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Sample records for fruity aroma production

  1. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

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    Adriana Bramorski

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

  2. Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum

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    T. Pinotti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melaço e milhocina ou peptona e a produção de aroma frutal foi verificada através de avaliação sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melaço, peptona e leucina, valina ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presença de diversos ésteres foi consistente com a formação de aroma frutal.

  3. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

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    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  4. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

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    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine.

  5. Increase of fruity aroma during mixed T. delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae wine fermentation is linked to specific esters enhancement.

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    Renault, Philippe; Coulon, Joana; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Bely, Marina

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this work was to study ester formation and the aromatic impact of Torulaspora delbrueckii when used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation of must. In order to evaluate the influence of the inoculation procedure, sequential and simultaneous mixed cultures were carried out and compared to pure cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae. Our results showed that mixed inoculations allowed the increase, in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture, of some esters specifically produced by T. delbrueckii and significantly correlated to the maximal T. delbrueckii population reached in mixed cultures. Thus, ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate and ethyl dihydrocinnamate were considered as activity markers of T. delbrueckii. On the other hand, isobutyl acetate and isoamyl acetate concentrations were systematically increased during mixed inoculations although not correlated with the development of either species but were rather due to positive interactions between these species. Favoring T. delbrueckii development when performing sequential inoculation enhanced the concentration of esters linked to T. delbrueckii activity. On the contrary, simultaneous inoculation restricted the growth of T. delbrueckii, limiting the production of its activity markers, but involved a very important production of numerous esters due to more important positive interactions between species. These results suggest that the ester concentrations enhancement via interactions during mixed modalities was due to S. cerevisiae production in response to the presence of T. delbrueckii. Finally, sensory analyses showed that mixed inoculations between T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae allowed to enhance the complexity and fruity notes of wine in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture. Furthermore, the higher levels of ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl dihydrocinnamate and isobutyl acetate in mixed wines were found responsible for the increase of

  6. Production of aroma compounds from whey using Wickerhamomyces pijperi.

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    Izawa, Naoki; Kudo, Miyuki; Nakamura, Yukako; Mizukoshi, Harumi; Kitada, Takahiro; Sone, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    The production of aroma compounds by the microbial fermentation of whey was studied. Seven strains of the yeast Wickerhamomyces pijperi were used for the fermentation of glucose-added whey (whey-g). Twelve aroma compounds (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl benzoate) were identified in the fermented broth using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The major components were ethyl acetate (several tens to hundreds ppm), acetaldehyde (several tens ppm) and isoamyl alcohol (about 10 ppm). The strong fruity odor of ethyl benzoate (about 1 ppm) was detected in the broth of W. pijperi YIT 8095 and YIT 12779. The balance of aroma compounds produced was varied depending on the media used, and ethyl benzoate was only produced when using whey-g. The variation in the production of the aroma compounds over time using W. pijperi YIT 12779 at various culture temperatures (from 15-30°C) was also studied. From the results we propose that W. pijperi could be used as a novel microorganism for production of aroma compounds from whey.

  7. Functionality of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) in the production of fruity ice cream.

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    Çakmakçı, Songül; Topdaş, Elif Feyza; Çakır, Yusuf; Kalın, Pınar

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) on the quality characteristics of ice cream. Kumquat paste (KP) was added to an ice cream mix at four concentrations, 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15% (w/w), for ice cream production. The increment of KP level caused an increase in acidity, vitamin C content, b* value and overrun value compared with the control ice cream. The apparent viscosity of samples decreased with the addition of KP at concentrations of 5 and 10% compared with the control. Results indicated that lyophilized water extract of KP (LKE) contained remarkable phenolic compounds. It was observed that LKE exhibited moderate in vitro antioxidant capacity. KP enhanced the color, flavor, vitamin C content and Mg and K contents of the ice cream. The addition of KP positively affected the sensory properties. KP may be used as a suitable source of natural color and flavor agent in ice cream production. KP enhanced the vitamin C content and Mg and K contents of ice cream and improved its sensory properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Immobilization of Yarrowia lipolytica for aroma production from castor oil.

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    Braga, Adelaide; Belo, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare different materials for Y. lipolytica immobilization that could be used in the production of γ-decalactone (a peach-like aroma) in order to prevent the toxic effect both of the substrate and the aroma upon the cells. Therefore, cells adsorption onto pieces of methyl polymethacrylate and of DupUM(®) was studied and further used in the biotransformation of castor oil into γ-decalactone. The highest aroma concentration was obtained with immobilized cells in DupUM(®), where reconsumption of the aroma by the cells was prevented, contrarily to what happens with free cells. This is a very promising result for γ-decalactone production, with potential to be used at an industrial level since the use of immobilized cells system will facilitate the conversion of a batch process into a continuous mode keeping high cell density and allowing easier recovery of metabolic products.

  9. Effect of trehalose addition on volatiles responsible for strawberry aroma.

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    Kopjar, Mirela; Hribar, Janez; Simcic, Marjan; Zlatić, Emil; Pozrl, Tomaz; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2013-12-01

    Aroma is one of the most important quality properties of food products and has a great influence on quality and acceptability of foods. Since it is very difficult to control, in this study the effect of addition of trehalose (3, 5 and 10%) to freeze-dried strawberry cream fillings was investigated as a possible means for retention of some of the aroma compounds responsible for the strawberry aroma. In samples with added trehalose, higher amounts of fruity esters were determined. Increase of trehalose content did not cause a proportional increase in the amount of fruity esters. However, results of our research showed that trehalose addition did not have the same effect on both gamma-decalactone and furaneol.

  10. Use of pervaporation process for the recovery of aroma compounds produced by P. fermentans in sugarcane molasses.

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    Rossi, Suzan Cristina; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Weschenfelder, Thiago André; de Paula Scheer, Agnes; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-03-17

    Natural fruity aroma was produced during submerged fermentation by Pichia fermentans using sugarcane molasses as a cultivation broth. The aroma compounds were recovered from the fermentation by a pervaporation process using a polydimethylsiloxane membrane (Pervap 4060-Sulzer). Isoamyl acetate, a characteristic compound associated with fruity aromas, was the major compound produced. The pervaporation module was fed at three different temperatures to test the best conditions to recover the natural fruity aroma. The total flux (J T), partial fluxes of each component (J i), and enrichment factors (β) were determined within the tested ranges. The process was performed at 45 °C, a feed flow of 1.5 mL/min and 0.1 kPa, for a duration of 13 h to concentrate the natural flavor. The pervaporation process can concentrate the isoamyl acetate from fermented broth from 9 to 61.8 mg/L in the first hour of pervaporation. As a single step of downstream operation, pervaporation was efficient for recovering and concentrating the natural fruity aroma. The obtained product was colorless and had a characteristic banana flavor.

  11. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

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    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  12. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

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    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful.

  13. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

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    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  14. Production of the pepper aroma compound, (-)-rotundone, by aerial oxidation of α-guaiene.

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    Huang, An-Cheng; Burrett, Stacey; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2014-11-01

    The aroma link between pepper and wine has recently been elucidated to be due to the important aroma compound rotundone. To date, rotundone is the only known impact odorant with a peppery aroma. Although the concentration found in products of natural origin is small, the odor detection threshold is among the lowest of any natural product yet discovered. We report herein the identification of the first known precursor to rotundone, namely, α-guaiene, and that one mechanism of transformation is simple aerial oxidation.

  15. Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes

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    H. F. Rozenbaum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

  16. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages.

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    Flores, Mónica; Corral, Sara; Cano-García, Liliana; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-11-06

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, ester compounds contribute to fruity aroma notes associated with high acceptance of traditional dry sausages. However, the origin of ester compounds in traditional dry sausages can be due to other microorganisms as lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Yeast contribution in dry fermented sausages was investigated with opposite results attributed to low yeast survival or low activity during processing. Generally, they affect sausage colour and flavour by their oxygen-scavenging and lipolytic activities in addition to, their ability to catabolize fermentation products such as lactate increasing the pH and contributing to less tangy and more aromatic sausages. Recently, the isolation and characterization of yeast from traditional dry fermented sausages made possible the selection of those with ability to produce aroma active compounds. Molecular methods were used for genetic typing of the isolated yeasts whereas their ability to produce aroma compounds was tested in different systems such as in culture media, in model systems and finally on dry fermented sausages. The results revealed that the appropriate selection of yeast strains with aroma potential may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of reformulated fermented sausages.

  17. The Use of Enzymes and Microorganisms for the Production of Aroma Compounds from Lipids

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    Mario Aguedo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are an important source of aroma compounds. In foods, lipids are degraded or modified by enzymatic activities that are originally present in the raw materials or that develop later due to the growth of microorganisms. Mimicking these natural pathways, some processes have been developed to produce aroma compounds in bioreactors. In this review we describe the production of aroma compounds from different families: lactones, green notes and ionones. We focus on points that are specific to these reactions in heterogeneous media: physicochemical forces involved in the interactions between the substrate, product and biocatalyst, transfers between the phases and, as the degradation of lipids often requires an oxidation step, on the problems of oxygenation of the reactors.

  18. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

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    Moshonas, M.G.; Shaw, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 50-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine.

  19. Biotechnological production of γ-decalactone, a peach like aroma, by Yarrowia lipolytica.

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    Braga, A; Belo, I

    2016-10-01

    The request for new flavourings increases every year. Consumer perception that everything natural is better is causing an increase demand for natural aroma additives. Biotechnology has become a way to get natural products. γ-Decalactone is a peach-like aroma widely used in dairy products, beverages and others food industries. In more recent years, more and more studies and industrial processes were endorsed to cost-effect this compound production. One of the best-known methods to produce γ-decalactone is from ricinoleic acid catalyzed by Yarrowia lipolytica, a generally regarded as safe status yeast. As yet, several factors affecting γ-decalactone production remain to be fully understood and optimized. In this review, we focus on the aromatic compound γ-decalactone and its production by Y. lipolytica. The metabolic pathway of lactone production and degradation are addressed. Critical analysis of novel strategies of bioprocess engineering, metabolic and genetic engineering and other strategies for the enhancement of the aroma productivity are presented.

  20. Great interspecies and intraspecies diversity of dairy propionibacteria in the production of cheese aroma compounds.

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    Yee, Alyson L; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Roland, Nathalie; Chuat, Victoria; Leclerc, Aurélie; Pogačić, Tomislav; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2014-11-17

    Flavor is an important sensory property of fermented food products, including cheese, and largely results from the production of aroma compounds by microorganisms. Propionibacterium freudenreichii is the most widely used species of dairy propionibacteria; it has been implicated in the production of a wide variety of aroma compounds through multiple metabolic pathways and is associated with the flavor of Swiss cheese. However, the ability of other dairy propionibacteria to produce aroma compounds has not been characterized. This study sought to elucidate the effect of interspecies and intraspecies diversity of dairy propionibacteria on the production of aroma compounds in a cheese context. A total of 76 strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium jensenii, Propionibacterium thoenii, and Propionibacterium acidipropionici were grown for 15 days in pure culture in a rich medium derived from cheese curd. In addition, one strain each of two phylogenetically related non-dairy propionibacteria, Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum and Propionibacterium microaerophilum were included. Aroma compounds were analyzed using headspace trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). An analysis of variance performed on GC-MS data showed that the abundance of 36 out of the 45 aroma compounds detected showed significant differences between the cultures. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for these 36 compounds. The first two axes of the PCA, accounting for 60% of the variability between cultures, separated P. freudenreichii strains from P. acidipropionici strains and also differentiated P. freudenreichii strains from each other. P. freudenreichii strains were associated with greater concentrations of a variety of compounds, including free fatty acids from lipolysis, ethyl esters derived from these acids, and branched-chain acids and alcohols from amino acid catabolism. P. acidipropionici strains produced less of these compounds but more sulfur

  1. Unsaturated hydrocarbons with fruity and floral odors.

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    Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Fedeli, P; Paoli, M L; Sega, A; Scesa, C; Pelosi, P

    2000-04-01

    Hydrocarbons usually do not exhibit odors of interest or well-defined character. However, certain cyclic alkenes have been associated with typical and pleasant notes, such as fruity, green, and floral. One of the best known examples is represented by the isomeric megastigmatrienes, endowed with a pleasant smell of tropical fruits. From the structures of these odorants, 24 analogues and homologues, most of them cyclic alkenes, but including also some open-chain alkenes, have been synthesized to define structural parameters related to the characteristic odors of these compounds. The number and position of double bonds, the substitution on the ring, and the size of the ring are the variables taken into account. Most of the new compounds present a mainly fruity character, associated in several cases with floral and green notes, producing an overall sensation described as "tropical fruit".

  2. Insights into the Key Aroma Compounds in Mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden') Fruits by Stable Isotope Dilution Quantitation and Aroma Simulation Experiments.

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    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Steinhaus, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-four aroma-active compounds, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis, were quantified in tree-ripened fruits of mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden'). From the results, the odor activity value (OAV) was calculated for each compound as the ratio of its concentration in the mangoes to its odor threshold in water. OAVs > 1 were obtained for 24 compounds, among which ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 2100), (3E,5Z)-undeca-1,3,5-triene (pineapple-like; OAV 1900), ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 1600), and ethyl butanoate (fruity; OAV 980) were the most potent, followed by (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal (cucumber-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), (E)-β-damascenone (cooked apple-like), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol (sulfurous), γ-decalactone (peach-like), β-myrcene (terpeny), (3Z)-hex-3-enal (green), 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (tropical fruit-like), and ethyl octanoate (fruity). Aroma simulation and omission experiments revealed that these 15 compounds, when combined in a model mixture in their natural concentrations, were able to mimic the aroma of the fruits.

  3. Influence of the Production Process on the Key Aroma Compounds of Rum: From Molasses to the Spirit.

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    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-30

    The production of rum consists of fermentation, distillation, and aging. To check the influence of each step on the final rum aroma, molasses, mash, distillate, and the final rum were analyzed using the sensomics concept. The changes in key aroma compounds were determined by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) for quantitation. Odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) were calculated for the compounds determined in the rum and, finally, the rum aroma was successfully simulated by recombination. (E)-β-Damascenone showed by far the highest OAV (3280) in rum. Although this compound was determined already in molasses, its concentration increased significantly during distillation, indicating a thermolabile precursor. Vanillin, 4-ethylphenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol are well-known compounds mainly stemming from the wood barrels used for aging and showed an OAV ≥ 1. Another important group of aroma-active compounds in rum were ethyl esters, for which a significant increase was determined during fermentation but also to a lesser extent during aging. Altogether, the concentrations of 68% of the aroma-active compounds increased during the process, demonstrating its influence on the overall rum aroma.

  4. Production and Recovery of Aroma Compounds Produced by Solid-State Fermentation Using Different Adsorbents

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    Adriane B. P. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds with fruity characteristics were produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata in two different bioreactors: columns (laboratory scale and horizontal drum (semi-pilot scale. Coffee husk was used as substrate for the production of volatile compounds by solid-state fermentation. The production of volatile compounds was significantly higher when horizontal drum bioreactor was used than when column bioreactors were used. These results showed that this model of bioreactor presents good perspectives for scale-up and application in an industrial production. Headspace analysis of the solid-state culture detected twelve compounds, among them: ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, and isoamyl acetate. Ethyl acetate was the predominant product in the headspace (28.55 µmol/L/g of initial dry matter. Activated carbon, Tenax-TA, and Amberlite XAD-2 were tested to perform the recovery of the compounds. The adsorbent columns were connected to the column-type bioreactor. All compounds present in the headspace of the columns were adsorbed in Amberlite XAD-2. With Tenax-TA, acetaldehyde was adsorbed in higher concentrations. However, the recovery found by using the activated carbon was very low.

  5. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    headspace extraction (Paper II, III and V). The compounds were evaluated according to their odour activity value (OAV). The most aroma active compounds (OAV > 6) identified in bread crumb were; (E)-2-nonanal (green, tallow), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methyl-1-butanol (balsamic, alcoholic), nonanal (citrus......), hexanal (green), 2,3-butanedione (buttery, caramel), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like). Esters were also identified in bread crumb (e.g. ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate) and they are of interest because of their fruity and pleasant odours, however the OAV...

  6. Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Katsieris, Konstantinos; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Banat, Ibrahim M; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2014-02-15

    Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by K. marxianus contained the highest sum of fat and protein concentration (59.2% w/w dm) and therefore it could be considered for utilisation of its fat content and for livestock feed enrichment. Regarding volatiles, the formation of high amounts of ε-pinene was observed only in the SSF product of kefir at a yield estimated to be 4 kg/tn of SSF product. A preliminary design of a biorefinery-type process flow sheet and its economic analysis, indicated potential production of products (enriched livestock feed, fat and ε-pinene) of significant added value.

  7. Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç��o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As condições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono

  8. Influence of Fermentation Temperature, Yeast Strain, and Grape Juice on the Aroma Chemistry and Sensory Profile of Sauvignon Blanc Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Rebecca C; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C

    2017-10-02

    Sauvignon blanc wine, balanced by herbaceous and tropical aromas, is fermented at low temperatures (10-15 °C). Anecdotal accounts from winemakers suggest that cold fermentations produce and retain more "fruity" aroma compounds; nonetheless, studies have not confirmed why low temperatures are optimal for Sauvignon blanc. Thirty-two aroma compounds were quantitated from two Marlborough Sauvignon blanc juices fermented at 12.5 and 25 °C, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains EC1118, L-1528, M2, and X5. Fourteen compounds were responsible for driving differences in aroma chemistry. The 12.5 °C-fermented wines had lower 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and higher alcohols but increased fruity acetate esters. However, a sensory panel did not find a significant difference between fruitiness in 75% of wine pairs based on fermentation temperature, in spite of chemical differences. For wine pairs with significant differences (25%), the 25 °C-fermented wines were fruitier than the 12.5 °C-fermented wines, with high fruitiness associated with 3MH. We propose that the benefits of low fermentation temperatures are not derived from increased fruitiness but a better balance between fruitiness and greenness. Even so, since 75% of wines showed no significant difference, higher fermentation temperatures could be utilized without detriment, lowering costs for the wine industry.

  9. Chilling and heating may regulate C6 volatile aroma production by different mechanisms in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexanal, Z-3-hexenal, E-2-hexenal, hexanol, and Z-3-hexenol are major tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) volatile aromas derived from oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Chilling and heating may suppress production of these C6 volatiles. The objective of this research was to determine the response...

  10. Effect of fruity solvent on the milk flavor and production performance of dairy cows%果味剂对奶风味及奶牛生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 马燕芬; 高民

    2012-01-01

    24 Holstein cows in premetaphase lactation stage with similar weight, lactation period, parities, milk, good health were selected and divided into 4 groups, each group had 6 cows. The trail was conducted to use apple flavor, banana flavor, mixed fruit flavor to feed the cows, and the aim was to assess production performance of dairy cows and flavor components in milk samples. The result showed: CD Compared with the control group, 3 fruity solvents all could slow the downward trend of milk production, especially the banana flavor group (Decreasing degree for milk production: the banana flavor is 0.5%, the apple flavor is 11.9%, the mixed fruit flavor is 8.86% and the control group is 13.5%. (2) Sensory evaluation to milk sample, 4 groups had no obvious differences at colour, structural state, creamy flavor, fruit flavor, sweetness, sourness, bitterness, astringency, forage taste and cowtail taste, but comprehensive flavor had obvious difference (P apple flavor group > banana flavor group = the control group.%试验选择了24头泌乳前中期的同一胎次、健康无病、具有相近体重、产奶量与泌乳期的荷斯坦奶牛,将其分为4组,每组6头牛,在奶牛日粮中添加苹果味果味剂、香蕉味果味剂、混合香型果味剂,并设置对照组(不添加果味剂)进行奶牛饲养试验.对奶牛的生产性能以及奶样中风味物质进行评定.试验结果表明:①在奶牛生产性能方面,与对照组相比,3种果味剂都有减缓产奶量下降的趋势,其中香蕉味的作用效果最好(产奶量下降:香蕉味0.5%,苹果味11.9%,混合味8.86%,对照13.5%).②对奶样进行感官评价,在单独的色泽、组织状态、奶香味、果香味、甜味、酸味、苦味、涩味、饲草味和牛体味中,4种样品基本没有差异,4个样品的综合风味存在显著差异(P<0.05),在风味的总得分上,混合风味>苹果风味>香蕉风味=对照组.

  11. Encapsulation of Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Heinrich, Emmanuel

    Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of a food product, since people prefer to eat only food products with an attractive flavor (Voilley and Etiévant 2006). Flavor can be defined as a combination of taste, smell and/or trigeminal stimuli. Taste is divided into five basic ones, i.e. sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami. Components that trigger the so-called gustatory receptors for these tastes are in general not volatile, in contrast to aroma. Aroma molecules are those that interact with the olfactory receptors in the nose cavity (Firestein 2001). Confusingly, aroma is often referred to as flavor. Trigeminal stimuli cause sensations like cold, touch, and prickling. The current chapter only focuses on the encapsulation of the aroma molecules.

  12. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Miličević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Muškat ruža porečki was obtained during the production of rosé wines. All fermented marc samples were distilled using a traditional copper alembic. The obtained distillates were subjected to GC/MS and GC/FID analyses. Malvazija istarska distillates exhibited exceptionally high methanol content. Distillates from white grape varieties were found to be characterized by higher C6 alcohol and 1-propanol concentrations, while red grape distillates contained higher amounts of the majority of alcohols, acids, and esters. In Muškat ruža distillates intermediate concentrations of many important aroma compounds were found. It was concluded that differences in the production technology parameters, depending on the variety, resulted in differences in secondary aroma profiles, most evident between distillates from white and red varieties. These findings were confirmed applying stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA, which resulted in 100 % correct classification of distillates according to the variety and corresponding production technology.

  13. Model cheese aroma perception is explained not only by in vivo aroma release but also by salivary composition and oral processing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, E; Repoux, M; Qannari, E M; Laboure, H; Feron, G

    2017-02-22

    The aim of the present paper was to determine, from four model cheeses differing in fat content and firmness and consumed by fourteen well characterised subjects, the respective impacts of in vivo aroma release, bolus rheology, chewing activity, mouth coating and salivary composition on dynamic aroma perception. The originality of the approach is that it considers all the parameters together and is able to evaluate their relative contribution using multi-block partial least square (MB-PLS) regression. The fruity aroma perception of the more hydrophilic compound (ethyl propanoate) was related to its dynamic release parameters before swallowing whereas the blue cheese aroma perception of the more hydrophobic compound (nonan-2-one) was related to its dynamic release parameters after swallowing and was highly impacted by mouth coating. Moreover the MB-PLS approach made it possible to evidence the combined effects of saliva composition and cross-modal interactions to understand why in some cases dynamic aroma perception could not be explained by dynamic in vivo aroma release data. Subjects with a low sodium content in saliva perceived fruity aroma which is not congruent with saltiness as less intense and salt- congruent (blue cheese) aroma as more intense, which was explained by their higher sensitivity to salt. Subjects with high lipolysis activity perceived fruity aroma which is not congruent to fat as less intense and fat-congruent (blue cheese) aroma as more intense, which should be explained by the link between lipolysis activity and fat sensitivity. These results could be considered for the reformulation of foods towards specific populations taking into account nutritional recommendations.

  14. 浓香型产区烤烟香韵与香气质量及香型关系研究%Relationships among Note, Aroma Quality and Aroma type in Full-aroma-style Flue-cured Tobacco Production Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪丽; 赵铭钦; 任伟; 张俊; 刘鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    为明确浓香型烟叶风格特征与品质特征之间的联系,以8个浓香型产区2011-2012年的264份烟叶样品为材料,运用灰色关联度分析、偏相关分析和逐步回归分析等方法分析了感官评价中的香韵指标(焦甜香、焦香、正甜香、干草香、木香、坚果香、辛香)与烟叶香气质量及香型之间的关系。结果表明:(1)香韵对香气质影响以焦甜香、干草香为最大;香韵对香气量影响以干草香、焦甜香为最大;香韵对香型影响以焦甜香、正甜香为最大。(2)干草香与香气质呈显著正相关,焦甜香与香气质呈显著负相关;干草香与香气量呈显著正相关;正甜香与香型呈显著正相关,焦甜香与香型呈极显著正相关。(3)通过逐步回归模型,建立了香韵各指标与香气质量及香型的最优回归方程,可以利用回归方程来预测香气质量及香型。%Statistical analysis, including gray correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis, and stepwise regression analysis, were conducted to identify the relationship between style and quality characteristics of aromatic flue-cured tobacco. Total of 264 tobacco samples from 8 provinces of production areas with aroma style tobacco were used to analysis the relationships of note indicators, aroma quality and aroma type. The results showed that the note which influenced the quality of aroma the most was burnt-sweetness aroma and hay incense. The note which influenced the quantity of aroma most was hay incense and burnt-sweetness aroma. The note that influenced the type most was burnt-sweetness aroma and pure-sweetness aroma. Partial correlation analysis showed that the hay incense and burnt-sweetness aroma were significantly related with sweet temperament, hay incense was significantly related with aroma quantity, pure-sweetness aroma was significantly related with aroma type, burnt-sweetness aroma was extremely significantly

  15. Behaviour and hormonal status in healthy rats on a diet rich in Maillard reaction products with or without solvent extractable aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebeková, Katarína; Klenovics, Kristína Simon; Boor, Peter; Celec, Peter; Behuliak, Michal; Schieberle, Peter; Heidland, August; Palkovits, Miklós; Somoza, Veronika

    2012-02-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are generated upon thermal processing of foods, modifying their colour and flavour. We asked whether aroma compounds generated via Maillard-type reactions modulate the in vivo effects of MRP-rich diets (MRPD). Male Wistar rats were fed for 3weeks either with a standard rat chow, an aroma compounds containing MRPD comprising 25% bread crust, or an aroma-extracted MRPD. In contrast to standard rat chow, consumption of MRPDs affected glucose control, induced hyper-leptinemia and hyper-adiponectinemia. Plasma adipokines were significantly higher in rats on aroma containing MRPD in comparison with those consuming aroma-extracted MRPD. Consumption of both MRPDs significantly increased the expression of the insulin receptor in the olfactory bulb, and mildly in the hypothalamus. Administration of the aroma containing MRPD significantly increased the leptin receptor expression in the olfactory bulb, and in the hypothalamus. Under both MRPDs, strong expression of c-fos indicated an increased neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb. Neuronal activity in brain areas involved in the central regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis was more pronounced in rats fed by the aroma containing MRPD. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a MRPD fortified with bread crust, particularly if containing solvent extractable volatile aroma compounds, affected the leptin-induced central signalling of anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones, and the neuronal activity in the central nervous system. Behavioural changes and altered glucose control were more evident in rats on the aroma containing MRPD. Our data suggest that volatile aroma compounds in foods might affect endocrine signalling and neuronal regulation of metabolism.

  16. Aroma-Active Compounds in Bartlett Pears and Their Changes during the Manufacturing Process of Bartlett Pear Brandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Bianca; Schieberle, Peter; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-12-21

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to Bartlett pears and the fermented mash produced thereof revealed 24 and 34 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range between 8 and 8192. Twenty-eight compounds, which have not been described before in Bartlett pears or in fermented pear mash, were identified. While ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear-like, metallic odor impression), hexyl acetate (green, fruity), and acetic acid (vinegar-like) showed the highest concentrations in Bartlett pears, ethanol (ethanolic), acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol (malty), 1-hexanol (grassy, marzipan-like), (S)-2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty), and 2-phenylethanol (flowery, honey-like) were present at the highest amounts in the fermented mash. The key aroma compounds were quantitated in each pear brandy production step (pears, fermented mash, distillate, and aged distillate) by stable isotope dilution analysis showing a clear influence of each step on the overall aroma of the spirit and, consequently, revealing clearly changing concentrations (e.g., of ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-β-damascenone, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and ethyl (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate) and different aroma perceptions during the manufacturing process. In addition, the concentrations of the so-called "pear esters" ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and ethyl (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate were determined in 6 different pear varieties (Abate Fetel, Anjou, Bartlett, Forelle, Kaiser Alexander, and Packham's Triumph) clearly demonstrating the aroma potential of the variety Bartlett, which is mostly used for brandy production due to the high amounts of both esters eliciting a typical pear-like odor impression.

  17. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-08-04

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes.

  18. Characterization of the key odorants in light aroma type chinese liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenjun; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2014-06-25

    The light aroma type liquor is widely welcomed by consumers due to its pleasant fruity and floral aroma, particularly in northern China. To answer the puzzling question of which key aroma compounds are responsible for the typical aroma, three typical liquors were studied in this paper. A total of 66 aroma compounds were identified in three liquors by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), and 27 odorants were further screened out as the important odorants according to quantitative study and odor activity values (OAVs). For OAV calculation, odor thresholds of the odorants were determined in a hydroalcoholic solution at 46% ethanol by volume. The typical light type aroma dominated by fruity and floral notes was successfully simulated by dissolving these important odorants in the 46% vol hydroalcoholic solution in their natural concentrations. Omission experiments further confirmed β-damascenone and ethyl acetate as the key odorants and revealed the significance of the entire group of esters, particularly ethyl lactate, geosmin, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid, for the overall aroma of the light aroma type Chinese liquor.

  19. Differences in Enzymatic Properties of the Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum Alcohol Acetyltransferases and their Impact on Aroma-Active Compounds Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri eStribny; Amparo eQuerol; Roberto ePérez-Torrado

    2016-01-01

    AbstractHigher alcohols and acetate esters belong to the most important yeast secondary metabolites that significantly contribute to the overall flavour and aroma profile of fermented products. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, esterification of higher alcohols is catalysed mainly by the alcohol acetyltransferases encoded by genes ATF1 and ATF2. Previous investigation has shown other Saccharomyces species, e.g. S. kudriavzevii and S. uvarum, to vary in aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate este...

  20. Mango fruit aroma volatile production following quarantine hot water treatment and subsequent ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangos are an important tropical fruit crop worldwide that are appreciated for their attractive peel and flesh colors, juicy texture, sweetness, and unique aroma. Mangos exported to the U.S. receive quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT) at 46.1 °C for 65 to 110 min (depending on fruit shape and size...

  1. Characterisation of free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds of La Mancha Verdejo white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Alonso-Villegas, R; González Viñas, M A

    2015-04-15

    The aroma of Verdejo La Mancha white wines was studied by instrumental and sensory analysis across five consecutive vintages to determine their typicity and quality. Free and glycosidically-bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE) to later be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-four (74) free aroma compounds and thirty-six (36) bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified in La Mancha Verdejo wines oven this five year period. Based on the result, Verdejo white wines presents a complex chemical profile with a wealth of aromas in its aromatic composition. The sensory profile of Verdejo wines was evaluated by experienced wine-tasters and was characterised by fresh, citric, green apple, fruity and tropical fruit aroma descriptors. This study shows the first complete aromatic characterisation of La Mancha Verdejo white wines, also the data suggest that these wines present a great aromatic potential.

  2. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part III. Chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    The spice capsicum, the fruits of the genus Capsicum (Family Solanaceae), is a very popular food additive in many parts of the world, valued for the important sensory attributes of color, pungency, and aroma. A large number of varieties are widely cultivated and traded. The characteristic carotenoids of the bright red paprika and cayenne-type chillies, the high character impact aroma stimuli, the methoxy pyrazine of green bell capsicum, the esters of ripe tabasco and the highly potent pungency stimuli, and the capsaicinoids of African and other Asian varieties of chillies, have been of great interest to chemists and biochemists. Research workers in other disciplines such as genetics and breeding, agriculture, and technology have been interested in this spice to develop new varieties with combinations of different optimal levels of the stimuli for the sensory attributes and to maximize production of storable products for specific end uses. Physiologists have been intensely studying the action of the highly potent pungency stimuli and social psychologists the curious aspect of growing acceptance and preference for the initially unacceptable pungency sensation. In the sequential review of all these aspects of the fruit spice Capsicum, the earlier two parts covered history, botany, cultivation and primary processing, and processed products, standards, world production, and trade. In Part III, the chemistry, the compositional variations, synthesis and biosynthesis of the functional components, the carotenoids, the volatiles, and the capsaicinoids are comprehensively reviewed.

  3. DNA tests for strawberry: ¿-decalactone "fruity" aroma - qFaFAD1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry fruit produce hundreds of volatile compounds that contribute to the characteristic flavor of the fruit that many enjoy. One important compound is gamma-decalactone. This compound has been described as “peachy” and is indeed a very valuable compound contributing to the characteristic flavo...

  4. Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

  5. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Bartlett pear brandies by means of the sensomics concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Bianca; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-10-09

    The aroma compounds in two commercial Bartlett pear brandies clearly differing in their overall aroma profiles were detected in the volatile fractions by the aroma extract dilution analysis. In brandy A eliciting the more intense pear-like, fruity aroma, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-β-damascenone, 1,1-diethoxyethane, 2- and 3-methylbutanol, (S)-2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 2-phenylethanol were found with the highest Flavor Dilution (FD) factors. In brandy B judged to have a weaker overall aroma, also (E)-β-damascenone, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol revealed high FD factors, while many odorants showed lower FD factors. Fourty-four odor-active compounds were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentrations to odor thresholds) confirmed (E)-β-damascenone and ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate as important aroma compounds in brandy A, while the OAVs of most odorants were much lower in brandy B. By aroma recombination studies, the aromas of both brandies could be matched using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the spirits. In 15 commercial Bartlett pear brandies ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate eliciting a pear-like aroma showed a reasonable correlation of their concentrations with the overall aroma quality.

  6. Wine flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  7. Key volatile aroma compounds of lactic acid fermented malt based beverages - impact of lactic acid bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsogning Dongmo, Sorelle; Sacher, Bertram; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Becker, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    This study aims to define the aroma composition and key aroma compounds of barley malt wort beverages produced from fermentation using six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry-olfactometry and flame ionization detection was employed; key aroma compounds were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Fifty-six detected volatile compounds were similar among beverages. However, significant differences were observed in the concentration of individual compounds. Key aroma compounds (flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥16) were β-damascenone, furaneol, phenylacetic acid, 2-phenylethanol, 4-vinylguaiacol, sotolon, methional, vanillin, acetic acid, nor-furaneol, guaiacol and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. Furthermore, acetaldehyde had the greatest odor activity value of up to 4266. Sensory analyses revealed large differences in the flavor profile. Beverage from L. plantarum Lp. 758 showed the highest FD factors in key aroma compounds and was correlated to fruity flavors. Therefore, we suggest that suitable LAB strain selection may improve the flavor of malt based beverages.

  8. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in a commercial Amontillado sherry wine by means of the sensomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Pauline; Schieberle, Peter

    2015-05-20

    An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) carried out on the volatile fraction isolated by extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) distillation from a commercial Amontillado sherry wine revealed 37 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors in the range of 16-4096. Among them, 2-phenylethanol (flowery, honey-like) and ethyl methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest FD factors, followed by ethyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity) reported for the first time in sherry wine. A total of 36 aroma-active compounds located by AEDA were then quantitated by a stable isotope dilution assay, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. The highest OAV was displayed by 1,1-diethoxyethane (2475; fruity), followed by 2- and 3-methylbutanals (574; malty) and methylpropanal (369; malty). Aroma reconstitution experiments and a comparative aroma profile analysis revealed that the entire orthonasal aroma profile of the Amontillado sherry wine could be closely mimicked.

  9. Linking gene regulation and the exo-metabolome: A comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes that impact on the production of volatile aroma compounds in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Florian F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Omics' tools provide novel opportunities for system-wide analysis of complex cellular functions. Secondary metabolism is an example of a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, is not well understood with regards to its physiological roles and genetic and biochemical regulation. Many of the metabolites produced by this network such as higher alcohols and esters are significant aroma impact compounds in fermentation products, and different yeast strains are known to produce highly divergent aroma profiles. Here, we investigated whether we can predict the impact of specific genes of known or unknown function on this metabolic network by combining whole transcriptome and partial exo-metabolome analysis. Results For this purpose, the gene expression levels of five different industrial wine yeast strains that produce divergent aroma profiles were established at three different time points of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic wine must. A matrix of gene expression data was generated and integrated with the concentrations of volatile aroma compounds measured at the same time points. This relatively unbiased approach to the study of volatile aroma compounds enabled us to identify candidate genes for aroma profile modification. Five of these genes, namely YMR210W, BAT1, AAD10, AAD14 and ACS1 were selected for overexpression in commercial wine yeast, VIN13. Analysis of the data show a statistically significant correlation between the changes in the exo-metabome of the overexpressing strains and the changes that were predicted based on the unbiased alignment of transcriptomic and exo-metabolomic data. Conclusion The data suggest that a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics approach can be used to identify the metabolic impacts of the expression of individual genes in complex systems, and the amenability of transcriptomic data to direct applications of

  10. The FRUITY database on AGB stars: past, present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Cristallo, S; Straniero, O

    2014-01-01

    We present and show the features of the FRUITY database, an interactive web-based interface devoted to the nucleosynthesis in AGB stars. We describe the current available set of AGB models (largely expanded with respect to the original one) with masses in the range 1.3<=M/M_SUN<=3.0 and metallicities -2.15<=[Fe/H]<=+0.15. We illustrate the details of our s-process surface distributions and we compare our results to observations. Moreover, we introduce a new set of models where the effects of rotation are taken into account. Finally, we shortly describe next planned upgrades.

  11. Aroma interactions with starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma......-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight......-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had...

  12. Production of volatile aroma compounds by bacterial strains isolated from different surface-ripened French cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetae, Pawinee; Bonnarme, Pascal; Spinnler, Henry E; Helinck, Sandra

    2007-10-01

    Twelve bacterial strains belonging to eight taxonomic groups: Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium foliorum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus equorum, Brachybacterium sp., Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., isolated from different surface-ripened French cheeses, were investigated for their abilities to generate volatile aroma compounds. Out of 104 volatile compounds, 54 volatile compounds (identified using dynamic headspace technique coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS]) appeared to be produced by the different bacteria on a casamino acid medium. Four out of eight species used in this study: B. linens, M. foliorum, P. vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. showed a high flavouring potential. Among these four bacterial species, P. vulgaris had the greatest capacity to produce not only the widest varieties but also the highest quantities of volatile compounds having low olfactive thresholds such as sulphur compounds. Branched aldehydes, alcohols and esters were produced in large amounts by P. vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. showing their capacity to breakdown the branched amino acids. This investigation shows that some common but rarely mentioned bacteria present on the surface of ripened cheeses could play a major role in cheese flavour formation and could be used to produce cheese flavours.

  13. Aroma composition changes in early season grapefruit juice produced from thermal concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianming; Rouseff, Russell L; Barros, Sandy; Naim, Michael

    2002-02-13

    Differences in aroma components and total volatiles between a single unpasteurized Marsh grapefruit juice and its 65 Brix concentrate reconstituted to 10 Brix were examined using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-FID. Total volatiles (FID) in the reconstituted concentrate were reduced to less than 5% of initial values, but 57% of total aroma (GC-O) remained. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were observed in unpasteurized single strength juice, whereas 27 components were found in the unflavored reconstituted concentrate. Aroma-active compounds were classified into grapefruit/sulfury, sweet/fruity, fresh/citrusy, green/fatty/metallic, and cooked/meaty groups. Five of six components in the sweet/fruity and 14 of 18 green/fatty/metallic components survived thermal concentration. However, only 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone in the grapefruit/sulfury group, and linalool and nootkatone from the fresh/citrusy group, were found in the reconstituted concentrate. Methional was the only aroma compound in the cooked/meaty category found in both juice types. beta-Damascenone and 1-p-menthen-8-thiol were found only in the reconstituted concentrate. 4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol was found for the first time in grapefruit juice.

  14. SIFAT FISIOKIMIA DAN AROMA EKSTRAK VANILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Setyaningsih

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The curing process of vanilla beans from dried vanilla to vanilla extract would give added value to vanilla products. Aroma and taste in vanilla extract depend on variety of plants, cultivation methods, and curing process. Indonesian vanilla extract tend to give woody and phenolic aroma because it was harvested too early and it did not cure perfectly. This study was to identify the physicochemical and aroma characteristics of vanilla extracts from importer, exporter, and vanilla extracts from the newest experiment from our laboratory. There were seven samples, three from importers (Tahiti grade I, Tahiti grade II, Virginia Dare, two from Indonesian Vanilla exporters (Djasula Wangi, Cobra, and two from our laboratory (G11, 57. The physicochemical characteristics which were analyzed were vanillin content, ash, soluble ash, alkalinity of soluble ash, alkalinity of total ash, total acidity, and lead number, all compared with the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA standard. Sensory analysis used aroma description test consist of qualitative descriptive test (in-depth interview and focus group methods and quantitative descriptive analysis. The result showed that the laboratory's sample from modified curing process (G11 followed the FDA standard in physicochemical characters, but the aroma description was not as strong as the aroma of vanilla extract from exporters, namely Cobra with creamy, sweet, and vanilla aroma; and vanilla extract from importer, namely Virginia with smoky and spicy aroma

  15. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufan; Zhang, Chong; Cao, Songxiao; Wang, Xiao; Qi, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo), and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino), 'Yu Meiren' (YMR) and 'Cui Bao' (CB); a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon), 'Shao Gua' (SHAO); and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud), 'Cai Gua' (CAI). A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z)-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid). Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E)-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  16. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Tang

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo, and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino, 'Yu Meiren' (YMR and 'Cui Bao' (CB; a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon, 'Shao Gua' (SHAO; and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud, 'Cai Gua' (CAI. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid. Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  17. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espino-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is a key quality att ribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in Apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  18. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2016-12-01

    Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  19. Growth and aroma production by Staphylococcus xylosus, S- carnosus and S-equoum - a comparative study in model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, A.K.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2002-01-01

    in sausage minces together with Pediococcus pentosaceus, incubated at 25 C for I week and the produced aroma compounds collected. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression and partial least squares regression analysis. The results showed that increasing pH and temperature from 4.6 to 6.0 and 10...

  20. Aroma profiles of vegetable oils varying in fatty acid composition vs. concentrations of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Roozen, J.P.; Jansen, F.J.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    The aroma compositions of oxidised sunflower oil, linseed oil and a blend thereof (85/15) were compared with frequently used indicators for primary and secondary lipid oxidation. Primary lipid oxidation was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes, secondary lipid oxidation by proponal and

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L. Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ulises Bautista-Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus sp. juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574 recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6GL° with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28C°, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606

  3. Tea aroma formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Tang Ho; Xin Zheng; Shiming Li

    2015-01-01

    Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds) and aroma (volatile compounds). All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Ma...

  4. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed.

  5. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  6. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) by means of aroma re-engineering experiments and omission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-04-08

    Seventeen aroma-active volatiles, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors in fresh, pink Colombian guavas (Psidium guajava L.), were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds in water, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. High OAVs were determined for the green, grassy smelling (Z)-3-hexenal and the grapefruit-like smelling 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (black currant-like), hexanal (green, grassy), ethyl butanoate (fruity), acetaldehyde (fresh, pungent), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel, sweet), cinnamyl alcohol (floral), methyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity), cinnamyl acetate (floral), methional (cooked potato-like), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like). Studies on the time course of odorant formation in guava puree or cubes, respectively, showed that (Z)-3-hexenal was hardly present in the intact fruits, but was formed very quickly during crushing. The aroma of fresh guava fruit cubes, which showed a very balanced aroma profile, was successfully mimicked in a reconstitute consisting of 13 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. Omission tests, in which single odorants were omitted from the entire aroma reconstitute, revealed (Z)-3-hexenal, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl butanoate, cinnamyl acetate, and methional as the key aroma compounds of pink guavas.

  7. Performance of non-conventional yeasts in co-culture with brewers' yeast for steering ethanol and aroma production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2017-08-18

    Increasing interest in new beer types has stimulated the search for approaches to extend the metabolic variation of brewers' yeast. Therefore, we tested two approaches using non-conventional yeast to create a beer with lower ethanol content and a complex aroma bouquet. First, the mono-culture performance was monitored of 49 wild yeast isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (16 strains), Cyberlindnera fabianii (9 strains) and Pichia kudriavzevii (24 strains). Interestingly, both C. fabianii and P. kudriavzevii isolates produced relatively more esters compared with S. cerevisiae isolates, despite their limited fermentation capacity. Next, one representative strain of each species (Sc131, Cf65 and Pk129) was applied as co-culture with brewers' yeast (ratio 1:1). Co-cultures with Cf65 and Pk129 resulted in a beer with lower alcohol content (3.5, 3.8 compared with 4.2% v/v) and relatively more esters. At higher inoculum ratios of Cf65 over brewers' yeast, growth inhibition of brewers' yeast was observed, most likely caused by competition for oxygen between brewers' yeast and Cf65 resulting in a reduced level of ethanol and altered aroma profiles. With this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of using non-conventional yeast species in co-cultivation with traditional brewers' yeast to tailor aroma profiles as well as the final ethanol content of beer. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. 花果香型工夫红茶品质形成的研究进展%Research Progress in the Formation of Congou Black Tea Quality with Flowery-fruity Flavour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘一斌; 孙云

    2014-01-01

    近年来,以乌龙茶栽培品种为原料,传统红茶工艺结合乌龙茶晒青、做青技术生产的花果香型工夫红茶,深受广大消费者青睐。其品质突破传统红茶甜香甜醇,带馥郁花果香,滋味鲜爽。本文就栽培品种、加工原料、加工技术和季节性等方面对花果香型工夫红茶品质形成的影响进行总结,以期为今后生产香型独特的红茶产品提供理论依据。%In recent years, Congou black tea with flowery-fruity flavour has been favored by consumers in general, which was processed with Oolong tea cultivars in the way of drawing on the traditional technology of black tea, combined with the sunlight withering and rocking of Oolong tea. It made a breakthrough in strong flowery-fruity flavour and brisk taste, compared to sweet aroma and taste of traditional black tea. In this paper, influencing factors were summarized in the formation of flowery-fruity flavour, present in Congou black tea, including tea cultivars, processing materials, processing technology and seasonal characteristics, so as to provide theoretical basis for the further developments of black tea with outstanding aroma in future.

