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Sample records for fruits storage avaliacao

  1. Storage of irradiated strawberry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.

    1977-01-01

    Pocahontas strawberries both of green house and field production have been stored at 3 deg C for 10 and 12 days, respectively, after treatment with 100000, 200000 and 300000 Roe in comparison with unirradiated fruits. No explicit correlation was observed regarding the keeping qualities of fruits, their chemical composition (dry matter, sugars, acids and vitamin C) when stored after a different gamma-ray irradiation. (S.P.)

  2. Storage temperature affects fruit quality attributes of Ber ( Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit utilization is affected by quality attributes and shelf life. The quality of Jujube or Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits after harvest depends on storage conditions used. In this study, different storage temperatures and durations were evaluated to determine the appropriate storage conditions of fresh fruits of Z.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on refrigerator storage of peach fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinov, V.

    1985-01-01

    Peach fruits of cvs. Halle and Elberta were gamma irradiated by 0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy and stored in the usual way (20-25 grad C) or in refrigerator (5 and 0 grad C). The rate of mould decay, reduction in market quality and complex evaluation of the fruits at the time of storage were investigated. Linear regression correlations between the percentage of decay and the time of storage were estimated by probit-logarithmic transformation of the percentage of the decayed fruits. On that basis were assess the probable terms to reach 5% decay (permissible period of storage) and 10% decay. The criteria of quality and taste evaluation of the fruits for these periods were determined. The irradiation of peach fruits with 2.5 and 3.0 kGy prolonged 3 to 5 times the period free of decay (up to 5%) in the case of normal storage conditions as compared to the control (no irradiation). The sharp reduction in quality and the sensorial evaluation for these periods did not justify irradiation in case of usual storage conditions. Irradiation with the same rates in case of refrigeration storage proved a useful supplementary factor prolonging the periods before appearance of decay up to 17 days (i.e. 42% as compared to the control) and the permissible period of storage up to 25 days (25% more than the control). These results were obtained at a dose of 2.5 kGy for cv. Halle fruits, at dose 3.0 kGy for cv. Elberta fruits and at storage temperature of 0 grad C. For the periods up to 5% decay (25 to 26 days) the criteria of quality and the complex evaluation remained above the permissible level. Longer storage was not advisable because physiological damage of the fruit was evident

  4. Storage of pineapple fruits under different conditions: implication on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out at Abeokuta to investigate the effects of storage conditions popularly used in Abeokuta metropolis on freshly harvested pineapple fruits. The pineapple fruits were harvested from a farmer's field and stored for 40 days under three conditions: refridgeration (mean temperature 10 0 C), Ambient ...

  5. Evaluation of a system of refrigeration with absorption cycle using the direct burning of natural gas for tropical fruits storage; Avaliacao de um sistema de refrigeracao com ciclo de absorcao utilizando a queima direta de gas natural para armazenamento de frutas tropicais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolomeu, Lair S.; Torres, Ednildo A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Lab. de Energia e Gas; Silva, Gabriel F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Martins, Ronaldo M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Materiais. CQDM; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Tecnologia do Gas Natural. Rede GasEnergia

    2004-07-01

    This work has the purpose to analyze an alternative method in the conservation of tropical fruits in chamber cooled through the technology of use of the natural gas as energy source. The study it was carried through in chiller of absorption, Robur model, of 5TR, which meets in the campus of the Federal University of Sergipe (UFS/LEG). The energy analysis had as objective to study the process involving the cycle and its components. Of the analysis of first law was gotten a power of refrigeration of 8,8 kW and a COP=0,32 and the analysis of second law {beta}=0,29. The exergetic analysis had for intention to evaluate the amount and the quality of the energy in the system. The heat generator was the component that presented the biggest irreversibility, whose relation with the total irreversibility was about 70%. In the absorber the lesser exergetic efficiency was verified. Project is supported by the GasEnergia/PETROBRAS. (author)

  6. Optimization of Storage Parameters of Selected Fruits in Passive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the optimum storage parameters of selected fruit using three sets of four types of passive evaporative cooling structures made of two different materials clay and aluminium. One set consisted of four separate cooling chambers. Two cooling chambers were made with aluminium ...

  7. Detection Of Irradiated Fruits And Assessment Of Quality Parameters Of The Stone Fruits During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Magide, A.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to detect the irradiated fruits and assess the quality parameters of plums (Prunus domestica L., cv. Pioneer) and peaches (Prunus persica Bausch, cv. Swilling) fruits treated with gamma irradiation. This investigation was carried out during 2010 and 2011 seasons. The fruits were harvested at commercial maturity, irradiated with the doses 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (0±1°C, RH 80%) then evaluated at intervals of 7, 10 and 21 days (the end cold storage period) followed by 5 days of storage under market condition (20±2°C, RH 80%). Electron spin resonance (ESR) was carried out for determination of free radicals by using dried layers of plum and peach kernels. Fruit characters included weight loss %, fruit firmness (kgf), discarded fruits %, soluble solid contents (SSC, ºBrix), total titratable acidity (TA%), respiration rate and sensory evaluation tastes. ESR results proved the possibility of identification of irradiated fruits by using dried stone kernels. The results showed that ESR intensities were sensitive for all applied doses even at low doses of 0.5 or 1.0 kGy which was applied for dis infestations, to extend the shelf-life of fruits or to detect the irradiated stored fresh samples was carried out at the 7th, 10th and 21st days. The linear relationship resulted between ESR intensity and applied doses showed high significant correlation coefficient (R2) for the irradiated samples. However, ESR intensity was decreased gradually during long storage period but can identify clearly the irradiated samples. Irradiation treatment at 0.5 kGy for P ioneer p lums and at 0.5 or 0.75 kGy for S willing p eaches was effective in slowing the rate of losing of fruits weight and decreasing the discarded fruits percentage. Furthermore, it has significant effects on reducing respiration rate, maintaining higher soluble solid contents and decreasing total titratable acidity. Referring to sensory

  8. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  9. Controlled atmosphere storage of wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, Eva; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; Lagarón, José M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2006-01-11

    Controlled atmosphere storage technology to extend the shelf life of "Reina de los Valles" wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.) was studied. Fruits were stored at 3 degrees C for three weeks in different atmosphere compositions: 0.05% CO2/21% O2 (air), 3% CO2/18% O2, 6% CO2/15% O2, 10% CO2/11% O2, and 15% CO2/6% O2. The effect of gas composition on soluble solids content, titrable acidity, pH, off-flavor, aroma volatiles, and consumer preference was monitored. The result showed that the 10% CO2/11% O2 combination can efficiently prolong the shelf life of wild strawberries by maintaining the quality parameters within acceptable values, through inhibiting the development of Botrytis cinerea, without significantly modifying consumer acceptance.

  10. CHANGE OF BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PUMPKIN FRUITS DEPENDING ON STORAGE TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Karapetyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin fruits are the source of carbohydrates, mineral salts and vitamins during wintertime. The change of the biochemical compositions of pumpkin fruits depending on storage time has been studied. The results of chemical analysis revealed that during four months of storage the content of quality indicators increased followed by its reduction after five and more month of storage

  11. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STRAWBERRY FRUITS DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivna Štolfa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper postharvest storage is an effective way to maintain the quality and nutritional values of fruits. The aim of this study was to determine how environmentally friendly postharvest treatments with salicylic acid solution, colloidal silver solution and ozone, affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Albion during 7 days of storage at 4°C. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits were determined spec-trophotometrically. After 7 days of storage in strawberry fruits treated with all three treatments separately, the contents of ascorbic acid were higher than in the control fruits, supporting the usefulness of these treatments for preserving fruit quality and nutritional value during storage. The treatment with salicylic acid solution showed the most beneficial effect during storage causing a significant increase in the content of ascorbic acid, phenols and antioxidant activity at the end of the storage period.

  12. Effectiveness of solar heating systems for the regeneration of adsorbents in recessed fruit and vegetable storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuzhakulov, S.M.; Uzakov, G.N.; Vardiyashvili, A.B

    2013-01-01

    A new method for the regeneration of adsorbents using solar heating systems is proposed. It provides energy saving through the control of the gas composition and humidity in recessed fruit and vegetable storages. The effectiveness of solar heating systems, such as a 'hot box' for the regeneration of adsorbents in fruit and vegetable storages is shown. (author)

  13. Effect of gamma radiation treatment on some fungi causing storage diseases of banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Ashmawi, A.M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Banana is one of the most popular fruits in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. in recent years, the quality of egyptian banana markedly declined. A major factor contributing to this decline is the development of fruit rot, which is the most widely occurring disease either in the field or in storage. Different fungi attack banana fruits causing considerable losses. Most of the fungi responsible for post harvest rots of banana are usually carried from the field, on the surface of the fruit itself or in injured and rotting fruits causing severe rats during storage. These rots make the fruits difficult to handle and undesirable to the consumers. Botryodiplodia theobromae is known to be the most important pathogen responsible for the infection in storage

  14. Optimum Temperature for Storage of Fruit and Vegetables with Reference to Chilling Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Takao

    Cold storage is an important technique for preserving fresh fruit and vegetables. Deterioration due to ripening, senescence and microbiological disease can be retarded by storage at optimum temperature being slightly above the freezing point of tissues of fruit and vegetables. However, some fruit and vegetables having their origins in tropical or subtropical regions of the world are subject to chilling injury during transportation, storage and wholesale distribution at low temperature above freezing point, because they are usually sensitive to low temperature in the range of 15&digC to 0°C. This review will focus on the recent informations regarding chilling injury of fruit and vegetables, and summarize the optimum temperature for transportation and storage of fruit and vegetables in relation to chilling injury.

  15. Quality of pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus as influenced by storage temperature and packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Tonetto de Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus is an exotic non-climacteric fruit that reaches its best eating quality when harvested ripe, decreasing thereafter during storage. Our objectives were to determine the best combination of storage temperature and use of perforated plastic bags to maintain the postharvest quality of the fruit. Fruits were stored at 5, 7, or 10 ºC with and without a perforated plastic bag for 20 days, followed by five days at 20 ºC without the bag for shelf-life determination. Storage at 5 ºC, followed by 7 ºC maintained better visual appearance of the pitaya fruit after 20 days, by reducing decay incidence and severity, and maintaining greener bracts compared with fruit stored at 10 ºC. Pitaya fruit stored at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag showed no decay after storage and shelf-life. In general, higher temperatures and the use of a perforated plastic bag increased decay incidence, as well as decay severity after storage and shelf-life conditions. At all temperatures, fruit stored in a perforated plastic bag had lower weight loss during storage. After shelf-life, weight loss was highest in fruit stored at higher temperatures. Storage of fruits at 5 ºC resulted in minor chilling injury symptoms in the outer flesh tissue, close to the peel. Storage at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag was the best condition to maintain the postharvest quality of the pitaya fruit.

  16. Determining Appropriate Harvesting Date and Storage Life of Kinnow Mandarine Fruits in Jiroft County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seied Mehdi Miri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Citrus is one of the most commercially important horticultural crops grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. They are classified as non-climacteric fruits. Harvesting date and storage can influence citrus fruit quality and shelf life. In Iran, some members of citrus family including sweet orange and mandarin are produced as an export crop, so research on fruit quality and storage life is needed. There is no available scientific literature regarding the effect of harvesting date and storage duration on retaining the postharvest physicochemical properties of Kinnow mandarin under cold storage. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of harvesting date and storing time on shelf life and quality of Kinnow mandarin fruits under Jiroft weather conditions. Materials and Methods. Investigations were carried out on mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Kinnow grafted on sour orange rootstock in an orchard located in Jiroft and Kahnooj Agricultural Research Center, Jiroft, Iran. Fruits were harvested on 6th December, 21th December, 5th January, 20th January and 4th February. After cold storage for 30-90 days at 4-6 °C, the fruit was analyzed for quantitative and qualitative characteristics including weight of fruit, peel, meat, pulp and juice, fruit weight loss, pH, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA and TSS/TA. Experiment was arranged in a split plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD. Data analysis and similarity coefficient (Pearson's method were performed using SPSS.16 software, and means comparison was performed by using Duncan's multiple range test at 1 and 5% probability levels. Results and Discussion. The results showed that the interaction effect of harvesting date and storage period on the weight of the fruit, meat, pulp and juice and TSS, TA and TSS/TA was significant at 1% probability level. Weight of harvested fruits from 6th December to 5th January was constant

  17. Storage Methods Of Plantain ( Musa sp. AAB) Fruits Influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that about 67% of fruits stored in plane, yellow and red Po were green after two weeks as against only 8% of fruits lined on LS. The inclusion of sawdust/salt hastened senescence and enhanced disease development. Severity of crown rot was generally lowest in blue polyethylene. Also, fruits stored in ...

  18. Effect of irradiation and cold storage on the physiological characteristics of the pear fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; El-Latif, F.A.; Taha, F.

    1988-01-01

    With the aim of extending shelf life of fruits and the effects of gamma irradiation at the 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy dose levels, the present investigation has been undertaken to illustrate, the possible application of gamma irradiation processing to prolong the storage period of mature pear fruit. Significant differences had been found between irradiated and non-irradiated fruits regarding total soluble solids, weight loss, decay, firmness, titrable acidity and moisture content

  19. [Research on functional diversity of microorganisms on jujube fruit surface in storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yuexia

    2009-10-01

    Disease during storage caused by microbial infection is a serious problem of jujube fruits. The aim of the study was to characterize the microbial diversity in stored jujube fruits. I used Biolog in experiment. The types of micro-plates were Filamentous Fungi micro-plate and Economicmicro-plate. There was much difference in microbial functional diversity on the surface of stored jujube fruit. The microbial functional diversity of stored 30 days was richer than it of stored 15 days. The diversity, homogeneity and average well color development of jujube used by fruit perservatives were lower than it not used by fruit preservatives. There were six kinds of the characteristic carbon. Our study firstly showed microbial diversity on the surface of stored jujube fruit. Biolog could be applied in the research on microbial functional diversity of fruit surface.

  20. Storage temperature affects fruit quality attributes of Ber (Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... 2Department of Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Agronomy Research Institute, Box CY 550, Causeway, ... Fruit utilization is affected by quality attributes and shelf life. ... preserve fresh and dried fruits can ensure its availability ... Vitamin C was determined using titrimetric method with 2,6-.

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of supplementary means in refrigerator storage of fresh fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinov, V.

    1985-01-01

    Linear empirical correlations were obtained by applying a statistical model with probative-logarithmic transformation of the experimental data. On such base were predicted the probabal dates of fungal affection to a certain percent and the efficiency of supplementary means to refrigeration storage of fresh fruits (fungicides, ionizing radiation, etc.). Using data with the strawberry cv. Red Gautlet, the main criteria characterizing fruit keeping ability were assessed - dates of fruit decay appearance; of 5% decay, which was accepted for storage; percent of total quantitative losses; percent of fruits preserving their initial quality; mean daily rates of increasing total losses and decreasing the quality for accepted time of storage. The combined grading of these criteria found that fruits of the strawberry cv. Red Gauntlet were preserved best by gamma irradiation in a 2,5 kGy dose together with fruit packing in contractable folio and storage at 10 grad C. Under such conditions the fruits could be stored for 10 days with total quantitative losses (wastage and decay) of 6%, preserving 85% of the initial quality

  2. Changes in Cuticular Wax Composition of Two Blueberry Cultivars during Fruit Ripening and Postharvest Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Wu, Weijie; Fang, Xiangjun

    2018-03-21

    Cuticular wax plays an important role for the quality of blueberry fruits. In this study, the cuticular wax composition of two blueberry cultivars, 'Legacy' ( Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Brightwell' ( Vaccinium ashei), was examined during fruit ripening and postharvest cold storage. The results showed that wax was gradually deposited on the epidermis of blueberry fruits and the content of major wax compounds, except that for diketones, increased significantly during fruit ripening. The total wax content was 2-fold greater in 'Brightwell' blueberries than that in 'Legacy' blueberries during fruit ripening. The total wax content of both cultivars decreased during 30 days of storage at 4 °C, and the variation of cuticular wax composition was cultivar-dependent. The content of diketones decreased significantly in 'Legacy' blueberries, while the content of triterpenoids and aliphatic compounds showed different fold changes in 'Brightwell' blueberries after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. Overall, our study provided a quantitative and qualitative overview of cuticular wax compounds of blueberry fruits during ripening and postharvest cold storage.

  3. Physicochemical changes of 'Phulae' pineapple fruit treated with short-term anoxia during ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techavuthiporn, Chairat; Boonyaritthongchai, Panida; Supabvanich, Suriyan

    2017-08-01

    The effects of short-term anoxia exposure for 16h on physicochemical changes of 'Phulae' pineapple fruit stored at ambient temperature (25±2°C) were investigated. The respiratory rate of the fruit was induced by the anoxia treatment. However, it retarded the increase in moisture loss and maintained both flesh and pulp colour by inhibiting polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the both tissues. The anoxia exposure delayed the increase in total sugar content and enhanced total ascorbic acid content during storage. The half-cut pineapple fruit showed that the anoxia exposure completely inhibited internal transparency of the flesh tissue adjacent to core during the storage. In conclusion, the short-term anoxia exposure for 16h maintained postharvest quality, retarded physiological disorder and enhanced nutritional values of the pineapple fruit stored at ambient temperature (25±2°C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution of antioxidant capacity during storage of selected fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevers, Claire; Falkowski, Michael; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques; Pincemail, Joël

    2007-10-17

    Interest in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is, to a large extent, due to its content of bioactive nutrients and their importance as dietary antioxidants. Among all of the selected fruits and vegetables, strawberries and black grapes have relatively high antioxidant capacities associated with high contents of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and flavonols. More interesting, the results of this study indicated that in most fruits and vegetables storage did not affect negatively the antioxidant capacity. Better, in some cases, an increase of the antioxidant capacity was observed in the days following their purchase, accompanied by an increase in phenolic compounds. In general, fruits and vegetables visually spoil before any significant antioxidant capacity loss occurs except in banana and broccoli. When ascorbic acid or flavonoids (aglycons of flavonols and anthocyanins) were concerned, the conclusions were similar. Their content was generally stable during storage.

  5. Enhancing post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Afridi, S.R.; Khan, R.U.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The present study was conducted to enhance the post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride treatments. CaCl/sub 2/ solution at 1 % (T1 ), 2 % (T2 ) and 3 % (T3) were prepared and the fruits were dipped for five minutes, while (To) was left with out calcium chloride treatment as control. The fruits were packed in corrugated soft board cartons and stored at ambient temperature (35 degree C + 2) for a total period of 15 days. The physicochemical analysis such as weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), decay index, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content and overall sensory acceptability were determined at an interval of three days up to the successful completion of the study. A significant decrease was observed in fruit firmness (1.8-0.3 kg), % acidity (0.950- 0.538), ascorbic acid content (7.06-4.67 mg/100g) and overall sensory acceptability (8.4-2.3), while a significant increase was observed in TSS (8.2-11.9 degree brix), decay index (0-72.64 %) and % weight loss (0-11.3) during storage. Results showed that one and two percent calcium chloride treated fruits have little improvement while fruits treated with 3 % calcium chloride were found to be most acceptable as per physico-chemical analyses and over all sensory acceptability result. (author)

  6. Effect of pyrogallol on the physiology and biochemistry of litchi fruit during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guoxing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. fruit are highly perishable and have a very short shelf life, easily turning brown and decaying. This study investigated the efficiency of pyrogallol, a catechin on the physiology and biochemistry in relation to storage life of litchi fruit. Results Fruit were treated with pyrogallol at 1 mM and then stored at ambient temperature (25°C or low temperature (4°C. Compared with control, pyrogallol significantly reduced pericarp browning and delayed the rotting of fruit day 4 at 25°C, and on day 30 at 4°C. The chemical treatment reduced respiration rate and the activities of peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, and delayed the loss of membrane permeability. Pyrogallol increased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, delayed the loss of anthocyanin and phenolics, and maintained high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrlhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. High performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC analysis clearly indicated that treated fruit contained higher concentration of the four phenolic compounds procyanidin B1, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin and (−-epicatechin-3-gallate. Conclusions The application of pyrogallol partially reducing pericarp browning and changed quality-related physiological activities and, thus, pyrogallol could have beneficial effects on pericarp browning and fruit decay control, and could be helpful for litchi fruit postharvest storage.

  7. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  8. Cryogenic freezing of fresh date fruits for quality preservation during frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alhamdan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh date fruits, especially Barhi cultivar, are favored and widely consumed at the Khalal maturity stage (first color edible stage. These fruits are seasonal and perishable and there is a need for extending their shelf life. This study evaluates two different freezing methods, namely cryogenic freezing using liquid nitrogen and conventional deep freezing on preserving the quality and stability of date fruits (cv. Barhi at Khalal maturity stage. Fresh date fruits (cv. Barhi at Khalal stage were frozen utilizing the two methods. The produced frozen dates were stored under frozen storage conditions for nine months (at −20 °C and −40 °C for the conventional and cryogenic freezing, respectively. Color values, textural properties (hardness, elasticity, chewiness and resilience, and nutrition attributes (enzymes and sugars for fresh dates before freezing and for the frozen dates were measured every three months during the frozen storage. Color values of the frozen dates were affected by the freezing method and the frozen storage period. There are substantial differences in the quality of the frozen fruits in favor of cryogenic freezing compared to the conventional slow freezing. The results revealed a large disparity between the times of freezing of the two methods. The freezing time accounted to 10 min in the cryogenic freezing method, whereas it was 1800 min for the conventional slow freezing system.

  9. Application of new physical storage technology in fruit and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the development of science and technology, consumers not only require food to be safe, but also require them to keep the original natural flavor and nutritional value as well, while the traditional chemical storage method has been increasingly unable to satisfy consumers' demand. When compared with chemical ...

  10. Modeling the vacuolar storage of malate shed lights on pre- and post-harvest fruit acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Lobit, Philippe; Bugaud, Christophe

    2014-11-18

    Malate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. Several studies suggest that malate accumulation in fruit cells is controlled at the level of vacuolar storage. However, the regulation of vacuolar malate storage throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the malate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we adapted the mechanistic model of vacuolar storage proposed by Lobit et al. in order to study the accumulation of malate in pre and postharvest fruits. The main adaptation concerned the variation of the free energy of ATP hydrolysis during fruit development. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having separate growth and post-harvest ripening stages, during which malate concentration undergoes substantial changes. Moreover, the concentration of malate in banana pulp varies greatly among cultivars which make possible to use the model as a tool to analyze the genotypic variability. The model was calibrated and validated using data sets from three cultivars with contrasting malate accumulation, grown under different fruit loads and potassium supplies, and harvested at different stages. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of malate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars (mean RRMSE = 0.25-0.42). The sensitivity of the model to parameters and input variables was analyzed. According to the model, vacuolar composition, in particular potassium and organic acid concentrations, had an important effect on malate accumulation. The model suggested that rising temperatures depressed malate accumulation. The model also helped distinguish differences in malate concentration among the three cultivars and between the pre and post-harvest stages by highlighting the probable importance of proton pump activity and particularly of the free

  11. Evaporative cooling system for storage of fruits and vegetables - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal Basediya, Amrat; Samuel, D V K; Beera, Vimala

    2013-06-01

    Horticultural produce are stored at lower temperature because of their highly perishable nature. There are many methods to cool the environment. Hence, preserving these types of foods in their fresh form demands that the chemical, bio-chemical and physiological changes are restricted to a minimum by close control of space temperature and humidity. The high cost involved in developing cold storage or controlled atmosphere storage is a pressing problem in several developing countries. Evaporative cooling is a well-known system to be an efficient and economical means for reducing the temperature and increasing the relative humidity in an enclosure and this effect has been extensively tried for increasing the shelf life of horticultural produce in some tropical and subtropical countries. In this review paper, basic concept and principle, methods of evaporative cooling and their application for the preservation of fruits and vegetables and economy are also reported. Thus, the evaporative cooler has prospect for use for short term preservation of vegetables and fruits soon after harvest. Zero energy cooling system could be used effectively for short-duration storage of fruits and vegetables even in hilly region. It not only reduces the storage temperature but also increases the relative humidity of the storage which is essential for maintaining the freshness of the commodities.

  12. Effect of storage temperature and time on the vitamin C contents of selected fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.; Abdullah, N.; Alim-un-Nisa; Ejaz, N.

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin C contents of 5 fruits and 7 vegetables, as a whole and in diced form, were determined by HPLC during cold storage. Results showed a decrease in vitamin C contents during 15 days refrigeration (7 deg. C) as well as freezing at -20 deg. C. It was found that fruits are more stable than vegetables since the rate of degradation of vitamin C was higher in vegetables as compared to fruits, either during freezing or refrigeration. During 15 days freezing, fruits showed a decrease of 41.05 - 51.44%, whereas, this loss augmented to 54.12 - 89.10% in vegetables. In addition to this, it was also observed that fruits and vegetables which have peels are less vulnerable to vitamin C degradation; the ratio of degradation of vitamin C in all the fruits studied and potato was not more than 51.44%. In fruits, apple was more susceptible and in vegetables, potato was more stable to vitamin C degradation. (author)

  13. Residue level, persistence, and storage performance of citrus fruit treated with fludioxonil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Marceddu, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Scherm, Barbara; Migheli, Quirico

    2005-08-24

    The potential of postharvest dip treatments with fludioxonil (FLU) (a synthetic analogue of the bacterial metabolite of pyrrolnitrin), in controlling postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum of citrus fruit was investigated in comparison with the conventional fungicide imazalil (IMZ). The ultrastructural changes of fruit epicuticular wax was investigated as a function of water dip temperature, and the possible role of these changes was related to residue accumulation under FLU treatment. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of fungicide concentration, dip temperature, and fruit storage conditions. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that fruit dipping in water at 30 or 40 degrees C did not cause differences in cuticular wax's ultrastructure in comparison to control fruit, while treatments at 50, 55, or 60 degrees C caused the disappearance of wax platelets, resulting in relatively homogeneous skin surface, due to partial "melting" of epicuticular wax. Residues of FLU in fruit treated at 20 or 50 degrees C were significantly correlated with the doses of fungicide applied. When equal amounts of fungicide were employed, the residue concentrations were notably higher (from 2.6- to 4-fold) in fruit treated at 50 degrees C than in fruit treated at 20 degrees C. The dissipation rate of FLU in "Salustiana" and "Tarocco" oranges was lower in fruit subjected to treatment at 50 degrees C. The minimal FLU concentration for almost complete decay control in artificially wounded fruit during 7-d storage at 20 degrees C was 400 mg/L active ingredient (ai) in fruit treated at 20 degrees C and 100 mg/L ai in fruit treated at 50 degrees C. Results on nonwounded Tarocco oranges subjected to 3 weeks of simulated quarantine conditions at 1 degrees C, plus 6 weeks of standard storage at 8 degrees C and an additional two weeks of simulated marketing period (SMP) at 20 degrees C revealed that almost complete decay control

  14. Nutritional value of Rosa spp. l. and Cornus mas l. fruits, as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craita-Maria Rosu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between two storage methods (freezing and drying of fruits, in terms of ascorbic acid, carotenes, total sugar and protein content in Rosa spp. L. species and Cornus mas L. was performed. In the dried rose hips, the major losses were registered at the level of ascorbic acid content (32.04–50.25 %, followed by carotenes (30.85–52.08 %, total sugar (21.57–34.6 % and protein content (21.33–46.89 %. The freezing method resulted in a better preservation of ascorbic acid (only 19.80–29.21 % decrease and total sugar content (3.41–12.94 % increase. In the preserved cornelian cherry fruits, no statistically significant differences were registered between fruits categories, except carotene content, which was dramatically decreased in dried fruits (88.23 %. For cornelian cherry fruits, both storage methods induced a decrease of ascorbic acid and protein contents (57.60 and 46.32 % and an increase of total sugar level (37.60 %.

