changes in vegetable oils used in discontinuous frying. The frying of frozen cassava chips was carried out in a household electric frying pan, where the oil was heated to a temperature of 180°C for 25 hours, with fresh oil replacement. The results obtained from the analytical determinations were submitted to variance analysis, in a factorial scheme, using a completely randomized design, making it possible to determine the influence of the type of oil and frying times on changes in the oil. The data show that the smallest changes occur in palm oil, which is more saturated. For sunflower and cottonseed oils, which are more unsaturated, there was a clear decrease in both tocopherol concentration and oxidative stability.El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los cambios en la concentración de tocoferoles y la evolución de la alteración oxidativa en aceites vegetales utilizados en fritura discontinua. La fritura de palitos de mandioca congelados fue realizada en una freidora eléctrica doméstica, en la cual el aceite fue calentando a 180°C, durante 25 horas, con reposición de aceite fresco. Los resultados obtenidos de las determinaciones analíticas fueron sometidos a análisis de variancia, en esquema factorial para determinar la influencia de los factores aceite y tiempo de fritura sobre las alteraciones en los aceites. Los resultados muestran que las menores alteraciones ocurren para el aceite de palma, más saturado. Para los aceites de algodón y girasol, más insaturados, se verificó que, conforme disminuyó la concentración de tocoferoles, disminuye la estabilidad oxidativa.

  14. Inquiring into Appreciative Inquiry: A Conversation With David Cooperrider and Ronald Fry

    OpenAIRE

    Grieten, Styn; Lambrechts, Frank; Bouwen, René; Huybrechts, Jolien; Fry, Ronald; Cooperrider, David

    2018-01-01

    David Cooperrider and Ronald Fry are professors of Organizational Behavior at the Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University. CWRU’s Department of Organizational Behavior is consistently acknowledged as one of the best in the world by the Financial Times. Together with their mentor, Suresh Srivastva, they created Appreciative Inquiry over 30 years ago. Since then, Appreciative Inquiry has been extensively applied world-wide, and many exciting results have been achieved ...

  15. A statistical regression model for the estimation of acrylamide concentrations in French fries for excess lifetime cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Jen; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Ju, Wei-Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Human exposure to acrylamide (AA) through consumption of French fries and other foods has been recognized as a potential health concern. Here, we used a statistical non-linear regression model, based on the two most influential factors, cooking temperature and time, to estimate AA concentrations in French fries. The R(2) of the predictive model is 0.83, suggesting the developed model was significant and valid. Based on French fry intake survey data conducted in this study and eight frying temperature-time schemes which can produce tasty and visually appealing French fries, the Monte Carlo simulation results showed that if AA concentration is higher than 168 ppb, the estimated cancer risk for adolescents aged 13-18 years in Taichung City would be already higher than the target excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR), and that by taking into account this limited life span only. In order to reduce the cancer risk associated with AA intake, the AA levels in French fries might have to be reduced even further if the epidemiological observations are valid. Our mathematical model can serve as basis for further investigations on ELCR including different life stages and behavior and population groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The changes of astaxanthin content and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) due to processing: boiling, smoking and frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastawati, F.

    2018-03-01

    Food processing using high temperatures can cause changes in pigment color and chemical characteristics in food stuffs, including prawn. The aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in pigment and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn caused by boiling, smoking and frying. Ten kg of tiger prawn was boiled, smoked and fried at the temperature of ± 100 °C for ± 10 min. The results showed that boiling, smoking and frying gave a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the astaxanthin pigment, pH, moisture, protein, salt content, Aw and color. The content of astaxanthin pigments in fresh prawn, boiled prawn, smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 132.79 ± 1.5 μg·g-1 82.89 ± 0.92 μg·g-1 78.28 ± 0.1 μg·g-1 and 91.35 ± 2.59 μg·g-1, respectively. The value of °Hue on fresh prawn, boiled prawn, smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 87.85° 52.5° 55.94° and 53.98°. The tiger prawn processed by the smoking method has preferable by panelist rather than processed by boiling and frying.

  17. Influence of Japanese consumer gender and age on sensory attributes and preference (a case study on deep-fried peanuts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Detailed exploration of sensory perception as well as preference across gender and age for a certain food is very useful for developing a vendible food commodity related to physiological and psychological motivation for food preference. Sensory tests including color, sweetness, bitterness, fried peanut aroma, textural preference and overall liking of deep-fried peanuts with varying frying time (2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min) at 150 °C were carried out using 417 healthy Japanese consumers. To determine the influence of gender and age on sensory evaluation, systematic statistical analysis including one-way analysis of variance, polynomial regression analysis and multiple regression analysis was conducted using the collected data. The results indicated that females were more sensitive to bitterness than males. This may affect sensory preference; female subjects favored peanuts prepared with a shorter frying time more than male subjects did. With advancing age, textural preference played a more important role in overall preference. Older subjects liked deeper-fried peanuts, which are more brittle, more than younger subjects did. In the present study, systematic statistical analysis based on collected sensory evaluation data using deep-fried peanuts was conducted and the tendency of sensory perception and preference across gender and age was clarified. These results may be useful for engineering optimal strategies to target specific segments to gain greater acceptance in the market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Abdul Hamid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO and rice bran oil (RBO during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α-tocopherol, gamma (γ-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p < 0.05, while that of RBO was preserved after deep-frying of fries. As expected, the concentration of α-tocopherol in PO and γ-tocotrienol in both PO and RBO decreased significantly (p < 0.05 with increased frying. Results also showed that γ-tocotrienol was found to be more susceptible to degradation compared to that of α-tocopherol in both PO and RBO. Interestingly, no significant degradation of α-tocopherol was observed in RBO. It is suggested that the presence of γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying.

  19. Muscle wound healing in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J G; Andersen, E W; Ersbøll, B K; Nielsen, M E

    2016-01-01

    We followed the progression of healing of deep excisional biopsy punch wounds over the course of 365 days in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by monitoring visual wound healing and gene expression in the healing muscle at regular intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 38 and 100 days post-wounding). In addition, we performed muscle texture analysis one year after wound infliction. The selected genes have all previously been investigated in relation to vertebrate wound healing, but only few specifically in fish. The selected genes were interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and -β3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 and -13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), fibronectin (FN), tenascin-C (TN-C), prolyl 4-hydroxylase α1-chain (P4Hα1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), collagen type I α1-chain (ColIα1), CD41 and CD163. Wound healing progressed slowly in the presented study, which is at least partially due to the low temperature of about 8.5 °C during the first 100 days. The inflammation phase lasted more than 14 days, and the genes relating to production and remodeling of new extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibited a delayed but prolonged upregulation starting 1-2 weeks post-wounding and lasting until at least 100 days post-wounding. The gene expression patterns and histology reveal limited capacity for muscle regeneration in rainbow trout, and muscle texture analyses one year after wound infliction confirm that wounds heal with fibrosis. At 100 dpw epidermis had fully regenerated, and dermis partially regenerated. Scales had not regenerated even after one year. CD163 is a marker of "wound healing"-type M2c macrophages in mammals. M2 macrophage markers are as yet poorly described in fish. The pattern of CD163 expression in the present study is consistent with the expected timing of presence of M2c macrophages in the wound. CD163 may thus potentially prove a valuable marker of M2 macrophages - or a subset hereof - in fish. We subjected a group of fish to

  20. Effect of acclimation on the temperature tolerance of young muskellunge fry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, K.C.; Spotila, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature tolerances of newly hatched muskellunge fry (Esox masquinongy) were determined in the laboratory. Three groups of fry were reared in a closed tank system under controlled environmental conditions for 31 days at 7, 15, and 25 0 C. The photoperiod was 12 hr of light alternating with 12 hr of darkness (L--D, 12:12). Biweekly water samples were taken to monitor the closed tank systems. Parameters measured were dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, organic and nitrate nitrogen, phosphates, and ammonia, all of which were in normal concentrations. Critical thermal maximum (CTM) was used to indicate temperature tolerance. Experimental fish reared at 25 0 C exhibited the highest temperature tolerance (33.2 to 36.1 0 C) throughout their development. The CTM values for the 15 0 C experimental fish ranged from 29.8 to 34.4 0 C. These fish exhibited a decrease in temperature tolerance during their swim-up stage, followed by a slow recovery period indicated by a general increase in CTM values. Two days after the experiment began, 7 0 C experimental fry entered a torpid state that lasted for 10 days and was followed by a general decrease in thermal tolerance and a high mortality rate. The CTM values for this group ranged from an initial high of 34.0 0 C on the first day to 27.2 0 C at the termination of the experiment. Development never reached the free-swimming stage

  1. Potential of waste frying oil as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, Syed M Raza [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)], e-mail: chemicalraza@gmail.com; Wani, Omar Bashir; Athar, Moina [Dept. of Petroleum Studies, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)

    2012-11-01

    To face the challenges of climbing Petroleum demand and of climate changes related to Carbon dioxide emissions, interest grows in sustainable fuels made from organic matter. World production of bio fuels has experienced phenomenal growth. The search for alternatives to petroleum based fuel has led to the development of fuels from various renewable sources, including feed stocks, such as fats and oils. Several kinds of fuels can be derived from these feed stocks. One of them is biodiesel, which is mono alkyl esters of vegetables oils and animal fats and produced by transesterification of oil and fats with alcohols in the presence of acid, alkali or enzyme base catalysts. The main hurdle in using the biodiesel is its cost which is mainly the cost of virgin oil. In India every year Millions of liters of waste frying oil are discarded into the sewage system which adds cost to its treatment and add up to the pollution of ground water. This paper proposed the production of Bio-diesel from the very same waste frying oil. The production of Bio-diesel from this waste frying oil offers economic, social, environmental and health benefits. The Bio-diesel produced finds the same use as the conventional diesel but this happens to be cost effective.

  2. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of koose, a deep-fat fried cowpea cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Serem, June C; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2017-12-15

    Koose, a West African delicacy, is a side dish prepared by deep frying thick cowpea paste. The current research determined the effect of deep-fat frying of cowpea paste on its total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic composition and antioxidant properties. Four cowpea cultivars comprising two reddish-brown, a brownish-cream and cream phenotypes were used. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine phenolic composition of the samples. TPC was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging capacities were by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and nitric oxide scavenging assays. The phenolic acids identified included benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives. The predominant flavonoid classes were flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Deep-fat frying of the cowpea pastes decreased their TPC, radical scavenging capacities and total quantified flavonoids. The koose inhibited radical-induced oxidative cellular and DNA damage. It is concluded that koose is a potential functional food that can contribute to alleviating radical-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Margarines and Fast-Food French Fries: Low Content of trans Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiasarán, Iciar; Abella, Elena; Gatta, Giulia; Ansorena, Diana

    2017-06-28

    The lipid fraction of margarines and fast food French fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (two store and four premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (five chains). All samples were collected in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain). The margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (g TFA/100 g fat) for the store and premium brands, respectively. The French fries' values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5 g/serving, so they could also be considered " trans free products". This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes updated food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies.

  4. [Edmonton Frail Scale in Colombian older people. Comparison with the Fried criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ramírez, Jairo Uriel; Cadena Sanabria, Miguel Oswaldo; Ochoa, Miguel Enrique

    The Edmonton Frailty Scale was developed in Alberta (Canada). It has been applied in different scenarios, such as acute units, day hospitals, and outpatient care. There are no studies published describing the usefulness of this scale in Colombia. A cross-sectional study and secondary diagnostic test analysis was designed with the objective of studying the criterion validity of the Edmonton Frail Scale using Fried's frailty criteria as standard. Patients 60 years old and over from the community were included. Patients with severe dementia, limited mobility, and unable to perform the tests were excluded. The study included 101 patients from the community in Floridablanca, Colombia. The mean age was 68.9 years, and 74% were women. The median walking speed was 1.1m/sec. According to the Fried's criteria, 46% were vigorous elderly, and the prevalence of frailty was 7.9%. Using the EFS, 78% were vigorous elderly, with a prevalence of frailty of 8.9%. Taking 6 or more points as a cut-off, the sensitivity of this scale was 75% and had a specificity of 88%. A similar frequency of frailty was found on applying the two measurement scales. It is important to highlight the multidimensional view of the Edmonton scale, complementing the data of the most physical and sarcopenia-centred phenotype of Fried's criteria. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of L-asparaginase on acrylamide mitigation in a fried-dough pastry model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukurová, Kristína; Morales, Francisco J; Bednáriková, Alena; Ciesarová, Zuzana

    2009-12-01

    A dough resembling traditional Spanish rosquillas was used as a model to represent classical fried-dough pastry to investigate the effects of asparaginase and heat treatment on amino acid levels and acrylamide mitigation. Wheat-based dough was deep fried at 180 and 200 degrees C for 4, 6, and 8 min. Two recipes were formulated by addition of different asparaginase levels (100 and 500 U/kg flour) to the dough. The temperature/time profile of the frying process, moisture, sugars, amino acids, acrylamide, and some indicators of the Maillard reaction (hydroxymethylfurfural, color, free fluorescence compounds, and browning) were determined to investigate the extent of the reaction and the effect on reactants. At the both levels of asparaginase used, 96-97% of the asparagine present was converted to aspartic acid, and consequently the acrylamide level was very efficiently reduced (up to 90%). The asparaginase also affected the content of glutamine and glutamic acid in dough, resulting in a 37% increase in glutamic acid compared with the untreated sample. Concerning color, browning and Maillard reaction parameters, no significant changes between untreated and enzymatically treated samples were observed, pointing out the potential industrial and domestic enzyme application.