  9. Metabolic engineering of aroma components in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragüez, Irene; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-10-01

    Plants have the ability to produce a diversity of volatile metabolites, which attract pollinators and seed dispersers and strengthen plant defense responses. Selection by plant breeders of traits such as rapid growth and yield leads, in many cases, to the loss of flavor and aroma quality in crops. How the aroma can be improved without affecting other fruit attributes is a major unsolved issue. Significant advances in metabolic engineering directed at improving the set of volatiles that the fruits emit has been aided by the characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of flavor and aroma compounds in some fruits. However, before this technology can be successfully applied to modulate the production of volatiles in different crops, further basic research is needed on the mechanisms that lead to the production of these compounds in plants. Here we review the biosynthesis and function of volatile compounds in plants, and the attempts that have been made to manipulate fruit aroma biosynthesis by metabolic engineering. In addition, we discuss the possibilities that molecular breeding offers for aroma enhancement and the implications of the latest advances in biotechnological modification of fruit flavor and aroma.

  10. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Llovera, Mónica; Corral, Sara; CANO GARCÍA, LILIANA; SALVADOR ALCARAZ, ANA; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, es...

  11. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial sufus by odour activity value, gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma recombination and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Shang, Yi; Chen, Feng; Niu, Yunwei; Gu, Yongbo; Liu, Shengjiang; Zhu, Jiancai

    2015-01-01

    Sufu is a solid-state fermented product made from soya beans. For the sake of quality control and regulation purposes, it is essential to be able to identify key odorants of various commercial sufus. To identify the aroma-active compounds in sufus, gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis (GC-O/AEDA) was performed, and odour activity value (OAV) was estimated. The correlations between aroma profiles and identified aroma-active compounds were also investigated by principal component analysis. Results showed that 35 aroma-active compounds were detected through OAV calculation, while 28 compounds were identified by using GC-O/AEDA. Quantitative descriptive analysis revealed that aroma recombination model based on OAV calculation was more similar to original sufu in terms of aroma comparing to aroma recombination model based on GC-O/AEDA. Omission experiments further confirmed that the aroma compounds, such as ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, contributed most significantly to the characteristic aroma of a commercial sufu.

  12. A comparative study on aromatic profiles of strawberry vinegars obtained using different conditions in the production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Cristina; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Moreno-Rojas, Jose M; Peña, Francisco; Morales, M Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Impact odorants in strawberry vinegars produced in different containers (glass, oak and cherry barrels) were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry using modified frequency (MF) technique, and dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aromatic profile of vinegar from strawberry cooked must was also studied. All strawberry vinegars retained certain impact odorants from strawberries: 3-nonen-2-one, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, guaiacol, nerolidol, pantolactone+furaneol, eugenol, γ-dodecalactone and phenylacetic acid. Isovaleric acid, pantolactone+furaneol, p-vinylguaiacol, phenylacetic acid and vanillin were the most important aroma-active compounds in all vinegars. The strawberry cooked must vinegar accounted for the highest number of impact odorants. Wood barrels provided more aroma complexity than glass containers. Impact odorants with grassy characteristics were predominant in vinegar from glass containers, and those with sweet and fruity characteristics in vinegars from wood barrels. Principal component analysis indicated that the production process led to differences in the impact odorants.

  13. L’évaluation de la durabilité des fruitières à comté : vers un nouvel outil de management ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jeanneaux

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Le massif jurassien est marqué par un système de production fromager basé sur la relation entre des petites coopératives de production de comté et des affineurs qui en assurent la finition et la commercialisation. Les fruitières sont fragilisées par la restructuration du secteur et s’interrogent sur leur devenir. Pour y répondre, nous avons développé une méthode d’évaluation de la durabilité des fruitières construite  à partir de 60 indicateurs. Elle a été testée sur un échantillon de 15 fruitières. Nous montrons que leur situation ne s’explique pas par la seule prise en compte des performances économiques, mais également par la mesure de leurs caractéristiques socio-territoriales et environnementales. Nous posons l’idée que la pérennité des fruitières passera de plus en plus par la prise en compte dans leur démarche de management des principes du développement durable.Sustainability assessment at the PDO comté cooperatives level: towards a new tool for management? The Jura region is based on a local organization between farming sector and industry. Numerous small cooperatives (the fruitières, which produce young cheese are now threatened by the merger movement of the sector and they wonder about their future. We develop a method to assess the sustainability of these firms constructed around 60 indicators. We put to the test 15 cooperatives. We show their position depends not only on economical performances, but also on social, territorial and environmental features. We assume that the stake for the perenniality of the cooperatives is to take the sustainable principles into account in their management.

  14. Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Rouseff, Russell

    2014-05-21

    Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars ('Prima Dona', 'Jewel', 'Snow Chaser', and 'Kestrel') were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and identified via GC-PFPD and GC-MS using retention indices of reference compounds and mass spectral data. The aromas of total, unseparated SPME extracts evaluated using GC-O were rated 8.2-9.0/10 for the four cultivars in terms of similarity to the original blueberry homogenates. In terms of GC-O aroma similarity, those aroma active volatile groups characterized as green, fruity, and floral were most intense. Of the 43 volatiles found to have aroma activity, 38 were identified and 13 had not been previously reported in blueberries. Although linalool and (E)-2-hexenal were common major aroma impact volatiles, dominant aroma-active volatiles were different for each cultivar. Principal component analysis confirmed that each cultivar possessed a unique aroma active profile as each cultivar was clustered into a separate score plot quadrant.

  15. Studies on Application of Aroma Finish on Silk Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipparagi, Sanganna Aminappa; Srinivasa, Thirumalappa; Das, Brojeswari; Naik, Subhas Venkatappa; Purushotham, Serampur Parappa

    2016-10-01

    Aromatic treatments on textiles have gained importance in the recent years. In the present article work has been done on fragrance finish application on silk material. Silk is an expensive natural fibre used for apparel purpose and known for its feel and appeal. Incorporation of fragrance material in silk product, will add more value to it. Present work focuses to impart durable aroma finish for silk products to be home washed or subjected to dry cleaning. Microencapsulated aroma chemical has been used for the treatment. Impregnation method, Exhaust method, Dip-Pad-Dry method and Spray method have been used to see the influence of application method on the uptake and performance. Evaluation of the aroma treated material has been done through subjective evaluation as per Odor Intensity Reference Scaling (OIRS). Effect of the aroma finishing on the physical properties of the fabric has also been studied. No adverse effect has been observed on the stiffness of the fabric after the aroma treatment.

  16. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) wine production in Angola: Characterisation of volatile aroma compounds and yeast native flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacassa, Eduardo; Trenchs, Oriol; Fariña, Laura; Debernardis, Florencia; Perez, Gabriel; Boido, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2017-01-16

    A pineapple vinification process was conducted through inoculated and spontaneous fermentation to develop a process suitable for a quality beverage during two successive vintages in Huambo, Angola. Wines obtained with the conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, were analysed by gas chromatography, and a total of 61 volatile constituents were detected in the volatile fraction and 18 as glycosidically bound aroma compounds. Concentration levels of carbonyl and sulphur compounds were in agreement with the limited information reported about pineapple fruits of other regions. We report, for the first time in pineapple wines, the presence of significant concentrations of lactones, ketones, terpenes, norisoprenoids and a variety of volatile phenols. Eight native yeast strains were isolated from spontaneous batches. Further single-strain fermentations allowed us to characterise their suitability for commercial fermentation. Three native strains (Hanseniaspora opuntiae, H. uvarum and Meyerozyma guilliermondii) were selected with sensory potential to ferment pineapple fruits with increased flavour diversity. Results obtained here contribute to a better understanding of quality fermentation alternatives of this tropical fruit in subtropical regions.

  17. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  18. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Retronasal Aroma Release and Satiation: a Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    In view of the epidemic of obesity, one of the aims of the food industry is to develop good-tasting food products that may induce an increased level of satiation, preventing consumers from overeating. This review focuses on the possibility of using aroma as a trigger for inducing or increasing

  20. Retronasal Aroma Release and Satiation: a Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    In view of the epidemic of obesity, one of the aims of the food industry is to develop good-tasting food products that may induce an increased level of satiation, preventing consumers from overeating. This review focuses on the possibility of using aroma as a trigger for inducing or increasing satia

  1. Changes in physico-chemical and volatile aroma compound composition of Gewürztraminer wine as a result of late and ice harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Radeka, Sanja; Grozaj, Nikola; Staver, Mario; Peršurić, Đordano

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the changes in physico-chemical and aroma composition after late and ice harvest, Gewürztraminer wines were subjected to standard, enzymatic and GC/MS analysis. Late harvest (LHGW) and ice wines (IHGW) contained more sugars, extract and volatile acidity than standard wines (SGW). IHGW had elevated glycerol and gluconic acid amounts. LHGW was richer in monoterpenol oxides, β-damascenone, 1-octen-3-ol, acetates, ethyl cinnamate and 4-vinylguaiacol than SGW. IHGW contained even higher amounts, with increased citronellol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, dicarboxylic acids esters, benzenoids, furans and acetals, and reduced fermentation aroma compounds. Based on odour activity values, the strongest odorants in SGW were fruity esters. In LHGW the impact of esters increased, while in IHGW cis-rose oxide, β-damascenone and 1,1-diethoxyethane emerged as the most potent. Fruity and sweet were the dominant aroma compound series in SGW and LHGW, but in IHGW declined, while terpenic, floral, chemical, pungent and ripe fruit aroma compound series increased.

  2. Probiotic yogurts manufactured with increased glucose oxidase levels: postacidification, proteolytic patterns, survival of probiotic microorganisms, production of organic acid and aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A G; Castro, W F; Faria, J A F; Lollo, P C B; Amaya-Farfán, J; Freitas, M Q; Rodrigues, D; Oliveira, C A F; Godoy, H T

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the effect of increased glucose oxidase concentration as a technological option to decrease oxidative stress during the processing of probiotic yogurts. Probiotic yogurts were produced with increased concentrations of glucose oxidase (0, 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 mg/kg) and submitted to physicochemical and microbiological analysis at 1, 15, and 30 d of refrigerated storage. Higher concentrations of glucose oxidase (750 and 1,000 mg/kg) and a longer storage time were found to have an influence on the characteristics of the probiotic yogurt, contributing to more extensive postacidification, an increase in the dissolved oxygen level, and higher proteolysis. In addition, increased production of aroma compounds (diacetyl and acetaldehyde) and organic acids (mainly lactic acid) and a decrease in the probiotic bacteria count were reported. The use of glucose oxidase was a feasible option to minimize oxidative stress in probiotic yogurts. However, supplementation with excessive amounts of the enzyme may be ineffective, because insufficient substrate (glucose) is present for its action. Consumer tests should be performed to evaluate changes in the sensory attributes of the probiotic yogurts with increased supplementation of glucose oxidase. In addition, packaging systems with different permeability to oxygen should be evaluated.

  3. Effects of bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) fungal diseases on wine aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on the primary quality parameter of wine, the aroma. The influence of these fungal diseases was studied by comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analyses (AEDA) and sensory tests. The effect of bunch rot was investigated on three grape varieties, namely White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer and that of powdery mildew on the hybrid Gm 8622-3; thereby, samples were selected that showed pronounced cases of infection to elaborate potential currently unknown effects. Both infections revealed aromatic differences induced by these fungi. The sensory changes were not associated with one specific compound only, but were due to quantitative variations of diverse substances. Bunch rot predominantly induced an increase in the intensities of peach-like/fruity, floral and liquor-like/toasty aroma notes. These effects were found to be related to variations in aroma substance composition as monitored via AEDA, mainly an increase in the FD factors of lactones and a general moderate increase of esters and alcohols. On the other hand, powdery mildew decreased the vanilla-like character of the wine while the remaining sensory attributes were rather unaffected. Correspondingly, FD factors of the main aroma constituents were either the same or only slightly modified by this disease. Moreover, bunch rot influenced the aroma profiles of the three varieties studied to a different degree. In hedonic evaluation, bunch rot-affected samples were rated as being more pleasant in comparison to their healthy controls in all three varieties while the powdery mildew-affected sample was rated as being less pleasant than its healthy control.

  4. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  5. Authenticity of aroma components Enantiomeric separation and compound specific stable isotope analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    The word “authenticity” is increasingly used in the marketing of food products. A product can be marketed claiming its authenticity such as containing only natural ingredients or originating from a special location produced using local traditional production methods. Within the area of food ingredients a problem with authenticity of aroma compounds has occurred, because natural aromas are wholly or partly replaced with synthetic ones. This is a large economic problem, since natural aromas are...

  6. Effect of destoned olive cake on the aromatic profile of cows’ milk and dairy products: comparison of two techniques for the headspace aroma profile analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rocchina Caputo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, carried out within the NOVOROD project (PSR Campania 2007-2013 Misura 124 HC, was to evaluate the aromatic profile of milk and dairy products of dairy cows supplemented with destoned olive cake (DOC. Two techniques for the headspace aroma profile analysis: the thermal desorption by gas chromatography with a mass selective (GC/MS detector and the electronic nose were compared. The trial was performed into a dairy cow farm. Ten dairy cows were allotted into two homogenous groups: control and experimental. Animals received the same diet, while in the experimental group the concentrate supplementation (15% dry matter was replaced with DOC. After two weeks of adaptation, animals were fed with the experimental diet for other 15 days. During the experimental period, the milk was collected and cumulatively processed in Caciotta cheese (a soft cheese, 25 days ripened and in Semicotto cheese (hard cheese, 3 months ripened for 13 times for each group. Milk and cheese volatile organic compounds (VOCs were extracted and concentrated with dynamic headspace method and determined by GC/MS. Statistical analysis of data, expressed in arbitrary units (a.u.=peak area × 10–6 and allotted in compound classes, was carried out by ANOVA. All data collected of VOCs were processed with principal component analysis (PCA. Milk and cheese samples were comparatively analysed with the electronic nose, fitted with a tenmetal oxide sensors electronic device. PCA has been used for the evaluation of the pattern data. Our results show that the use of DOC, as an unconventional feed for livestock, has no effect on the aromatic profile of both milk and dairy products. In fact, no significant differences were found in both milk and dairy products between the two groups using the GC/MS method. Also the discriminating analysis carried out by electronic nose did not show significant differences between the two groups. The two compared techniques seem to lead to

  7. Aroma transition from rosemary leaves during aromatization of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yılmazer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aroma profile of aromatized olive oil was determined in this study. The primary objective was to investigate the transition of major aroma compounds from rosemary and olive fruit during the kneading step of olive oil production by response surface methodology. For this purpose, temperature, time, and amount of rosemary leaves were determined as independent variables. The results indicated that temperature and time did not affect the transition of target compounds, but rosemary leaves addition had a strong influence on transition, especially for characteristic aroma compounds of this herb. Adequacies of developed models were found to be high enough to predict each aromatic component of interest.

  8. Puur aroma uit de machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didde, R.; Willemsen, J.H.A.; Togtema, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    Wageningse voedingstechnologen hebben een apparaat ontwikkeld dat geurstoffen uit bijvoorbeeld fruit isoleert. Met de zeer geconcentreerde aroma's kan de voedingsindustrie nieuwe producten ontwikkelen én energie besparen

  9. THEORY DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYMATIC AROMA RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Dubova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The fruit and vegetable pretreatment conditions and subsequent environment in which enzymatic reactions take place can be considered as potential factors in the formation of fresh flavors. The synthesis of aromatic components of fresh grass and green leaves occurs involving vegetable lipoxygenases. The molecules of a precursor-compound can withstand the processing modes, while enzymes and aromatic compounds break down frequently. Vegetable homogenates are potential sources of enzymes which produce natural aromatic substances. Formation of fresh favors is the most perceptible when it occurs as the result of the reaction between poliunsaturated fatty acids of cytoplasmic membranes and lipoxygenases and hydroperoxide lyase of plant material. Pre-treatment of samples positively influences binding energy in the complex of enzyme-substrate. The change of iodine number in treated homogenates, as compared to fresh ones, shows isomerization of flavor precursors. The minimal quantity of homogenates introduced (up to 20 g and the duration of aroma-restoring reaction (from 5 to 7 minutes were defined. Pre-cooling of homogenates activates enzymes, strengthens oxidability of the PUFA, and results in recovery of fresh aroma of plant material. Under conditions of enzyme inactivation, the synthesis of aromas is not possible. Conversely, production of aroma in food glazes and foams is possible in case of interphase activation between a substrate and enzymes.

  10. Analysis of characteristic aroma of fungal fermented Fuzhuan brick-tea by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.Q.; Mo, H.Z.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Fuzhuan brick-tea is a popular fermented Chinese dark tea because of its typical fungal aroma. Fungal growth during the production process is the key step in achieving the unique colour, aroma and taste of Fuzhuan brick-tea. To further understand the generation of the characteristic aroma, changes i

  11. Characterization of volatile compounds responsible for the aroma in naturally fermented sausages by gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize naturally fermented dry sausages produced without the use of microbial starters and to determine which odour-active compounds are responsible for their aroma. The traditional manufacture was responsible for different chemical characteristics and consumer's acceptance. The volatile compounds detected in the headspace comprised a complex mixture of volatile compounds derived from bacterial metabolism (mainly esterase activity of Staphyloccoci), spices and lipid auto-oxidation. The odour-active volatile compounds were identified using gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O) using the detection frequency method. The aroma profile was characterized by the presence of several compounds such as acetic acid, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, 1-octen-3-ol, benzeneacetaldehyde and 4-methyl-phenol. However, naturally fermented sausages were also characterized by numerous esters, both ethyl and methyl esters, which impart a wide variety of fruity notes.

  12. Aroma exposure time and aroma concentration in relation to satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Luning, Pieternel A; Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; Lakemond, Catriona M M; Bult, Johannes H F; Gort, Gerrit; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aroma exposure time and aroma concentration on ad libitum intake and subjective satiation. In a within-subject study, thirty-eight unrestrained, healthy female participants (age: 18-39 years; BMI: 18·5-26·0 kg/m²) were asked to consume tomato soup during lunchtime, until they felt comfortably full. Every 30 s, the participants consumed 10 g of a bland soup base while tomato soup aroma was delivered separately through the nose via a retronasal tube that was attached to an olfactometer. This gave the impression of consuming real tomato soup. For each sip, the aroma varied in exposure time (3 and 18 s) and concentration (5 × ), resulting in four different test conditions. Ad libitum food intake and appetite profile parameters were measured. A 9% lower food intake was observed when the participants were exposed to the condition with 18 s exposure time and a high concentration than when exposed to the other three conditions. These results indicate that changing the retronasal aroma release by aroma concentration and aroma exposure time affects food intake.

  13. Sensory and instrumental analysis of food aromas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, J.H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Food aromas are generally perceived as unitary aromas, i.e. fried potatoes smell like fried potatoes and roasted coffee smells like roasted coffee. Nonetheless, nearly all food aromas are produced by a multitude of volatile components that contribute to an extensive collection of aromas in various

  14. Sensory and instrumental analysis of food aromas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, J.H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Food aromas are generally perceived as unitary aromas, i.e. fried potatoes smell like fried potatoes and roasted coffee smells like roasted coffee. Nonetheless, nearly all food aromas are produced by a multitude of volatile components that contribute to an extensive collection of aromas in various c

  15. Acidification of grape marc for alcoholic beverage production: effects on indigenous microflora and aroma profile after distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Barbara; Nardi, Tiziana; Fontana, Federico; Carlot, Milena; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2012-01-16

    the aromatic profile of the distillate. Indeed, the lowering of the pH caused significant changes in yeast-bacteria populations ratio and in yeast species turnover. These microbiological changes determine an improvement of the aromatic profile of the distillate, due to the reduction of the main volatile products associated with potential off-flavours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p aroma distribution had only a marginal effect on both aroma and salty taste perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products.

  17. Decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica under increased O2 transfer rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguedo, M; Gomes, N; Garcia, E Escamilla; Waché, Y; Mota, M; Teixeira, J A; Belo, I

    2005-10-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica converts methyl ricinoleate to gamma-decalactone, a high-value fruity aroma compound. The highest amount of 3-hydroxy-gamma-decalactone produced by the yeast (263 mg l(-1)) occurred by increasing the k(L)a up to 120 h(-1) at atmospheric pressure; above it, its concentration decreased, suggesting a predominance of the activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Cultures were grown under high-pressure, i.e., under increased O(2) solubility, but, although growth was accelerated, gamma-decalactone production decreased. However, by applying 0.5 MPa during growth and biotransformation gave increased concentrations of dec-2-en-4-olide and dec-3-en-4-olide (70 mg l(-1)).

  18. Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Junji; Tokuyama, Emi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-11-01

    Nutritional products for patients with liver failure available on the Japanese market contain many branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine, which not only have a bitter taste but also strong, unpleasant odours, leading to low palatability. The palatability of these nutritional products can be significantly improved by the addition of flavoured powders containing various kinds of tastants (sucrose, citric acid, etc.) and odourants (fruit, coffee aromas, etc.). The specific effects of the aroma of flavoured powders have not yet been clearly evaluated. In the present article, the inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of BCAA solutions was examined. The bitterness intensity of a BCAA solution at the same concentration as Aminoleban EN was defined as 3.5 (measured by a previously described gustatory sensation method). The bitterness threshold of a BCAA standard solution without added aroma was estimated to be 1.87, while those of BCAA solutions containing green-tea, coffee, apple, vanilla, or strawberry aromas were 2.02, 1.98, 2.35, 2.40 and 2.87, respectively, when evaluated by the probit method. This shows that the addition of an aroma can elevate the bitterness threshold in human volunteers. The green-tea and coffee aromas predominantly evoked bitterness, while the vanilla aroma predominantly evoked sweetness. Apple and strawberry aromas evoked both sweetness and sourness, with the apple aroma having stronger sourness and the strawberry aroma stronger sweetness. Thus, a 'sweet' aroma suppresses the bitterness of BCAA, with coexisting sourness also participating in the bitterness inhibition.

  19. Effects of Oak Products on Oak-related Aroma Components in Dry Red Wines%橡木制品对干红葡萄酒中橡木香气成分的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春光; 赵新节; 孙玉霞; 栾红蕾; 隋寿山

    2014-01-01

    在酒精发酵过程中和发酵结束后两个阶段添加不同类型的橡木制品,研究橡木处理对干红葡萄酒中橡木香气成分和感官品质的影响。通过GC-MS对丁子香酚、愈创木酚、威士忌内酯、香草醛、5-甲基糠醛和糠醛6种橡木香气成分的分析,发现发酵过程中和发酵后添加法国中度烘烤橡木粉都可以获得含量较高的橡木香气成分,而发酵后添加国产中度烘烤橡木片较相同烘烤程度的法国和美国橡木片能获得含量更高的橡木香气成分。感官分析结果表明,在酒精发酵中添加橡木制品进行处理,酒体橡木香气与果香融合较好,香气协调;而在发酵结束后添加不同类型的橡木制品,添加美国中度烘烤橡木片和法国轻度烘烤橡木粉的葡萄酒香气较好;其他酒样酒体呈现的橡木味偏重、不协调。%In the experiment, different types of oak wood products were added during or at the end of the fermentation to investigate their effects on oak-related volatile aroma components and sensory quality of dry red wine. Six kinds of oak-related aroma components including eugenol, guaiacol, cis-whisky lactone, vanillin, 5-methyl furfural and furfural were determined by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed that, higher concen-tration of oak-related aroma components was obtained by adding French oak chips with medium toasting during and after the fermentation, and the addition of homemade oak chips with medium roasting after the fermentation could achieve higher content of oak-related aroma components compared with the addition of French or American oak chips of the same roasting degree. Sensory analysis results suggested that, fruit flavor and oak aroma were balanced in wine as oak chips was added during the fermentation, however, if oak chips was added after the fermentation, the wine was unbalanced with heavy oak aroma except the addition of American oak chips with medium roasting and the

  20. Characterization of the most odor-active compounds in an American Bourbon whisky by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction carefully isolated from an American Bourbon whisky revealed 45 odor-active areas in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-4096 among which (E)-beta-damascenone and delta-nonalactone showed the highest FD factors of 4096 and 2048, respectively. With FD factors of 1024, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, gamma-decalactone, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) additionally contributed to the overall vanilla-like, fruity, and smoky aroma note of the spirit. Application of GC-Olfactometry on the headspace above the whisky revealed 23 aroma-active odorants among which 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, and 2-methylbutanal were identified as additional important aroma compounds. Compared to published data on volatile constituents in whisky, besides ranking the whisky odorants on the basis of their odor potency, 13 aroma compounds were newly identified in this study: ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, ethyl phenylacetate, 4-methyl acetophenone, alpha-damascone, 2-phenylethyl propanoate, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, trans-ethyl cinnamate, and (Z)-6-dodeceno-gamma-lactone.

  1. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef extract using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yukiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Hirai, Sachi; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-05-01

    Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of an ether extract prepared from beef extract (BE) and subsequent identification experiments led to the determination of seven aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-128. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the seven aroma compounds suggested that 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone were the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of BE. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of the four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted BE showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombination mixture and BE showed a high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been identified successfully.

  2. The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Campo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability.

  3. Optimization of honey-must preparation and alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for mead production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Ferreira, A; Cosme, F; Barbosa, C; Falco, V; Inês, A; Mendes-Faia, A

    2010-11-15

    Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process, often taking several months to complete. Despite of the use of starter cultures several problems still persist such as lack of uniformity of the final products, slow or premature fermentation arrest and the production of off-flavors by yeast. Thus the aim of this study was to optimize mead production through the use of an appropriate honey-must formulation to improve yeast performance alcoholic fermentation and thereby obtain a high quality product. Honey-must was centrifuged to reduce insoluble solids, pasteurized at 65°C for 10 min, and then subjected to different conditions: nitrogen supplementation and addition of organic acids. Although the addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) reduced fermentation length, it did not guarantee the completeness of the fermentation process, suggesting that other factors could account for the reduced yeast activity in honey-must fermentations. Sixteen yeast-derived aroma compounds which contribute to the sensorial quality of mead were identified and quantified. Global analysis of aromatic profiles revealed that the total concentration of aroma compounds in meads was higher in those fermentations where DAP was added. A positive correlation between nitrogen availability and the levels of ethyl and acetate esters, associated to the fruity character of fermented beverages, was observed whereas the presence of potassium tartrate and malic acid decreased, in general, their concentration. This study provides very useful information that can be used for improving mead quality.

  4. Extractive fermentation of aroma with supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre; Condoret; Marty

    1999-08-20

    This work deals with the feasibility of achieving an extractive fermentation of 2-phenylethyl alcohol, the rose aroma, coupling fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction. The extractive process is, in this case, of special interest due to the strong yeast inhibition by 2-phenylethyl alcohol. First results confirmed that direct SCCO2 extraction is not possible, due to a drastic CO2 effect on cell viability. It is therefore necessary to perform cell separation prior to the extraction. Aroma extraction conditions from a synthetic mixture were then optimized, a pressure of 200 bar and a temperature in the range 35-45 degrees C being chosen. Under these conditions, the distribution coefficient Kd is 2 times higher than during the extraction using a conventional organic solvent, n-hexane. Using a simple model of aroma partition between aqueous and SCCO2 phases, the parameters of a continuous extraction from a synthetic broth were defined. The two substrates, glucose and phenylalanine, are not extracted whatever the conditions. As predicted by the model, more than 90% of 2-phenylethyl alcohol can be extracted, while the extraction of ethanol, the second main product, can be easily tuned with respect to operating conditions, as a function of its influence on the fermentation. Finally, the feasibility of the aroma recovery using two depressurization steps at the outflow of the extraction vessel was demonstrated; 97% of the extracted aroma was recovered, and a mass purity of 91% was achieved. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Comparison of Aroma Character Impact Volatiles of Thummong Leaves (Litsea petiolata Hook. f.), Mangdana Water Beetle (Lethocerus indicus), and a Commercial Product as Flavoring Agents in Thai Traditional Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Luanphaisarnnont, Torsak; Rouseff, Russell

    2017-07-11

    Thummong (Litsea petiolata Hook. f.) is a tree native to southern Thailand. The leaves of this tree are highly aromatic and used to flavor Thai dishes in place of the traditional water beetle Mangdana (Lethocerus indicus) for religious and cultural reasons. Total and aroma-active volatiles from both flavoring materials were compared using gas chromatography-olfactory (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The volatiles from Thummong leaves and the Mangdana water beetle were collected and concentrated using headspace solid-phase microextraction. A total of 23 and 25 aroma-active volatiles were identified in Thummong leaves and Mangdana, respectively. The major aroma-active volatiles in Thummong leaves consisted of 7 aldehydes, 5 ketones, and 3 esters. In contrast, the aroma-active volatiles in the water beetle consisted of 11 aldehydes, 3 esters, and 2 ketones. Both had (E)-2-nonenal as the most intense aroma-active volatile. The water beetle character impact volatile (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was absent in the leaves, but its aroma character was mimicked by 11-dodecen-2-one in the leaves, which was absent in the beetle. In addition, a commercial Mangdana flavoring was examined using GC-O and GC-MS and found to contain only a single aroma-active volatile, hexyl acetate. All three flavoring sources exhibited similar aroma characteristics but were produced from profoundly different aroma-active volatiles.

  6. Evolution, nucleosynthesis and yields of low mass AGB stars at different metallicities (II): the FRUITY database

    CERN Document Server

    Cristallo, Sergio; Straniero, Oscar; Gallino, Roberto; Dominguez, Inma; Abia, Carlos; DiRico, Gianluca; Quintini, Massimo; Bisterzo, Sara

    2011-01-01

    By using updated stellar low mass stars models, we can systematically investigate the nucleosynthesis processes occurring in AGB stars, when these objects experience recurrent thermal pulses and third dredge-up episodes. In this paper we present the database dedicated to the nucleosynthesis of AGB stars: the FRUITY (FRANEC Repository of Updated Isotopic Tables & Yields) database. An interactive web-based interface allows users to freely download the full (from H to Bi) isotopic composition, as it changes after each third dredge-up episode and the stellar yields the models produce. A first set of AGB models, having masses in the range 1.5 < M/Msun < 3.0 and metallicities 1e-3 < Z < 2e-2, is discussed here. For each model, a detailed description of the physical and the chemical evolution is provided. In particular, we illustrate the details of the s-process and we evaluate the theoretical uncertainties due to the parametrization adopted to model convection and mass loss. The resulting nucleosynt...

  7. Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries.

  8. Influence of Candida pulcherrima Patagonian strain on alcoholic fermentation behaviour and wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Eugenia; Lopes, Christian A; Barbagelata, Raúl J; Barda, Nora B; Caballero, Adriana C

    2010-03-31

    The use of selected Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces strains as mixed starters in winemaking would have advantages over the traditional spontaneous fermentation, producing wines with predictable and desirable characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of metabolic interactions between Patagonian indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae MMf9 and beta-glucosidase producer Candida pulcherrima V(6) strains on alcoholic fermentation behaviour and wine aroma Three inoculation strategies, simultaneous, sequential and final, were assayed at laboratory-scale fermentations using Muscat d'Alexandrie grape juice as substrate. The fermentation and yeast growth kinetics as well as the physicochemical and the sensory quality of wine were evaluated. Results evidenced that the sequential inoculation is the most adequate strategy of strains combination. The kinetic behaviour of sequential fermentation was similar to a successful spontaneous fermentation and its wine showed differential aromatic quality as evidenced through PC analysis using physicochemical and aromatic composition data. This wine presented the highest total concentration of higher alcohol, esters and terpenols and the strongest fruity and floral aroma.

  9. Glycosidically bound aroma compounds and impact odorants of four strawberry varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Cristina; San-Juan, Felipe; Concejero, Belén; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Morales, M Lourdes; Ferreira, Vicente; Hernández-Orte, Purificación

    2012-06-20

    This paper reports the determination of glycosidically bound aroma compounds and the olfactometric analysis in four strawberry varieties (Fuentepina, Camarosa, Candonga and Sabrina). Different hydrolytic strategies were also studied. The results showed significant differences between acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. In general terms, the greater the duration of acid hydrolysis, the higher was the content of norisoprenoids, volatile phenols, benzenes, lactones, Furaneol, and mesifurane. A total of 51 aglycones were identified, 38 of them unreported in strawberry. Olfactometric analyses revealed that the odorants with higher modified frequencies were Furaneol, γ-decalactone, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, diacetyl, hexanoic acid, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one. This last compound, described as geranium/green/pepper/lettuce (linear retention index = 1378), was identified for the first time. Differences with regard to fruity, sweet, floral, and green aroma characters were observed among varieties. In Candonga and Fuentepina, the green character overpowered the sweet. In the other two strawberry varieties sweet attributes were stronger than the rest.

  10. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 μg/L) and acetoin (122 μg/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines).

  11. Analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of parental and hybrid clones of pepino (Solanum muricatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Prohens, Jaime; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando

    2004-09-08

    The volatile constituents of 10 clones (4 parents with different flavors and 6 hybrids from selected crossings among these parents) of pepino fruit (Solanum muricatum) were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor-contributing volatiles (OCVs) were detected by GC-olfactometry-MS analyses and included 24 esters (acetates, 3-methylbutanoates, and 3-methylbut-2-enoates), 7 aldehydes (especially hexenals and nonenals), 6 ketones, 9 alcohols, 3 lactones, 2 terpenes, beta-damascenone, and mesifurane. Among these compounds, 17, of which 5 had not been reported previously in pepino, were found to contribute significantly to pepino aroma. OCVs can be assigned to three groups according to their odor quality: fruity fresh (acetates and prenol), green vegetable (C6 and C9 aldehydes), and exotic (lactones, mesifuran, and beta-damascenone). Quantitative and qualitative differences between clones for these compounds are clearly related to differences in their overall flavor impression. The positive value found for the hybrid-midparent regression coefficient for volatile composition indicates that an important fraction of the variation observed is inheritable, which has important implications in breeding for improving aroma. Significant and positive correlations were found between OCVs having common precursors or related pathways.

  12. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  13. Investigations on the Aroma of Cocoa Pulp (Theobroma cacao L.) and Its Influence on the Odor of Fermented Cocoa Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetschik, Irene; Kneubühl, Markus; Chatelain, Karin; Schlüter, Ansgar; Bernath, Konrad; Hühn, Tilo

    2017-03-29

    The odor-active constituents of cocoa pulp have been analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) for the first time. Pulps of three different cocoa varieties have been investigated. The variety CCN51 showed low flavor intensities, in terms of flavor dilution (FD) factors, in comparison to varieties FSV41 and UF564, for which floral and fruity notes were detected in higher intensities. To gain first insights on a molecular level of how the cocoa pulp odorants affected the odor quality of cocoa beans during fermentation, quantitative measurements of selected aroma compounds were conducted in pulp and bean at different time points of the fermentation. The results showed significantly higher concentrations of 2-phenylethanol and 3-methylbutyl acetate in pulp than in the bean during the different time steps of the fermentation, whereas the reverse could be observed for the odorants linalool and 2-methoxyphenol. The findings of this study constitute a basis for further investigations on the aroma formation of cocoa during fermentation.

  14. Principais substâncias responsáveis pelo aroma de mangas comerciais brasileiras identificadas por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução/olfatometria/espectrometria de massas Aroma impact substances on commercial brazilian mangoes by HRGC-O-AEDA-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes C. Lopes

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Six Brazilian commercial mangoes were analysed by HRGC-O-AEDA-MS, viz., Carlota, Haden, Espada, Coração de boi, Rubi and Tommy Atkins. All them showed ethyl butanoate as the main aroma character impact compound by AEDA evaluation. The ethyl esters of 2 and 3-methylbutanoic acids are also important, the main contribution in Carlota variety being 2(S enantiomer. In Rubi variety, both 2(R enantiomer and 3-methyl isomer contributes to the caprylic fruity note observed. In four varieties, viz., Haden, Espada, Rubi and Tommy Atkins, d-3-carene showed to be the second impact aroma compound presented. In Tommy Atkins variety, a-pinene also has a significant contribution, mainly due to its (1R,5R(+-enantiomer.

  15. Differential effects of the aromas of Salvia species on memory and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lucy; Rouse, Michelle; Wesnes, Keith A; Moss, Mark

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the potential for the aromas of the essential oils of Salvia species to affect cognition and mood in healthy adults. Research has demonstrated that orally administered Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia are capable of modulating cognition and mood. The active compounds in the herbal products might also be present in the aromas and so produce similar effects. In an independent groups design, three conditions, S. officinalis aroma, S. lavandulaefolia aroma and no aroma were employed. One hundred and thirty-five healthy volunteers acted as participants, with 45 in each condition. Cognitive performance was assessed via the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) System. Bond-Lader mood scales measured the participants' mood on three dimensions before and after the cognitive tasks. Data analysis revealed that the S. officinalis aroma group performed significantly better than the control group on the quality of memory and secondary memory primary outcome factors from the test battery. The Alert mood measure displayed significant differences between both aromas and the control condition. These findings suggest that the aromas of essential oils of Salvia species reproduce some but not all of the effects found following oral herb administration, and that interesting dissociations occur between subjective and objective responses.

  16. Aroma Glycosides in Grapes and Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibin; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Ullah, Niamat; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    The major aroma components in grapes and wine include free volatile compounds and glycosidic nonvolatile compounds. The latter group of compounds is more than 10 times abundant of the former, and constitutes a big aroma reserve in grapes and wine. This review summarizes the research results obtained recently for the identification of aroma glycosides in grapes and wine, including grape glycoside structures, differences in aroma glycosides among grape varieties, hydrolysis mechanisms, and the factors that influence them. It also presents the analytical techniques used to identify the glycosidic aroma precursors. The operational strategies, challenges, and improvements of each step encountered in the analysis of glycosidic aroma precursors are described. This review intends to provide a convenient reference for researchers interested in the methods used for the determination of the aroma glucosides composition and the recognition of their chemical structures.

  17. Characterization and evaluation of coconut aroma produced by Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 in solid state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fadel,Hoda Hanem Mohamed; Mahmoud,Manal Gomaa; Asker,Mohsen Mohamed Selim; Lotfy,Shereen Nazeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugarcane bagasse was shown to be an adequate substrate for the growth and aroma production by Trichoderma species. In the present work the ability of Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 to produce high yield of coconut aroma in solid state fermentation (SSF) by using sugarcane bagasse as solid substrate was evaluated. The produced aroma was characterized. Results Total carbohydrates comprised the highest content (43.9% w/w) compared with the other constituents in sugarcane bagasse. The se...

  18. Gene-Metabolite Networks of Volatile Metabolism in Airen and Tempranillo Grape Cultivars Revealed a Distinct Mechanism of Aroma Bouquet Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla, José L.; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are the major determinants of aroma and flavor in both grapes and wine. In this study, we investigated the emission of volatile and non-volatile compounds during berry maturation in two grape varieties (Airén and Tempranillo) throughout 2010 and 2011. HS-SPME coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied for the identification and relative quantitation of these compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to search for variability between the two cultivars and evolution during 10 developmental stages. Results showed that there are distinct differences in volatile compounds between cultivars throughout fruit development. Early stages were characterized in both cultivars by higher levels of some apocarotenoids such as β-cyclocitral or β-ionone, terpenoids (E)-linalool oxide and (Z)-linalool oxide and several furans, while the final stages were characterized by the highest amounts of ethanol, benzenoid phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenylethanol, branched-amino acid-derived 3-methylbutanol and 2-methylbutanol, and a large number of lipid derivatives. Additionally, we measured the levels of the different classes of volatile precursors by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. In both varieties, higher levels of carotenoid compounds were detected in the earlier stages, zeaxanthin and α-carotene were only detected in Airén while neoxanthin was found only in Tempranillo; more variable trends were observed in the case of the other volatile precursors. Furthermore, we monitored the expression of homolog genes of a set of transcripts potentially involved in the biosynthesis of these metabolites, such as some glycosyl hydrolases family 1, lipoxygenases, alcohol dehydrogenases hydroperoxide lyases, O-methyltransferases and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases during the defined developmental stages. Finally, based on Pearson correlation analyses, we explored the metabolite-metabolite fluctuations

  19. Headspace-Single Drop Microextraction Followed by Gas Chromatographic Determination of Key Aroma Compounds in Tomato Fruits and Their Sample Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita sawaddipanich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A headspace-single drop microextraction (HS-SDME is a good choice to analyze volatile and semivolatile compounds in different matrices without any interference of the sample matrix. HS-SDME spends a very little solvent consumption for the determination of volatile aroma compounds (VACs. In this study, some VACs including 2-methylbutyraldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butanol, sec-butyl acetate, 1-octen-3-one and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal were performed with hexadecane as extraction solvent. The parameters affecting the HS-SDME method were investigated in details including extraction temperature, enrichment time, extraction time and sample volume. The optimum conditions were consisted of 45oC extraction temperature, 15min enrichment, 20min extraction time and 3mL sample volume. Comparison between liquid-liquid extraction (LLE and HS-SDME for quantitative analysis was carried out using tert-butanol as an internal standard. From results revealed that the recoveries were obtained between 81.06-90.55% for LLE and 80.26-90.09% for HS-SDME. The results demonstrated that the proposed method could be successfully applied for the determination of VACs.

  20. Ezine Peyniri. I. Aroma Karakterizasyonu

    OpenAIRE

    Yüceer, Yonca Karagül; İşleten, Müge; Mehmet MENDEŞ

    2009-01-01

    Bu çalışmanın amacı, bir yıllık depolama sonucu Ezine peynirinin aroma-aktif bileşenlerinde ve duyusal özelliklerinde meydana gelen değişimi belirleyerek enstrümental ve duyusal analizler sonucu elde edilen bulgular arasındaki ilişkiyi göstermektir. Peynir örneklerindeki aroma-aktif bileşenler Termal Desorpsiyon-Gaz Kromatografisi Olfaktometri sistemi (TD-GCO) kullanılarak saptanmıştır. Ayrıca tarife dayalı duyusal analiz tekniği kullanılarak lezzet özellikleri dokuz uzman panelist tarafından...

  1. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

    2006-07-01

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  2. Effect of oxidoreduction potential on aroma biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria in nonfat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F; Cachon, R; Pernin, K; De Coninck, J; Gervais, P; Guichard, E; Cayot, N

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxidoreduction potential (Eh) on the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria in non-fat yogurt. The study was done with yogurts fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The Eh was modified by the application of different gaseous conditions (air, nitrogen, and nitrogen/hydrogen). Acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, diacetyl, and pentane-2,3-dione, as the major endogenous odorant compounds of yogurt, were chosen as tracers for the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria. Oxidative conditions favored the production of acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, and diketones (diacetyl and pentane-2,3-dione). The Eh of the medium influences aroma production in yogurt by modifying the metabolic pathways of Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus. The use of Eh as a control parameter during yogurt production could permit the control of aroma formation.

  3. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Jia Li; Man Dong; Yan-Long Liu; Lu-Lu Zhang; Yan Zhang; Zi-Yu Yang; Jing-Nan Ren; Si-Yi Pan; Gang Fan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying d...

  4. Microbial Glycosidases for Wine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Maicas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which include members of the genera Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, Debaryomyces, Metschtnikowia, Hansenula, and Hanseniaspora. S. cerevisiae yeasts are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO2 via fermentation. They have been used by humans for thousands of years for the production of fermented beverages and foods, including wine. Their enzymes provide interesting organoleptic characteristics in wine. Glycosidases with oenological implications have been widely reported in yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. β-Glucosidase activity is involved in the release of terpenes to wine, thus contributing to varietal aroma. α-Rhamnosidase, α-arabinosidase, or β-apiosidase activities have also been reported to contribute to the wine production process. Oenococcus oeni (a lactic acid bacteria present in wine also has numerous glycosidases, and their activities contribute to the liberation of several aromatic compounds which contribute to floral and fruity wine characteristics.

  5. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjević, V; Kalušević, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovičová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jia Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  7. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Jia; Dong, Man; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zi-Yu; Ren, Jing-Nan; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2016-04-22

    This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  8. [Aroma and perfume allergy: anathema for some epicurean appeal?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, V; Nikkels, A F; Cornil, F; Deleixhe-Mauhin, F; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2002-09-01

    Aromas and fragrances are present in many cosmetics, some topical drugs, food and various hygiene, household and industrial products. They can be responsible for contact dermatitis. Multiple sensitizations can even involve in various combinations some fragrance compounds, a given degradation product or a contaminant. The diagnosis relies on clinical examination and oriented anamnesis. A histological examination is sometimes necessary. Specific path testing brings insight on the culprit chemical compounds.