  15. Chemical Properties and Characteristics of Cow Milk Yogurt with Different Additional Fruit and Storage Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Dian Wulansari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to evaluate the composition (total solids, water content, fat and protein, qualitative properties (color, aroma, and texture and quantitative properties (free fatty acid and lactic acid of cow milk yogurt with different fruits addition and storage time. Experimental method applied Completely Randomized Design with five treatments namely control, dragon fruit, mango, apple and banana (20% v/v, each with 5 replicates. Qualitative characteristic assessment was conducted on 0, 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. Result showed that fruit addition significantly affected the composition and characteristics, while storage time significantly affected quantitative characteristics of yogurt. Apple and banana increased 13% total solids of plain yogurt, while the highest fat content (4,516% was observed in control yogurt which had the lowest protein content (2,564. The highest free fatty acid  was in control yogurt ripen for 15 days (22,885% while the lowest free fatty acid was in mango yogurt ripen for 10 days (13,915%. Fruit addition in yogurt ripen for 15 days at 5C resulted in a safe consumed product.

  16. Organization and costs of repurchasing, transportation, warehousing and storage of raspberry fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalanović-Bulatović Branka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its characteristic, apart from nutritive and medical significance, raspberry is particularly important for our country in social and economic terms, since its export attracts foreign currency inflow. Since the quality of raspberry decreases rapidly after picking, it is utterly important that the whole process, from picking to cold storage of fruit, should be rationally organized, thus finally reducing the costs and increasing the production value. For these reasons precisely the research deals with organization of the entire process, from repurchase to cold storage of raspberry fruits, as well as the analysis of pertaining costs. Necessary information for the preparation of the paper has been obtained from cold storage plants engaged in raspberry storage and preservation. Necessary information has been gathered using several methods, viz: observation, interview and content analysis methods. Furthermore, analysis, comparison and calculation methods have also been used in the preparation of the paper. The raspberry fruit repurchase, transport and storage costs range from 1,6 to 1,8 EUR per kg, exclusive of storage (store-housing. To this one should add store-housing costs ranging from 0,009 to 0,013 EUR per kg on a monthly basis. Modern organization of production and communication between producers, repurchasers, processors and exporters is essential in order to decrease fluctuations in repurchase and sales price of fresh raspberry and its products and the improvement of overall financial effect of all links within the chain of this economy activity. Cold storage plants, even if of minor capacities, are beneficial not only for the immediate participants in the producer-buyer chain, but it also makes an important stimulating factor for rural development and economy of the country.

  17. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouksey, Swati; Singh, Alpana; Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Deshmukh, Reena

    2013-01-01

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25±5 °C, Relative Humidity 90±2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control. (author)

  18. Quality changes and nutrient retention in fresh-cut versus whole fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, María I; Aguayo, Encarna; Kader, Adel A

    2006-06-14

    The influences of processing and storage on the quality indices and nutritional content of fresh-cut fruits were evaluated in comparison to whole fruits stored for the same duration but prepared on the day of sampling. Fresh-cut pineapples, mangoes, cantaloupes, watermelons, strawberries, and kiwifruits and whole fruits were stored for up to 9 days in air at 5 degrees C. The postcutting life based on visual appearance was shorter than 6 days for fresh-cut kiwifruit and shorter than 9 days for fresh-cut pineapple, cantaloupe, and strawberry. On the other hand, fresh-cut watermelon and mango pieces were still marketable after 9 days at 5 degrees C. Losses in vitamin C after 6 days at 5 degrees C were spoil before any significant nutrient loss occurs.

  19. The effect of storage temperature of cucumber fruit on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kosson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three storage temperature levels: 12,5°C, 20°C, and 1,5°C on basic indexes of chlorophyll fluorescence of cucumber fruits was studied. The greenhouse grown cucumber fruits cv. Wiktor F1 were stored in perforated polyethylene bags or without packages. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm, variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv and relative variable fluorescence (Fv/Fm of the cucumber peel were measured. Relative variable fluorescence was decTeasing when cucumbers were stored at temperature lower or higher than optimum level. The chlorophyll fluorescence measurements can be helpful for determination of appropriate temperature parameters of cucumber storage.

  20. Studies on the effect of gamma irradiation, growth regulators and preservatives on the storage ability of eggplant fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarouf, Abd El-Aziz.A.E

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was carried out in the early summer seasons of 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988 on eggplant fruits cultivar B alady Black . To determine the maturity stage and the most suitable age for harvesting. Gamma irradiation, growth regulators and preservatives were tested as tools to improve the shelf life of the fruits. The fruit length, diameter, size and weight showed a continuous increase all over the growth periods. Both T.S.S. and ascorbic acid increased during the development of fruit up to the age of 30 days then followed by a decrease till the last examined age of 36 days. The fruit titratable acidity exhibited a decrease trend while tannins showed an increase one with age advance. Fruits reached the maturity stage after 27 days. This fruit age exhibited the least loss in weight and the lowest unmarketable fruits during storage beside it kept the moderate concentrations of titratable acidity

  1. Phytoalexins as Possible Controlling Agents of Microbial Spoilage of Irradiated Fresh Fruit and Vegetables During Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, S. A. [Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Commission, Cairo (Egypt)

    1978-04-15

    The decline in bio generating capacity to form natural antibiotic compounds (phytoalexins), rishitin and lubimin in potato tubers and rishitin in tomatoes, after gamma irradiation seems to be the essence of the suppression of natural immunity exhibited by an increase in per cent of rotted tubers and fruits during storage. In vitro studies postulated that the rot-causing fungi Phytophthora infestons (Mond) De Bary, Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) James and Grout, Botrytis cinerea Persson., Fusarium oxysporum Syder and Hansen and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenberg were significantly controlled by the application of phytoalexins that had been initially formed by potato tubers (rishitin), tomato fruits (rishitin) and pepper fruits (capsidiol). In vivo studies revealed that post-irradiation treatment of potato tubers and tomato fruits with phytoalexins that had been produced by the same plant organ or by another of the same family seems to be experimentally feasible to reduce the radiation dose or increase the efficiency of irradiation in controlling microbial spoilage during storage of irradiated potatoes and tomatoes. (author)

  2. Phytoalexins as possible controlling agents of microbial spoilage of irradiated fresh fruit and vegetables during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The decline in biogenerating capacity to form natural antibiotic compounds (phytoalexins), rishitin and lubimin in potato tubers and rishitin in tomatoes, after gamma irradiation seems to be the essence of the suppression of natural immunity exhibited by an increase in per cent of rotted tubers and fruits during storage. In vitro studies postulated that the rot-causing fungi Phytophthora infestans (Mond) De Bary, Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) James and Grout, Botrytis cinerea Persson., Fusarium oxysporum Syder and Hansen and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenberg were significantly controlled by the application of phytoalexins that had been initially formed by potato tubers (rishitin), tomato fruits (rishitin) and pepper fruits (capsidiol). In vivo studies revealed that post-irradiation treatment of potato tubers and tomato fruits with phytoalexins that had been produced by the same plant organ or by another of the same family seems to be experimentally feasible to reduce the radiation dose or increase the efficiency of irradiation in controlling microbial spoilage during storage of irradiated potatoes and tomatoes. (author)

  3. Dynamic changes in proteins during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit ripening and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yun; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Li; Kang, Ruoyi; Yu, Zhifang

    2014-01-01

    A proteomic study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight, was conducted in apple fruit (cv. ‘Golden Delicious’) starting at 10 days prior to harvest through 50 days in storage. Total protein was extracted using a phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate protocol. More than 400 protein spots were detected in each gel and 55 differentially expressed proteins (p

  4. EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT AND CALCIUM ON POSTHARVEST STORAGE OF ATEMOYA FRUITS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIZ MARIA ABI RACHED TORRES

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of postharvest warm dipping with calcium chloride (CaCl2 on atemoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. storage. Fruits were immersed in 6% CaCl2 solution at 20 and 40°C for 20 min followed by storage at room temperature. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed in terms of its impact on peel and fl esh appearance, weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, pH, ascorbic acid content, total phenolics, and enzyme activities of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. Treatment at 40°C preserved eatable conditions up to 6 days, although calcium affected the appearance of the peel as soon as 4 days. Flesh browning was detected only on the 8th day in untreated fruits, after an increase in PPO and POD activities and total phenolics, and a decrease in ascorbic acid content. The weight loss was continuous throughout the storage period, with no signifi cant difference between treatments. TTA and TSS contents increased and pH decreased during the experiment. Results suggest that CaCl2 dipping had a positive effect on fl esh browning, which was reduced, while heat treatment showed a synergic effect, which could be related broadly with a fall in PPO activity. The variations in ascorbic acid content during storage suggest that the warm dipping combined with CaCl2, contributed to the antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  5. Protein changes in the albedo of citrus fruits on postharvesting storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lliso, Ignacio; Tadeo, Francisco R; Phinney, Brett S; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Talón, Manuel

    2007-10-31

    In this work, major protein changes in the albedo of the fruit peel of Murcott tangor (tangerine x sweet orange) during postharvest ageing were studied through 2D PAGE. Protein content in matured on-tree fruits and in fruits stored in nonstressing [99% relative humidity (RH) and 25 degrees C], cold (99% RH and 4 degrees C), and drought (60% RH and 25 degrees C) conditions was initially determined. Protein identification through MS/MS determinations revealed in all samples analyzed the occurrence of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), actin, ATP synthase beta subunit (ATPase), citrus salt-stress associated protein (CitSap), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), and a cysteine proteinase (CP) of the papain family. The latter protein was identified in two different gel spots, with different molecular mass, suggesting the simultaneous presence of the proteinase precursor and its active form. While Mn SOD, actin, ATPase, and CitSap were unchanged in the assayed conditions, TCTP and APX were downregulated during the postharvest ageing process. Ageing-induced APX repression was also reversed by drought. CP contents in albedo, which were similar in on- and off-tree fruits, were strongly dependent upon cold storage. The active/total CP protein ratio significantly increased after cold exposure. This proteomic survey indicates that major changes in protein content in the albedo of the peel of postharvest stored citrus fruits are apparently related to the activation of programmed cell death (PCD).

  6. Changes in Peroxidase Activity in the Peel of Unshiub Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Fruit with Different Storage Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Lepeduš, Hrvoje; Jozić, Marko; Štolfa, Ivna; Pavičić, Nikola; Hackenberger, Branimir K.; Cesar, Vera

    2005-01-01

    The Unshiu mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is the major Citrus crop in Croatia. Limiting factors for longer consumption of Unshiu mandarin are low storage performance and the appearance of chilling injuries during storage. Previous studies indicated that oxidative stress might be involved in cold-induced peel damage of harvested Citrus fruit. The aim of the present study was to investigate peroxidase distribution, isoenzyme pattern and activity in the peel of Unshiu mandarin fruit. Special goa...

  7. The influence of ionizing radiation on the ripening and storage life of some tropical fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, Ch.

    1972-01-01

    The tests extended to the weight loss, changes in the vitamin C content and in the organoleptic properties of fruit irradiated up to 200 krad as well as to the determination of the ripening and rotting indices. Radiation doses had no effect on the vitamin C content. Investigation of papaya. A certain change was observed in the organoleptic properties of the irradiated fruit. For an improved storage life with preserved quality a storage temperature of 18 0 C and irradiation with 50 and 75 krad radiation dose were found to be the most favourable. Investigation of mango. In course of the storage temperature experiments the irradiated and control fruits were stored at 15 0 C, 18 0 and 22 0 C and it was found that a temperature of 18 0 C and a radiation dose of 40 krad will lead to the most favourable organoleptic and storage properties. Investigation of rambutan. Higher radiation doses, e.g. 100 krad, are more favourable from the aspect of extended storage life of rambutan than lower doses. After 8 days storage the weight loss of samples which had been irradiated with 100 krad was 15% less than that of the controls. Radiation doses had no effect on the reducing sugar content of the rambutan samples. A slight decrease in titratable acidity was found in the stored irradiated rambutan samples. The rotting index of the control sample of the Pink rambutan variety was 40% after 10 days and 100% after 16 days, while after 18 days the rotting index of samples irradiated with 50 krad was only 50% and of those irradiated with 60 krad not more than 30%. Longan investigation. The most favourable change in texture was observed on samples irradiated with high doses and then stored. No significant difference was found between the reducing sugar contents and acidity values as function of the storage period. During 15 days storage at 18 0 C the rotting indices reached, in case of low radiation doses, 100%, while samples irradiated with 150 and 200 krad, respectively, and stored for 30

  8. Gene expression and metabolite changes during Tuber magnatum fruiting body storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Elisa; Guzzo, Flavia; Commisso, Mauro; Mello, Antonietta; Bonfante, Paola; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different 4 °C post-harvest storage periods on the quality of the white truffle Tuber magnatum. The expression of selected genes and the profiles of non-volatile metabolites have been analyzed. The up-regulation of genes related to cell wall metabolism and to a putative laccase points to cell wall modifications and browning events during cold storage. Time course RT-qPCR experiments have demonstrated that such transcription events probably depend on the ripening status, since this is delayed in partially ripe fruiting bodies. Changes in the concentrations of linoleate-derived metabolites occur during the first 3 days of considered cold storage, while the other metabolites, such as the amino acids, do not change. Taken together, the results demonstrate that complex molecular events occur in white truffles in the post-harvest period and before they are used as fresh products.

  9. Influence of gamma rays and some pre and post harvest treatments on behavior of some fruits during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Apricot fruits usually harvested relatively mature but hard enough to withstand-post harvest handling through the marketing chain. These fruits have considerably lower edible quality than tree-ripened fruit. Fruit quality can be improved by delaying harvest least until physiological maturation is completed on the tree (Bonghi et al. 1999) Apricots containing 11% soluble solids concentration, or higher are in high demand by consumers, as fruit have developed considerable taste, aroma and handling for long distance markets. (Kader, 1999). These fruit will be highly perishable, so rapid cold storage to the lowest safe temperature and supplementary treatments (Mc Donald et al, 1999) such as irradiation with the recommend doses (Sillano et al, 1994) or pre-storage heat treatments will be necessary to retard ripening (mainly softening) during 1-2 weeks post harvest life necessary for distribution to distant markets (Mc Donald et al 1999). Therefore, one can conclude that spraying Canino apricot and Dessert Red peach trees with calcium chloride at 5% or Soya bean oil at 2% showed beneficial effects as pre harvest treatments where they increased fruit firmness and improved fruit quality and prolonged storage and marketing periods as well as decreasing weight loss and percentage of discarded fruits. In addition, spaying Manfaloti pomegrates trees with CaCl 2 solution at 7.5% or Soya bean oil at 4% gained the same results.As for the post harvest treatments, results indicated that subjecting Canino apricots and Dessert Red peaches to gamma radiation at 0.5 K.Gy and pomegrates to 1.0 K.Gy proved to be the best treatments where they reduced respiration rate and loss in fruit weight and improved fruit quality and prolonged both storage and marketing periods

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS OF CANDIED FRUITS ENRICHED WITH VITAMIN C BY DIFFERENT METHODS ON ITS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wypchoł

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of storage conditions of candied fruits enriched with vitamin C on its concentration in that product. The materials were candied fruits (black chokeberry and black currant enriched with vitamin C by two methods during their production. The final products were stored within 3 months at 8 and 20°C. On the basis of the results it was stated that enrichment method affected the concentration of the vitamin C in fruits measured during storage period at the above conditions. doi:10.5219/55

  11. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  12. Differential metabolic rearrangements after cold storage are correlated with chilling injury resistance of peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A Bustamante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state. Both common and distinct metabolic responses among the six varieties were found; common changes including dramatic galactinol and raffinose rise; GABA, Asp and Phe increase; and 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate decrease. Raffinose content after long cold treatment quantitatively correlated to the degree of mealiness resistance of the different peach varieties; and thus, raffinose emerges as a candidate biomarker of this CI disorder. Xylose increase after cold treatment was found only in the susceptible genotypes, indicating a particular cell wall reconfiguration of these varieties while being cold-stored. Overall, results indicate that peach fruit differential metabolic rearrangements due to cold treatment, rather than differential metabolic priming before cold, are better related with CI resistance. The plasticity of peach fruit metabolism renders it possible to induce a diverse metabolite array after cold, which is successful, in some genotypes, to avoid CI

  13. Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Babak; Mirshekari, Amin; Yahia, Elhadi

    2016-07-01

    There have been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of Combined Heat and Preservative Treatment on Storability of Ponkan Fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan during Postharvest Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment and preservative application have been widely used during postharvest storage of many fresh products, but the effect of their combination on citrus storage has rarely been investigated. In this study, the optimal heat treatment (HT conditions and HT combined with preservative treatment were investigated for Ponkan fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan storage. Results indicated that HT at 55°C for 20 s can significantly reduce the decay rate of Ponkan fruit, and a combination of HT and 25% of the preservative dosage used in production of iminoctadine tris (albesilate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and imazalil significantly reduced the decay rate without affecting fruit quality. In addition, the increased fiber contents in fruit receiving the HT combined with preservative treatments may be a response preventing fungus infection and enhancing fruit storability and resistance. The above results suggested that the combination of HT and 25% of the preservative production dosage was optimal for controlling Ponkan fruit decay during storage.

  15. Influence of microwave radiation on the post harvest decay and quality of peach fruits in cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarpajoun, E.; Nikkhah, SH.

    2009-01-01

    This research has been carried out in Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources research center to study the effect of microwave radiation on storage time and control of peach fruit rot. Peach cultivars (Alberta, Red, White and Green of Mashad) were harvested in the first and second decades of June, July and September, sorted and stored at 4°C for 12 hours. Then fruits were treated with a Microwave with the Frequency at 2450 MHZ and two intensities, low (200 w) and high (800 w) for 30, 60 and 120 seconds, the treated and control fruits were laid on in plastic trays, packed in perforated polyethylene bags and stored in cold storage (0°C and 90-95% relative humidity) for 2 months. The qualitative tests including fruit rot, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, weight loss, firmness and color were assayed after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Sensory attributes were measured after 60 days storage. The experimental design was factorial in frame of completely randomized design. Multiple range test (Duncan) were used to compare the means. The results showed that treating the fruit with microwave decreased the fruit rot and increased pH, flesh firmness and total soluble solids of treated peach. Microwave radiation with the 800w for 60 seconds maintained the qualitative characteristics of fruits. Panel test confirmed these results. (author)

  16. Effects of postharvest salicylic acid dipping on Alternaria rot and disease resistance of jujube fruit during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiankang; Yan, Jiaqi; Zhao, Yumei; Jiang, Weibo

    2013-10-01

    Considerable postharvest losses caused by Alternaria alternata often occur in Chinese jujube fruit, and synthetic fungicides have been widely used to protect the fruit from Alternaria rot. However, the potential harmfulness of fungicide residues to human health and the environment cannot be ignored. This study was conducted to develop an alternative approach for controlling postharvest disease by inducing fruit resistance with salicylic acid (SA) dipping. Disease incidence and lesion area in the jujube fruit inoculated with A. alternata were significantly inhibited by 2 and 2.5 mmol L(-1) SA dipping. Naturally infected decay rate and index in jujubes were also significantly reduced by SA dipping during long-term storage at 0°C. SA enhanced activities of the main defense-related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase in the fruit during storage. SA strongly decreased catalase activity but increased superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbic acid content in jujubes. The beneficial effects of SA on fruit protection may be due to its ability to activate several highly coordinated defence-related systems in jujubes, instead of its fungicidal activity. The findings indicated that application of SA would offer an alternative approach that helps to control postharvest disease and maintain storage quality in fruits. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Swati; Singh, Alpana; Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Deshmukh, Reena

    2013-10-01

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 °C, Relative Humidity 90 ± 2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar. non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control.

  18. Chitosan Coating: A Postharvest Treatment to Delay Oxidative Stress in Loquat Fruits during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Adiletta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Loquat is a non-climacteric fruit consumed fresh for its essential nutrients and phytochemical compounds. In this study, the effects of chitosan coating (1% w/v on changes in the enzymatic antioxidant and membrane damage in three loquat selections (CREAFRC-S18; CREAFRC-S35 and CREAFRC-S36 and three loquat cultivars (Golden Nugget, Algerie and Nespolone rosso di Trabia stored at 7 °C over 21 days were evaluated. Chitosan treatment enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Moreover, this treatment inhibited polyphenol oxidase and guaiacol peroxidase activities, extending the storage life of loquat. Chitosan also preserved membrane integrity by inhibiting lipoxygenase activity and malondialdehyde accumulation. Principal component analysis provided a global view of the responses of both loquat selections and cultivars to the postharvest chitosan coating and storage temperature. These findings suggest that chitosan treatment could be a valid tool for improving the activity of antioxidant enzymes, preserving the enzymatic browning of loquat fruits.

  19. Active packaging from chitosan-titanium dioxide nanocomposite film for prolonging storage life of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewklin, Patinya; Siripatrawan, Ubonrat; Suwanagul, Anawat; Lee, Youn Suk

    2018-06-01

    The feasibility of active packaging from chitosan (CS) and chitosan containing nanosized titanium dioxide (CT) to maintain quality and extend storage life of climacteric fruit was investigated. The CT nanocomposite film and CS film were fabricated using a solution casting method and used as active packaging to delay ripening process of cherry tomatoes. Changes in firmness, weight loss, a*/b* color, lycopene content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, and concentration of ethylene and carbon dioxide of the tomatoes packaged in CT film, CS film, and control (without CT or CS films) were monitored during storage at 20°C. Classification of fruit quality as a function of different packaging treatments was visualized using linear discriminant analysis. Tomatoes packaged in the CT film evolved lower quality changes than those in the CS film and control. The results suggested that the CT film exhibited ethylene photodegradation activity when exposed to UV light and consequently delayed the ripening process and changes in the quality of the tomatoes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Illicium pachyphyllum Fruits against Two Grain Storage Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Xin-Chao; Dong, Hui-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Long; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Illicium pachyphyllum fruits against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum, and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds in the essenti...

  1. The deterioration during transport and storage of tomato fruits by microorganisms contaminating the surface and latent infected tissue

    OpenAIRE

    河野, 又四; 寺下, 隆夫

    1988-01-01

    [Author abstract]Deterioration during transport and storage of tomato fruits is generally thought to be caused by microorganisms contaminating the surface and latent infected tissue of apparently healthy fruit. Counts of viable airborne microorganisms showed that there were more in plastic greenhouses than in open culure of tomatoes. Altemaria, Aspergillus niger, Asp. oryzae, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Bacillus, Erwinia and Pseudomonas were among t...

  2. Post-harvest quality model of pineapple guava fruit according to storage and weather conditions of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The post-harvest quality of pineapple guava fruit is determined by the storage and prevailing weather conditions during growth and development. This study proposes a model for post-harvest fruit quality according to the storage and weather conditions in the pineapple guava growing region. Physiologically ripe fruit were collected during two harvests from two locations within the Department of Cundinamarca (Colombia: Tenjo and San Francisco de Sales. The fruits were stored at 18 ± 1 °C (76 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, over 11 days and at 5 ± 1 °C (87 ± 5% RH, over 31 days, and the quality attributes were evaluated every two days. Models of the most significant physio-chemical quality characteristics of the post-harvest fruit were developed by using the Excel® Solver tool for all data obtained in the two crop periods. The results showed that storage and prevailing weather conditions, which differed according to the altitude of the growing site, had considerable impacts on the physio-chemical characteristics of the fruit throughout the post-harvest ripening process.

  3. Effects of radiation processing and some natural anti fungus treatments on navel orange fruits during cold storag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-salhy, F.T.A.; Khafagy, S.A.A.; Zaied, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of gamma rays at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 KGy, hot water at 46 degree c for 5 minutes and long side fungicide treatments such as pro-gib plus (GA3) at 200 ppm and garlic oil at 500 ppm with fruit waxing on storage of W ashington navel o range fruits at 7 ± 1 degree C and 90% RH. The effect was evaluated on physical and chemical properties of treated fruits during 2003 and 2004. The data showed that hot water and natural fungicide treatments greatly affected fruit decay and weight loss % . Irradiation treatment induced slight effect on the juice, total soluble solids (TSS), acidity percentage, long side TSS/acid ratio and L-ascorbic acid concentration. The results suggested that radiation treatment was superior to the treatments in affecting chemical constituents of navel oranges and the applied radiation dose at 0.5 and 1.0 KGy are quite enough to be used for extending the shelf-life of fruits and improving their chemical contents. Meanwhile, hot water and fungicide treatments improved the shelf-life of fruits rather than irradiation and come the second for chemical properties of fruits during cold storage

  4. Improving the storage stability of Bifidobacterium breve in low pH fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, M; Alakomi, H L; Mättö, J; Ahonen, A M; Puhakka, A; Tynkkynen, S

    2011-09-01

    Bifidobacterial food applications are limited since bifidobacteria are sensitive to e.g. acidic conditions prevalent in many food matrices. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a low pH selection step alone or combined to UV mutagenesis could improve the viability of an acid sensitive Bifidobacterium strain, B. breve 99, in low pH food matrices. Furthermore, the potential of carriers and an oat fibre preparation to further improve the stability was studied. The best performing low pH tolerant variants in the present study were generated by UV-mutagenesis with 70-700μJ/cm(2) followed by incubation in growth medium at pH 4.5. The most promising variants regarding the low pH tolerance showed, in repeated tests with cells grown without pH control, about one Log-value better survival in pH 3.8 fruit juice after one week storage at 4°C compared to wild-type B. breve 99. Cells grown with pH control, PDX formulated and then frozen showed poorer viability in low pH fruit juice than cells grown with no pH control. For frozen concentrates pH 3.8 was too stressful and no or small differences between the variants and the wild-type strain were seen. The differences detected at pH 3.8 with the cells grown without pH control were also seen with the frozen concentrates at pH 4.5. Some improvement in the stability could be achieved by using a combination of trehalose, vitamin C and PDX as a freezing carrier material, whereas a significant improvement in the stability was seen when oat fibre was added into the fruit juice together with the frozen cells. Due to the initial very poor fruit juice tolerance of B. breve 99 the obtained improvement in the stability was not enough for commercial applications. However, the same methods could be applied to initially better performing strains to further improve their stability in the fruit juice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R. K.; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared...