  6. Quadrature demodulation based circuit implementation of pulse stream for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoupeng, Song; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Converting ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream is the key step of finite rate of innovation (FRI) sparse sampling. At present, ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming techniques are mainly based on digital algorithms. No hardware circuit that can achieve it has been reported. This paper proposes a new quadrature demodulation (QD) based circuit implementation method for forming an ultrasonic pulse stream. Elaborating on FRI sparse sampling theory, the process of ultrasonic signal is explained, followed by a discussion and analysis of ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming methods. In contrast to ultrasonic signal envelope extracting techniques, a quadrature demodulation method (QDM) is proposed. Simulation experiments were performed to determine its performance at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The circuit was then designed, with mixing module, oscillator, low pass filter (LPF), and root of square sum module. Finally, application experiments were carried out on pipeline sample ultrasonic flaw testing. The experimental results indicate that the QDM can accurately convert ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream, and reverse the original signal information, such as pulse width, amplitude, and time of arrival. This technique lays the foundation for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling directly with hardware circuitry. (paper)

  7. Planning for Production of Freshwater Fish Fry in a Variable Climate in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppanunchai, Anuwat; Apirumanekul, Chusit; Lebel, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Provision of adequate numbers of quality fish fry is often a key constraint on aquaculture development. The management of climate-related risks in hatchery and nursery management operations has not received much attention, but is likely to be a key element of successful adaptation to climate change in the aquaculture sector. This study explored the sensitivities and vulnerability of freshwater fish fry production in 15 government hatcheries across Northern Thailand to climate variability and evaluated the robustness of the proposed adaptation measures. This study found that hatcheries have to consider several factors when planning production, including: taking into account farmer demand; production capacity of the hatchery; availability of water resources; local climate and other area factors; and, individual species requirements. Nile tilapia is the most commonly cultured species of freshwater fish. Most fry production is done in the wet season, as cold spells and drought conditions disrupt hatchery production and reduce fish farm demand in the dry season. In the wet season, some hatcheries are impacted by floods. Using a set of scenarios to capture major uncertainties and variability in climate, this study suggests a couple of strategies that should help make hatchery operations more climate change resilient, in particular: improving hatchery operations and management to deal better with risks under current climate variability; improving monitoring and information systems so that emerging climate-related risks are known sooner and understood better; and, research and development on alternative species, breeding programs, improving water management and other features of hatchery operations.

  8. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  9. Hydrocolloid-Based Coatings are Effective at Reducing Acrylamide and Oil Content of French Fries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Al-Asmar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available French fries are popular products worldwide. However, this product is a sufferable source of high acrylamide due to high temperature and low moisture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grass pea flour (GPF, transglutaminase (TGase-treated (GPF + TGase, chitosan (CH, and pectin (PEC hydrocolloid coating solutions on the formation of acrylamide, water retention as well as on oil content. In addition, the Daily Intake (DI and Margin of Exposure (MOE were calculated to estimate variations in risk assessment by applying coating solutions before frying. Our results showed that the highest acrylamide content was detected in the control sample, reaching a value of 2089 µg kg−1. Hydrocolloid coating solutions were demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce acrylamide formation, with the percentage of acrylamide reduction equal to 48% for PEC, >38% for CH, ≥37% for GPF + TGase, and >31% for GPF, respectively. We hypothesized that the coatings were able to increase the water retention and, thus reduce the Maillard reaction, which is responsible for acrylamide formation. In fact, the MOE value for coated French fries was increase, resulting in being closer to the safety level to avoid carcinogenic risk. Moreover, our coatings were effective in reducing oil uptake.

  10. Parametric study of the alkali catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil for Biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamamre, Zayed; Yamin, Jehad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of waste frying oil as potential source for Biodiesel production. • Optimization of important reaction parameters. • A high yield and conversion of the feedstock to biodiesel. • Determination of fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from used frying oil. - Abstract: Waste frying oil (WFO) conversion to Biodiesel (Biodiesel) by Alkali-catalyzed transesterification was studied. The effect of operating and processing variables e.g. reaction temperature, MeOH/oil ratio, type of catalyst used and its concentration was investigated at different reaction times. Further, the physical and chemical properties of the WFO and the produced methyl ester (Biodiesel) were measured. Results showed that (within the range of variables studied) the optimum conditions for Biodiesel manufacturing were MeOH/oil ratio 0.4 v/v (corresponds to 9.5 M ratio), with 1.0% (% w/v) KOH (corresponds to 0.83% w/w), temperature of 50 °C and reaction time between 20 and 40 min. Under these conditions, the obtained Biodiesel yield was approximately 98%. Results also showed that the viscosity of the obtained Biodiesel was 5.86 mm 2 /s which is close to that of petrodiesel with an average decrease of 69.5% in comparison with WFO. Furthermore, the iodine value (25.36 g I 2 /100 g sample) and the density (0.877 g/cm 3) of the Biodiesel met the values specified by JUS EN14214

  11. Vertebrae classification models - Validating classification models that use morphometrics to identify ancient salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae to species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using morphometric characteristics of modern salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae, we have developed classification models to identify salmonid vertebrae to the...

  12. EFFICACY OF TOMATO AND / OR GARLIC IN AMELIORATING CARDIAC DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS FRYING OIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSMAN, N.N.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and garlic (Allium cepa) are important constituents of the human diet. Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Tomato has anti-mutagenic activities and contains lycopene (a powerful antioxidant) that appears to prevent oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and reduces the risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of tomato or garlic alone or their combination against cardiac disorders in rats fed commercial diet fortified with frying oil (15% w/w) for 30 days. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used and were divided into five groups; group 1, control (rats fed diet containing 15% w/w fresh oil); group 2, animals fed diets fortified with frying oil; groups 3-5, rats fed as in group 2 and received tomato (500 mg/kg body weight), garlic (125 mg/kg body weight) and a combination of tomato and garlic by gavage, respectively.Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), phospholipids (PL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c),and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) were estimated in the serum of different animal groups. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in the serum as well as lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were assessed in cardiac tissues.The results obtained revealed that, feeding rats on frying oil induced a notable increase in lipid profile, LDL-c, VLDL-c and TBARS associated with a marked depletion in GSH. Elevation in specific heart enzymes, LDL, CPK, ALT

  13. Effect of active edible coatings made by basil seed gum and thymol on oil uptake and oxidation in shrimp during deep-fat frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Naimeh; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2016-02-10

    The effect of active coating treatments on oil uptake, moisture loss, lipid oxidation, texture, color, and sensory evaluation of shrimp after deep-fat frying process was investigated. Compared with the uncoated samples, coating treatments decreased the oil uptake and moisture loss of fried shrimp by 34.50 and 13.9%, respectively. Fried shrimp samples were analyzed for peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The most reduction in lipid oxidation (46.4% for PV and 40.8% for TBA) was observed when shrimp samples were coated with CS4 (containing 10% thyme), while the control samples had the highest values of PV and TBA after deep-fat frying process. Coated fried samples had significantly lower toughness and stiffness than control samples (P0.05). However, for the texture, juiciness, chewiness, and overall acceptability, coated fried samples had higher scores than control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnanç, T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils deteriorate physically and chemically at frying temperatures due to several reasons. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during a repeated frying process. Potatoes were serially fried in carvacrol-added palm oil, BHT-added palm oil and a control oil (without any antioxidants. After each tenth frying cycle, several chemical analyses were carried out on collected samples to evaluate deterioration in the oils. The free fatty acid, para-anisidine, iodine, and total polar component values of the fresh oil were 0.080, 2.85, 57.1 and 7.5, respectively. These values changed to 0.165, 11.80, 46.7, 11.0, respectively for the control oil; 0.151, 11.28, 49.2 and 10.5 for BHT-added oil; 0.140, 7.19, 51.7, 10.0 for carvacrol-added oil after 40 frying cycles. The results revealed that the use of carvacrol could significantly improve the oxidative stability of palm oil when compared to the control samples. This effect was also comparable to BHT. Using carvacrol in frying oil slowed down the rate of the formation of conjugated dienes and trienes compared to the oil with BHT and the control. The frying process significantly changed the viscosity of the oil samples.Las grasas y aceites se deterioran física y químicamente a las temperaturas de fritura debido a diferentes razones. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del carvacrol en la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de palma durante el proceso de fritura repetida. Se sometió a fritura repetida patatas en el aceite de palma con carvacrol agregado, en aceite de palma con BHT agregado y en aceite control (sin antioxidante. Después de cada décimo ciclo de fritura, se realizaron diferentes análisis sobre las muestras recogidas para evaluar el deterioro de los aceites. Ácidos grasos libre, para-anisidina, índice de yodo y componentes polares totales del aceite fresco fueron: 0,080, 2,85, 57,1 y 7,5, respectivamente

  15. STUDY ON FRY PERFORMANCE OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS MORPHOLOGY AND RNA/DNA RATIO ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanti Haryanti; Ketut Mahardika; Sari Budi Moria; I Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2006-01-01

    Standard method to asses the performance of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) fry was needed for successful shrimp culture. The main purpose of this study was to determine standard method fry performance of P. monodon assesment based on its morphology and molecular RNA/DNA ratio analysis. Samples of P. monodon fry were collected from hatcheries in Bali, six hatcheries in East Java, three hatcheries in Central Java and six hatcheries in South Sulawesi. Each hatchery gave 25 appropriate size...

  16. Effects of cooking techniques on fatty acid and oxylipin content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout is an excellent source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which have beneficial health effects. We determined the fatty acid and oxylipin content of 2-year old rainbow trout fillets that were raw, baked, broiled, microwaved, or pan-fried in corn (CO), canola (CaO...

  17. Spinal deformities in triploid all-female rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Arnbjerg, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2000-01-01

    A batch of experimental rainbow trout was found to have a high level of spinal deformities. An equal deformity level was found in fish from the same batch, but reared at the fish farm from where the fry originated, suggesting that the all-female triploid status of the rainbow trout might account...

  18. Effects of fortified lysine on the amino acid profile and sensory qualities of deep-fried and dried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polpuech, C; Chavasit, V; Srichakwal, P; Paniangvait, P

    2011-08-01

    Lysine fortification of wheat flour has been used toward reducing protein energy malnutrition in developing countries. The feasibility of fortifying instant noodles with lysine was evaluated based on sensory qualities and the residual lysine content. Fifty grams of deep-fried and dried instant noodles were fortified with 0.23 and 0.21 g lysine, respectively. The production temperatures used for deep-frying were 165-175 degrees C and for drying, 80-105 degrees C; these are the temperatures used in the industrial production of both kinds of noodles. Lysine fortification was then performed at the local factories using the commercial production lines and packaging for both types of instant noodles. Both fortified and unfortified deep-fried and dried instant noodles were stored at 50 degrees C under fluorescent light for 2 and 4 months, respectively. The fortified products were tested for residual lysine content and sensory qualities as compared with unfortified noodles. The results show fortified products from the tested processing temperatures were all accepted. After storage, significant losses of lysine were not found in both types of noodles analysed. The lysine-fortified noodles had amino acid scores of 102% and 122%, respectively. After 2 months, the sensory quality of fortified deep-fried noodles was still acceptable; however, the dried noodles turned to an unacceptable dark colour. This study shows that it is feasible to fortify deep-fried instant noodles with lysine, though lysine fortification exhibited an undesirable colour in the dried instant noodles after storage.

  19. Status of the bioactive phytoceuticals during deep-fat frying of snack food using nutra-coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneesh Kumar, M; Faiza, Sheema; Debnath, Sukumar; Nasirullah

    2017-10-01

    The present study was carried out to study the physico-chemical changes that take place in both product and oil during the deep fat frying of a traditional savoury snack 'kodubale', at 120-160 °C for 120-600 s using coconut oil (CO) and nutra-coconut oil (NCO). Further, kinetic studies on moisture loss, oil uptake, color and degradation of β-carotene, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity for kodubale was carried out during frying as a function of temperature and time. The study showed that the kinetic coefficients for above parameters increased with temperature and time and the data obtained were well fitted with first order kinetic model. The results also revealed that NCO fried product retained major phenolic acids due to the presence of antioxidants in the NCO which was enriched with flaxseed oil concentrate. The fatty acids profile of oil extracted from products obtained by frying using NCO was characterized with higher ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids content as compared to same obtained using CO. However, the breaking strength and sensory characteristics of CO and NCO fried kodubale was found to have no significant difference ( p  < 0.05).

  20. Changes in extra-virgin olive oil added with Lycium barbarum L. carotenoids during frying: Chemical analyses and metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, F; Rocchetti, G; Montesano, D; Lucini, L; Chiodelli, G; Ghisoni, S; Baccolo, G; Simonetti, M S; Cossignani, L

    2018-03-01

    In this work, an Italian extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) sample and the same sample added with a carotenoid-rich nutraceutical extract from Lycium barbarum L. (EVOOCar) were subjected to a frying process to comparatively assess chemical and physical changes and heat stability. Oxidation progress was monitored by measuring oil quality changes such as peroxide value, free acidity, K232, K268, and fatty acid composition as well as minor compound content, phenols, α-tocopherol, and carotenoids. An UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics approach discriminated the two oil samples based on their chemical changes during frying, identifying also the phenolic classes most exposed to statistically significant variations. Partial least square discriminant analysis and volcano analysis were applied together to identify the most significant markers allowing group separation. The decrease in total phenolic content was lower in EVOOCar than in EVOO during frying. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids showed a significant percentage loss, 3.7% and 17.2%, respectively, in EVOO after 180min frying at 180°C, while they remained constant or slightly changed in EVOOCar. Zeaxanthin added to the oil rapidly decreased during the frying process. These findings showed that the addition of a carotenoid extract from L. barbarum can help to improve the oxidative stability of extra-virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Presence of Piscirickettsia salmonis in farmed trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Junin, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Yunis A., Jefferson; Anicama D., Jahir; Manchego S., Alberto; Sandoval C., Nieves

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the possible presence ofPiscirickettsia salmonis in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Mantaro river basin, Junin, Peru, by the indirect inmunofluorescence test (IFAT). Kidney and spleen samples were collected from 180 trout from three fish farms. All samples resulted negative to P. salmonis; however, some individuals showed clinical sings of disease as skin ulcer, melanosis, abdominal swelling and exophthalmoses. Also, in the internal organs was f...