  9. Diffusion of aroma compounds in stirred yogurts with different complex viscosities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déléris, Isabelle; Lauverjat, Clémentine; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2007-10-17

    To better understand aroma release in relation to yogurt structure and perception, the apparent diffusivity of aroma compounds within complex dairy gels was determined using an experimental diffusion cell. Apparent diffusion coefficients of four aroma compounds (diacetyl, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and linalool) at 7 degrees C in yogurts (varying in composition and structure) ranged from 0.07 x 10 (-10) to 8.91 x 10 (-10) m (2) s (-1), depending on aroma compounds and on product structure. The strong effect of yogurt fat content on the apparent diffusivity of hydrophobic compounds was revealed (15-fold and 50-fold decreases in the apparent diffusion coefficient of linalool and ethyl hexanoate, respectively). Protein composition seemed to have a greater effect than that of mechanical treatment. However, variations in the apparent diffusion coefficient for the considered products remained limited and cannot completely explain differences in flavor release and in perception that were previously observed.

  10. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  11. 威代尔甜葡萄酒主要呈香物质和香气特征的鉴定%Identification of Main Aroma Components and Aroma Characteristics of Vidal Sweet Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家梅; 张军翔; 薛洁; 刘娜; 张峰玮

    2016-01-01

    通过气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)对威代尔甜葡萄酒中的呈香物质进行鉴定,准确定量出了35种挥发性香气成分,并结合各物质的感官阈值对每种物质的香气活性值(OAV)进行计算,寻找出威代尔甜葡萄酒中的主要呈香物质.同时,通过感官评鉴对4款威代尔甜葡萄酒的香气特征和轮廓进行了分析.结果表明,4种威代尔甜葡萄酒中共有18种香气成分具有气味活性,其中4-甲基-4-巯基-2-戊酮的气味活性值最高,使甜葡萄酒表现出苦味和葡萄柚的风味;辛酸乙酯、乙酸异戊酯、己酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯主要为甜葡萄酒提供水果香;丁香酚、2-苯乙醇使葡萄酒具有花香.威代尔甜葡萄酒的香气特征整体表现出蜜香、甜苹果、葡萄柚的香气特征,其中,兰月谷甜白苦杏仁味、脂肪味突出;张裕冰酒花香突出,有玫瑰和焦糖的独特味道;巴格斯冰酒果香突出,植物味明显;加拿大云惜甜白有菠萝和麦芽的香气,符合分析的结果.%In the experiments, 35 kinds of volatile aroma compounds in Vidal sweet wine were identified and quantified accurately by GC-MS. Odor activity value (OAV) of each compound was calculated in combination with its sensory threshold value. Then the main aroma compounds in Vidal sweet wine were determined. Meanwhile, the aroma characteristics of four kinds of Vidal sweet wine were analyzed through sensory evaluation and aroma profile analysis. The results showed that, 18 kinds of aroma compounds in the four kinds of Vidal sweet wine presented odor activity, among them, OAV of 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest (it endowed the sweet wine bitter taste and grapefruit fla-vor), ethyl octanoate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl acetate mainly provided the sweet wine with fruity aroma, and eugenol and 2-phenylethanol provided the sweet wine with flower smell. The four kinds of Vidal sweet wine displayed honey and grapefruit aroma, among

  12. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Belda; Javier Ruiz; Adelaida Esteban-Fernández; Eva Navascués; Domingo Marquina; Antonio Santos; M. Victoria Moreno-Arribas

    2017-01-01

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer’s preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production ...

  13. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-11-20

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor.

  14. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  15. Extraction and preparation of high-aroma and low-caffeine instant green teas by the novel column chromatographic extraction method with gradient elution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Rong; Wu, Min; Huang, Rui-Jie; Chen, Ya-Fei; Chen, Chan-Jian; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2017-06-01

    The lack of aroma and natural taste is a critical problem in production and consumption of instant green teas. A method to prepare instant green teas high in-natural-aroma and low-caffeine by the novel column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution is reported. This method simultaneously extracted aroma (or volatile) and non-aroma compounds from green tea. Green tea was loaded into columns with 2.0-fold of petroleum ether (PE): ethanol (8:2). After standing for 3 h until the aroma compounds dissolved, the column was sequentially eluted with 3.0-fold 40% ethanol and 3.5-fold water. The eluant was collected together and automatically separated into PE and ethanol aqueous phases. The aroma extracts was obtained by vacuum-evaporation of PE phase at 45 °C. The ethanol aqueous phase was vacuum-concentrated to aqueous and partially or fully decaffeinated with 4% or 9% charcoal at 70 °C. A regular instant green tea with epigallocatechin-3-gallate: caffeine of 3.5:1 and a low-caffeine instant green tea (less than 1% caffeine) with excellent aroma and taste were prepared, by combining the aroma and non-aroma extracts at a 1:10 ratio. This work provides a practical approach to solve the low-aroma and low-taste problems in the production of high quality instant green teas.

  16. Influence of complexation between amylose and a flavored model sponge cake on the degree of aroma compound release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Bayon, María-Angeles; Biais, Benoît; Rampon, Vincent; Cayot, Nathalie; Le Bail, Patricia

    2008-08-13

    Flavoring is used in the food industry to reinforce the aroma profile of baked cereal goods. During the processing of such products, interactions between starch and aroma compounds can occur, and this may have an impact on aroma release and perception. In the present study, 20 aroma compounds were tested to establish whether they formed complexes with amylose. The structure of the complexes was determined by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). A cocomplexation study proved that several complexing compounds could be present in the same crystalline aggregate. WAXS and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments were performed in a flavored model sponge cake at different steps of processing and showed that aroma compounds might form complexes with amylose in a sponge cake as they can do in simple system containing only amylose. Some of the aroma compounds trapped in the sponge cake were quantified, and their release behavior was followed by headspace analysis. The V-type structure could partly explain aroma retention in the product and the rate of aroma release.

  17. Characterization of the Key Aroma Volatile Compounds in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and Odor Activity Value (OAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2016-06-22

    The volatile compounds of cranberries obtained from four cultivars (Early Black, Y1; Howes, Y2; Searles, Y3; and McFarlin, Y4) were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). The result presented that a total of thirty-three, thirty-four, thirty-four, and thirty-six odor-active compounds were identified by GC-O in the Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In addition, twenty-two, twenty-two, thirty, and twenty-seven quantified compounds were demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs > 1). Among these compounds, hexanal (OAV: 27-60), pentanal (OAV: 31-51), (E)-2-heptenal (OAV: 17-66), (E)-2-hexenal (OAV: 18-63), (E)-2-octenal (OAV: 10-28), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV: 8-77), ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (OAV: 10-33), β-ionone (OAV: 8-73), 2-methylbutyric acid (OAV: 18-37), and octanal (OAV: 4-24) contributed greatly to the aroma of cranberry. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to process the mean data accumulated from sensory evaluation by the panelists, odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1), and samples. Sample Y3 was highly correlated with the sensory descriptors "floral" and "fruity". Sample Y4 was greatly related to the sensory descriptors "mellow" and "green and grass". Finally, an aroma reconstitution (Model A) was prepared by mixing the odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) based on their measured concentrations in the Y1 sample, indicating that the aroma profile of the reconstitution was pretty similar to that of the original sample.

  18. Transport of hop aroma compounds across Caco-2 monolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Heinlein, A.; Metzger, M.; Walles, H.; Buettner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Although being reported and used as a sedative remedy for several years, the bioactive principle of hop preparations is still not decisively clarified. Understanding absorption and transformation processes of potential physiologically active constituents is essential to evaluate the likeliness of biological effects on humans. Therefore, single hop aroma compounds as well as digestive transformation products thereof have been investigated in view of their human intestinal absorption, applying ...

  19. Identification of a new lactone contributing to overripe orange aroma in Bordeaux dessert wines via perceptual interaction phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Panagiotis; Frérot, Eric; Tempère, Sophie; Pons, Alexandre; Darriet, Philippe

    2014-03-26

    Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a typical sensory concept for Bordeaux dessert wines, including the world famous wines of Sauternes. Volatile compounds from several chemical families (thiols, aldehydes, and lactones) were identified and correlated with aromatic typicality in these wines. However, these studies were unable to indicate "key" aromas of overripe fruits, especially overripe orange. The alternative strategy developed in this research combined both analytical and sensory studies of fractions of dessert wine extracts obtained by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry (MDGC-O/MS) was applied to some of the HPLC fractions recalling "overripe fruit", and a new lactone, 2-nonen-4-olide, was identified. Reconstitution and omission tests using the HPLC fractions highlighted the importance of specific compounds, particularly 2-nonen-4-olide, in the expression of overripe orange notes. Although this lactone presents minty and fruity odors, its key contribution to the typical aroma of orange in Bordeaux dessert wines was revealed through perceptual blending.

  20. Effects of Six Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains on Phenolic Attributes, Antioxidant Activity, and Aroma of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv.) Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingchen; Cao, Lin; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Ranran; Jiang, Zijing; Che, Zhenming; Lin, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    “Hayward” kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv.), widely planted all around the world, were fermented with six different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (BM4×4, RA17, RC212, WLP77, JH-2, and CR476) to reveal their influence on the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and aromatic components. Significant differences in the levels of caffeic acid, protocatechuate, and soluble solid content were found among wines with the six fermented strains. Wines fermented with RC212 strain exhibited the highest total phenolic acids as well as DPPH radical scavenging ability and also had the strongest ability to produce volatile esters. Wines made with S. cerevisiae BM 4×4 had the highest content of volatile acids, while the highest alcohol content was presented in CR476 wines. Scoring spots of wines with these strains were separated in different quadrants on the components of phenolics and aromas by principal component analyses. Kiwifruit wines made with S. cerevisiae RC212 were characterized by a rich fruity flavor, while CR476 strain and WLP77 strain produced floral flavors and green aromas, respectively. Altogether, the results indicated that the use of S. cerevisiae RC212 was the most suitable for the fermentation of kiwifruit wine with desirable characteristics. PMID:28251154

  1. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates.

  2. Impacto de las condiciones de beneficio sobre los compuestos precursores de aroma en granos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L del clon CCN-51.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pallares Pallares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The influence of the days of fermentation and drying in the aroma compounds (volatile fraction of cocoa beans CCN-51 was evaluated. The method used was Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry, coupled to Head Space Solid Phase Micro Extraction (HS-SPMEGC-GS. A multifactorial experimental design was created, containing 15 experiments per repetition. The fermentation technique was microfermentation in boxes, while drying was achieved by exposing the samples to the sun. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed to explain 68% of the total variability associated with aroma characteristics (volatile compounds. Both, desirable and undesirable compounds were identified throughout the processes of fermentation and drying. The benefit process (fermentation and drying was divided in stages depending on the degree of fermentation. The desirable compounds identified were: 3-methy-1-butanol, 2-phenyl-ethanol, benzaldehyde, phenyl acetaldehyde, ethylhexanoate, ethyl benzoate, ethylphenyl acetate and 2-phenyl ethyl acetate, which are associated with odoriferous notes very nice (chocolate, candy, sweet, nutty, honey, fruity, floral. Finally, a pre-treatment of cocoa beans CCN-51 prior to fermentation was proposed to be incorporated during the benefit of the beans as it seems to enhance the formation of desirable aroma compounds.

  3. 烤烟香型间致香物质组成比例及其差异分析%Differential analysis of aroma component proportion in various aroma style flue-cured tobacco leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 陈江华; 詹军; 宫长荣; 陈振国

    2013-01-01

      以2009年收集的84份 C3F 烟样为材料,研究了浓香型、清香型和中间香型烟叶致香物质组成比例及其差异。结果表明:清香型烟叶中棕色化反应降解产物极显著高于其他香型,新植二烯显著或极显著低于其他香型,中间香型烟叶中苯丙氨酸类降解产物、类西柏烷类降解产物的组成比例极显著低于其他香型。%Aroma component proportion and their differences among enriched, clear, and intermediate in flue-cured tobacco were studied with 84 leaf samples (C3F) from main tobacco planting regions in 2009. Results showed that significant or extremely significant differences existed in some aroma components proportion among aroma styles. In general, clear aroma tobacco had significantly higher proportion of Maillard reaction products, and significant or extremely significant lower proportion of Neophytadiene than enriched and intermediate aroma style tobacco. Intermediate aroma tobacco contained extremely significant lower proportion of Phenylalanine products and Cemdrenoid products than enriched and clear aroma tobacco.

  4. Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials to Major Aroma Volatiles in Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelaphiwat Pattarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the main transport coefficients (diffusion, solubility and permeability of key aroma compounds present in tropical herbs (eucalyptol and estragol through low‒density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP, nylon (Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, metalized‒polyethylene terephthalate (MPET and poly(lactic acid (PLA films at 15 and 25 °C. The concentration of aroma compounds permeating through the films were evaluated at various time intervals using a gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC–FID. Results showed that the diffusion coefficients of aroma compounds were highest in LDPE whereas the solubility coefficients were highest in PLA at both temperatures. PLA had the highest permeability coefficients for estragol at both temperatures. PP and LDPE had the highest permeability coefficients for eucalyptol at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. MPET had the lowest permeability for both aroma compounds studied. Aroma barrier properties can be used when selecting polymeric packaging materials to prevent aroma loss in various food and consumer products.

  5. PENGEMBANGAN AROMA DAN CITA RASA BAKSO DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN FLAVOR [Development of Aroma and Taste of Meat Ball Using Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia 2

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Bakso is one of the most popular meat product in Indonesia. This research studied of effect of addition of falvor to the quality of meat ball. The analysis included physical characteristics (specific gravity, hardness, shear, elasticity and color organoleptic test. The results showed that : according to consumer preference, the most like flavour that added in the meat ball were the flavour of beef Q. 1.%, beef Q 1.5%, Beef WIN 1.5% and beef Fat WIN 1.0%. the use of flavor did not cause differences in physical characteristics like specific gravity, hardness, shear, alasticity and color a-value. The use flavour in creased the price of bakso between Rp 4.5,- to Rp 18,-. According to comparison test, meat ball with beef Q 1.5% has the best score compared with Bakso Lapang Tembak (BLT in aroma, and with Bakso Pedagang Keliling (BPK has the best score in aroma, test and texture.

  6. Comparative study of the whisky aroma profile based on headspace solid phase microextraction using different fibre coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, J S; Marques, J C; Perestrelo, R M; Rodrigues, F; Oliveira, L; Andrade, P; Caldeira, M

    2007-05-25

    A dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-(IT)MS) method was developed and applied for the qualitative determination of the volatile compounds present in commercial whisky samples which alcoholic content was previously adjusted to 13% (v/v). Headspace SPME experimental conditions, such as fibre coating, extraction temperature and extraction time, were optimized in order to improve the extraction process. Five different SPME fibres were used in this study, namely, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), poly(acrylate) (PA), Carboxen-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (CAR/PDMS), Carbowax-divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) and Carboxen-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-divinylbenzene (CAR/PDMS/DVB). The best results were obtained using a 75 microm CAR/PDMS fibre during headspace extraction at 40 degrees C with stirring at 750 rpm for 60 min, after saturating the samples with salt. The optimised methodology was then applied to investigate the volatile composition profile of three Scotch whisky samples--Black Label, Ballantines and Highland Clan. Approximately seventy volatile compounds were identified in the these samples, pertaining at several chemical groups, mainly fatty acids ethyl esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids, carbonyl compounds, monoterpenols, C13 norisoprenoids and some volatile phenols. The ethyl esters form an essential group of aroma components in whisky, to which they confer a pleasant aroma, with "fruity" odours. Qualitatively, the isoamyl acetate, with "banana" aroma, was the most interesting. Quantitatively, significant components are ethyl esters of caprilic, capric and lauric acids. The highest concentration of fatty acids, were observed for caprilic and capric acids. From the higher alcohols the fusel oils (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2.phenyletanol) are the most important ones.

  7. A new approach to saffron aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, M; Zalacain, A; Salinas, M R; Alonso, G L

    2007-01-01

    The aroma of saffron has received much attention from scientists in recent years, not only for the compounds that make it up, but also for its glycosidic precursors. Despite it all, the volatile generation mechanisms of the spice are almost completely unknown. Only the generation of safranal, the major compound, from picrocrocin has been established. The great effort carried out to detect and identify the volatile compounds of saffron has not been enough to clarify which compounds are responsible for saffron aroma. In general, scientists has devoted little attention to the sample analyzed, taking for granted that all saffron is the same, something that makes it difficult to establish a comparison between the results obtained by the different authors, to the point that saffron aroma has not been defined yet. It must be clarified whether saffron aroma is what the consumer perceives via nasally when a container of the spice is uncovered, or whether on the contrary, it is the aroma conferred to food, normally after a thermal cooking process, and perceived retronasally. After an extensive bibliographic research, simple assays are suggested to understand what could be considered as saffron aroma, results that may help to delimit the research for future studies.

  8. Comparison of key aroma compounds in cooked brown rice varieties based on aroma extract dilution analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezussek, Magnus; Juliano, Bienvenido O; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-02-27

    The aroma compounds present in cooked brown rice of the three varieties Improved Malagkit Sungsong (IMS), Basmati 370 (B 370), and Khaskhani (KK), and of the variety Indica (German supermarket sample), were identified on the basis of aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA). A total of 41 odor-active compounds were identified, of which eleven are reported for the first time as rice constituents. 2-Amino acetophenone (medicinal, phenolic), which was up to now unknown in rice aroma, exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor among the 30 to 39 odor-active compounds detected in all four varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, exhibiting an intense popcorn-like aroma-note, was confirmed as a further key aroma constituent in IMS, B 370, and KK, but was not important in Indica. Differences in the FD factors between the varieties were found for the previously unknown rice aroma compound 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Sotolon; seasoning-like), which was higher in B 370 than in IMS and KK. In IMS, a yet unknown, spicy smelling component with a very high FD factor could be detected, which contributed with lower FD factors to the overall aromas of B 370 and KK, and was not present in Indica. The latter variety, which was available on the German market, differed most in its overall aroma from the three Asian brown rices.

  9. The effect of Yucca schidigera extract on canine and feline faecal volatiles occurring concurrently with faecal aroma amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J A; Kershaw, S J; Taylor, A J; Linforth, R S

    1997-01-01

    Addition of Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) products to canine or feline diets improved faecal aroma as monitored by a human panel. Odour port-gas chromatography (GC) indicated different odour component types in dog faecal volatiles and, in particular, 'faecal'-type odours due to methyl sulfides. GC-mass spectrometry demonstrated several chemical compound classes present in faecal volatiles and quantitation in the cat indicated apparently significant changes in the concentrations of several compounds on YSE treatment, although these were not necessarily aroma components. The potential for direct YSE alteration of aroma perception in a mixture of volatiles, possibly by binding, was demonstrated.

  10. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pork soup stock by using an aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yukiko; Osanai, Hiroki; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    The aroma extract dilution analysis of an extract prepared from pork stock and subsequent experiments led to the identification of 15 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution factor range of 64-2048. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the 15 odor compounds suggested acetol, octanoic acid, δ-decalactone, and decanoic acid as the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of pork stock. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of these four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted pork stock showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombined mixture and pork stock showed strong similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been successfully identified.

  11. Meta-Analysis of the Core Aroma Components of Grape and Wine Aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilc, Tina; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Navrot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation, and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  12. Meta-Analysis of the Core Aroma Components of Grape and Wine Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilc, Tina; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Navrot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation, and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  13. Meta-analysis of the core aroma components of grape and wine aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Ilc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  14. Generation of aroma compounds in a fermented sausage meat model system by Debaryomyces hansenii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Liliana; Rivera-Jiménez, Silvia; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mónica

    2014-05-15

    The ability of seven Debaryomyces hansenii strains to generate aroma compounds in a fermented sausage model system was evaluated. The presence of the yeast, in the inoculated models, was confirmed by PCR amplification of M13 minisatellite. Volatile compounds production was analysed using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty volatile compounds were detected, quantified and their odour activity values (OAVs) calculated. All volatile compounds increased during time in the inoculated models although significant differences were found amongst them. Ester and sulphur production was strongly dependent on the strain inoculated. D. hansenii P2 and M6 strains were the highest producers of sulphur compounds where dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulfide were the most prominent aroma components identified by their OAVs whereas, M4 showed the highest OAVs for ester compounds followed by the P2 strain. The meat model system has been useful to show the real ability of yeast strains to produce aroma compounds.

  15. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  16. Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the

  17. Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the

  18. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  19. Complex viscosity induced by protein composition variation influences the aroma release of flavored stirred yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Eve, Anne; Juteau, Alexandre; Atlan, Samuel; Martin, Nathalie; Souchon, Isabelle

    2006-05-31

    Dairy protein composition is known to influence the structure and the texture characteristics of yogurt. The objective of the present work was therefore to investigate the impact of protein composition, at a constant protein level, on the physicochemical properties of 4% fat flavored stirred yogurt and, more specifically, on the rheological properties, the microstructure, and the aroma release. The results showed that caseinate-enriched yogurt generally presented changes in their microstructure network and had a higher complex viscosity than whey protein-enriched yogurt. To a lesser extent, the release of the majority of aroma compounds was lower in caseinate-enriched yogurt. It was therefore possible to quantify physicochemical interactions between aroma compounds and proteins. The influence of gel structure on the flavor release was observed and was in agreement with sensory characteristics previously studied for these products.

  20. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma.

  1. Adsorption Dynamics of Calyx Aroma onto Basic Tea in Scenting Process of Calyx-scented Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhui CHEN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study adsorption dynamics of calyx aroma onto basic tea in scenting process of calyx-scented tea, so as to increase aroma and quality of products. [Method] Adsorption experiment was carried out in a hermetic container, and the effect of calyx amount, contact time, moisture content of basic tea and temperature on the scenting process was studied. [Result] The optimal moisture and temperature for scenting process was 4% and 10 ℃, respectively. [Conclusion] The scenting process accorded pseudo-first-order kinetic model, and the adsorption dynamic data of total process could better fit pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  2. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  3. Effects of aroma : texture congruency within dairy custard on satiation and food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J.; Weinbreck, F.; Burgering, M.J.; Wijk, de R.A.; Ponne, C.T.; Bult, J.H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation comprises numerous components from peripheral and central pathways, including sensory and cognitive elements. This study investigated if congruency in different aroma¿texture combinations within a dairy product influences satiation and food consumption in humans. Among seven

  4. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1.

  5. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío eVelázquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by S. cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odour descriptors, including those with the greatest odour activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae–dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odours. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S

  6. HEAT TREATMENT INFLUENCE ON THE AROMA FORMATION OF WHEAT GERMS FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat germs flour is protein-rich with a full complex of amino acids. Comparison of a chemical composition of flour from wheaten germs with different nuts types shows that they don't concede on a nutrition value, and in the vitamins content of both some macro and microcells surpass nuts several times. Thus, considering preference of consumers of natural products and the maximum exception of compounding of synthetic taste-aroma maker, a problem of formation of nut aroma in the final product made with nuts replacement takes place. In our work we studied influences of heat treatment on aroma formation of wheat germs flour with application of piezo-sorption of "an electronic nose". Various content of easily volatile organic compounds in an equilibrium gas phase over tests depending on conditions of heat treatment is established: most of them in aroma of test 2, the smallest – in tests 1 and 4. On intensity of aroma or the contents of separate classes of easily volatile compounds the test differs from test standard. It is found out on responses of separate sensors that the equilibrium gas phase over samples contains hydrophilic connections and water, the content of nitrogen-containing and specific (aromatic connections, esters is essential. On intensity of aroma or the maintenance of separate classes of easily volatile compounds the tests differ from test standard. Thus for the tests 3, 4, 5 the content of high-polarity volatile compounds increases (including ketones, alcohols, the content of esters, acids decreases. On a ratio of separate classes of connections in an equilibrium gas phase noticeable influence of time of heat treatment on redistribution of connections of RGF for flour of germs of wheat is determined. Thus, the heat treatment duration influences wheat germs flour aroma. From the received results of "visual prints" of wheat germs flour of various degree of roasting, optimum time of heat treatment at which "nut" aroma appears ranges

  7. Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2014-08-20

    The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves.

  8. Toward the stereochemical identification of prohibited characterizing flavors in tobacco products: the case of strawberry flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    With the revision of the European Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU), characterizing flavors such as strawberry, candy, vanillin or chocolate will be prohibited in cigarettes and fine-cut tobacco. Product surveillance will therefore require analytical means to define and subsequently detect selected characterizing flavors that are formed by supplemented flavors within the complex matrix tobacco. We have analyzed strawberry-flavored tobacco products as an example for characterizing fruit-like aroma. Using this approach, we looked into aroma components to find indicative patterns or features that can be used to satisfy obligatory product information as requested by the European Directive. Accordingly, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize different strawberry-flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, fine-cut tobacco, liquids for electronic cigarettes, snus, shisha tobacco) for their volatile additives. The results were compared with non-flavored, blend characteristic flavored and other fruity-flavored cigarettes, as well as fresh and dried strawberries. Besides different esters and aldehydes, the terpenes linalool, α-terpineol, nerolidol and limonene as well as the lactones γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone and γ-undecalactone could be verified as compounds sufficient to convey some sort of strawberry flavor to tobacco. Selected flavors, i.e., limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, citronellol, carvone and γ-decalactone, were analyzed further with respect to their stereoisomeric composition by using enantioselective HS-SPME-GC/MS. These experiments confirmed that individual enantiomers that differ in taste or physiological properties can be distinguished within the tobacco matrix. By comparing the enantiomeric composition of these compounds in the tobacco with that of fresh and dried strawberries, it can be concluded that non-natural strawberry

  9. Factors influencing the aroma composition of Chardonnay wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Bastian, Susan E P; Cozzolino, Daniel; Jeffery, David W

    2014-07-16

    Chardonnay is one of the oldest and most widely distributed wine grape cultivars and is of commercial importance for the world's wine-producing nations. It is an extremely flexible variety that has adapted to different regions with varied weather and soil characteristics. Somewhat uniquely among white wines, Chardonnay lends itself to a wide variety of production styles, which can be tailored to the target market. Techniques such as skin maceration, barrel and stainless steel fermentation, use of selected or indigenous yeasts, malolactic fermentation, and aging in barrels with or without lees are all applicable and lead to different compositional outcomes. A number of research papers have been published with a view to understanding Chardonnay composition and quality as well as the impact of different enological techniques on the final product. This review summarizes current knowledge, explaining the influence of viticultural and production techniques on aroma composition, and poses directions for further research into Chardonnay wines.

  10. Optimization of Postharvest Conditions To Produce Chocolate Aroma from Jackfruit Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Fernanda Papa; Zerbeto, Lais Masson; Ragazi, Gabriel Bernardes Cabreira; Gutierrez, Érika Maria Roel; Souza, Miriam Coelho; Parker, Jane K; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2017-02-15

    Jackfruit seeds are an underutilized waste in many tropical countries. This work demonstrates the potential of roasted jackfruit seeds to develop chocolate aroma. Twenty-seven different roasted jackfruit seed flours were produced from local jackfruit by acidifying or fermenting the seeds prior to drying and then roasting under different time/temperature combinations. The chocolate aroma of groups of four flours were ranked by a sensory panel (n = 162), and response surface methodology was used to identify optimum conditions. The results indicated a significant and positive influence of fermentation and acidification on the production of chocolate aroma. SPME/GC-MS of the flours showed that important aroma compounds such as 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine and 2-phenylethyl acetate were substantially higher in the fermented product and that the more severe roasting conditions produced 2-3 times more 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, but less 3-methylbutanal. Moisture, aw, pH, luminosity, and color were also monitored to ensure that these properties were similar to those of cocoa powder or cocoa substitutes.

  11. Effects of Fermentation Temperature on Key Aroma Compounds and Sensory Properties of Apple Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bangzhu; Li, Fuling; Cui, Lu; Guo, Yaodong

    2015-12-01

    Fermentation temperature strongly affects yeast metabolism during apple wine making and thus aromatic and quality profiles. In this study, the temperature effect during apple wine making on both the key aroma compounds and sensory properties of apple wine were investigated. The concentration of nine key aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopentylacetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, isobutylalcohol, isopentylalcohol, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, and benzeneethanol) in apple wine significantly increased with the increase of fermentation temperature from 17 to 20 °C, and then eight out of the nine key aroma compounds with an exception of ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, decreased when the temperature goes up 20 to 26 °C. Sensory analysis showed that the apple wine fermented at 20 °C had the highest acceptance for consumers. Fermentation at the temperature of 20 °C was therefore considered to be the most suitable condition using the selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP05) for apple wine making. Changes in the fermentation temperature can considerably affect the production of key aroma compounds and sensory profiles of apple wine. These results could help apple wine producers make better quality production for consumers at the optimal fermentation temperature.

  12. Evolution, Nucleosynthesis, and Yields of AGB Stars at Different Metallicities. III. Intermediate-mass Models, Revised Low-mass Models, and the ph-FRUITY Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O.; Piersanti, L.; Gobrecht, D.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new set of models for intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars (4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 M⊙) at different metallicities (-2.15 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.15). This set integrates the existing models for low-mass AGB stars (1.3 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 3.0) already included in the FRUITY database. We describe the physical and chemical evolution of the computed models from the main sequence up to the end of the AGB phase. Due to less efficient third dredge up episodes, models with large core masses show modest surface enhancements. This effect is due to the fact that the interpulse phases are short and, therefore, thermal pulses (TPs) are weak. Moreover, the high temperature at the base of the convective envelope prevents it from deeply penetrating the underlying radiative layers. Depending on the initial stellar mass, the heavy element nucleosynthesis is dominated by different neutron sources. In particular, the s-process distributions of the more massive models are dominated by the 22Ne(α,n)25Mg reaction, which is efficiently activated during TPs. At low metallicities, our models undergo hot bottom burning and hot third dredge up. We compare our theoretical final core masses to available white dwarf observations. Moreover, we quantify the influence intermediate-mass models have on the carbon star luminosity function. Finally, we present the upgrade of the FRUITY web interface, which now also includes the physical quantities of the TP-AGB phase for all of the models included in the database (ph-FRUITY).

  13. Evaluation of Key Aroma Compounds in Processed Prawns (Whiteleg Shrimp) by Quantitation and Aroma Recombination Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2017-03-24

    In our previous study on the aroma compounds of heated prawn meat, the main odorants in blanched (BPM) and fried prawn meat (FPM), respectively, were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis. In this follow-up study, these aroma compounds were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays, and odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor detection threshold) were calculated. Results revealed 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one as the most potent odor-active compounds in both prawn samples. In FPM, as compared to BPM, higher OAVs were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, 3-methylbutanal, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and trimethylpyrazine. Aroma recombination experiments corroborated that the overall aroma of the blanched as well as the fried prawn meat, respectively, could well be mimicked by the set of key odorants quantitated in this study.

  14. Aroma Differences Among Chinese Dry Red Wines of Distinct Vintages from Several Districts%我国几个产区不同年份干红葡萄酒香气特征的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶永胜; 孙汉文; 彭传涛

    2012-01-01

    感官量化分析干红葡萄酒的香气特征,旨在寻找我国不同地理标志干红葡萄酒产品的特征香气,为其感官识别提供实践支持.采集干红葡萄酒样品涉及我国5个葡萄酒产区、15个年份的7个葡萄品种所酿的干红葡萄酒.葡萄酒品尝小组感官分析前进行标准葡萄酒香气物质的培训,感官量化分析要求用5点标度法量化,最终量化数据综合香气特征使用频率和强度率,用MF值表示.香气数据的主成分分析表明赤霞珠和梅尔诺干红葡萄酒小浆果、花香和植物香较重,而山普斯、佳美、西拉、玫瑰蜜等干红葡萄酒温带水果和焦糖味明显;赤霞珠干红葡萄酒随着陈酿时间的增加,典型香气减弱,泡菜等不良气味特征慢慢增加.%To find typical aroma characters of Chinese different dry red wines of geographical indication, quantitative sensory analysis was used to quantify aroma characters. Selected wines were from 5 wine pro- ducing districts in China. The wines were made from 7 red grape varieties and from 15 vintages. Aroma training was made before sensory analysis of panelists by standard wine aroma materials. In the sensory a- nalysis, 5-point scale was used to quantify aroma intensity, and the final data were geometric means com- posed of term using frequency and intensity ratio. Principle component analysis (PCA) of aroma data showed that Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines had more heavier aroma characters of berry, floral and vegetal traits, and wines from Chambourcin, Gamay, Shiraz, Fox had characters of temperate fruity and caramel. With ageing time prolonging, typical characters of Cabernet Sauvignon dry red wine lowered, while some bad flavors, like pickled vegetable, came into being and increased.

  15. Characterization of key odorants in Chinese chixiang aroma-type liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haiyan; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2015-04-15

    Chixiang aroma-type liquor is extensively welcomed by consumers owing to its typical fatty aroma, particularly in southern China. To our knowledge, no comprehensive characterization of aroma and flavor from chixiang aroma-type liquor has been published. It is still a confused question which components are the most important in characterizing its unique aroma. A total of 56 odorants were identified in chixiang aroma-type liquor by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and in different quantitative measurements, 34 aroma compounds were further demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs). Furthermore, this research suggested that the aroma of chixiang aroma-type finished liquor could be successfully reconstituted by mixing 34 aroma compounds in the concentrations measured. Omission experiments further confirmed (E)-2-nonenal as the key odorant and revealed the significance of (E)-2-octenal and 2-phenylethanol for the overall aroma of chixiang aroma-type liquor. 3-(Methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), diethyl 1,7-heptanedioate (diethyl pimelate), diethyl 1,8-octanedioate (diethyl suberate), and diethyl 1,9-nonanedioate (diethyl azelate), identified as the characteristic aromas of chixiang aroma-type liquor in 1995, had no effects on aroma based on omission/addition experiments.

  16. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Belda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer’s preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production of high quality wines are astounding. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the impact of microorganisms in wine aroma and flavour, and the biochemical reactions and pathways in which they participate, therefore contributing to both the quality and acceptability of wine. In this context, an overview of genetic and transcriptional studies to explain and interpret these effects is included, and new directions are proposed. It also considers the contribution of human oral microbiota to wine aroma conversion and perception during wine consumption. The potential use of wine yeasts and lactic acid bacteria as biological tools to enhance wine quality and the advent of promising advice allowed by pioneering -omics technologies on wine research are also discussed.

  17. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Ignacio; Ruiz, Javier; Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2017-01-24

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer's preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production of high quality wines are astounding. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the impact of microorganisms in wine aroma and flavour, and the biochemical reactions and pathways in which they participate, therefore contributing to both the quality and acceptability of wine. In this context, an overview of genetic and transcriptional studies to explain and interpret these effects is included, and new directions are proposed. It also considers the contribution of human oral microbiota to wine aroma conversion and perception during wine consumption. The potential use of wine yeasts and lactic acid bacteria as biological tools to enhance wine quality and the advent of promising advice allowed by pioneering -omics technologies on wine research are also discussed.

  18. Characteristic Changes in the Aroma Profile of Patchouli Depending on Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshio; Yoshitome, Kazuma; Fujihara, Takashi; Santoso, Mardi; Aziz, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Patchouli is used as an incense material and essential oil. The characteristic odor of patchouli leaves results from the drying process used in their production; however, there have to date been no reports on the changes in the odor of patchouli leaves during the drying process. We investigated the aroma profile of dried patchouli leaves using the hexane extracts of fresh and dried patchouli leaves. We focused on the presence or absence of the constituents of the fresh and dried extracts, and the differences in the content of the common constituents. Fourteen constituents were identified as characteristic of dried patchouli extract odor by gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis. The structures of seven of the 14 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (α-patchoulene, seychellene, humulene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, caryophyllene oxide, and patchouli alcohol). The aroma profile of the essential oil obtained from the dried patchouli leaves was clearly different from that of dried patchouli. The aroma profile of the essential oil was investigated by a similar method. We identified 12 compounds as important odor constituents. The structures of nine of the 12 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (cis-thujopsene, caryophyllene, α-guaiene, α-patchoulene, seychellene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, patchouli alcohol, and corymbolone). Comparing the odors and constituents demonstrated that the aroma profile of patchouli depends on the manufacturing process.

  19. Aroma-impact compounds in dried spice as a quality index using solid phase microextraction with olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikhunthod, Bussayarat; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-12-15

    A systematic experimental procedure is used to identify the aroma-impact compounds, leading to a shelf quality index based on head space solid-phase microextraction. Dried (ground) fennel seeds, having shelf life of 6 months (0.5Y) and 5 years (5Y), were used as a spice model for assessment of comparative aroma quality. Aroma-impact odorants were analysed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) in parallel with comprehensive two-dimensional GC-flame ionisation detection (GC×GC-FID) using a polar/non-polar phase combination for the GC×GC column set. Tentative identification of aroma-impact odorants involved correlating data from the GC-O/FID system with GC×GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis by means of retention indices. Major compounds responsible for aroma perception were limonene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, estragole and trans-anethole, and showed an average decrease of 30-50% NIF from 0.5Y to 5Y. Monoterpenes which represent 'freshness', e.g. β-pinene and β-myrcene, exhibited identifiable aroma-impact only for the 0.5Y product. Sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene oxides are suggested as an aging index, being present in increased amounts in 5Y. p-Anisaldehyde odour intensity for both samples remained the same (aroma perception sweet creamy, floral odour and Chinese seasoning powder).

  20. Mechanism of Aroma Fixation and Aroma Fixer Preparation%定香机理及定香基的配制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翔云

    2011-01-01

    通过一系列实验确定:在一个香精体系中,高沸点物质可以令头香香料在一段时间内的挥发量减少,如果该物质本身没有香气,则没有留香或定香作用;有香气的高沸点物质则有一定的留香或定香作用;高沸点且香比强值大的香料留香或定香作用最强.列出了3个很有实际价值的香水用定香基为例说明.%A series of experiments to determine that in the perfume compound system, high boiling point substances allows top aroma components to reduce the amount of volatile in a period of time. Odorless substances couldn't make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation. Odor substances with high boiling paint can make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation. The components with higher boiling point and stronger aroma can make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation stronger. This paper sets out three aroma fixers with practical value as examples.

  1. Bioconversion of lutein to form aroma compounds by Pantoea dispersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Zhong, Gui Fang; Yang, Xue Peng; Hu, Xian Mei; Mao, Duo Bin; Ma, Yu Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the conversion of lutein, a carotenoid, to aroma compounds by Pantoea dispersa Y08, a lutein-degrading bacterium isolated from marigold flower residue. Bioconversion conditions, including substrate concentration, applied co-solvent and reaction time, were optimized. A maximum biodegradation yield of 80 % for lutein at 10 g/l was achieved. The intermediate, 3-hydroxy-β-ionone, and final β-ionone products were revealed by GC-MS. A bioconversion pathway of lutein is proposed to involve cleavage at the 9-10 double bond position, followed by de-hydroxylation at the 3-hydroxy position. This is the first report of the ability of a bacterium, P. dispersa, to sequentially convert lutein to 3-hydroxy-β-ionone and then β-ionone.

  2. Effects of Yeast on the Quality of Banana Distillation Wine and Aroma Component%酵母对香蕉蒸馏酒品质影响及香气成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳素洁; 杜金华; 任玲玲; 郭春宝

    2012-01-01

    采用5种酿酒酵母:W15、EC1118、S7、L45、71B进行香蕉浆发酵与蒸馏得到香蕉蒸馏酒。通过对比果酒的酒精度、糖、酸以及蒸馏酒的部分理化指标包括总酸、总酯、香气成分,结合感官评价,筛选出最佳的香蕉蒸馏酒生产用酵母为EC1118,其发酵的原酒酒精度可达15.16°,蒸馏后清亮透明,果香、醇香协调,香蕉香浓郁优雅,入口柔顺绵软,酒体醇厚。具有乙酸乙酯为主体的清雅、谐调的香气和辛酸乙酯的典型香蕉味。%Banana brandy was generated by the distillation and fermentation of banana pulp. Five yeast strains 0grl5, EC1118, S7, IAS, 71B) were used in the experiment to screen the best one for banana brandy production through contrast experiments and results evaluation. Actually, the optimal yeast to produce banana brandy is EC 1118 through the comparing with the alcoholic strength, sugar and acid of the banana wine as well as the typical properties including total acids, total esters and aromatic components of brandy besides the sensory evaluation. The alcohol content of base wine fermented by such strain could reach up to 15.16° . After distillation, the brandy body is limpid and transparent, wine smell is pure and mild, entrance foam, also with the coordination of fruity and bouquet. Moreover, the brandy has harmonious aroma and the specific flavor of banana.

  3. Aroma Compounds Prevision using Artificial Neural Networks Influence of Newly Indigenous Saccharomyces SPP in White Wine Produced with Vitis Vinifera Cv Siria

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira,A. Teresa; Martins, M. Rosário; Cabrita,Maria João; Ambrósio, Cristina; Arteiro, José; José NEVES; Vicente, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Commercial yeasts strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae are frequently used in white wine production as starters in fermentation process, however, these strains can affect the wine characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three strains of Saccharomyces spp. (var. 1, 2 and 3) on wine aroma compounds produced in microvinification assays. Microvinification assays were carried out with Vitis vinifera cv Síria grapes using the strains in study as starters. Aroma compounds ...

  4. The role of saliva in aroma release and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ployon, Sarah; Morzel, Martine; Canon, Francis

    2017-07-01

    Aroma perception is an important factor driving food acceptance. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from the food matrix and then reach the receptors located in the nasal cavity, leading to their perception. These steps are closely dependent on the physicochemical properties of the volatile compounds and the food matrix, but also on human physiology. Among the different physiological parameters involved, the literature reports that saliva has various effects on VOCs and therefore appears as a major actor impacting the perception of aroma. This article reviews how saliva takes part in aroma release, considering both in vitro and in vivo approaches, and how it may affect perception. It describes the direct mechanisms (molecular interactions, enzymatic conversion, salting-out effect, dilution) involving salivary components (salts, proteins including enzymes, microbiota) that can modify the release of aroma compounds. It also considers the indirect impact of saliva, such as changes of aroma diffusion through modification of the physicochemical properties of the food matrix.

  5. Aroma characterization of chinese rice wine by gas chromatography-olfactometry, chemical quantitative analysis, and aroma reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Xu, Yan; Qian, Michael C

    2013-11-27

    The aroma profile of Chinese rice wine was investigated in this study. The volatile compounds in a traditional Chinese rice wine were extracted using Lichrolut EN and further separated by silica gel normal phase chromatography. Seventy-three aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to acids, esters, and alcohols, benzaldehyde, vanillin, geosmin, and γ-nonalactone were identified to be potentially important to Chinse rice wine. The concentration of these aroma-active compounds in the Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by combination of four different methods, including headsapce-gas chromatography, solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS, solid-phase extraction-GC-MS, and SPME-GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD). Quantitative results showed that 34 aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), vanillin, dimethyl trisulfide, β-phenylethyl alcohol, guaiacol, geosmin, and benzaldehyde could be responsible for the unique aroma of Chinese rice wine. An aroma reconstitution model prepared by mixing 34 aroma compounds with OAVs > 1 in an odorless Chinese rice wine matrix showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original Chinese rice wine.

  6. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M L; Yu, Y; Ramaswamy, H S; Zhu, S M

    2017-01-06

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  7. The influence of different types of preparation (espresso and brew) on coffee aroma and main bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Cortese, Manuela; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular hot drinks in the world; it may be prepared by several methods, but the most common forms are boiled (brew) and pressurized (espresso). Analytical studies on the substances responsible for the pleasant aroma of roasted coffee have been carried out for more than 100 years. Brew coffee and espresso coffee (EC) have a different and peculiar aroma profile, demonstrating the importance of the brewing process on the final product sensorial quality. Concerning bioactive compounds, the extraction mechanism plays a crucial role. The differences in the composition of coffee brew in chlorogenic acids and caffeine content is the result of the different procedures of coffee preparation. The aim of the present review is to detail how the brewing process affects coffee aroma and composition.

  8. Expression of POX2 gene and disruption of POX3 genes in the industrial Yarrowia lipolytica on the γ-decalactone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiong; Song, Huanlu; Wang, Zhaoyue; Ding, Yongzhi

    2012-04-20

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica growing on methyl ricinoleate can produce γ-decalactone, the worthy aroma compound, which can exhibit fruity and creamy sensorial notes, and recognized internationally as a safe food additive. Unfortunately, the yield is poor because of lactone degradation by enzyme Aox3 (POX3 gene encoded), which was responsible for continuation of oxidation after C(10) level and lactone reconsumption. In this paper, we chose the industrial Y. lipolytica (CGMCC accession number 2.1405), which is the diploid strain as the starting strain and constructed the recombinant strain Tp-12 by targeting the POX3 locus of the wild type, one copy of POX3 was deleted by CRF1+POX2 insertion. The other recombinant strain Tpp-11, which was a null mutant possessing multiple copies of POX2 and disrupted POX3 genes on two chromosomes, was constructed by inserting XPR2+hpt into the other copy of POX3 of Tp-12. The growth ability of the recombinants was changed after genetic modification in the fermentation medium. The production of γ-decalactone was increased, resulting from blocking β-oxidation at the C(10) Aox level and POX2 overexpression. The recombinant strain Tpp-11 was stable. Because there was no reconsumption of γ-decalactone, the mutant strain could be grown in continuous fermentation of methyl ricinoleate to produce γ-decalactone.

  9. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  10. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively.

  11. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    an unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma.Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest...... amounts of free fatty acids, it seemed to be of no importance to aroma development. It is therefore questionable whether lipolytic activity of starter cultures has an influence on sausage flavour....