  6. Evaluation of Physico-biochemichal Characteristics of Fruits in New Varieties of Noushin and Shahin Mandarins During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Fatahi Moghadam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to a breeding program that was carried out in Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Noushin (C. reticulata cv Clementine × C. sinensis cv. Salustiana and Shahin (C. reticulata cv Clementine × C. sinensis cv. Hamlin mandarins were released by using crossing method in 20-year program. In general, mandarins do not have the ability of being kept in common or cold storage for long time compared to oranges. The main problem is the change of fruit taste during storage, therefore, it is an attracted subject for researchers. Furthermore, storage temperature plays an important role in the quality of the taste of mandarins. The new released mandarins, which hve not been yet studied completely for their storability, need to be evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate fruit physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of Noushin and Shahin varieties in common and cold storages for two years. Materials and Methods: In this study, fruits of Noshin and Shahin mandarins were harvested at seasonal harvesting time and then placed in could storage (5 oC and 85% RH and common storage (7-10 oC and 60-70 %RH based on completely randomized design with three replications for 60 days every year. Fruits on days 0 (at harvesting time, 20, 40 and 60 of storage were sampled. Various physico-chemical and sensory characteristics were evaluated including iuice percentage, weight loss, peel color indices (L*, a*, b*, hue angle, chroma and CCI, total soluble solid (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, technological index (TI, skin disorder index (SDI, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, total phenolic, ascorbic acid, antioxidant capacity and sensory parameters during experiment. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using statistical software MSTAT-C. Analysis of variance combined in a randomized complete design (two years with three replications for each variety. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the amount of

  7. Studies on the effect of gamma irradiation, growth regulators and preservatives on the storage ability of eggplant fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maarouf, Abd El-Aziz.A.E

    1993-12-31

    This investigation was carried out in the early summer seasons of 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988 on eggplant fruits cultivar {sup B}alady Black{sup .} To determine the maturity stage and the most suitable age for harvesting. Gamma irradiation, growth regulators and preservatives were tested as tools to improve the shelf life of the fruits. The fruit length, diameter, size and weight showed a continuous increase all over the growth periods. Both T.S.S. and ascorbic acid increased during the development of fruit up to the age of 30 days then followed by a decrease till the last examined age of 36 days. The fruit titratable acidity exhibited a decrease trend while tannins showed an increase one with age advance. Fruits reached the maturity stage after 27 days. This fruit age exhibited the least loss in weight and the lowest unmarketable fruits during storage beside it kept the moderate concentrations of titratable acidity. 24 tabs., 8 figs., 124 refs. Thesis (Ms.c)

  8. Metabolic responses of Lactobacillus plantarum strains during fermentation and storage of vegetable and fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, P; Cardinali, G; Rizzello, C G; Buchin, S; De Angelis, M; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

    2014-04-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)-with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols-and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices.

  9. Pithy brown core in ‘d’Anjou’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit developing during controlled atmosphere storage at pO2 determined by monitoring chlorophyll fluorescense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological responses and fruit quality of ‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit from five orchard lots were evaluated after cold storage in air or controlled atmospheres (CA) with the oxygen (O2) concentration based on assessment of fruit chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) or standard conditions (1.5 kPa O2). The pCO2...

  10. ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Honeycrisp’ apple response to controlled atmosphere storage with oxygen set point determined in response to fruit chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest management of apple fruit ripening using controlled atmosphere (CA) cold storage can be enhanced as CA oxygen concentration is decreased to close to the anaerobic compensation point (ACP). Monitoring fruit chlorophyll fluorescence is one technology available to assess fruit response to ...

  11. Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R K; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S K

    2014-01-01

    Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared with control fruits under both the storage conditions. Combined application of putrescine + carnauba wax showed better response in retaining functional properties than putrescine treated or nontreated fruits. The impacts of putrescine and carnauba wax treatments were found more pronounced after 30 days at 3-5 °C storage temperature in retaining functional and sensory qualities. After 60 days of storage, putrescine + carnauba wax retained about 25% higher antioxidant activity both at 3 and 5 °C storage temperatures.

  12. The Impact of Harvesting, Storage and Processing Factors on Health-Promoting Phytochemicals in Berries and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kårlund

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing epidemiological and experimental data now emphasize that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits confers many health benefits. Functional products containing elevated levels of bioactive compounds are attracting considerable attention due to their potential to lower the risk of chronic diseases and their associated huge healthcare costs. On a global scale, there is an increasing demand for berries and fruits, since they are natural polyphenol-rich raw material to be incorporated into functional foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. This is a major challenge for both industry and horticultural experts, because the content of health-promoting compounds in plants varies widely not only in different plant species, but also between cultivars. The content is also significantly affected by harvesting, storage and processing factors. This review summarizes the recent data and clarifies the main contributors of harvesting time, various storage conditions and post-harvest procedures, such as temperature management, controlled atmosphere, 1-MCP, calcium and plant activators, as ways to influence health-promoting compounds in fruits. Furthermore, the ways processing factors, e.g., enzymatic treatment, pressing, clarification, temperature, pressure and fermentation, can influence the levels of polyphenols and vitamins in berries and soft fruits will be discussed. Finally, strategies for preventing the decline of health-promoting compounds in fruits during long-term storage will be assessed in light of recent scientific progress and modern methods, which preserve the levels of polyphenols, will be highlighted.

  13. Behavior of Salmonella spp. and natural microbiota on fresh-cut dragon fruits at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hui Li; Hong, Yoon-Ki; Yoon, Won Byong; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine survival or growth of unadapted, acid-adapted and cold-stressed Salmonella spp., and natural microbiota on fresh-cut dragon fruits at different storage temperatures. Dragon fruits were sliced and spot inoculated with five-strain cocktail of Salmonella spp. at two inoculum levels (2.5 or 5.5 log CFU/g). Inoculated fruits were stored at 28°C for 48h and at 4°C and 12°C for 96 h. Salmonella population significantly increased by 2.4 to 3.0 log CFU/g at low inoculum level, whereas the numbers increased by 0.4 to 0.7 log CFU/g at the high inoculum level on fruits held at 28°C for 48h. Only unadapted and acid-adapted cells grew with 0.7 to 0.9log increase at the low inoculum level at 12°C for 96h. No significant growth was observed at both inoculum levels during storage at 4°C. Overall, acid, starved and cold adaptation of Salmonella spp. did not show significant difference in survival or growth on fresh-cut dragon fruits during storage compared to unadapted control cells. For natural microbiota on the fruit, mesophilic bacterial counts reached to 5-log CFU/g at 28 and 12°C by 9.9 and 52.9h. Similar with Salmonella spp. there was no growth of natural microbiota at 4°C. These results showed that Salmonella spp. could grow on fresh-cut dragon fruits under inappropriate storage conditions, indicating that fresh-cut dragon fruits could be a potential vehicle for salmonellosis. Thus, this study suggests that fresh-cut dragon fruits should be stored at 4°C to ensure the safety as well as to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut dragon fruits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  15. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) and hepcidin response to iron load in two species of pteropodid fruit bats relative to the common vampire bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Iga M; Smith, Dale A; Ganz, Tomas; Crawshaw, Graham J; Hammermueller, Jutta D; Bienzle, Dorothee; Lillie, Brandon N

    2018-07-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis in the body. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) is a frequent cause of liver disease and mortality in captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), but reasons underlying this condition are unknown. Hereditary hemochromatosis in humans is due to deficiency of hepcidin or resistance to the action of hepcidin. Here, we investigated the role of hepcidin in iron metabolism in one species of pteropodid bat that is prone to iron storage disease [Egyptian fruit bat (with and without hemochromatosis)], one species of pteropodid bat where iron storage disease is rare [straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum)], and one species of bat with a natural diet very high in iron, in which iron storage disease is not reported [common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus)]. Iron challenge via intramuscular injection of iron dextran resulted in significantly increased liver iron content and histologic iron scores in all three species, and increased plasma iron in Egyptian fruit bats and straw-colored fruit bats. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased in response to iron administration in healthy Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, but not in straw-colored fruit bats or Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis. Hepcidin gene expression significantly correlated with liver iron content in Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, and with transferrin saturation and plasma ferritin concentration in Egyptian fruit bats. Induction of hepcidin gene expression in response to iron challenge is absent in straw-colored fruit bats and in Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis and, relative to common vampire bats and healthy humans, is low in Egyptain fruit bats without hemochromatosis. Limited hepcidin response to iron challenge may contribute to the increased susceptibility of Egyptian fruit bats to iron storage disease.

  16. Effect of some Antioxidants, Caraway Oil (Carium carvum L.) and Gamma Radiation on Gray Mould of Strawberry Fruits during Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El-Aziz, Sh.A.; Salem, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Some antioxidants, caraway oil and gamma radiation were tested against grey mould of strawberry fruits caused by Botrytis cinerea. Salicylic acid was the best antioxidant inhibiting mycelial growth of B. cirerea at 6000 ppm, while the least effective was oxalic acid. Also caraway oil completely inhibited the growth of the fungus at 700 μl/L. Gamma radiation at dose 2.5 kGy caused 87.77% inhibition growth. Light microscope observation revealed that caraway oil at 700 μl/L caused changes in morphological characters of B. cinerea. Antioxidants salicylic acid was recorded the least percentage of infection for fruits naturally or artificially infected with B. cirerea. The least effective was oxalic acid. Caraway oil at 700 μl/L inhibited completely the percentage of infection of fruits naturally or artificially infected with B. cirerea after 4 days of storage, while after 10 days of storage, the percentage of infection for artificially infected fruits was 13.33% and for gamma irradiated fruits were 46.66% at dose 2.5 kGy. Salicylic acid at 8 g/L showed more peroxidase (POD) activity than other treatments

  17. Effect of time and storage conditions on the physical and physico-chemical characteristics of the pulp of yellow and purple passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia da Silva ARAÚJO

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was evaluate the physical and physico-chemical characteristics of extracted fruit pulp of passion fruit with different skin color (yellow, light and dark purple under refrigeration temperatures and storage times. The extracted pulp of passion fruit was stored at different temperatures: 10 °C, 25 °C; - 30 °C and - 80 °C and at four different storage periods: 0; 10; 20 and 30 days. The following physical and physico-chemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated: color of fruit peel, fruit weight, diameter, length and width of the fruit, peel thickness, peel mass, pulp mass, pulp color, juice yield, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and ratio. The physical and physico-chemical results indicate that all the passion fruit pulp, in natura as well as refrigerated, presented values in conformity to the identity and quality standards. The coloration of the fruit peel influenced the preservation of pulp color during the storage period and conditions. Purple fruits showed no change in the color of the pulp, even under different conservation procedures. The passion fruit pulp can be stored up to 30 days while preserving the physical and physico-chemical characteristics, similar to the pulp in natura.

  18. Advances in postharvest technologies to extend the storage life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asgar; Yeoh, Wei Keat; Forney, Charles; Siddiqui, Mohammed Wasim

    2017-10-26

    Minimally processed fresh produce is one of the fastest growing segments of the food industry due to consumer demand for fresh, healthy, and convenient foods. However, mechanical operations of cutting and peeling induce the liberation of cellular contents at the site of wounding that can promote the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. In addition, rates of tissue senescence can be enhanced resulting in reduced storage life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Chlorine has been widely adopted in the disinfection and washing procedures of fresh-cut produce due to its low cost and efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Continuous replenishment of chlorine in high organic wash water can promote the formation of carcinogenic compounds such as trihalomethanes, which threaten human and environmental health. Alternative green and innovative chemical and physical postharvest treatments such as ozone, electrolyzed water, hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, high pressure processing, and ultrasound can achieve similar reduction of microorganisms as chlorine without the production of harmful compounds or compromising the quality of fresh-cut produce.

  19. Influence of Ozonization Duration on the Storage Age of Tomato Fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Isyuniarto

    2007-01-01

    It has been carried out the experiment of giving ozone (ozonization) to tomatoes in the packing of plastic polyethylene (PE). Material used in research was the local fresh tomato of Kaliurang with the diameter of about 5 cm, orange color and mean weighing of 7 gram, while the ozone gas used was the output of Ozonizer portable 25 W made in PTAPB-BATAN Yogyakarta. Tomato is entered into perforated packing of plastic PE with the dimension size of (25 x 40) cm, thickness 0.03 mm and or 0.05 mm and then they were conducted by ozonization with the variation time of 0, 15, 30 and 45 second. Tomato sample control was done after being deposited as long as 5 and 10 days which consists of water contained, texture, dwindle the weight and test the differentiation by panelist to various attribute quality of fruit like color, aroma, texture and entirety. From research result was showed that by using ozone treatment the storage age of tomato can be improved to become 2 times (on the condition of water stage 96.50 (% wb), texture 2.64 N and dwindle the weight 5.99 %) which is done by ozonization as long as 45 second on the packing of plastic PE with thickness of 0.03 mm. (author)

  20. Gamma irradiation followed by cold storage as a quarantine treatment for Florida grapefruit infested with Caribbean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Windeguth, D.L.; Gould, W.P.

    1990-01-01

    'Marsh' white grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Macf.). infested with eggs and larvae of Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) were subjected to ionizing radiation at several low doses followed by cold (1.1°C) storage for 0 to 8 days. Data analyses indicated that an irradiation dose of 50 Gray followed by 5 days of cold storage will give in excess of probit 9 level of quarantine security. A test involving more than 100,000 insects infesting grapefruit confirmed the efficacy of this treatment

  1. Changes in Peroxidase Activity in the Peel of Unshiub Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. Fruit with Different Storage Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Lepeduš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Unshiu mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. is the major Citrus crop in Croatia. Limiting factors for longer consumption of Unshiu mandarin are low storage performance and the appearance of chilling injuries during storage. Previous studies indicated that oxidative stress might be involved in cold-induced peel damage of harvested Citrus fruit. The aim of the present study was to investigate peroxidase distribution, isoenzyme pattern and activity in the peel of Unshiu mandarin fruit. Special goal of our study was to investigate the changes of peroxidase activity in respect to two different hot water dipping (HWD treatments (3 min at 48 and 52 °C and two different storage temperatures (1 and 3 °C combined. Peroxidase activity was detected at the border of oil glands, in the peel surface and in the conducting elements positioned in the inner part of the peel. Electrophoretic analysis revealed the presence of two peroxidase isoenzymes. There were no differences in the electrophoretic pattern after the HWD treatments and cold storage. Lowering of both total and specific peroxidase activity was measured in HWD-treated samples in comparison with the control ones. However, it appeared that significant decrease in total peroxidase activity was influenced by the storage temperatures, while the increase in total soluble protein content was influenced by the HWD pretreatment.

  2. Do sun- versus shade-grown kiwifruits perform differently upon storage? An overview of fruit maturity and nutraceutical properties of whole and fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Tardelli, Francesca; Remorini, Damiano; Massai, Rossano; Guidi, Lucia

    2014-05-14

    Fresh-cut produce represents a good method to save about 25% of the kiwifruit not useful to meet the fresh fruit-marketing standard due to improper size and shape. For that reason, fresh-cut kiwifruit has been extensively studied. However, the comprehension of the influence of some aspects of cultivation might further increase the shelf life as well as the nutritional values of that fruit. This study explored the hypothesis that kiwifruits grown fully exposed to sunlight or partially shaded differently perform upon storage as whole fruit and as minimally processed produce. Flesh firmness (FF), total solids soluble (SSC), ascorbate (AAT), flavonoids (TFO), and phenols (TF) contents were evaluated in sliced and whole fruit upon 3 days of storage at 4 °C after 75 days of cold chamber storage at 0 °C. The activities of two enzymes related to the softening process, polygalacturonase (PG) and pectinmethylesterase (PME), were evaluated as well. FF and SSC were constitutively higher in sun-exposed fruit, and those characteristics remained higher during the storage as whole fruit. Greater constitutive content of AAT, TFO, and TP was found in sun-exposed whole fruit, although after cutting the reduction in their content was significantly lower in shaded fruits. PME and PG activities were higher only in whole shaded fruits, whereas no relevant differences occurred after cutting. In summary, sun-exposed fruits were more suitable for the fresh-fruit market, whereas the shaded counterpart displayed a good predisposition for use as fresh-cut produce, maintaining similar fruit maturity properties but higher nutraceutical values when sliced than fruit grown under full sun.

  3. Biocontrol of Postharvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit with Debaryomyces Nepalensis and Effects on Storage Quality and Postharvest Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanshan; Wan, Bin; Feng, Shuhan; Shao, Yuanzhi

    2015-11-01

    Anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. To control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. With people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. In this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched the strain resources and the efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis against postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit and the influence on quality parameters were investigated. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by D. nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of D. nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by D. nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. Moreover, the increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) content and increase in cell membrane permeability of fruit treated by D. nepalensis was highly inhibited. The results suggested D. nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that D. nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. [Nutrition value of wild-growing fruits from mountain Dagestan and its safety after fast freezing and cold storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseynova, B M

    2016-01-01

    Results of research of mineral composition, content of vitamin C and P, titrable acids, pectinaceous and phenol substances in fresh, fast-frozen (t=-30 °C), and also stored within 3 and 9 months (t=-18 °C) fruits of wild-growing blackberry, cornel, medlar and sea-buckthorn are presented in article. Determination of mineral composition was carried out by flame atomic absorption photometry, vitamin C and pectinaceous substances -by titirimetric methods, phenolic substances and vitamin P - by colorimetric methods. Vitamin C content was minimal in fresh fruits of cornel (6.9±0.3 mg%), amounted to 21.7-32.0 mg% in the fruits of blackberries and medlar and reached 180.1±7.2 mg% in the fruit of sea-buckthorn. Vitamin P concentration ranged from 34.9 (sea-buckthorn) to 180.0 mg% (cornel). Berries of a cornel contained also the greatest number of titrable acids (33.2±1.3 g/dm3), phenolic compounds (243.0±4.8 mg%) and pectinaceous substances (2.91±0.08%). The most significant content of potassium (521±15.6 mg%), calcium (133.2±5.2 mg%), magnesium (62.4±2.5 mg%) and iron (2.81±0.05 mg%) was revealed in medlar fruits. Consumption of 100 g of the studied fruits provides daily requirements of a human body, depending on a species of wild plants: in calcium -for 2-13.3%, potassium - for 7.0-20.8%, magnesium - for 8.1-15.6%, iron - for 5.9-19.2% and in vitamin C - from 5.8-24.6 to 145.7% in the case of sea buckthorn. The applied processing method of conservation - fast freezing (t=-30 °С) of fruits and their long storage (t=-18 °С) is the effective way ensuring high safety of nutrients in them. In the studied berries after 9-months cold storage the safety of vitamin C varied ranging from 55.7 (blackberry) to 76.1% (cornel), and vitamin P - from 81.9 (sea-buckthorn) to 92.8% (cornel). Stability of titrable acids, except for medlar fruits, varied from 84.2% (blackberry) to 94.0% (sea-buckthorn). The safety of phenolic and pectinaceous compounds by the end of 9 months

  5. Effect of harvest, drying and storage on the bitterness, moisture, sugars, free amino acids and phenolic compounds of jujube fruit (Zizyphus jujuba cv. Junzao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yunfeng; Ding, Tian; Wang, Wenjun; Xiang, Yanju; Ye, Xingqian; Li, Mei; Liu, Donghong

    2018-01-01

    The taste of dried jujube fruit when compared with fresh ones is less palatable, as it develops bitterness during drying and storage. Therefore, identifying the methods by which bitterness occurs is essential for developing strategies for processing and storage. Bitterness in fresh jujube fruit was negligible; however, it increased by 0.9-, 1.5- and 1.8-fold during drying and storage over 6 and 12 months. The moisture significantly decreased during harvesting and drying. Free amino acids, except proline and tyrosine, significantly decreased during drying and storage. Fructose, glucose and sucrose hardly changed during harvest, drying and storage. Titratable acidity, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents were stable during harvest and drying, but increased upon storage. Additionally, protocatechuic and ellagic acids were not detected in fresh jujube fruit, however, were found to increase during drying and storage. Bitterness in fresh jujube fruit tasted negligible because of meagre amount of phytochemicals, while the condensation effect of moisture reduction, the loss of free amino acids, and the formation of protocatechuic and ellagic acids could aggravate the bitterness of jujube fruit during drying and storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shen, Fei; Zhu, Shijiang

    2017-01-01

    Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA) at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs) right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS). These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD), energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter altered the

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS. These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD, energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter

  8. Effect of gamma rays on fruit storage of some date palm cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Salhy, F.T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This investigation wa conducted on two date groups: Semi-dry date (Amry cultivar) and dry date (Sackoti and Bartamoda cultivars) dates, at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), in Cairo, during two successive seasons, 1992 and 1993. The aim of this study is to find out the best alternative method for improving fruit quality as well as prolonging the marketable period of date fruits. Semi-dry date (Amry) fruits were obtained from El-Kourain region, brought from Aswan Governorate. Two hundred and twenty kilograms of fruits from each date group were collected to be used for the different postharvest experiments

  9. The role of natural antibiotics in storage diseases resistance in irradiated tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaway, N.S.M.

    1981-01-01

    Tomato (lycopersicum esculantum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops in egypt. Fruit rot, mainly due to fungi, are essential obstacles facing the nowadays prejects plannings of the yield production and exportation. Tomato fruits, variety money maker at green mature exposed to acute gamma irradiation doses at 5, 10, 20, 30 and 100 K rad after inoculated with spore suspension of alternaria tenuis , the main casual organism of fruit rot of tomato and control without inoculation. The source of irradiation was cobalt 60. After irradiation , 50 tomato fruits were packed into exporting carton boxes and then were stored at room temperature

  10. IAD value at harvest as a predictor for ‘Anjou’ fruit storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjou pears produced in the PNW are single picked and can have considerable fruit maturity variability at harvest. Assessment of chlorophyll in and several mm below the peel using differential absorbance (IAD) is a means to identify populations of fruit of varying maturity within single trees. Thi...

  11. Pre-harvest application of salicylic acid maintain the rind textural properties and reduce fruit rot and chilling injury of sweet orange during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.D.; Iqbal, Z.; Singh, Z.; Iqbal, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Trees of citrus cvs Lane Late and Valencia Late oranges were sprayed ten days before anticipated harvest with salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 mM). Fruits were harvested and stored at 5 degree C for 93 days to investigate the effects of SA on fruit rot, chilling injury and quality relating parameters such as rind and fruit firmness as well as sugar and organic acid contents. Fruits were analyzed before storage and after 31, 62 and 93 days of storage and found that SA at 8 mM and 9 mM reduced fruit rot from 16.93% to 6.06% and 12.78% to 5.12% in Lane Late and Valencia Late, respectively. Chilling injury was significantly reduced at 8 mM and 9 mM treatments. Textural properties relating to rind puncture, rind tensile and fruit firmness forces showed that treated fruits were significantly firmer than those of control. Maintained contents of SSC, TA, individual sugars and organic acids in treated fruit with higher doses after 93 confirmed preliminary findings such as SA has anti-senescent effect. Our research suggests that pre-harvest spray of SA can be used effectively to minimize the post-harvest/storage losses of sweet oranges cultivars. (author)

  12. Influence of Calcium Chloride (CaCl/sub 2/) on Fruit Quality of Pear (Pyrus communis) cv. le conte During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M.; Mukhtiar, M.; Rab, M.; Shah, S.R.; Jan, I.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Postharvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2010 to evaluate the 'Influence of calcium chloride (CaCl/sub 2/) on fruit quality of pear (Pyrus communis) cv. Le-conte'. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three factors i.e. (CaCl/sub 2/) concentration (0,3,6 and 9%), dipping time (5,10 and 15 minutes) and storage durations (0,10,20,30 and 40 days). The maximum ascorbic acid (7.93 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (5.86%), while the least percent weight loss (4.52%), pH of fruit juice (4.42), total soluble solids (TSS) (19.83%) and percent disease incidence (2.56%) were observed in fruits treated with 9% CaCl/sub 2/ solution. The dipping time also significantly influenced the quality attributes of pear fruits during storage. The more ascorbic acid (6.88 mg/100 g) and reducing sugar (5.44%) were recorded in the pear fruits dipped for 15 minutes. Storage duration significantly affected the fruit quality 40 days storage. The highest reducing sugar recorded in fresh pear fruits while the highest ascorbic acid (7.83 mg/100 g) were observed in pear fruit stored for 10 days storage duration, while more non-reducing sugar (7.03%) recorded in the fruits stored for 30 days. In the interaction of CaCl/sub 2/ concentration x dipping time, the highest total soluble solid (31.88%) noted in the fruits stored for 40 days and dipped for 5 minutes in CaCl/sub 2/ solution. It is concluded that pear fruit perform best in the postharvest life when treated with 9% CaCl/sub 2/ solution and dipped for 15 minutes. It retained most of the quality attributes up to 10 days storage at ambient temperature while a significant decline was recorded in fruit quality when extended the storage duration from 20 to 40 days. (author)

  13. The effect of the lenght of storage on the amount of lycopene in the fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Uher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We focused on tomatoes for industrial processing due to its economical importance for its lycopene content. The objective of our research is to find the variation of lycopene content in tomato fruits depending upon the length of after harvest storage and thermic treatment, which is inevitable when being industrialy processed. From the point of view of nutritional qualities the most relevant contentual substance of tomatos are carotenoids, included lycopene.At average for tree following experimental years we learnt significant differences regarding the content of lycopene and the length of storage of tomato fruits. Immediately after the harvest and proccesing tomato fruits contained, at average for tree years, 103.24 mg of lycopene. After 14 days the content of lycopene declined to 46.76 mg . kg−1 of fresh mass. After 30 days the average value dropped to 29.26 mg . kg−1. This fact comfirms that boiling respectively thermic treatment increases the content of lycopene in tomato fruits, particulary in our experiment to the value 83.33 mg . kg−1. At varieties Ladislav, Peto 86, Prémium, Salus the content of lycopene has even risen in comparison with its content up to 48 hours after the harvest. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. belongs to the most signifficant vegetable varieties either for its exploitation in processing industry as well as for its nutritional value with extraordinary beneficial effect for human organism.Although the content of lycopene is genetically stable attribute, its content in our experiment ranged from 45.39 mg . kg−1 (Prémium variety to 77.98 mg . kg−1 (Zámčan variety, which are significant differences.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Storage Temperature, Atmosphere and Packaging Materials on Some Properties of Carum copticum Fruits during Nine Months Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gonai baghdadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of medicinal plant storage is to preserve qualitative and quantitative properties of active substance. Carum copticum fruits (Zenyan in Persian were used for its therapeutic effects. Seed storage condition after harvest till to extraction time is not suitable in our country and the major part of seed quality deteriorates during the storage period. So, the loss of seed qualitative and quantitative characteristics will increase during unsuitable storage condition. Appropriate storage conditions and management preserve seed active substance, seed viability and vigor for long periods by reducing the rate of seed deterioration. Optimal seed storage can be achieved by modifying the environment around the seeds. Numerous storage systems have evolved over the years for post harvest preservation of crop seeds. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of various storage conditions and storage time on essential oil percentage and germination factors in C. copticum seeds during the storage period. The results of this research will be used for optimum storage of these seeds to better preserve their quality. Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effects of storage conditions (packaging materials and temperature and storage time on quality of C. copticum stored seeds, a split-plot factorial arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications is performed in Faculty of Agriculture at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2013 and 2014.Tukey's range test was performed to determine the significant difference between treatments. The calculations were conducted by JMP 8 software. Temperature at two levels: 20±3°C and 30±3°C( as main plots and packaging materials (at six levels: paper, polyethylene, aluminum foil under vacuum condition, Polyethylene-polyamide packages under vacuum condition, Polyethylene-polyamide packages with a gas composition of [98%N2 + 2%O2] and [90%N2 +10%O2] and storage periods

  15. Effect of storage temperature on physico-chemical and sensory attributes of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Kundan; Pathak, K A; Shukla, Rohit; Bharali, Rinku

    2011-08-01

    Physico-chemical and sensory quality of juice from purple passion fruit under different storage temperature and time were assessed. The maximum loss in fruit weight was recorded under room temperature (25 ± 1°C) followed by at 11 ± 1°C. There was an increase in juice percentage up to 9 and 13 days under room temperature and storage at 11 ± 1°C respectively. The optimum flavour in juice was up to 5 days at 25 ± 1°C and up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. A significant reduction in sourness was recorded on 5th day under all treatments and the scores for sourness became almost constant after 17 days. The maximum increase in the mean scores of sweetness on 5th day was observed at 25 ± 1°C followed by at 11 ± 1°C. The optimum level of juice sweetness was maintained up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. Total soluble solids content increased in initial stage followed by reduction. There was a reduction in the titrable acidity up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. A decreasing trend in the reducing and non-reducing sugar of passion fruit was observed under all the treatments. Fruits stored at 25 ± 1°C, developed off-flavour in juice after 5 days, while storage at 8 ± 1°C produced no off-flavor even up to 21 days. Fruits can be stored for 5 days only at 25 ± 1°C as the overall sensory quality of juice reduced significantly afterwards, while juice maintained the optimum overall quality up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C.