  2. New data on aetiology of nodular gill disease in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Kostka, Martin; Wortberg, F.; Nardy, E.; Pecková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2010), s. 157-163 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : nodular gill disease * aetiological study * amoebae * Naegleria sp. * fish diseases * aquaculture * Oncorhynchus mykiss Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  3. Studies on the Utilization of Deboned Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Frames in Fish Snack

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidharan, S.

    1999-01-01

    Snack food development studies were conducted to iii utilize trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) frames, a by-product of the filleting operation, using extrusion and conventional technology. Twin screw extrusion studies were conducted to study the effect of fish mince, non-fat dry milk, process temperature, and moisture content on the physicochemical properties of the extruded snack food. Response surfaces were plotted to understand the effects of the independent variables on dependent variables such...

  4. Elaboration process, chemical and sensory analyses of fried-salted soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayol, María F.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to develop an elaboration process of fried-salted soybean and to determine the chemical composition, consumer acceptance and sensory description of the product. Different fried-salted soybean products were obtained under different temperature and time conditions by maceration in water, roasting and frying. Four of the best products were selected and evaluated by consumers (overall, color and texture acceptances: FSS1, FSS2, FSS3 and FSS4. The product with the highest consumer acceptance (7 = “like moderately” in a hedonic scale of 9 points was the one obtained by maceration at 100°C during 10 min and fried at 170°C for 5 min (FSS3. Proximate and fatty acid composition along with sensory attribute intensity ratings from descriptive analyses were determined on the fried-salted soybean with the highest consumer acceptance (FSS3. Proximate and fatty acid composition were also determined in raw soybeans. FSS3 had lower percentages of moisture and proteins, and higher lipids and carbohydrates than raw soybean. The use of sunflower oil in the frying process improved the fatty acid composition of the soybean product. Sensory attributes from descriptive analyses that were detected in high intensity ratings for the product were roasted, salty, crunchiness, hardness, brown color and gloss. This product is neither commonly consumed nor easily available in markets. It could be promoted to be consumed as a snack because of its high nutritional and sensory quality.

    El propósito de este trabajo fue desarrollar un proceso de elaboración de soja frita salada, determinar la composición química, la aceptabilidad por consumidores y la descripción sensorial del producto. Diferentes productos de soja frita salada fueron obtenidos bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y tiempo de: maceración, tostado y fritura. Los consumidores evaluaron y seleccionaron los cuatro mejores productos, los que presentaron mayor aceptaci

  5. Normal endothelial function after meals rich in olive or safflower oil previously used for deep frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M J; Sutherland, W H; McCormick, M P; Yeoman, D; de Jong, S A; Walker, R J

    2001-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fats are more susceptible to oxidation during heating than monounsaturated fats but their effects on endothelial function when heated are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of meals rich in heat-modified safflower and olive oils on postprandial flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) in healthy men. Flow-mediated EDD and glyceryltrinitrate-induced endothelium-independent dilation of the brachial artery were investigated in 14 subjects before and 4 hours after meals rich in olive oil and safflower oil used hourly for deep-frying for 8 hours in a double-blind crossover study design. There were high levels of lipid oxidation products (peroxides and carbonyls) in both heated oils. Plasma triglycerides were markedly increased at 4 hours after heated olive oil (1.26 +/- 0.43 vs 2.06 +/- 0.97 mmol/L) and heated safflower oil (1.44 +/- 0.63 vs 1.99 +/- 0.88 mmol/L). There was no change in EDD between fasting and postprandial studies and the response during the postprandial period was not significantly (p = 0.51) different between the meals (heated olive oil: 4.9 +/- 2.2% vs 4.9 +/- 2.5%; heated safflower oil: 5.1 +/- 3.1% vs 5.6 +/- 3.4%). Meals rich in olive and safflower oils previously used for deep frying and containing high levels of lipid oxidation products increase postprandial serum triglycerides without affecting endothelial function. These findings suggest that relatively short-term use of these vegetable oils for frying may not adversely affect postprandial endothelial function when foods containing the heat-modified oils are consumed.

  6. Sampling of deep benthic perch fry: insight into the diel vertical migrations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, Martin; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Peterka, Jiří; Jůza, Tomáš; Draštík, Vladislav; Vašek, Mojmír; Kubečka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 784, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1371; GA ČR GP206/09/P266; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14316 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bathypelagic perch fry * Breder trap * Fulton's condition factor * Perca fluviatilis * Římov Reservoir * SCUBA diving Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  7. [Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 29428 from inoculated fried pork meat and roasted chicken].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Martínez, M L; Sánchez-Sánchez, S; Rodríguez-Montaño, R; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Lugo de la Fuente, G; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    1993-01-01

    The human gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni in some industrialized countries is higher than gastroenteritis produced by Salmonella and Shigella. This has induced the development of techniques to demonstrate the presence of the microorganism in different foods using some culture media combinations. There is not a method to isolate C. jejuni from roasted chicken and fried pork meat, which are popular foods in México. The sensitivity of two culture media combinations was compared: Rama broth (RB)-Rama agar (RA) and Preston broth (PB)-Skirrow agar (SA) to isolate C. jejuni from these foods. The RB-RA combination demonstrated to be the best one to isolate C. jejuni.

  8. A study on the dewatering of industrial waste sludge by fry-drying technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hee-kyum; Moon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    In sludge treatment, drying sludge using typical technology with high water content to a water content of approximately 10% is always difficult because of adhesive characteristics of sludge. Many methods have been applied, including direct and indirect heat drying, but these approaches of reducing water content to below 40% after drying is very inefficient in energy utilization of drying sludge. In this study, fry-drying technology with a high heat transfer coefficient of approximately 500 W/m 2 deg. C was used to dry industrial wastewater sludge. Also waste oil was used in the fry-drying process, and because the oil's boiling point is between 240 and 340 deg. C and the specific heat is approximately 60% of that of water. In the fry-drying system, the sludge is input by molding it into a designated form after heating the waste oil at temperatures between 120 and 170 deg. C. At these temperatures, the heated oil rapidly evaporates the water contained in the sludge, leaving the oil itself. After approximately 10 min, the water content of the sludge was less than 10%, and its heating value surpassed 5300 kcal/kg. Indeed, this makes the organic sludge appropriate for use as a solid fuel. The wastewater sludge used in this study was the designated waste discharged from chemical, leather and plating plants. These samples varied in characteristics, especially with regard to heavy metal concentration. After drying the three kinds of wastewater sludge at oil temperatures 160 deg. C for 10 min, it was found that the water content in the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants reduced from 80.0 to 5.5%, 81.6 to 1.0%, and 65.4 to 0.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the heat values of the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants prior to fry-drying were 217, 264, and 428 kcal/kg, respectively. After drying, these values of sludge increased to 5317, 5983 and 6031 kcal/kg, respectively. The heavy metals detected in the sludge after drying were aluminum

  9. Effect of frying temperature and time on image characterizations of pellet snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; BahramParvar, Maryam; Razavi, Seyed M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of non-destructive methods for the evaluation of food properties has important advantages for the food processing industries. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of frying temperature (150, 170, and 190 °C) and time (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 min) on image properties (L*, a* and b*, fractal dimension, correlation, entropy, contrast and homogeneity) of pellet snacks. Textures were computed separately for eight channels (RGB, R, G, B, U, V, H and S). Enhancing...

  10. A new flavonoid derivative from leaves of Oxandra sessiliflora R. E. Fries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Elcilene A. de; Silva, Armenio A.C.A. da; Chaves, Mariana H.; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.; Lago, Joao Henrique G.

    2014-01-01

    The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) phase obtained from the partition of the ethanol (EtOH) extract from leaves of O. sessiliflora R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) was subjected to several chromatographic steps, including high efficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC), to afford the flavonoids: quercetin- 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), unprecedented in the literature, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), rutin (3), and kaempferol- 3-O-rutinoside (4). The structures were elucidated by analysis of their 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D and 2D) spectra and mass spectrometry. (author)

  11. Light and ultrastructural studies on liver of Oreochromis niloticus fry grown in tritiated water during embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carino, V S; Alvendia-Casauay, A [Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1991-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus embryos of different developmental stages were reared in tritiated water at 3.7, 0.37, 0.037, and 0 GBq/1 and harvested at day 21 stage. In general, gross morphology of liver was altered in fry reared in higher tritium concentrations and in fry reared in tritiated water at earlier stages of development. Under light microscopy, fatty infiltration of liver parenchyma, presence of unresorped yolk sac, occasional vacuolation in cytoplasm of hepatocytes, widening of sinusoids, and increased size of space of Disse were observed in liver of fry reared in tritiated water at higher concentrations. At the electron microscope level, swollen mitochondria, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, and insconspicuous glycogen granules compared to control were noted in liver of treated fish. This study give basic information on how cells may be affected by irradiation at the histological, cellular, and subcellular level. (auth.). 8 figs.; 1 tab.

  12. PECULIARITIES OF THE TRANSITION OF EARLY STURGEON (ACIPENSERIDAE FRY TO ARTIFICIAL FORMULATED FEEDS IN RAS (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the morphological and ecophysiological peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry (Acipenseridae to artificial formulated feeds. To summarize the biotechnological fundamentals of the use of artificial formulated feeds in the conditions of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. Findings. The transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds is one of the most difficult stages of their rearing, even under controlled conditions of RAS. The review contains the description of the peculiarities of sturgeon embryogenesis, their behavior and morpho-physiological changes at this stage of their development. It contains main requirements for the rearing of sturgeon larvae in RAS. We showed that the ultimate refuse from natural (live or frozen forage organisms is not advisable; the optimum is their combination with artificial feeds with gradual predominance of the latters. We provided the schemes of their feeding based on the combination of natural and artificial feeds. We reviewed the most common biologically active supplements, which contributed to better feed digestion during the periods of the transition to exogenous feeding. We highlighted the effect of feeding with brine shrimp nauplii enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth and development of early sturgeon fry. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds in RAS. The data on the biotechnologies of rational feeding of early sturgeon fry in RAS in this period are important in the conditions of continuous search for the most effective replacement of live forage organisms and reduction of fish fry mortality in postembryogenesis.

  13. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fričova pařížská léta tučná i hubená

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hesová, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, 1-2 (2016), s. 63-72 ISSN 0036-5351 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Frič, Josef Václav Frič * Literary Archives of the Museum of Czech Literatur * personal library * National Museum Library * literary history * 19th century Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  15. A Comparative Study on Formation of Polar Components, Fatty Acids and Sterols during Frying of Refined Olive Pomace Oil Pure and Its Blend Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Ibtissem; Triki, Mehdi; Matthäus, Bertrand; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2018-04-04

    The frying performance of pure refined olive-pomace oil (ROPO) and blended with refined coconut oil (RCO) (80:20) was compared during a frying operation of French fries at 180 °C. Blending polyunsaturated oils with highly saturated or monounsaturated oils has been studied extensively, however in literature there is no study has been reported so far on blending ROPO (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) with RCO (rich in saturated fatty acids) to formulate new frying oils. At the end of the frying process, the blend of ROPO/RCO exhibited a higher chemical stability than the pure ROPO based on total polar compounds (TPC), and polymers. The rate of TPC formation was achieved 23.3% and 30.6% for the blend and the pure oil, respectively. Trans and free fatty acids content, as well as anisidine value were also observed to be the highest in the pure ROPO. This study evaluated the frying performance in the search for appropriate frying oils to deliver healthy fried products with optimized nutritional qualities.

  16. Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of Reading Difficulties: DeFries-Fulker Analysis of Reading Performance Data from Twin Pairs and Their Non-Twin Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrom, Raven L.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Reading performance data from 254 pairs of identical (MZ) and 420 pairs of fraternal (DZ) twins, 8.0 to 20.0 years of age, were subjected to multiple regression analyses. An extension of the DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis (DeFries & Fulker, 1985, 1988) that facilitated inclusion of data from 303 of their nontwin siblings was employed. In addition to…

  17. Authentication of edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Zhijian; Hu, Xiaosong; Shen, Qun; Wu, Jihong

    2012-06-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy to authenticate edible vegetable oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed and soybean oil) adulterated with used frying oil was introduced in this paper. The FTIR spectrum of oil was divided into 22 regions which corresponded to the constituents and molecular structures of vegetable oils. Samples of calibration set were classified into four categories for corn and peanut oils and five categories for rapeseed and soybean oils by cluster analysis. Qualitative analysis of validation set was obtained by discriminant analysis. Area ratio between absorption band 19 and 20 and wavenumber shift of band 19 were treated by linear regression for quantitative analysis. For four adulteration types, LODs of area ratio were 6.6%, 7.2%, 5.5%, 3.6% and wavenumber shift were 8.1%, 9.0%, 6.9%, 5.6%, respectively. The proposed methodology is a useful tool to authenticate the edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of biodiesel production in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor using used frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayal, Dyneshwar; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Rathod, Virendra K

    2013-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor for the synthesis of biodiesel with used frying oil as a feedstock. The synthesis involved the transesterification of used frying oil (UFO) with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The effect of geometry and upstream pressure of a cavitating orifice plate on the rate of transesterification reaction has been studied. It is observed that the micro level turbulence created by hydrodynamic cavitation somewhat overcomes the mass transfer limitations for triphasic transesterification reaction. The significant effects of upstream pressure on the rate of formation of methyl esters have been seen. It has been observed that flow geometry of orifice plate plays a crucial role in process intensification. With an optimized plate geometry of 2mm hole diameter and 25 holes, more than 95% of triglycerides have been converted to methyl esters in 10 min of reaction time with cavitational yield of 1.28 × 10(-3) (Grams of methyl esters produced per Joule of energy supplied). The potential of UFO to produce good quality methyl esters has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of frying, grilling, and steaming on amino acid composition of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Nuray; Özden, Özkan; Selçuk, Arif

    2010-12-01

    Amino acid and proximate compositions were determined in six raw and cooked marine fish species that are commonly consumed in Turkey. The changes in amino acid and proximate content were found to be significant for all cooking methods in all fish species. Cooking did, in general, significantly increase the contents of essential, semiessential, and other amino acids compared with raw fish species. Grilled Atlantic bonito, anchovy, and bluefish and fried mullet and hake appeared to be more valuable fish dishes for obtaining the officially recommended appropriate daily intake of essential amino acids for humans. Moisture, fat, ash, and carbohydrate contents of raw fish ranged between 48.01% and 83.05%, 0.87% and 30.48%, 1.10% and 1.61%, and 0.09% and 8.70%, respectively. All fresh fish investigated were high in protein: 11.20-17.14 g/100 g. Wide variations in protein content (18.11-25.65 g/100 g) between species and methods of cooking were observed. Fried fish had intermediate fat values, whereas grilled and steamed fishes had a comparatively low value.