  12. Aroma Release in Wine Using Co-Immobilized Enzyme Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Katherine; Martínez-Gil, Ana; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko; Illanes, Andrés; Wilson, Lorena

    2016-11-08

    Aroma is a remarkable factor of quality and consumer preference in wine, representing a distinctive feature of the product. Most aromatic compounds in varietals are in the form of glycosidic precursors, which are constituted by a volatile aglycone moiety linked to a glucose residue by an O-glycosidic bond; glucose is often linked to another sugar (arabinose, rhamnose or apiose). The use of soluble β-glycosidases for aroma liberation implies the addition of a precipitating agent to remove it from the product and precludes its reuse after one batch. An attractive option from a technological perspective that will aid in removing such constraints is the use of immobilized glycosidases. Immobilization by aggregation and crosslinking is a simple strategy producing enzyme catalysts of very high specific activity, being an attractive option to conventional immobilization to solid inert supports. The purpose of this work was the evaluation of co-immobilized β-glycosidases crosslinked aggregates produced from the commercial preparation AR2000, which contains the enzymes involved in the release of aromatic terpenes in Muscat wine (α-l-arabinofuranosidase and β-d-glucopyranosidase). To do so, experiments were conducted with co-immobilized crosslinked enzyme aggregates (combi-CLEAs), and with the soluble enzymes, using an experiment without enzyme addition as control. Stability of the enzymes at the conditions of winemaking was assessed and the volatiles composition of wine was determined by SPE-GC-MS. Stability of enzymes in combi-CLEAs was much higher than in soluble form, 80% of the initial activity remaining after 60 days in contact with the wine; at the same conditions, the soluble enzymes had lost 80% of their initial activities after 20 days. Such higher stabilities will allow prolonged use of the enzyme catalyst reducing its impact in the cost of winemaking. Wine treated with combi-CLEAs was the one exhibiting the highest concentration of total terpenes (18% higher

  13. In Depth Proteome Analysis of Ripening Muscadine Grape Berry cv. Carlos Reveals Proteins Associated with Flavor and Aroma Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiranda, Devaiah; Basha, Sheikh M; Singh, Rakesh K; He, Huan; Calvin, Kate; Mercer, Roger

    2016-09-02

    Ripening in nonclimacteric fruits such as grape involves complex chemical changes that have a profound influence on the accumulation of flavor and aroma compounds distinct to a particular grape genotype. In this study, proteome characterization of wine type bronze muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia cv. Carlos), primarily grown in the Southeastern United States was performed during berry ripening. Stage-specific protein expression was obtained among different stages of berries. Differential analysis showed the expression of 522 proteins that regulate diverse biological processes and metabolic pathways. Of these, 30 proteins are associated with the production of key phenolic compounds, whereas 25 are associated with the production of muscadine aroma compounds. These proteins are involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway, terpene synthesis, fatty acid derived volatiles and esters that affect muscadine berry flavor and aroma characteristics. Further, gene expression analysis during ripening validated the expression pattern of 12 proteins. Catechin, epicatechin, and four stilbenes were quantified to correlate observed proteome changes. This study not only revealed biochemical changes during muscadine berry ripening but also offers indicators for marker-assisted breeding to enhance organoleptic properties of muscadine grape to improve its flavor and aroma properties.

  14. Characterization of the Key Odorants in Chinese Zhima Aroma-Type Baijiu by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Sun, Baoguo; Zhao, Mouming; Zheng, Fuping; Huang, Mingquan; Sun, Jinyuan; Sun, Xiaotao; Li, Hehe

    2016-07-06

    Zhima aroma-type Baijiu with typical sesame aroma is particularly popular in northern China. To our knowledge, it is still uncertain which components are important to make contributions to its unique aroma, although a few pieces of research have reported many volatile compounds in this Baijiu. The aroma-active compounds from the Baijiu were researched in this paper. A total of 56 odorants were identified in Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Their odor activity values (OAVs) were determined by different quantitative measurements, and then 26 aroma compounds were further confirmed as important odorants due to their OAVs ≥ 1, and these had higher values, such as ethyl hexanoate (OAV 2691), 3-methylbutanal (2403), ethyl pentanoate (1019), and so on. The overall aroma of Zhima aroma-type Baijiu could be simulated by mixing of the 26 key odorants in their measured concentrations. The similarity of the overall aroma profiles between the recombination model and the commercial sample was judged to be 2.7 out of 3.0 points. Omission experiments further corroborated the importance of methional and ethyl hexanoate for the overall aroma of Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu.

  15. Effect of lactobionic acid on the acidification, rheological properties and aroma release of dairy gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jéssica C Bigaski; Granato, Daniel; Masson, Maria Lucia; Andriot, Isabelle; Mosca, Ana Carolina; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2016-09-15

    The food industry is investigating new technological applications of lactobionic acid (LBA). In the current work, the effect of lactobionic acid on the acidification of dairy gels (pH 5.5 and 6.2), rheological properties using a double compression test, sodium mobility using (23)Na NMR technique and aroma release using headspace GC-FID were studied. Our results showed that it is possible to use LBA as an alternative to glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) for the production of dairy gels with a controlled pH value. Small differences in the rheological properties and in the amount of aroma volatile organic compounds that were released in the vapour phase, but no significant difference in the sodium ion mobility were obtained. The gels produced with LBA were less firm and released less volatile aroma compounds than the gels produced with GDL. The gels at pH 6.2 were firmer than those at pH 5.5 and had a more organised structure around the sodium ions.

  16. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  17. Identification of characteristic aroma components of Thai fried chili paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotsatchakul, Premsiri; Chaiseri, Siree; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2008-01-23

    Three forms of Thai fried chili pastes (CP) were prepared, consisting of an unheated CP (UH-CP), a CP heated at 100 degrees C for 25 min (H25-CP, typical product), and a CP excessively heated for 50 min (H50-CP). The potent odorants in the CPs were investigated by two gas chromatography-olfactometry methods: dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). DHDA revealed that the predominant odorants in heated CPs were mainly sulfur-containing compounds, followed by lipid-derived compounds, Strecker aldehydes, and Maillard reaction products. Dimethyl sulfide, allyl mercaptan, 2- (or 3-) methylbutanal, ally methyl sulfide, 2,3-butanedione, 3,3'-thiobis(1-propene), and methyl propyl disulfide were among the most potent headspace odorants detected by DHDA. By AEDA, 2-vinyl-4 H-1,3-dithiin and diallyl trisulfide had the highest FD factors in H25-CP. On the basis of their high FD factors by both GCO methods, the predominant odorants in H25-CP were 3-vinyl-4 H-1,2-dithiin, allyl methyl disulfide, and allyl methyl trisulfide. Furthermore, dimethyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide had the highest odor activity values in H25-CP, suggesting that these were also potent odorants in CP. In addition, methional, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2 H)-furanone, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2( 5H)-furanone (sotolon) were indicated as potent thermally derived odorants of H25-CP.

  18. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  19. Analysis of Volatile Aroma Compounds in Steamed and Roasted Whole Tartary Buckwheat Teas and Distribution of Major Chemical Components during the Production Process%蒸煮和焙炒整米苦荞茶香气成分分析及生产过程中主要化学成分的去向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋秀芳; 李祥; 秦礼康; 赵宇; 林敏

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of major chemical components during the production of steamed and roasted whole tartary buckwheat tea samples was tracked to explore the effects of steaming,roasting and reconstructed granulation on the aroma and nutritional components of tartary buckwheat tea.Meanwhile,both tartary buckwheat teas were comparatively analyzed for volatile aroma components by solid-phase microwaveextraction(SPME) coupled with GC-MS.The final products obtained following different procedures showed significant differences in chemical composition(P0.05).During the production of steamed tartary buckwheat tea,proteins were mainly distributed in the yellow powder at a level of 27.51%,the reducing sugar content of 0.69% in the raw material decreased to 0.28% in the fine product,and total flavonoids were mainly distributed in the polished powder and yellow powder at levels of 4.98% and 4.63%,respectively.As a result,the total flavonoid content of the final product was as low as 1.38% compared with only 1.20% for roasted tartary buckwheat grains.The total flavonoid content of tea-containing reconstructed granules prepared from buckwheat husk powder,rich in flavonoids(4.56%),was as high as 6.87%.Roasted whole tartary buckwheat tea as a mixture of roasted tartary buckwheat grains and tea-containing reconstructed granules had considerably better quality and flavor than its steamed counterpart.The major aroma compounds of steamed tartary buckwheat tea were alkanes and alkenes,while roasted tartary buckwheat tea contained aldehydes and alkanes as major aroma compounds and was also rich in phenols,alcohols,ethers,ketones and esters,which caused better flavor in roast tartary buckwheat tea and than steamed one.%为探索焙炒、蒸煮与重组造粒加工工艺对苦荞茶香气和营养成分的影响,跟踪检测3种工艺中各组分主要营养成分的流向分布,并采用固相微萃取结合气质联用技术对苦荞茶产品的挥发性香气成分进行对比分析。

  20. Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on alcoholic fermentation behaviour and wine aroma of cherry wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu Yang; Gong, Han Sheng; Jiang, Xiao Man; Zhao, Yu Ping

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effect of mixed fermentation of non-Saccharomyces (Torulaspora delbrueckii ZYMAFLORE Alpha(TD n. Sacch) and Metschnikowia pulcherrima JS22) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts (D254 and EC1118) on the production of cherry wines, in comparison with commonly used mono-culture. Results obtained during AF demonstrated that negligible inhibitory effect was observed in S. cerevisiae/Alpha pair, whereas a strong antagonistic effect was detected between MJS22 and S. cerevisiae strain, resulting in an early death of MJS22. For volatile components determined, S. cerevisiae/MJS22 couple was found to significantly boost the production of most detected compounds, more particularly in higher alcohols, esters, acids and terpenes; while the characteristic of S. cerevisiae/Alpha pair is an increase in fruity esters, higher alcohols and decrease in acid production. Sensory evaluation revealed that S. cerevisiae/MJS22 pair reinforced sweet, green and fatty notes to the cherry wines, and S. cerevisiae/Alpha trial enhanced the fruity odour and reduced green note.

  1. Comparison of key aroma compounds in five different types of Japanese soy sauces by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2012-04-18

    An investigation by the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from five different types of Japanese soy sauces, categorized according to Japan Agricultural Standards as Koikuchi Shoyu (KS), Usukuchi Shoyu (US), Tamari Shoyu (TS), Sai-Shikomi Shoyu (SSS), and Shiro Shoyu (SS), revealed 25 key aroma compounds. Among them, 3-ethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified in the soy sauces for the first time. Whereas 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) were detected in all of the soy sauce aroma concentrates as having high flavor dilution (FD) factors, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol was detected as having a high FD factor in only four of the soy sauces (KS, US, TS, and SSS). Furthermore, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDMF), which were thought to be the key odorants in KS, were detected in KS, US, TS, and SSS, but the FD factors widely varied among them. The sensory evaluations demonstrated that the aroma descriptions of a cooked potato-like note and a caramel-like/seasoning-like note were evaluated as high scores with no significant differences among the five soy sauces. On the other hand, a burnt/spicy note was evaluated as having high scores in KS, TS, and SSS, but it was evaluated as having a low score in SS. The comparative AEDA experiments and the auxiliary sensory experiments demonstrated that the five different types of Japanese soy sauces varied in their key aroma compounds and aroma characteristics, and the key aroma compounds in KS might not always be highly contributing in the other types of Japanese soy sauces.

  2. The ameliorating effect of Yucca schidigera extract on canine and feline faecal aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J A; Kershaw, S J

    1997-01-01

    Addition of Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) products to canine or feline diets improved the character and reduced the intensity of faecal aroma as monitored by a human panel. The general condition of the animals was not adversely affected as monitored by faecal pH, food retention time, and blood cell counts. Blood urea increased significantly in YSE-treated cats, possibly due to the saponins of YSE affecting gut wall permeability. This finding contrasts with previously published reports of a reduction in blood urea on the addition of sarsaponin (from YSE) to rat diets and of YSE products to poultry and cattle diets.

  3. 红烧牛肉罐头香味活性化合物的分析%Analysis of Aroma-Active Compounds in Canned Stewed Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许倩倩; 林美丽; 刘雪妮; 宋焕禄; 陈斌; 屈维丽

    2012-01-01

    The aroma-active compounds of canned stewed beef braised in brown sauce were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by dynamic headspace sampling, thermal desorption injection and GC-O/GC-MS. A total of 73 volatile compounds were identified. Among them were 23 aroma-active compounds, mainly consisting of 4 ketones, 3 aldehydes, 2 alcohols, 2 esters, 2 furans, 2 pyrazine, 2 thiazole, 2 terpenes, 1 alkene, and 1 pyridine. The important aroma-active compounds were 2-butanone (fruity), 2-pentanone (fruity and sweet), camphene (woody and minty), ethyl butyrate (sweet and fruity), pyridine(soul and fishy), 2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine(nut and roast), benzaldehyde (sweet and fruity), and 2-acetylthiazole (nut and roast peanut).%采用动态顶空的方法对红烧牛肉罐头中挥发性化合物进行提取,热脱附系统进样,利用气相-嗅闻-质谱联用的方法对其中的香味活性化合物进行定性定量分析,共鉴定出73中挥发性化合物,其中23种香味活性化合物,这些化合物种类主要有酮类4种,醛类3种,醇类2种,酯类2种,呋喃类2种,吡嗪类2种,噻唑类2种,萜类2种,烯类1种,吡啶1种。红烧牛肉罐头中重要的香味活性化合物有2-丁酮(水果味)、2-戊酮(甜味、果香味)、莰烯(木香味、薄荷味)、丁酸乙酯(香甜味、水果味)、吡啶(酸味、鱼香味)、2,5-二甲基-吡嗪(烧烤味、坚果味)、苯甲醛(甜味、果香味)、2-乙酰噻唑(坚果味、烤花生味)。

  4. Aroma release from wines under dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachaki, Maroussa; Linforth, Robert S T; Taylor, Andrew J

    2009-08-12

    Aroma release from wines and model ethanolic solutions during dynamic headspace dilution was measured in real time using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Model ethanolic solutions maintained the headspace concentration of volatile compounds close to equilibrium values during gas phase dilution over 10 min. Wine samples (with the same ethanol content) did not maintain the headspace concentration of volatiles to the same extent. Wine components and acidity ((+)-catechin, glycerol; pH 3.6) in model ethanolic solutions (120 mL/L) had no effect on the volatile headspace concentration during dynamic headspace dilution. However, in the presence of certain proteins (beta-lactoglobulin, beta-casein, bovine serum albumin), the model ethanolic solutions failed to maintain their volatile headspace concentration upon headspace dilution, but other proteins (thaumatin, mucin, lysozyme) had no effect. Thermal imaging of the model ethanolic samples (with and without beta-casein) under dynamic headspace dilution conditions showed differences in surface temperatures. This observation suggested perturbation of the ethanol monolayer at the air-liquid interface and disruption of the Marangoni effect, which causes bulk convection within ethanolic solutions. Convection carries volatile compounds and warm liquid from the bulk phase to the air-liquid interface, thus replenishing the interfacial concentration and maintaining the gas phase concentration and interfacial surface temperature during headspace dilution. It is postulated that certain proteins may exert a similar effect in wine.

  5. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products. PMID:28059090

  6. Evolution, nucleosynthesis and yields of AGB stars at different metallicities (III): intermediate mass models, revised low mass models and the ph-FRUITY interface

    CERN Document Server

    Cristallo, S; Piersanti, L; Gobrecht, D

    2015-01-01

    We present a new set of models for intermediate mass AGB stars (4.0, 5.0 and, 6.0 Msun) at different metallicities (-2.15<=Fe/H]<=+0.15). This integrates the existing set of models for low mass AGB stars (1.3<=M/M<=3.0) already included in the FRUITY database. We describe the physical and chemical evolution of the computed models from the Main Sequence up to the end of the AGB phase. Due to less efficient third dredge up episodes, models with large core masses show modest surface enhancements. The latter is due to the fact that the interpulse phases are short and, then, Thermal Pulses are weak. Moreover, the high temperature at the base of the convective envelope prevents it to deeply penetrate the radiative underlying layers. Depending on the initial stellar mass, the heavy elements nucleosynthesis is dominated by different neutron sources. In particular, the s-process distributions of the more massive models are dominated by the \

  7. The Effects of Aroma Acupuncture applied on Chronic Headache Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In Tae JUNG; Su Yong KIM; Doo Ik LEE; Keon Sik KIM; Jae Dong LEE; Yun Ho LEE; Do Young CHOI

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background: Because the cause and etiology of chronic headache is not yet fully explained, the treatment of this symptom is not simple. This study compares the effects of aroma acupuncture and normal acupuncture applied on chronic headache patients, in order to establish a primary data for further studies of new treatments and developments of new practical acupuncture. Methods: 38 clinical experiment participants were gathered and through a questionnaire patients who experienced headache for more than 4 hours a day and more than 15 days per month were qualified as chronic headache patients. The qualified patients were classified into two groups, aroma acupuncture group (Aroma AT group, n=23) and normal acupuncture group (AT group, n=15).

  8. Aroma compound sorption by oak wood in a model wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Ramirez, G; Lubbers, S; Charpentier, C; Feuillat, M; Voilley, A; Chassagne, D

    2001-08-01

    Oak wood used for wine barrels was immersed into a model wine containing eight aroma compounds (e.g., aromatic and terpene alcohols, ethyl esters, and aldehyde), for which activity coefficients in water and model wine were determined using the mutual solubility measurement. A mass balance of these volatiles considering their reactivity in model wine was established. For most of the studied aroma compounds, and mainly for linalool and ethyl octanoate, a sorption behavior into wood was reported for the first time. This phenomenon was selective and could not be related to the solubilities in model wine and hydrophobicities of the studied aroma compounds, suggesting that acid-base and polar characteristics of wood were more involved in this sorption mechanism. This study has also shown that the level of sorption is a function of the ratio of wood surface area/solution volume.

  9. AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

  10. Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno-Arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Maria Ángeles

    2014-07-01

    New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on in vivo aroma release. Two aroma-trapping materials (Lichrolut and Tenax) were firstly assayed. Tenax provided higher recovery and lower intra- and inter-trap variability. In in vivo conditions, RATD provided an adequate linear range (R (2) > 0.91) between 0 and 50 mg L(-1) of aroma compounds. Differences in the total aroma release were observed in equally trained panelists. It was proven that the addition of sugar (up to 150 mg kg(-1)) did not have effect on aroma release, while ethanol (up to 40 mg L(-1)) enhanced the aroma release during drinking. The RATD is a useful tool to collect real in vivo data to extract reliable conclusions about the effect of beverage components on aroma release during consumption. The concentration of ethanol should be taken into consideration for the formulation of wine-derived beverages.

  11. Transport of hop aroma compounds across Caco-2 monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, A; Metzger, M; Walles, H; Buettner, A

    2014-11-01

    Although being reported and used as a sedative remedy for several years, the bioactive principle of hop preparations is still not decisively clarified. Understanding absorption and transformation processes of potential physiologically active constituents is essential to evaluate the likeliness of biological effects on humans. Therefore, single hop aroma compounds as well as digestive transformation products thereof have been investigated in view of their human intestinal absorption, applying Caco-2 transport experiments as well as investigations on potential biotransformation processes. Selective and sensitive identification and quantification were thereby achieved by application of two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in conjunction with stable isotope dilution analysis, leading to the determination of apparent permeability values by different mathematical approaches considering sink and non-sink conditions. Overall, calculated permeability values ranged from 2.6 × 10(-6) to 1.8 × 10(-4) cm s(-1) with all mathematical approaches, indicating high absorption potential and almost complete bioavailability for all tested compounds with hydroxyl-functionalities. Considering this high permeability together with the high lipophilicity of these substances, a passive transcellular uptake route can be speculated. Investigated sesquiterpenes and β-myrcene showed flat absorption profiles while the investigated esters showed decreasing profiles. In view of the lipophilic and volatile nature of the investigated substances, special attention was paid to recovery and mass balance determination. Furthermore, in the course of the transport experiments of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, additional biotransformation products were observed, namely 3-octanone and 3-methyl-2-butenal, respectively. The absence of these additional substances in control experiments strongly indicates an intestinal first-pass metabolism of the

  12. A protocol of measurement of In Vivo Aroma release from beverages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    The quality of in vivo aroma release measurements of beverages can be improved when a strict protocol is used to control variation in aroma release due to human factors. A trained panel was able to significantly discriminate between aqueous aroma solutions with a concentration difference as low as 1

  13. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes.

  14. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  15. Kahvenin Aroma Bileşikleri ve Kahve Aromasını Etkileyen Faktörler

    OpenAIRE

    Çağlarırmak, Necla; Ünal, Kemal

    1993-01-01

    Bu derlemede, uçucu bileşikler yönünden çok zengin kompozisyona sahip olan kahvenin aroma bileşikleri incelenmiştir. Kahvenin aroma bileşiklerini; kahvenin türü, orijini, kavurma işlemi ve kavurma işlemi ile ilgili parametreler (kavurma sıcaklığı, kavurma süresi, kavurmanın yapıldığı ekipmanın türü, kahvenin çözünürlüğü, depolanması) gibi faktörlerin etkilediği belirtilmektedir. Kahvenin son aromasını daha ziyade kavurma işleminin etkilediği, ısıl işleme bağlı olarak yeni bazı bileşenlerin o...

  16. Aroma quality assessment of Korean fermented red pepper paste (gochujang) by aroma extract dilution analysis and headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Mo; Baek, Hyung-Hee

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this study was to assess aroma quality of gochujang using purge and trap, simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE), and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Nineteen and 28 aroma-active compounds were detected by aroma extract dilution analysis of purge and trap and SDE, respectively. Diallyl disulfide and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine played a significant role in the aroma quality of gochujang. Twelve aroma-active compounds were detected by HS-SPME-GC-O based on sample dilution analysis. Methional, diallyl disulfide, and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine were the most intense aroma-active compounds. 3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine was identified for the first time in gochujang.

  17. Metabolomics in melon: A new opportunity for aroma analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allwood, J.W.; Cheung, W.W.L.; Xu, Y.; Mumm, R.; Vos, de C.H.; Deborde, C.; Biais, B.; Maucourt, M.; Berger, Y.; Schaffer, A.; Rolin, D.; Moing, A.; Hall, R.D.; Goodacre, R.

    2014-01-01

    Cucumis melo fruit is highly valued for its sweet and refreshing flesh, however the flavour and value are also highly influenced by aroma as dictated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A simple and robust method of sampling VOCs on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been developed. Contrasting culti

  18. Al-Azahar aromas de leyendas como objeto de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La base de toda la tesis es el estudio de la combinaci??n de aroma y m??sica como experiencia sin??rgica en la immersi??n perceptiva para impulsar el desarrollo en el campo cient??fico-cultural-compositivo, creando as??, un di??logo entre ciencia, tecnol??gia, innovaci??n, sociedad, cultura y m??sica.

  19. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucro

  20. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value.

  1. Influence of volatile thiols in the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigou, Peggy; Triay, Aurélie; Razungles, Alain

    2014-01-01

    A strong blackcurrant aroma was recently perceived in some red wines originating from the same appellation. Varietal thiols such as 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4MMP), 3-(mercapto)hexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercapto-1-hexanol (3MH) are compounds potentially responsible for the development of this aroma. In order to demonstrate the correlation between thiols concentrations in red wines and blackcurrant aroma intensity, a multiple variable analysis was realised with thiols concentrations obtained by chemical analysis and blackcurrant aroma intensities obtained by descriptive sensory analysis. The 4MMP concentration was very well correlated to the blackcurrant aroma, and 3MHA and 3MH present at high concentrations act as enhancers of the perception of this aroma. This correlation was further supported after performing a sensory comparison by classification test. The different factors that could impact on the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine were discussed.

  2. Non-Conventional Yeast Strains Increase the Aroma Complexity of Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Steensels, Jan; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used yeast in food fermentations because it combines several key traits, including fermentation efficiency and production of desirable flavors. However, the dominance of S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations limits the diversity in the aroma profiles of the end products. Hence, there is a growing interest in non-conventional yeast strains that can help generate the diversity and complexity desired in today's diversified and consumer-driven markets. Here, we selected a set of non-conventional yeast strains to examine their potential for bread fermentation. Here, we tested ten non-conventional yeasts for bread fermentation, including two Saccharomyces species that are not currently used in bread making and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains. The results show that Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces bayanus combine satisfactory dough fermentation with an interesting flavor profile. Sensory analysis and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis confirmed that these strains produce aroma profiles that are very different from that produced by a commercial bakery strain. Moreover, bread produced with these yeasts was preferred by a majority of a trained sensory panel. These results demonstrate the potential of T. delbrueckii and S. bayanus as alternative yeasts for bread dough leavening, and provide a general experimental framework for the evaluation of more yeasts and bacteria.

  3. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an american bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Thirty-one of the 45 odor-active compounds previously identified by us in an American Bourbon whisky were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. Also for this purpose, new synthetic pathways were developed for the synthesis of the deuterium-labeled whisky lactone as well as for gamma-nona- and gamma-decalactone. To obtain the odor activity values (OAVs), the concentrations measured were divided by the odor thresholds of the odorants determined in water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.). Twenty-six aroma compounds showed OAVs >1, among which ethanol, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (E)-beta-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methylpropanal, (3S,4S)- cis-whiskylactone, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate showed the highest values. The overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of the 26 key odorants in their actual concentrations in whisky using water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.) as the matrix. Omission experiments corroborated the importance of, in particular, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, ethanol, and the entire group of esters for the overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky.

  4. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36 which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.. The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV. The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  5. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  6. Effect of reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri coupled with glycerol on the volatile fraction, odour and aroma of semi-hard ewe milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Ávila, Marta; Delgado, David; Garde, Sonia

    2016-09-02

    The effect of the biopreservation system formed by Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P572, a reuterin-producing strain, and glycerol (required for reuterin production), on the volatile fraction, aroma and odour of industrial sized semi-hard ewe milk cheese (Castellano type) was investigated over a 3-month ripening period. The volatile compounds were extracted and analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and cheese odour and aroma profiles were studied by descriptive sensory analysis. Control cheese was made only with a mesophilic starter and experimental cheeses with L. reuteri were made with and without glycerol. The addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 to milk enhanced the formation of six volatile compounds. Despite the changes in the volatile compounds profile, the use of L. reuteri INIA P572 did not noticeably affect the sensory characteristics of cheese. On the other hand, the addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 coupled with 30mM glycerol enhanced the formation of twelve volatile compounds, but decreased the formation of five ones. The use of the biopreservation system did not affect overall odour and aroma quality of cheese although it resulted in a significant decrease of the odour intensity scores. In addition, this cheese received significant higher scores for "cheesy" aroma and significant lower scores for the aroma attributes "milky", "caramel" and "yogurt-like". The first two axes of a principal component analysis (PCA) performed for selected volatile compounds and sensory characteristics, accounting for 75% of the variability between cheeses, separated cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 and glycerol from the rest of cheeses, and also differentiated control cheese from cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 from day 60 onward. Our results showed that the reuterin-producing L. reuteri INIA P572 strain, when coupled with glycerol, may be a suitable biopreservation system to use in cheese without affecting odour and aroma quality.

  7. Oolong tea made from tea plants from different locations in Yunnan and Fujian, China showed similar aroma but different taste characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lv, Shidong; Wu, Yuanshuang; Gao, Xuemei; Li, Jiangbing; Zhang, Wenrui; Meng, Qingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consistent aroma characteristics are important for tea products. However, understanding the formation of tea aroma flavor and correspondingly proposing applicable protocols to control tea quality and consistency remain major challenges. Oolong tea is one of the most popular teas with a distinct flavor. Generally, oolong tea is processed with the leaves of tea trees belonging to different subspecies and grown in significantly different regions. In this study, Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas, green tea, black tea, and Pu-erh tea were collected from major tea estates across China. Their sensory evaluation, main water-soluble and volatile compounds were identified and measured. The sensory evaluation, total polysaccharide, caffeine, and catechin content of Yunnan oolong tea was found to be different from that of Fujian oolong tea, a result suggesting that the kinds of tea leaves used in Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas were naturally different. However, according to their aroma compounds, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) of the volatile compounds showed that the two types of oolong teas were similar and cannot be clearly distinguished from each other; they are also different from green, black, and Pu-erh teas, a result indicating that the same oolong tea processing technology applied to different tea leaves results in consistent aroma characteristics. The PCA analysis results also indicated that benzylalcohol, indole, safranal, linalool oxides, β-ionone, and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester highly contributed to the distinct aroma of oolong tea compared with the other three types of teas. This study proved that the use of the same processing technology on two kinds of tea leaves resulted in a highly consistent tea aroma.

  8. Enhancing safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables using the antimicrobial and aromatic power of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; del-Toro-Sánchez, L

    2009-09-01

    Microbial and aroma attributes are within the most decisive factors limiting safety and sensory appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Alternatively, several plant essential oils (EOs) are constituted of several volatile active compounds and most of them present antimicrobial potential and had different aroma profile. Considering these premises, this hypothesis article states that safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut produce could be improved with EO treatment. EOs could prevent fresh-cut fruit decay; however, their volatile constituents could be sorbed by the produce, and according to the aroma notes of the antimicrobial oil, sensorial appealing of odor, and flavor of the treated produce might be affected positively or negatively. Specifically, garlic oil is a natural antimicrobial constituted by sulfur compounds, which are responsible for its odor and antimicrobial properties. Besides, fresh-cut tomato is a highly perishable product that needs antimicrobial agents to preserve its quality and safety for a longer period of time. From the sensorial point of view, aroma combination of garlic and tomato is a common seasoning practice in Europe and America and well accepted by consumers. Once the right combination of flavors between the EOs and the fresh-cut produce has been selected, safety and quality of the treated fruit could be improved by adding antimicrobial protection and extra aroma. Therefore, other combinations between EOs and fresh-cut produce are discussed. This approximation could reinforce the trends of natural food preservation, accomplishing the demands of the increasing sector of consumers demanding tasty and convenient fresh-cut produce, containing only natural ingredients.

  9. Improving the performance of an electronic nose by wine aroma training to distinguish between drip coffee and canned coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-12

    Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit "Le Nez du Vin," and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.

  10. Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell. This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.

  11. Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables ( p aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance ( p aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types ( p aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types ( p aroma types at national scale.

  12. Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.A.

    1997-01-17

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

  13. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Turkish olive oils from different geographic origins by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesen, Songul; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2014-01-15

    The aroma and aroma-active compounds of olive oils obtained from Nizip Yaglik (NY) and Kilis Yaglik (KY) cultivars and the effect of the geographical area (southern Anatolian and Aegean regions) on these compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). For this purpose, two oil samples were obtained from their native geographical area including NY from Nizip province and KY from Kilis province (southern Anatolian region of Turkey). Another two oils of the same cultivar, NY-Bornova (NY-B) and KY-Bornova (KY-B), were obtained from the Olive Oil Research Center-Bornova, Izmir province (Aegean region of Turkey) to compare geographical effect on aroma and aroma-active compounds. Simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) with dichloromethane was used for extraction of volatile components. SDE gave a highly representative aromatic extract of the studied olive oil based on the sensory analysis. Totals of 61, 48, 59, and 48 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in olive oils obtained from NY, NY-B, KY, and KY-B cultivars, respectively. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profile of native region oils was discriminately different from those of Bornova region oils. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil samples. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of olive oils. The number of aroma-active compounds in native region oils was higher than in Bornova region oils. Within the compounds, aldehydes and alcohols were the largest aroma-active compounds in all olive oils.

  14. De la production fruitière intégrée à la gestion écologique des vergers aux Antilles

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne, Claire; Lesueur-Jannoyer, M.; Lacroix, S.; Chauvet, G.; Lavigne, A.; Dufeal, D.

    2011-01-01

    La forte anthropisation aux Antilles françaises, la pression des monocultures de banane et de canne à sucre, et l’usage immodéré de pesticides, ont abouti à la pollution persistante d’une partie importante des sols de la SAU ainsi que des eaux de rivière et des nappes phréatiques. Si, dans les dix dernières années, la recherche de moyens de lutte biologique contre les insectes a été prioritaire, la lutte contre les adventices continue d’être un problème central pour les arboriculteurs qui ne ...

  15. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas chromatogra...... amounts of free fatty acids, it seemed to be of no importance to aroma development. It is therefore questionable whether lipolytic activity of starter cultures has an influence on sausage flavour....

  16. Aroma Constituents in Shanxi Aged Vinegar before and after Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Xie, Jianchun; Hou, Li; Zhao, Mengyao; Zhao, Jian; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Shi; Sun, Bao-Guo

    2016-10-12

    Shanxi aged vinegar is one of the most famous Chinese traditional cereal vinegars produced by spontaneous solid-state fermentation. However, the aroma composition of Shanxi aged vinegar is still ambiguous. The Shanxi vinegars before and after aging were both analyzed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) in aroma extract dilution analysis. A total of 87 odor-active regions were found by GC-O, and 80 odor-active compounds were identified. By GC-MS/MS, in selected reaction monitoring mode, 30 important identifications were quantitated using authentic standards. In comparison, the aroma molecules for the vinegars before and after aging were almost the same; only their levels were altered, with mostly the esters and some compounds that produce pungent smells being lost and the levels of those from the Maillard reaction, especially the pyrazines (e.g., tetramethylpyrazine), being greatly increased. As for the aged vinegar, the compounds found to have high flavor dilution factors (>128) were 3-(methylthio)propanal, vanillin, 2,3-butanedione, tetramethylpyrazine, 3-methylbutanoic acid, γ-nonalactone, guaiacol, 3-(methylthio)propyl acetate, dimethyl trisulfide, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, furfural, and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. However, the aroma compounds found at high concentrations (>25 μg/L) in the aged vinegar were acetic acid, followed by 2,3-butanedione, furfural, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, tetramethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, and 3-methylbutanoic acid.

  17. Aroma and taste perceptions with Alzheimer disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliani, Michel; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Girgih, Abraham T; Pownall, Trisha L; Bugera, Jacqeline L; Eskin, Michael N A

    2013-01-01

    Chemosensory disorders of smell or taste in humans have been attributed to various physiological and environmental factors including aging and disease conditions. Aroma and taste greatly condition our food preference, selection and, consumption; the decreased appetite in patients with known neurodegenerative diseases may lead to dietary restrictions that could negatively impact nutritional and health status. The decline in olfactory and gustatory systems in patients with Alzheimer disease and various types of stroke are described.

  18. Phytosterols in onion contribute to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Egusa, Ai Saiga; Nagao, Akira; Odahara, Tsutomu; Sugise, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Noriko; Nosho, Yasuharu

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine the substance in a precipitate of heat-treated onion concentrate (HOC) that contributes to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute induced by the sensing of richness and persistence in terms of taste, aroma and texture. Adding precipitate, separated from HOC, to consommé enhanced the lingering sensation of aroma in the consommé more than adding the supernatant from HOC. After the precipitate was washed with hot water and ethanol its enhancing effect disappeared. Analysis of the HOC precipitate showed that it contained phytosterols, such as beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Tests of binding to aroma compounds showed that both sterols, as well as the washed precipitate, were able to bind methyl propyl disulfide and N-hexanal. Thus phytosterols in the HOC precipitate seemed to bind and hold the aroma compounds and gradually release them, inducing a lingering sensation of aroma under the koku concept during consumption.

  19. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  20. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  2. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, C. M.; Cangiano, M. A.; Alcaráz, L. E.; Sosa, A.; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; Sabini, L.; Laciar, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

  3. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshick, Stacy-Ann; Griest, Wayne H.; Vass, Arpad A.

    1997-02-01

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic 'fingerprint' pattern representative of the vapor-phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The result to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  4. Aroma-active ester profile of ale beer produced under different fermentation and nutritional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiralal, Lettisha; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2014-01-01

    A broad range of aroma-active esters produced during fermentation are vital for the complex flavour of beer. This study assessed the influence of fermentation temperature, pH, and wort nutritional supplements on the production of yeast-derived ester compounds and the overall fermentation performance. The best fermentation performance was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.75 g/l l-leucine resulting in highest reducing sugar and FAN (free amino nitrogen) utilization and ethanol production. At optimum fermentation pH of 5, 38.27% reducing sugars and 35.28% FAN was utilized resulting in 4.07% (v/v) ethanol. Wort supplemented with zinc sulphate (0.12 g/l) resulted in 5.01% ethanol (v/v) production and 54.32% reducing sugar utilization. Increase in fermentation temperature from 18°C to room temperature (± 22.5°C) resulted in 17.03% increased ethanol production and 14.42% and 62.82% increase in total acetate ester concentration and total ethyl ester concentration, respectively. Supplementation of worth with 0.12 g/l ZnSO4 resulted in 2.46-fold increase in both isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate concentration, while a 7.05-fold and 1.96-fold increase in the concentration of isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate, respectively was obtained upon 0.75 g/l l-leucine supplementation. Wort supplemented with l-leucine (0.75 g/l) yielded the highest beer foam head stability with a rating of 2.67, while highest yeast viability was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.12 g/l zinc sulphate. Results from this study suggest that supplementing wort with essential nutrients required for yeast growth and optimizing the fermentation conditions could be an effective way of improving fermentation performance and controlling aroma-active esters in beer.

  5. Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Warming, C.

    2004-01-01

    l/h at 30 degreesC gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound as C-permeate/C-feed: from similar to4 to 15. The concentration factors increased with decreased juice temperature during VMD; at 10 degreesC concentration factors of 21-31 were obtained for the highly volatile aroma....... VMD thus turned out to be a promising technique for gentle stripping of black currant juice aroma compounds....

  6. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  7. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans......-independent molecular techniques, the growth and survival of the two yeast inoculation cultures was verified at strain level, whilst the bacterial inoculum was identified at species level. Aroma profiling was conducted using dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and relative...... of fermentation technique therefore seemed to have a greater influence on the quantitative composition of volatile aroma compounds than the use of starter cultures. Sensory profiling described the conventional heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated...

  8. The Changes in Color, Soluble Sugars, Organic Acids, Anthocyanins and Aroma Components in “Starkrimson” during the Ripening Period in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available “Starkrimson” is a traditional apple cultivar that was developed a long time ago and was widely cultivated in the arid region of the northern Wei River of China. However, little information regarding the quality characteristics of “Starkrimson” fruit has been reported in this area. To elucidate these characteristics, the color, soluble sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and aroma components were measured during the ripening period through the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results indicated that the changes in anthocyanin contents took place later than the changes in the Commission International Eclairage (CIE parameters. Meanwhile, cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal, fructose, sucrose, glucose and malic acid were the primary organic compounds, and 1-butanol-2-methyl-acetate, 2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were the most abundant aroma components in the skin. Furthermore, rapidly changing soluble sugars and organic acid synchronization took place in the early ripening period, while rapidly changing aroma components occurred later, on the basis of fresh weight. This result suggested that the production of aroma components might be a useful index of apple maturity.

  9. Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

    2007-02-21

    The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage.

  10. Expression of genes associated with aroma formation derived from the fatty acid pathway during peach fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Shen, Ji-Yuan; Wei, Wen-Wen; Xi, Wan-Peng; Xu, Chang-Jie; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

    2010-05-26

    Changes in characteristic aroma volatiles, levels of fatty acids as aroma precursors, and expression patterns of related genes, including lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), and fatty acid desaturase (FAD), were studied in peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch., cv. Yulu) fruit during postharvest ripening at 20 degrees C. Concentrations of n-hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenol decreased, whereas the production of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, gamma-hexalactone, gamma-octalactone, gamma-decalactone, and delta-decalactone increased with fruit ripening. Lactones showed a clear pattern concomitant with the climacteric rise in ethylene production, with gamma-decalactone being the principal volatile compound at the late ripening stage. Of the LOX family genes, PpLOX2 and PpLOX3 had relatively high transcript levels initially followed by a decline with fruit ripening, while levels of PpLOX1 and PpLOX4 transcripts were upregulated by accumulated ethylene production. Expression of PpHPL1, PpADH1, PpADH2, and PpADH3 showed similar decreasing patterns during ripening. Expression levels of PpAAT1 showed a rapid increase during the first 2 days of postharvest ripening followed by a gradual decrease. Contents of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acids increased, and saturated palmitic acid levels tended to decline as the fruit ripened. The increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids closely paralleled increasing expression of PpFAD1 and PpFAD2. The significance of gene expression changes in relation to aroma volatile production is discussed.

  11. A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter......H, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage....... for multivariate data analysis. Growth of lactic acid bacteria was comparable for model and sausages, whereas survival of S. xylosus was better in the model. Multivariate analysis of volatiles showed that differences between fast and slowly acidified samples were identical for model and sausage. For both sausage...

  12. Gas chromatography/olfactometry and electronic nose analyses of retronasal aroma of espresso and correlation with sensory evaluation by an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Tomomi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hirano, Yuta; Ikeda, Michio; Sagara, Yasuyuki; Araki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for evaluating and designing the retronasal aroma of espresso, sensory evaluation data was correlated with data obtained from gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O, CharmAnalysis™) and from an electronic nose system αFOX4000 (E-nose). The volatile compounds of various kinds of espresso (arabica coffee beans from 6 production countries: Brazil, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Colombia, Indonesia, and Tanzania; 3 roasting degrees for each country: L values, 18, 23, and 26) were collected with a retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) and examined by GC/O and E-nose. In addition, sensory descriptive analysis using a 7-point scale for RAS effluent gas was performed by 5 trained flavorists using sensory descriptors selected based on the frequency in use and coefficient of correlation. The charm values of 10 odor descriptions obtained from GC/O analysis exhibited the significant (P sensor resistances and factor analysis on the sensory evaluation scores showed that the differences of aroma characteristics among the roasting degrees were larger than those among the origins. Based on an artificial neural network (ANN) model applied to the data from GC/O analyses and sensory evaluations, the perceptual factor of the RAS aroma was predicted to be mainly affected by sweet-caramel, smoke-roast, and acidic odors. Also, 3 metal oxide semiconductor sensors (LY2/Gh, P30/1, and T40/1) of E-nose were selected for analyses of RAS aroma and correlated with the sensory descriptive scores by the ANN to support sensory evaluation.

  13. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citris aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Zijlstra, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi

  14. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

  15. Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

  16. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Hua; Wu, Tao; Sadiq, Faizan A; Yang, Huan-Yi; Liu, Tong-Jie; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-Qing

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies.

  17. Understanding aroma release from model cheeses by a statistical multiblock approach on oral processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant.

  18. Acute Effects of Complexity in Aroma Composition on Satiation and Food Intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.M.A.J.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to placebo, subjects felt significantly more satiated during aroma stimulation with the multicomponent strawberry aroma in the olfactometer-aided setting. Additionally, perceived satiation was significantly increased 10-15 min after consumption of the multicomponent strawberry-aromatized sw

  19. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-hua; Wu, Tao; Sadiq, Faizan A.; Yang, Huan-yi; Liu, Tong-jie; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies. PMID:27704748

  20. Aroma of some plants cultivated in Lithuania : Composition, processing and release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bylaite, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, some factors affecting the aroma of some plants of the families Umbelliferae and Asteraceae were evaluated. The composition of the aromas is influenced by several factors: plant family, harvesting time, anatomical part of plant, method used to isolate volatiles, cultivar, fertilisers

  1. Verification of key odorants in rose oil by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis, odour activity value and aroma recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Li, Jing; Niu, Yunwei; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Junhua

    2017-03-28

    Rose oil is much too expensive but very popular. It's well known that the flower oil's aroma profile hasn't been intensively investigated. In order to verify the aroma profile of rose oil, the synthetic blend of odorants was prepared and then compared with the original rose oil using electronic nose analysis (ENA) combined with quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The odorants from rose oils were screened out by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis (GC-O/AEDA) combined with odour activity value (OAV). Both ENA and QDA indicated the recombination model derived from OAV and GC-O/AEDA closely resembled the original rose oil. The experiment results show that rose oxide, linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene, nonanal, heptanal citronellal, phenyl ethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, β-citronellol, hexyl acetate, β-ionone, nerol, etc. are very important constituent to rose oil aroma profile.

  2. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  3. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Jürgen; Janek, Katharina; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class(7S) globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma notes during the roasting process. To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma components, we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. The cocoa-specific aroma precursor fractions were characterised by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and the determination of their amino acid sequences by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).

  4. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

  5. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Chinese Vidal Icewine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tang, Ke; Xu, Yan; Li, Ji-Ming

    2017-01-18

    The key aroma compounds of Chinese Vidal icewine were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on polar and nonpolar columns, and their flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 59 odor-active aroma compounds in three ranks of Vidal icewines were identified, and 28 odorants (FD ≥ 9) were further quantitated for aroma reconstitution and omission tests. β-Damascenone showed the highest FD value of 2187 in all icewines. Methional and furaneol were first observed as important odorants in Vidal icewine. Aroma recombination experiments revealed a good similarity containing the 28 important aromas. Omission tests corroborated the significant contribution of β-damascenone and the entire group of esters. Besides, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanal (methional) also had significant effects on icewine character, especially on apricot, caramel, and tropical fruit characteristics.