  16. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil of Carum Carvi Fruits from China and Its Main Components against Two Grain Storage Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Rui; Jiang, Cai Hong; Wang, Xiu Yi; Zhang, Hai Ming; Liu, Zhi Long; Zhou, Ligang; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei

    2010-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Carum carvi fruits was found to possess strong contact toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 3.07 and 3.29 mg/adult, respectively, and also showed strong fumigant toxicity against the two grain storage insects with LC50 values of 3.37 and 2.53 mg/L, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by G...

  17. Encapsulating betalains from Opuntia ficus-indica fruits by ionic gelation: Pigment chemical stability during storage of beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Osorio, Coralia; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena

    2016-07-01

    Betalain encapsulation was performed by ionic gelation as a stabilization strategy for these natural pigments. Betalains were extracted from purple cactus fruits and encapsulated in calcium-alginate and in combination of calcium alginate and bovine serum albumin. Beads were characterised by scanning electron microscopy and thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Moisture sorption isotherms were determined. Bead morphology was affected by matrix composition. Pigments storage stability was evaluated at different equilibrium relative humidity and temperatures. Pigment composition of beads was determined by HPLC-MS-MS and degradation products were also analysed after storage; betalamic acid being the major one. Both types of matrices protected the encapsulated pigments, being their storage stability better at low relative humidity than that of the non-encapsulated control material. Antiradical activities of beads were proportional to remaining betalain contents. At high relative humidity, there was no protection and low storage stability was observed in the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castro-López

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C during the product shelf-life (20 days was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH·− assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL−1, total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL−1, and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL−1; while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL−1. The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  19. Phytosterol conjugation in cold-storage apple fruit is linked to oxidative stress and ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low temperature stress is implicated in a wide-range of apple fruit postharvest necrotic disorders. Previously, untargeted metabolic profiling identified alterations in multiple metabolic processes that precede superficial scald symptom development. Metabolites with free sterol (FS) –like mass spe...

  20. Deciphering the interplay among genotype, maturity stage and low-temperature storage on phytochemical composition and transcript levels of enzymatic antioxidants in Prunus persica fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganaris, George A; Drogoudi, Pavlina; Goulas, Vlasios; Tanou, Georgia; Georgiadou, Egli C; Pantelidis, George E; Paschalidis, Konstantinos A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Manganaris, Athanasios

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the antioxidant metabolic changes of peach (cvs. 'Royal Glory', 'Red Haven' and 'Sun Cloud') and nectarine fruits (cv. 'Big Top') exposed to different combinations of low-temperature storage (0, 2, 4 weeks storage at 0 °C, 90% R.H.) and additional ripening at room temperature (1, 3 and 5 d, shelf life, 20 °C) with an array of analytical, biochemical and molecular approaches. Initially, harvested fruit of the examined cultivars were segregated non-destructively at advanced and less pronounced maturity stages and qualitative traits, physiological parameters, phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity were determined. 'Big Top' and 'Royal Glory' fruits were characterized by slower softening rate and less pronounced ripening-related alterations. The coupling of HPLC fingerprints, consisted of 7 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quecetin-3-O-glucoside, procyanidin B1) and spectrophotometric methods disclosed a great impact of genotype on peach bioactive composition, with 'Sun Cloud' generally displaying the highest contents. Maturity stage at harvest did not seem to affect fruit phenolic composition and no general guidelines for the impact of cold storage and shelf-life on individual phenolic compounds can be extrapolated. Subsequently, fruit of less pronounced maturity at harvest were used for further molecular analysis. 'Sun Cloud' was proven efficient in protecting plasmid pBR322 DNA against ROO attack throughout the experimental period and against HO attack after 2 and 4 weeks of cold storage. Interestingly, a general down-regulation of key genes implicated in the antioxidant apparatus with the prolongation of storage period was recorded; this was more evident for CAT, cAPX, Cu/ZnSOD2, perAPX3 and GPX8 genes. Higher antioxidant capacity of 'Sun Cloud' fruit could potentially be linked with compounds other than enzymatic antioxidants that further regulate peach

  1. Effect of fluorescent light on selected antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity during storage of fresh-cut carambola (averrhoa carambola l.) fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainudin, M.A.M.; Dek, M.S.P.; Anwar, F.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fluorescent light on the availability of selected antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity during storage of fresh-cut carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit were investigated. The samples of fresh-cut fruit, stored at 5 +- 1 deg. C, were exposed to fluorescent light (157 Lux) for 12 days. Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and ascorbic acid (AA) content of the processed fruit were analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Antioxidant activity of the fruit was assessed following 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results of the present study showed that light exposure did not exert any significant effect, while storage period significantly reduced the AA content of the fruits tested. On the other hand, with few exceptions, there were notable random changes, recorded in the TPC and antioxidant activity of the fruit as function of storage period and light exposure. (author)

  2. Evaporative cooling system for storage of fruits and vegetables - a review

    OpenAIRE

    lal Basediya, Amrat; Samuel, D. V. K.; Beera, Vimala

    2011-01-01

    Horticultural produce are stored at lower temperature because of their highly perishable nature. There are many methods to cool the environment. Hence, preserving these types of foods in their fresh form demands that the chemical, bio-chemical and physiological changes are restricted to a minimum by close control of space temperature and humidity. The high cost involved in developing cold storage or controlled atmosphere storage is a pressing problem in several developing countries. Evaporati...

  3. Studies on Prolonging Storage life and Maintaining Fruit Quality Parameters of Zaghloul Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElSalhy, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation ( 1, 2 and 3 kGy) and some natural plant extracts i.e. aloe, ambrosia, cinnamon, chamomile, clove or nigella on prolonging the storage life and some parameters of Zaghloul dates quality under cold storage (5 ±2 C, 90-95 % RH). The weight loss %, decay %, T.S.S. %, total sugars and non-reducing sugars % of Zaghloul dates were increased in most cases with prolonging the storage time. Meanwhile, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were decreased during storage period (56 days). However, the lowest values of weight loss % and decay % were recorded by aloe extract treatment while the highest values of T.S.S., total sugars, non-reducing sugars, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were scored by gamma irradiation at 3 kGy. It could be concluded that using irradiation at 3 kGy, aloe, cinnamon or clove can keep the dates (Zaghloul variety) fresh even after 56 days at cold storage with good quality and safety levels of microbes

  4. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nos teores de carotenoides, acido ascorbico e acucares do fruto Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Quimica, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Silva, Jaqueline Michele [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Irradiacao de Alimentos], e-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, e-mail: jaquelinefisica@bol.com.br; Coelho, Maysa Joppert [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Engenharia Ambiental], e-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: sidney@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of beta-carotene. It also presents ascorbic acid and sugar contents. Many studies have indicated that the lack of A vitamin is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. Also, ascorbic acid deficiency may cause scorbutic disease. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to agriculture through the reduction of post-harvesting losses while maintaining food nutritional quality. In this study, buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation with doses of 0.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The objective was to evaluate the irradiation effects on total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugars concentrations of buriti. The fruit was evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (alpha and beta-carotene and lutein), ascorbic acid and sugars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids (44600 {mu}g/100 g). The irradiation of buriti with the dose of 0.5 kGy did not significantly change carotenoids and sugars contents. However, there was a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration with an increase of the dose, which may have been caused by irradiation or by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that alter ascorbic acid stability in food, converting ascorbic to dehydroascorbic acid, while keeping the C vitamin active form. (author)

  5. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea Europea. 1.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater 9 daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine. (author)

  6. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea europea. L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Bachir, M.

    2001-01-01

    Olive fruits (Olea europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater (daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine [es

  7. Stability of functional compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and pasteurized orange passion fruit (Passiflora caerulea) during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; Facco, Elizete Maria Pesamosca; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to evaluate differences in the stability of physicochemical and color parameters, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids and antioxidant capacity in fresh and pasteurized juice of orange passion fruit, respectively cold stored (8 °C) during 0-4 or during 0-15 days. The results showed that in the physicochemical analysis, no significant differences were observed comparing pasteurized and fresh juice during storage. The pasteurized juice showed higher concentrations of color parameters, phenolic compounds (15% more of retention for days 0 and 4), epigallocatechin gallate (40% in day 0 and 27% in day 4), lycopene (142% for day 0 and 39% for day 4), total carotenoids (114% in day 0 and 8% in day 4) and antioxidant capacity (12% in day 0 and 7% in day 4).; already fresh juice retained more values of quercetin (79% in day 0 and 245% in day 4), α-carotene (57% in day 4), β-carotene and provitamin A (80% of retention in day 4). Therefore, the pasteurization processing was positive in orange passion fruit juice and improved the accessibility of most bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  9. Potential of carboxymethyl cellulose coating and low dose gamma irradiation to maintain storage quality, inhibit fungal growth and extend shelf-life of cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P R; Rather, S A; Suradkar, P; Parveen, S; Mir, M A; Shafi, F

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality, inhibiting fungal incidence and extending shelf-life of cherry fruit. Two commercial cherry varieties viz. Misri and Double after harvest at commercial maturity were coated with CMC at levels 0.5-1.0 % w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.2 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (temperature 3 ± 1 °C, RH 80 %) conditions for evaluation of various physico-chemical parameters. Fruits were evaluated after every 3 and 7 days under ambient and refrigerated conditions. CMC coating alone at levels 0.5 and 0.75 % w/v was not found effective with respect to mold growth inhibition under either of the two conditions. Individual treatment of CMC coating at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation proved helpful in delaying the onset of mold growth up to 5 and 8 days of ambient storage. During post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %, irradiation alone at 1.2 kGy gave further 4 days extension in shelf-life of cherry varieties following 28 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of cherry fruit during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 % but, combination of CMC at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation was found significantly ( p  ≤ 0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of cherry fruit. The above combinatory treatment besides maintaining storage quality resulted in extension of 6 days in shelf life of cherry varieties during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 80 % following 28 days of refrigeration. Above Combination treatment gave a maximum of 2.3 and 1.5 log reduction in yeast and mold count of cherry fruits after 9 and 28

  10. The Application of Active Paper Incorporated with Oleoresin of Cinnamon Leaf (Cinnamomum burmanii) Distillation Residues on Maintaining Dragon Fruits (Hylocereus costaricensis) Quality during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M. S. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active paper placement methods on super red dragon fruits quality during storage at ambient temperature. The active papers were incorporated with oleoresin of cinnamon leaf distillation residues. Various active paper placement methods were applied such as wrapping, placed on the cardboard wall, placed cardboard pad, and scrap of paper on the sidelines. Weight loss, peel color, surface and flesh hardness, total titratable acid, soluble solid total, pH flesh fruit, and total plate count (TPC) of super red dragon fruits samples were investigated during 9 days storage. The result shows that active paper placement methods significantly affected the weight loss, surface firmness and color peel change of super red dragon fruits samples. However, active paper placement methods insignificantly affected the titrable acid total, soluble solid total, pH, flesh firmness and microbial spoilage of super red dragon fruits samples. The best method to maintain the super red dragon fruits quality was wrapping method.

  11. Impact of Precooling and Controlled-Atmosphere Storage on γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Molin; Ndeurumio, Kessy H; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Zhuoyan

    2016-08-24

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruit cultivars 'Chuliang' and 'Shixia' were analyzed for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation after precooling and in controlled-atmosphere storage. Fruit were exposed to 5% O2 plus 3%, 5%, or 10% CO2 at 4 °C, and GABA and associated enzymes, aril firmness, and pericarp color were measured. Aril softening and pericarp browning were delayed by 5% CO2 + 5% O2. GABA concentrations and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) activities declined during storage at the higher-CO2 treatments. However, GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T; EC 2.6.1.19) activities in elevated CO2-treated fruit fluctuated during storage. GABA concentrations increased after precooling treatments. GAD activity and GABA-T activity were different between cultivars after precooling. GABA concentrations in fruit increased after 3 days of 10% CO2 + 5% O2 treatment and then declined as storage time increased. GABA accumulation was associated with stimulation of GAD activity rather than inhibition of GABA-T activity.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-05-13

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel; Harb, Jamil; Qudeimat, Enas

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  14. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Illicium pachyphyllum Fruits against Two Grain Storage Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Wen Dong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Illicium pachyphyllum fruits against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum, and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds in the essential oil being trans-ρ-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (24.56%, D-limonene (9.79%, caryophyllene oxide (9.32%, and cis-carveol (5.26% followed by β-caryophyllene (4.63% and bornyl acetate. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated and identified as trans-ρ-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol, D-limonene and caryophyllene oxide. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 17.33 μg/adult and 28.94 μg/adult, respectively. trans-p-Mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (LD50 = 8.66 μg/adult and 13.66 μg/adult, respectively exhibited stronger acute toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults than either caryophyllene oxide (LD50 = 34.09 μg/adult and 45.56 μg/adult and D-limonene (LD50 = 29.86 μg/adult and 20.14 μg/adult. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 11.49 mg/L and 15.08 mg/L, respectively. trans-p-Mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults, respectively, with LC50 values of 6.01 mg/L and 8.14 mg/L, than caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 17.02 mg/L and 15.98 mg/L and D-limonene (LC50 = 33.71 mg/L and 21.24 mg/L. The results indicate that the essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for the control of

  15. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  16. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. II. Polyamine metabolism and synthesis in relation to enhanced putrescine content and storage life of alc tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele alc) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (Alc) at the ripe stage. Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-alc-a near isogenic line possessing the allele alc, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in alc pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and alc fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of [1,4- 14 C]putrescine and [terminal labeled- 3 H]spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-alc fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in alc fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in alc fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase

  17. Effect of postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment on fatty acid composition and phenolic acid content in olive fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Del Castillo, María Luisa Ruiz

    2017-07-01

    The nutritional effects of both table olives and olive oil are attributed not only to their fatty acids but also to antioxidant phenolics such as phenolic acids. Delays in oil processing usually result in undesirable oxidation and hydrolysis processes leading to formation of free fatty acids. These alterations create the need to process oil immediately after olive harvest. However, phenolic content decreases drastically during olive storage resulting in lower quality oil. In the present study we propose postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment as a mean to avoid changes in fatty acid composition and losses of phenolic acids during olive storage. Contents of fatty acids and phenolic acids were estimated in methyl jasmonate treated olives throughout 30-day storage, as compared with those of untreated olives. Significant decreases of saturated fatty acids were observed in treated samples whereas increases of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were respectively measured (i.e. from 50.8% to 64.5%, from 7.2% to 9.1% and from 1.5% to 9.3%). Also, phenolic acid contents increased significantly in treated olives. Particularly, increases of gallic acid from 1.35 to 6.29 mg kg -1 , chlorogenic acid from 9.18 to 16.21 mg kg -1 , vanillic acid from 9.61 to 16.99 mg kg -1 , caffeic acid from 5.12 to 12.55 mg kg -1 , p-coumaric acid from 0.96 to 5.31 mg kg -1 and ferulic acid from 4.05 to 10.43 mg kg -1 were obtained. Methyl jasmonate treatment is proposed as an alternative postharvest technique to traditional methods to guarantee olive oil quality when oil processing is delayed and olive fruits have to necessarily to be stored. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Changes in the contents of anthocyanins and other compounds in blackberry fruits due to freezing and long-term frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina; Cunja, Vlasta; Zupan, Anka; Koron, Darinka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2014-07-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fast and slow freezing and frozen storage on the metabolite content of six blackberry cultivars. The content of metabolites determined with HPLC RI/PDA-MS in stored blackberries was compared with the initial content of the fruit. During frozen storage of fruits a loss of vitamin C up to 80% has been recorded along with changes of color values, which shifted to blue and yellow hues. The color changes were accompanied with increased pH levels and content of anthocyanins. Most of the phenolic groups, sugars, and organic acids showed a better extraction after storage, especially in the slow freezing treatment due to a higher degree of tissue damage by freezing. The 'Thornless Evergreen' cultivar was especially rich in sugars, vitamin C, and phenolic compounds, but the highest levels of anthocyanins were determined in 'Loch Ness' cultivar.

  19. Changes in pectin methyl esterase activity with different packaging materials and stages of fruit harvesting during cold storage of pear cv. Punjab beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Dhillon, W S; Mahajan, B V C

    2014-10-01

    Pear cv. Punjab Beauty has become quite popular in Punjab. Excessive softening during cold storage leading to low shelf life is the major factor limiting its wider adoption. Studies were, therefore, conducted to determine the firmness and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity at 4 harvest dates (2nd, 3rd and 4th week of July, and 1st week of August). Various packaging materials i.e. corrugated fiber board boxes and crates with high and low density polyethylene liners, corrugated fiber board boxes, crates and wooden boxes were also evaluated for their role in extending the shelf life of fruits. The enzyme activity and fruit firmness was evaluated periodically after 30, 45, 60 and 75 days of storage at 0-1 °C and 90-95 % RH. The firmness of the fruits decreased with the increase in storage intervals but the enzyme activity increased with the storage period up to 60 days and declined thereafter. Ripening-related changes in all the harvests were characterized mainly by an increase in the solubilization of pectin with a concomitant decrease in the degree of firmness. There was a continuous increase in enzyme activity with the advancement in harvesting dates and then fell sharply in the advanced ripening stages. Highest pectin methyl esterase activity was in fruits packed in crates followed by wooden boxes and corrugated fiber board boxes while the lowest was recorded in fruits packed in corrugated fiber board boxes with high density polyethylene liners. Therefore, high density polyethylene lined CFB boxes proved to be most effective in preventing the loss in firmness.

  20. Evaluation of efficiency of equipment used in the conservation of fruits and vegetables in the terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo - CEAGESP; Avaliacao da eficiencia no uso dos equipamentos de refrigeracao utilizados na conservacao de frutas e hortalicas no entreposto terminal de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP-Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Josue; Ferreira, Marcos David [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola (FEAGRI); Neves Filho, Lincoln de Camargo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Gutierrez, Anita de Souza Dias [CEAGESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Qualidade em Horticultura

    2004-07-01

    The shelf life of fruits and vegetables can be directly related to store temperature. At determined temperature and humidity a better conservation of the product can be achieve. The cold chain delays the aging, having its conservation guaranteed until the consumer. It was carried through in the Terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo- CEAGESP, a research for evaluation of the condition of the cold chambers used. The cold storage equipment evaluation was measured using the follow parameters: temperature, humidity, isolation, type of equipment used, etc. It was analyzed, chambers used for cold storage, using thermal load calculation. Apple and pears were the most stored commodities in CEAGESP, 50 % and bananas the second one (31,4%). Based in the average volume of commercialization, it was observed that 57% of the motors were over dimensioned. (author)

  1. Pre-harvest application of calcium chloride and chitosan on fruit quality and storability of ‘Early Swelling’ peach during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel Nabi Abdel Gayed

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies related with the storage of peach fruits have received great relevance in Egypt. In this study, the effect of pre-harvest sprays of calcium chloride and chitosan, separately and in combination, on quality attributes and storability of peach fruits stored at 0±1 °C was studied. ‘Early Swelling’ peach trees were sprayed twice with 1% or 2% calcium chloride. The first spraying was at pea stage, while the second one was performed at 10 days before harvesting. Chitosan sprays were performed at 0.5 or 1%, alone or in combination with 1 and 2% calcium chloride, at 10 days before harvesting. Untreated trees served as control. Fruits were harvested at maturity stage, then packaged and stored at 0±1 °C and 85-90% of relative humidity. Fruit physical and chemical properties were evaluated at 7-day intervals. Results showed that pre-harvest application with 2% CaCl2+1% chitosan was most effective in minimizing weight loss (% and decay (%, as well as in maintaining maximum firmness and lengthening shelf life. Fruit color was not affected by any of the treatments, while untreated fruits and calcium chloride treatment alone, at both applied concentrations, maintained higher total soluble solids (TSS, %, total phenolic content, and lower titratable acidity percentage.

  2. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil of Carum Carvi Fruits from China and Its Main Components against Two Grain Storage Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Carum carvi fruits was found to possess strong contact toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 3.07 and 3.29 mg/adult, respectively, and also showed strong fumigant toxicity against the two grain storage insects with LC50 values of 3.37 and 2.53 mg/L, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be (R-carvone (37.98% and D-limonene (26.55% followed by α-pinene (5.21, cis-carveol (5.01% and b-myrcene (4.67%. (R-Carvone and D-limonene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. (R-Carvone and D-limonene showed strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 2.79 and 29.86 mg/adult and T. castaneum (LD50 = 2.64 and 20.14 mg/adult. (R-Carvone and D-limonene also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais (LC50 = 2.76 and 48.18 mg/L and T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 1.96 and 19.10 mg/L.

  3. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58–55% to 43–42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86–65% at 28°C and 75–53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66–58% at 28°C and 51–22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18–46% at 28°C and 17–35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

  4. Evaluation of volatile profiles obtained for minimally-processed pineapple fruit samples during storage by headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Crocetta TURAZZI

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the application of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME technique for the determination and monitoring of the volatile profile of minimally-processed pineapple fruit stored at various temperatures (-12 °C, 4 °C and 25 °C for different periods (1, 4 and 10 days. The SPME fiber coating composed of Car/PDMS presented the best performance. The optimal extraction conditions obtained through a Doehlert design were 60 min at 35 °C. The profiles for the volatile compounds content of the fruit at each stage of storage were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The variation in the volatile profile over time was greater when the fruit samples were stored at 25 °C and at -12 °C compared to 4 °C. Thus, according to the volatile profiles associated with the storage conditions evaluated in this study, packaged pineapple retains best its fresh fruit aroma when stored at 4 °C.

  5. Assessment of {sup 222}Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional ao {sup 222}Rn no galpao da Salvaguardas do IPEN, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-07-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to {sup 222}Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm{sup 2}, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations varied from 196 {+-} 9 and 2048 {+-} 81 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv{center_dot}y{sup -1}. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation on the quality of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Meer) cv. Smooth Cayenne minimally processed, storaged on differents temperatures and packages;Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama na qualidade de abacaxi (Ananas comosus (L.) Meer) cv. Smooth Cayenne minimamente processado, armazenado em diferentes temperaturas e embalagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Daniela Terenzi Stuchi

    2006-07-01

    The present work aimed to verify the effects of gamma radiation (doses until 2 kGy), types of packages and temperatures of storage (5, 8 e 12 deg C) on the physicochemical characteristics, on the microbiological contamination and on the sensorial characteristics of pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' minimally processed. The fruits were selected, washed; peeled and cutted transverse and the slices cutted were cutted on two or for pieces. The pieces were immersed in chlorinated water (100 mg/L) for 3 minutes, flowing and package, irradiated and stored. According with the results obtained in thi present work it was concluded that bigger the temperature of storage more quickly were the browning of the fruits. The loss of fresh weight of pineapple was bigger in the packages of polystyrene comparing with PET package when both are covered with PVC film and smaller in the PET packages covered with the same material. Doses of gamma radiation until 2 kGy did not change the physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' minimally processed. The microbiological growth on the pieces of the processed fruit was smaller on the biggest dose. All the samples were is in good conditions for the human consume. (author)

  7. Effect of Nitric Oxide Application on Reduction of Undesirable Effects of Chilling on Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Fruit During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahareh ghorbani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chilling injury (CI is the primary postharvest problem of orange (Citrus sinensis L. and many other horticultural crops during storage. Washington Navel orange fruits are susceptible to CI during storage below 5°C, and the main CI symptoms are surface pitting, browning, discoloration and decay. Several promising methods have been developed to alleviate CI symptoms of orange fruit. These include postharvest physical treatments with UV-C, modified atmosphere packaging, temperature conditioning, and chemical treatments with plant growth regulators. Oxidative stress from excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS has been associated with appearance of chilling damage in fruits. The oxidation of ROS is due to their reaction with numerous cell components coursing a cascade of oxidative reactions and consequent inactivation of enzymes, lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, and DNA damage. Aerobic organisms have evolved well-developed defense systems to establish a fine-tuned balance between ROS production and removal plants are protected against ROS effects by a complex antioxidant system. This involved both lipid soluble antioxidant (α- tocopherol and carotenoids and water soluble reductants (glutathion and ascorbate and enzymes, such as catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD. Previous studies have shown that there is a positive relationship between the antioxidant enzymes activity and the chilling tolerance in harvested fruits. Nitric oxide (NO is an important signaling molecule involved in many plant physiological processes. It has also been indicated that NO protects plant cells against oxidative stress by reducing ROS accumulation. When exogenously applied, NO has been shown to result in an improved chilling tolerance and reduced incidence of chilling injury in several fruits. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of NO on chilling injury, lipid peroxidation

  8. Design for limit stresses of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis under axial and radial compression as related to transportation and storage design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chukwutoo Ihueze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article employed the Hertz contact stress theory and the finite element method to evaluate the maximum contact pressure and the limit stresses of orange fruit under transportation and storage. The elastic properties of orange fruits subjected to axial and axial contact were measured such that elastic limit force, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and bioyield stress were obtained as 18 N, 0.691 MPa, 0.367, 0.009 MPa for axial compression and for radial loading were 15.69 N, 0.645 MPa, 0.123, 0.010 MPa. The Hertz maximum contact pressure was estimated for axial and radial contacts as 0.036 MPa. The estimated limiting yield stress estimated as von Mises stresses for the induced surface stresses of the orange topologies varied from 0.005 MPa–0.03 MPa. Based on the distortion energy theory (DET the yield strength of orange fruit is recommended as 0.03 MPa while based on the maximum shear stress theory (MSST is 0.01 MPa for the design of orange transportation and storage system.