  20. Evolution of the quality of the oil and the product in semi-industrial frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz, M.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the quality of two commercial brands of cooking oil were studied under the frying conditions traditionally used in the Portuguese hospitality trade. Three hundred rissoles were fried at a temperature of 160-170°C for 1 hour. Values of peroxide, p-anisidine, Totox, acidity and total polar compounds were determined. Isomeric cis and trans fatty acids were quantified using CP-Sil 88-packed capillary column via gas chromatography.

    La evolución de la calidad de dos marcas comerciales de aceite comestible fue estudiada según la forma tradicional de fritura usada en el mercado portugués, por el cual trescientas empanadillas rellenas fueron fritas a temperatura de 160-170°C durante un período de una hora. Se determinaron los índices de peróxido , p-anisidina, Totox, acidez y compuestos polares totales. Los ácidos grasos isoméricos cis y trans fueron cuantificados por cromatografía gaseosa en columna capilar rellena con CP-Sil 88.

  1. Quality characteristics of alternative diesel from hydrotreatment of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karonis, Dimitrios; Chilari, Despina [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants; Bezergianni, Stella [Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Environmental Fuels and Hydrocarbons (LEFH)

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the properties of alternative diesel fuel that is derived from the hydrotreatment of used frying oils (UFO). Used frying oil is a difficult feedstock for biodiesel production. The hydrotreating of UFO converts triglycerides mainly into normal paraffins in the diesel fuel range. The results obtained show that the use of hydrotreated UFO has many advantages in comparison conventional diesel. Particularly, this renewable fuel has an excellent cetane number and cetane index (> 90) justified from its paraffinic character. Furthermore, this finding complies with the lower value of density in comparison to diesel, reinforcing the paraffinic nature of this fuel, comprising straight chain alkanes and negligible content of aromatic hydrocarbons in its composition. Due to the hydrotreating, these fuels do not contain olefinic bonds, therefore they are resistant to oxidation, permitting long term storage abilities. Despite these benefits, there are some considerations from the use of HFOs. Hydrotreating is a process which successfully removes heteroatoms such as S, N, O and eliminates the existence of double unstable bonds, rendering to fuel appreciable characteristics. Unfortunately, these high ignition quality oils suffer from lower lubricity and worse cold flow properties in comparison to diesel, making their use during winter period inevitable. These problems could be addressed by blending hydrotreated UFO with regular diesel. A compromise should be found in order to promote a renewable fuel with lower cetane number but with much better lubricity in order to meet the EN 590 European Standard regarding the main quality characteristics of the final fuel. (orig.)

  2. Biodiesel Production from Spent Fish Frying Oil Through Acid-Base Catalyzed Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahman B. Fadhil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time were optimized. The study raveled that, 0.50% KOH w/w of oil; a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio; a reaction temperature of 60°C and a duration of 1h were the optimal conditions because they resulted in high biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the products were assessed and found better than those of the parent oil. Furthermore, they met the specified limits according to the ASTM standards. Thin layer chromatography was used as a simple technique to monitor the transesterification of the oil. Blending of the optimal biodiesel sample with petro diesel using specified volume percentages was done as well. The results indicated that biodiesel had slight effect on the values of the assessed properties.

  3. A comparison of mutagen production in fried ground chicken and beef: effect of supplemental creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knize, M G; Shen, N H; Felton, J S

    1988-11-01

    Ground chicken breast and ground beef with either endogenous or a 10-fold increase in the concentration of creatine were fried at 220 degrees C for 10 min per side. One patty (100 g) of chicken meat yielded 120,000 Salmonella (TA1538) revertants following metabolic activation. The pan residues had 39% of the total activity. Added creatine (10-fold the endogenous level) increased mutagen yields an average of 2-fold. Beef cooked under identical conditions yielded 150,000 revertants/100 g for the meat patties and pan residues combined. Added creatine to beef prior to cooking increased mutagen yields 3-fold. The mutagenic profiles following initial HPLC separation showed that chicken samples with endogenous or added creatine were remarkably similar. Chicken and beef HPLC mutagenicity profiles were also similar to each other, but not identical. This suggests that the general mutagen-forming reactions with the two different types of muscle are qualitatively similar with only minor quantitative differences. The pan residues from both meat types with and without added creatine showed some significant differences in the mutagen peak profile. This work suggests that the types of mutagens formed in chicken are similar to those formed in beef and that creatine appears to be involved in the formation of all the mutagenic compounds produced from fried muscle tissue.

  4. 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters in commercial deep-fat fried foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisseto, Adriana Pavesi; Marcolino, Priscila Francisca Corrêa; Vicente, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Levels of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) fatty acid esters were evaluated in commercial deep-fat fried foods from the Brazilian market using a GC-MS method preceded by acid-catalysed methanolysis. A limit of detection of 0.04 mg kg(-1), a limit of quantitation of 0.08 mg kg(-1), mean recoveries varying from 82% to 92%, and coefficients of variation ranging from 2.5% to 5.0% for repeatability and from 3.6% to 6.5% for within-laboratory reproducibility were obtained during in-house validation. The levels of the compounds in the evaluated samples, expressed as free 3-MCPD equivalent, ranged from not detected to 0.99 mg kg(-)(1), and the highest concentrations were observed in samples of chopped onion and garlic. A preliminary estimation of 3-MCPD intake using these occurrence data suggested low risks to human health, but a potential concern may arise in particular cases of consumers of fried food.

  5. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, N M; Colagiuri, S

    1995-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of three common takeaway meals on recommended healthy diets. New South Wales Department of Health recommended diets of 5020, 6275, 9205 and 12,540 kilojoules were used. An evening meal from each of these diets was substituted with one of three common fast food chain takeaway meals 1, 2, 3 and 5 times per week. The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed. The takeaway meals were high in fat and kilojoules and low in fibre and therefore contravened the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Addition of these meals increased average kilojoule consumption and the percentage energy contribution of fat and decreased the P/S ratio and fibre intake. The magnitude of these deleterious effects was directly proportional to the number of times the meals were included each week and inversely proportional to the energy content of the diet. The adverse effects were greatest with the McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken meals. Takeaway meals may be convenient but the meals which were tested were too high in fat and kilojoules and too low in fibre to be a regular part of a balanced diet. Even one takeaway meal per week adversely affects the lower kilojoule recommended healthy diets.

  6. Fri havn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2009-01-01

      Havnearealerne beskrives som et værdifuldt, bymæssigt tilskud, dertilhører alle. En kajkant uden trippende mennesker og fysisk aktivitet er et uudnyttet byrum. Artiklen henviser til projekter i Sydhavn i København og Odense Havn, hvor havnene i projekter fra Cennter for Idræt og Arkitektur gent...

  7. Oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts: evaluation of a surface and an internal lipid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts was evaluated by independent analyses of two lipid fractions, the surface oil, and the internal lipid fraction. The nuts studied were 6 samples of almonds, 10 samples of peanuts, 4 samples of sunflower seeds and 2 samples of cashew nuts. The oil content, peroxide value, polymer content, and fatty acid composition were analyzed. The results showed two lipid fractions with different oxidation status. Higher oxidation levels were normally found in the oil fraction more exposed  to air, although considerably higher oxidation status in the internal oil was also detected in various samples. Oxidative quality was also evaluated in selected samples of each nut after 1 year of storage at room temperature, in the dark . Only the almonds and cashew nuts exhibited acceptable oxidative quality after storage. In addition, a study on the changes due to frying and the contribution of the frying oil to the lipids in the final product showed that the composition of the surface oil can be changed by the incorporation of substantial contents of the frying fat. Consequently, the frying fat may exert some effect on the oxidative quality and oxidative stability of the surface oil.En este estudio se evalúa la calidad oxidativa de muestras comerciales de frutos secos fritos mediante el análisis independiente de dos fracciones lipídicas, el aceite superficial, fácilmente extraíble con disolventes orgánicos, y la fracción de lípidos internos. Las muestras estudiadas fueron 6 muestras de almendras, 10 muestras de cacahuetes, 4 muestras de pipas de girasol y 2 muestras de anacardos. Se analizaron el contenido de aceite, el índice de peróxidos, el contenido de polímeros y la composición de ácidos grasos. Los resultados mostraron dos fracciones lipídicas con diferente estado de oxidación. Mayores niveles de oxidación fueron normalmente encontrados en la fracción más expuesta al aire, aunque estados de oxidaci

  8. Bacterial pathogens in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), reared at Danish freshwater farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    of fry and larger fish. All isolates of F. psychrophilum showed proteolytic activities; however, a few isolates, belonging to serotype Fp(T) did not degrade elastin and were not associated with mortality. Increasing resistance problems to oxytetracycline were demonstrated. More than half of the F....... psychrophilum isolates showed resistance to oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline. No antibiotic resistant isolates were found among Y. ruckeri and A. salmonicida....

  9. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during deep frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA, Peroxide Value (PV, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC, color and viscosity were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 °C ± 5 °C, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25; while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24. Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05 decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process.

    Aceites de girasol se mezclaron con diferentes niveles de aceite de chufa prensado en frío. Se obtuvieron mezclas de aceite de chufa con girasol en las proporciones: 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30

  10. VLBA AND CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF JETS IN FRI RADIO GALAXIES: CONSTRAINTS ON JET EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharb, P.; O'Dea, C. P.; Tilak, A.; Baum, S. A.; Haynes, E.; Noel-Storr, J.; Fallon, C.; Christiansen, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present here the results from new Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 1.6 and 5 GHz of 19 galaxies of a complete sample of 21 Uppasala General Catalog (UGC) Fanaroff-Riley type I (FRI) radio galaxies. New Chandra data of two sources, viz., UGC 00408 and UGC 08433, are combined with the Chandra archival data of 13 sources. The 5 GHz observations of 10 'core-jet' sources are polarization-sensitive, while the 1.6 GHz observations constitute second-epoch total intensity observations of nine 'core-only' sources. Polarized emission is detected in the jets of seven sources at 5 GHz, but the cores are essentially unpolarized, except in M87. Polarization is detected at the jet edges in several sources, and the inferred magnetic field is primarily aligned with the jet direction. This could be indicative of magnetic field 'shearing' due to jet-medium interaction, or the presence of helical magnetic fields. The jet peak intensity I ν falls with distance d from the core, following the relation, I ν ∝d a , where a is typically ∼ – 1.5. Assuming that adiabatic expansion losses are primarily responsible for the jet intensity 'dimming,' two limiting cases are considered: (1) the jet has a constant speed on parsec scales and is expanding gradually such that the jet radius r∝d 0 .4 ; this expansion is, however, unobservable in the laterally unresolved jets at 5 GHz, and (2) the jet is cylindrical and is accelerating on parsec scales. Accelerating parsec-scale jets are consistent with the phenomenon of 'magnetic driving' in Poynting-flux-dominated jets. While slow jet expansion as predicted by case (1) is indeed observed in a few sources from the literature that are resolved laterally, on scales of tens or hundreds of parsecs, case (2) cannot be ruled out in the present data, provided the jets become conical on scales larger than those probed by VLBA. Chandra observations of 15 UGC FRIs detect X-ray jets in 9 of them. The high frequency of occurrence of X

  11. Detection of the presence of used frying oil as raw material in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of compounds giving information on the use of used frying oils as raw material in the production of biodiesel is of interest to guarantee the quality of the product. In this study, the most characteristic groups of compounds formed after used frying oil transesterification were analyzed by means of the standard technique using gas chromatography at a high temperature (EN 14105. Dimeric fatty acid methyl esters (dimeric FAME is the most important group to be considered as they are present in significant amounts after used frying oil transesterification. On the other hand, they are absent in the bleached oils used for biodiesel production. The concentration of the dimeric FAME in the polar fraction of biodiesel, easily obtained by adsorption chromatography, allowed detection of this group of compounds even in very low concentrations.La detección de compuestos característicos de los aceites de fritura usados como materia prima de bajo coste en la obtención de biodiesel, es de interés para garantizar su calidad. En este estudio, se analizan los grupos de compuestos más característicos obtenidos tras la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura mediante la técnica estándar que utiliza cromatografía de gases a temperatura elevada (European Standard EN 14105. Los dímeros de ésteres metílicos son los compuestos más importantes para detectar el aceite de fritura como materia prima, debido a su presencia en cantidades significativas después de la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura y a su ausencia en los aceites decolorados que se utilizan en la obtención de biodiesel. La concentración de los dímeros en la fracción polar del biodiesel, fácilmente obtenida mediante cromatografía de adsorción, permite detectar los citados compuestos incluso a concentraciones muy bajas.