  6. Comparison of the sensitivity of different aroma extraction techniques in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect minor aroma compounds in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero, Amparo; Wesselink, Wilma; de Jong, Catrienus

    2013-01-11

    MicroVinification platforms are used for screening purposes to study aroma development in wine. These high-throughput methodologies require flavor analysis techniques that allow fast detection of a high number of aroma compounds which often appear in very low concentrations (μg/l). In this work, a selection of aroma extraction techniques in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were evaluated to detect minor wine aroma compounds in low sample volume. The techniques evaluated were headspace (HS), headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction (HS-SPDE), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and monolithic material sorptive extraction (MMSE). DI-SPME showed the highest sensitivity as expressed by detection of the highest percentage of total aroma compounds at concentrations around 0.1 μg/l. SBSE and MMSE followed DI-SPME in terms of sensitivity. HS-SPME was less sensitive but considered sensitive enough for detection of most of the volatile compounds present in highly aromatic wines. Matrix effect was shown to strongly affect aroma extraction and therefore the sensitivity of the different extraction methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A question of scent: lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSellaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more inclusive or exclusive cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint are supposed to induce a more exclusive, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender a more inclusive state. Participants performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee, while being exposed to either peppermint or lavender aroma. All participants played the role of trustor. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the alleged trustee in the lavender as compared to the peppermint and no aroma conditions. This observation might have various serious implications for a broad range of situations in which interpersonal trust is an essential element, such as cooperation (e.g., mixed-motives situations, bargaining and negotiation, consumer behavior, and group performance.

  8. Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagül-Yüceer, Y; Drake, M A; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-06-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM.

  9. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Bin Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg−1 and 380.66 µg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  10. True cooking aroma or artefact. {sup 15}N gives the answer; Veritable arome de cuisson ou artefact. {sup 15}N fournit la reponse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metro, F.; Boudaud, N.; Dumont, J.P. [INRA, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1994-12-31

    In order to determine the respective contributions of the various nitrous precursor families in aroma preparations, the usually added amino acids were substituted with {sup 15}N isotope labelled homologous components. Results concerning isotope ratios for the volatile fraction nitrous components collected from poultry meat aromatic preparations, are presented. Terminal product labelling appears to allow for a better determination of the substrate and functional additive contributions. 4 figs., 6 refs.

  11. Effect of cultivation line and peeling on food composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Fukunaga, Hibiki; Yamano, Yoshimasa; Hou, De-Xing; Maeda, Goki; Wada, Koji

    2014-09-01

    Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice from four main cultivation lines subjected to two peeling practices (with or without peeling) were discriminated in terms of quality attributes, represented by sugar and organic acid composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity. Shiikuwasha juice from these lines had diverse food compositions; 'Izumi kugani' juice had lower acidity but contained more ascorbic acid than that of other cultivation lines. The composition of volatile aroma components was influenced by fruit cultivation line, whereas its content was affected by peeling process (20.26-53.73 mg L(-1) in whole juice versus 0.82-1.58 mg L(-1) in flesh juice). Peeling also caused Shiikuwasha juice to be less astringent and acidic bitter and to lose its antioxidant activity. Moreover, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of Shiikuwasha juice positively influenced its antioxidant activity. Each fruit cultivation line had a distinct food composition, taste characteristic, and aroma profile. Peeling in Shiikuwasha juice production might reduce aftertaste, and thus might improve its palatability. Comprehensive information on the effect of cultivation line and peeling on quality attributes will be useful for Shiikuwasha juice production, and can be applied to juice production of similar small citrus fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Influence of Different Maceration Treatments on the Aroma Profile of Rosé and Red Wines from Croatian Aromatic cv. Muškat ruža porečki (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lukić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different grape mash maceration treatments on the varietal and secondary aroma profiles of wines produced from an aromatic red grape variety, Muškat ruža porečki, have been investigated. Two essentially different techniques were applied, fermentative maceration at room temperature and prefermentative cryomaceration, both in durations of one, three and five days. Generally, higher concentrations of free and bound varietal aroma compounds were found in wines obtained by maceration at room temperature in relation to cryomaceration. Regarding the effect of the duration of maceration, the highest concentrations were determined in wines obtained by three-day maceration treatments, in both fermentative and cryomaceration treatments. Secondary aroma compounds followed a less uniform pattern. The compounds with the highest odour unit values in all investigated wines were linalool, citronellol, geraniol, β-damascenone, β-ionone, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and diethyl succinate. It has been shown that Muškat ruža porečki is an aromatic variety, producing wines with notable monoterpenol fraction, which are characterized by a typical varietal Muscat aroma with a dominant rose odour accompanied by red fruit nuances. Sensorially, longer maceration treatments improved odour and overall wine quality, together with the intensity and recognisability of varietal Muscat aroma, while short-term cryomaceration emerged as a preferable technique for the production of light rosé wines with pronounced Muscat aroma and low phenolic content. The presented maceration techniques were shown to be applicable for the production of different types of Muškat ruža porečki rosé and red wines.

  13. Identification and quantification of aroma-active components that contribute to the distinct malty flavor of buckwheat honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiaoxuan; Wintersteen, Carol L; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2002-03-27

    Characteristic aroma components of buckwheat honey were studied by combined sensory and instrumental techniques. Relative aroma intensity of individual volatile components was evaluated by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of solvent extracts and by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) of decreasing headspace samples (GCO-H). Results indicated that 3-methylbutanal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), and (E)-beta-damascenone were the most potent odorants in buckwheat honey, with 3-methylbutanal being primarily responsible for the distinct malty aroma. Other important aroma-active compounds included methylpropanal, 2,3-butanedione, phenylacetaldehyde, 3-methylbutyric acid, maltol, vanillin, methional, coumarin, and p-cresol.

  14. 添加不饱和脂肪酸对酿酒酵母胞内脂肪酸成分和葡萄酒香气的影响%Influence of Addition of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Fatty Acid Composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wine Aroma Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段亮亮; 潘秋红; 王亚钦; 叶冬青; 段长青; 燕国梁

    2016-01-01

    UFAs addition (CK), low concentration of UFAs addition (LFG) and high concentration of UFAs addition (HFG). The growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118) growth (OD600), intercellular fatty acid composition and wine volatile aroma compounds among the three treatments during alcoholic fermentation were compared.[Result]The increase of UFAs can accelerate yeast growth and promote UFAs absorption by yeast, while suppress yeast saturated fatty acids (C4:0-C24:0) synthesis. The influence of UFAs on wine aroma showed that the increase of UFAs can stimulate the production of higher alcohols and ethyl esters by yeast, such as ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate, but inhibit the generation of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, C4:0-C12:0). The influence on grape-derived aldehydes, monoterpenes and norisoprenoids volatiles were little. [Conclusion] Increasing UFAs in grapes can considerably improve yeast growth and the wine fermentation rate, more importantly, it can promote yeast-derived ethyl esters volatiles production, which intensifies the fruity, flowery and sweet odors of wine. Therefore, manipulation of initial UFA contents in grapes or grape juice is a potential way to regulate wine aroma quality.

  15. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-07-02

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0 CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes as reported in literature. Comparably good predictions were obtained as for the simulations performed using lag time data for individual cells of L. monocytogenes. Therefore, when lag time data for individual cells are not available, it was suggested that relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes can be used as a qualified default assumption when simulating growth of low concentrations of L. monocytogenes.

  16. Research Progress of the Aroma of Black Tea%红茶香气研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 吕才有

    2016-01-01

    红茶是我国生产和出口的主要茶类之一,其色泽红艳、滋味醇厚、兼容性好,是目前世界上消费量最大的一种茶类。我国红茶有小种红茶、功夫红茶、红碎茶等。在影响红茶品质的诸多因素中,香气是决定茶叶品质的关键因素之一,故将以红茶香气为出发点,从茶树品种、自然环境、加工工艺等方面进行探讨,为不断提高和改进红茶总体品质提供理论依据。%Black tea is one of the main tea production and export of China.Black tea is bright red in color, mellow in taste and has good com-patibility.At present, it has the greatest consumption in the world.Chinese black tea is divided into small kind of lapsangsouchong tea, kung-fu tea, broken black tea and so on.In a number of factors that influences the quality of black tea, aroma is one of the key factors determine the tea quality.Therefore, in this research, the aroma of black tea was taken as a starting point.We discussed the black tea aroma from the tea plant varieties, natural environment, processing technology and so on, so as to constantly improve the overall quality of black tea.

  17. From wine to pepper: rotundone, an obscure sesquiterpene, is a potent spicy aroma compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claudia; Siebert, Tracey E; Parker, Mango; Capone, Dimitra L; Elsey, Gordon M; Pollnitz, Alan P; Eggers, Marcus; Meier, Manfred; Vössing, Tobias; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard; Sefton, Mark A; Herderich, Markus J

    2008-05-28

    An obscure sesquiterpene, rotundone, has been identified as a hitherto unrecognized important aroma impact compound with a strong spicy, peppercorn aroma. Excellent correlations were observed between the concentration of rotundone and the mean 'black pepper' aroma intensity rated by sensory panels for both grape and wine samples, indicating that rotundone is a major contributor to peppery characters in Shiraz grapes and wine (and to a lesser extent in wine of other varieties). Approximately 80% of a sensory panel were very sensitive to the aroma of rotundone (aroma detection threshold levels of 16 ng/L in red wine and 8 ng/L in water). Above these concentrations, these panelists described the spiked samples as more 'peppery' and 'spicy'. However, approximately 20% of panelists could not detect this compound at the highest concentration tested (4000 ng/L), even in water. Thus, the sensory experiences of two consumers enjoying the same glass of Shiraz wine might be very different. Rotundone was found in much higher amounts in other common herbs and spices, especially black and white peppercorns, where it was present at approximately 10000 times the level found in very 'peppery' wine. Rotundone is the first compound found in black or white peppercorns that has a distinctive peppery aroma. Rotundone has an odor activity value in pepper on the order of 50000-250000 and is, on this criterion, by far the most powerful aroma compound yet found in that most important spice.

  18. Aroma improvement by repeated freeze-thaw treatment during Tuber melanosporum fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Deng-Rong; Liu, Rui-Sang; He, Long; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy are the most important characteristics of the aroma of Tuber melanosporum. However, these three aroma attributes are absent in the T. melanosporum fermentation system. To improve the quality of the aroma, repeated freeze-thaw treatment (RFTT) was adopted to affect the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using RFTT, not only was the score on the hedonic scale of the aroma increased from the “liked slightly” to the “liked moderately” grade, but the aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy could also be smelled in the T. melanosporum fermentation system for the first time. A total of 29 VOCs were identified, and 9 compounds were identified as the key discriminative volatiles affected by RFTT. Amino acid analysis revealed that methionine, valine, serine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine were the key substrates associated with the biosynthesis of the 9 key discriminative VOCs. This study noted that amino acid metabolism played an important role in the regulation of the aroma of the T. melanosporum fermentation system. PMID:26607288

  19. Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xia Sun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le. The F1 grains and leaves were non-aromatic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370. The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

  20. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-08

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect.

  1. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation.

  2. Aroma improvement by repeated freeze-thaw treatment during Tuber melanosporum fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Deng-Rong; Liu, Rui-Sang; He, Long; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-11-26

    The aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy are the most important characteristics of the aroma of Tuber melanosporum. However, these three aroma attributes are absent in the T. melanosporum fermentation system. To improve the quality of the aroma, repeated freeze-thaw treatment (RFTT) was adopted to affect the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using RFTT, not only was the score on the hedonic scale of the aroma increased from the "liked slightly" to the "liked moderately" grade, but the aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy could also be smelled in the T. melanosporum fermentation system for the first time. A total of 29 VOCs were identified, and 9 compounds were identified as the key discriminative volatiles affected by RFTT. Amino acid analysis revealed that methionine, valine, serine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine were the key substrates associated with the biosynthesis of the 9 key discriminative VOCs. This study noted that amino acid metabolism played an important role in the regulation of the aroma of the T. melanosporum fermentation system.

  3. Aroma Classification Using One-vs-One and One-vs-Rest Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Kusumoputro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational Intelligence used in pattern classification problem can be divided into two different parts, one based on Neural Network and the other based on Statistical Learning. The Statistical Learning discovered by Vapnik on 70-est decade. For the pattern classification, Vapnik developed hyperplane optimal separation, which is known as Support Vector Machines Method (SVM. In the beginning, SVM was designed only to solve binary classification problem, where data existing are classified into two classes. To classify data whose consist of more than two classes, the SVM method can not directly be used. There are several methods can be used to solve SVM multiclasses classification problem, they are One-vs-One Method and One-vs-Rest Method. Both of this methods are the extension of SVM binary classification, they will be discussed in this article so that we can see their performance in aroma classification process. Data of aroma used in this experiment is consisted of three classes of aroma, each of them has six classes. The division of this class is based on alcohol concentration mixed into each of those aromas. For example, for aroma A, there are six kinds of aroma A with different alcohol concentration: 0%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 45% and 75%. The performance of these methods is measured based on their ability to recognize and classify aroma, precisely and match with the right class or variety of data existed.

  4. Evaluation of aroma enhancement for "Ecolly" dry white wines by mixed inoculation of selected Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Chen; Li, Ai-Hua; Dizy, Marta; Ullah, Niamat; Sun, Wei-Xuan; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    To improve the aroma profile of Ecolly dry white wine, the simultaneous and sequential inoculations of selected Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed in wine making of this work. The two yeasts were mixed in various ratios for making the mixed inoculum. The amount of volatiles and aroma characteristics were determined the following year. Mixed fermentation improved both the varietal and fermentative aroma compound composition, especially that of (Z)-3-hexene-1-ol, nerol oxide, certain acetates and ethyls group compounds. Citrus, sweet fruit, acid fruit, berry, and floral aroma traits were enhanced by mixed fermentation; however, an animal note was introduced upon using higher amounts of R. mucilaginosa. Aroma traits were regressed with volatiles as observed by the partial least-square regression method. Analysis of correlation coefficients revealed that the aroma traits were the multiple interactions of volatile compounds, with the fermentative volatiles having more impact on aroma than varietal compounds.

  5. Fermentative Aroma Compounds and Sensory Descriptors of Traditional Croatian Dessert Wine Prošek from Plavac mali cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Zdunić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prošek is a traditional dessert wine from the coastal region of Croatia made from partially dried grapes. There is very little literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of Prošek, so an experimental production from the dried grapes of Plavac mali cultivar has been done using native and induced alcoholic fermentations. To determine the volatile compounds, gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (GC/FID was used on the samples prepared with solid phase microextraction (SPME. Higher alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and volatile acids were determined in the wine samples. Wines were grouped according to the production method using principal component analysis (PCA. It was found that Prošek wines produced with native and induced alcoholic fermentation differ in their volatile compounds. Descriptive sensory analysis was applied to show the sensory properties of Prošek wine, whose characteristic aromas include those of dried fruit (raisins, red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla. A significant difference depending on the type of fermentation was determined in two sensory attributes, strawberry jam aroma and fullness.

  6. Alkol Fermantasyonu Sırasında Oluşan Aroma Maddeleri

    OpenAIRE

    Erten, Hüseyin; Canbaş, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    Aroma maddeleri alkollü içkilerin kimyasal ve duyusal özellikleri üzerinde etkili olurlar. Aroma maddelerinin önemli bir kısmı alkol fermentasyonu sırasında maya tarafından oluşturulur. Bu maddelerden başhcaları yüksek alkoller, esterler, organik asitler ve karbonil bileşikleridir. Bu makalede, alkol fermentasyonu sırasında maya tarafından oluşturulan aroma maddelerinin üretim mekanizmaları ele alınmıştır.  

  7. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties...... such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types...

  8. Analysis of aroma compounds of Roselle by Dynamic Headspace Sampling using different preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of different methods of sample preparation on the aroma profiles of dried Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was studied. Least amounts of aroma compounds were recovered by analysis of whole dry calyxes (WD) followed by ground dry (GD), blended together with water (BTW), and ground...... and then mixed with water (GMW). The highest number of aroma compounds was found in Roselle treated in water bath (2hr/40°C) (GMWKB). GMW was chosen as the preparation method because it was shown to be an efficient extraction method without the possibility of excessive chemical changes of the sample....

  9. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and aroma quality of anthograin liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wende; Beta, Trust

    2011-08-01

    Moderate consumption of wine, beer, whisky or liqueur is known to be beneficial for improving health because of the radical scavenging action of antioxidants present in them. Thus, antioxidant and aroma properties of anthograin liqueur made from purple wheat grain were evaluated for the added-value processing purpose of that grain. Anthograin liqueur showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in comparison with three control samples Canadian iceberg vodka (CIV), Hiram walker special old rye whisky (HWSORW) and Wiser's De Luxe Canadian whisky (WDLCW). Only anthograin liqueur contained anthocyanins and its total anthocyanin content (TAC) was 81mg/l. In lipid-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 241.1 and 998.6mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 40.0 and 93.6mg/ld for WDLCW, 23.1 and 63.6mg/l for HWSORW, and 1.1 and 12.4mg/l for CIV, respectively. In water-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 685.5 and 1467.7mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 29.0 and 96.0mg/l for WDLCW, 36.4 and 99.2mg/l for HWSORW, and 2.0 and 42.8mg/l for CIV, respectively. Eight types of phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, four types of phenolic acids in WDLCW and three types of phenolic acids in HWSORW were found and no phenolic acid was detectable in CIV. Total phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, WDLCW and HWSORW were 28.8, 10.3 and 5.7mg/l, respectively. Similarity in aroma quality was found between anthograin liqueur and CIV by using the electronic nose. Purple wheat grain may have potential as a novel material for liqueur brewing.

  11. Metabolomics in melon: A new opportunity for aroma analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, J. William; Cheung, William; Xu, Yun; Mumm, Roland; De Vos, Ric C.H.; Deborde, Catherine; Biais, Benoit; Maucourt, Mickael; Berger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Rolin, Dominique; Moing, Annick; Hall, Robert D.; Goodacre, Royston

    2014-01-01

    Cucumis melo fruit is highly valued for its sweet and refreshing flesh, however the flavour and value are also highly influenced by aroma as dictated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A simple and robust method of sampling VOCs on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been developed. Contrasting cultivars of C. melo subspecies melo were investigated at commercial maturity: three cultivars of var. Cantalupensis group Charentais (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) known to exhibit differences in ripening behaviour and shelf-life, as well as one cultivar of var. Cantalupensis group Ha’Ogan (cv. Noy Yisre’el) and one non-climacteric cultivar of var. Inodorus (cv. Tam Dew). The melon cultivar selection was based upon fruits exhibiting clear differences (cv. Noy Yisre’el and Tam Dew) and similarities (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) in flavour. In total, 58 VOCs were detected by thermal desorption (TD)-GC–MS which permitted the discrimination of each cultivar via Principal component analysis (PCA). PCA indicated a reduction in VOCs in the non-climacteric cv. Tam Dew compared to the four Cantalupensis cultivars. Within the group Charentais melons, the differences between the short, mid and long shelf-life cultivars were considerable. 1H NMR analysis led to the quantification of 12 core amino acids, their levels were 3–10-fold greater in the Charentais melons, although they were reduced in the highly fragrant cv. Cézanne, indicating their role as VOC precursors. This study along with comparisons to more traditional labour intensive solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC–MS VOC profiling data has indicated that the high-throughput PDMS method is of great potential for the assessment of melon aroma and quality. PMID:24417788

  12. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2011-03-23

    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

  13. Rapid volatile metabolomics and genomics in large strawberry populations segregating for aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) represent a large portion of the fruit secondary metabolome, and contribute significantly to aroma, flavor, disease resistance, pest resistance and overall fruit quality. Understanding the basis for volatile compound biosynthesis and it...

  14. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Salih Sonmezdag

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.

  15. Optical wide field monitor AROMA-W using multiple digital single-lens reflex cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ichiro; Tsunashima, Kosuke; Tatsuhito, Takeda; Saori, Ono; Kazutaka, Yamaoka; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2010-12-01

    We have developed and operated the automatic optical observation device Aoyama Gakuin University Robotic Optical Monitor for Astrophysical objects - Wide field (AROMA-W). It covers a large field of view of about 45 degrees W 30 degrees at a time by the multiple digital single-lens reflex cameras, and provides photometric data in four bands with a limiting V magnitude of about 12-13 magnitude (20 seconds, 3 sigma level). The automatic analysis pipeline which can analyze in parallel with observation has been constructed so far. It can draw the light curves of all stars in the field of view of AROMA-W. We are aiming at the simultaneous observation of the transients (e.g., X-ray nova, Supernova, GRB) that MAXI discovered by using the AROMA-W. We report the developmental status, the observational results of AROMA-W and a possibility of the simultaneous observation to the X-ray transients discovered with MAXI.

  16. Study on Aroma Components in Fruit From Three Different Satsuma Mandarin Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Yu; XIE Bi-jun; ZHANG Yan; ZHOU Hai-yan; PAN Si-yi

    2007-01-01

    Fruit aroma of Guoqing 1,Miyagawa Wase,and Owari from three different Satsuma mandarin varieties were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction(HS-SPME)combined with GC-MS.The results showed that there were 73,71,and 66 aroma components in the three varieties,and the total contents were 584.67,505.29,and 494.63 μgg-1,respectively.Total 29 constituents were common in the three varieties.It was also found that Guoqing 1,Miyagawa Wase,and Owari had 12,5,and 2 unique components,respectively.The key aroma components were limonene,linalool,γ-terpinene,β-myrcene,α-pinene,and octanal in the three fruits.Guoqing 1 contained more key aroma compounds than Miyagawa Wase and Owad.

  17. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-02-08

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.

  18. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples. PMID:28231089

  19. Aluminium and Aroma Compound Concentration in Beer During Storage at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Soldo Gjeldum

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of aluminium in beer has been elaborated in several papers over the last decade. However, the effect of aluminium on organoleptic properties of beer has been observed in few papers where it has been stated that aluminium gives beer a »metallic« and bitter flavour without any observations on particular aroma compound changes. Also, the number of reports on precise changes of aroma components throughout different storage conditions is surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate the changes of aluminium concentration along with aroma compound changes, graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GF-AAS with Zeeman background correction and gas chromatography with static headspace sampler (GC-HSS were used in this work. Analyses were conducted periodically throughout seven months of storage on three different brands of beer from name breweries. Samples were taken before and after filling in aluminium cans. One part of samples was stored in a refrigerator (4 °C and the other in a thermostatic chamber (22 °C. The effects of beer brand and storage conditions on aluminium concentration and level of aroma compounds were measured. To prove the effect of aluminium concentration on the changes of aroma compounds, the adequate level of aluminium sulphate was added to bottled beer samples stored at 28 °C. Although different beer types showed significantly different aluminium concentration, it could be the result of other factors (different batches of identical beer type showed significantly different aluminium concentration as well. Samples that were stored in the refrigerator were protected from aluminium migration from the can to the beer and showed increased aroma stability. Level of aroma constituents of analyzed beer brands was significantly different. Elevated aluminium concentration did not have any noticeable effect on the level of aroma compounds in beer samples stored at 28 °C.

  20. Thirty-three years of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, a principal basmati aroma compound in scented rice (Oryza sativa L.): a status review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakte, Kantilal; Zanan, Rahul; Hinge, Vidya; Khandagale, Kiran; Nadaf, Altafhusain; Henry, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of around 3 billion people, most of them in Asia which accounts for 90% of global rice consumption. Aromatic rices have been preferred over non-aromatic rice for hundreds of years. They have a premium value in national as well as international market owing to their unique aroma and quality. Many researchers were involved in identifying the compound responsible for the pleasant aroma in aromatic rice in the 20th century. However, due to its unstable nature, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) was discovered very late, in 1982. Buttery and co-workers found 2AP to be the principal compound imparting the pleasant aroma to basmati and other scented rice varieties. Since then, 2AP has been identified in all fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties and a wide range of plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and various food products. The present article reviews in detail biochemical and genetic aspects of 2AP in living systems. The site of synthesis, site of storage and stability in plant systems in vivo is of interest. This compound requires more research on stability to facilitate use as a food additive. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. A proteomic study of rice cultivar TNG67 and its high aroma mutant SA0420.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Da-Gin; Chou, Szu-Yi; Wang, Arthur Z; Wang, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Wang, Chang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance is a very important economic trait for rice cultivars. To identify the aroma genes in rice, we performed a proteomics analysis of aroma-related proteins between Tainung 67 (TNG67) and its high aroma mutant SA0420. Seventeen of the differentially identified proteins were close related with the aroma phenotype of SA0420. Among them, 9 were found in leaves and 8 were found in grains. One protein (L3) was identified as the chloroplastic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase B (OsGAPDHB) which was less abundant in SA0420 than TNG67. Sequence analysis demonstrated that this protein in SA0420 carries a P425S mutation in the C-terminal extension domain, which might hinder the formation of holoenzyme, thereby changing the profile of aroma compounds. The protein profile of OsGAPDHB showed only a weak correlation to its transcription profile. This result indicated that the reduction of OsGAPDHB in SA0420 is regulated by post-translational processes and can only be analyzed by proteomics approach. Transgenic lines suppressing OsGAPDHB through RNAi harbored more fragrance than TNG67 but less than SA0420. With betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase as the only fragrance gene identified in rice to date, OsGAPDHB may serve as the second protein known to contribute to the aroma phenotype.

  2. Intra-oral adsorption and release of aroma compounds following in-mouth wine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Rocha-Alcubilla, Nuria; Muñoz-González, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, María Ángeles

    2016-08-15

    Wine "after-odour" defined as the long lasting aroma perception that remains after wine swallowing is an outstanding characteristic in terms of wine quality but a relatively unstudied phenomenon. Among the different parameters that might affect wine after-odour, the adsorption of odorants by the oral mucosa could be important but has been little explored. In this work, the impact of the chemical characteristics of aroma compounds on intra-oral adsorption was assessed by an in vivo approach that determined the amounts of odorants remaining in expectorated wine samples. In addition, the subsequent aroma release after in-mouth wine exposure was studied by means of intra-oral SPME/GC-MS using three different panellists. Oral adsorption of the aroma compounds added to the wines ranged from 6% to 43%, depending on their physicochemical characteristics. A progressive intra-oral aroma decrease at different decay rates depending on compound type and panellist was also found. The strength of the aroma-oral mucosa interactions seems to explain these results more than the amount of compound adsorbed by the oral mucosa.

  3. Preparation and structural characterization of corn starch-aroma compound inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Zhou, Yibin; Jin, Shanshan; Meng, Xin; Yang, Liping; Wang, Haisong

    2017-01-01

    Six corn starch inclusion complexes were synthesized using small nonpolar or weak polar aroma compounds (heptanolide, carvone and menthone) and small polar aroma compounds (linalool, heptanol and menthol). The objectives of this study were to (a) investigate the ability of corn starch to form inclusion complexes with these aroma compounds and (b) characterize the structure of the corn starch inclusion complexes. The resulting inclusion ratios were 75.6, 36.9, 43.8, 91.9, 67.2 and 54.7% for heptanolide, carvone, menthone, linalool, heptanol and menthol respectively. The inclusion complexes had laminated structures with a certain amount of holes or blocky constructions. Compared with gelatinized corn starch, the transition temperatures, peak temperatures and enthalpies of the inclusion complexes were significantly different. The major peak of CO at 1771 cm(-1) and significant peak shifts revealed the formation of inclusion complexes. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analyses revealed that the crystallinity of corn starch-polar aroma compound inclusion complexes increased. Based on cross-polarization magic angle spinning (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS (13) C NMR) results, novel peaks and chemical shifts were attributed to the presence of small aroma compounds, thereby confirming the formation of corn starch inclusion complexes. Small nonpolar and polar aroma compounds can be complexed to corn starch. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  5. Analysis of aroma-active compounds in three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivars by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS%运用气相色谱-嗅觉测量法和气质联用法分析三个桂花品种的香气活性物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan CAI; Rong-zhang MAI; Jing-jing ZOU; Hong-yan ZHANG; Xiang-ling ZENG; Ri-ru ZHENG; Cai-yun WANG

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Aroma is the core factor in aromatherapy. Sensory evaluation of aromas differed among three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivar groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aroma-active compounds responsible for these differences. Methods: Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the aroma-active compounds and volatiles of creamy-white (‘Houban Yingui’, HBYG), yellow (‘Liuye Jingui’, LYJG), and orange (‘Gecheng Dangui’, GCDG) cultivars. Results:Seventeen aroma-active compounds were detected among 54 volatiles. trans-β-Ocimene, trans-β-ionone, and linalool, which were major volatiles, were identified as aroma-active, while cis-3-hexenyl butanoate,γ-terpinene, and hexyl butanoate were also aroma-active compounds, although their contents were low. Analysis of the odors was based on the sum of the modified frequency (MF) values of aroma-active compounds in different odor groups. HBYG contained more herb odors, contributed by cis-β-ocimene and trans-β-ocimene, while LYJG had more woody/violet/fruity odors released by trans-β-ionone, α-ionone, and hexyl butanoate. In GCDG, the more floral odors were the result of cis-linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, and linalool. Conclusions:Aroma-active compounds were not necessarily only the major volatiles:some volatiles with low content also contributed to aroma. The aroma differences among the three cultivars resulted from variation in the content of different odor groups and in the intensities of aroma-active compounds.%研究目的:分析不同桂花品种感官评价差异所对应的香气成分,及其有贡献的香气活性物质,为桂花的生物科学应用提供依据。创新要点:首次运用气相色谱-嗅觉测量法(GC-O)结合气质联用法(GC-MS)对所分离的挥发性物质进行定性和半定量分析,并同时结合其气味描述,分析不同桂花品种的香气活性物质特征

  6. VPPD Lab - The Chemical Product Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    of product performance models and product-chemical property models are used to evaluate different classes of product. The product classes are single molecular structure chemicals (lipids, solvents, aroma, etc.), blended products (gasoline, jet-fuels, lubricants, etc.), and emulsified product (hand wash...

  7. Çeşitli Sake Örneklerinde Aroma Maddeleri Üzerine Araştırmalar

    OpenAIRE

    Yavaş, İsmail; Rapp, Adolf

    1995-01-01

    With gaschromatographic and massspectrometric investigation of different sake samples, which were enriched with aroma substances, many volatile aroma components were separated and some of them were identified. Comparison of aromagrammes, as well as the quantitative evaluation of 45 components, it was found a great deal of differentiations of quantitative aroma substances, among the different sake samples. On some components between the original (from Japan) and Turkish samples, determined dif...

  8. Isolation of Some Glucosides as Aroma Precursors from Ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiwa, Y; Mizuno, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Kubota, K; Kobayashi, A; Koshino, H

    1999-01-01

    A glycosidically bound fraction was prepared by adsorbing a 80% methanol extract from fresh rhizomes of ginger onto a column of Amberlite XAD-2 resin and successively eluting with ethyl acetate or methanol. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this fraction with an acetone powder prepared from fresh ginger and commercial glycosidase liberated such alcohols as geraniol, 2-heptanol, α-terpineol, nerol, linalool, and citronellol, suggesting that fresh ginger included glycosides and glycosidase. The ethyl acetate eluate was chromatographed by an ODS flash column and then HPLC to isolate the β-glucopyranosides of 5-hydroxyborneol, 1,8-epoxy-p-menthan-3-ol, (2E, 6E)- and (2E, 6Z)-3,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyoctadien-1-ol, 2-heptanol, geraniol, nerol, (R)-linalool, and citronellol. All the glucosides, except for 5-hydroxybornyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, were identified for the first time in the rhizome of ginger, and many of their aglycons were major constituents of the essential oil. The results indicate that these glucosides are aroma precursors of fresh ginger.

  9. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Cinnamyl Long Chain Aroma Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzakowska, Marta

    2015-06-08

    Cinnamyl long chain aroma esters were prepared by using the conventional and microwave-assisted methods. The esterification reaction of naturally occurring 3-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-ol and different chain lengths acidic and diol reagents was carried out at the temperature of 140 °C under solvent free conditions. As acidic reagents, oxolane-2,5-dione, oxane-2,6-dione, hexanedioic acid and decanedioic acid were applied. Ethane-1,2-diol and 2,2'-[oxybis(2,1-ethandiyloxy)]diethanol were used as diol reagents. The synthesis of high molecular mass cinnamyl esters under conventional method conditions requires a long time to obtain high yields. The studies confirm that by using microwave irradiation, it is possible to reduce the reaction times to only 10-20 min. The structures of prepared esters were confirmed on the basis of FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. In addition, the newly obtained cinnamyl long chain esters were tested for their thermal properties. The TG studies proved the high thermal resistance of the obtained esters under inert and oxidative conditions.

  10. The aroma of the probiotic yogurts with and without supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Hruškar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in aromacompounds of fermented milks with probiotics during storage as a function of time and temperature. The aroma compounds concentration in probiotic yogurt samples, during storage at + 4 and +20°C were studied. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethanol and organic acids (lactate, acetate, citrate content were determined during 20 days, every fifth day from the beginning of storage. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, lactic, citric and acetic acid concentration were determined using an enzymatic method, while diacetyl concentration was determined using colorimetric method. The results showed that the acetaldehyde decreased during storage. The decrease was higher at elevated temperature. On the other hand, diacetyl, ethanol and acetic acid increased during storage at both temperatures. The concentration of lactic acid increased during storage at both temperature and at the end of storage it was doubled. The amount of citric acid increased in the same manner. The increase of all organic acids during storage was higher at elevated temperature.

  11. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor.

  12. A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starte......H, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage.......A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter...... cultures Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Volatiles were collected and analysed by dynamic headspace sampling and GC MS. The analysis was primarily focused on volatiles arising from amino acid degradation and a total of 24 compounds, of which 19 were quantified, were used...

  13. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  14. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes...... single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P....... 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different...

  15. Decoding the key aroma compounds of a Hungarian-type salami by molecular sensory science approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söllner, Kerstin; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-05-27

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract/distillate prepared from a Hungarian-type salami and subsequent identification experiments led to the identification of 51 of 55 odor-active compounds detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16-4096. Nineteen of these compounds are reported for the first time as aroma components of dry-fermented sausages, among them 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide. The highest FD factors were found for 2-methoxyphenol (smoky, sweet), 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), 2-methoxy-4-(E)-(1-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), and acetic acid (pungent, sour). Forty-five aroma compounds were subsequently quantified using stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of odor thresholds in oil. The highest OAVs were calculated for acetic acid, acetaldehyde, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. A model mixture containing 33 odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the sausage was prepared in a matrix consisting of 44% sunflower oil and 56% aqueous phosphate buffer. A comparison of the overall aroma of this model mixture with the original showed a very high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds were successfully identified.

  16. Effect of vine foliar treatments on the varietal aroma of Monastrell wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-García, A I; de la Hoz, K Serrano; Zalacain, A; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

    2014-11-15

    The effects of four vine treatments, comprising the application of eugenol and guaiacol (individually or as a mixture) or whiskey lactones on the concentration of glycosidically bound aroma precursors, determined as glycosyl glucose content by HPLC-IR, in Monastrell grapes and their wines were studied. The impact of treatments on the free varietal wine aroma determined by SBSE-GC-MS and descriptive analysis after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and six months of ageing were also determined. A synergistic effect was observed between the eugenol and guaiacol on the glycosidically bound aroma precursor fraction. The rate of release of such aroma precursors was time and treatment dependent. The impact on wines varietal aroma at the end of the alcoholic fermentation was reduced by treatments, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the following samplings. At a sensory level, the wood/oak notes were appreciated in all wines; however, the typicity of the Monastrell variety was especially enhanced at the end of the malolactic fermentation, in the wines from whiskey lactone treatment.

  17. Impact of Australian Dekkera bruxellensis strains grown under oxygen-limited conditions on model wine composition and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Chris D; Langhans, Geoffrey; Henschke, Paul A; Grbin, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Spoilage of red wine by the yeast species Dekkera bruxellensis is a common problem for the global wine industry. When conditions are conducive for growth of these yeasts in wine, they efficiently convert non-volatile hydroxycinnamic acids into aroma-active ethylphenols, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. It has been demonstrated previously that dissolved oxygen is a key factor which stimulates D. bruxellensis growth in wine. We demonstrate that whereas the presence of oxygen accelerates the growth of this species, oxygen-limited conditions favour 4-ethylphenol production. Consequently, we evaluated wine spoilage potential of three D. bruxellensis strains (AWRI1499, AWRI1608 and AWRI1613) under oxygen-limited conditions. Each strain was cultured in a chemically-defined wine medium and the fermentation products were analysed using HPLC and HS-SPME-GC/MS. The strains displayed different growth characteristics but were equally capable of producing ethylphenols. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for 18 of the remaining 33 metabolites analysed and duo-trio sensory analysis indicated significant aroma differences between wines inoculated with AWRI1499 and AWRI1613. When these wines were spiked with low concentrations of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, no sensorial differences could be perceived. Together these data suggest that the three predominant D. bruxellensis strains previously isolated during a large survey of Australian wineries do not differ substantively in their capacity to grow in, and spoil, a model wine medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Green tea aroma fraction reduces β-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans transfected with human β-amyloid minigene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Fujita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Toshio; Saito, Michio; Suganuma, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular world-wide beverage with health benefits that include preventive effects on cancer as well as cardiovascular, liver and Alzheimer's diseases (AD). This study will examine the preventive effects on AD of a unique aroma of Japanese green tea. First, a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) CL4176 expressing human β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) was used as a model of AD. A hexane extract of processed green tea was further fractionated into volatile and non-volatile fractions, named roasty aroma and green tea aroma fractions depending on their aroma, by microscale distillation. Both hexane extract and green tea aroma fraction were found to inhibit Aβ-induced paralysis, while only green tea aroma fraction extended lifespan in CL4176. We also found that green tea aroma fraction has antioxidant activity. This paper indicates that the green tea aroma fraction is an additional component for prevention of AD.

  19. Determination of rotundone, the pepper aroma impact compound, in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tracey E; Wood, Claudia; Elsey, Gordon M; Pollnitz, Alan P

    2008-05-28

    Shiraz, also known as Syrah or Hermitage, is one of Australia's most popular red wine varieties both domestically and internationally. Black pepper aroma and flavor are important to some Australian Shiraz red wine styles. Recently, rotundone (a bicyclic sesquiterpene) was identified as the potent aroma compound responsible for pepper aromas in grapes, wine, herbs, and spices, including peppercorns. Here the development, optimization, and validation of the analytical method for the quantitative determination of rotundone in grapes and wine are described and discussed. The method is precise, accurate, robust, and sensitive with a subpart per trillion limit of quantitation. The method uses stable isotope dilution analysis with d(5)-rotundone as internal standard, solid-phase extraction and microextraction, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  20. Floral aroma improvement of Muscat spirits by packed column distillation with variable internal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias-Guiu, Pau; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Orriols, Ignacio; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco

    2016-12-15

    The organoleptic quality of wine distillates depends on raw materials and the distillation process. Previous work has shown that rectification columns in batch distillation with fixed reflux rate are useful to obtain distillates or distillate fractions with enhanced organoleptic characteristics. This study explores variable reflux rate operating strategies to increase the levels of terpenic compounds in specific distillate fractions to emphasize its floral aroma. Based on chemical and sensory analyses, two distillate heart sub-fractions obtained with the best operating strategy found, were compared with a distillate obtained in a traditional alembic. Results have shown that a drastic reduction of the reflux rate at an early stage of the heart cut produced a distillate heart sub-fraction with a higher concentration of terpenic compounds and lower levels of negative aroma compounds. Therefore, this sub-fraction presented a much more noticeable floral aroma than the distillate obtained with a traditional alembic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pre-fermentation fining effects on the aroma chemistry of Marlborough Sauvignon blanc press fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Katie J; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Bouda, Flo; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    In the wine industry, fining agents are commonly used with many choices now commercially available. Here the influence of pre-fermentation fining on wine aroma chemistry has been explored. Free run and press fraction Sauvignon blanc juices from two vineyards were fined using gelatin, activated carbon, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and a combination agent which included bentonite, PVPP and isinglass. Over thirty aroma compounds were quantified in the experimental wines. Results showed that activated carbon fining led to a significant (paroma compounds were also influenced by fining agent, even if vineyards and press fractions played a crucial role. This study confirmed that fining agents used pre-fermentation can influence wine aroma profiles and therefore needs specific tailoring addressing style and origin of grape.

  2. Aroma-active compounds in jinhua ham produced with different fermentation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Sheng; Liu, Jian-Bin; Yang, Zheng-Mao; Song, Huan-Lu; Liu, Ye; Zou, Ting-Ting

    2014-11-19

    The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI), odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid), saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal), benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid), ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone) were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.

  3. Aroma-Active Compounds in Jinhua Ham Produced With Different Fermentation Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Sheng Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS. In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI, odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid, saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal, benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid, ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.

  4. [Studies of aroma components on essential oil of Chinese kushui rose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Xiao-ping; Zhao, Guo-hong; Liu, Hong-wei; Ding, Lan; Chen, Li-ren

    2002-11-01

    The main chemical components of the rich peculiar aroma in the essential oil of Chinese Kushui rose (R. Setate x R. Rugosa) is reported. The differences in chemical components between Chinese Kushui rose oil and Bulgaria rose oil are compared. By OV1701 capillary column, more than 130 compounds were separated from the essential oil of Chinese Kushui rose. Using GC/MS and GC/IR techniques and some reference standards as the control, 101 compounds were tentatively identified from the separated compounds. This study shows that there are different aromas in rose essential oils. The oil of Chinese Kushui rose would be an important type of rose oil in the world due to its special rose aroma.

  5. Defining the typical aroma of sherry vinegar: sensory and chemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Raquel M; Morales, M Lourdes; Ferreira, Antonio C Silva; Troncoso, Ana M

    2008-09-10

    The aroma of the three different classes of Sherry vinegar was evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC-O). GC-O was employed to identify substances responsible for aromatic notes associated with the selected descriptors of the typical aroma of Sherry vinegar and odor activity values (OAV) calculated to measure the single impact effect of different compounds selected by GC-O. Diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, ethyl isobutyrate, isovaleric acid, sotolon, and ethyl acetate reached high OAVs, turning out to be characteristic odor active compounds in Sherry vinegars. A total of 58 compounds were quantified, among them, 7 had not been previously reported in Sherry wine vinegars: ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl furoate, and ethyl benzoate, acetophenone, nonanoic acid, and sotolon. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) reveals that using aroma compounds as variables, we can classify Sherry vinegars with 100% correct scores as different from red wine vinegars.

  6. Influence of composition (CO2 and sugar) on aroma release and perception of mint-flavored carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Eve, Anne; Déléris, Isabelle; Aubin, Elodie; Semon, Etienne; Feron, Gilles; Rabillier, Jean-Marc; Ibarra, Dominique; Guichard, Elisabeth; Souchon, Isabelle

    2009-07-08

    The aim of the present work was to identify and quantify physical mechanisms responsible for in-nose aroma release during the consumption of mint-flavored carbonated beverages in order to better understand how they are perceived. The effect of two composition factors (sugar and CO(2)) was investigated on both the sensory and physicochemical properties of drinks by studying in vitro and in vivo aroma release. Sensory results revealed that the presence of CO(2) increased aroma perception regardless of the sugar content. In agreement with volatility parameters, in vivo measurements showed that carbonated drinks released a greater quantity of aroma compounds in the nose space than non-carbonated ones. CO(2) seemed thus to induce large modifications of the physicochemical mechanisms responsible for the aroma release and flavor perception of soft drinks. Moreover, sugar content seemed to have an impact (increase) on aroma perception only in the case of non-carbonated beverages. Sensory interactions were thus observed, in particular, between sweet and aroma perceptions. For carbonated beverages, sugar content had an impact only on aroma release, but not on their perception.

  7. Effects of Preheating and Storage Temperatures on Aroma Profile and Physical Properties of Citrus-Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Zhao, Chengying; Tian, Guifang; Lu, Chang; Zhao, Shaojie; Bao, Yuming; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang; Zheng, Jinkai

    2017-09-06

    Citrus oils are used as good carrier oil for emulsion fabrication due to their special flavor and various health-promoting functions. In this study, the effects of preheating temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C) and storage temperature (4, 25, and 37 °C) on aroma profiles and physical properties of three citrus-oil (i.e., mandarin, sweet orange, and bergamot oils) emulsions were systematically investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated the significant impact of temperature on aroma profile and physical properties. The abundance of d-limonene was found to be the main factor determining the aroma of the three citrus-oil emulsions at different preheating and storage temperatures, while β-linalool and linalyl acetate were important for the aroma of bergamot oil emulsion. Preheating temperature showed a profound impact on the aroma of citrus-oil emulsions, and the aroma of different citrus oil emulsions showed different sensitivity to preheating temperature. Storage temperature was also able to alter the properties of citrus oil emulsions. The higher was the storage temperature, the more alteration of aroma and more instability of the emulsions there was, which could be attributed to the alteration of the oil components and the properties of emulsions. Among all three emulsions, bergamot-oil emulsion was the most stable and exhibited the most potent ability to preserve the aroma against high temperature. Our results would facilitate the application of citrus-oil emulsions in functional foods and beverages.