  9. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN UDARA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN MUTU TABLET EFFERVESCEN SARI BUAH SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Quality of Fruit Juice Effervescent Tablet During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quality of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. Sample of the passion fruit effervescent tablet was prepared from passion fruit granular, aspartame, polyetilene glycol, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Variable analyzed was dissolution rate of the tablet during storage. The results indicated that temperature and humidity significantly affect dissolution rate of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. The reason for the decrease in dissolution rate was because at high storage temperature (35oC, sodium bicarbonate was not stable. The bicarbonate amount gradually decreased because it reacted with citric acid. Consequently, when the tablet was dissolved, the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was slow. At high relative humidity (85.5% of storage, the reaction occurred prior to the dissolution due to moisture intake.

  10. Effect of prestorage UV-A, -B, and -C radiation on fruit quality and anthocyanin of 'Duke' blueberries during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chau T T; Kim, Jeongyun; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lim, Sooyeon; Lee, Eun Jin

    2014-12-17

    Ultraviolet (UV)-A, -B, and -C were radiated to full-ripe blueberries (cv. 'Duke'), and their effects on fruit qualities and phytonutrients during subsequent cold storage were investigated. The blueberries were exposed to each UV light at 6 kJ/m(2) and then stored at 0 °C for 28 days. Weight loss and decay of the fruits after UV treatment were significantly decreased during the cold storage. The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of blueberries after UV-B and -C treatments were always higher than those of the control and UV-A treatment. Individual anthocyanins were markedly increased during the 3 h after the UV-B and -C treatments. The correlation matrix between total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity measured by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay indicated a significantly close correlation with the individual anthocyanin contents. It was confirmed that the prestorage treatments of UV-B and -C increased the storability and phytochemical accumulation of the full-ripe 'Duke' blueberries during cold storage.

  11. Responses of fruit physiology and virgin oil quality to cold storage of mechanically harvested ‘Arbequina’ olives cultivated in hedgerow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in olive fruit production (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, due to the increasing use of super-intensive cultivation and the need for a rapid fruit processing will force the industry to make a considerable investment in machinery for processing in order to maintain the level of quality of virgin olive oil (VOO. This work aims to study how the storage temperature affects the physiology of the olive and the quality of the oil, in order to use fruit storage as a cheaper and more versatile alternative to the increase in processing capacity. ‘Arbequina’ fruit did not present symptoms of chilling injury during 15 days of cold-storage. Postharvest decay, de-greening, softening, respiration and ethylene production of the olive fruit increased in direct relationship as the storage temperature increased. These facts determined a proportional deterioration of the free acidity and the sensory quality of the VOOs. Furthermore, the contents of tocopherols and of the main phenolic compounds in the VOO exhibited a reduction during fruit storage according to the increase in the temperature used. Storage at 2 °C preserved the integrity of the olive to maintain the best “Extra” level of VOO quality for a period of 12 days.El aumento de la producción de aceituna (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, debido al uso creciente del cultivo superintensivo y la necesidad de un rápido procesamiento del fruto forzará a la industria a hacer una considerable inversión en maquinaria para el procesado, para mantener el nivel de calidad del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV. Este trabajo pretende estudiar cómo la temperatura de almacenamiento afecta a la fisiología de la aceituna y a la calidad del aceite, en orden de usar la conservación del fruto como una alternativa más barata y versátil al aumento de la capacidad de procesamiento. La aceituna ‘Arbequina’ no presentó síntomas de daños por frío durante 15 días de frigoconservación. La

  12. Effect of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Naveena, B M

    2010-06-01

    Effects of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat stored at 4+/-1 degrees C was evaluated. Five treatments evaluated include: control (only meat), MS (meat+2% salt), KRP (meat+2% salt+2% kinnow rind powder), PRP (meat+2% salt+2% pomegranate rind powder) and PSP (meat+2% salt+2% pomegranate seed powder). Addition of salt resulted in reduction of redness scores. Lightness increased in control and unchanged in others during storage. Redness scores declined and yellowness showed inconsistent changes during storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were higher (PPRP>KRP>control>MS. Therefore, these powders have potential to be used as natural antioxidants to minimize the auto-oxidation and salt induced lipid oxidation in raw ground goat meat. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation-induced enhancement of antifungal activity of chitosan on fruit-spoiling fungi during postharvest storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diep, Tran Bang; Lam, Nguyen Duy; Quynh, Tran Minh [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique-VAEC, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Experiment conducted four fruit-spoiling fungal strains that were isolated from spoilt fruits (mango and dragon fruit) and were identified as follows: Fusarium dimerum Penzig, Aspergillus nidulans Wint, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius and Aspergillus japonicus Saito. Chitosan samples with various deacetylation degree (70-99%) were irradiated at doses ranging from 20 to 200kGy, then were supplemented to liquid medium for growth of fungi. We have found that chitosan possesses not only well known antibacterial activity but also the antifungal one on fruit-spoiling fungi. Method of fungal cultivation using liquid medium showed that it has higher sensitivity compared with the cultivation on agar plate, so we recommend this method should be used for evaluation of antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Our study also indicated that deacetylation degree of chitosan clearly affects its antifungal activity, the higher the deacetylation of chitosan, stronger antifungal activity can be observed. This finding recommends the use of chitosan with higher deacetylation for fruit coating and other pharmacology utilization. Results from the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) on fungal growth showed that radiation treatment increased antifungal activity of chitosan and dose of 60kGy gave highest activity. (author)

  14. Radiation-induced enhancement of antifungal activity of chitosan on fruit-spoiling fungi during postharvest storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diep, Tran Bang; Lam, Nguyen Duy; Quynh, Tran Minh; Kume, Tamikazu

    2001-01-01

    Experiment conducted four fruit-spoiling fungal strains that were isolated from spoilt fruits (mango and dragon fruit) and were identified as follows: Fusarium dimerum Penzig, Aspergillus nidulans Wint, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius and Aspergillus japonicus Saito. Chitosan samples with various deacetylation degree (70-99%) were irradiated at doses ranging from 20 to 200kGy, then were supplemented to liquid medium for growth of fungi. We have found that chitosan possesses not only well known antibacterial activity but also the antifungal one on fruit-spoiling fungi. Method of fungal cultivation using liquid medium showed that it has higher sensitivity compared with the cultivation on agar plate, so we recommend this method should be used for evaluation of antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Our study also indicated that deacetylation degree of chitosan clearly affects its antifungal activity, the higher the deacetylation of chitosan, stronger antifungal activity can be observed. This finding recommends the use of chitosan with higher deacetylation for fruit coating and other pharmacology utilization. Results from the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) on fungal growth showed that radiation treatment increased antifungal activity of chitosan and dose of 60kGy gave highest activity. (author)

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters and on the phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranha, Jessica Bomtorin; Negri, Talita Costa; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2017-01-01

    Agroindustrial residues have high levels of nutrients, but are little exploited for consumption because they require prior treatment to ensure microbiological safety. Irradiation is an effective process for the reduction of microbial counts with maintenance of the product characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the microbiological quality, physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage. The flour was obtained from dehydrated residues of pineapple, melon, papaya and apple, which were submitted to irradiation doses of (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy). The microbiological (coliforms, moulds, yeast and Salmonella sp. counts) and physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, water activity, colour parameters L⁎, a⁎ and b⁎ and phenolic compounds) parameters were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. All the irradiation treatments reduced the microbial count, and the presence of Salmonella sp was not detected in any of the samples. The acidity and pH showed changes during storage. The soluble solids and water activity showed no significant differences between the doses during storage. The phenolic compounds were preserved by the application of irradiation. The colour of the flour samples darkened slightly with irradiation. It was concluded that the most effective doses for the maintenance of the microbiological quality and physicochemical characteristics of the flour were 2 and 3 kGy. (author)

  16. Dead Pericarps of Dry Fruits Function as Long-Term Storage for Active Hydrolytic Enzymes and Other Substances That Affect Germination and Microbial Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godwin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that dead pericarps of dry indehiscent fruits have evolved to provide an additional physical layer for embryo protection and as a means for long distance dispersal. The pericarps of dry fruits undergo programmed cell death (PCD during maturation whereby most macromolecules such DNA, RNA, and proteins are thought to be degraded and their constituents remobilized to filial tissues such as embryo and endosperm. We wanted to test the hypothesis that the dead pericarp represents an elaborated layer that is capable of storing active proteins and other substances for increasing survival rate of germinating seeds. Using in gel assays we found that dead pericarps of both dehiscent and indehiscent dry fruits of various plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana and Sinapis alba release upon hydration multiple active hydrolytic enzymes that can persist in an active form for decades, including nucleases, proteases, and chitinases. Proteomic analysis of indehiscent pericarp of S. alba revealed multiple proteins released upon hydration, among them proteases and chitinases, as well as proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS detoxification and cell wall modification. Pericarps appear to function also as a nutritional element-rich storage for nitrate, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, and others. Sinapis alba dehiscent and indehiscent pericarps possess germination inhibitory substances as well as substances that promote microbial growth. Collectively, our study explored previously unknown features of the dead pericarp acting also as a reservoir of biological active proteins, and other substances capable of “engineering” the microenvironment for the benefit of the embryo.

  17. Occurrence of alk(en)ylresorcinols in the fruits of two mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars during on-tree maturation and postharvest storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, Stefanie; Carle, Reinhold; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Tosta, Carola; Neidhart, Sybille

    2014-01-08

    Regarding their relevance for the fungal resistance of mangoes in long supply chains, the alk(en)ylresorcinols (AR) were quantitated in peel and mesocarp throughout storage (27 days, 14 °C, ethylene absorption). The 12 'Chok Anan' and 11 'Nam Dokmai #4' lots picked between 83 and 115 days after full bloom (DAFB) had different harvest maturity indices. The development of dry matter and fruit growth indicated physiological maturity ∼100 DAFB. During storage, all fruits ripened slowly, mostly until over-ripeness and visible decay. The total AR contents always ranged at 73 ± 4.5 and 6.4 ± 0.7 mg hg(-1) of 'Chok Anan' and 'Nam Dokmai #4' peel dry weight, respectively, but only at 6.7 ± 0.7 and 0.9 ± 0.1 mg hg(-1) for the corresponding mesocarp (P ≤ 0.05). These narrow concentration ranges were contradictory to the decreasing fungal resistance. Accordingly, the alk(en)ylresorcinols have not been a deciding factor for the fungal resistance.

  18. Influences of air and controlled atmosphere storage on the concentration of potentially healthful phenolics in apples and other fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.; Jager, de A.

    2003-01-01

    A diverse array of fruit and vegetable constituents including vitamins such as C, E and A, phytochemicals such as folates, glucosinolates, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids, lycopene, selenium and dietary fibres form an antioxidant network that is essential in maintaining human health. In

  19. The chitosan affects severely the carbon metabolism in mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Palmer) fruit during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme Silva, Gláucia Michelle; Silva, Willian Batista; Medeiros, David B; Salvador, Acácio Rodrigues; Cordeiro, Maria Helena Menezes; da Silva, Natália Martins; Santana, Diederson Bortolini; Mizobutsi, Gisele Polete

    2017-12-15

    Mango is a highly perishable fruit with a short post-harvest time due to the intense metabolic activity after harvesting. In attempt to evaluate the effects of chitosan in mango fruits, it was treated with 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% of chitosan solutions, placed into plastic trays, and stored at room temperature. Changes in physical and chemical parameters were evaluated. Chitosan delayed the climacteric peak, water loss and firmness. Further, few changes in soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH of the pulp as well as in sugar content and decreased starch degradation were observed. Altogether, our results suggest chitosan edible coating effectively prolongs the quality attributes, affecting basic mitochondrial respiration and starch degradation rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. 1. Effect of temperature, embryo age , and storage time on survival and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, C.; Wornoayporn, V.; Islam, S.M.; Ahmad, S.; Ramirez, E.

    2007-01-01

    The operational use of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing strains in Sterile Insect Technique applications can be maximized by developing methods for effective shipment of eggs. This would enable a central production facility to maintain the relevant mother stocks and large colonies to supply eggs to satellite centers that would mass produce only males for irradiation and release. In order to achieve this, the survival of medfly embryos of different ages was assessed after storage at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 deg. C in water for different periods of time. Survival was affected by all 3 variables, i.e., embryo age, water temperature, and length of storage. Storage of embryos at any temperature for 120 h resulted in almost no survival. Controlling the age of the embryo at the time of the temperature treatment is crucial for the success of this procedure. Embryos collected between 0 to 12 h after oviposition and pre-incubated at 25 deg. C for 12 h provide a suitable 72 h window for shipment when maintained between 10 to 15 deg. C. Under these conditions, no significant reductions in survival during all the developmental stages were observed. (author) [es

  1. Application of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil as Vapor on Postharvest Storage of Plum Fruit cv. ‘Golden Drop’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra FAKHAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in theuse of natural compounds instead of chemicals is due to concerns about the effect of synthetic ingredients on humans’ health and over environment. Therefore, in this study essential oil from Ocimum basilicum as a natural and safe compound, was applied at three levels (100, 200 and 300 μl/l as vapor and its effects on postharvest quality and storage life of ‘Golden Drop’ plums was evaluated. After application of treatments, the fruits were stored at +1 °C and 80-85% relative humidity for 42 days. During the storage period, samplings were carried out every week and to simulate market condition, they were kept at room temperate for 24 h. Then some of the qualitative and quantitative traits, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, weight loss, firmness, ascorbic acid, total antioxidants, as well as color (L*,  hue angle were measured. Results showed that the basil essential oil contributed to a better maintenance of

  2. Physiological basis for low-temperature survival and storage of quiescent larvae of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Štětina, Tomáš; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Colinet, H.; Zahradníčková, Helena; Opekarová, Iva; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, 30 AUG (2016), č. článku 32346. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-01057S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cold storage * thermal fluctuations * -omics Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/articles/srep32346

  3. Post harvest Quality of Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Fruit Affected by Different Levels of Gibberellic Acid During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.K.; Khan, M.Z.H.; Sarkar, M.A.R; Yeasmin, S.; Ali, M.K.; Uddin, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    The experiment consisted of two popular mango varieties in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat) and four different levels of Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) solution, namely, control, 100, 200 and 400 ppm. The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with three replicates. Data obtained from various biochemical analyses in terms of physicochemical properties and shelf life of post harvest mango, were recorded and statistically analyzed for comparison among the mean values using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) and Least Significant Difference (LSD). The Khirshapat showed better performance in achieving higher quantity of moisture, progressively lost physiological weight, increased pulp pH, TSS after 6th day of storage, produced more quantity of sugar (total, reducing and non-reducing), as well as extended shelf life and delayed skin color changes than Langra at all the storage duration. Different levels of GA 3 solution subjected to the investigation demonstrated significant variation in most of the physicochemical properties and shelf life of mango at different days after storage. The results explored that some physicochemical properties viz., physiological weight loss, moisture content, pulp pH, TSS, sugar (total, reducing and non reducing), were rapidly increased from untreated mangoes. GA 3 at 400 ppm showed better performance in delaying the changes in physicochemical properties and extended shelf life. (author)

  4. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. II. Assessment of the optimal temperature and the substrate for male-only production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maman, E.; Caceres, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study has been conducted to assess the effect and interaction of various storage substrates and conditions on eggs of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Tests were carried out with the genetic sexing strain VIENNA 8/D53, a strain that carries a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that allows the selective killing of female zygotes. This study identifies strategies to enhance the storage and transport conditions through assessment of effect on egg, pupal and adult survival in order to facilitate the establishment of satellite mass rearing facilities for the production of male medflies. Eggs were immersed in two different substrates and stored at different temperatures and for different time periods. Findings from this study suggest that egg storage periods, and to some extent, the storage substrates have significant effects on pupal and adult survival. For 72-h storage periods, the eggs preserved in agar solution at 10 deg. C produced the most pupae. There was an inverse relationship between the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the substrate during storage and the quality and survival of the stored/transported eggs. Apparently low levels of dissolved oxygen reduce metabolic rates, allowing the storage period to be prolonged. (author) [es

  5. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The producers and traders of fresh fruit and the processers should implement quality management practices and safety standards in farming, fresh fruit, processing and storage. This is to ensure safety, enhance consumption of fruits and fruit products for health of consumers and eliminate wastage. Key words: Fresh fruit, ...

  6. Comportamento de três hortaliças de fruto submetidas ao aquecimento intermitente durante a frigoconservação Behavior of three vegetable fruits submitted to intermittent warming during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. KLUGE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Efeitos do aquecimento intermitente foram estudados em berinjelas, pimentões e quiabos refrigerados. Berinjelas `Piracicaba F-100' foram continuamente refrigeradas por 21 dias ou aquecidas a cada 3, 4, 5 ou 6 dias. Pimentões `Maiata' foram continuamente refrigerados por 28 dias ou aquecidos a cada 5, 6, 7 ou 8 dias. Quiabos `Santa Cruz-47' foram continuamente refrigerados por 8 dias, ou aquecidos aos 2, 3, 4 ou 5 dias. O armazenamento foi realizado à 5ºC e 90-95% UR. O aquecimento foi realizado por 24 horas à 24-25ºC e 70-75% UR (condições ambientais. O aquecimento intermitente reduziu os sintomas de injúrias pelo frio, mas provocou elevadas perdas de massa em muitos tratamentos, causando murchamento e reduzindo a comerciabilidade dos frutos após a refrigeração, principalmente em quiabos e pimentões.Effects of intermittent warming were evaluated for cold stored eggplant, pepper and okra fruits. Eggplant fruits cv. Piracicaba F-100 were continuously cold stored for 21 days or submitted to warming each 3, 4, 5 or 6 days. Pepper fruits cv. Maiata were continuously cold stored for 28 days or submitted to warming each 5, 6, 7 or 8 days. Okra pods cv. Santa Cruz-47 were continuously cold stored for 8 days or submitted to warming after 2, 3, 4 or 5 days. The cold storage temperature was 5ºC and 90-95% RH. The warming temperature was 24-25ºC and 70-75% RH (room temperature, for 24 hs. The intermittent warming reduced chilling injury in fruits, however, caused high mass loss and shriveling in most treatments. This reduced fruit marketability, mainly in okra and pepper fruits.

  7. Pré-resfriamento em água de lichia 'B3' mantida em armazenamento refrigerado Hydrocooling of 'B3' lychee fruit maintained in cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Saavedra del Aguila

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento visou a estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas e tempos de pré-resfriamento em água sobre a qualidade de lichias 'B3', após a frigoconservação. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = controle (sem pré-resfriamento; T2 = imersão por cinco minutos em água a 2,5°C; T3 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T4 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T5 = imersão por sete minutos em água a 6°C; T6 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 8°C e T7 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 10°C. Após a aplicação dos respectivos tratamentos, os frutos foram acondicionados em filmes de polietileno de 24µm, selados e posteriormente armazenados a 5°C e 90% UR, por um período de sete dias, seguido por três dias de comercialização simulada a 20°C e 70% UR. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com tratamentos fatoriais de 7x3 (tratamentosxtempo. Foram utilizadas quatro repetições por tratamento, sendo cada uma composta por 150g de frutos. Determinaram-se: perda de massa fresca, coloração (L*, a e b, escurecimento (% e podridões (%. De acordo com os resultados, o pré-resfriamento com água reduz a percentagem de escurecimento, o decréscimo da luminosidade (L* e os valores de a. Por outro lado, esse tratamento favorece o surgimento de altos índices de podridão.This project studied the effects of different precooling temperatures and times with water on lychee 'B3' fruit quality cold storage. The treatments were: T1 = control (without precooling; T2 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for five minutes; T3 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for ten minutes; T4 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for 20 minutes; T5 = immersed in water at 6°C for seven minutes; T6 = immersed in water at 8°C for 20 minutes and T7 = immersed in water at 10°C for ten minutes. After treatments application, the fruits were then placed into polyethylene bags of 24µm, sealed, and stored for seven days at 5°C and 90% RH, plus 3 days at 20

  8. Changes in water-soluble vitamins and antioxidant capacity of fruit juice-milk beverages as affected by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or heat during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Morales-de la Peña, Mariana; Rojas-Graü, Alejandra; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2011-09-28

    The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or thermal processes and refrigerated storage on water-soluble vitamins and antioxidant capacity of beverages containing fruit juices and whole (FJ-WM) or skim milk (FJ-SM) was assessed. Peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inactivation as well as color changes were also studied. High vitamin C retention was observed in HIPEF and thermally treated beverages, but a significant depletion of the vitamin during storage occurred, which was correlated with antioxidant capacity. HIPEF treatment did not affect the concentration of group B vitamins, which also remained constant over time, but thermally treated beverages showed lower riboflavin (vitamin B2) concentration. With regard to enzyme activity, thermal processing was more effective than HIPEF on POD and LOX inactivation. The color of the beverages was maintained after HIPEF processing and during storage. Consequently, HIPEF processing could be a feasible technology to attain beverages with fruit juices and milk with high vitamin content and antioxidant potential.

  9. Effect of electrical field strength applied by PEF processing and storage temperature on the outgrowth of yeasts and moulds naturally present in a fresh fruit smoothie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Nederhoff, A.L.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Mastwijk, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed electrical field (PEF) technology offers an alternative to thermal pasteurisation of high-acid fruit juices, by extending the shelf life of food products, while retaining its fresh taste and nutritional value. Substantial research has been performed on the effect of electrical field

  10. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  11. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  12. Evaluation of Physical-Chemical Indexes, Sugars, Pigments and Phenolic Compounds of Fruits from Three Apple Varieties at the End of Storage Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruta Elena Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Apples are the most cultivated and consumed fruits in the world. They not only taste great, but there are also rich sources of monosaccharides, pigments, fibers, functional compounds such as polyphenols which are well-known for their antioxidant action. Due to the high level of apples consumption, it is important to monitor and know the detailed chemical composition of this fruits on the market shelf. The aim of this paper was to study the detailed chemical composition of apples from three varieties. Samples from three varieties (Ionathan, Golden Delicious and Starkrimson were taken from the Romanian market. Individual sugars composition was performed by HPLC, total polyphenols content by Folin Ciocalteu method, antioxidant capacity by using the DPPH test, while pigments were analysed by spectrophotometric specific methods and the total starch content measured by a polarimetric method. Water content, acidity, total soluble solids and pH were also monitored through specific methods. There were found differences between varieties particularly in relation to the polyphenols content, carotenoids and chlorophyll. Regarding the individual sugars composition, fructose and glucose were predominant followed by sucrose for all samples. Values of starch, moisture, acidity, total soluble solids and the pH were according to other apple varieties found in literature. These results provide important information regarding the chemical composition of apple varieties from Romanian market, for both human direct consumption and industrial processing. 

  13. Evaluation of a fruit solar dryer; Avaliacao de um secador solar de frutas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthier, L.J.; Bittencourt, J.; Queiroz, M.R.

    2000-07-01

    A study of the Nanica banana drying was carried out in a solar dryer with six trays operating with direct exposure of the product to the solar radiation and internal convection. The solar drying was performed College of Agricultural Engineering of the UNICAMP, Campinas, S.Paulo state, Brazil. The study aimed a 20 to 25 per cent final humidity of the dry product, result obtained in the different trays during a maximum drying period of 147 hours (6 days), in a batch system. During the drying period, the average temperature of the environment air at daylight was of 26 degree Celsius with a maximum of 32 degree Celsius, and 18 degrees Celsius during nocturnal period, with a minimum of 12,6 degree Celsius. In the inward of the dryer reached average values near to 50 degree Celsius, measured at noon. The 29,540 kg initial net weight of peeled banana was reduced to yield of 10,815 kg after the drying process, obtaining an income of 36,61 percent of the total production. With the values of the product weight loss, the curves of the drying in each tray had been built, observing that, in the upper trays reached the desired humidity in a lesser period.

  14. Influência de embalagens e temperatura no armazenamento de jabuticabas (Myrciaria jabuticaba (Vell Berg cv 'SABARÁ' Packaging and temperature influences on the storage of jaboticaba (Myrciaria jabuticaba (Vell Berg fruits cv.'SABARÁ'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amalia Brunini

    2004-09-01

    polyethylene trays (12x20x5cm and not corvered with plastic film were used as controls. Taking into considerations the results obtained it is observed that of the use of packaging reduced the weight loss, prolonged the postharvest life of fruits with maintenance the appearance until 6 days,; didn´t interfere, significantly, in the titrable acidity, total soluble solids and pH, but influenced the soluble carbohydrates and vitamin C content. The fruits packed and not recovered with plastic films stored at environmental conditions, resisted until 2 days, but at the end of storage their aspect was not appropriate for market purpose, because showed shrinvelling skin and wither. The refrigeration condition improving the firmness of packaged fruits not covered with plastic film, however after 4 days showed bad appearance, with shrinvelling skin.

  15. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  16. Changes in pectin methyl esterase activity with different packaging materials and stages of fruit harvesting during cold storage of pear cv. Punjab beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Dhillon, W. S.; Mahajan, B. V. C.

    2012-01-01

    Pear cv. Punjab Beauty has become quite popular in Punjab. Excessive softening during cold storage leading to low shelf life is the major factor limiting its wider adoption. Studies were, therefore, conducted to determine the firmness and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity at 4 harvest dates (2nd, 3rd and 4th week of July, and 1st week of August). Various packaging materials i.e. corrugated fiber board boxes and crates with high and low density polyethylene liners, corrugated fiber board b...

  17. The effect of ultrasonic and HNO3 treatment of activated carbon from fruit stones on capacitive and pseudocapacitive energy storage in electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhryn, B Ya; Stotsko, Z A; Grygorchak, I I; Bakhmatyuk, B P; Mudry, S I

    2013-09-01

    The effect of ultrasonic treatment and modification with nitric acid of activated carbon obtained from fruit stones, on the parameters of electric double-layer (EDL) as well as on farad-volt characteristics of its boundary with electrolyte 7.6 m KОН, 4 m KI and 2 m ZnI2 aqueous solutions has been studied by means of precision porometry, cyclic voltamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and computer simulation methods. It is shown that HNO3 treatment results in an increase of the electrostatic capacitance up to 202 F/g in 7.6 m KОН-solution as well as pseudocapacitance up to 1250 F/g in 4 m KI. This increase is supposed to be related both with hydrophilicity and with an increase of the density of states on Fermi level. The ultrasonic treatment enables one to significantly increase (more than 200 times) the density of states on Fermi level which in turn causes both quantitative and qualitative changes in farad-volt dependences. A hybrid supercapacitor with specific capacitance of 1100 F/g and specific energy of 49 Wh/kg per active mass of two electrodes was developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Sattar, A.; Jan, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    Dried fruits are considered a major source of income and foreign exchange in many countries. The spoilage of dried fruits and nuts by insect infestation, colour deterioration and chemical changes during storage are the serious problems especially under humid tropical conditions. The present work was undertaken to study the effect of irradiation in combination with different modified storage environments on insect infestation as well as chemical and sensory quality indices. The affect of gamma radiation dose of 1 KGy and storage environments such as air vacuum and carbon dioxide on insect infestation of dry fruits and nuts. In the case of un-irradiated samples, insect infestation progressed throughout the storage period especially in those kept under air. The vacuum storage was found better in checking infestation followed by CO/sub/2 and air. (orig./A.B.)