  12. Effect of cooking time and temperature on the heterocyclic amine content of fried beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knize, M G; Dolbeare, F A; Carroll, K L; Moore, D H; Felton, J S

    1994-07-01

    The mutagenic heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) were measured in ground-beef patties fried at 150, 190 and 230 degrees C for 2-10 min on each side. Heterocyclic amines were purified using solid-phase extraction and analysed by HPLC. Recovery-corrected amounts of each heterocyclic amine were determined by the method of standard addition based on spiked samples with recoveries ranging from 40 to 70%. Mutagenic activity measured by the Ames/Salmonella test was determined for each sample. The amounts of MeIQx, PhIP, DiMeIQx and IQ increased with time and temperature of cooking. 3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A alpha C) were not detected in any sample. The mutagenic activity response measured for the meat extracts (TA98 revertants) was similar to the mutagenic activity calculated from the mass of heterocyclic amines present. The rate of formation of PhIP in a model system containing creatinine and phenylalanine heated in 80% diethylene glycol was compared with PhIP formation during meat frying. The apparent heats of activation were 6.5 kcal/mol in the model system compared with 6.0 kcal/mol in the fried meat patties. The increase in PhIP and MeIQx formation fitted an exponential function over the range 0 to 11 min and from 150 to 230 degrees C. This report shows clearly that increases in cooking temperature and time can have a profound effect on the amounts of heterocyclic amines generated and subsequently consumed in the diet.

  13. A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF STIMULUS SELECTION IN THE FILIAL FOLLOWING RESPONSE OF FRY OF SUBSTRATE SPAWNING CICHLID FISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAERENDS, GP

    This paper reports on experimental research undertaken to analyse the information processing mechanism by which the fry of substrate spawning cichlid fish visually recognise their guarding parent(s), already from the earliest time they are able to swim. The study is inspired by LORENZ' concept of

  14. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: Structural effects and synergism with tocopherols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180 ºC, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra ami...

  16. Structural elucidation of an antibiotic from the fungus Fusarium avenaceum Fries Sacc.; an amended structure for lateropyrone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorst-Allman, C.P.; Van Rooyen, P.H.; Wnuk, S.; Golinski, P.; Chelkowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    The structural elucidation by X-ray crystallography of an antibiotic produced by Fusarium avenaceum Fries Sacc. is described. Some chemical reactions of the metabolite are reported, and the identity of the metabolite with lateropyrone is proposed. The structure reported for lateropyrone is amended. 1 H n.m.r. and 13 C n.m.r. are used in this study

  17. Measurement and characterization of external oil in the fried waxy maize starch granules using ATR-FTIR and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Tian, Yaoqi; Sun, Binghua; Cai, Canxin; Ma, Rongrong; Jin, Zhengyu

    2018-03-01

    Concerns regarding increased dietary oil uptake have prompted efforts to investigate the oil absorption and distribution in fried starchy foods. In the present study, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, together with a chloroform-methanol method, was used to analyze the external and internal oil contents in fried starchy samples. The micromorphology of fried starchy samples was further investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), polarized light microscope (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicated that large amounts of oil were absorbed in or within waxy maize starch, but the majority of oil was located near the surface layer of the starch granules. After defatting, the internal oil was thoroughly removed, while a small amount of external oil remained. As evidenced by the changes of the crystalline characteristics with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), the interaction between starch and lipids on the surface was confirmed to form V-type complex compounds during frying at high moisture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. GROWTH ENHANCEMENT, SURVIVAL AND DECREASE OF ECTOPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN MASCULINIZED NILE TILAPIA FRY IN A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Jiménez García

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Under lab conditions, tilapia fry at culture densities of 8 fish/L-1 can reach a body weight of 0.5 to 1.0 g after the masculinization phase. In commercial hatcheries, the stocking density is four to six times higher, and consequently the occurrence of ectoparasitic infections also rises. The aim of this study was to examine the growth and survival of masculinized Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fry in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. The fry, which were naturally parasitized by protozoan of the genera Trichodina, Ambiphrya and Chilodonella, weighed 0.013 ± 0.003 g and were reared in replicated tanks (N = 3 during 32 days at density of 18 fish/L-1 in the RAS to maintain good water quality, which was achieved especially during the first 22 days of fish rearing. The infection parameters and growth were monitored twice a week. The final fish weight was 1.17 ± 0. 6 g and survival 99.5%. The most frequent parasites were Trichodina and Gyrodactylus cichlidarum (Monogenea. Although nitrogen compounds increased significantly over the last 10 days of fry rearing, final growth and survival were higher than those reported, additionally, the ectoparasitic infections were relatively low.

  19. Effectiveness of a temperature control system in home induction hobs to reduce acrylamide formation during pan frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillen, S.; Oria, R.; Salvador, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to determine the influence of the use of temperature control systems on physico-chemical characteristics and acrylamide formation in the domestic preparation of potatoes. French fries were pre-treated by soaking in water or acidified water, and then they were cooked...

  20. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of

  1. [Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis on the association between consumption of fried food and both esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L W; Liu, S Z; Zhang, M; Chen, Q; Zhang, S K; Sun, X B

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To investigate the effect of fried food intake on the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Methods: From 2005 to 2013, all the residents aged 40-69 years from 11 counties (cities) where cancer screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer had been conducted in rural areas of Henan province, were recruited as the subjects of study. Information on demography and lifestyle was collected. The residents under study were screened with iodine staining endoscopic examination and biopsy samples were diagnosed pathologically, under standardized criteria. Subjects with high risk were divided into the groups based on their different pathological degrees. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the frequency of fried food intake and esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Results: A total number of 8 792 cases with normal esophagus, 3 680 with mild hyperplasia, 972 with moderate hyperplasia, 413 with severe hyperplasia carcinoma in situ, and 336 cases of esophageal cancer were recruited. Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, when compared with those who did not eat fried food, the intake of fried food (food appeared a risk factor for both esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions.

  2. 31 CFR 586.408 - Exempt financial transactions within the territory of the FRY (S&M); prohibition on establishment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conducted exclusively through the domestic banking system within the FRY (S&M) in local currency (dinars), or using bank notes or barter. A U.S. entity must have a permanent establishment, such as a branch or... authorization of certain trade-related transactions conducted using bank notes or barter by U.S. persons located...

  3. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of water and infrared blanching methods for processing performance and final product quality of French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this work was to compare infrared blanching (IRB) with water blanching (WB) as a pretreatment method for producing lower calorie French fries. It was observed that complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme for 9.43 mm potato strips could be achieved in 200 s and 16 min...

  5. Microsomal biotransformation of chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): mechanistic insights into interspecific differences in toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Rainbow trout often serve as a surrogate species evaluating xenobiotic toxicity in cold-water species including other salmonids of the same genus, which are listed as threatened or endangered. Biotransformation tends to show species-specific patterns that influence susceptibility to xenobiotic toxicity, particularly organophoshpate insecticides (OPs). To evaluate the contribution of biotransformation in the mechanism of toxicity of three organophosphate (phosphorothionate) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion, microsomal bioactivation and detoxification pathways were measured in gills, liver and olfactory tissues in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and compared to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Consistent with species differences in acute toxicity, significantly higher chlorpyrifos bioactivation was found in liver microsomes of rainbow trout (up to 2-fold) when compared with coho salmon. Although bioactivation to the oxon was observed, the catalytic efficiency towards chlorpyrifos dearylation (detoxification) was significantly higher in liver for both species (1.82 and 0.79 for trout and salmon, respectively) when compared to desulfuration (bioactivation). Bioactivation of parathion to paraoxon was significantly higher (up to 2.2-fold) than detoxification to p-nitrophenol in all tissues of both species with rates of conversion in rainbow trout, again significantly higher than coho salmon. Production of fenoxon and fenthion sulfoxides from fenthion was detected only in liver and gills of both species with activities in rainbow trout significantly higher than coho salmon. NADPH-Dependent hydrolysis of fenthion was observed in all tissues, and was the only activity detected in olfactory tissues. These results indicate rainbow trout are more sensitive than coho salmon to the acute toxicity of OP pesticides because trout have higher catalytic rates of oxon formation. Thus, rainbow trout may serve as a conservative surrogate

  6. Association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-09-15

    Long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3/n-6 PUFA) play important roles in emotional regulation. We previously reported an association between fish consumption, which is major source of LC n-3 PUFA, and resilience to depression, where resilience is the ability to cope with stress in the face of adversity. Although the traditional Japanese dietary pattern of high fish consumption is associated with low depressive symptoms, the current Japanese diet pattern has become westernized. Westernized diets contain excessive amounts of LC n-6 PUFA due to high intake of vegetable oils commonly used in fried food and are associated with risk of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression. Participants were 715 Japanese company workers. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms, and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) was used to measure resilience. Frequency of fish and fried food consumption was assessed using a self-report questionnaire based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Regression analyses using Preacher and Hayes' bootstrap script were used to adjust for demographic factors, frequency of physical exercise, and fish consumption. Significant associations were identified between frequency of fried food consumption and total CES-D score (path c, B = 0.72; P frequency of fried food consumption and total RS-14 score (path a, B = -1.73, P food consumption and total CES-D score was not significant when we controlled for RS-14 score. Bootstrapping results showed that there was a significant positive indirect association between frequency of fried food and CESD score through RS-14 (95 % bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval = 0.34 to 0.92). Frequency of fried food consumption was associated with lower resilience to depression. Further nutritional interventional studies to

  7. Prophylactic effect of levamisole on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss against Yersinia ruckeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Ispir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alteration in the relative percentage of survival (RPS rate of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to 5, 10 and 25µg ml-1 levamisole for 2 h against Yersinia ruckeri was investigated. The average weight of the 120 fish used in this study was 6.3g. Upon challenge with a virulent strain, the relative survival percentage of respectively 83.3%, 86.7% and 76.6% was recorded. The results suggest that the application of levamisole in fish farms could increase resistance to infection of fish and offer economic benefits.

  8. Contribution to the definition of the metabolic profile of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Mecatti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The haematic outline of 339 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykissfrom two different farms in the Lucca province was studied for a preliminary assessment of the metabolic profile of this species and for the investigation of the influence of some endogenous and exogenous factors on the variability of the studied parameters. The sampling time, as well as the weight, appears to have caused significant variations on most of the parameters analysed. The present study gives the annual means and the seasonal trends for each farm where the study was carried out.

  9. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, invasion into and shedding by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madetoja, J.; Nyman, P.; Wiklund, T.

    2000-01-01

    The infection route of Flavobacterium psychrophilum into rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was studied using bath and cohabitation challenges as well as oral challenge with live feed as a vector. Additionally, the number of bacterial cells shed by infected fish into the surrounding water...... is discussed as an important invasion route for F. psychrophilum into the fish. The shedding rate of F. psychrophiIlun by infected fish was associated with water temperature and the mortality of the infected fish. High numbers of F. psychrophilum cells were released into the water by dead rainbow trout during...

  10. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika Haahr; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Skov, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain...... A449 and identified potential protective protein antigens that were tested by in vivo challenge trial. A total of 14 proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and prepared in 3 different subunit vaccine combinations to immunize 3 groups of rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i...

  11. Effects of Temperature on Production and Specificity of Antibodies in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Lindenstrom, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The effect of temperature on production and affinity of antibodies against antigens from the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis were studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were immunized with I. multifiliis antigens and reared at three different temperatures, 5, 12, and 20...... reared at 5 C was similar to fish reared at 12 and 20 C. However, when samples were assayed at 12 and 20 C, the measured antibody response tended to be higher for the samples from trout reared at 12 and 20 C. Additionally, it was found that rainbow trout reared at 5 C showed a delayed but not hampered...

  12. Assessment of ranges plasma indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared under conditions of intensive aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Kopp; Jan Mareš; Štěpán Lang; Tomáš Brabec; Andrea Ziková

    2011-01-01

    Plasma parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from three various trout farms in the Czech Republic were assessed using automated blood plasma analyser. Non-haemolysed serum from the heart of 48 healthy, randomly selected fish (standard length, mean ± SD = 247.3 ± 24.2 mm; body mass, mean ± SD = 262.18 ± 87.28 g) was analysed for the following plasma parameters: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creat...

  13. Production and characterization of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from waste frying coconut oil using a novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S; Jayachandran, K

    2013-02-01

    To improve biosurfactant production economics by the utilization of potential low-cost materials. In an attempt to utilize cost-effective carbon sources in the fermentative production of biosurfactants, various pure and waste frying oils were screened by a standard biosurfactant producing strain. Considering the regional significance, easy availability and the economical advantages, waste frying coconut oil was selected as the substrate for further studies. On isolation of more competent strains that could use waste frying coconut oil efficiently as a carbon source, six bacterial strains were isolated on cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-methylene blue agar plate, from a soil sample collected from the premises of a coconut oil mill. Among these, Pseudomonas aeruginosa D was selected as the potential producer of rhamnolipid. Spectrophotometric method, TLC, methylene blue active substance assay, drop collapse technique, surface tension measurement by Du Nouy ring method and emulsifying test confirmed the rhamnolipid producing ability of the selected strain and various process parameters were optimized for the production of maximum amount of biosurfactant. Rhamnolipid components purified and separated by ethyl acetate extraction, preparative silica gel column chromatography, HPLC and TLC were characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry as a mixture of dirhamnolipids and monorhamnolipids. The rhamnolipid homologues detected were Rha-Rha-C(10) -C(10) , Rha-C(12) -C(10) and Rha-C(10) -C(8) /Rha-C(8) -C(10) . These results indicated the possibility of waste frying coconut oil to be used as a very effective alternate substrate for the economic production of rhamnolipid by a newly isolated Ps. aeruginosa D. Results of this study throws light on the alternate use of already used cooking oil as high-energy source for producing a high value product like rhamnolipid. This would provide options for the food industry other than the recycling and reuse of waste frying

  14. Immune Response in Head Kidney of Rainbow Trout Fry Following Stress and Infection with Flavobacterium Psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Kania, P. W.; Madsen, Lone

    response in rainbow trout against F. psychrophilum in order to create preventive measures against RTFS. A limited number of studies have been carried out so far and have relied on samples from either naturally infected or injection-challenged fish. The use of naturally infected fish introduces many...... before pathogen exposure to elevate mortality. The model was used to examine the immune response to infection in rainbow trout fry (≈1 g); both with and without preceding H2O2 treatment. Samples from the head kidney were taken before pathogen exposure and 4 hours, 48 hours, 125 hours and 192 hours after...... exposure. The regulation of several immune relevant genes was examined and the relative bacterial load was assessed. Although it is not determined how H2O2 increases mortality, it is assumed to be due to stress. Exposure to H2O2 prior to infection altered the regulation of several genes, and several...