  8. New device to simulate swallowing and in vivo aroma release in the throat from liquid and semiliquid food systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Verschueren, M.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a novel device to simulate in vivo aroma release from liquids. This artificial throat simulates the act of swallowing followed by exhalation and shows aroma release curves that are similar in shape to in vivo release profiles. Liquids are poured down a tube, and a thin liquid fi

  9. On Aroma Type of Flue-cured Tobacco%关于烤烟香型问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐远驹

    2011-01-01

    提出了烟叶香型是"对燃吸烟叶烟气整体香气特征所划分的类别"的概念.根据前人的资料,对我国烤烟清香型、浓香型、中间香型的香韵进行了分析,并概括为烤烟香型构成的"二韵论".对"二韵论"、香型的命名、香型的标准和标样、中间香型等存在的问题以及改进意见进行了探讨.%The concept of tobacco aroma type is proposed, that is: the aroma type is the classifications of overall aroma characteristics from smoking tobacco leaves. With reference to previous studies, the composition of aroma type of flue-cured tobacco was summarized as Two Notes Theory based on the note analysis of clean aroma type, full-bodied type and moderate type used in China. Then, the problems existed in Two Notes Theory, nomenclature of aroma type, standard of aroma type and standard sample,and moderate aroma type are discussed, suggestions for improvement is also presented.

  10. Changes of Aroma Components in Hongdeng Sweet Cherry During Fruit Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To study the changes of aroma components in sweet cherry during fruit development, the aroma components in sweet cherry fruit from the green stage, the color stage, the commercial stage, and the ripe stage were collected using head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer (GCMS). A total of 37 compounds were identified from the sample extracts. Aldehydes, alcohols, and esters were the major constituents. The aroma components behaved differently during the fruit developmental period. C6 aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes were the main aldehydes in the sweet cherry fruit. The contents of C6 aldehydes increased quickly to 84.16% in the color stage, then decreased as ripening proceeded, and then, the contents decreased to 59.20 and 55.58% at the commercial stage and the ripe stage, respectively. The aromatic aldehydes (benzaldehyde) increased as ripening proceeded, and the maximum was found at the ripe stage. Alcohols of sweet cherry fruit included C6 alcohols and aromatic alcohols. The content of (E)-2-hexen-1-ol increased as ripening proceeded. The maximum was found at the commercial stage; alcohol was only found at the ripe stage. Ester components included ethyl acetate, butanoic acid ethyl ester,hexanoic acid ethyl ester, which increased as the fruit ripened. Hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol,ethyl acetate, and hexanoic acid ethyl ester were the characteristic aroma components of sweet cherry fruit. These aroma components started to form drastically at the color stage, and the main aroma was formed at the commercial stage, which then turned bad at the ripe stage because of the presence of alcohol. So the optimal harvest time of sweet cherry was at the commercial stage.

  11. Biralarda İstenmeyen Aroma Bileşikleri ve Oluşum Mekanizmaları

    OpenAIRE

    Tangüler, Hasan; CABAROĞLU, Turgut; Erten, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Bira kalitesi üzerinde aroma maddelerinin önemli rolü vardır. Bu bileşiklerin bir kısmı kalite üzerinde olumlu etkiye sahip olup birada arzu edilirken, bir kısmı da kaliteyi olumsuz yönde etkileyen ve birada arzu edilmeyen bileşiklerdir. İstenmeyen bu bileşikler işleme, depolama koşulları veya dış kaynaklı bulaşma nedeniyle meydana gelebilir. Bu derlemede biranın duyusal kalitesini olumsuz yönde etkileyen başlıca aroma bileşikleri (oksidasyon aroması, güneş ışığı aroması, dimetil sülfür aroma...

  12. Selection of aroma compounds for the differentiation of wines obtained by fermenting musts with starter cultures of commercial yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vararu, Florin; Moreno-García, Jaime; Zamfir, Cătălin-Ioan; Cotea, Valeriu V; Moreno, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and with the indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology Stir-Bar-Sorptive-Adsorption, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The rearrangement of these aroma compounds in six chemical families permits the establishment of a finger printing for each wine. Eighteen aroma compounds that exhibit a high differentiation power (p⩽0.05) were selected for chemometric analysis. The Principal Component Analysis carried out with these aroma compounds reveal that the first two principal components explain 53.8% and 17.2% of the total variance, respectively, allowing the establishment of nine different groups, in accordance with the wine types obtained. These results reveal analytical differences among the wines that are not recognized by sensorial analysis.

  13. Authenticity of aroma components Enantiomeric separation and compound specific stable isotope analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg

    using solid phase micro extraction with a polyacrylate fiber coating. The isotopic composition of the aroma extracted from vanilla custard powder, vanilla sugar, and cookies were determined and their authenticity evaluated accordingly. Extraction of vanilla aroma from ice cream was more complicated...... and a preliminary extraction was investigated. A liquid-liquid extraction was chosen in combination with solid phase micro extraction. With this method it was possible to analyze vanillin from 7 different ice creams and to evaluate their authenticity based on the measured carbon isotopic composition....

  14. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have...... been measured for these MD configurations. A general transport model for the flux of water and aroma compounds have been derived and compared with the experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the modelling and the experiments could be obtained. From the modelling it was possible to explain...

  15. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time.

  16. A study of an aroma extraction method and evaluation of the aroma extract contribution to the palatability and reinforcement effect of dried bonito using mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okamura, Maya; Shiibashi, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Tsukasa; Nammoku, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Japanese cuisine has provided satisfying meals by fully utilizing the characteristic aroma and taste of katsuodashi (dried bonito broth), though it is not rich in sugars or fats. Katsuodashi is a very basic and indispensable element in Japanese cuisine, and is a hot water extract of katsuobushi (dried bonito). It has been reported that a dextrin solution containing natural dried bonito broth has a significant reinforcement effect, and has been suggested that the olfactory stimulation is important for the reinforcement effect. We examined various source materials for broth and identified an optimal method of aroma extraction by two-bottle choice and conditioned place preference tests in mice. By two-bottle choice tests, a solution containing arabushi (a type of katsuobushi) aroma extract obtained by a supercritical CO2 extraction method showed a significantly high preference. The conditioned place preference test showed the dashi-taste solution with arabushi supercritical CO2 extract had a reinforcement effect. Our results suggest that the arabushi extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction contains components responsible for preference and reinforcement effects in mice; it could become conducive to making Japanese cuisine more satisfying and palatable.

  17. Evaluation of the key aroma compounds in beef and pork vegetable gravies a la chef by stable isotope dilution assays and aroma recombination experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christlbauer, Monika; Schieberle, Peter

    2011-12-28

    Although the aroma compounds of meat processed as such have been studied previously, data on complete homemade dishes containing beef and pork meat were scarcely studied. Recently, 38 odor-active compounds were characterized in beef and pork vegetable gravies using GC-olfactometry. In the present investigation, the most odor-active compounds were quantitated in a freshly prepared stewed beef vegetable gravy (BVG) as well as a stewed pork vegetable gravy (PVG) by means of stable isotope dilution assays. Calculation of odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) revealed 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecanal, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone as the most potent odorants in both gravies. However, significantly different OAVs were found for 12-methyltridecanal, which was much higher in the BVG, whereas (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal showed a clearly higher OAV in the PVG. Aroma recombination experiments performed on the basis of the actual concentrations of the odorants in both gravies revealed a good similarity of the aromas of both model mixtures containing all odorants with OAVs > 1 with those of the original gravies.

  18. Influence of Water Potential on gamma-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P; Battut, G

    1989-11-01

    The influence of water potential on gamma-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (a(w)) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for a(w) values between 0.97 and 0.99.

  19. Influence of Water Potential on γ-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P.; Battut, G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of water potential on γ-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (aw) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for aw values between 0.97 and 0.99. PMID:16348056

  20. Grape cluster microclimate influences the aroma composition of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Damian; Grose, Claire; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Stuart, Lily; Albright, Abby; McLachlan, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    New Zealand Sauvignon blanc (SB) wines are characterised by a distinctive combination of tropical-fruity and green-herbaceous aromatic compounds. The influence of sunlight exposure of grape clusters on juice and wine composition was investigated, with the aim of manipulating aromatic compounds in SB wine. In the absence of basal leaf removal SB clusters naturally exposed to sunlight were riper than shaded clusters, evidenced by higher total soluble solids (TSS) and proline, and lower malic acid, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and arginine. Volatile thiols in wines did not differ between shaded and exposed clusters. At equivalent TSS, cluster exposure had little or no effect on malic acid concentration. Conversely, wine from shaded clusters had almost double the IBMP concentration of wine from exposed clusters at equivalent TSS. The effects on SB juice and wine composition of natural variations in cluster microclimate are not comparable with the effects of cluster exposure created through leaf removal.

  1. Influence of maturity and ripening on aroma volatiles and flavor in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in aroma volatiles were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography in ripe avocados (Persea americana Mill.) throughout an eight-month maturation period and related to the sensory properties of the fruit. As maturation progressed sensory panelists found the li...

  2. 1-Methylcyclopropene effects on temporal changes of aroma volatiles and phytochemicals of fresh-cut cantaloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange fleshed cantaloupe melons have intense aroma and flavor, but are very perishable. Changes in quality traits were characterized during storage-life of fresh-cut cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis "Fiesta") cubes treated with 1.0 µL L-1 4 of 1-methylcyclopene for 24 h at 5 ºC, packaged...

  3. Linking wine lactic acid bacteria diversity with wine aroma and flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Maria Stella; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Logrieco, Antonio; Bartowsky, Eveline J

    2017-02-21

    In the last two decades knowledge on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with wine has increased considerably. Investigations on genetic and biochemistry of species involved in malolactic fermentation, such as Oenococcus oeni and of Lactobacillus have enabled a better understand of their role in aroma modification and microbial stability of wine. In particular, the use of molecular techniques has provided evidence on the high diversity at species and strain level, thus improving the knowledge on wine LAB taxonomy and ecology. These tools demonstrated to also be useful to detect strains with potential desirable or undesirable traits for winemaking purposes. At the same time, advances on the enzymatic properties of wine LAB responsible for the development of wine aroma molecules have been undertaken. Interestingly, it has highlighted the high intraspecific variability of enzymatic activities such as glucosidase, esterase, proteases and those related to citrate metabolism within the wine LAB species. This genetic and biochemistry diversity that characterizes wine LAB populations can generate a wide spectrum of wine sensory outcomes. This review examines some of these interesting aspects as a way to elucidate the link between LAB diversity with wine aroma and flavour. In particular, the correlation between inter- and intra-species diversity and bacterial metabolic traits that affect the organoleptic properties of wines is highlighted with emphasis on the importance of enzymatic potential of bacteria for the selection of starter cultures to control MLF and to enhance wine aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Roozen, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection.

  5. Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Roozen, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection. Com

  6. Combinatory Effects of Texture and Aroma Modification on Taste Perception of Model Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, J.E.; Sala, G.; Smit, G.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of texture modification and aroma-induced sweetness enhancement were systematically investigated in apple-flavored semi-solid Na-caseinate gels. Gels containing apple juice as a basic flavor were developed differing in stiffness, brittleness and serum release (texture modi

  7. Study of combined effect of proteins and bentonite fining on the wine aroma loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Simone; Panighel, Annarita; Gazzola, Diana; Flamini, Riccardo; Curioni, Andrea

    2015-03-04

    The wine aroma loss as a consequence of treatments with bentonite is due to the occurrence of multiple interaction mechanisms. In addition to a direct effect of bentonite, the removal of aroma compounds bound to protein components adsorbed by the clay has been hypothesized but never demonstrated. We studied the effect of bentonite addition on total wine aroma compounds (extracted from Moscato wine) in a model solution in the absence and presence of total and purified (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinase) wine proteins. The results showed that in general bentonite alone has a low effect on the loss of terpenes but removed ethyl esters and fatty acids. The presence of wine proteins in the solution treated with bentonite tended to increase the loss of esters with the longest carbon chains (from ethyl octanoate to ethyl decanoate), and this was significant when the purified proteins were used. The results here reported suggest that hydrophobicity can be one of the driving forces involved in the interaction of aromas with both bentonite and proteins.

  8. The Power of Aroma and the Olfactory Experience in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Russ

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that despite culturally induced aversions, aromas do have a role to play in writing instruction. Suggest there are many examples in literature of authors' treatment of the olfactory sense. Argues that emphasizing smell as a writing stimulant and encouraging olfactory analyses of literary works can serve as valid ways of introducing…

  9. Method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenberg, H.R.; Willemsen, J.H.A.; Starmans, D.A.J.; Hoving, H.D.; Winters, M.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Described is a method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material, such as coffee or tea, and in particular cocoa, at least comprising the steps of: introducing the food base material into an aqueous extractant and incubating the food base material

  10. DNA tests for strawberry: mesifurane "sherry" aroma - FaOMT-SI/NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amazing flavor and texture in strawberries is caused by a complex balance of numerous sugars and aromatic compounds. One of the most important aromatic compounds contributing to the flavor we have come to love in strawberries is mesifurane. Mesifurane produces a sweet sherry-like aroma and incre...

  11. Evaluation of Aroma in Oriental Tobaccos as Based On Valeric Acid Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnon S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Levels of valeric acids (isovaleric and 3-methylvaleric in leaves and smoke of different tobacco types were quantified by capillary gas chromatography (GC using flame ionization detector (FID. The aroma characteristics of the smoke were scored by sensory evaluation. It was found that leaves of Oriental and burley tobaccos contain higher amounts of both valeric acid derivatives than Virginia tobaccos containing isovaleric acid but no 3-methylvaleric acid. Strong correlation between the aroma and pleasantness scores of smoke and the content of valeric acids in the leaves of Oriental tobaccos was observed, while it was not the case for leaves of Virginia and burley tobaccos. In all tobacco types no correlation between smoking characteristics and the content of valeric acids in the smoke was established. Regression models involving leaf isovaleric acid were developed that can be used to evaluate aroma and pleasantness of smoke in Oriental tobaccos. The data obtained allow the following conclusions to be drawn: a 3-methylvaleric acid may be a chemical marker to distinguish Virginia tobaccos from Oriental and burley tobaccos; b isovaleric acid content in leaves of Oriental tobaccos may be used for objective aroma evaluation that can be exploited for breeding and market purposes.

  12. Cooperation between Lactococcus lactis and nonstarter lactobacilli in the formation of cheese aroma from amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieronczyk, Agnieszka; Skeie, Siv; Langsrud, Thor; Yvon, Mireille

    2003-02-01

    In Gouda and Cheddar type cheeses the amino acid conversion to aroma compounds, which is a major process for aroma formation, is essentially due to lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In order to evaluate the respective role of starter and nonstarter LAB and their interactions in cheese flavor formation, we compared the catabolism of phenylalanine, leucine, and methionine by single strains and strain mixtures of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO763 and three mesophilic lactobacilli. Amino acid catabolism was studied in vitro at pH 5.5, by using radiolabeled amino acids as tracers. In the presence of alpha-ketoglutarate, which is essential for amino acid transamination, the lactobacillus strains degraded less amino acids than L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO763, and produced mainly nonaromatic metabolites. L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO763 produced mainly the carboxylic acids, which are important compounds for cheese aroma. However, in the reaction mixture containing glutamate, only two lactobacillus strains degraded amino acids significantly. This was due to their glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, which produced alpha-ketoglutarate from glutamate. The combination of each of the GDH-positive lactobacilli with L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO763 had a beneficial effect on the aroma formation. Lactobacilli initiated the conversion of amino acids by transforming them mainly to keto and hydroxy acids, which subsequently were converted to carboxylic acids by the Lactococcus strain. Therefore, we think that such cooperation between starter L. lactis and GDH-positive lactobacilli can stimulate flavor development in cheese.

  13. Estimation of aroma glycosides of nutmeg and their changes during radiation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakumar, Arul; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2006-03-10

    Glycosidically bound volatile compounds of nutmeg were identified as glyco-conjugates of p-cymene-7-ol, eugenol, methoxyeugenol and alpha-terpineol. Using phenyl-beta-glucoside as external standard the contents of these glycosidic precursors were estimated based on the measurement of TLC spot density on a densitometer. p-Cymene-7-ol rutinoside was the major aroma glycoside (3.15 mg/100 g), followed by glucosides of methoxyeugenol (0.61 mg/100 g), eugenol (0.50 mg/100 g) and alpha-terpineol (0.51 mg/100 g). A dose-dependent breakdown of these glycosidic precursors was observed during gamma-radiation processing. Among the four glycosides, alpha-terpineol glucoside was the most sensitive to radiation while p-cymene-7-ol rutinoside was the least sensitive. A reduction in the content of total glycosides by almost 50% was noted at a dose of 5kGy. Partitioning of aroma glycoside into n-butanol from aqueous extracts was found to result in rapid isolation of aroma glycosides, avoiding time consuming pre-purification on Amberlite XAD-2 column. A routine method based on extraction into n-butanol and subsequent quantification of post-irradiation changes in aroma glycosides on a TLC plate using a densitometer is proposed.

  14. Sodium Chloride and Its Influence on the Aroma Profile of Yeasted Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Markus C. E.; Axel, Claudia; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.; Czerny, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The impact of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the yeast activity in bread dough and its influence on the aroma profile of the baked bread was investigated. Key aroma compounds in the bread samples were analysed by two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with solvent-assisted flavour evaporation distillation. High-sensitivity proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry was used to detect and quantify 2-phenylethanol in the headspace of the bread dough during fermentation. The analyses revealed significant (p < 0.05) changes in the aroma compounds 2-phenylethanol, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2,4-(E,E)-decadienal. Descriptive sensory analysis and discriminating triangle tests revealed that significant differences were only determinable in samples with different yeast levels but not samples with different NaCl concentrations. This indicates that a reduction in NaCl does not significantly influence the aroma profile of yeasted bread at levels above the odour thresholds of the relevant compounds, thus consumers in general cannot detect an altered odour profile of low‑salt bread crumb. PMID:28805678

  15. Aromas y sabores diferenciales de la cerveza con alcohol y sin alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Dias Rodríguez, Raimunda

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo aporta un resumen descriptivo y comparativo de los principales compuestos aromáticos volátiles, deseables e indeseables en la cerveza convencional (con alcohol) y en la cerveza sin alcohol, que contribuyen al perfil del aroma y del sabor de estas cervezas.

  16. Spectral quality of photo-selective nets improves phytochemicals and aroma volatiles in coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum L.) after postharvest storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buthelezi, Millicent N Duduzile; Soundy, Puffy; Jifon, John; Sivakumar, Dharini

    2016-08-01

    The influence of spectral light on leaf quality and phytochemical contents and composition of aroma compounds in coriander leaves grown for fresh use under photo-selective nets; pearl net [40% shading; and 3.88 blue/red ratio; 0.21 red/far red ratio; photosynthetic radiation (PAR) 233.24 (μmolm(-2)s(-1))] and red net [40% shading and 0.57 blue/red ratio; 0.85 red/far red ratio; 221.67 (μmolm(-2)s(-1))] were compared with commercially used black nets [25% shading; 3.32 blue/red ratio 0.96 red/far red ratio; 365.26 (μmolm(-2)s(-1))] at harvest and after 14days of storage. Black nets improved total phenols, flavonoid (quercetin) content, ascorbic acid content, and total antioxidant activity in coriander leaves at harvest. The characteristic leaf aroma compound decanal was higher in leaves from the plants under the red nets at harvest. However, coriander leaves from plants produced under red nets retained higher total phenols, flavonoids (quercetin) and antioxidant scavenging activity 14days after postharvest storage (0°C, 10days, 95% RH and retailers' shelf at 15°C for 4days, 75% RH). But production under the pearl nets improved marketable yield reduced weight loss and retained overall quality, ascorbic acid content and aroma volatile compounds in fresh coriander leaves after postharvest storage. Pearl nets thus have the potential as a pre-harvest tool to enhance the moderate retention of phytochemicals and saleable weight for fresh coriander leaves during postharvest storage.

  17. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2015-08-01

    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC.

  18. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-12-11

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method.

  19. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils.

  20. GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD = 512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD = 256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD = 128).

  1. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in three Chinese Moutai liquors by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yunwei; Chen, Xiaomei; Xiao, Zuobing; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Jiancai

    2017-04-01

    The aroma-active compounds in three Chinese Moutai liquors, aged 1 year, 15 years and 30 years were investigated in this study. The aroma compounds were analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 79 aroma compounds were identified. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was further employed to identify the aroma-active compounds. A total of 35 aroma-active compounds with flavour dilution (FD) values ≧ 64 simultaneously in three Chinese Moutai liquors were quantitated. Among them, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate and acetic acid appeared with the highest concentrations. They were all >1000 mg/L. Then, the relationships between the aroma-active compounds and seven sensory attributes were studied.

  2. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans...... quantification of volatile compounds present in roasted and un-roasted cocoa liquors, as well as in finished chocolates. Sensory analyses of un-conched chocolate and finished chocolate was performed using a panel of un-trained judges and ordinary consumers. Furthermore, the present study describes the impact...... found to be identical to the inoculation strain, four strains of P. kluyveri were identified, with the inoculation strain composing ~88% of the population. The volatile aroma profile of chocolates made from cocoa beans inoculated with P. kluyveri contained significantly higher concentrations...

  3. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2010-02-01

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and alpha-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[(13)C(6)]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective alpha-keto acids, utilizing alpha-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6 kDa and 42.7 kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants.

  4. Influence of olive oil phenolic compounds on headspace aroma release by interaction with whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; De Luca, Lucia; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-04-22

    The release of volatile compounds in an oil-in-water model system obtained from olive oil-whey protein (WP) pairing was investigated by considering the effect of phenolic compounds. Human saliva was used to simulate mouth conditions by retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) analysis. Twelve aroma compounds were quantified in the dynamic headspace by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed significant influences of saliva on the aroma release of virgin olive oil (VOO) volatiles also in the presence of WP. The interaction between WP and saliva leads to lower headspace release of ethyl esters and hexanal. Salivary components caused lower decrease of the release of acetates and alcohols. A lower release of volatile compounds was found in the RAS essay in comparison to that in orthonasal simulation of only refined olive oil (without addition of saliva or WP), with the exception of hexanal and 1-penten-3-one, where a significantly higher release was found. Our results suggest that the extent of retronasal odor (green, pungent) of these two volatile compounds is higher than orthonasal odor. An extra VOO was used to verify the release in model systems, indicating that WP affected aroma release more than model systems, while saliva seems to exert an opposite trend. A significant increase in aroma release was found when phenolic compounds were added to the system, probably due to the contrasting effects of binding of volatile compounds caused by WP, for the polyphenol-protein interaction phenomenon. Our study could be applied to the formulation of new functional foods to enhance flavor release and modulate the presence and concentrations of phenolics and whey proteins in food emulsions/dispersions.

  5. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Two Commercial Rums by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    Two rums differing in their overall aroma profile and price level (rum A, high price; rum B, low price) were analyzed by means of the Sensomics approach. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on a distillate of volatiles prepared from rum A revealed 40 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 8 to 2048. The identification experiments indicated cis-whiskey lactone, vanillin, decanoic acid, and 2- and 3-methylbutanol with the highest FD factors. The AEDA of a distillate prepared from rum B showed only 26 aroma-active compounds in the same FD factor range. Among them, in particular, ethyl butanoate, 1,1-diethoxyethane, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and decanoic acid appeared with the highest FD factors. Thirty-seven compounds having at least an FD factor ≥32 in one of the two rums were quantitated using stable isotope dilution assays or enzyme kits (2 compounds). The calculation of odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) indicated ethanol, vanillin, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and (E)-β-damascenone with the highest OAVs in rum A, whereas ethanol, 2,3-butanedione, 3-methylbutanal, and ethyl butanoate revealed the highest OAVs in rum B. Most compounds were present in similar concentrations in both rums, but significant differences were determined for vanillin, cis-whiskey lactone, and 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (all higher in rum A) and 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione, and ethyl butanoate (all higher in rum B). Finally, the aromas of both rums were successfully simulated by a recombinate using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they naturally occurred in the spirits.

  6. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de

  7. Characterization of geosmin as source of earthy odor in different aroma type Chinese liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2011-08-10

    Earthy odor is one of the most frequent and serious causes for the aroma deterioration in Chinese liquor, which causes a dirty and dusty impression. The odor in Chinese liquor is similar to that of rice husk, one kind of auxiliary material widely used as a filler in the distillation process. So it is experientially hypothesized that such odor may derive from rice husk. In this paper, the gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to discover and identify the characteristic odoriferous zone of Chinese liquor marked by earthy odor. Geosmin was found to be responsible for this odor. The levels of the compound in ten bottled liquors and thirty liquors aging for different years belonging to four different aroma types were determined by the optimized headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method. Quantitative analysis of bottled liquor revealed the presence of geosmin in all aroma type liquors with concentrations ranging from 1.10 μg/L to 9.90 μg/L, except for strong-aroma type liquor. Meanwhile in the aged liquors belonging to the same aroma type, geosmin was detected with significant concentrations and high odor activity values (OAVs) during different years of aging. However, geosmin was not detected in steamed rice husk nor in nonsteamed rice husk, which suggests that rice husk is not the origin of earthy odor in Chinese liquor, and there may be another origin of it during the brewing process.

  8. Molecular analysis of the genes involved in aroma synthesis in the species S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii and S. bayanus var. uvarum in winemaking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero, Amparo; Belloch, Carmela; Ibáñez, Clara; Querol, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    The Saccharomyces genus is the main yeast involved in wine fermentations to play a crucial role in the production and release of aromatic compounds. Despite the several studies done into the genome-wide expression analysis using DNA microarray technology in wine S. cerevisiae strains, this is the first to investigate other species of the Saccharomyces genus. This research work investigates the expression of the genes involved in flavor compound production in three different Saccharomyces species (S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus var. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii) under low (12°C) and moderate fermentation temperatures (28°C). The global genes analysis showed that 30% of genes appeared to be differently expressed in the three cryophilic strains if compared to the reference strain (mesophilic S. cerevisiae), suggesting a very close cold adaptation response. Remarkable differences in the gene expression level were observed when comparing the three species, S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus var. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii, which will result in different aroma profiles. Knowledge of these differences in the transcriptome can be a tool to help modulate aroma to create wines with the desired aromatic traits.

  9. 蒙山名茶蒙顶甘露和蒙山毛峰特征香气成分的GC-MS测定与分析%Analysis of characteristic aroma components in famous Mengshan teas Mengding Ganlu and Mengshan Maofeng by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许靖逸; 陈昌辉; 周方勇; 杜晓

    2014-01-01

    Biluochun tea . Mengding Ganlu and Mengshan Maofeng produced in the protected areas had higher concentrations of phytol and nonanal than those from the non-protected areas . These were considered to be related to the unique natural climatic conditions of Mengshan Mountain and their special processing techniques . Phytol and nonanal had floral and fruity flavor . According to the quantitative evaluation of aroma components and tea aroma classification , the aroma types of Mengding Ganlu and Mengshan Maofeng produced in the central zone of the protected areas showed chestnut flavor , the teas produced in the edge areas showed honey and floral flavor , with fresh lily flower scent in the betw een . It is concluded from this study that Mengding Ganlu and Mengshan Maofeng produced in the protected place of origin have higher concentrations of phytol and nonanal than those from non-protected areas and they can be used to identify the authenticity of Mengding Ganlu and Mengshan Maofeng .

  10. Effect of chard powder on colour and aroma formation in cooked sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasonova, V. V.; Tunieva, E. K.

    2017-09-01

    The use of nitrate-containing vegetable powders instead of sodium nitrite in meat products requires changes in technological production parameters in order to obtain traditional organoleptic characteristics in the finished products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of chard powder on colour and aroma formation in cooked sausages. Cooked sausage samples were: control with nitrite curing mixture; type 1 sausages with chard powder and ascorbic acid; type 2 sausages with chard powder and sodium ascorbate. To transform nitrate ions contained in the vegetable chard powder to nitrite ions using a denitrifying culture, preliminary thermal treatments were used: 30 and 60 min at 40±2°C, after which the sausages were cooked until a temperature of 72±2°C was achieved. The sausages were stored for 40 days at 0-6°C. When sausage meat was initially held at 40°C for 60 min, a homogenous pink colour formed in the sausages with the vegetable powder. The indicators of lightness, redness and yellowness in cooked sausages as well as the indicators of instrumental odour assessment did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The indicators of colour stability during storage were 1.1-3.0% higher in the sausages with the chard powder compared to the control. The mass fraction of sodium nitrite in the experimental sausages was 2.0-2.2 higher than in the control (p>0.05). As a result of cooked sausage storage, the differences in the sodium nitrite content in the control and types 1 and 2 sausages were similar. During storage, the mass fraction of sodium nitrite decreased in types 1 and 2 sausages by 55.6 and 54.8%, respectively (p<0.05). Cooked sausages with the chard powder contained 2.1-2.4 times more sodium nitrate than did control sausages (p<0.05). However, all tested sausage samples complied with legislative requirements in terms of their sodium nitrite and nitrate levels.

  11. Synthesis of green note aroma compounds by biotransformation of fatty acids using yeast cells coexpressing lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchhaupt, Markus; Guder, Jan Christopher; Etschmann, Maria Magdalena Walburga; Schrader, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Green notes are substances that characterize the aroma of freshly cut grass, cucumbers, green apples, and foliage. In plants, they are synthesized by conversion of linolenic or linoleic acid via the enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) to short-chained aldehydes. Current processes for production of natural green notes rely on plant homogenates as enzyme sources but are limited by low enzyme concentration and low specificity. In an alternative approach, soybean LOX2 and watermelon HPL were overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After optimization of the expression constructs, a yeast strain coexpressing LOX and HPL was applied in whole cell biotransformation experiments. Whereas addition of linolenic acid to growing cultures of this strain yielded no products, we were able to identify high green note concentrations when resting cells were used. The primary biotransformation product was 3(Z)-hexenal, a small amount of which isomerized to 2(E)-hexenal. Furthermore, both aldehydes were reduced to the corresponding green note alcohols by endogenous yeast alcohol dehydrogenase to some extent. As the cosolvent ethanol was the source of reducing equivalents for green note alcohol formation, the hexenal/hexenol ratio could be influenced by the use of alternative cosolvents. Further investigations to identify the underlying mechanism of the rather low biocatalyst stability revealed a high toxicity of linolenic acid to yeast cells. The whole cell catalyst containing LOX and HPL enzyme activity described here can be a promising approach towards a highly efficient microbial green note synthesis process.

  12. Production d'arômes de type lactone par des levures

    OpenAIRE

    Alchihab, M.; Destain, J.; Aguedo, M.; Thonart, P.

    2010-01-01

    Production of aroma lactones by yeasts. Lactones are widely distributed in foods and beverages as aroma compounds. Their extraction from natural products is very expensive. Most of them can also be obtained in a chemical way, which is not well perceived by consumers. As an alternative, biotechnology proposes to use whole cells or enzymes to produce lactones by biotransformation or bioconversion of fatty acids. Different studies and patents have been conducted on that matter. In most cases, ye...

  13. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Farneti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium spp. fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars (“Biloxi,” “Brigitta Blue,” “Centurion,” “Chandler,” and “Ozark Blue” harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V. corymbosum L. (“Brigitta,” “Chandler,” “Liberty,” and “Ozark Blue”, V. virgatum Aiton (“Centurion,” “Powder Blue,” and “Sky Blue”, V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations, and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide

  14. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC) composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry). The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars ("Biloxi," "Brigitta Blue," "Centurion," "Chandler," and "Ozark Blue") harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe) to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V. corymbosum L. ("Brigitta," "Chandler," "Liberty," and "Ozark Blue"), V. virgatum Aiton ("Centurion," "Powder Blue," and "Sky Blue"), V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations), and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide pull of VOCs, for the most aldehydes, alcohols, terpenoids

  15. Albariño wine aroma enhancement through the use of a recombinant polygalacturonase from Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieiro, Carmen; Villa, Tomás G; da Silva, Abigaíl F; García-Fraga, Belén; Vilanova, Mar

    2014-02-15

    The possible biotechnological application of a recombinant endopolygalacturonase of Kluyveromyces marxianus (KMPG) for the aroma enhancement of Albariño wine was studied. The addition of this enzyme to the must gives rise to a significant increase of the total compounds responsible for the aroma as opposed to the effect when using a commercial pectic enzyme. This increase also results in a significant rise of the odoriferous aglycones which are direct determinants of the aroma. Wines made by using the KMPG enzyme are characterised by a greater richness and diversity with regard to the number of aromatic compounds present, clearly differing from those obtained with a commercial pectic preparation. Based on compounds with odour activity values (OAV)>1, the wines obtained with the enzyme KMPG are richer in citric, balsamic, spicy and above all floral (violet and rose) aromas than untreated wines or wines supplemented with a commercial enzyme.

  16. Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça model-solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Helena Fillet Spoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.

  17. Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Trujillo, Juan Pablo; Dos-Santos, Noelia; Martínez-Alcaraz, Rocío; Le Bleis, Inés

    2013-01-01

    A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL) of melon (Cucumis melo L.) SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC) in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS). The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE). Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate). Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate) decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate) increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate). Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid).

  18. Determination of volatile aroma compounds of Ganoderma lucidum by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkın, Hatıra; Kafkas, Ebru; Çakıroğlu, Özgün; Büyükalaca, Saadet

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted at Horticulture Department of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey during 2010-2011. Fresh sample of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Mersin province of Turkey was used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were performed by Headspace Gas Chromatography (HS-GC/MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, acids, phenol, L-Alanine, d-Alanine, 3Methyl, 2-Butanamine, 2-Propanamine were determined. 1-Octen-3-ol (Alcohol) and 3-methyl butanal (Aldehyde) were identified as major aroma compounds.

  19. Contribution to the aroma of white wines by controlled Torulaspora delbrueckii cultures in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolini, Michela; Tosi, Emanuele; Lorenzini, Marilinda; Finato, Fabio; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2015-02-01

    Although the positive role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the overall quality of wine is encouraging research into their oenological potential, current knowledge on the topic is still far from satisfactory. This work analyzes the contribution of starter cultures of Torulaspora delbrueckii, inoculated sequentially with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (multi-starter fermentation), on the fermentation and aromas of two different white style wines, i.e., dry and sweet wines. Chemical analysis of Soave and Chardonnay wines (dry wines) showed that multi-starter fermentation greatly affected the content of several important volatile compounds, including 2-phenylethanol, isoamyl acetate, fatty acid esters, C4-C10 fatty acids and vinylphenols. Moreover, strain-specific contributions have been shown by testing two different T. delbrueckii strains. Evidence of the positive impact of T. delbrueckii activity on wine quality was also demonstrated in Vino Santo, a sweet wine. Due to its low production of acetic acid, this non-Saccharomyces yeast is recommended for the fermentation of high sugar grapes. T. delbrueckii also influenced the content of different variety of chemical groups, including lactones. From a sensory perspective, all wines produced by multi-starter fermentation have greater aromatic intensity and complexity than wines resulting from a monoculture fermentation. These results emphasize the potential of employing T. delbrueckii, in association with S. cerevisiae, for the production of white wines of different styles with improved and enhanced flavour.

  20. Effects of the origins of Botrytis cinerea on earthy aromas from grape broth media further inoculated with Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Valle, H; Silva, L C; Paterson, R R M; Venâncio, A; Lima, N

    2011-08-01

    Earthy "off" aromas from wine and grape juice are highly detrimental to the production of quality grape products. These volatile compounds are produced on grapes by Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and/or a combination of P. expansum and B. cinerea strains. B. cinerea strains were isolated from different (a) vineyards in Spain and Portugal, (b) grape varieties (c) bunches (i.e., sound and botrytized) and (d) positions in the botrytized bunch (i.e., interior or exterior). A novel Headspace-Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by Gas Chromatrography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) dedicated to analyze geosmin, methylisoborneol (MIB), 1-octen-3-ol, fenchone and fenchol in grape broth medium was used. Approximately 50% of the B. cinerea strains induced detectable geosmin. One strain accumulated significant amounts of anisoles, demonstrating that this contamination might already occur in the vineyard. Strains from the interior of Cainho grape bunches induced more geosmin and hence it may be possible to reduce this volatile in wine by avoiding using these grapes in case of B. cinerea attack.

  1. 食醋香气感õ评定研究%Study on Sensory EvaIuation of Vinegar Aroma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永义; 张东升

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,fuzzy mathematical integrated evaluation method is adopted for sensory evaluation of aroma of four kinds of vinegar.The results show that the comprehensive evaluation level of vinegar aroma of the sample 529 and 211 is between very strong and strong,the vinegar aroma of the sample 529 is better than that of sample 211,the vinegar aroma of the sample 985 and 306 is strong,the vinegar aroma of the sample 985 is better than that of sample 306,the sensory evaluation of aroma of four kinds of vinegar is ranked as 529>211>985>306.%文章采用模糊数学综合评判法对四种食醋香气进行了综合感官评定,结果表明:529和211样品食醋香气的综合评定级别为很浓和浓之间,529样品的食醋香气优于211样品,985和306样品食醋香气的综合评定级别为浓,985样品的食醋香气优于306样品,即四种食醋香气的感官评定从高到低为529>211>985>306。

  2. Aroma compounds and characteristics of noble-rot wines of Chardonnay grapes artificially botrytized in the vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Jie; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Wu, Yun; An, Rong-Yan; Yue, Zhuo-Ya

    2017-07-01

    Aroma characteristics and their impact volatile components of noble-rot wines elaborated from artificial botrytized Chardonnay grapes, obtained by spraying Botrytis cinerea suspension in Yuquan vineyard, Ningxia, China, were explored in this work. Dry white wine made from normal-harvested grapes and sweet wine produced from delay-harvested grapes were compared. Wine aromas were analysed by trained sensory panelists, and aroma compounds were determined by SPME-GC-MS. Results indicated that esters, fatty acids, thiols, lactones, volatile phenols and 2-nonanone increased markedly in noble-rot wines. In addition to typical aromas of noble-rot wines, artificial noble-rot wines were found to contain significant cream and dry apricot attributes. Partial Least-Squares Regression models of aroma characteristics against aroma components revealed that non-fermentative odorants were the primary contributor to dry apricot attribute, especially, thiols, C13-norisoprenoids, lactones, terpenols and phenolic acid derivatives, while cream attribute was dependent on both fermentative and non-fermentative volatile components.

  3. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in apricots (Prunus armeniaca) by application of the molecular sensory science concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-06-27

    An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on an aroma distillate prepared from fresh apricots revealed (R)-gamma-decalactone, (E)-beta-damascenone, delta-decalactone, and (R/S)-linalool with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 26 odor-active compounds identified. On the basis of quantitative measurements performed by application of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), beta-ionone, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, gamma-decalactone, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, linalool, and acetaldehyde appeared with OAVs >100, whereas in particular certain lactones, often associated with an apricot aroma note, such as gamma-undecalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and delta-decalactone, showed very low OAVs (<5). An aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 18 most important odorants in concentrations as they occurred in the fresh fruits showed an overall aroma very similar to that of apricots. Omission experiments indicated that previously unknown constituents of apricots, such as (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal or (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, are key contributors to the apricot aroma.

  4. Identification of major aroma compounds in the leaf of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brett J; Zhou, Bing-nan

    2008-10-01

    Morinda citrifolia, commonly named noni, has been used as food and as a folk medicine throughout the tropics. The use of the leaves to make hot water beverages is increasing in popularity, especially in Japan and the United States. To better understand the effects of processing on the content of the major aroma compounds, volatile oils were collected from samples of frozen, dried and roasted leaves by steam distillation and then analyzed by GC-MS. Drying of the leaves reduces the quantity of aroma compounds by more than half. Palmitic acid and E-phytol were identified as the major components of the volatile oil. With the exception of E-phytol, all of the known volatile compounds identified in the leaf samples were done so for the first time.

  5. Decrease of aged beer aroma by the reducing activity of brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, Daan; De Schutter, David P; Vanbeneden, Nele; Daenen, Luk; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2010-03-10

    The flavor profile of beer is subject to changes during storage. Since, possibly, yeast has an influence on flavor stability, the aim of this study was to examine if there is a direct impact of brewing yeast on aged aroma. This was achieved by refermentation of aged beers. It was shown that several aged aroma notes, such as cardboard, ribes, Maillard and Madeira, were removed almost entirely by brewing yeast, independently of the yeast or the beer type. This was explained by the reduction of aldehydes, mainly (E)-2-nonenal, Strecker aldehydes, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and diacetyl, to their corresponding alcohols. Furthermore, it became evident that the reducing capacity of brewing yeast is high, but that yeast strain and compound specific residual concentrations remained in the refermented beer independently of the initial concentration. Finally, it appeared that aldehydes were not only reduced but also formed during refermentation.

  6. Roasting and aroma formation: effect of initial moisture content and steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Kaegi, Ruth; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

    2008-07-23

    Initial moisture of green coffee may vary as a function of green coffee processing and storage conditions. The impact of initial moisture and steam treatment on roasting behavior and aroma formation was investigated. Steam treated coffees as well as coffees with initial moisture content of 5.10, 10.04, and 14.70 g water per 100 g wb were roasted. Light and dark roasting trials were carried out using a fluidizing-bed roaster with a batch size of 100 g of green beans. Differences in roast coffee attributes, that is, color, density, and organic roast loss, and odorant concentrations were more marked in light roasted than in dark roasted coffees. The results of roasting steam treated coffee suggest that this step affects roasting behavior primarily by extracting some aroma precursor compounds.

  7. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-hua ZHANG; Tao WU; Faizan A SADIQ; Huan-yi YANG; Tong-jie LIU; Hui RUAN; Guo-qing HE

    2016-01-01

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB stil remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distilation–extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). Al samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies.%中文概要题目:传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味物质的研究目的:通过同时蒸馏萃取(SDE)、顶空固相微萃取(SPME)及吹扫捕集(P&T)技术结合气相色谱-嗅闻-质谱(GC-O-MS)技术对传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味成分进行分析,并初步探讨特征风味形成机理。创新点:首次采用不同风味物质分析技术探索传统酸面团制备的馒头关键风味成分。方法:采用同时SDE、SPME及P&T方法,对不同传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味物质进行分析。结论:SDE结果显示,反式-2-壬烯醛和反式-2,4-癸二烯醛为传统酸面团馒头中关键风味成分。SPME和P&T 方法表明乙醇和醋酸是关键风味物质。因此,需要结合不同技术方法,全面分析传统酸面团制备的馒头中特征风味成分。

  8. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mattana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

  9. Changes in sparkling wine aroma during the second fermentation under CO2 pressure in sealed bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Rafael; García-Martínez, Teresa; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan

    2017-12-15

    High quality sparkling wine made by the traditional method requires a second alcoholic fermentation of a base wine in sealed bottles, followed by an aging time in contact with yeast lees. The CO2 overpressure released during this second fermentation has an important effect on the yeast metabolism and therefore on the wine aroma composition. This study focuses on the changes in chemical composition and 43 aroma compounds released by yeast during this fermentation carried out under two pressure conditions. The data were subjected to statistical analysis allowing differentiating between the base wine and the wine samples taken in the middle and at the end of fermentation. The differentiation among wines obtained to the end of fermentation with or without CO2 pressure is only achieved by a principal component analysis of 15 selected minor compounds (mainly ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradecanoate, hexyl acetate, ethyl butanoate and ethyl isobutanoate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aroma of Turmeric: Dependence on the Combination of Groups of Several Odor Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshio; Nakatani, Kenta; Fujihara, Takashi; Yamada, Hideo

    2015-06-01

    Turmeric is a popular material that plays an important role in the flavor and fragrance industries. Although many compounds have been reported as components of turmeric, its aroma profile has not been clarified. Recently we have developed a new approach for evaluating the complex odors of materials based on recent research on the mechanism of odor recognition. Here we report the characteristic aroma properties of turmeric obtained through the investigation of its aroma profile. The hexane extract of turmeric had a turmeric-like odor, whereas the steam distillate of turmeric had a pungent, non-turmeric-like odor. We carried out bulb-to-bulb distillations of the extract and the steam distillate. For the hexane extract, two fractions with completely different odors were obtained. One was a high boiling point fraction (group A) with a turmeric-like odor, which consisted of ar-turmerone and β-turmerone as the main components, and the other was a low boiling point fraction (group B), which consisted of α-curcumene and β-sesquiphellandrene. In contrast, the bulb-to-bulb distillation of the steam distillate gave a fraction (group C) with a very different odor from groups A and B. Group C was composed of several kinds of alcohols that were not present in groups A and B. These results indicate that the group C fraction causes the different, pungent odor of the turmeric oil obtained by steam distillation. The variation in the aroma of turmeric depended on the combination of these three groups of odor constituents.

  11. Glycosidic aroma precursors of 2-phenylethyl and benzyl alcohols from Jasminum sambac flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, J; Watanabe, N; Moon, J H; Yagi, A; Sakata, K; Ina, K; Luo, S

    1995-04-01

    Benzyl 6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (beta-primeveroside) (1), 2-phenylethyl beta-primeveroside (2), and 2-phenylethyl 6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (beta-rutinoside) (3) were isolated as aroma precursors of benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol from flower buds of Jasminum sambac Ait. The isolation was guided by an enzymatic hydrolysis and GC and GC-MS analyses.