  19. Qualidade de goiaba-serrana em resposta à temperatura de armazenamento e ao tratamento com 1-metilciclopropeno Fruit quality of feijoas in response to storage temperature and treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2008-12-01

    were evaluated for respiration and ethylene production at 20ºC, and respiration rates and skin color alterations at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30ºC. The genotype Brasil (accession no. 242 was evaluated for ripening at 4ºC, after treatment with 1-MCP (0, 500 and 1,500 ppb. Brasil (accession no. 387 and Uruguai (accession no. 454 exhibited a climacteric pattern, with a peak of ethylene evolution and respiration rate at the 8th and 12th days of storage at 20ºC, respectively. There was no significant difference for respiration rates and ethylene evolution between these genotypes at this temperature. There was a substantial increase of respiration rate in both genotypes with the increase in temperature from 0 to 30ºC, with a metabolic coefficient of approximately 3.5. With the increase in temperature, fruits of the genotype Brasil showed the greatest change of skin green color, while fruits of the genotype Uruguai exhibited the greatest darkening of skin. Feijoa fruits of genotype Brasil (accession no. 242 had delayed ripening when treated with 1-MCP and stored at 4ºC.

  20. Conservação pós-colheita de frutos de pimentão sob diferentes condições de armazenamento e filmes Postharvest conservation of bell pepper fruits under different storage conditions and films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria A Morgado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes temperaturas e coberturas na conservação de frutos de pimentão 'Magali-R'. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o uso de filme de PVC ou cera, e os frutos foram armazenados a 20ºC e 66%UR, e no segundo experimento associou-se o filme de PVC e cera, com armazenamento a 22°C (67% UR; 12ºC (90% UR e 5ºC (87% UR. Acompanhou-se a evolução da qualidade dos frutos avaliando-se a massa fresca, a aparência, o aparecimento de podridões e os teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e ácido ascórbico. A proteção dos pimentões com cera ou filme de PVC foi favorável à manutenção da aparência e da massa fresca, e protegeu-os contra podridões, sem prejuízos aos teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e ácido ascórbico, com aumento significativo na vida útil para até 33 dias com o armazenamento a 5°C.Different temperatures and films were evaluated for the conservation of 'Magali-R' bell peppers. In the first experiment, fruits were covered with PVC film or wax, and stored under 20ºC and 66% RH. In the second, fruits covered with PVC film or wax, and stored under 22ºC (67% RH; 12ºC (90% RH; and 5ºC (87% RH. Fruits were evaluated for fresh mass, appearance, rot and soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content. The protection of bell peppers with wax or PVC film helped to maintain the appearance, the fresh mass and to protect against rotting, without damages to soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid contents, with significant increase in shelf life up to 33 days with storage under 5°C.

  1. The availability of processed fruit products and their contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fruit, poverty and post-harvest losses due to lack of skills for processing and storage. The objectives of this research were to survey household consumption of foods especially processed fruit products in Nairobi, and analyze nutritional quality of processed fruit products. Three estates representing different income groups ...

  2. Irradiation of potatoes - after cooking darkening - Fusarium susceptibility during storage. Part of a coordinated programme on the shelf-life extension of irradiated fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparenberg, H.

    1977-10-01

    The after-cooking discolouration of Bintje potatoes, cultivated from five different origins in the Netherlands, irradiated by gamma rays or electron was assessed. For comparison, samples of unirradiated potatoes treated by IPC/CIPC sprout inhibitor were also studied. Sprout inhibition and rotting of potatoes treated by different methods were also investigated. It appears that there exist differences in the degree of after-cooking discolouration of potatoes harvested from different origins. Slight discolouration was observed in electron-irradiated potatoes, those exposed to 0.5MeV showed less greying than those treated by 1MeV. Potatoes treated with IPC/CIPC showed the least, and those treated by gamma rays showed the strongest after-cooking darkening. No sprouting occurred in gamma irradiated samples. Sprouting of IPC/CIPC treated samples was minimal during storage but was enhanced after reconditioning. Those treated by electrons showed severe sprouting. Two to 4 weeks reconditioning at 15 0 C of irradiated potatoes, previously held at 7 - 10 0 C for several months, did not reduce the degree of after-cooking discolouration

  3. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  4. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  5. Radiation disinfestation of dry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Sattar, A.; Wahid, M.; Jan, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dry fruits such as apricots, dates, figs, and raisins were irradiated in a Gamma Cell 220 (dose rate 0.04 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 kGy, and the samples were stored at room temperatures (25 to 40 0 C) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Insect infestation and the changes in acidity, discoloration, ascorbic acid, and sugars were determined after 2,4,6,8,10, and 12 months. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited infestation throughout the storage, while infestation in 0.50 and 0.25 kGy samples increased with storage time between 2 and 10 months. It was 100 percent in all fruits except raisins (60 percent) after 12 months. Tribolium species were predominant in all of the samples followed by the Caudra and Corcyra species. Discoloration increased, acidity and ascorbic acid contents decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and sugars were little affected during the entire storage. Radiation doses had insignificant influence on these nutrients except for the ascorbic acid, which was adversely affected, especially at higher doses (P < 0.05). Results of sensory evaluation of dried fruits showed 1.00 kGy treated samples rated as highest, 0.25 and 0.50 kGy as intermediates, and the control as lowest during different storage intervals

  6. Persistence of Gliocephalotrichum spp. causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, fruit rot of rambutan is an important problem that limits the storage, marketing and long-distance transportation of the fruit. A complex of pathogens has been reported to cause fruit rot of rambutan and significant post-harvest economic losses. During 2009 and 2011 rambutan fruit rot was...

  7. Avaliação de diferentes tipos de atmosferas modificadas na vida útil de carambolas minimamente processadas Evaluation of different types of modified atmosphere in cold storage of star fruits minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2006-12-01

    qualidade durante o AR. Assim, esse tratamento proporcionou adequado controle microbiológico e manutenção das características de qualidade por 18 dias para as carambolas minimamente processadas.This work aimed to evaluate the potential of cold storage of star fruits cv. Golden Star, minimally processed, by using different types of packing, for the analysis of the modified passive atmosphere. The fruits harvested in nature-green stage showed green-yellowish coloration, soluble solids (SS an average of 6,8 ºBrix and an average mass of 185g . Before the treatments were set, the fruits had been selected, cleaned in solution of NaOCl at 10 mg. L-1, cooled for 12 hours at 15 ± 0,5 °C, cut transversally, and cleaned in solution of NaOCl at 10 mg. L-1, for 3 minutes. After, the pieces in form of stars had been displayed in rigid polystyrene trays, with capacity for 250g, and coated with the following materials: T1: perforated film plastic of low density polyethylene (LDPE, with 0,006 mm; T2: polyolephinic plastic film with anti-fog of DuPont® (AGF, with 0,015mm; T3: polyolephinic plastic film of Dupont® (HF, with 0,015 mm; T4: LDPE plastic film, with 0,060 mm; T5: LDPE plastic film, with 0,080 mm; T6: polypropylene plastic film (PP, with 0,022 mm and T7: rigid polyethylene terephtalat tray (PET, with capacity for 500 mL, with cover of the same material. The treatments had been conditioned in refrigerating chamber at 12 ± 0,5 °C and 90 ± 3% of R.U., for 18 days. At the end, it was not observed significant difference in the tested treatments in the analysis of soluble solids (SS and titratable acidity (TA. The biggest microbiological activity and the greater pH had been detected in the fruits packed in LDPE films with 6 µm, AGF and HF with 15µm from Dupont. However, the fruits conditioned in packing PET had shown the biggest contents of ascorbic acid. In the same way, only in PET packing was obtained an efficient atmospheric modification in the point of maintaining the

  8. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  9. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references

  10. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Sattar, A.; Ahmad, W.A.; Khan, I.

    1990-06-01

    Present studies were conducted to investigate insect infestation and oxidative changes of packaging materials. Dry fruits and nuts such as apricots, dates raisins, almonds, pinenuts and walnuts were used for these experiments. Insect infestation and other physico-chemical parameters were used for quality evaluation of the stored dry fruits and nuts. The effect of irradiation and polyethylene (PE) thickness on the over all acceptance of dry fruits on their color, texture, taste and flavor were evaluated. Radiation treatment and low temperature independently inhibited insect infestation during storage. (A.B.)

  11. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  13. 342 analytical investigation of selected pesticide residues from fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    The selected pesticides were extracted from fruits and vegetable samples using smaller volume of .... post harvest storage to provide protection against a range of pests, before ... eliminated in the urine (Stephenson, 1982,. Pascual and Peris ...

  14. Osmotic Drying and Nutrient Infusion of Fruits and Vegetables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    .... Initially, six commercial fruit products were chosen for long-term storage. Two representative products, mango-flavored apple cubes and cherries, were then prepared with infused vitamins and minerals...

  15. Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by combining chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by combining chitosan coating with ascorbic acid treatment during postharvest storage. ... Moreover, increased activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and contents of AsA and glutathione were observed in pulp of treated fruit, thus leading to lowered contents ...

  16. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage on some quality parameters of strawberries. Strawberries (cv. Camarosa) were harvested when mature, forced air cooled and divided into two groups as fruits in MAP and control. After packaging, fruits were ...

  17. Ultrastructural Changes in Cherimoya Fruit Injured by Chilling

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Margarita; Mar Sola, Maria del; Pascual, Luis; Rodriguez-Garcia, Maria Isabel; Vargas, Alberto M.

    1992-01-01

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is an important fruit crop that is grown in the South of Spain. Ultrastructural modifications of cherimoya fruit were studied after low-temperature storage. When cherimoya was stored at 4 oc for 6 days, the starch grains did not suffer degradation and the cell walls remained intact. The membrane systems were severely damaged , result ing in a loss of cell compartmentalization. Cherimoya rewarmed to 22 0 C after 9 days of low temperature storage is not able t...

  18. Radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ismail.

    1975-01-01

    The storage problem of fruits and vegetables is explained. The effect of gamma radiation on storage properties, organoleptic characteristics and chemical constituents of various fruits and vegetables has been discussed. The wholesomeness and clearance of various irradiated products is reviewed and the cost economics of the radiation technology calculated. It is concluded that since the problem of food spoilage is acute in Pakistan, radiation technique should be used commercially for food preservation

  19. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters and on the phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage; Efeito da radiação gama nos parâmetros microbiológicos, físico-químicos e compostos fenólicos de farinha de resíduos de frutas durante armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranha, Jessica Bomtorin; Negri, Talita Costa; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet, E-mail: jessica.aranha@usp.br [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindústria, Alimentos e Nutrição

    2017-07-01

    Agroindustrial residues have high levels of nutrients, but are little exploited for consumption because they require prior treatment to ensure microbiological safety. Irradiation is an effective process for the reduction of microbial counts with maintenance of the product characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the microbiological quality, physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage. The flour was obtained from dehydrated residues of pineapple, melon, papaya and apple, which were submitted to irradiation doses of (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy). The microbiological (coliforms, moulds, yeast and Salmonella sp. counts) and physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, water activity, colour parameters L⁎, a⁎ and b⁎ and phenolic compounds) parameters were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. All the irradiation treatments reduced the microbial count, and the presence of Salmonella sp was not detected in any of the samples. The acidity and pH showed changes during storage. The soluble solids and water activity showed no significant differences between the doses during storage. The phenolic compounds were preserved by the application of irradiation. The colour of the flour samples darkened slightly with irradiation. It was concluded that the most effective doses for the maintenance of the microbiological quality and physicochemical characteristics of the flour were 2 and 3 kGy. (author)

  1. Effect of Post-Harvest Treatments on Enzyme Activity and Quality of Cold Stored Ber Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit K. JAWANDHA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits are perishable in nature and have poor shelf- life. To extend the storage life of ber fruits different post-harvest treatments, like CaCl2 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, Ca(NO32 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, gibberellic acid (GA3 (20, 40 and 60 ppm and Bavistin (0.1% were given to fruits and their effect was studied on the storage life and quality of Umran ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits under cold storage conditions. Fruits of uniform size and colour were harvested, from healthy plants, and subjected to post harvest dip of different chemicals, before packing in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5C and 85-90% RH They have been evaluated after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage for physiological loss in weight (PLW, firmness, pectin methyl esterase (PME activity and palatability rating. The PLW increased and fruit firmness decreased during storage at each treatment. The sensory rating increased up to 10 days at all treatments, except control but subsequently it decreased during storage. The increase rate in PME activity was faster, up to 10 days, in untreated fruits, while treated fruits showed slower rise in PME activity, up to 20 days with a decline afterwards. It can be concluded that ber fruits can be stored up to 20 days by post-harvest treatment using GA3 at 60 ppm, with acceptable quality.

  2. Conservação pós-colheita de mangaba em função da maturação, atmosfera e temperatura de armazenamento Postharvest conservation of mangaba fruit as a function of maturity, atmosphere, and storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira dos Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de Atmosfera Modificada (AM por filme de PVC na conservação pós-colheita de mangabas colhidas nos estádios de maturação Verde (V, início da pigmentação amarela (IP e fruto amarelo com leves manchas vermelhas (AV e armazenadas sob refrigeração (10 ± 0,5 ºC e 90 ± 2% UR e sob condições ambientes (23 ± 2 ºC e 75 ± 2% UR. O uso de AM associada à refrigeração resultou em menores perdas de massa fresca, permitiu a manutenção da vida útil pós-colheita dos frutos durante 15 dias, mantendo a aparência geral acima do limite de aceitação pelo consumidor, para os três estádios de maturação avaliados. Mangabas colhidas no estádio de maturação verde não desenvolveram a coloração característica e apresentaram visível incidência de danos pelo frio quando mantidas sob refrigeração. Frutos colhidos no estádio de maturação IP, mantidos sob AM e refrigeração, amadureceram normalmente e apresentaram melhor aparência após 15 dias de armazenamento, quando comparados com mangabas colhidas no estádio AV e mantidas sob as mesmas condições.It was evaluated the influence of modified atmosphere (MA by PVC film and refrigeration on postharvest conservation of mangaba fruits harvested at the maturity stages green (G, yellow pigment initiation (PI, and yellow fruit with light reddish spots (YR was evaluated. They were stored under refrigeration (10 ± 0.5 ºC and 90 ± 2 % RH and room conditions (23 ± 2 ºC and 75 ± 2% RH. The use of MA associated with refrigeration resulted in lower losses of fresh mass allowing the quality maintenance of postharvest fruits during 15 days of storage. The overall visual appearance of the fruits was kept above the acceptance limit in all maturity stages evaluated. Mangaba fruit harvested at the maturity stage green did not develop the characteristic color and presented visible incidence of freezing and chill damage when kept under

  3. Effects of storage media on the green life span and culinary qualities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sawdust (SD) and ricehusk (RH)) used singly or mixed in varying proportions and enclosed in polyethylene were used to study the storage life of mature green plantain fruits. There were two control treatments comprising fruits sealed in polyethylene without plant residue and fruits kept on laboratory shelf. Fruits were sealed ...

  4. Effect of thinning on flower and fruit and of edible coatings on postharvest quality of jaboticaba fruit stored at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Pimenta do Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaboticaba is a Brazilian fruit, native to the Atlantic forest, which belongs to the Myrtaceae family. In this work we describe the effect of the thinning of "flower", "fruit" and "flower & fruit" compared to non-thinned fruit (control and of edible coatings with respect on nutritional composition, overall acceptability and shelf-life of jaboticaba ‘Sabara’, grown in an irrigated commercial orchard. "Flower and fruit" thinning allows fruit with higher quality as diameter, volume and mass. Non-thinned fruit shows higher yield, however fruit have lower quality. As a result of the improving quality at harvest, the shelf life was twice (~8 days for thinned fruit. The lack of change in concentration of soluble sugar and absence of formation of volatile compounds during storage indicate that there was no natural fermentation of the jaboticaba pulp after harvest. Treatments with wax and calcium did not improve the jaboticaba shelf life.

  5. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  6. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussaid El Idrissi, M.; R'Kiek, C.; Farahat Laaroussi, S.; Zantar; Mouhib, M.; El Guerrouj, D.; Toukour, L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  7. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  8. Drying of macaw palm fruits and its influence on oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierres Nelson Silva; Anderson Barbosa Evaristo; José Antonio Saraiva Grossi; Larissa Sousa Campos; Marcela Silva Carvalho; Leonardo Duarte Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    After harvest, macaw palm fruits show high deterioration rates when improperly preserved. A possible cause is the high fruit water content favoring enzymatic and microbiological degradation. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of drying on the mesocarp oil quality during storage and to set the drying curve of macaw palm fruits. For that, two experiments were carried out. In the first, the drying curve of macaw palm fruits was determined at 60 °C, and mathematical models were de...

  9. Armazenamento de goiabas 'Paluma' sob refrigeração e em condição ambiente, com e sem tratamento com cera de carnaúba Storage of guavas 'Paluma' under refrigeration and at environmental conditions, with coated and uncoated fruits with carnauba wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtemir Gonçalves Ribeiro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar os efeitos de coberturas de cera de carnaúba Premium citrus® na conservação de goiabas 'Paluma', armazenadas sob refrigeração e em condição ambiente, pelo período de 12 dias. As características avaliadas foram perda de massa, deterioração, teores de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT, teor de ácido ascórbico, clorofila total e firmeza da polpa. Revestimento com cera de carnaúba diminuiu a perda de massa e a degradação de clorofila das goiabas, contudo sua aplicação propiciou aumento de vida útil apenas para as frutas mantidas sob condição ambiente.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of carnaúba wax Premium citrus® on the shelf-life and quality of guavas 'Paluma', storage in a chamber with controlled temperature and storage at environmental conditions, for twelve days. The characteristics available were the fresh weight loss, total rottenness percentage, soluble solids content, tritable acidity, ascorbic acid content, and total chlorophyll of the peel and firmness of the pulp. Coatings with waxes decrease the fresh weight loss and degradation of chlorophyll of the guavas, however, its application applied to shelf life only to fruit storage at environmental conditions.

  10. 果蔬食品加工贮藏过程中易变色素的降解及调控机理研究与展望%Degradation and Regulation Mechanisms of Variable Pigments during Processing and Storage of Fruits and Vegetables: Status and Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慜; 廖红梅

    2011-01-01

    果蔬食品是人们生活的重要副食之一.由于果蔬及其产品的色泽决定产品的外观及消费者的选择性,故加工贮藏过程中易变色素的降解及调控问题变得极为重要.采用合理的加工贮藏方法来保持果蔬原有鲜艳、自然的色泽,对保持果蔬品质和减少商品损耗非常重要.针对果蔬食品加工贮藏过程中易变色素的降解及其调控机制这样一个重要的应用问题和具有挑战性的科学问题,本文综述了果蔬加工和贮藏过程中以花青素为主的红色素,以叶绿素为主的绿色素的降解机理和褐变机理;针对色素降解和褐变机理,阐述现有的护色调控机制;分析提炼果蔬变色的科学问题,并在此基础上提出本领域可能的研究方向,期望对相关领域的研究者有启发.%Fruits and vegetables are one of the most important non-staple foods. As the colour of fruit and vegetable products responsible for its exterior appearance and decide the selection of consumers, so investigation of the degradation and regulation mechanisms of variable pigments during processing and storage is very important. Using appropriate processing and storage methods to retain the bright and original colour is emergent for preserving quality and reducing commodity loss of fruits and vegetables. To promote its further development, it is important to summarize achievements and scientific questions in existing researches. This paper makes a summary of the development statuses of the degradation and regulation mechanisms of anthocyanin, chlorophylls and browning during processing and storage, and gives a discussion of existing issues and suggests some directions for the future development.

  11. Technology for production of shelf stable fruit cubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.B.; Jain, M.P.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    A technology has been developed for the production of intermediate moisture fruit cubes using a combination of osmotic dehydration and infrared drying. Fruits like pineapple, papaya, mango, banana and apple can be successfully converted into intermediate moisture products in the form of fruit cubes using this technology. The fruit cubes can blend very well as natural nutritious supplements with breakfast cereals and in certain food preparations like ice creams, milk shakes, jellies and custards. The product is microbiologically safe for consumption and can be stored at ambient storage condition for more than six months. This technology is an effective alternative for post harvest processing and preservation of ripened fruits. Fruit jam is an additional by-product generated by the process. This technology has been transferred to TT and CD, BARC

  12. The effects of rapid chilling and storage conditions on the quality of Brigitta Blue cultivar highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kozos Karolina; Ochmian Ireneusz; Chełpiński Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Controlled atmosphere storage allows for the long-term and short-term storage of fruit without a significant decrease in quality, resulting in a longer shelflife of fresh fruit. The Department of Horticulture at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin conducted research on the effects of post-harvest precooling (3-4°C within two hours) and storage conditions (conventional cold room and controlled atmosphere storage) on fruit firmness, chemical composition, colour and weight l...

  13. O tratamento pré-colheita com AVG, aliado à absorção do etileno durante o armazenamento refrigerado, preserva a qualidade de maçãs 'Gala' Preharvest treatment with aminoethoxyvinylglycine, in association with ethylene absorption during cold storage preserves fruit quality of 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-06-01

    management of fruit maturity at harvest and ethylene removal from the storage environment are important strategies for postharvest preservation of apple quality. This research was carried out to assess the combined effects of fruit maturity management at harvest achieved by preharvest spraying with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, and ethylene absorption with sachets containing pellets impregnated with potassium permanganate (KMnO4, on postharvest quality preservation of 'Gala' apples. Fruits from trees treated with different doses of AVG (0.0, 62.5, 125.0, and 250.0 mg L-1 were harvested at different dates (corresponding to 0, 5, 10 and 14 days after the beginning of commercial harvest, packed in standard carton boxes (18kg, lined with high density polyethylene film of 30µm with or without the addition of one sachet of KMnO4, and cold stored for two months (at 0±0.5ºC/90-95% RH. Preharvest spraying with AVG delayed fruit maturity at harvest and its ripening assessed after removal from cold storage, as well as after one week storage at ambient condition (20±4ºC/70-80% RH. The use of one sachet of KMnO4 delayed fruit ripening assessed after removal from cold storage, resulting in higher values of firmness and hº on the green side (shaded side, less exposed to sun in early harvested fruit treated at preharvest with AVG at the doses of 125-250 mg L-1. However, after one week storage at ambient condition, one sachet of KMnO4substantially delayed ripening of late harvested fruit treated at preharvest with AVG at doses >62.5 mg L-1. The results show that preharvest spraying with AVG allow delays in fruit harvesting, but this might be accompanied by the use of one sachet of KMnO4 during cold stored for a better postharvest quality preservation of 'Gala' apples.

  14. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  15. Ionizing radiation treatment to improve postharvest life and maintain quality of fresh guava fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Pal, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation for improving physiological responses, quality, and storage time of fresh guava fruit. Ionizing radiation treatment suppressed the respiration and ethylene production rates and thus retarded the process of fruit ripening during storage. Irradiation treatment also retarded the physical and biochemical changes associated with ripening such as firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and vitamin C during storage, but for doses higher than 0.25 kGy the vitamin C content decreased. The positive effects of ionizing radiation treatment on delayed fruit ripening and other quality attributes diminished during 22 days of storage at 10 deg. C. Thus, a combination of ionizing radiation with low-temperature storage (10 deg. C) did not have much synergistic effect on storage life and quality of guava fruit. In conclusion, ionizing radiation treatment of guava fruit with 0.25 kGy dose increased the postharvest life by 3-4 days, maintained fruit quality, and reduced the decay incidence. The optimal dose (0.25 kGy) for postharvest life extension of guava fruit may be exploited to provide phytosanitary security against many insect pests including fruit flies

  16. Electron spin resonance identification of irradiated fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.J.; Agnel, J.-P.L.

    1989-01-01

    The electron spin resonance spectrum of achenes, pips, stalks and stones from irradiated fruits (stawberry, raspberry, red currant, bilberry, apple, pear, fig, french prune, kiwi, water-melon and cherry) always displays, just after γ-treatment, a weak triplet (a H ∼30 G) due to a cellulose radical; its left line (lower field) can be used as an identification test of irradiation, at least for strawberries, raspberries, red currants or bilberries irradiated in order to improve their storage time. (author)

  17. Radiation processing of temperate fruits of Kashmir valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Kashmir valley is famous for its temperate horticulture. Main temperate fruits grown commercially in the valley include apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, strawberry and apricot. These fruits being perishable and susceptible to microbial spoilage, have a short shelf-life. The short shelf-life in an impediment in their transportation and marketing and results in huge losses. Study was carried out at NRL, Srinagar to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the keeping quality of most of these fruits. The effect of gamma irradiation alone and in combination with other techniques like controlled low temperature storage, edible polysaccharide coating and calcium chloride treatment was studied in detail. The results revealed that there is a great potential for the use of radiation in extending the storage life of most of the temperate fruits produced in the valley of Kashmir. (author)

  18. Mucor rot - An emerging postharvest disease of mandarin fruit caused by Mucor piriformis and other Mucor spp. in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, an emerging, undescribed postharvest fruit rot disease was observed on mandarin fruit after extended storage in California. We collected decayed mandarin fruit from three citrus packinghouses in the Central Valley of California in 2015 and identified this disease as Mucor rot caused...

  19. Testing of ionizing radiation applicability in storing vegetables and fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salkova, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The results are briefly summarized of experimental testing the radiation inhibition of onion, garlic and potatoes germination. The results achieved in studying radiation pasteurization of soft fruit are also discussed. The results are evaluated especially from the standpoint of germination inhibition, reducing material losses, phytopathogenic microbiota suppression and storage extension of vegetables and fruit. The factors are analyzed affecting the final results and the conditions are examined of testing pilot-plant radurization techniques for onion and garlic.