  15. Milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in Holstein Fries ian cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubbadeh, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor reproductive of lactating Holstein Fries ian cows by measuring milk progesterone levels. Sequential post-partum milk samples were collected weekly throughout 20 weeks after pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations were determined by solid phase RIA. Lactating cows required an average of 5.2 weeks to resume luteal activity; 48% of the cows conceived after first insemination and had significantly high progesterone concentrations during the first 5 weeks after insemination than cows which returned to heat 5-8 weeks after insemination> Results also revealed that adequate level of progesterone, which varied between 4.2 and 9.1 nmol/l, is required to maintain early pregnancy and progesterone level remains high in pregnant cows. (Author) 17 refs., 3 Tabs

  16. Mullet fry (Mugilidae in coastal waters of Montenegro, their spatial distribution and migration phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićković B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three localities, representing three distinct coastal areas, were investigated: 1. the mouth of the Sutorina River; 2. the mouth of the Jaška River; 3. the mouth of the Bojana River (right branch. Regarding the composition of young mullet assemblages, Lisa saliens, Lisa ramada and Lisa aurata were dominant at the first locality; L. aurata and Chelon labrosus at the second; and at the third L. ramada was clearly dominant, Mugil cephalus occupied the subdominant position, while L. aurata was absent. The seasons of the first appearance of migratory fry were October, April, November, October and July, for M. cephalus, C. labrosus, L. ramada, L. aurata and L. saliens, respectively. Migratory periods varied from 2 (C. labrosus to 7 (L. ramada months.

  17. A new flavonoid derivative from leaves of Oxandra sessiliflora R. E. Fries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Elcilene A. de; Silva, Armenio A.C.A. da; Chaves, Mariana H., E-mail: mariana@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Cavalheiro, Alberto J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas

    2014-04-15

    The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) phase obtained from the partition of the ethanol (EtOH) extract from leaves of O. sessiliflora R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) was subjected to several chromatographic steps, including high efficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC), to afford the flavonoids: quercetin- 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), unprecedented in the literature, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), rutin (3), and kaempferol- 3-O-rutinoside (4). The structures were elucidated by analysis of their {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D and 2D) spectra and mass spectrometry. (author)

  18. Use of DNA vaccination for determination of onset of adaptive immunity in rainbow trout fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper Skou; Lorenzen, Ellen; Kjær, Torben Egil

    2013-01-01

    ). The fish were challenged by immersion at different times post vaccination. Protective immunity was induced in both sizes of fish, but whereas clear-cut specific protection was evident in the fish vaccinated at 0.5g, the results suggested that the protection in the fish vaccinated at 0.25 g was mainly due......Vaccine producers often recommend a minimum size of 5g for vaccination of rainbow trout, but implementation of prophylactic vaccination in smaller sized fish would be an advantage for several infectious diseases. To implement a cost efficient vaccination strategy, it is important to know...... the duration and nature of the protective immunity induced by the vaccines in the fish. The present work aimed at determination of the smallest size at which specific immunity could be induced in rainbow trout fry by DNA vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). Earlier experiments revealed...

  19. Air gun seismic effects on larvae and fry offshore; modeling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, S.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents results from modeling and simulation of air gun seismic effects on fish and fry. A model has been developed to describe the behavior of fishes when a seismic ship is approaching and passes by the volume of residence of the fishes. The swimming capacity, the reaction to acoustic stimuli, the hearing threshold and the vertical distribution of the fishes have been included in the model. The model has been applied on cod fishes of length 25 and 350 mm. For realistic vertical distributions the big cod fishes will get away from the region near the boat where the probability for a mortal damage is greatest. 121 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs

  20. THE QUALITY OF FRIED SNACKS FORTIFIED WITH FIBER AND PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tajner Czopek

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the effect of fortification of extruded potato pellets, obtained with 5 and 10 % addition of wheat bran, corn bran and corn germ, applied separately and in mixtures with 3 % addition of potato protein concentrate on fat content and physical properties of snacks fried from them. The addition of wheat bran, regardless its dose, did positively influenced on snacks texture. Yet it also caused the increase in fat content and density, as well as darkening of snacks color. The use of corn bran contributed to lower values of snacks density and fat absorption, while the addition of corn germ resulted in lighter, more desired snacks color, but at the same time it brought about increased fat content and made snacks harder. There was not recorded any significant snacks diversity concerning expansion degree, regardless the kind of additive used, as well as snacks moisture. doi:10.5219/54

  1. A Comprehensive Study on the Effect of Roasting and Frying on Fatty Acids Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Almonds, Pine, Cashew, and Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Ali Ghazzawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to evaluate the effects of frying and roasting on nuts. Frying and roasting were performed according to the local Jordanian home-made cuisine, and the nuts under experiment were raw almonds, pine, cashew, and pistachio. Nuts samples were roasted at 110°C for 16 minutes and fried at 175°C for 2.5 minutes. The results show that both roasting and frying of nuts did not affect the flavonoids content except for roasted pistachios where significant rise of flavonoids content was detected. Total phenolic content showed no significant differences except for pine nuts in which it increased significantly in both roasting and frying. Oxidative stability, presented by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, was significantly different in all nuts except for pistachio nuts that have shown no differences. Fatty acids profile, presented by saturated fatty acids (SFA, oleic acid (OL, and essential fatty acids (EFA, was affected significantly by roasting and frying, especially for SFA in almonds and pine nuts and α-linoleic acid (ALA contents of pine. In conclusion, the effects of roasting and frying on the aforementioned nuts species were positive for fatty acids profile and antioxidants activity.

  2. EXPERIENCE GROWING A FRY WALLEYE (STIZOSTEDION LUCIOPERCA UNDER DIFFERENT PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martsenuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The question of growing and cultivation technology a fry walleye (Stizostedion Sander lucioperca, in various conditions of intensification and cultivation of the objects on the example of Ukraine, Poland and Czech Republic. Methodology. Some of the research conducted in JSC "Lebedynska RMS." There was a corresponding work of herd sires and fry. Also used published articles and monographs using statistical analysis methods. Findings. The existing technology of breeding and raising perch as in natural waters and artificial reproduction. Also, this is a clear description of the biology walleye in the early stages postembryogenesis perch. Also highlighted key points in the technology of the object at different aquaculture technologies. Originality. On the basis of existing technologies were analyzed current methods for growing and perch are to be brought in fish farms Ukraine, depending on the technical capabilities of enterprises. Practical value. Comparative review of technology growing perch allows farmers to introduce more appropriate technology of walleye for your own needs. Since it is directly a particular manufacturer planting material of the object is necessary to choose the most suitable and perfect technology, based on the existing herd sires, space, equipment and ability to use hormonal stimulation. So can use the following methods of breeding walleye: natural spawning, uncontrolled; controlled natural spawning; spawning in lake; artificial spawning; spawning outside-seasonal. During the early stages of walleye can identify a number of critical periods greatly affect the possibility of wound development: small body size at the final stage of resorption of yolk sac; small size of the cavity; feed intake in the water column; high sensitivity to stress; belonging to the group of fish with a closed bladder; great demands on environmental conditions; relative preferences heat; penchant for cannibalism.

  3. Improvement of Microbiological and Sensory Quality of Fried Seasoning Anchovy Fish Snack by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakongsil, Panchalee; Neramitmansook, Naruemon; Phianphak, Wannipa; Kaewchoung, Pravait

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Microbiological and sensory qualities of gamma irradiated fried seasoning anchovy fish snack were evaluated. The samples were packed in polyethylene bags and stored under three different conditions. In Group I, the fish snacks were vacuum-packed and stored at room temperature. In Group II, the bags were sealed normally and stored at room temperature. Group-III samples were packed as in Group II but they were stored at 18 O C. Gamma irradiation was applied at the minimum absorbed dose of 2.0 kGy. Microbiological qualities were evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 months post irradiation. At three months, unirradiated samples from all three storage conditions were found with their total bacterial counts exceeding the limit for the quality standard of the Ministry of Industry (>10 3 cfu/g), while the total bacterial counts from irradiated samples were 1 log cycle fewer than those from unirradiated samples. The total yeast and mold counts produced by irradiated samples were within the limit throughout the three-month storage for all three conditions. E. coli, Salmonella spp., S. aureus and Clostridium spp. were not found under all storage conditions for both irradiated and unirradiated samples. No significant differences in the sensory quality were observed between irradiated and unirradiated samples for all three conditions. Although irradiated fried seasoning anchovy fish snack in a vacuum pack yielded better microbiological qualities than irradiated samples in a normal-sealed pack, samples in a normal-sealed pack stored at room temperature would be more appropriate for commercial production when production costs were considered

  4. [Effect of fried bacon and parsley sauce on gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy old boys footballer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Jensen, Mogens Pfeiffer

    2012-12-03

    Knowledge of the importance of diet on gastrointestinal function and symptoms is generally poorly. In recent years, The New Nordic Food Culture is suggested to have favourable effects. Unfortunally there are huge waiting lists at the most popular restaurants, so we investigated the more traditional "Nordic kitchen". There are no previous studies concerning intake of fried bacon and parsley sauce (FBPS) in healthy middle-aged footballers. Non-blinded, non-randomized, crossover study with a questionnaire survey of 18 healthy old boys footballers before and after FBPS intake. Ten players responded to the questionnaire, including one who was not exposed to FBPS. The median intake was 15 pieces of fried bacon (range 12-23), 1.5 dl parsley sauce (range 1-5 dl), and eight potatoes (range 6-30), but no dessert. We found a significantly increased stool frequency and a trend towards change in consistency compared to baseline. We found increased abdominal pain and a decrease in general well-being, but could not demonstrate any impact on complaints from the family. In otherwise healthy old boys footballers the FBPS diet has great impact on a range of gastrointestinal symptoms. FBPS affected stool frequency and abdominal pain, but caused no effect on family complaints. We cannot exclude a dose-response effect or a gender/age phenomenon; and we suggest supplemental dose-response studies and studies including women of all ages. Further, we recommend a detailed dietary assessment before referring patients with gastrointestinal symptoms for invasive procedures like colonoscopy or CT-scanning. none none.

  5. Determination of the concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks using dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Kang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks (DFDSs was investigated using a coaxial probe method based on dielectric properties in the 0.3–10-GHz frequency range. The dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions with different concentrations of alum, sodium bicarbonate, and mixtures thereof were used. The correspondence between dielectric loss and alum concentration was thereby revealed. A steady, uniform correspondence was successfully established by introducing ω·ε″(ω, the sum of dielectric loss and conductor loss (i.e., total loss, according to the electrical conductivity of the alum-containing aqueous solutions. Specific, resonant-type dielectric dispersion arising from alum due to atomic polarization was identified around 1 GHz. This was used to discriminate the alum additive in the DFDS from other ingredients. A quantitative relationship between alum and sodium bicarbonate concentrations in the aqueous solutions and the differential dielectric loss Δε″(ω at 0.425 GHz was also established with a regression coefficient over 0.99. With the intention of eliminating the effects of the chemical reactions with sodium bicarbonate and the physical processes involved in leavening and frying during preparation, the developed technique was successfully applied to detect the alum dosage in a commercial DFDS (0.9942 g/L. The detected value agreed well with that determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (0.9722 g/L. The relative error was 2.2%. The results show that the proposed dielectric differential dispersion and loss technique is a suitable and effective method for determining the alum content in DFDSs.