  12. Saliva from obese individuals suppresses the release of aroma compounds from wine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Piombino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that a lower extent of the retronasal aroma release correspond to a higher amount of ad libitum food intake. This has been regarded as one of the bases of behavioral choices towards food consumption in obese people. In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that saliva from obese individuals could be responsible for an alteration of the retro-nasal aroma release. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, by comparing the release of volatiles from a liquid food matrix (wine after its interaction with saliva from 28 obese (O and 28 normal-weight (N individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region indicated that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more abundant in O, while Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria dominated in N. Streptococcaceae were significantly more abundant in the O subjects and constituted 34% and 19% on average of the saliva microbiota of O and N subjects, respectively. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was higher in O vs N saliva samples. A model mouth system was used to test whether the in-mouth wine aroma release differs after the interaction with O or N saliva. In O samples, a 18% to 60% significant decrease in the mean concentration of wine volatiles was detected as a result of interaction with saliva, compared with N. This suppression was linked to biochemical differences in O and N saliva composition, which include protein content. CONCLUSION: Microbiological and biochemical differences were found in O vs N saliva samples. An impaired retronasal aroma release from white wine was detected in vitro and linked to compositional differences between saliva from obese and normal-weight subjects. Additional in vivo investigations on diverse food matrices could contribute to understanding whether a lower olfactory stimulation due to saliva composition can be a co-factor in the development/maintenance of obesity.

  13. Plant extracts applications to the vineyard and their impact on wine aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Gil, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    It is known that certain foliar applications to the grapevine or volatile compounds present in the environment, where grapes are grown, may modify the wine aroma. The fact that the vineyards assimilate volatile compounds and transmit them to its grapes and respective wines supposes an innovative research, which might have a huge impact on the wine sector when seeking the differentiation. There are plant extracts from the oak or aromatic plants (hydrolats) that have volatile compounds in their...

  14. Saliva from Obese Individuals Suppresses the Release of Aroma Compounds from Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piombino, Paola; Genovese, Alessandro; Esposito, Silvia; Moio, Luigi; Cutolo, Pier Paolo; Chambery, Angela; Severino, Valeria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Smith, Daniel P.; Owens, Sarah M.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Ercolini, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that a lower extent of the retronasal aroma release correspond to a higher amount of ad libitum food intake. This has been regarded as one of the bases of behavioral choices towards food consumption in obese people. In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that saliva from obese individuals could be responsible for an alteration of the retro-nasal aroma release. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, by comparing the release of volatiles from a liquid food matrix (wine) after its interaction with saliva from 28 obese (O) and 28 normal-weight (N) individuals. Methods and Findings Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region indicated that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more abundant in O, while Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria dominated in N. Streptococcaceae were significantly more abundant in the O subjects and constituted 34% and 19% on average of the saliva microbiota of O and N subjects, respectively. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was higher in O vs N saliva samples. A model mouth system was used to test whether the in-mouth wine aroma release differs after the interaction with O or N saliva. In O samples, a 18% to 60% significant decrease in the mean concentration of wine volatiles was detected as a result of interaction with saliva, compared with N. This suppression was linked to biochemical differences in O and N saliva composition, which include protein content. Conclusion Microbiological and biochemical differences were found in O vs N saliva samples. An impaired retronasal aroma release from white wine was detected in vitro and linked to compositional differences between saliva from obese and normal-weight subjects. Additional in vivo investigations on diverse food matrices could contribute to understanding whether a lower olfactory stimulation due to saliva composition can be a co-factor in the development/maintenance of obesity. PMID:24465618

  15. Cloning of beta-primeverosidase from tea leaves, a key enzyme in tea aroma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-12-01

    A beta-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of beta-primeverosides (6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The beta-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The beta-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The beta-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to beta-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the beta-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze beta-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl beta-D-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the beta-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the beta-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the beta-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl beta-primeveroside by the beta-primeverosidase was followed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the beta-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the beta-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed.

  16. Pollen aroma fingerprint of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes characterized by different pollen colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Fambrini, Marco; Doveri, Silvia; Leonardi, Michele; Pugliesi, Claudio; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Samples of fresh pollen grains, collected from capitula in full bloom from two genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized by a different color, i.e., white-cream (WC) and orange (O), were analyzed by the HS-SPME (headspacesolid phase microextraction)/GC/MS technique. This study defined for the first time the fingerprint of the sunflower pollen, separated from the disc flowers, to define its contribution to the inflorescence aroma. In the GC/MS fingerprints of the WC and O genotypes, 61 and 62 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (34% in O vs. 28% in WC) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (37% in O vs. 31% in WC) were ubiquitous in all samples analyzed and represented the main chemical classes. α-Pinene (21% in O vs. 20% in WC) and sabinene (11% in O vs. 6% in WC) were the dominant volatiles, but also a full range of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives gave a decisive contribution to the aroma composition (10% in O vs. 12% in WC). In addition, dendrolasin (3% in O vs. 4% in WC) and some minor constituents such as (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.4% in O vs. 0.1% in WC) were pointed out not only for their contribution to the pollen scent, but also for their well-known role in the plant ecological relationships. Having evaluated two pollen morphs with different carotenoid-based colors, the study sought to highlight also the presence of some volatile precursors or derivatives of these pigments in the aroma. However, the pollen aroma of the two selected genotypes made a specific chemical contribution to the sunflower inflorescence scent without any influence on carotenoid derivatives.

  17. Üzümlerde Aroma Maddeleri ve Şarapçılık Açısından Önemi

    OpenAIRE

    CABAROĞLU, Turgut

    2003-01-01

    Aroma üzüm ve şaraplarda önemli bir kalite kriteridir. Üzüm ve şaraplarda aroma, miktarları birkaç ng/l'den birkaç mg/l'ye kadar değişen uçucu bileşiklerden ileri gelir Şaraplarda aroma maddeleri kaynaklarına göre dört grup altında toplanır. Bunlar, üzümden kaynaklanan çeşit aroması, fermantasyondan önce uygulanan işlemlerden (ezme, sıkma, maserasyon) kaynaklanan aroma, etil alkol ve malolaktik fermantasyon sırasında oluşan fermantasyon aroması ve olgunlaşma sırasında oluşan...

  18. Characterization of typical potent odorants in cola-flavored carbonated beverages by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-28

    The aroma-active compounds in typical cola-flavored carbonated beverages were characterized using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The potent odorants in the top three U.S. brands of regular colas were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among the numerous odorants identified, eugenol (spicy, clovelike, sweet) and coumarin (sweet, herbaceous) were predominant in all colas. Other predominant odorants in at least one brand included guaiacol (smoky) and linalool (floral, sweet), while 1,8-cineole (minty, eucalyptus-like) was a moderately potent odorant in all colas. Determination of the enantiomeric compositions indicated that (R)-(-)-linalool (34.5%) was a more potent odorant than the (S)-(+)-enantiomer (65.6%) due to its much lower odor detection threshold. In addition, lemon-lime and cooling attributes determined by sensory descriptive analysis had the highest odor intensities among the eight sensory descriptors. The aroma profiles of the three colas were in good agreement with the potent odorants identified by AEDA.

  19. Canonical Correlation between the Leaf Quality Indicators of "Moderate Aroma" Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; MENG; Yuangang; DAI; Chengdong; WANG; Shusheng; WANG; Wenjing; SONG; Yuanhua; WU; Yimin; XU

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the correlation between tobacco quality evaluation indicators in China’s traditional " moderate aroma" tobaccoproducing areas and simplify the tobacco quality evaluation indicators,we evaluate the appearance quality and smoking quality of 143 flue-cured tobacco leaf samples in China’s " moderate aroma" tobacco-producing areas,test the physical traits and chemical component,and analyze the canonical correlation between four quality evaluation indicators. The results show that there is significant or extremely significant canonical correlation between four evaluation indicators( tobacco smoking quality,chemical component,appearance quality and physical trait quality); the cumulative variance contribution rate of evaluation indicators is in the order of chemical component( 69. 17%) > appearance quality( 68. 76%) > physical traits( 64. 13%); appearance quality is most closely related to physical traits( 93. 84%). The individual indicators for tobacco quality evaluation make different contribution to the correlation between quality evaluation indicators. The chemical component evaluation indicators mainly include total sugar and ratio of total sugar to betaine; sensory taste indicators mainly include aroma volume,smoke concentration,irritation and softness degree; physical trait evaluation indicators mainly include leaf weight,leaf length and leaf density; appearance quality indicators mainly include leaf organizational structure,color,maturity and identity. Studies have shown that in the large-scale ecoregion,using canonical correlation analysis to simplify tobacco quality evaluation indicators is feasible.

  20. Prerrafaelismo y quietismo estético en Aromas de leyenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Moreiras, Miriam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In my Aromas de leyenda study, book of poems wroten by the Spanish Modernist author Valle- Inclán, I have attempted to show how this work is in debt to Pre-Raphaelite aesthetics and, also, to esoteric and mystic doctrines, strongly present in the last years of XIX century and relaborated by Valle in his book La lámpara maravillosa. At the same time, I have identified, although lightly, the figure oí ambivalence, which is, like the scholarship Peter Zima has showed, the main Modernism aesthetic innovation and which makes in clear the links between this Valle's work and the art of his time.Con el análisis de Aromas de leyenda de Valle Inclán he pretendido demostrar la deuda que esta obra tiene tanto con el código estético prerrafaelita como con las doctrinas esotéricas y místicas, de gran vigencia a finales del siglo XIX y reelaboradas por Valle en su libro de 1916 La lámpara maravillosa. Igualmente he identificado, aunque de modo muy leve, la presencia en Aromas de la figura de la ambivalencia, que es, como demuestra el estudioso Peter Zima, la principal innovación estética del Modernismo y que pone en evidencia la filiación de esta obra de Valle con el arte de su tiempo.

  1. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Li, Wenhui

    2016-06-24

    Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers' evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit.

  2. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpeng Xi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers’ evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS, sorbitol oxidase (SO and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit.

  3. Aroma components of acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein made by partial hydrolysis of rice bran protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarunrattanasri, Arporn; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-04-18

    Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) was prepared from rice bran protein concentrate (RBPc) by partial hydrolysis with aqueous 0.5 N HCl at 95 degrees C for 12 or 36 h (H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively). Aroma components of the RBPc and the HVPs were characterized by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and calculation of odor activity values (OAVs). The predominant odorants in RBPc were 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-aminoacetophenone, (E)-2-nonenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and beta-damascenone. Among these, the odor of 2-aminoacetophenone, present at 59 ng/g in RBPc, was reminiscent of the typical odor of RBPc. Most of the predominant odorants had higher log3FD factors in the H-RBPc-36 as compared to H-RBPc-12. Aroma impact compounds of H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36 were 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)furanone (sotolon), vanillin, 3-methylbutanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (p-vinylguaiacol), and beta-damascenone. Guaiacol had the highest OAV values of 2770 and 17650 in H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively.

  4. Aroma extraction dilution analysis of Sauternes wines. Key role of polyfunctional thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Collin, Sonia

    2006-09-20

    The aim of the present work was to investigate Sauternes wine aromas. In all wine extracts, polyfunctional thiols were revealed to have a huge impact. A very strong bacon-petroleum odor emerged at RI = 845 from a CP-Sil5-CB column. Two thiols proved to participate in this perception: 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal and 2-methylfuran-3-thiol. A strong synergetic effect was evidenced between the two compounds. The former, never mentioned before in wines, and not found in the musts of this study, is most probably synthesized during fermentation. 3-Methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol, 3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, and 3-sulfanylheptanal also contribute to the global aromas of Sauternes wines. Among other key odorants, the presence of a varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl isovalerate), carbonyls (trans-non-2-enal and beta-damascenone), and wood flavors (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and Furaneol) is worth stressing.

  5. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars.

  6. Chemical Compositions and Aroma Evaluation of Volatile Oil from the Industrial Cultivation Medium of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maeba, Keisuke; Yonejima, Yasunori; Toyoda, Masanori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of the major lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species colonizing the intestines of animals and humans. The characteristic odor of the volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) in the cultivation process of E. faecalis was investigated to determine the utility of the liquid medium. In total, fifty-six and thirty-two compounds were detected in the volatile oils from the MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (19.3%), phenylacetaldehyde (19.3%), and phenylethyl alcohol (9.3%). The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method was performed using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The total number of aroma-active compounds identified in the volatile oil from MBI and MAI was thirteen compounds; in particular, 5-methyl-2-furanmethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethyl alcohol were the most primary aroma-active compounds in MAI oil. These results imply that the industrial cultivation medium after incubation of E. faecalis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  7. Coupling gas chromatography and electronic nose detection for detailed cigarette smoke aroma characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Tienpont, Bart; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; Masugi, Eri; Yoshimura, Yuta; Nagata, Hisanori; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

    2014-10-24

    Aroma characterization of whole cigarette smoke samples using sensory panels or electronic nose (E-nose) devices is difficult due to the masking effect of major constituents and solvent used for the extraction step. On the other hand, GC in combination with olfactometry detection does not allow to study the delicate balance and synergetic effect of aroma solutes. To overcome these limitations a new instrumental set-up consisting of heart-cutting gas chromatography using a capillary flow technology based Deans switch and low thermal mass GC in combination with an electronic nose device is presented as an alternative to GC-olfactometry. This new hyphenated GC-E-nose configuration is used for the characterization of cigarette smoke aroma. The system allows the transfer, combination or omission of selected GC fractions before injection in the E-nose. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) allowed clear visualizing of the differences among cigarette brands and classifying them independently of their nicotine content. Omission and perceptual interaction tests could also be carried out using this configuration. The results are promising and suggest that the GC-E-nose hyphenation is a good approach to measure the contribution level of individual compounds to the whole cigarette smoke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of fat nature and aroma compound hydrophobicity on flavor release from complex food emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relkin, Perla; Fabre, Marjorie; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2004-10-06

    Complex food emulsions containing either hydrogenated palm kernel oil (vegetable fat) or anhydrous milk fat (animal fat) were flavored by using different aroma compounds. The fats differed by their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions and by their melting behavior, while the aroma compounds (ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, methyl hexanoate, mesifurane, linalool, diacetyl, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and gamma-octalactone) differed by their hydrophobicity. Application of differential scanning calorimetry to fat samples in bulk and emulsified forms indicated differences in the ratio of solid-to-liquid between temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS analysis indicated that flavor release from food emulsions containing animal or vegetable fat differed depending on both the fat nature and flavor compound hydrophobicity. The release of diacetyl was higher for emulsions containing animal fat, whereas the release of esters was higher for emulsions containing vegetable fat. The release of cis-3-hexenol, linalool, gamma-octalactone, and mesifurane (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-(2H)-furan-3-one) was very similar for the two fatty systems. The above results were discussed not only in terms of aroma compound hydrophobicity, but also in terms of structural properties of the emulsions as affected by the lipid source.

  9. Determination of rheological property and its effect on key aroma release of Shanxi aged vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Qiu, Ju; Li, Zaigui

    2016-08-01

    The rheological property of Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV) was determined by rheometer, and its effects on release in eight key aroma components of SAV was investigated by SPME-GC-MS. In order to simulate the change of rheological property of SAV, a modified SAV system was developed from a finished SAV using carboxymethylcellulose, pectin, glucose, fructose, sodium chloride and tannic acid at indicate levels. The consistency coefficients (K) of SAV ranged from 1.09e(-5) to 0.0137, which was correlated to glucose, polyphenol, acids and (o)Bx. SAV changed from shear-thickening to Newtonian fluid during long-time ageing. In the modified SAV system, the K values increased significantly, and two modified vinegar became quasi-Newtonian fluids too. Furthermore, release of the eight key aroma compounds decreased significantly and decreased was pronounced, for acetic acid, furfural and tetramethylpyrazine. The results demonstrated rheological property correlated to the concentrate of sugar, salt, polyphenol, acids and macromolecule, which significantly affected the release of major aroma compounds.

  10. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Pblack tea was clearly improved.

  11. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, β-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, β-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components.

  12. Agri土壤调理剂用量对烟叶香气质量的影响%Effects of Application Rate of Agri Soil Conditioner on Aroma Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛超群; 王建伟; 奚家勤; 杨立均

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of different Agri soil conditioner application rates (0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/ha) on aroma components,sensory quality and economic characteristics of flue-cured tobacco leaves. The results showed that increasing soil conditioner application rates, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites,aromatic amino acid catabolites and total aroma components, aroma quality and yield of leaf increased, output value, average price and proportion of high grade leaf raised at first and then reduced. At the conditioner application rate of 11.25 kg/ha, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites, aromatic amino acid catabolites, and total aroma components,aroma quality and yield of leaf were higher,and output value,average price and high grade leaf proportion were the highest.%通过田间试验研究了Agri土壤调理剂不同用量(0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/hm2)对烟叶香味物质、感官质量和经济性状的影响.结果表明:随土壤调理剂用量的增加,烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量和香气质量提高,烟叶产量增加,烟叶产值、均价和上等烟比例先提高再降低.土壤调理剂用量11.25 kg/hm2时烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量、香气质量得分和产量较高,产值、均价和上等烟比例最高.

  13. Exploration of consumer perception of Sauvignon Blanc wines with enhanced aroma properties using two different descriptive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezaeta, Alvaro; Bordeu, Edmundo; Næs, Tormod; Varela, Paula

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' perception of a complex set of stimuli as aromatically enriched wines. For that, two consumer based profiling methods were compared, concurrently run with overall liking measurements: projective mapping based on choice or preference (PM-C), a newly proposed method, and check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions with an ideal sample, a more established, consumer-based method for product optimization. Reserve bottling and regular bottling of Sauvignon Blanc wines from three wineries were aromatically enriched with natural aromas collected by condensation during wine fermentation. A total of 144 consumers were enrolled in the study. The results revealed that both consumer-based highlighted the positive effect of aromatic enrichment on consumer perception and acceptance. However, PM-C generated a very detailed description, in which consumers focused less on the sensory aspects and more on the usage, attitudes, and reasons behind their choices. Providing a deeper understanding of the drivers of liking/disliking of enriched Sauvignon Blanc wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Key changes in wine aroma active compounds during bottle storage of Spanish red wines under different oxygen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Bueno, Mónica; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Culleré, Laura; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-10-15

    Samples from 16 Spanish red wines have been stored for 6 months at 25 °C under different levels of oxygen (0-56 mg/L). Amino acids, metals, and phenolic compounds were analyzed and related to the production or depletion of key oxidation- and reduction-related aroma compounds. Oxidation brings about sensory-relevant increases in Strecker aldehydes, 1-octen-3-one, and vanillin. Formation of Strecker aldehydes correlates to the wine content on the corresponding amino acid precursor, Zn, and caffeic acid ethyl ester and negatively to some flavonols and anthocyanin derivatives. Formation of most carbonyls correlates to wine-combined SO2, suggesting that part of the increments are the result of the release of aldehydes forming bisulfite combinations once SO2 is oxidized. Methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethylsulfide (DMS), but not H2S levels, increase during storage. MeSH increments correlate to methionine levels and proanthocyanidins and negatively to resveratrol and aluminum. H2S, MeSH, and DMS levels all decreased with oxidation, and for the latter two, there are important effects of Mn and pH, respectively.

  15. Growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. during ripening in a cheese model medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetae, Pawinee; Spinnler, Henry-Eric; Bonnarme, Pascal; Helinck, Sandra

    2009-02-01

    The growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., some common but rarely mentioned cheese bacteria, were investigated in a cheese model deacidified by Debaryomyces hansenii during the ripening process. Our results show that these bacteria had distinct growth and cheese flavour production patterns during the ripening process. P. vulgaris had the greatest capacity to produce not only the widest variety but also the highest quantities of volatile compounds with low olfactive thresholds, e.g. volatile sulphur compounds and branched-chain alcohols. Such compounds produced by P. vulgaris increased after 21 days of ripening and reached a maximum at 41 days. The three bacteria studied exhibited various degrees of caseinolytic, aminopeptidase and deaminase activities. Moreover, P. vulgaris had a greater capacity for hydrolysing casein and higher deaminase activity. Our results show that P. vulgaris, a Gram-negative bacterium naturally present on the surface of ripened cheeses, could produce high concentrations of flavour compounds from amino acid degradation during the ripening process. Its flavouring role in cheese cannot be neglected. Moreover, it could be a useful organism for producing natural flavours as dairy ingredients.

  16. Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2014-05-21

    The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ≥2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ≥128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars.

  17. An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion-trap mass spectrometer for the on-line analysis of volatile compounds in foods: a tool for linking aroma release to aroma perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Jean-Luc; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Sémon, Etienne

    2014-09-01

    An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometer was set up for the on-line analysis of aroma compounds. This instrument, which has been successfully employed for some years in several in vitro and in vivo flavour release studies, is described for the first time in detail. The ion source was fashioned from polyether ether ketone and operated at ambient pressure and temperature making use of a discharge corona pin facing coaxially the capillary ion entrance of the ion-trap mass spectrometer. Linear dynamic ranges (LDR), limits of detection (LOD) and other analytical characteristics have been re-evaluated. LDRs and LODs have been found fully compatible with the concentrations of aroma compounds commonly found in foods. Thus, detection limits have been found in the low ppt range for common flavouring aroma compounds (for example 5.3 ppt (0.82 ppbV) for ethyl hexanoate and 4.8 ppt (1.0 ppbV) for 2,5-dimethylpyrazine). This makes the instrument applicable for in vitro and in vivo aroma release investigations. The use of dynamic sensory techniques such as the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method conducted simultaneously with in vivo aroma release measurements allowed to get some new insights in the link between flavour release and flavour perception.

  18. Aroma Profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Wine Fermented by Single and Co-culture Starters of Autochthonous Saccharomyces and Non-saccharomyces Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Di Gianvito, Paola; Pizzoni, Daniel; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73), a strain of Starmerella bacillaris (STS12), one of Hanseniaspora uvarum (STS45) and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1) and S. bacillaris (STS12), in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. S. cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after 3 days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains S. bacillaris (STS12) and H. uvarum (STS45). At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA) content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate, and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class of compounds as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step toward the use of tailored

  19. 不同级别云南工夫红茶香气成分比较分析%Comparative analysis of aroma compositions in different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪涛; 周斌; 夏凯国; 秦太峰; 张劲松

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Major aroma compositions of different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea were comparatively analyzed and their quality was assayed in order to provide guidance for enhancing Congou black tea production. [Method] Aroma substance was enriched using same distillation extract method and aroma compositions were analyzed using SDE/ GC-MS in different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea samples comparatively. [ Result ]The results showed that different-grade Yunnan Congou black tea had nearly the same aroma compositions, but their contents varied a lot. The linalool, linalool oxide, α-Terpineol and geraniol contents were higher in superior Yunnan Congou black tea compared to those presenting in inferior one. However, inferior Yunnan black tea had higher leafaldehyde, benzaldehyde and benzeneac-etaldehyde content. [Conclusion] Higher-graded Yunnan Congou black tea had good fragrance quality and all different-graded Congou black teas presented strong fragrance, and high aroma and strong taste characteristics of Diangong time tea.%[目的]分析云南工夫红茶香气主要化学物质组成,比较不同级别云南工夫红茶香气成分的差异,为提高云南红茶品质和指导生产实践提供理论依据.[方法]采用同时蒸馏萃取法富集云南工夫红茶香气物质,利用气相色谱—质谱法(GC-MS)对不同级别的云南红茶样品进行香气成分对比分析.[结果]不同级别的云南工夫红茶香气成分组成大致相同,但含量差异较大.其中,芳樟醇、芳樟醇氧化物、α-松油醇和香叶醇等在高级别红茶中的含量较低级别红茶的高;而青叶醛、苯甲醛、苯乙醛等则在低级别红茶中含量较高.[结论]级别越高的云南工夫红茶其香气品质越好,但不同级别的云南工夫红茶均具有滇红工夫茶香气馥郁、香高味浓的风格特征.

  20. Identification of key odorants related to the typical aroma of oxidation-spoiled white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Ferreira, Antonio César; Hogg, Timothy; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2003-02-26

    The oxidative degradation of white wines rapidly leads to a loss of their sensorial qualities. The identification of the most important descriptors related with oxidation-spoiled wine was performed by a trained sensory panel. The terms selected were "honey-like", "farm-feed", "hay", and "woody-like". By gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis three aromatic zones related to these descriptors in the oxidation-spoiled white wines could be determined. Comparison of the aroma extract dilution analysis aromagrams of oxidation-spoiled white wines and a nonspoiled wine showed the highest values of dilution factors were attributed to 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN), and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon). A "forced aging" experiment was implemented to simulate the typical oxidation-spoiled aroma. Samples rated with the highest score in the ranking test were also those that presented the highest concentration of these four molecules. To test the sensory impact of these substances, a normal wine (unspoiled) was spiked with these molecules (with the exception of TDN) singly and in combination, and the similarity value (SV) between samples and the oxidation-spoiled white wines was then determined. The highest value from the similarity tests was 5.4 when the three compounds were added simultaneously; 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde alone was found to be responsible for 3.6, suggesting that, among the molecules studied, it is the most important contributor to the typical aroma of an oxidation-spoiled white wine.

  1. Aroma compound analysis of Eruca sativa (Brassicaceae) SPME headspace leaf samples using GC, GC-MS, and olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Smith, David; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2002-07-31

    The aroma compounds of rocket salad (Eruca sativa) SPME headspace samples of fresh leaves were analyzed using GC, GC-MS, and olfactometry. More than 50 constituents of the Eruca headspace could be identified to be essential volatiles, responsible for the characteristic intense green; herbal; nutty and almond-like; Brassicaceae-like (direction of cabbage, broccoli, and mustard); and horseradish-like aroma of these salad leaves. As aroma impact compounds, especially isothiocyanates, and derivatives of butane, hexane, octane, and nonane were identified. 4-Methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (14.2%), cis-3-hexen-1-ol (11.0%), cis-3-hexenyl butanoate (10.8%), 5-methylthiopentyl isothiocyanate (9.3%), cis-3-hexenyl 2-methylbutanoate (5.4%), and 5-methylthiopentanenitrile (5.0%) were found in concentrations higher than 5.0% (calculated as % peak area of GC analysis using a nonpolar column).

  2. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: II. Effects of different roast levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate how changes of the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffees induced by Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans (Part I) translated to changes in the volatile and aroma profiles of light, medium and dark roasted coffees and non-volatile profile of roasted coffee where fermentation effects were most distinctive (light roast). R. oligosporus fermentation resulted in 1.7-, 1.5- and 1.3-fold increases in pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-ethylpyrazine levels in coffees of all roast degrees, respectively. This corresponded with the greater extent of amino acids degradation in light roasted fermented coffee. Ethyl palmitate was detected exclusively in medium and dark roasted fermented coffees. The sweet attribute of light and dark roasted coffees were increased following fermentation along with other aroma profile changes that were roast degree specific. This work aims to develop a direct but novel methodology for coffee aroma modulation through green coffee beans fermentation.

  4. The effects of gamma-irradiation on some pure aroma compounds of spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, O; Honkanen, E; Kallio, H; Latva-Kala, K; Sjöberg, A M

    1990-09-01

    Chemical changes due to gamma-irradiation were investigated in 11 pure aroma compounds typically found in spices. Samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 10, and 50 kGy. The irradiation source was 60Co. Irradiated samples and unirradiated controls were analyzed by gas chromatography alone and coupled with mass spectrometry. Significant changes due to the irradiation occurred only in (+/-)-linalool and alpha-terpineol, which are typical components of, for example, coriander and bay leaf. Their total amounts decreased by about 4-13% and some minor peaks increased as a result of irradiation. However, different results may be obtained when the spices themselves are irradiated.

  5. Study on Healing Environment Using Green, Blue and Red LED and Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaho, Noriharu; Konno, Noriko; Shimada, Takamasa

    In this paper we evaluated the effects of 1/f fluctuation of Green LED light emitted from the specific object by using psychological and physiological experimental tests of spectral electroencephalogram (EEG) topography. In addition, we also verified that the combination of appropriate aroma, blue LED light irradiation and music such as “Mozart: Serenade in Eine Kleine Nacht Musik” has improved mental healing conditions. We confirmed the possibility that the effect of “Healing” would be improved by the above mentioned environments.

  6. Influência do aroma sobre o comportamento do consumidor : um experimento em cafeterias

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    A influência dos estímulos sensoriais no comportamento do consumidor vem sendo discutida e pesquisada há mais de 50 anos. Porém, um grande salto foi dado nos últimos anos, com a intensificação das pesquisas em torno do marketing experiencial e ou sensorial. Com essa intensificação, ao final da década de 90, houve uma significativa exploração do estímulo olfativo. Esta pesquisa tem como propósito o enriquecimento deste tema, mediante a identificação da influência que o aroma ...

  7. Imaginarios urbanos con aroma de café: caso puente Pereira

    OpenAIRE

    Concha Ocampo, Estefani

    2014-01-01

    Imaginarios Urbanos con aroma de café: caso puente Pereira, se constituye como proyecto de grado que da cuenta del hallazgo de marcas del Paisaje Cultural Cafetero a partir de las rutinas de los ciudadanos que transitan, viven o se recrean en la carrera 12 bis entre calles 15 y 16 en la ciudad de Pereira, enmarcada dentro del macro proyecto de investigación “Pereira imaginada: 2009-2014”, en su tercera fase de microetnografías y archivos públicos. El proyecto se inscribe en la línea de invest...

  8. Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, F; Valente, A L; dos Santos Tada, E; Rivellino, S R

    2000-03-17

    Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea. L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, Carbowax and Carboxen were carried out. The analytes identified included several alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and terpernoids. The highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using the Carboxen fiber.

  9. Sastav arome topljenih sireva proizvedenih uz primjenu prirodnih aroma Cheddar sira i Parmezana

    OpenAIRE

    Kulić, Ljiljana; Hardi, Jovica; Carić, Marijana

    1991-01-01

    U industriji prerade mlijeka prirodne arome sira mogu da se koriste za dobivanje specifične arome pri proizvodnji topljenih sireva, jogurta, pavlake, maslaca, sira u prahu i raznih imitacija mliječnih proizvoda. Prednosti njihove primjene jesu: povećan intenzitet arome, ujednačenost i stalna kvaliteta te niža cijena u odnosu na odgovarajući sir. U ovom radu je praćen sastav arome topljenih sireva za mazanje proizvedenih primjenom prirodnih aroma sira (proizvođač International Flavors and Fran...

  10. Lactococcal aminotransferases AraT and BcaT are key enzymes for the formation of aroma compounds from amino acids in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, L.; Yvon, M.; Kranenburg, van R.; Courtin, P.; Verheul, A.; Chambellon, E.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    Amino acid catabolism plays a major role in cheese aroma development. Previously, we showed that the lactococcal aminotransferases AraT and BcaT initiate the conversion of aromatic amino acids, branched-chain amino acids and methionine to aroma compounds. In this study, we evaluated the importance o

  11. Strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Ana; Guillamon, Eva; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Garcia-Lafuente, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Fungal aroma comprises at least seven chemical groups of volatile organic compounds, which are plain hydrocarbons, heterocycles, alcohols, phenols, acids and derivatives, carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones), and sulfur containing molecules. This aromatic blend provides the excellent sensory properties to produce and several strategies have been employed to create aromatic products having the aroma and taste of mushrooms and truffles. Nowadays, there are several procedures to obtain aroma concentrates. Among them, the simulation of mushroom aroma by the combination of the main substances responsible for the flavour could be an efficient strategy. Nevertheless, natural procedures are gaining more importance since the concentrate is not a synthetic product and the processes commonly involve the use of mushroom waste. In this field, the maceration with precursor molecules, such as linoleic acid, or different types of enzymes is commonly used in food industry. This article provides a wide view of the most common strategies to produce fungal aroma taking into account the main advantages and disadvantages they present. The article presents some promising patents on strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

  12. Understanding the role of saliva in aroma release from wine by using static and dynamic headspace conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Feron, Gilles; Guichard, Elisabeth; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J José; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-08-20

    The aim of this work was to determine the role of saliva in wine aroma release by using static and dynamic headspace conditions. In the latter conditions, two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) corresponding with oral (25.5 °C) and postoral phases (36 °C) were monitored. Both methodologies were applied to reconstituted dearomatized white and red wines with different nonvolatile wine matrix compositions and a synthetic wine (without matrix effect). All of the wines had the same ethanol concentration and were spiked with a mixture of 45 aroma compounds covering a wide range of physicochemical characteristics at typical wine concentrations. Two types of saliva (human and artificial) or control samples (water) were added to the wines. The adequacy of the two headspace methodologies for the purposes of the study (repeatability, linear ranges, determination coefficients, etc.) was previously determined. After application of different chemometric analysis (ANOVA, LSD, PCA), results showed a significant effect of saliva on aroma release dependent on saliva type (differences between artificial and human) and on wine matrix using static headspace conditions. Red wines were more affected than white and synthetic wines by saliva, specifically human saliva, which provoked a reduction in aroma release for most of the assayed aroma compounds independent of their chemical structure. The application of dynamic headspace conditions using a saliva bioreactor at the two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) showed a lesser but significant effect of saliva than matrix composition and a high influence of temperature (oral and postoral phases) on aroma release.

  13. Multi-volatile method for aroma analysis using sequential dynamic headspace sampling with an application to brewed coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Tsunokawa, Jun; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Hoffmann, Andreas

    2014-12-05

    A novel multi-volatile method (MVM) using sequential dynamic headspace (DHS) sampling for analysis of aroma compounds in aqueous sample was developed. The MVM consists of three different DHS method parameters sets including choice of the replaceable adsorbent trap. The first DHS sampling at 25 °C using a carbon-based adsorbent trap targets very volatile solutes with high vapor pressure (>20 kPa). The second DHS sampling at 25 °C using the same type of carbon-based adsorbent trap targets volatile solutes with moderate vapor pressure (1-20 kPa). The third DHS sampling using a Tenax TA trap at 80 °C targets solutes with low vapor pressure (aroma compounds for each DHS sampling and the combined MVM procedure were evaluated as a function of vapor pressure in the range of 0.000088-120 kPa. The MVM provided very good recoveries in the range of 91-111%. The method showed good linearity (r2>0.9910) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 1.0-7.5 ng mL(-1)) even with MS scan mode. The feasibility and benefit of the method was demonstrated with analysis of a wide variety of aroma compounds in brewed coffee. Ten potent aroma compounds from top-note to base-note (acetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, 4-ethyl guaiacol, furaneol, guaiacol, 3-methyl butanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, vanillin, and 4-vinyl guaiacol) could be identified together with an additional 72 aroma compounds. Thirty compounds including 9 potent aroma compounds were quantified in the range of 74-4300 ng mL(-1) (RSD<10%, n=5).

  14. Tracer aroma compound transfer from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix packed in treated papers or plastic packaging film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury-Brun, Cécile; Lequin, Sonia; Chalier, Pascale; Desobry, Stéphane; Voilley, Andrée

    2007-02-21

    The objective of this work was to study the transfer of four aroma compounds (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, cis-3-hexenol, and benzaldehyde) from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix (sponge cake) toward and through packaging films placed in indirect contact during storage in accelerated aging conditions (38 degrees C and 86% relative humidity gradient). The efficiency of treated papers relative to that of standard paper and plastic as barrier was tested. Before storage, aroma compound volatility in the sponge cake was measured, and similar values were found between aroma compounds, due to the fat content of the sponge cake. Whatever the aroma compound, permeability values during storage were similar for the same packaging film. The plastic film was the highest barrier, whereas calendering and coating treatments applied to treated papers decreased effectively their permeability. An opposite trend was observed for aroma compound sorption into packaging films during storage.

  15. Evaluation of ICA-AROMA and alternative strategies for motion artifact removal in resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruim, Raimon H R; Mennes, Maarten; Buitelaar, Jan K; Beckmann, Christian F

    2015-05-15

    We proposed ICA-AROMA as a strategy for the removal of motion-related artifacts from fMRI data (Pruim et al., 2015). ICA-AROMA automatically identifies and subsequently removes data-driven derived components that represent motion-related artifacts. Here we present an extensive evaluation of ICA-AROMA by comparing our strategy to a range of alternative strategies for motion-related artifact removal: (i) no secondary motion correction, (ii) extensive nuisance regression utilizing 6 or (iii) 24 realignment parameters, (iv) spike regression (Satterthwaite et al., 2013a), (v) motion scrubbing (Power et al., 2012), (vi) aCompCor (Behzadi et al., 2007; Muschelli et al., 2014), (vii) SOCK (Bhaganagarapu et al., 2013), and (viii) ICA-FIX (Griffanti et al., 2014; Salimi-Khorshidi et al., 2014), without re-training the classifier. Using three different functional connectivity analysis approaches and four different multi-subject resting-state fMRI datasets, we assessed all strategies regarding their potential to remove motion artifacts, ability to preserve signal of interest, and induced loss in temporal degrees of freedom (tDoF). Results demonstrated that ICA-AROMA, spike regression, scrubbing, and ICA-FIX similarly minimized the impact of motion on functional connectivity metrics. However, both ICA-AROMA and ICA-FIX resulted in significantly improved resting-state network reproducibility and decreased loss in tDoF compared to spike regression and scrubbing. In comparison to ICA-FIX, ICA-AROMA yielded improved preservation of signal of interest across all datasets. These results demonstrate that ICA-AROMA is an effective strategy for removing motion-related artifacts from rfMRI data. Our robust and generalizable strategy avoids the need for censoring fMRI data and reduces motion-induced signal variations in fMRI data, while preserving signal of interest and increasing the reproducibility of functional connectivity metrics. In addition, ICA-AROMA preserves the temporal non

  16. Effects of bagging on “Hanfu" apple aroma compounds%套袋对“寒富”苹果果实香气成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧峰; 王海波; 李林光; 吕德国; 杨建明

    2011-01-01

    credible research on the effects of fruit bagging materials on fruit taste. Fruit aroma, a critical fruit taste indicator that determines fruit flavor, was investigated in this study in relation to fruit bag materials. The study used static headspace and meteorological chromatogra-phy-mass spectromctry technology to analyze the effects of bags of different materials (e.g., plastic film bag, double-layer paper bag, and reflective film bag) on aromatic compounds of "Hanfu" apple fruits, Although the effects of different bag materials on fruit aromatic compounds were different, bagging generally reduced the total content of aromatic compounds in "Hanfu" apple fruits. The total content of aromas in plastic film bagged fruits was slightly lower than that in non-bagged (CK) fruits (0.792 μg-g-l). The total contents of aromas in fruits with double-layer paper and reflective film bags were 40.03% and 20.33% lower than that of CK, respectively. While bagging increased the total content of esters, it decreased the total content of alcohols and aldehydes. The aroma compounds of "Hanfu" apple characteristically contained 2-methylethylbutyrate, ethyl butyrate, 2-methylethylhexylbutyrate, ethyl hexa-noate and hexaldehyde; all of which were ester aromas. The characteristic aroma compound of apple fruits with plastic film and dou-ble-layer paper bags was 2-meihylethylbutyrate. While ehylbutyrate and 2-methylethylbutyrate were the characteristic aroma compounds of apple fruits with reflective film bags, 2-methylethylbutyrate and hcxaldehyde were the characteristic aroma compounds of CK fruits. Fruit bagging limited production of important aroma compound (E)-2-hexenal, causing lower aroma quality of apple fruit under bagging than under CK conditions. The study of aromatic compounds laid the basis for research-driven selection and innovation of fruit bagging materials in fruit production.

  17. Identification of aroma-active volatiles in banana Terra spirit using multidimensional gas chromatography with simultaneous mass spectrometry and olfactometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobiango, Michely; Mastello, Raíssa Bittar; Chin, Sung-Tong; Oliveira, Evelyn de Souza; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes; Marriott, Philip John

    2015-04-03

    Fruit spirits have been produced and consumed throughout the world for centuries. However, the aroma composition of banana spirits is still poorly characterised. We have investigated the aroma-impact compounds of the banana Terra spirit for the first time, using multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC and GC × GC) in a multi-hyphenated system - i.e., coupled to flame ionisation detection (FID), mass spectrometry (MS), and olfactometry (O). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to isolate the headspace aroma compounds of the banana spirit. The detection frequency (DF) technique was applied and aroma regions, detected in the first column separation at >60% Nasal Impact Frequency (NIF), were screened as target potent odour regions in the sample. Using a polar/non-polar phase column set, the potent odour regions were further subjected to MDGC separation with simultaneous O and MS detection for correlation of the aroma perception with MS data for individual resolved aroma-impact compounds. GC-O analysis enabled 18 aroma-impact regions to be located as providing volatiles of interest for further study; for example, those comprising perceptions of flower, whisky, green, amongst others. Compounds were tentatively identified through MS data matching and retention indices in both first and second dimensions. The principal volatile compounds identified in this work, which are responsible for the characteristic aroma of the banana spirit, are 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate and phenylethyl alcohol. This is the first such study to reveal the major aroma compounds that contribute to banana spirit aroma.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Aroma Compounds against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Improvement of Microbiological Stability of Soft Drinks as Assessed by Logistic Regression▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belletti, Nicoletta; Kamdem, Sylvain Sado; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Covelli, Alessandro; Gardini, Fausto

    2007-01-01

    The combined effects of a mild heat treatment (55°C) and the presence of three aroma compounds [citron essential oil, citral, and (E)-2-hexenal] on the spoilage of noncarbonated beverages inoculated with different amounts of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain were evaluated. The results, expressed as growth/no growth, were elaborated using a logistic regression in order to assess the probability of beverage spoilage as a function of thermal treatment length, concentration of flavoring agents, and yeast inoculum. The logit models obtained for the three substances were extremely precise. The thermal treatment alone, even if prolonged for 20 min, was not able to prevent yeast growth. However, the presence of increasing concentrations of aroma compounds improved the stability of the products. The inhibiting effect of the compounds was enhanced by a prolonged thermal treatment. In fact, it influenced the vapor pressure of the molecules, which can easily interact within microbial membranes when they are in gaseous form. (E)-2-Hexenal showed a threshold level, related to initial inoculum and thermal treatment length, over which yeast growth was rapidly inhibited. Concentrations over 100 ppm of citral and thermal treatment longer than 16 min allowed a 90% probability of stability for bottles inoculated with 105 CFU/bottle. Citron gave the most interesting responses: beverages with 500 ppm of essential oil needed only 3 min of treatment to prevent yeast growth. In this framework, the logistic regression proved to be an important tool to study alternative hurdle strategies for the stabilization of noncarbonated beverages. PMID:17616627

  19. Variability in waxing-induced ethanol and aroma volatile production among mandarin genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarins often develop off-flavors during storage that impact consumer acceptance and it would be useful to develop mandarin varieties that are less susceptible to postharvest flavor loss. Ethanol has long been identified as being a compound identified with flavor loss in citrus. A range of divers...

  20. Highly efficient production of nootkatone, the grapefruit aroma from valencene, by biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-11-01

    Nootkatone, the most important and expensive aromatic of grapefruit, decreases the somatic fat ratio, and thus its demand is increasing in the cosmetic and fiber sectors. A sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, (+)-valencene, which is cheaply obtained from Valencia orange, was biotransformed by the green algae Chlorella species and fungi such as Mucor species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Botryodiplodia theobromae to afford nootkatone in high yield.

  1. Lactic fermentation to improve the aroma of protein extracts of sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sabrina; Wittig, Maximilian; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Bez, Jürgen; Eisner, Peter; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-09-15

    Lupin protein extracts (LPE) are prone to the emission of a beany off-flavour during storage, which confines its application in foods. Fermentation of LPE using several lactic acid bacteria was conducted to reduce off-flavour formation in stored samples. The aroma profile of untreated LPE was compared to those of fermented protein extracts (LPEF). Hexanal and n-hexanol were used as indicator substances of progressing lipid oxidation. The most powerful odourants were evaluated by GC-olfactometry-flavour dilution analysis and identified according to their mass spectra, odour descriptions, and retention indices. Twenty two volatile substances with dilution factors equal to or higher than 100 were determined in both LPE and LPEF, amongst them n-pentanal, n-hexanal, 1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octen-2-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and β-damascenone. The aroma profile was significantly modified by the fermentation process and the off-flavours were reduced and/or masked by newly formed compounds.

  2. Simultaneous determination of fermented milk aroma compounds by a potentiometric sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruskar, Mirjana; Major, Nikola; Krpan, Marina; Vahcić, Nada

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports on the application of an electronic tongue for simultaneous determination of ethanol, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, lactic acid, acetic acid and citric acid content in probiotic fermented milk. The alphaAstree electronic tongue by Alpha M.O.S. was employed. The sensor array comprised of seven non-specific, cross-sensitive sensors developed especially for food analysis coupled with a reference Ag/AgCl electrode. Samples of plain, strawberry, apple-pear and forest-fruit flavored probiotic fermented milk were analyzed both by standard methods and by the potentiometric sensor array. The results obtained by these methods were used for the development of neural network models for rapid estimation of aroma compounds content in probiotic fermented milk. The highest correlation (0.967) and lowest standard deviation of error for the training (0.585), selection (0.503) and testing (0.571) subset was obtained for the estimation of ethanol content. The lowest correlation (0.669) was obtained for the estimation of acetaldehyde content. The model exhibited poor performance in average error and standard deviations of errors in all subsets which could be explained by low sensitivity of the sensor array to the compound. The obtained results indicate that the potentiometric electronic tongue coupled with artificial neural networks can be applied as a rapid method for the determination of aroma compounds in probiotic fermented milk.

  3. Phenolic and Aroma Composition of White Wines Produced by Prolonged Maceration and Maturation in Wooden Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Jedrejčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the phenolic and aroma composition of Malvazija istarska (Vitis vinifera L. white wines produced by an unconventional technology comprising prolonged maceration followed by maturation in wooden barrels, representative samples were subjected to analysis by UV/Vis spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When compared to standard wines, the investigated samples contained higher levels of dry extract, volatile acidity, lactic acid, phenols, colour intensity, antioxidant activity, majority of monoterpenes, C13-norisoprenoids, methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl acetate, branched-chain esters and esters of hydroxy and dicarboxylic acids, ethylphenols, furans, and acetals, as well as lower levels of malic acid, β-damascenone, straight-chain fatty acids, ethyl and acetate esters. It was estimated that maceration had a stronger influence on phenols, and maturation on volatile aromas. Despite different vintages and technological details, the investigated wines showed a relative homogeneity in the composition, representing a clear and distinctive type.