  20. Testing of ionizing radiation applicability in storing vegetables and fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkova, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The results are briefly summarized of experimental testing the radiation inhibition of onion, garlic and potatoes germination. The results achieved in studying radiation pasteurization of soft fruit are also discussed. The results are evaluated especially from the standpoint of germination inhibition, reducing material losses, phytopathogenic microbiota suppression and storage extension of vegetables and fruit. The factors are analyzed affecting the final results and the conditions are examined of testing pilot-plant radurization techniques for onion and garlic. (author)

  1. Radiation preservation of dry fruits on semi-commercial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Sattar, A.; Jan, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of irradiation (1.0 KGy) and packaging materials on insect infestation of dry fruits is discussed in this report. The results of ascorbic acid contents in relation to storage conditions and packaging materials are presented. It was observed that initialy there was no change in ascorbic acid in the fruit contents but with the passage of time there is significant loss of ascorbic acid. (A.B.)

  2. Hygroscopic behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington dos Santos Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the characterization of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa. Each part of the fruit (peel, pulp, and fibrous part was analyzed and their hygroscopic behavior was evaluated to establish the drying and storage conditions. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained at 25 °C to the monolayer value was estimated, and the application of the Halsey, Handerson, Kuhn, Mizrahi, Oswin, Smith, BET, and GAB models was evaluated to the prediction of the isotherms. The fruit pulp was classified as rich in high quality oil, and like the peel and the fibrous part, it was also considered as rich in dietary fiber. The isotherms of the fruit parts were classified as type II, and their microbiological stability (a w < 0.6 can be maintained at 25 °C if the moisture content is lower than 8.5, 7.3, and 11.0 g H2O.100 g-1 of dry matter (d.m., respectively. The hygroscopic behavior showed that in order to ensure stability, the fruit parts should be packaged with low water vapor permeability. The monolayer demonstrated that the peel, pulp, and the fibrous part cannot be dried under moisture content lower than 5.9, 5.0, and 6.4 g H2O.100 g-1 d.m., respectively. GAB was the most adequate model to describe their isotherms.

  3. Fruit salad as a new vehicle for probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maurício Furtado MARTINS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aimed to study the use of fruit salads as carriers for Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. We evaluated the viability of this probiotic in fruit salads and the phsyico-chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of this food. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to verify microorganism adhesion on the fruit tissues. The viability of L. rhamnosus in fruit salads was 8.49 log CFU.g-1 after 120 hours. SEM images showed that fruit tissue provided protection for probiotic. Adhesion sites were observed in higher quantity in banana, apple and guava. The addition of L. rhamnosus did not alter texture of fruits (p > 0.05. Fruit salads containing probiotic had different values of pH and acidity compared to the control (p 0.05. Fruit salads containing L. rhamnosus showed counts of psychotrophic microorganisms of at least 2.0 log CFU.g-1 lower than control salad after 120 h of refrigerated storage. The fruit salad was well accepted by consumers. Therefore, this product can be used as a carrier for probiotic and an alternative to consuming functional foods.

  4. The nutritional composition of fruit jams in the Malaysian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Mohd Naeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit jams are preserved fruits and sugars normally canned or sealed for long-term storage. Jam making involves the disruption of the fruit tissue followed by heating with added water and sugar to activate its pectin before being put into containers. Processes that expose foods to high levels of heat may cause some nutrient loss. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of four commonly consumed fruit jams that are available in the Malaysian market. Different brands (n = 6 of each type of fruit jams (grape, apricot, blueberry and strawberry were sampled from supermarkets in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling. The fruit jams were analyzed for the presence of 27 important nutrients using Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC official methods of analysis. This study showed that fruit jams are a good source of energy and carbohydrate. The fruits jams have very low levels of fatty acids. Fruit jams may provide an affordable and convenient source of energy and carbohydrate. The data can be utilized to contribute to the enhancement of Malaysia Food Composition Database.

  5. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  6. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  7. Brave new fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, N.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma rays are being used for artificially inducing mutations in deciduous fruits, so that improvements in characteristics and quality can be developed and new fruit cultivars sent out to compete on international markets. Progress in this field of research at Stellenbosch is described

  8. Prunus fruit juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  9. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as imp...

  10. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  12. Cold storage of rooted and non-rooted carnation cuttings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... allows cutting producers to regulate the market supply during surplus production or .... Techniques of carnation growing. Publications of TAV. 17. ... The commercial storage of fruits, vegetables and florist and nursary stocks.

  13. the effects of unavailability of technical storage facilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unavailability of the technical storage facilities to the marketing of fruits and vegetables for economic ... vegetables are important profitable small-scale juice enterprises (Thomson,. 1990). ..... Knott's handbook for vegetables growers. 2nd ed.

  14. Carbon footprint of apple and pear : orchards, storage and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, F.; Castanheira, E.G.; Feliciano, M.; Rodrigues, M.A.; Peres, A.; Maia, F.; Ramos, A.; Carneiro, J.P.; Coroama, V.C.; Freire, F.

    2013-01-01

    Apple and pear represent 51% of fresh fruit orchards in Portugal. This paper presents a life-cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment (so-called carbon footprint) of 3 apple and 1 pear Portuguese production systems. An LC model and inventory were implemented, encompassing the farm stage (cultivation of fruit trees in orchards), storage and distribution (transport to retail). The functional unit considered in this study was 1 kg of distributed fruit (at retail). Four different LC inventories...

  15. Effect of thiabendazole and packing materials on kinnow mandarin during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, W.A.; Ahmad, Maqbool; Hussain, A.M.; Qureshi, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of thiabendazole and some packing materials (tissue paper, wax paper and polyethylene film) on the shelf-life of Kinnow mandarins during storage at refrigerated and non-refrigerated temperatures were studied. Physiological, and organoleptic characteristics; control of fruit-rot in treated and untreated fruits and residual effect of thiabendazole in the peel and pulp of treated fruits are reported

  16. Effect of thiabendazole and packing materials on kinnow mandarin during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, W A; Ahmad, Maqbool; Hussain, A M; Qureshi, M J

    1975-01-01

    Effects of thiabendazole and some packing materials (tissue paper, wax paper and polyethylene film) on the shelf-life of Kinnow mandarins during storage at refrigerated and non-refrigerated temperatures were studied. Physiological, and organoleptic characteristics; control of fruit-rot in treated and untreated fruits and residual effect of thiabendazole in the peel and pulp of treated fruits are reported.

  17. Experience with Honeycrisp apple storage management in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    High demand and premium pricing have led to rapid increases in Honeycrisp plantings and fruit volume in Washington State, USA since introduction of the cultivar in 1999. Most fruit is packed and sold by January because of strong demand coupled with difficulties associated with extended storage. Howe...

  18. Storage of 'Laetitia' plums ( Prunus salicina ) under controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upon removal from the cold storage chamber and after four days in ambient conditions (20±2°C/60±5% RH), the fruit were assessed in terms of: respiration and ethylene production rates; flesh firmness; texture; titrable acidity; red color index and hue angle (ho) of the skin; incidence of fruit cracking and internal breakdown ...

  19. DYNAMICS AND INTENSITY OF APLE DISEASE DEVELOPMENT DURING ITS STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ivić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest apple fruit diseases are primarily caused by fungi. The object of this research was to quantify yield loss caused by post-harvest diseases and to determine fungal species responsible for storage rots on the cv. Idared during three months of storage, as well as to compare the development of fungi inoculated on apple fruits in the laboratory conditions. Only fruits with the visible rot symptoms were regarded as "diseased". Total yield loss during all three months of storage was 1.9%. The percentage of diseased fruits increased from the harvest moment to the end of storage. The most frequent cause of post-harvest rot in all assessments was Monilia fructigena. Penicillium species and Botrytis cinerea were present in relatively high percentage. All fungal isolates from diseased fruits caused fruit rot when inoculated on apples and incubated for 28 days at 22°C. On fruits inoculated with the same isolates and incubated at 4°C rot development was slower. Isolates of M. fructigena developed most rapidly on inoculated fruits at 22°C, while the isolates of B. cinerea developed most rapidly at 4°C.

  20. Bio-deterioration of breadfruit (Artocarpus Communis) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bio-deterioration of breadfruit in storage and its effects on the nutrient composition of the fruit was investigated at Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Freshly dropped fruits were stored under laboratory conditions for a period of 9 days. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Mycovellosiella fulva, ...

  1. An inventory of recent innovations in fruit and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zajac, J.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to make an inventory of recent and ongoing fruit and fruit product innovations, to assess what novelty or improvement they offer, and whether consumers could identify and/or recognise them. Researchers from 11 European countries submitted 386 examples of fruit and fruit

  2. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in the physiological characteristics of mature pear fruits subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; Sewidan, A.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Taha, F.

    1988-01-01

    Moisture content, weight loss, firmness, titrable acidity total soluble solids and decay percentage of the pear fruits (variety of Le conte) of different treatments (0,1,2,3, and 4 KGy) were investigated during storage. The data reported show that there was a slight decrease in the moisture content and titrable acidity of pear fruits during storage and there was decrease in the firmness and decay percentage. This decrease was elevated by the increase of irradiation doses and storage period on the other hand, the weight losses and total soluble solids increased by increasing the irradiation doses and storage period

  4. Effect of Post-Harvest Treatments on Enzyme Activity and Quality of Cold Stored Ber Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit K. JAWANDHA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits are perishable in nature and have poor shelf- life. To extend the storage life of ber fruits different post-harvest treatments, like CaCl2 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, Ca(NO32 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, gibberellic acid (GA3 (20, 40 and 60 ppm and Bavistin (0.1% were given to fruits and their effect was studied on the storage life and quality of �Umran� ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits under cold storage conditions. Fruits of uniform size and colour were harvested, from healthy plants, and subjected to post harvest dip of different chemicals, before packing in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5�C and 85-90% RH They have been evaluated after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage for physiological loss in weight (PLW, firmness, pectin methyl esterase (PME activity and palatability rating. The PLW increased and fruit firmness decreased during storage at each treatment. The sensory rating increased up to 10 days at all treatments, except control but subsequently it decreased during storage. The increase rate in PME activity was faster, up to 10 days, in untreated fruits, while treated fruits showed slower rise in PME activity, up to 20 days with a decline afterwards. It can be concluded that ber fruits can be stored up to 20 days by post-harvest treatment using GA3 at 60 ppm, with acceptable quality.

  5. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  6. (Forssk) Fiori Fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This fruit-producing deciduous shrub or small tree is prevalent in African and Southeast. Asian countries, with ... Gezira State, Sudan and then placed in plastic bags and ..... Eastern Africa. Rome: FAO ... International. Washington, DC, USA 1995.

  7. Hydroalcohol Fruit Peel Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L) fruit peel using 80 % ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Methods: Male ... Conclusion: The study shows indicates the antiulcer properties of the methanol extracts of north white ... experimentation, Cimetidine was obtained from.

  8. Different Disinfectants Efficiency of Fruits and Vegetables Available in Market of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Dargahi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fruits and vegetables are carrier microbial flora and in every stage of production, transportation, packaging, storage and sale to consumers are exposed to microbial contamination. Raw fruits and vegetables are suitable place for growing a variety of parasites and bacteria such as Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Campylobacter that many of theirs can cause epidemic if the conditions have provide.

  9. Neutron storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  10. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  11. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  12. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  13. Tratamento por água quente na qualidade de maçãs 'fuji', inoculadas artificialmente com Botryosphaeria dothidea, em armazenamento refrigerado Hot water treatments on fruit quality of 'fuji' apples artificially inoculated with Botryosphaeria dothidea, in refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Lunardi

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de perdas físico-químicas em maçãs cultivar Fuji, previamente inoculadas com o fungo causador da podridão branca (Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.:Fr. Ces. & De Not, em armazenamento refrigerado (AR, à temperatura de 0-1ºC. Os tratamentos foram combinações de 3 períodos (1, 2 e 3 minutos e 3 temperaturas da água de imersão (47, 49 e 52ºC. As maçãs foram avaliadas após 1, 3 e 5 meses em AR e após 7 dias em temperatura ambiente. Ao final de cada período de armazenagem, as maçãs foram avaliadas para as seguintes variáveis: firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável e perda de peso. O tratamento térmico reduziu os teores de acidez titulável, aumentou os teores de SST, e pouco influenciou na firmeza de polpa e perda de peso.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of heat treatments on quality parameters of 'Fuji' apples. Apples were immersed for either one, two or three minutes in water at 47, 49 or 52ºC. Before the heat treatments the apples had been artificially inoculated with the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.: Fr Ces. & De Not. After the heat treatments, the apples were stored in refrigerated air storage at 0-1ºC for one, three or five months plus seven days at room temperature. At the end of each storage period, apples were evaluated for flesh firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity and weight loss. The heat treatments resulted in reduced titratable acidity, increased TSS contents and had little influence on flesh firmness and weight loss.

  14. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  15. Influencia de la temperatura y el tiempo de almacenamiento en la conservación del fruto de mango (Manifera indica L. variedad Van Dyke Influence of temperature and storage time on quality of mango fruit (Mangifera indica l. variety Van Dyke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvis Jesús A.

    2002-08-01

    orchard, located in El Espinal, Tolima, average temperature 29°C, altitude 431 m, RH 70% and pluviosity of 1368 mm. During storage physical characteristics were evaluated as percentage of weight, firmness, fruit and pulp loss. Chemical and biochemical changes were also evaluated as the variation offBrix, pH, percentaje acidity, sucrose, glucose and fructose content and acids (citric, malic, succinic and ascorbic. Finally changes of color of the fruit skin were evaluated. Fruit stored at 12°C, ripened in 30 and were ready to eat. At this temperature the storage life doubled as compared to fruits stored at 18°C. Fruits tumed to be sensitive to temperatures of 10 and 7°C resulting in interruption of the maturation process specially at 7°C. At 10°C, evolution of characteristic
    maturation changes developed antil day 20, but between
    day 20 and day 30 changes were interrupted, which indicates that chilling injury became irreversible starting from day 20.

  16. Effects of cuticular wax on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Zheng, Yonghua

    2018-01-15

    The blueberry fruit has a light-blue appearance because its blue-black skin is covered with a waxy bloom. This layer is easily damaged or removed during fruit harvesting and postharvest handling. We investigated the effects of wax removal on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit and their possible mechanisms. The removal of natural wax on the fruit was found to accelerate the postharvest water loss and decay, reduce the sensory and nutritional qualities, and shorten the shelf-life. Wax removal decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants, and accelerated accumulation of ROS and lipid peroxidation, especially at the later period of storage. Moreover, the organellar membrane structure was disrupted in fruit with wax removed. These results indicate that cuticular wax plays an important role in maintaining the postharvest quality and delaying fruit senescence. The results should improve our understanding for better preservation of postharvest quality of blueberry fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of anthocynin changes in blueberries and in blueberry jam after the processing and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Czako; Ľubomír Mendel; Martina Fikselová; Andrea Mendelová

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is worldwide famous as the healthy and desirable fruit. The most valuable nutritional components of fruits are polyphenols, which include anthocyanins. The aim of the study was to assess the content of anthocyanin dyes in selected varieties of blueberry fruit. We evaluated the changes in the content of colorants that occur after treatment for fruit jam and its subsequent storage at 21°C under the light. Varieties Ramcocas, Record, Iranka, Nelson, Pemberton,...

  18. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  19. Gamma irradiation of fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1983-08-01

    At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits

  20. Efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e de fitoreguladores na germinação de sementes de maracujá doce e desenvolvimento inicial de mudas = Effect of storage temperature and phytoregulators on germination of sweet passion fruit seeds and seedling development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Eustáquio de Sá

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A germinação de sementes de maracujazeiro doce apresenta problemas e estudos que possam elucidar o processo e verificar sua viabilidade são importantes para que os produtores de mudas possam melhorar seu rendimento e obter maiores lucros. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento das sementes, e embebição em fitoreguladores e KNO3 na germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de maracujá doce. O experimento foi instalado na Casa de Vegetação, da Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira/Unesp, Estado de São Paulo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, numesquema fatorial 2 X 5, sendo 2 temperaturas de armazenamento das sementes (ambiente e geladeira e 5 tratamentos de embebição (sem embebição, água destilada, giberelina 250 ppm, citocinina 250 ppm e KNO3 0,1%, com 4 repetições. As sementes foram armazenadas por 20dias, seguidas de embebição por 24 horas. As avaliações foram feitas até os 62 dias após a semeadura, determinando-se porcentagem de germinação, o índice velocidade de germinação e parâmetros do desenvolvimento inicial das mudas. A baixa temperatura teve efeito positivo na germinação. A giberelina influenciou positivamente o desenvolvimento inicial das mudas, constatando-se que o seu efeito pode ser perfeitamente substituído pela baixa temperatura dearmazenamento das sementes.The germination of sweet passion fruit seeds has problems. Studies that explain and verify its viability are important for seedproducers to improve their income and profit. The aim of this work was to verify the effect of storage temperature and imbibition in phytoregulators and KNO2 on germination and seedling development of passion fruit. The experiment was carried out at Casa de Vegetação from Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira/Unesp, São Paulo State, using a completely randomized design in a 2 (storage temperature of seeds (room temperature and refrigerator x 5 (imbibition

  1. Chemical and Biological Studies on Cumin Fruits Irradiated by GAMMA Rays for Conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSANEIN, R.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 10 and 15 KGy) and different storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months) in different package materials (cotton or polyethylene bags) on essential oil quality and chemical composition of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) fruits. On the other hand antimicrobial activity of treated cumin fruits essential oil and its extracts at 0, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 40000 ppm were investigated. Results showed that the highest essential oil % was obtained from fruits stored for 3 months in cotton bag without gamma irradiation. Concerning the effect of essential oil as antimicrobial agent, the highest antibacterial activity was obtained by essential oil isolated from irradiated polyethylene packed fruits at 5 KGy then stored for 3 months (Staphylococcus aureus) or irradiated polyethylene packed ones at 15 KGy without storage (Salmonella typhimurium). On the other hand, the highest antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum was obtained by essential oil isolated from unirradiated packed in polyethylene fruits then stored for 6 months. Non-stored packed in cotton bag fruits irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KGy produced essential oil with highest antiyeastal activity. Cumin fruits extract at 40000 ppm when combined with different treatments presented the highest antimicrobial activity (represents as inhibition zone) against all studied microbes except with P. digitatum. Cumin extract at 40000 ppm when extracted from irradiated packed fruits in polyethylene bags with gamma rays at 5 KGy without storage or with 6 months storage or irradiated at 15 KGy of packed fruits in cotton bag with storage for 3 months presented the highest significant inhibition zones against S. aureus. The same concentration of extracted cumin from uni radiated packed in cotton bag fruits and storage for 6 months presented the highest inhibition zone of S. typhimurium. Also, with the same concentration

  2. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  3. Energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  4. Gamma radiation influences postharvest disease incidence of pineapple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damayanti, M.; Sharma, G.J.; Kundu, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    The application of gamma radiation for improving the storage of pineapple fruits [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. Queen] has been studied in an attempt to reduce decay caused by fungal pathogens such as Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade)-Moreau and Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll. Gamma radiation at 50, 75, 100, 150, and 250 Gy improved shelf life. The maximum tolerable dose was approximately 250 Gy. Fruits irradiated with up to 150 Gy and then stored at 25 to 28C maintained their texture better than did the controls. Radiation, particularly at doses 250 Gy, caused browning of the skin and softening of tissues. Browning increased with increasing radiation dose and storage duration. Excessively high doses promoted spoilage. Doses in the range of 50 to 250 Gy, in combination with storage at 11 to 13C, can be used to reduce postharvest losses in pineapple due to fungal diseases and senescence, thereby extending shelf life

  5. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  6. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  7. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  8. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat or choose fruits from a salad bar. Individual containers of fruits like peaches or applesauce are easy to carry and convenient for lunch. 7 Enjoy fruit at dinner, too At dinner, add crushed pineapple to coleslaw ...

  9. Tree age affects physicochemical, functional quality and storability of Amrapali mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Nirmal Kumar; Asrey, Ram

    2017-12-12

    The effect of tree age on physicochemical quality attributes and storage behaviour of Amrapali mango fruit was evaluated. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested from 6-, 18- and 30-year-old trees and kept for ripening under ambient conditions (temperature 35 ± 3 °C, relative humidity 60 ± 5%). Observations were recorded at 3-day intervals. Highest total soluble solids and total sugars were found in the fruit sourced from 18-year-old trees. At the end of storage, least titratable acidity (0.17%) and higher carotenoids (10.86 mg 100 g -1 ) were found in 30-year-old tree fruits during the last day of storage. Highest total phenols (TP) (251.33 μg gallic acid g -1 ), antioxidant capacity (AC) (5.63 μmol Trolox g -1 ) and ascorbic acid (AA) (31.13 mg 100 g -1 ) were reported in fruits from younger trees of 6 years old. Maximum respiratory and ethylene evolution peak was observed in fruits obtained from oldest trees, whereas least activities of pectin methyl esterase (0.31 μmol min -1 g -1 fresh weight) and polygalacturonase (53.67 μg galacturonic acid g -1 h -1 ) were observed in 6-year-old tree fruits at the end of the 9-day storage period. Higher total soluble solids and total sugars were found in fruit harvested from middle-age-group (18-year-old) trees during the entire storage period of 9 days. Most of the functional parameters, such as TP, AC and AA, were observed to be higher in fruits from younger (6-year-old) trees. The obtained results revealed that produce from middle-age-group (18-year-old) Amrapali mango orchards suit consumers' and processors' requirements. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  11. Emerging fruit crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  12. Effect of safe environmental pre and post harvest treatments and irradiation on handling of some fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawito, M.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2005 and 2006 seasons on M ontakhab El-Kanater g uavas and H achiya p ersimmons.two different experiments were studied, the first one for pre harvest and second post harvest. Regarding pre harvest experiment,hand or chemical flower thinning by urea or ethrel and date of fruit picking (maturity) were evaluated on both guavas and persimmons.All flower thinning treatments increased fruit set,total yield,average fruit weight and decreased fruit abscission.However,a great effect on fruit quality and chemical compositions were also found with flower thinning treatments. Chemical flower thinning was more effective than hand thinning in improving yield and quality in M ontakhab El-Kanater g uavas and H achiya p ersimmons. However,early maturation(120 and 150 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced poor fruit quality.Whereas, medium maturity(130 and 180 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruit with high quality.However,late picking(140 and 210 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruits with less marketability. On the other side, post harvest treatments including irradiation of fruits with or without pre-cooling process at 0.2,0.4,and 0.8 K.Gy for guavas and 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 K.Gy for persimmons. Also,hot water at 45 degree C, fungicide at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L.and ethanol vapor at 25 and 50% were evaluated on both fruits. The obtained data were evaluated on discarded fruits %, weight loss %, fruit firmness,fruit marketability, total soluble solids,acidity,L-ascorbic acid (guava), tannins (persimmon), total sugars and fruit respiration. All supplementary refrigeration treatments improved fruit quality during cold storage but ethanol vapor either 25 or 50 % were more effective than other treatments

  13. Conservação de sementes de maracujá-amarelo: interferências do teor de água das sementes e da temperatura de armazenamento Conservation of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edults Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. seeds: interference of water content and storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Camargo Lopes Fonseca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Buscando embasamento para a definição de alternativas tecnológicas voltadas a desacelerar a deterioração durante o armazenamento, a pesquisa objetivou estudar, através de variações no teor de água das sementes e na temperatura do ambiente de armazenamento, o comportamento fisiológico de sementes de maracujazeiro. O experimento, realizado entre julho de 2002 e agosto de 2003 no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes localizado na Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (USP, foi realizado com sementes de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. produzidas em Mogi Mirim/ SP a partir de polinização aberta entre híbridos da Série IAC 270. Após a retirada da mucilagem das sementes, foi determinado o grau de umidade inicial do lote e, paralelamente, obtida a amostra representante do tratamento com o maior teor de água estudado (31%. As sementes remanescentes foram submetidas à secagem, em estufa com circulação de ar a 30ºC ± 3ºC, para a obtenção dos demais tratamentos referentes aos teores de água desejados (27%, 21%, 17%, 11% e 7%. Posteriormente, os tratamentos, correspondentes aos diferentes graus de umidade, foram armazenados em câmaras com temperaturas controladas de 10ºC, 15ºC e 20ºC. Antes do armazenamento, e após 35, 70, 105, 140, 175, 210, 245, 280, 315 e 350 dias, as sementes foram submetidas às avaliações da qualidade. De acordo com os resultados, a combinação do grau de umidade de 7% com a temperatura de 10ºC supera as demais no favorecimento à manutenção do potencial fisiológico das sementes de Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.In order to define technological alternatives foward delaying deterioration of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. seeds during storage, physiological studies were performed through varied seed water content and environmental temperature. The experiments were conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Escola Superior

  14. Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple

  15. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  16. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieu N. Lan [Post Harvest Technology Inst. of Vietnam (Viet Nam)

    2000-09-01

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by {gamma}-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  17. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu N, Lan; Nguyen D, Lam; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by γ-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  18. Influence of gamma-irradiation, growth retardants and coatings on the shelf life of winter guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.K.; Joshua, Jean E.; Bisen; Abhav

    2010-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma irradiation, growth retardants and coatings (coconut oil, mustard oil and liquid paraffin) on shelf life of winter guava fruits during storage. The results revealed that the superiority of coconut oil coating over other post harvest treatments. Physiological loss in weight (7.1%), marketable fruits retained over control (86.7%), total soluble solid (16.1%), ascorbic acid (195 mg/100 g pulp) and total sugar (10%) of fruit were positively influenced by coconut oil coating up to 12 days of storage. The treatment was found significantly effective in increasing the post harvest life of fruits for 12 days over control without adversely affecting the fruit quality. Coconut oil coating gave highest consumer acceptability while, maintaining sufficient level of total soluble solids and sugar content in fruits. (author)

  19. Cold shock treatment extends shelf life of naturally ripened or ethylene-ripened avocado fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Liu, Xixia; Li, Fenfang; Li, Yixing; Yuan, Debao

    2017-01-01

    Avocado is an important tropical fruit with high commercial value, but has a relatively short storage life. In this study, the effects of cold shock treatment (CST) on shelf life of naturally ripened and ethylene-ripened avocado fruits were investigated. Fruits were immersed in ice water for 30 min, then subjected to natural or ethylene-induced ripening. Fruit color; firmness; respiration rate; ethylene production; and the activities of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and endo-β-1,4-glucanase were measured. Immersion in ice water for 30 min effectively delayed ripening-associated processes, including peel discoloration, pulp softening, respiration rate, and ethylene production during shelf life. The delay in fruit softening by CST was associated with decreased PG and endo-β-1,4-glucanase activities, but not PME activity. This method could potentially be a useful postharvest technology to extend shelf life of avocado fruits.

  20. Application of Palm Stearin-Chitosan Edible Coating on Star Fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Hanani Mohamad Zaki; Halimahton Zahrah Mohamed Som; Zaibunnisa Abdul Haiyee

    2012-01-01

    An edible coating comprising of hydrophilic (chitosan) and hydrophobic (palm stearin) components which demonstrated gas barrier and moisture barrier properties respectively, was developed to prolong the post harvest life of star fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.). The physicochemical properties of the coated star fruits were evaluated in terms of weight loss, firmness, visual appearance, colour and glossiness, respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) concentrations and ethylene concentration during storage at chilled temperature for 40 days. The results obtained showed that coating reduced weight loss, and maintained firmness and appearance of star fruits. Formulation 1:1 (chitosan:stearin) prevented decline in oxygen production, slowed down carbon dioxide production, and maintained firmness of star fruits. Visual appearance of star fruits showed that coating had lengthened the post harvest life of star fruits up to 40 days with no sign of mould growth. (author)

  1. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury?symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Franklin T; Zhu, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus ? domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies, such as controlled atmosphere (CA) and 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). However, CA storage can cause external CO2 injury for some apple cultivars. The molecular changes associated with the development of CO2 inj...