  6. Comportamento dos óleos de girassol, soja e milho em frituras de produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado Sunflower, soybean and corn oils behavior in frozen pre-fried coated meat product frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização crescente de alimentos rápidos determinou a expansão de uma indústria de produtos fritos e pré-fritos. A compreensão das mudanças que o óleo sofre durante os processos de fritura é importante, pois pode levar à otimização destes processos, e a melhoria da qualidade do óleo de fritura e do produto final. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar os níveis de alteração de diferentes óleos vegetais, girassol, soja e milho, no processo de fritura dos snacks produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado. As frituras foram conduzidas em temperatura de 180°C, relação superfície/volume (S/V de 0,3 cm-1 e tempo total de aquecimento de 12 horas. Nos snacks procederam-se as análises de teor de umidade e lipídios; nos óleos as determinações de compostos polares totais, ácidos graxos livres e índice de peróxidos. Nenhuma análise apresentou alteração acima dos limites recomendados por alguns países. Desta forma, concluiu-se que as condições estabelecidas no processo de fritura são seguras, indicando que todos os óleos foram adequados à fritura, sendo o óleo de milho de maior estabilidade oxidativa.The ever growing utilization of fast food determined the expansion of an industry of pre-fried and fried products. The understanding of the changes that the oil undergoes during the frying processes is outstanding because it may lead to the optimization of such processes as well as to improvements on the quality of both frying oil and the finished product. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alteration levels of different vegetable oils, sunflower, soybean and corn, in the frying process of snacks frozen pre-fried meat coated product. The frying sessions were carried out at 180ºC temperature, 0.3 cm-1surface/volume ratio and 12 hours overall heating time. As for the snacks, the moisture rate and lipids analyses were performed; for the oils, total polar compounds, free fatty acids and peroxide

  7. KINETIKA PERUBAHAN KADAR 5-Hydroxymethyl -2-Furfural (HMF BAHAN MAKANAN BERPATI SELAMA PENGGORENGAN [Kinetics of Changes of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-Furfural (HMF Content Of Starchy Food during Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono3

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of the starchy foods at high temperature can result in formation of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-Furfural (HMF compound. The HMF content of starchy foods changes during the heat treatment in the frying process. The rate of change of the HMF content during frying depends on oil temperature, initial water content and the amylosa – amylopctin ratio of the material. The objective of the research was to study the kinetics of HMF change in the starchy foods during frying process. The change of the HMF content was assumed following by the first order kinetic model. The samples used in the experiment were the dried dough corn powders. The dough was made of a mixture of two varietes of corn with different amylosa – amylopectin content, with variation on the composition of the mixture. Bisma variety was used as the high amylosa ( low amylopectin and Pulut (waxy was used as the low amylosa (high amylopectin.The samples were fried in palm oil using a deep fat frying method with variation of oil temperature, initial water content and content of amylosa – amylopektin ratio. The HMF of the fried product was extracted with absolute ethanol and the extracts were determined by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer at 281,5 nm. The result indicated that the rate of change of the HMF content in corn increased with the increasing oil temperature and amylosa content and decreased with initial water content. The model applied to the changing on HMF content showed that the equation : Xhmf = A (1– B e-km t (with Xhmf = the HMF content; km = The rate of the HMF changing; t = frying time; A and B = the contsnts can be used for estimation the change of the HMF content of the corn fried product during the frying process

  8. Mapping of Mcs30, a new mammary carcinoma susceptibility quantitative trait locus (QTL30 on rat chromosome 12: identification of fry as a candidate Mcs gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Ren

    Full Text Available Rat strains differ dramatically in their susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis. On the assumption that susceptibility genes are conserved across mammalian species and hence inform human carcinogenesis, numerous investigators have used genetic linkage studies in rats to identify genes responsible for differential susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Using a genetic backcross between the resistant Copenhagen (Cop and susceptible Fischer 344 (F344 strains, we mapped a novel mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs30 locus to the centromeric region on chromosome 12 (LOD score of ∼8.6 at the D12Rat59 marker. The Mcs30 locus comprises approximately 12 Mbp on the long arm of rat RNO12 whose synteny is conserved on human chromosome 13q12 to 13q13. After analyzing numerous genes comprising this locus, we identified Fry, the rat ortholog of the furry gene of Drosophila melanogaster, as a candidate Mcs gene. We cloned and determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the 13 kbp Fry mRNA. Sequence analysis indicated that the Fry gene was highly conserved across evolution, with 90% similarity of the predicted amino acid sequence among eutherian mammals. Comparison of the Fry sequence in the Cop and F344 strains identified two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, one of which creates a putative, de novo phosphorylation site. Further analysis showed that the expression of the Fry gene is reduced in a majority of rat mammary tumors. Our results also suggested that FRY activity was reduced in human breast carcinoma cell lines as a result of reduced levels or mutation. This study is the first to identify the Fry gene as a candidate Mcs gene. Our data suggest that the SNPs within the Fry gene contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the F344 rat strain to mammary carcinogenesis. These results provide the foundation for analyzing the role of the human FRY gene in cancer susceptibility and progression.

  9. Use of streambed substrate as refuge by steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during simulated freshets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, F K; Nakamoto, R J; Harvey, B C; Baker, P F

    2016-04-01

    A flume was used to estimate the carrying capacity of streambed substrates for juvenile steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss seeking refuge from simulated freshets. The simulated freshets had mean water column velocities of c. 1·1 m s(-1). The number of O. mykiss finding cover within the interstices of the substrate was documented for different substrate sizes and levels of embeddedness. The availability of suitable refuges determined the carrying capacity of the substrate for O. mykiss. For the size of the O. mykiss tested [mean ± s.d. fork length (L(F)) = 122 ± 12.6 mm], the number of interstices with depths ≥200 mm measured with a 14.0 mm diameter flexible plastic tube was the best predictor of the number of O. mykiss able to find cover (r(2)  = 0.75). Oncorhynchus mykiss seeking refuge from freshets may need deeper interstices than those seeking concealment at autumn or winter base flows. The availability of interstices suitable as refuge from high flows may determine autumn and winter carrying capacity. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Comparative mapping reveals quantitative trait loci that affect spawning time in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Araneda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, various quantitative trait loci (QTL that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002 were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10 with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035 mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map.

  11. The dual challenges of generality and specificity when developing environmental DNA markers for species and subspecies of Oncorhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor M. Wilcox; Kellie J. Carim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael Young; Michael K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling is a powerful tool for detecting invasive and native aquatic species. Often, species of conservation interest co-occur with other, closely related taxa. Here, we developed qPCR (quantitative PCR) markers which distinguish westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewsi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri...

  12. Abnormal swimming behavior and increased deformities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss cultured in low exchange water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were conducted to determine if accumulating water quality parameters would negatively impact rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss health and welfare within water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS) that were operated at low and near-zero water exchange, with and without ozonation, and ...

  13. Aqualase, a yeast-based in-feed probiotic, modulates intestinal microbiota, immunity and growth of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang; Safari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Yeast probiotics have great promise, yet they received little attention in fish. This study investigated the influence of Aqualase, a yeast-based commercial probiotic composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces elipsoedas, on health and performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss...

  14. Granulomatous enteritis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) associated with soya bean meal regardless of water dissolved oxygen level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosberian-Tanha, P.; Landsverk, T.; Press, C.M.; Mydland, L.T.; Schrama, J.W.; Øverland, M.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated morphological changes associated with soya bean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) in distal intestine (DI) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a soya bean meal (SBM)-based diet and exposed to normoxia or hypoxia created by optimal and low water flow rates, respectively. A

  15. Parental stress-coping styles affect the behaviour of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at early developmental stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Erik; Gjoen, H.-M.; Pottinger, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    This work examined behavioural responses in yolk-sac rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss larvae originating from strains selected for high (HR) or low (LR) plasma cortisol response to a standardized stressor. The results showed that yolk-sac larvae originating from the HR strain were more sensitive...

  16. Identification of Estrogen-responsive Vitelline Envelope Protein Fragments from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Plasma Using Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma protein biomarkers associated with exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 17β-estradiol were isolated and identified using novel sample preparation techniques and state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches. Juvenile male and female trout ...

  17. Habitat-specific biomass, survival and growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during summer in a small coastal stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    2005-01-01

    We observed significant habitat-scale variation in the density, survival, and growth of 811 passive integrated transponder tagged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) enclosed for 63—68 days at natural density in 59 individual habitats (pools and riffles) in a small coastal California stream in summer 2001. The initial habitat-scale...

  18. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  19. MODEL PERUBAHAN WARNA KERIPIK BUAH SELAMA PENGGORENGAN VAKUM Model of Fruit Flaky Color Change during Vacuum Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Jamaluddin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The natural colour of fruit flaky product is one of specific property prefered by consumer. To maintain the natural colourof the fruit flaky during frying, it is necessary to pay attention the characteristic changes of raw material and control the process in order not to have much changes to get the intended colour. The objective of this research is to develop empirically mathematical model of fruit flaky colour changes during vacuum frying process by considering the change of water and sucrose contents in the product. Sample of the research were jack fruits fried in the temperature of 70–100OC, frying duration of 15–60 minutes, and vacuum pressure of 13-23 kPa. The observed parameters are colour (L, colour (a, colour (b, water and sukrose contents before and after frying. The result showed that colour changes (L, a and b were influenced by free water vaporization and sukrose decreasing in product, so empirically, the developed mathematical model of colour changes (L, a and b can be used to predict fruit flaky colour changes during vacuum frying. ABSTRAK Warna alami pada produk keripik buah adalah merupakan salah satu sifat khas yang disukai oleh konsumen, untukmempertahankan warna alami keripik buah agar tidak banyak mengalami perubahan selama dalam penggorengan, perlu diperhatikan perubahan karakteristik bahan baku dan pengendalian proses, agar warna keripik buah yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan yang diinginkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan secara empirik model matematik perubahan warna keripik buah selama dalam proses penggorengan vakum dengan mempertimbangkan ke dalam model perubahan kadar air dan kadar sukrosa di dalam padatan. Sampel penelitian adalah buah nangka digoreng pada suhu70-100 OC, lama penggorengan 15-60 menit dan tekanan vakum 13-23 kPa. Parameter yang diamati adalah warna (L, warna (a, warna (b, kadar air dan kadar sukrosa sebelum dan setelah sampel digoreng. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perubahan warna L, a

  20. Movement and Harvest of Fish in Lake Saint Clair, Saint Clair River, and Detroit River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    were tagged with vinyl tube Floy tags, with a nylon T-shaped base, inserted and anchored into the interneural process below the dorsal fin. Walleye...whitefish Coreyonus cluveaformis Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Coho salmon OncorhynchUs kisutch Pink salmon Oncorhynchus rorbuscha Rainbow trout

  1. Effect of baking of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and frying of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) in olive and sunflower oil on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Anastasios; Kotaras, Akylas; Mikras, Emmanouil

    2013-02-01

    Quality changes due to oven-baking of sardine for 20, 40, 50 and 60 min and due to deep frying of anchovy for 2, 3, 4 and 5 min in olive and sunflower oil were studied. Linear increase in total losses with the time of processing was observed. A linear inverse relationship was observed between moisture/lipid and moisture/protein due to time of baking of sardines and time of frying of anchovies (wet matter). However, no changes were detected in sardine samples due to time of baking (dry matter), while a reduction in proteins and ash followed by an increase in lipids was detected in fried anchovies due to time of frying (dry matter). The fatty acid profiles indicated that a rich in EPA + DHA (33.16%) and in ω-3/ω-6 ratio (9.40) baked sardines can be produced in 20 min at 200 °C. The fatty acid profiles of fried anchovies tremendously changed, indicating entirely different products. Olive oil is probably a better medium to fry fish products, since either the two beneficial fatty acids (EPA and DHA) detected at higher concentrations in anchovies fried in olive oil or the ω-3/ω-6 ratio remained at higher values (0.71-2.56). An increase of cholesterol and squalene content with increasing the time of baking was detected in sardine samples, probably due to decline of moisture content. On the contrary, cholesterol significantly reduced due to frying of anchovy in olive oil. Simultaneously squalene concentration significantly and linearly increased, from 3.87 mg/100 g in the unprocessed anchovies to 73.25 mg/100 g in the samples fried for 5 min, indicating its existence at beneficial levels, besides low cholesterol concentration detected in fried olive oil and squalene concentration gradually and linearly decreased, confirming the absorption from the anchovy samples. Similar was the changes of cholesterol and squalene in anchovies samples fried in sunflower oil.

  2. Hubungan Antara Gaya Hidup Dan Pemilihan Merek Lokal Atau Merek Luar Negeri (Survei Pada Ayam Bakar Wong Solo Vs Kentucky Fried Chicken)

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Budhi; Febrianto, Awang

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of lifesyle on probability in buying intention toward domestic brand (Ayam Bakar Wong Solo) or foreign brand (Kentucky Fried Chicken). Convenience sampling method was employed to acquire 250 samples with the criteria of: (1) the respondents had the intention to buy Ayam Bakar Wong Solo or has intention to buy Kentucky Fried Chicken, (2) respondents had the freedom to take or to refuse to paticipate in the survey. (3) Survey was conducted in the form of direct...

  3. Draft genome sequence of the yeast Starmerella bacillaris (syn., Candida zemplinina) FRI751 isolated from fermenting must of dried Raboso grapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemos Junior, Wilson Jose Fernandes; Treu, Laura; da Silva Duarte, Vinicius

    2017-01-01

    Starmerella bacillaris is an ascomycetous yeast commonly present in enological environments. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of S. bacillaris FRI751, which will facilitate the study of the characteristics of this interesting enological yeast.......Starmerella bacillaris is an ascomycetous yeast commonly present in enological environments. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of S. bacillaris FRI751, which will facilitate the study of the characteristics of this interesting enological yeast....

  4. Biomarker candidate discovery in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) continuously exposed to North Sea produced water from egg to fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohne-Kjersem, Anneli; Bache, Nicolai; Meier, Sonnich

    2010-01-01

    were able to compare the induced changes by PW to the mode of action of oestrogens. Changes in the proteome in response to exposure in whole cod fry (approximately 80 days post-hatching, dph) were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and image analysis and identified by MALDI-ToF-ToF mass...... spectrometry, using a newly developed cod EST database and the NCBI database. Many of the protein changes occurred at low levels (0.01% and 0.1% PW) of exposure, indicating putative biological responses at lower levels than previously detected. Using discriminant analysis, we identified a set of protein...... changes that may be useful as biomarker candidates of produced water (PW) and oestradiol exposure in Atlantic cod fry. The biomarker candidates discovered in this study may, following validation, prove effective as diagnostic tools in monitoring exposure and effects of discharges from the petroleum...

  5. Change in the radiation responses of oogonia in the embryos and fry of the fish Oryzias latipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, S.