  4. Targeting key aromatic substances on the typical aroma of sherry vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Raquel M; Morales, M Lourdes; Troncoso, Ana M; Silva Ferreira, Antonio C

    2008-08-13

    Two gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques were used to screen targeting compounds with an impact on the perceived quality of Sherry vinegar: detection frequency and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The GC-O study revealed the presence of 108 aromatic notes, of which 64 were identified. Diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, acetic acid, and sotolon reached the highest frequency and flavor dilution (FD) factors. Ethyl acetate accounted for the maximum frequency but only a FD factor of 4. To test the sensory impact of these odorants, they were added to a 7% (w/v) acetic acid solution. We determined similarity values (SV) between solutions and the Sherry vinegar. The highest value from the similarity test was observed when diacetyl, ethyl acetate, and sotolon were added simultaneously. The profile of this model solution and a representative Sherry vinegar showed good similarity in the general impression descriptor, which emphasizes the important contribution of these three compounds to the global aroma of this vinegar.

  5. Differential Contribution of Jasmine Floral Volatiles to the Aroma of Scented Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xia Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea volatiles’ generation and retention over manufacturing processes are crucial for tea quality. In this study, floral volatile adsorption and retention in green tea scented with Jasminum sambac flowers were examined over the scenting process. Out of 34 enhanced volatiles in the scented tea, β-ionone, β-linalool, indole, and methyl anthranilate were the most potent odorants with 5.1–45.2-fold higher odor activity values than the corresponding controls in the nonscented tea. Scenting efficiencies for the floral volatiles retained in the scented tea (the percentage of volatile abundance over its corresponding amount in jasmine flowers ranged from 0.22% for α-farnesene to 75.5% for β-myrcene. Moreover, due to additional rounds of heat treatment for scented green tea manufacturing, some volatiles such as carotenoid-derived geraniol and β-ionone and lipid-derived (Z-jasmone were heat-enhanced and others such as nonanal were heat-desorbed in the scented green tea. Our study revealed that dynamic volatile absorption and desorption collectively determined tea volatile retention and tea aroma. Our findings may have a great potential for practical improvement of tea aroma.

  6. Retention of aroma compounds from Mentha piperita essential oil by cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, A; Mallard, I; Landy, D; Brabie, G; Nistor, D; Fourmentin, S

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the controlled release of aroma compounds from cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD polymers was studied by multiple headspace extraction (MHE) experiments. Mentha piperita essential oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and identification of the major compounds was performed by GC-MS analysis. Menthol, menthone, pulegone and eucalyptol were identified as the major components. Retention of standard compounds in the presence of different CDs and CD polymers has been realised by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) at 25 °C in the aqueous or gaseous phase. Stability constants for standard compounds and for compounds in essential oil have been also determined with monomeric CD derivatives. The obtained results indicated the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for all the studied compounds. Molecular modelling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. This study showed that β-CDs were the most versatile CDs and that β-CD polymers could perform the controlled release of aroma compounds.

  7. Determination of sugars, organic acids, aroma components, and carotenoids in grapefruit pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Quan, Junping; Zheng, Qiao; Xi, Wanpeng

    2016-08-15

    The composition and content of sugars, organic acids, volatiles and carotenoids, in the pulps of six grapefruit cultivars, were examined by HPLC and GC-MS. The results showed that sucrose was the dominant sugar in grapefruit, making up 40.08-59.68% of the total sugars, and the ratio of fructose to glucose was almost 1:1. Citric acid was the major organic acid and represented 39.10-63.55% of the total organic acids, followed by quininic acid. The ratios of individual sugars and organic acids play an important role in grapefruit taste determination. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the predominant volatiles in grapefruit, in particular d-limonene and caryophyllene. Caryophyllene, α-humulene, humulen-(v1), β-linalool and tert-butyl 2-methylpropanoate are the characteristic aroma compounds of grapefruit. Although β-carotene is the primary carotenoid in grapefruit, the pulp color is mainly determined by the ratios of zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. Our results provide the first complete chemical characterization of the taste, aroma and color of grapefruit.

  8. Aroma chemical composition of red wines from different price categories and its relationship to quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Felipe San; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2012-05-23

    The aroma chemical composition of three sets of Spanish red wines belonging to three different price categories was studied by using an array of gas chromatographic methods. Significant differences were found in the levels of 72 aroma compounds. Expensive wines are richest in wood-related compounds, ethyl phenols, cysteinil-derived mercaptans, volatile sulfur compounds, ethyl esters of branched acids, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde and are poorest in linear and branched fatty acids, fusel alcohols, terpenols, norisoprenoids, fusel alcohol acetates, and ethyl esters of the linear fatty acids; inexpensive wines show exactly the opposite profile, being richest in E-2-nonenal, E-2-hexenal, Z-3-hexenol, acetoin, and ethyl lactate. Satisfactory models relating quality to odorant composition could be built exclusively for expensive and medium-price wines but not for the lower-price sample set in which in-mouth attributes had to be included. The models for quality reveal a common structure, but they are characteristic of a given sample set.

  9. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Bova Olive Cultivar and Aroma Fingerprint of Its Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Krapac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary study aims to contribute to the characterization of Istrian (Croatia olive cultivars and oil, giving for the first time the morphological and genetic profile of Bova cultivar, and chemical and sensorial characteristics of its oil. Morphological features of Bova cv. were determined according to the International Olive Council methodology, while molecular characterization was performed using eleven microsatellite markers. Bova cultivar was morphologically and genetically different from other described Istrian olive cultivars. The microsatellite profile of Bova was also unique when compared to more than 200 different Italian genotypes using the same set of markers. In order to characterize the oil from Bova cv., fruits from three trees at the same ripening stage were harvested and processed separately under the same conditions. Volatile composition of the obtained oil samples was determined using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. About 50 volatiles were detected, mostly hydrocarbons (34.69 % of total peak area, followed by aldehydes (25.80 %, alcohols (22.24 %, ketones (8.76 %, organic acids (4.08 %, terpenes (2.10 %, esters (2.18 % and furans (0.26 %. Bova oil was rich in total C6 (39.87 % and C5 volatiles (13.85 %, biogenerated through the lipoxygenase pathway. The most prevalent volatile compound was C6 aldehyde E-2-hexenal. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of the investigated olive oil samples was carried out by a sensory panel. The sensory profile was characterized by medium intensities of olive fruity, green leaves and grass, light tomato and aromatic herbs flavours with mild apple and other ripe fruit notes. The taste was characterized by medium to strong bitterness, followed by medium pungency and mild sweetness.

  10. Production of medium-chain volatile flavour esters in Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts with extracellular expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase Eht1 or Eeb1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Fu, Junshu; Powell, Chris;

    2015-01-01

    Medium-chain volatile flavour esters are important molecules since they have extensive applications in food, fragrance, cosmetic, paint and coating industries, which determine different characteristics of aroma or taste in commercial products. Biosynthesis of these compounds by alcoholysis...

  11. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  12. 静态顶空-气相色谱法测定葡萄酒中主要香气成分研究%Determination of principal aroma components in wine by static headspace-gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷安亮; 钟其顶; 高红波; 张辉; 刘长江; 熊正河

    2009-01-01

    Aroma compounds can reflect the wine quality and manufacturing technique, Analyzing aroma compounds in wines can be used to control wine production process and improve wine quality. In this paper, a rapid and simple method which applying static headspace coupled with capillary gas chromatography was developed for determining the aroma components in wine. The determination conditions including incubation time, sample volume, incubation temperature, incubation time and salt concentration were further optimized. The method was characterized by the good linearity within range of mass concentration, satisfactory recoveries, good stability, high precise and low cost, which could be used in the determination of main aroma components of wine in practical production.%葡萄酒的香气成分反映了葡萄酒质量和生产工艺,通过对葡萄酒的主要香气组分及含量的分析测定对于指导葡萄酒生产过程控制和提高葡萄酒风味质量具有重要意义.以采用正交试验、静态顶空-气相色谱法研究了样品量、平衡温度、平衡时间、离子强度等影响因子对静态顶空-气相色谱测定葡萄酒中香气物质的影响,选择了最佳的分析条件, 用酒样标准加入法对葡萄酒中香气成分进行定量.结果表明,该方法不仅在质量浓度范围内有良好的线性关系,而且稳定性好、准确度高、成本低、是适宜推广的测定葡萄酒中主要香气成分的方法.

  13. Important aroma compounds in freshly ground wholemeal and white wheat flour-identification and quantitative changes during sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-11-01

    An investigation on the odor-active compounds of wholemeal (WWF) and white wheat flour (WF 550) by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and by quantitative studies using stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) revealed a significant number of odor-active compounds, such as (E)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)- and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, and vanillin, with high odor activities in both wheat flours. The amounts and, consequently, the aroma potencies of vanillin, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 3-(methylthio)propanal were much higher in the WWF than in the WF 550 samples. Fermentation of suspensions of both flours with lactic acid bacteria did not generate new odorants; however, many compounds, such as acetic acid or 3-methylbutanal, were increased, whereas aldehydes (formed from the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids) were decreased. Comparing the odorant concentrations present before and after fermentation gave evidence that the main influence of the microorganisms on sourdough aroma is to either enhance or decrease specific volatiles already present in the flour. A comparison with literature data indicated that most of these odorants are also important for the bread crumb aroma present after baking of the dough.

  14. The efficacy of molecular markers analysis with integration of sensory methods in detection of aroma in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, H Y; Faruq, G; Zakaria, H P; Harikrishna, J A

    2013-01-01

    Allele Specific Amplification with four primers (External Antisense Primer, External Sense Primer, Internal Nonfragrant Sense Primer, and Internal Fragrant Antisense Primer) and sensory evaluation with leaves and grains were executed to identify aromatic rice genotypes and their F1 individuals derived from different crosses of 2 Malaysian varieties with 4 popular land races and 3 advance lines. Homozygous aromatic (fgr/fgr) F1 individuals demonstrated better aroma scores compared to both heterozygous nonaromatic (FGR/fgr) and homozygous nonaromatic (FGR/FGR) individuals, while, some F1 individuals expressed aroma in both leaf and grain aromatic tests without possessing the fgr allele. Genotypic analysis of F1 individuals for the fgr gene represented homozygous aromatic, heterozygous nonaromatic and homozygous nonaromatic genotypes in the ratio 20:19:3. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis revealed that aroma in F1 individuals was successfully inherited from the parents, but either molecular analysis or sensory evaluation alone could not determine aromatic condition completely. The integration of molecular analysis with sensory methods was observed as rapid and reliable for the screening of aromatic genotypes because molecular analysis could distinguish aromatic homozygous, nonaromatic homozygous and nonaromatic heterozygous individuals, whilst the sensory method facilitated the evaluation of aroma emitted from leaf and grain during flowering to maturity stages.

  15. Evaluation of three gas chromatography and two direct mass spectrometry techniques for aroma analysis of dried red bell peppers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Boscaini, E.; Mayr, D.; Pugh, J.; Posthumus, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Three gas chromatography methods and two direct mass spectrometry techniques were compared for the analysis of the aroma of rehydrated diced red bell peppers. Gas chromatography methods included systems with olfactometry detection (GC-O), flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC

  16. Comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (cAEDA) of Fat from Tainted Boars, Castrated Male Pigs, and Female Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christoph; Leppert, Jan; Santiuste, Alicia Chamarro; Pfeiffer, Anne; Boeker, Peter; Wüst, Matthias

    2017-01-12

    The aroma profile of porcine fat from tainted boars, female pigs, and castrated male pigs was investigated by application of comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) on a SAFE distillate of volatiles prepared from porcine back fat samples. The AEDA resulted in a total of 16 aroma active compounds for boar fat with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 2 to 2048, whereas 12 aroma active compounds were found in fat of female pigs and 14 in fat of castrated male pigs, both with FD factors ranging from 2 to 32. Odor activity values (OAVs) of key components for each fat were identified: In boar fat androstenone, skatole, indole, and 2-aminoacetophenone showed highest OAVs, whereas 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,4-decadienal, and δ-decalactone showed highest OAVs in fat of female pigs. Fat of castrated male pigs showed highest OAVs for skatole, indole, 1-octen-3-ol and methional. Finally, the off-flavor attributes of boar fat were successfully simulated by a recombinant of all odorants at their natural concentration level in deodorized sunflower oil.

  17. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Raw Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Juliane; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-09

    Application of the molecular sensory science concept including aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the basis of gas chromatography-olfactometry combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry elucidated the key odorants of raw licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.). Fifty aroma-active compounds were located via AEDA; 16 thereof were identified in raw licorice for the first time. γ-Nonalactone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 1024. Forty-three compounds were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA; 6 more compounds were quantitated using labeled standards with structures similar to the respective analytes) and odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to the respective odor threshold) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥1 for 39 compounds. Thereby, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, hexanal, and linalool showed the highest OAVs. On the basis of the obtained results, an aqueous reconstitution model was prepared by mixing these 39 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. The recombinate elicited an aroma profile very similar to the profile of raw licorice, proving that all key aroma compounds were correctly identified and quantitated.

  18. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  19. Eating behaviour and retro-nasal aroma release in normal-weight and overweight adults: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, N.; Bukman, A.J.; Mars, M.; Stafleu, A.; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J.; Graaf, C. de

    2011-01-01

    Eating rate and bite size are important factors affecting food intake, and we hypothesise the underlying role of oral sensory exposure in this. However, the latter currently lacks objective measuring parameters, but an interesting measure could be the extent of in vivo retro-nasal aroma release. Sec

  20. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees.

  1. Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatira TAŞKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

  2. Effects of packaging materials on the aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder as determined by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelaphiwat, Pattarin; Harte, Janice B; Auras, Rafael A; Ong, Peter Kc; Chonhenchob, Vanee

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the aroma characteristics of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, containing lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf, as affected by different packaging materials were assessed using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The descriptive aroma attributes for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf powders were developed by the QDA panel. The mixed herb and spice seasoning powder was kept in glass jars closed with different packaging materials (Nylon 6, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA)) stored at 38 °C (accelerated storage condition), and evaluated by the trained QDA panel during storage for 49 days. The descriptive words for Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder developed by the trained panelists were lemongrass, vinegary and leafy for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf dried powder, respectively. The aroma intensities significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with increased storage time. However, the intensity scores for aroma attributes were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among the packaging materials studied. The major components in Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, quantified by GC-MS, were estragole, bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, β-bisabolene, benzoic acid and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate. The concentrations of major aroma compounds significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with storage time. Aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' powder can be determined by descriptive sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. Nylon, PET and PLA exhibited similar aroma barrier properties against key aroma compounds in Thai 'tom yam'. This information can be used for prediction of aroma loss through packaging materials during storage of Thai 'tom yam'. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Inhibition of the compound action potentials of frog sciatic nerves by aroma oil compounds having various chemical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Matsushita, Akitomo; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2015-03-01

    Plant-derived chemicals including aroma oil compounds have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction and modulate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although applying aroma oils to the skin produces a local anesthetic effect, this has not been yet examined throughly. The aim of the present study was to know how nerve conduction inhibitions by aroma oil compounds are related to their chemical structures and whether these activities are mediated by TRP activation. Compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Citral (aldehyde), which activates various types of TRP channels, attenuated the peak amplitude of CAP with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.46 mmol/L. Another aldehyde (citronellal), alcohol (citronellol, geraniol, (±)-linalool, (-)-linalool, (+)-borneol, (-)-borneol, α-terpineol), ester (geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, bornyl acetate), and oxide (rose oxide) compounds also reduced CAP peak amplitudes (IC50: 0.50, 0.35, 0.53, 1.7, 2.0, 1.5, 2.3, 2.7, 0.51, 0.71, 0.44, and 2.6 mmol/L, respectively). On the other hand, the amplitudes were reduced by a small extent by hydrocarbons (myrcene and p-cymene) and ketone (camphor) at high concentrations (2-5 mmol/L). The activities of citral and other TRP agonists ((+)-borneol and camphor) were resistant to TRP antagonist ruthenium red. An efficacy sequence for the CAP inhibitions was generally aldehydes ≥ esters ≥ alcohols > oxides > hydrocarbons. The CAP inhibition by the aroma oil compound was not related to its octanol-water partition coefficient. It is suggested that aroma oil compounds inhibit nerve conduction in a manner specific to their chemical structures without TRP activation.

  4. Aroma release and retronasal perception during and after consumption of flavored whey protein gels with different textures. 1. in vivo release analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres, Montserrat; Moran, Noelia; Jordan, Alfons; Buettner, Andrea

    2005-01-26

    The influence of gel texture on retronasal aroma release during mastication was followed by means of real-time proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry and compared to sensory perception of overall aroma intensity. A clear correlation was found between individual-specific consumption patterns and the respective physicochemical release patterns in vivo. A modified data analysis approach was used to monitor the aroma changes during the mastication process. It was found that the temporal resolution of the release profile played an important role in adequate description of the release processes. On the basis of this observation, a hypothesis is presented for the observed differences in intensity rating.

  5. Quantification of aroma compounds in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese by a dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique and calculation of odor activity value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Michael; Reineccius, G A

    2003-03-01

    Potentially important aroma compounds in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese were quantified. Free fatty acids were isolated with ion-exchange chromatography and quantified by gas chromatography. Neutral aroma compounds were quantified with a purge-trap/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective mass ion technique. Odor activity values were calculated based on sensory thresholds reported in literature. The calculated odor activity values suggest that 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, diacetyl, methional, phenylacetaldehyde, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, acetic, butanoic, hexanoic, and octanoic acids are the most important aroma contributors to Parmigiano Reggiano cheese.

  6. Quantification of megastigmatrienone, a potential contributor to tobacco aroma in spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Perello, Marie-Claire; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles

    2016-07-15

    A SPME-GC-MS method was adapted and validated in order to quantify 5 megastigmatrienones and related odorous compounds from oak wood: guaiacol, cis-whisky lactone, trans-whisky lactone, γ-nonalactone, eugenol, vanillin, and acetovanillone in a single run. The five megastigmatrienone isomers (tabanones) were quantified, for the first time, in Cognac, Armagnac and rum, as contributors to tobacco-like aromas. Spirits aged in oak barrels contain higher amounts, but megastigmatrienones are also present in freshly-distilled spirits. Statistical analysis revealed that freshly-distilled and barrel-aged spirits were differentiated by their megastigma-4,7E,9-trien-3-one levels. The Armagnac and Cognac samples were distinguished by their concentrations of the megastigma-4,6Z,8E-trien-3-one isomer.

  7. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  8. Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of≥4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of≥16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, β-damascenone, geraniol, β-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

  9. AROMAS E SABORES: UMA ABORDAGEM GEOGRÁFICA NA EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pinto dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa explorar as possiblidades presentes nos sentidos paladar, olfato e/ou tato dentro do ensino da ciência geográfica com abordagem para a Educação Ambiental, levando discentes e educadores a (re inventar saberes e fazeres na educação básica. Dentro da oficina intitulada de “geografia dos aromas e sabores” os alunos participantes do Programa Institucional de Bolsa de Iniciação à Docência explorarão a sensibilidade propiciada por parte dos sentidos humanos na compreensão da ampla interdependência global a qual estamos vivendo, levando-os a percepção do quando se torna importante pensarmos em uma conscientização coletiva sobre o meio ambiente e sobre nossas práticas cotidianas.

  10. Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Macedo

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos afetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação.

  11. 气质联用分析云南老树茶香气成分%The Analysis of Aroma Compositions in the Old Plant Tea by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明容; 夏凯国; 张劲松; 马燕; 杨四润; 吴绍帅; 周红杰; 张春花; 袁文侠; 李亚莉; 任洪涛

    2012-01-01

    Old plant tea has a unique aroma and quality distinctive from other tea types. In order to better understand and develop it,and to solve the problem that old plant tea trees' information on the market is confusing. In this paper,the aroma compounds of nine representative old plant tea samples were extracted using simultaneous distillation and extraction method (SDE) and determined by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In a total,63 aroma compounds were identified,including 20 kinds of hydrocarbons,15 kinds of alcohols,14 kinds of aldehydes,9 species of ketenes,8 kinds of organic acids,4 kinds of esters. The major aroma compounds are benzyl linalool as well as it' s oxidation products,α-terpineol,geraniol,methyl salicylate,furfur alcohol,β-ionone,benzaldehyde,benzeneacetaldehyde and (E,E)-2,4-Heptadienal. This paper revealed the aromatic compositions and features of old plant tea,and provided a scientific basis for the development and consumption of old plant tea.%老树茶是一种有别于其他茶类的茶,具有特殊的香气和品质,为了更好的认识和研发老树茶,解决老树茶在市场上信息混乱的问题,应用同时蒸馏萃取法(SDE)提取和气质联用色谱(GC/MS)分析9个具有代表的老树茶样品的香气成分.试验共鉴定出63种香气化合物,其中醇类15种、碳氢化合物13种、醛类14种、酮类9种、酸类8种、酯类4种;主要香气成分有芳樟醇及其氧化产物、α-松油醇、香叶醇、水杨酸甲酯、糠醇、β-紫罗兰酮、苯甲醛、苯乙醛、(E,E)-2,4-庚二烯醛等.研究初步探明老树茶的香气组成与特点,为老树茶的科学开发、消费提供科学依据.

  12. Characterization of the Aroma-Active, Phenolic, and Lipid Profiles of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Nut as Affected by the Single and Double Roasting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Kelebek, Hasim; Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Fontecha, Javier; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut is one of the most widely consumed edible nuts in the world. However, it is the roasting process that makes the pistachio commercially viable and valuable as it serves as the key step to improving the nut's hallmark sensory characteristics including flavor, color, and texture. Consequently, the present study explores the effects of the single-roasting and double-roasting process on the pistachio's chemical composition, specifically aroma-active compounds, polyphenols, and lipids. Results showed the total polyphenol content of increased with the roasting treatment; however, not all phenolic compounds demonstrated this behavior. With regard to the aroma and aroma-active compounds, the results indicated that roasting process results in the development of characteristics and pleasant aroma of pistachio samples due to the Maillard reaction. With regard to lipids, the pistachio roasting treatment reduced the concentration of CN38 diacylglycerides while increasing the amount of elaidic acid.

  13. Advanced Resolution Organic Molecule Analyzer (AROMA): Simulations, Development and Initial Testing of a Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Instrument for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, R.; Danell, R. M.; Gundersen, C.; Hovmand, L.; Southard, A.; Tan, F.; Grubisic, A.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S. A.; Mahaffy, P.; Cottin, H.; Briois, C.; Colin, F.; Szopa, C.; Vuitton, V.; Makarov, A.; Reinhardt-Szyba, M.

    2016-10-01

    AROMA combines a linear ion trap and Orbitrap mass analyzer to enable: quantitative measurements of organic and inorganic compounds; selective isolation of targeted mass ranges; tandem mass spectrometry; and, ultrahigh mass resolution and accuracy.

  14. Analysis of the Bacterial Communities in Two Liquors of Soy Sauce Aroma as Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 Hypervariable Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Tang, Xiaoxin; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Ximin; Xu, Xiaorong

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages and an important commercial fermented product in China. The Chinese liquor fermentation process has three stages: making Daqu (the starter), stacking fermentation on the ground, and liquor fermentation in pits. We investigated the bacterial diversity of Maotai and Guotai Daqu and liquor fermentation using high-throughput sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 70,297 sequences were obtained from the Daqu samples and clustered into 17 phyla. The composition of the bacterial communities in the Daqu from these two soy sauce aroma-style Chinese liquors was the same, although some bacterial species changed in abundance. Between the Daqu and liquor fermentation samples, 12 bacterial phyla increased. The abundance of Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas increased in the liquor fermentation. This study has used high-throughput sequencing to provide new insights into the bacterial composition of the Chinese liquor Daqu and fermentation. Similarities in the distribution of bacteria in the soy sauce aroma-style Chinese liquors Daqu suggest that the abundance of bacteria might be generally concerned to other liquor. PMID:28337455

  15. Microbial Cell Factories for the Production of Terpenoid Flavor and Fragrance Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempp, Florence M; Drummond, Laura; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens

    2017-04-18

    Terpenoid flavor and fragrance compounds are of high interest to the aroma industry. Microbial production offers an alternative sustainable access to the desired terpenoids independent of natural sources. Genetically engineered microorganisms can be used to synthesize terpenoids from cheap and renewable resources. Due to its modular architecture, terpenoid biosynthesis is especially well suited for the microbial cell factory concept: a platform host engineered for a high flux toward the central C5 prenyl diphosphate precursors enables the production of a broad range of target terpenoids just by varying the pathway modules converting the C5 intermediates to the product of interest. In this review typical terpenoid flavor and fragrance compounds marketed or under development by biotech and aroma companies are given, and the specificities of the aroma market are discussed. The main part of this work focuses on key strategies and recent advances to engineer microbes to become efficient terpenoid producers.

  16. Aroma Promotion:the New Weapon of Mood Marketing%香气促销:情调营销的新利器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温韬

    2012-01-01

    首先,本文根据(关于香气)两个有趣的心理学实验引出了香气促销的话题;其次,本文探讨了香气促销背后的原因:难忘的情调感受;再次,本文指出了企业在实施香气促销之前应该考虑的三个因素;最后,本文还指出香气促销是情调营销的重要工具,为了提供难忘的情调感受,企业必须创建品牌的专属香气。%Firstly,according to two interesting psychology experiments about aroma,the paper leads to the topic of aroma promotion.Secondly,the paper explores the reasons behind aroma promotion,namely the unforgettable mode feeling.Thirdly,the paper points out that three factors should be considered before the implementation of aroma promotion.Finally,the paper points out that aroma promotion is an important tool of mood marketing,in order to provide the unforgettable mode feeling,every company must create the brand's exclusive aroma.

  17. Comparison of Aroma-Active Volatiles in Oolong Tea Infusions Using GC-Olfactometry, GC-FPD, and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Yu, Dan; Shu, Chang; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2015-09-02

    The aroma profile of oolong tea infusions (Dongdingwulong, DDWL; Tieguanyin, TGY; Dahongpao, DHP) were investigated in this study. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with the method of aroma intensity (AI) was employed to investigate the aroma-active compounds in tea infusions. The results presented forty-three, forty-five, and forty-eight aroma-active compounds in the TGY, DHP, and DDWL infusions, including six, seven, and five sulfur compounds, respectively. In addition, the concentration of volatile compounds in the tea infusions was further quantitated by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS and SPME-GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). Totally, seventy-six and thirteen volatile and sulfur compounds were detected in three types of tea infusions, respectively. Quantitative results showed that forty-seven aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), 2-methylpropanal (OAV: 230-455), 3-methylbutanal (1-353), 2-methylbutanal (34-68), nerolidol (108-184), (E)-2-heptenal (148-294), hexanal (134-230), octanal (28-131), β-damascenone (29-59), indole (96-138), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (34-67), (R)-(-)-linalool (63-87), and dimethyl sulfide (7-1320) presented relatively higher OAVs than those of other compounds, indicating the importance of these compounds in the overall aroma of tea infusions.

  18. Effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase activity on flavor profiles of wine and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, M; Lambrechts, M G; Pretorius, I S

    2000-02-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the aroma of wine and distillates by overexpressing one of the endogenous yeast genes that controls acetate ester production during fermentation. The synthesis of acetate esters by the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation is ascribed to at least three acetyltransferase activities, namely, alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), ethanol acetyltransferase, and iso-amyl AAT. To investigate the effect of increased AAT activity on the sensory quality of Chenin blanc wines and distillates from Colombar base wines, we have overexpressed the alcohol acetyltransferase gene (ATF1) of S. cerevisiae. The ATF1 gene, located on chromosome XV, was cloned from a widely used commercial wine yeast strain of S. cerevisiae, VIN13, and placed under the control of the constitutive yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator. Chromoblot analysis confirmed the integration of the modified copy of ATF1 into the genome of three commercial wine yeast strains (VIN7, VIN13, and WE228). Northern blot analysis indicated constitutive expression of ATF1 at high levels in these yeast transformants. The levels of ethyl acetate, iso-amyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate increased 3- to 10-fold, 3.8- to 12-fold, and 2- to 10-fold, respectively, depending on the fermentation temperature, cultivar, and yeast strain used. The concentrations of ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, and hexyl acetate only showed minor changes, whereas the acetic acid

  19. Responsible Effects for Sensory Character of Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    BAŽANTOVÁ, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is literature review on the subject - Responsible Effects for Sensory Character of Meat Products. The introductory part deals with the human sense. Visual sense, smell and taste are of great importance in the sensory evaluation of foods. For meat and meat products to evaluate the sensory characteristic - color, aroma, flavor, consistence, succulence, texture, general appearance and appearance on cut. Various meat products differ in the way of production. According to current legisl...

  20. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  1. Real-Time Emulation of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks with End-to-Edge Quality of Service Guarantees: The AROMA Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Umbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents and describes the real-time testbed for all-IP Beyond 3G (B3G heterogeneous wireless networks that has been developed in the framework of the European IST AROMA project. The main objective of the AROMA testbed is to provide a highly accurate and realistic framework where the performance of algorithms, policies, protocols, services, and applications for a complete heterogeneous wireless network can be fully assessed and evaluated before bringing them to a real system. The complexity of the interaction between all-IP B3G systems and user applications, while dealing with the Quality of Service (QoS concept, motivates the development of this kind of emulation platform where different solutions can be tested in realistic conditions that could not be achieved by means of simple offline simulations. This work provides an in-depth description of the AROMA testbed, emphasizing many interesting implementation details and lessons learned during the development of the tool that may result helpful to other researchers and system engineers in the development of similar emulation platforms. Several case studies are also presented in order to illustrate the full potential and capabilities of the presented emulation platform.

  2. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  3. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Heat-Processed Licorice (Succus Liquiritiae) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Juliane; Schieberle, Peter; Granvogl, Michael

    2017-01-11

    Application of the sensomics concept elucidated the key odorants of heat-processed licorice (Succus Liquiritiae). Forty-nine aroma-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 16 and 2048 were detected; 47 thereof were identified, 23 for the first time in heated licorice. 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one revealed the highest FD factor of 2048, followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, and 2-methoxyphenol (all 1024). Forty-two substances were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs), and odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to the respective odor threshold) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥ 1 for 29 compounds. Thereby, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxyphenol, and 1,8-cineole showed the highest OAVs in Succus Liquiritiae. To validate the obtained data, a reconstitution model based on an aqueous sucrose solution (50%) was prepared, containing all 29 odorants with an OAV ≥ 1 in their naturally occurring concentrations. The recombinate elicited an aroma profile matching very well with the profile of the original heat-processed licorice, proving the correct identification and quantitation of all key aroma compounds of Succus Liquiritiae.

  4. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  5. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds.

  6. Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Noguerol-Pato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous. Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of β-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note. The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes.

  7. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs.

  8. Free and bound aroma compounds characterization by GC-MS of Negroamaro wine as affected by soil management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Crupi, Pasquale; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Antonacci, Donato; Coletta, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Negroamaro is an autochthonous wine grape variety of Southern Italy, which is becoming very important for the Italian wine market. The wine aroma is primary affected by the chemical composition of grapes, which can be influenced also by agronomic practices such as soil management. In this study, the free and bound aroma characterization was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, and the influence of two soil managements (cover cropping and soil tillage) was evaluated. A total of 40 volatile compounds were observed in the wine samples. Alcohols (55.7 mg/L), fatty acids (7.0 mg/L) and esters (6.6 mg/L) were found as the main classes in Negroamaro wine. The results showed that the aroma composition of Negroamaro wine was positively affected by soil tillage probably because of the higher water stress (ψ(s)) recorded in the vines from this treatment. Indeed, among the free volatile compounds, higher contents of esters, carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenolics and acetamides together with lower contents of sulfurs compounds were found in soil tillage wine. Conversely, no difference was observed in glycoside volatile compounds.

  9. Characterization of the Potent Odorants Contributing to the Characteristic Aroma of Matcha by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Ryoko; Amano, Yohei; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2017-03-31

    The odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of matcha were investigated by analysis of the headspace samples and the volatile fractions prepared by a combination of solvent extraction and the SAFE techniques using three matcha powders of different grades (high, medium, and low). Gas chromatography-olfactometry of the headspace samples (GCO-H) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 16 (FD factor ≥1) and 39 (FD factor ≥4(3)) odor-active peaks, respectively. Among them, 14 and 37 of the odorants, most of which were newly detected in matcha, were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O, respectively. By comparing the perceived odorants of three matcha powders, it was revealed that eight compounds with sweet, green, metallic, and floral notes showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors irrespective of the grades. In addition, some odorants were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each grade. Furthermore, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, one of the potent odorants of matcha, was revealed to exist as a racemic mixture in matcha. This result suggested that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal is formed by a nonenzymatic reaction in matcha, different from that in black tea, and that the unique manufacturing process of matcha has a close connection with its formation.

  10. Evaluation of genotype and environment effects on taste and aroma flavor components of Spanish fresh tomato varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Roselló, Salvador; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Serrano, Elena; Beltrán, Joaquim; Nuez, Fernando

    2011-03-23

    Taste and aroma related compounds have been analyzed in a collection of four traditional varieties and two tomato hybrids, representing a wide variability in fruit shape and color, grown in different environments: screenhouse and open field. Protected cultivation tended to show lower sugar concentration (fructose and glucose) but similar acid contents (citric, malic, and glutamic acids). The decreased levels of sucrose equivalents and the similar ratios of sucrose equivalents to citric or glutamic acid contents indicated that protected cultivation, despite being useful to reduce the incidence of pests and viral diseases, reduces the organoleptic quality. Additionally, it doubles the interaccession variability and increased the level of intra-accession variability. In the case of aroma, the genotypic effect was considerably higher than the environmental component on the 12 main volatiles analyzed. Only hexanal and methyl salicylate were significantly affected by environment, while 10 out of 12 volatiles were affected by the genotype. Biplot analysis showed that, even in considerably different environments, it is possible to identify genotype-dependent main aroma profiles. In the case of 13 background volatiles, the environment showed no significant effects and the genotypic effect was lower, though it is possible to identify genotypic trends in background notes.

  11. Altered Levels of Aroma and Volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of

  12. Analysis of volatile aroma components in steamed wheat by SPME%固相微萃取法提取蒸麦芽中风味物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼德; 陈存社; 张甜甜; 卢志兴

    2012-01-01

    Wheat germ is rich in nutriton and the flavor of its products varies according to the processing technology.Peanut was pressure steamed,extracted by SPME and then condensed for GC-MS and GC-O analysis of its volatile aroma components.Besides 56 kinds of aroma compounds were identified from steamed wheat by SPME-GC-MS,accounting for 97.76% of the total peak areas of components which were 9 aldehydes(11.79%),6 alcohols(14.87%),4 hydrocarbons(2.8%),8 ketones(9.7%),7 ester(27.91%),3 phenols(2.19%),9 acids(15.58%),10 nitrogen-or sulfur-containing or heterocyclic compounds(14.16%),and 31 odor-active compounds were identified by SPME-GC-O of which the components that had the highest FD factors were ethyl acetate(wine),isovaleraldehyde(chocolate),2-methylpyrazine(roasted),furfural(caramel),2-acetylfuran(toast),hexanoic acid(musty),gamma-nonanolactone(potato),(E)-2-decenal(licorice),and they account for the pivotal aroma components of steamed wheat.%小麦胚芽具有很高的营养价值,但加工工艺复杂,不同的工艺会产生不同的风味,采用高压蒸汽的方式对小麦胚芽进行处理,通过SPME法萃取蒸麦香的风味物质,经GC-MS与GC-O分析,确定蒸麦芽的挥发性香味成分。SPME-GC-MS共从蒸麦风味物质中鉴定出56种化合物,占总峰面积的97.76%,包括醛类9种(11.79%)、醇类6种(14.87%)、酮类8种(9.7%)、烃类4种(2.8%)、酯类7种(27.91%)、酚类3种(2.19%)、酸类9种(15.58%)、含氮杂环化合物10种(14.16%);通过GC-O检测共发现31个气味活性区,其中FD=6的化合物为:乙酸乙酯(葡萄酒香)、异戊醛(巧克力香可可香)、2-甲基吡嗪(焙烤香)、糠醛(焦糖香)、2-乙酰基呋喃(烤面包香)、己酸(霉香)、丙位壬内酯(土豆香)、(E)-2-癸烯醛(甘草香),是蒸麦风味的主要贡献化合物。

  13. Overproduction of 2-phenylethanol by industrial yeasts to improve organoleptic properties of bakers' products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-Sánchez, Rafael; Pérez, Ana G; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía; Rincón, Ana María

    2014-06-16

    2-Phenylethanol (PEA), an important alcohol derived from phenylalanine, is involved in aroma and flavour of bakers' products. Four spontaneous mutants of an industrial bakers' yeast, V1 strain, were isolated for their resistance to p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine (PFP), a toxic analogue of L-phenylalanine. Mutants overproduced this amino acid and showed variations in their internal pool for several other amino acids. Moreover, a rise in PEA production after growth in industrial medium (MAB) was observed in three of the mutants, although their growth and fermentative capacities were slightly impaired. However, concentration of PEA remained higher during dough fermentation and also after baking, thus improving taste and aroma in bread.

  14. Use of Microencapsulated Ingredients in Bakery Products: Technological and Nutritional Aspects - Chapter 15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Troise, A.D.; Chiara De Prisco, A.; Mauriello, G.L.; Gokmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2015-01-01

    he quality of bakery products is driven by technological issues influencing sensory, safety, and nutritional features such as food aroma pattern, texture, color, chemical composition, toxicant formation, and shelf life. The use of encapsulated ingredients in bakery product formulation is a smart

  15. Use of Microencapsulated Ingredients in Bakery Products: Technological and Nutritional Aspects - Chapter 15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Troise, A.D.; Chiara De Prisco, A.; Mauriello, G.L.; Gokmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2015-01-01

    he quality of bakery products is driven by technological issues influencing sensory, safety, and nutritional features such as food aroma pattern, texture, color, chemical composition, toxicant formation, and shelf life. The use of encapsulated ingredients in bakery product formulation is a smart app

  16. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...... flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. 27 food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry...... jam, dried raspberries and sodas declared to contain natural aroma all contained almost only R-(E)-α-ionone supporting the content of natural raspberry aroma. Six out of eight sweets tested did not indicate a content of natural aroma on the labelling which was in agreement with the almost equal...

  17. 不同氮钾配施对烤烟香气成分及评吸品质的影响%Effects of nitrogen application combined with potassium on aroma composition and sensory quality of flue-cured tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦建玉; 曾祥难; 李桂湘; 金亚波; 邓宾玲

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The effects of the combined application of N and K fertilizer on aroma composition and sensory quality of flue-cured tobacco were studied in order to improve the tobacco quality and its industrial usability.[ Methods ] Field experiment was carried out using tobacco variety K326 as test material. Three nitrogen levels, viz., low nitrogen ( 45 kg/ha ), medium nitrogen (90 kg/ha ) and high nitrogen (135 kg/ha ), and three potassium levels, viz., low potassium (180 kg/ha), medium potassium (270 kg/ha) and high potassium (360 kg/ha) were applied in 9 combinations and their effects were observed on aroma composition and tobacco quality. [Result]The combined application of medium nitrogen (90 kg/ha ) with high potassium (360 kg/ha) was found good for the formation of neutral aroma composition, while the treatment of high nitrogen with low potassium (180 kg/ha) was good for the formation of acid aroma composition. The treatment of high nitrogen (135 kg/ha) with high potassium (360 kg/ha) enhanced the formation of saturated fatty acid and decreased the formation of unsaturated fatty acid. The smoking evaluation score of leaves was highest in treatments with medium nitrogen and medium potassium, while that of treatments with low nitrogen and potassium, and low nitrogen and medium potassi-um recorded lowest scores. [Conclusion]Considering several factors, such as yield, score of smoking evaluation, aroma composition and chemical composition, the medium nitrogen (90 kg/ha) application with high potassium (360 kg/ha) was the best, and the treatment of middle nitrogen (45 kg/ha) with high potassium (180 kg/ha) was not suitable for tobacco production.%[目的]研究不同氮钾配比对烤烟香气成分及评吸品质的影响,探索出合理的氮钾配比,为提高卷烟工业可用性提供技术支撑.[方法]以K326为试验材料进行田间试验.设置低氮(45 kg/ha)、中氮(90 kg/ha)和高氮(135 kg/ha)3个氮水平与低钾(180 kg/ha)、中钾(270 kg

  18. On Comparative Analysis of Aroma Characteristics of Chimonanthus Praecox Oil of Different Parts%腊梅精油不同部分的香气成分鉴定及差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪寒; 司辉清

    2016-01-01

    对腊梅精油不同部分的香气成分进行研究,采用超临界 CO2萃取技术提取腊梅精油复合物,再根据复合物状态对其进行膜分离提纯,得到不同类型的3种精油产品.用气相色谱质谱联用法(GC-MS)鉴定各产品的香气成分,并对其差异进行比较.从腊梅复合物所得水溶性精油浓缩液中鉴定出33种香气成分,占其色谱总峰面积的99.45%;从腊梅复合物所得脂溶性液态精油中鉴定出74种香气成分,占其色谱总峰面积的98.76%;从腊梅复合物所得脂溶性固态精油中鉴定出64种香气成分,占其色谱总峰面积的98.81%;除脂溶性固态精油中有含氮化合物外,3种精油均以碳氢类、醇类、醛类、酸类和酯类化合物为主,但它们之间差异有统计学意义;感官审评结果与气相色谱质谱测定的香气成分质量分数的变化趋势基本一致.%The study is focused on the aroma components of different parts of the essential oil of Chimonan-thus Praecox .SFE (Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction) has beenadopted to extract the essential oil com-pounds of Chimonanthus Praecox which has beenpurified using membrane separation afterwards .3 types of essential oil have been obtained at the end .GC-MS (GasChromatography-Mass Spectrometry ) has been used to identify the aroma components of each product and the differences of each producthave been ana-lyzed .There are 33 kinds of aroma components identified from water-soluble essential oil concentrate of Chimonanthus Praecox compounds ,making up 99 .45% of its total peak area ;74 kinds of aroma compo-nents have been identified from liposoluble essential oil concentrate of Chimonanthus Praecox compounds , making up 98 .76% ofits total peak area and 64 components have been identified in liposoluble solid essen-tial oil ,making up 98 .81% of its total peak area .Except for some nitrogenous compounds found in liposoluble solid essential oil ,3 types

  19. Aroma development in high pressure treated beef and chicken meat compared to raw and heat treated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sabrina; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G; Orlien, Vibeke

    2010-10-01

    Chicken breast and beef muscle were treated at 400 and 600 MPa for 15 min at 5 degrees C and compared to raw meat and a heated sample (100 degrees C for 15 min). Vacuum-packed beef meat with a smaller fraction of unsaturated fatty acids showed better oxidative stability during 14 days of cold storage, as shown by a low steady-state level of hydroperoxide values, than vacuum-packed chicken meat. Accordingly, the critical pressures of 400 MPa and 600 MPa for chicken breast and beef sirloin, respectively, were established. Volatiles released after opening of the meat bags or during storage of open meat bags, simulating consumer behaviour, were measured under conditions mimicking eating. Quantitative and olfactory analysis of pressurised meat gave a total of 46 flavour volatiles, mainly alcohols (11), aldehydes (15), and ketones (11), but all in low abundance after 14 days of storage. Overall, beef meat contained less volatiles and in lower abundance (factor of 5) compared to chicken meat. The most important odour active volatiles (GC-O) were well below the detection thresholds necessary to impart a perceivable off-flavour. Lipid oxidation was significantly accelerated during 24h of cold storage in both cooked chicken and beef when exposed to oxygen, while the pressurised and oxygen-exposed chicken and beef meat remained stable. Pressure treatment of beef and chicken did not induce severe changes of their raw aroma profiles.

  20. Impact of thermal and nonthermal processing technologies on unfermented apple cider aroma volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhu Valappil, Zareena; Fan, Xuetong; Zhang, Howard Q; Rouseff, Russell L

    2009-02-11

    Aroma composition and microbial quality of identical lots of apple cider treated by pulsed electric field (PEF), ultraviolet irradiation (UV), or thermal pasteurization stored at 4 degrees C were compared at 0 and 4 weeks. Conditions were optimized to achieve identical 5 log reductions in Escherichia coli K12 for each treatment. PEF and thermal pasteurization maintained acceptable microbial quality for 4 weeks, but UV samples fermented after 2 weeks. Twenty-eight volatiles were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and odor activity values (OAV) determined. OAVs of 69:hexyl acetate, 41:hexanal, 25:2-methylbutyl acetate, 23:2-methyl ethyl butyrate, and 14:2-(E)-hexenal were observed for the control cider. Significant differences (p ciders only after 4 weeks of storage. Thermal samples lost 30% of the major ester and aldehyde volatiles during storage with significant decreases (p cider, hexanal and 2-(E)-hexenal were completely lost after 4 weeks of storage. Microbial spoilage in UV cider after 4 weeks of storage was chemically confirmed by the detection of the microbial metabolite 1,3-pentadiene. PEF cider lost cider.