    1976-01-01

    Embryos of the fish Oryzias latipes were irradiated with 1000 R of X-rays 1 day before hatching, and the post-irradiation change in the female germ-cell population was observed. Scarcely any reduction in the number of oogonia was observed, but their proliferation was inhibited. Repopulation occurred between 12 and 20 days after hatching. These responses were quite different from those of germ cells in the irradiated fry. Embryos and/or fry were also exposed to 1000 R of X-rays 1 day before hatching and 0, 1, 2, and 3 days after hatching. A comparison of their responses suggested that the change in the radiation responses of oogonia is correlated with the initiation of meiosis. (author)

  6. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  7. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND IMMUNO-BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF FERTILITY ASSOCIATED PROTEIN OF KARAN FRIES BULL SEMINAL PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Raman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was detection, isolation, partial purification and immunobiochemical characterization of fertility associated protein in the seminal plasma of high prolific Karan fries bull. Seminal plasma of Karan Fries bull was partially purified by gel filtration chromatography and analyzed by 10% SDS-PAGE for their polypeptide profile. PAGE analysis revealed major band of 55 kDa, and 26 kDa. Hyperimmune serum was raised in rabbit against crude seminal plasma protein. Single precipitin line was observed in DID test when each of the partially purified 26 kDa and 55 kDa proteins were reacted with hyperimmune serum. These proteins were also found to be immunoreactive against hyperimmune serum in Western blot technique.

  8. Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew Partners : The Contributions of British Architects to Built Environment in Colonial Nigeria, 1946-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Akeem Oladiti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the contributions of two British architects, Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew in the development of built environment in Nigeria after World War II. It analyses the historical development of the built environment in Nigeria’s public space with respect to modernize infrastructures such as banks, schools, teachers training colleges and the university needed in support of the colonial administration in Nigeria. The agitation of the nationalists and postwar reconstruction facilitated and encouraged the British Empire to develop the edifice or structures that would be suitable for the environment. This, to a large extent, influenced the Nigerian architecture and built environment. Their design principles yielded functional institutional spaces and a hybrid aesthetics that signifies modernist construction and colonial influence. The paper concludes that the designs of both Fry and Drew represent a milestone and significant contribution to the development of built environment in colonial Nigeria.

  9. Severe malformations of eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) fry are induced by maternal estrogenic exposure during early embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant eelpout were exposed via the water to known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to clarify if EDCs could be causing the increased eelpout fry malformation frequencies observed in coastal areas receiving high anthropogenic input. The presence of a teratogenic window for estrogen...... induced by EE2 (5.7 and 17.8 ng/L) but not by 4-t-OP and pyrene. A critical period for estrogen-induced fry malformations was identified and closed between 14 and 22 days post fertilization (dpf). Exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2) between 0 and 14 dpf caused severe malformations and severity increased...... the closer exposure start was to fertilization, whereas malformations were absent by exposure starting later than 14 dpf. Data on ovarian fluid volume and larval length supported the suggested teratogenic window. Larval mortality also increased when exposure started right after fertilization....

  10. Improvement in antioxidant functionality and shelf life of yukwa (fried rice snack) by turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Taik; Han, Jung-Ah

    2016-05-15

    The physico-chemical, oxidative and sensory characteristics of fried rice snack, yukwa with different amounts of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) were investigated. The moisture content of the pallet ranged from 16.47% to 19.84%. After frying the pallet, a slight decrease in the degree of expansion was obtained with increasing turmeric powder content. The textural properties of yukwa were not changed until the turmeric powder content reached 5%; however, over 8% addition induced a decrease in the hardness and an increase in the crispiness. Oxidative deterioration was effectively inhibited by turmeric powder addition, and more turmeric powder in yukwa led to higher free radical scavenging activity. Based on the sensory characteristics, a 5% addition of turmeric powder was the most acceptable for the yukwa product. In the correlation results among variables, the moisture content of the pallet proved to be the most important factor for yukwa quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photochemical primary process of photo-Fries rearrangement reaction of 1-naphthyl acetate as studied by MFE probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohdo, Masao; Takamasu, Tadashi; Wakasa, Masanobu

    2011-01-14

    Photo-Fries rearrangement reactions of 1-naphthyl acetate (NA) in n-hexane and in cyclohexane were studied by the magnetic field effect probe (MFE probe) under magnetic fields (B) of 0 to 7 T. Transient absorptions of the 1-naphthoxyl radical, T-T absorption of NA, and a short-lifetime intermediate (τ = 24 ns) were observed by a nanosecond laser flash photolysis technique. In n-hexane, the yield of escaped 1-naphthoxyl radicals dropped dramatically upon application of a 3 mT field, but then the yield increased with increasing B for 3 mT < B≤ 7 T. These observed MFEs can be explained by the hyperfine coupling and the Δg mechanisms through the singlet radical pair. The fact that MFEs were observed for the present photo-Fries rearrangement reaction indicates the presence of a singlet radical pair intermediate with a lifetime as long as several tens of nanoseconds.

  12. Effects of γ-rays on hatching of the eggs and survival period of the fry of Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, R.S.; Dwivedi, P.

    1980-01-01

    Eggs of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were exposed to 0.0258, 0.129, 0.258, 0.516, and 1.29 C/kg, respectively, 60 Co γ-radiation. The time between spawning and hatching of the fry was 48 to 56 hours compared to 72 to 79 hours in the untreated controls. With increasing exposure the hatching rates were 36, 24, 28, 30 and 34%; the survival periods were 11, 9, 8, 7 and 6 days and the 50% mortality period was 8, 7, 6, 4 and 4 days, respectively. With increasing radiation doses the fry exhibited increasing deformations of the body, especially of the postanal region, as well as unbalanced movements

  13. A simple procedure to evaluate the performance of fats and oils at frying temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Arellano, D.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A standard procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance of fats and oils at frying temperatures, taking the advantages provided by the Rancimat apparatus, i. e., standard vessels, temperature correction and temperature homogenity in all vessels resulting from the particular characteristics of the heating block. The results obtained in oil samples of 8 g heated at 180° C for 10 h in triplicate gave coefficients of variation lower than 6% for total polar compounds and polymers. In case of limited amount of oil, it is additionally proposed to use only 2 g of sample provided that a similar surface-to-oil volume ratio is maintained, and coefficients of variation of the same order than those for 8 g samples were thus obtained. Advantages of the procedure as well as potential applications for evaluation of frying fats and oils are Included. As an example, the effect of α-tocopherol on performance of sunflower oils was analyzed.

    Se propone un procedimiento estándar para evaluar el comportamiento de aceites y grasas a temperaturas de fritura. En este procedimiento se utilizan las ventajas del aparato Rancimat, que permite el uso de tubos estándar, la corrección de la temperatura, en su caso, y la igualdad de temperatura en todos los tubos dadas las características del bloque de calentamiento. De los resultados obtenidos en muestras de 8 g de aceite calentadas a 180° C durante 10 h, analizadas por triplicado, se obtuvieron coeficientes de variación inferiores al 6% para la determinación de compuestos polares y polímeros. En caso de limitación en la cantidad de aceite, se propone utilizar 2 g de muestra, manteniendo similares valores para la relación superficie a volumen de aceite, lo que permite obtener valores de alteración y coeficientes de variación del mismo orden. Se analizan finalmente las ventajas globales del procedimiento y sus distintas posibilidades en la evaluación de grasas de fritura. Como ejemplo, se aplica el

  14. Used frying oil biodiesel production: experimental factorial design and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel é derivado de fontes renováveis ereduz significativamente as emissões atmosféricas. Pode serobtido de diversos processos, como a alcoolise. Nestetrabalho, o biodiesel foi produzido através da alcoolise doóleo de fritura usado de indústrias de alimentação. Umplanejamento experimental foi utilizado e os produtos dereação foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa (CGespectroscopia na região do infravermelho com acessório dereflexão total atenuada horizontal (IV-HATR e análiseexploratória por análise de componentes principais (PCA eanálise hierárquica de grupos (HCA. De acordo com ascondições analisadas obteve-se alta conversão em ésteresmetílicos. Por IV-HATR, a conversão máxima foi observadaem condições experimentais de temperatura ( 50 e 60°C,concentração de catalisador (0,6 e 1,2% e a 1:8 de relaçãomolar entre óleo e metanol. Também foi possíveldiscriminar por análise quimiométrica, 4 grupos noplanejamento experimental e determinar as melhorescondições para a produção de biodiesel de óleo de friturausado.Abstract Biodiesel is derived from renewable sources and it significantly reduces atmospheric emissions. It can be obtained byseveral processes, such as alcoholysis. In this work, biodiesel was produced through alcoholysis of used frying oil from a cateringbusiness. An experimental factorial design was used and the reaction products were analyzed through gas chromatography (GC,horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (HATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and exploratory analysis withprincipal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Under the conditions analyzed, a high degree ofconversion to methyl ester was found. As shown by HATR/FT-IR, the maximum conversion was obtained when the experimentalconditions had the temperature ( 50 e 60°C, largest catalyst concentration (0,6 e 1,2% and a 1:8 molar proportion of oil tomethanol. It was possible to discriminate

  15. Nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora Pods in feeding Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabrouk, H.; Hilmi, E.; Abdullah, M.

    2008-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of supplemental Prosopis juliflora on growth performance, feed utilization and chemical composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry (1.36+-0.004). Six isonitrigenous (30.46g 100g-1 crude protein) and isocalorific (0.018 NJ g-1) diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control without supplementing P. juliflora), and diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were supplemented with different levels (20, 40, 60, 80and 100 g Kg-1) of P. juliflora respectively. The results revealed that harvested gain (g fish-1) was significantly higher (P 0 .05) for fish fed 60g Kg-1 P. juliflora, while the lowest value of harvested gain was achieved with fish fed free. P. juliflora control diet. Despite that the fish fed diet (4) obtained the highest harvesting weight, weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate, no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in an average daily gain (g fish-1 day-1) between fish fed diet 3, 4, 5 and 6 and in specific growth rate (% day-1) when inclusion level of P. juliflora was increased from 20 to 40 g kg-1 in diets 2 and 3 and from 80 to 100g kg-1 in diets 5 and 6, respectively. Feed intake was increased significantly (P<0.05) with in increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets. No significant differences were observed between the experimental fish groups in FCR in spite of the occurrence of a slight decreasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein productive value (PPV g 100g-1) and energy utilization (EUg 100g-1) were increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets up to 60g kg-1 and then decreased significantly (P<0.05). Fish whole body composition of dry matter and protein were significantly (P<0.05) affected by using P. juliflora in fish diets. Fish fed diet 4 achieved the highest values of dry matter and crude protein. The results suggested that diet supplemented with 60g kg-1 P. juliflora improved

  16. Seasonal variation in the physico-chemical properties of Rushikulya estuary and its effect on the occurrence of Chanos fry

    OpenAIRE

    Patnaik, K.C.; Misra, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Seasonal variation in some physico-chemical properties of Rushikulya estuary was studied. The surface water temperature varied from 20 to 34.5 degree C, the transparency of the water from 6.3 to 12 cm, the salinity from 28.3 to 32.8 % and the pH from 6.77 to 7.35. The transparency and salinity showed bimodal distribution. Occurrence of the Chanos fry were correlated to it.

  17. Fried-Yennie gauge recalculation of the electron line induced radiative-recoil corrections to muonium hyperfine splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, V.Yu.; Eides, M.I.; Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    A new analytic calculation of radiative-recoil corrections to muonium ground-state hyperfine splitting induced by electron line insertions is performed. The starting point of this calculation is presented by the Fried-Yennie gauge expression for the electron line factor. The final result confirms the one obtained previously from the apparently different expression in the Feynman gauge and removes the slight discrepancy which existed in the literature between the calculations in different gauges. (orig.)

  18. Expression of microRNAs and interferon-related genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) infected with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    The fish rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) causes severe disease in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The potential threat from wildlife marine reservoir of VHSV, particularly to sea-farmed fish demands disease protection measures. Identification of biomarkers during...

  19. Effect of azolla-incorporated diets on the growth and survival of Labeo fimbriatus during fry-to-fingerling rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gangadhar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of 75 days duration was conducted in fertilized outdoor circular cement tanks (1,000 L with soil base for evaluating the growth and survival of Labeo fimbriatus fry fed with pelleted feed containing varied levels of dried azolla (Azolla pinnata. The Control feed contained 45% groundnut oilcake plus 45% rice bran and 10% finger millet flour added as binder for pelleting. Dried azolla powder was incorporated into the feed at 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels, replacing the groundnut cake and rice bran proportionately. L. fimbriatus (mean length 2.42 cm fry were stocked in all the tanks at 30 m−3. The fish were fed 10% of body weight during the first month, followed by 7% during the second month and 5% during the last 15 days. Incorporation of azolla did not affect (p > 0.05 the water quality, growth and survival of fingerlings at harvest. Incorporation of azolla in the diet reduced the cost of feed (Rs. per 100 g biomass; Rs: Indian rupee, INR; 1 INR ≈ 0.015 EUR from 3.35 to 2.53, with a cost saving of 24.48%. The study indicated the possibility of incorporating azolla in diets of L. fimbriatus up to 40% during fry-to-fingerling rearing, resulting in savings on feed cost.

  20. [Deep frying snack product of legume/cereal mixture based on corn and three varieties of beans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M L; Escobar, B; Estévez, A M

    2001-09-01

    To increase legume consumption and give a better protein quality in the snack products, mixtures of fried beans-corn were formulate in different proportions: 60:40 (A); 50:50 (B) and 40:60 (C). Fried corn used in mixtures was previously soaked in a predetermined solution (NaOH/EDTA) and then blanched. Three beans varieties (Pinto 114, Suave 85 and Tórtola Inia) were mixed with fried yellow dent corn in the above described proportions, obtaining nine mixtures whose physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics were evaluated. The mixtures were very homogeneous in all the analyzed characteristics. The protein content for the A mix was the greatest, nevertheless the sensorial analysis showed the last acceptance. The moisture content and water activity of these mixtures was low assuring a good microbiological stability under storage conditions. The protein contribution of each species in different prepared mixtures determined the selection of the best cereal/legume mix. From a nutritional stand point the best results were obtained when the 50% of protein was supplied by bans and the 50% by corn. From the mixtures tried in this study, mix C with bean Pinto 114 one closed to the recommended conditions. Nevertheless, for each cereal/legume mix, the best proportion was C, due to its better acceptability, even though it had less nutritional value.