  2. Morfometria de frutos e sementes e germinação de carobinha (Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença, após o armazenamento Fruit and seed morphometry and germination of "carobinha" (Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata seeds after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sangalli

    2012-01-01

    Seed Laboratory of Federal University of Grande Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. For a sample of 120 fruits and 550 seeds, the following variables were determined: length, width and thickness, besides the number of seeds per fruit and fruit biomass. Germination was studied after three seed storage periods (120, 480 and 720 days at environment temperature and four germination temperatures: three constant temperatures (18, 25 and 30ºC with continuous light, and one alternating temperature, 20-30ºC, with 12-hour photoperiod. Experimental design was completely randomized, in 3 x 4 factorial schemes, with four replicates. The variations in the measures of fruits and seeds evidence a high genetic variability in the population. The seeds stored for 120 days and subjected to germination test at 25ºC resulted in 69.4% germination and germination velocity index - GVI of 0.983. At 30ºC, constant temperature, and 20-30ºC, alternating temperature, germination was 63.9% and 63.8% while GVI was 0.486 and 0.413, respectively. At 18ºC, germination was slow and lower, 27.7%, and GVI was 0.119. Seeds stored for 480 and 720 days did not germinate. Based on the physiological behavior of seeds, it is possible to classify Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata as an intermediate species (between orthodox and recalcitrant.

  3. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  4. Improving Postharvest Storage of Apple Cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Etemadi Nasab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the important fruit in Iran. according to respiration and ethylene production behaviors, apple classified as a climacteric fruit. Therefore, any treatments, which can inhibit or prevent the action of ethylene, they can increase the postharvest life of horticultural production. 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP is one of the chemical which is environmental save and use as a very small concentrations. In this experiment, the effects of 1-MCP at concentrations of 0 (as a control, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 µl.l-1 were used in apple cv. "Golab Kohanz", a land race fruits which is cultivated from long times ago in Iran. After the 1-MCP treatment, they were moved to cold room at 2 ºC and RH of ca 90% for 60 days. Samples were removed from the cold room and analysis for physicochemical characteristics. "Golab Kohanz" apples treated with 1-MCP showed improved fruit firmness, titratable acidity (TA, and total soluble solid after 147 days at 2ºC , compared to the control non-treated fruits. Also, treatment with 1-MCP significantly reduced the incidence of superficial scald in "Golab Kohanze". In general, 1-MCP-treated apples delay ripening during storing in cold room and increased shelf life. Overall, the results indicate that 1-MCP has tremendous potential for maintaining apple quality during storage and post storage.

  5. The effects of rapid chilling and storage conditions on the quality of Brigitta Blue cultivar highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozos Karolina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlled atmosphere storage allows for the long-term and short-term storage of fruit without a significant decrease in quality, resulting in a longer shelflife of fresh fruit. The Department of Horticulture at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin conducted research on the effects of post-harvest precooling (3-4°C within two hours and storage conditions (conventional cold room and controlled atmosphere storage on fruit firmness, chemical composition, colour and weight loss.

  6. (Solanum aethiopicum L.) fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eggplant is grown in almost every region and is one of the most traded indigenous vegetables in local markets (Chadha, 2006). African eggplant fruits have relatively higher carbohydrate. (7.2 g/100g), fibers (2.0g/100g), calcium (28 mg/100g), iron (1.5 mg/100g) and considerable amount of beta carotene (0.35 mg/100g),.

  7. Storage potential of ‘SCS426 Venice’ apples under different storage technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariuccia Schlichting de Martin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the storage potential of SCS426 Venice apples under different storage technologies. Fruits were harvested in an experimental orchard located in Fraiburgo, SC and stored for up to eight and ten months in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Apples were treated or not with methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and stored under air atmosphere (AA, 0.5±0.5 °C/RH 85±5% or controlled atmosphere (CA; 1.5 kPa of O2 and 1.5 kPa of CO2 at 0.7±0.5 °C/RH of 93±3%. Fruits were evaluated every two months of storage, after one and seven days of shelf life (23 ± 0.3 °C/RH 93±3%. The storage period of ‘SCS426 Venice’ apples under AA without 1-MCP application should not extend beyond six months. Under this storage condition, fruits had higher incidence of decay, ethylene production and respiratory rates, higher skin degreening, lower flesh firmness, titratable acidity and soluble solids content than fruits stored under CA or AA with 1-MCP. ‘SCS426 Venice’ apples develop flesh browning and superficial scald after long-term storage. ‘SCS426 Venice’ apples under AA treated with 1-MCP or under CA (regardless of 1-MCP application can be stored for more than eight months, keeping flesh firmness above 14 lb and low incidence of physiological disorders even after ten months of storage.

  8. RESEARCH OF FRUIT CONSERVES’ CORROSIVE AGGRESSIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kuznecova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of metal canning containers is one of the obstacles in spreading its application for packing of food. Particularly aggressive to the metal container is fruit canned medium, containing organic acids.The basic material for the production of metal canning container is white tinplate. The main advantage of white tinplate is the tin compounds are harmless to human organism. For this reason, a white badge is used widely, usually used for production of canning containers, packaging beverages. Despite the fact that recently often used containers made of aluminum badge (foil, the basic material for manufacturing metal canning containers is steel white tinplate.Now applied for coating paints and varnishes do not provide anti-corrosion protection of inner surface of metal containers during storage. Preserving of canned fruit quality in metal containers is largely defined corrosion resistance of the containers. This is due to the fact that the metal transition to canned fruit in due courses of corrosion processes is lowering the nutritional value and deterioration taste of the product, and while allocation of hydrogen is accompanied by swelling and destruction of metal containers.We have investigated a number of anti-corrosion coatings based on Fe-Cr and Fe-Sn-Ti of their behavior in aggressive mediums canned fruit. For the purpose of modeling such mediums the solutions of most widespread organic acids were used. The research allowed conclude, that in surface solid solutions Fe-Sn-Ti increase the corrosion resistance of carbon steel in aqueous solutions of malic, citric and tartaric acids. This implies that the surface solid solutions’ formation can significantly improve corrosion resistance in aggressive canning mediums.

  9. Effect of main stem pruning and fruit thinning on the postharvest conservation of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella M. de A. Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Main stem pruning and fruit thinning are cultivation practices that can influence the yield and quality of the fruit. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of main stem pruning and fruit thinning on the postharvest conservation of Charentais Banzai melons. In the field, the plants were subjected to main stem pruning and fruit thinning, with harvesting done 74 days after sowing (DAS. The fruits were transported to the laboratory where they were cleaned, characterized, and stored in a cold chamber (5 °C and 90 ± 2% RH. In the field, the experiment was designed as a split-plot using a 2 × 4 + 1 factorial design, with two levels of main stem pruning (pruned and unpruned, four levels of thinning times (42, 45, 48, and 51 DAS, and a control (unpruned and unthinned. The sub-plot consisted of storage times (0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, with four blocks. The preharvest treatments did not significantly influence the production characteristics of the Banzai hybrid. The treatment without pruning increased the titratable acidity of fruit, and the thinning at 51 days after sowing (DAS reduced soluble sugars. There was a decline in pulp firmness, titratable acidity, reducing sugars, and an increase in soluble solids, total soluble sugar, and non-reducing sugars during storage. Pruning the main melon stem reduced the weight loss of the fruit after 28 days of storage.

  10. Ripening and shelf life of 'BRS Caipira' banana fruit stored under room temperature or refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjana Santos Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BRS Caipira variety, internationally known as 'Yangambi km 5', is an alternative to meet the demand of 'Maçã'-type fruit due to its resistance to Panama disease. This study had the objective of generating information about 'BRS Caipira' fruit ripening and cold storage potential. For the ripening study fruits were stored under room temperature conditions (25±2°C / 58±6% U.R. and assessed for postharvest life evaluation and characterization of seven maturity stages based on peel color: completely green - MS1; green with yellow traces - MS2; more green than yellow - MS3; more yellow than green - MS4; yellow with green tips - MS5; completely yellow - MS6; yellow with brown spots - MS7. For the cold storage potential study, fruits at MS1 were cold stored (14±1°C / 53±2% U.R. for 28 days. Weekly, fruits were transferred to room temperature to ripen until MS6 when were assessed for quality attributes. Ripening of 'BRS Caipira' fruit was characterized as slow between MS1 and MS2 (averaging five days, then fast between MS2 and MS6 (up to four days in average, and undergoing determinant changes between MS6 and MS7: pulp yield reached 80%, titratable acidity reduced by 50% and ratio increased by 78%. Cold storage extended shelf life by up to 19 days as compared with control, without visible symptoms of chilling injury, although tends to reduce soluble solids in ripe fruit. Maximum recommended time for storage of 'BRS Caipira' fruit at 14°C is 21 days, since it allows a few more days under room temperature until fruit reach MS6.

  11. Energy Storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial arena, the most recent developments in EES are in electrochemical storage, singling out Li-ion batteries and Vanadium Redox flow batteries, while power-to-gas/-fuels (electrolysis of water into hydrogen and subsequent methanisation...

  12. Liver Storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-10-23

    Oct 23, 1971 ... The need for whole-organ preservation has become in- cre.asingly important ... ideally fulfil the same purpose as the circulation of blood through the body, ... Hepatic hypothermia produced by the introduction of cold electrolyte ... Recently, we reported successful hypothermic immersion storage for up to 8 ...

  13. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  14. Fruit Leathers: Method of Preparation and Effect of Different Conditions on Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit leathers are dehydrated fruit products which are eaten as snacks or desserts. They are flexible sheets that have a concentrated fruit flavor and nutritional aspects. Most fruit leathers are prepared by mixing fruit puree and other additives like sugar, pectin, acid, glucose syrup, color, and potassium metabisulphite and then dehydrating them under specific conditions. Various drying systems including combined convective and far-infrared drying, hot air drying, microwave drying, solar drying, and sun drying have been used to make fruit leathers. Most fruit leathers are dried at 30 to 80°C for up to 24 hours until the target final moisture content (12–20% has been reached. Research about fruit leathers began in the 1970s. This work has reviewed published papers on fruit leathers in order to summarize useful information about fruit leathers on methods of preparation, effects of drying condition, and effects of packaging and storage, which will be useful to many in the food industry and consumers who are health-conscious.

  15. Fruit Leathers: Method of Preparation and Effect of Different Conditions on Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Lemuel M.; Bai, Xue; Busch, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Fruit leathers are dehydrated fruit products which are eaten as snacks or desserts. They are flexible sheets that have a concentrated fruit flavor and nutritional aspects. Most fruit leathers are prepared by mixing fruit puree and other additives like sugar, pectin, acid, glucose syrup, color, and potassium metabisulphite and then dehydrating them under specific conditions. Various drying systems including combined convective and far-infrared drying, hot air drying, microwave drying, solar drying, and sun drying have been used to make fruit leathers. Most fruit leathers are dried at 30 to 80°C for up to 24 hours until the target final moisture content (12–20%) has been reached. Research about fruit leathers began in the 1970s. This work has reviewed published papers on fruit leathers in order to summarize useful information about fruit leathers on methods of preparation, effects of drying condition, and effects of packaging and storage, which will be useful to many in the food industry and consumers who are health-conscious. PMID:26904618

  16. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  17. Tropical Fruit Irradiation-From Research to Commercial Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, James H.

    2005-09-01

    Food irradiation is an emerging technology for the 21st century. Extensive research and development worldwide in the past 40 years have proved the versatility and efficacy. With low, medium to high dose, and using either a gamma, electrons, or x-ray source, radiation can: 1) disinfest plant products and spices; 2) extend shelf life of tubers, bulbs, and selected tropical fruits; 3) decontaminate meats and seafood; 4) sterilize spices and special meals; and 5) improve product utilization. Criteria for testing its efficacy include effectiveness, efficiency, and the ability to retain product quality. The use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of tropical fruits is potentially attractive to countries growing these fruits. A two-prong research plan should aim at proving radiation's effectiveness in preventing emergence of all insect pests that might be on a fruit, and determining that all quality attributes of a host fruit are retained after irradiation, subsequent storage and shipment. ommercial application involves conducting an economical feasibility study; market research and testing; selection of radiation source and irradiator type; training of personnel for plant operations, radiation safety and dosimetry monitoring; designing of packages and choosing the most cost-effective means of transporting treated fruits to market destinations. When all of hese are achieved, it should lead to a continuous and profitable operation. Researchers at the University of Hawaii using a gamma irradiator from the mid-1960s to early 2000s had amassed a volume of data to prove the efficacy of radiation disinfestations. And installation of a commercial x-ray irradiator in 2000 on the Island of Hawaii has enabled fruit farmers and packers to use this technology for exporting tropical fruits to distant markets

  18. Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moshiur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

  19. Absorption and distribution of calcium (labelled with 45Ca) applied after harvest to Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, A.R.; Dhatt, A.S.; Dhillon, K.S.; Dhillon, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the disorders related to calcium are due to its unequal distribution within the plant rather than poor uptake. Immediately after fruit set, calcium uptake by roots as well as its translocation to developing fruit is extensive. However, the absorbed calcium does not reach the fruit in desired amounts during the subsequent fruit development stages and thereby, resulting in physiological disorders. Some corky spots underneath the peel of the fruit at harvest or during storage have been observed in Asian pear (cv. Patharnakh) which is extensively grown in northern India. There is need to increase the Ca concentration in the body of the fruit to prolong its life. The present investigation was, therefore, undertaken to study the absorption and distribution of post-harvest applied Ca in Asian pear fruit using radiotracer techniques. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  1. Pollen viability and its effect on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at studying (1 the decline of pollen viability during storage, and (2 the effect of pollen amount on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was conducted at PT. Dami Mas Sejahtera and PT. Sinar Mas Agro Resource and Technology (SMART Tbk, Riau from February to August 2004. The first experiment was investigated up to six months storage period in the refrigerator, whereas in the second experiment a randomized complete block design with two factors was used: length of storage, i.e. 0, 1 and 2 months and amount of pollen, i.e. 0.022, 0.044, 0.066, 0.088, and 0.11 g mixed with powder to 10g to pollinate an inflorescence. The result showed that the viability of pollen started to decline three months after storage from about 92% to 83%, and declined to about 75% after six months of storage. Result of the second experiment showed that storage of pollen up to two months did not affect percentage of normal fruit, although the percentage of parthenocarpic fruits was decreased. This could be due to the high viability of pollen as the viability was remained high (about 90% after being stored for two months in the refrigerator. Pollen with high viability could be used in a smaller amount to pollinate a female inflorescence without affecting fruit set of about 70-76%.SD037 had a higher reproductive success than SD038 and SD39.

  2. Biospeckle Supported Fruit Bruise Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson M. Enes; Juliana A. Fracarolli; Inácio M. Dal Fabbro; Silvestre Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    This research work proposed a study of fruit bruise detection by means of a biospeckle method, selecting the papaya fruit (Carica papaya) as testing body. Papaya is recognized as a fruit of outstanding nutritional qualities, showing high vitamin A content, calcium, carbohydrates, exhibiting high popularity all over the world, considering consumption and acceptability. The commercialization of papaya faces special problems which are associated to bruise generation during harvesting, packing an...

  3. Fruits of neutron research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, C.

    1994-01-01

    Car windshields that don't break during accidents and jets that fly longer without making a refueling stop. Compact discs, credit cards, and pocket calculators. Refrigerator magnets and automatic car window openers. Beach shoes, food packaging, and bulletproof vests made of tough plastics. The quality and range of consumer products have improved steadily since the 1970s. One of the reasons: neutron research. Industries, employing neutron scattering techniques, to study materials properties, to act as diagnostics in tracing system performance, or as sources for radioactive isotopes used in medical fields for diagnostics or treatment, have all benefited from the fruits of advanced work with neutron sources

  4. The effect of fruit maturity on the physiological quality and conservation of Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Junio da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fruit maturation stage on the physiological quality of J. curcas seeds during storage. Thus, seeds were extracted from fruits harvested at different maturity stages based on external color, i.e., yellow, yellow-brown and brown (dry fruits. After natural drying, the seeds were packed in Kraft paper bag and stored for 18 months at laboratory environment. Initially and every three months, the seeds were evaluated for moisture content, germination, first count of germination, accelerated aging, cold test, electrical conductivity and emergence. There was reduction in seed physiological quality, with decrease in germination and vigor, especially after nine months of storage. The seeds extracted from yellow and yellow-brown fruits are the most vigorous and can be stored for up to nine months without loss of physiological quality.

  5. Oxidative Stress Associated with Chilling Injury in Immature Fruit: Postharvest Technological and Biotechnological Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Manzano, Susana; Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2017-07-08

    Immature, vegetable-like fruits are produced by crops of great economic importance, including cucumbers, zucchini, eggplants and bell peppers, among others. Because of their high respiration rates, associated with high rates of dehydration and metabolism, and their susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), vegetable fruits are highly perishable commodities, requiring particular storage conditions to avoid postharvest losses. This review focuses on the oxidative stress that affects the postharvest quality of vegetable fruits under chilling storage. We define the physiological and biochemical factors that are associated with the oxidative stress and the development of CI symptoms in these commodities, and discuss the different physical, chemical and biotechnological approaches that have been proposed to reduce oxidative stress while enhancing the chilling tolerance of vegetable fruits.

  6. Integrated Management of Causal Agents of Postharvest Fruit Rot of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Grahovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of poor quality and fruit loss (during storage and transportare diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Economic losses which are the consequenceof the phytopathogenic fungus activity after harvest exceed the losses in the field.Themost important postharvest fungal pathogens of apple fruits are: Botrytis cinerea Pers. exFr., Penicillium expansum (Lk. Thom., Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck. Grem., Colletotrichumgloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., Monilinia sp., Gloeosporium album Osterw, Alternaria alternata(Fr. Keissler, Cladosporium herbarium Link., Cylindrocarpon mali (Alles. Wollenw., Stemphyliumbotryosum Wallr. The use of available protection technologies can significantly reducelosses caused by pathogens in storage. The concept of integrated pest management (IPMin apple fruits i.e. sustainable approach in control of causal agents of postharvest fruit rot,using cultural, physical, biological and chemical measures, to minimize economic, healthand risks to consumers and environment, is presented in the paper.

  7. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome and Hormonal Regulation of Pollinated and Parthenocarpic Fig (Ficus carica L. Fruit Suggest that Fruit Ripening is Coordinated by the Reproductive Part of the Syconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogev Rosianski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the unconventional climacteric fig (Ficus carica fruit, pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit of the same genotype exhibit different ripening characteristics. Integrative comparative analyses of tissue-specific transcript and of hormone levels during fruit repining from pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruit were employed to unravel the similarities and differences in their regulatory processes during fruit repining. Assembling tissue-specific transcripts into 147,000 transcripts with 53,000 annotated genes provided new insights into the spatial distribution of many classes of regulatory and structural genes, including those related to color, taste and aroma, storage, protein degradation, seeds and embryos, chlorophyll, and hormones. Comparison of the pollinated and parthenocarpic tissues during fruit ripening showed differential gene expression, especially in the fruit inflorescence. The distinct physiological green phase II and ripening phase III differed significantly in their gene-transcript patterns in both pulp and inflorescence tissues. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole fruits enabled the first determination of ripening-related hormone levels from pollinated and non-pollinated figs. Ethylene and auxin both increased during fruit ripening, irrespective of pollination, whereas no production of active gibberellins or cytokinins was found in parthenocarpic or pollinated ripening fruit. Tissue-specific transcriptome revealed apparent different metabolic gene patterns for ethylene, auxin and ABA in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit, mostly in the fruit inflorescence. Our results demonstrate that the production of abscisic acid (ABA, non-active ABA–GE conjugate and non-active indoleacetic acid (IAA–Asp conjugate in pollinated fruits is much higher than in parthenocarpic fruits. We suggest that fruit ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in ABA production between pollinated and

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation and storage temperature on carotenoids and ascorbic acid content of mangoes on ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Janave, M.T.

    1975-01-01

    Synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids in the flesh of Alphonso mangoes on ripening was found to be maximal in fruits stored at tropical ambient temperatures (28 0 to 32 0 C). Gamma irradiation of preclimacteric fruits at 25 krad did not affect the formation of carotenoids. Storage of preclimacteric fruits either irradiated or unirradiated at 7 to 20 0 C for 16 to 43 days caused a substantial reduction in carotenoid formation even when these fruits were subsequently ripened under optimal conditions. Regardless of storage temperature, carotenes always exceeded xanthophylls in the ripe fruits and, in general, irradiated fruits showed higher levels of carotenes in comparison with unirradiated samples. Ascorbic acid loss during ripening was maximum at ambient temperatures while lengthy storage at low temperatures caused a net increase in ascorbic acid levels. Irradiation seemed to accentuate the loss in ascorbic acid during ripening. (author)

  10. Characterization of olive oil obtained from whole fruit and fruit flesh of cultivar: Kaissy grown in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO from whole fruits and fruit flesh of Kaissy olive (Olea europaea cultivar was investigated in this study. Acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV, specification number (SV, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value, phenol content, refractive index (RI and viscosity were measured after 0, 6 and 12 months of storage. The physicochemical properties of oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh samples of olive were: AV (0.32 and 0.40%, PV (4.79 and 6.13%, TBA (0.056 and 0.052 mg MDA kg-1 oil, IV (84.41 and 83.87 g-1 oil, SV (195.48 and 187.56 mg KOH g-1 oil, total phenolic (339.52 and 226.68 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil, RI (1.4669 and 1.4668 and viscosity (129.33 and 130.00 mPa s-1 respectively. The results demonstrated that the AV, PV, RI and viscosity values significantly (p<0.05 increased, while TBA value and total phenolic content significantly (p<0.05 decreased during storage.

  11. Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar, V. R.; Suresh Kumar, P.

    2010-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are dried to enhance storage stability, minimize packaging requirement and reduce transport weight. Preservation of fruits and vegetables through drying based on sun and solar drying techniques which cause poor quality and product contamination. Energy consumption and quality of dried products are critical parameters in the selection of drying process. An optimum drying system for the preparation of quality dehydrated products is cost effective as it shortens the drying ...

  12. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  13. Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

    The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

  14. PROTOCOL FOR HARVESTING ‘BRS PRINCESS’ BANANA FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ FERNANDO GANASSALI DE OLIVEIRA JUNIOR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop a protocol to determine the ideal harvest time for ‘BRS Princess’ banana, using the number of aborted bracts. The bananas were selected according to the number of aborted bracts since the flowering until the time of harvest, yield clusters with 90, 95, 100 and 105 aborted bracts. The physical and chemical analyzes were performed every 3 days on fruits: soluble solids, titratable acidity, weight loss, length and diameter, pH, firmness, skin color (CIELab and pectin enzyme activity. The statistical design was completely randomized in a 4x5 factorial, with 4 points and 5 periods of harvest analysis and data were evaluated using analysis of variance and regression. For all parameters, fruits harvested at 90 and 105 aborted bracts had unwanted changes in its metabolism when compared to the other treatments, while fruits harvested at 95 and 100 aborted bracts had the best post-harvest characteristics. This method was effective in determining the point of harvest in ‘BRS Princess’ banana fruits, since it allows to obtain fruit quality after storage, and is a simple and objective method.

  15. Compositional and enzymatic changes during Guafa fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, Hind Abdelmonem [Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1999-05-01

    Compositional changes in fruit pulp and peel during ripening of white-and pink-fleshed guava fruit types were investigated. Fruit tissue firmeness decreased progressively, in a similar manner,in both Guava types. The white and pink guavas exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration, with climacteric peak at 7.6 kilogram-force (kg-f) flesh firmness in both types. Total soluble solids (TTS) and total sugars increased in pulp and peel of both guava types with decrease in flesh firmness, more increase in total sugars ,which was determined using calorimetric method, was observed after the climacteric peak. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity increased up to the climacteric peak and decreased afterwards. Total protein increased up to the full-ripe stage and then decreased. Ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening of the two types. The peel showed higher values of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds compared to the pulp. The white-fleshed guavas had higher levels of TTS, total sugars, reducing sugars, titrable acidity and ascorbic acid content compared to the pink-fleshed fruits. Changes in the activities of the cell wall degrading enzymes, pectinesterase (PE), Polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulose were also studied to find out the reason for tissue softening in guava fruit during handling, transportation and storage.

  16. Compositional and enzymatic changes during Guafa fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Hind Abdelmonem

    1999-05-01

    Compositional changes in fruit pulp and peel during ripening of white-and pink-fleshed guava fruit types were investigated. Fruit tissue firmeness decreased progressively, in a similar manner,in both Guava types. The white and pink guavas exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration, with climacteric peak at 7.6 kilogram-force (kg-f) flesh firmness in both types. Total soluble solids (TTS) and total sugars increased in pulp and peel of both guava types with decrease in flesh firmness, more increase in total sugars ,which was determined using calorimetric method, was observed after the climacteric peak. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity increased up to the climacteric peak and decreased afterwards. Total protein increased up to the full-ripe stage and then decreased. Ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening of the two types. The peel showed higher values of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds compared to the pulp. The white-fleshed guavas had higher levels of TTS, total sugars, reducing sugars, titrable acidity and ascorbic acid content compared to the pink-fleshed fruits. Changes in the activities of the cell wall degrading enzymes, pectinesterase (PE), Polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulose were also studied to find out the reason for tissue softening in guava fruit during handling, transportation and storage

  17. Responses of Phospholipase D and Antioxidant System to Mechanical Wounding in Postharvest Banana Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana fruits are susceptible to mechanical damage. The present study was to investigate the responses of phospholipase D (PLD and antioxidant system to mechanical wounding in postharvest banana fruits. During 16 d storage at 25°C and 90% relative humidity, PLD activity in wounded fruits was significantly higher than that in control (without artificial wounding fruits. The higher value of PLD mRNA was found in wounded fruits than in control. PLD mRNA expression reached the highest peak on day 4 in both groups, but it was 2.67 times in wounded fruits compared to control at that time, indicating that PLD gene expression was activated in response to wounding stress. In response to wounding stress, the higher lipoxygenase (LOX activity was observed and malondialdehyde (MDA production was accelerated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX in wounded fruits were significantly higher than those in control. The concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS such as superoxide anion (O2•- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in fruits increased under mechanical wounding. The above results provided a basis for further investigating the mechanism of postharvest banana fruits adapting to environmental stress.

  18. Intermittent warming of 'Tahiti' lime to prevent chilling injury during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluge Ricardo Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of 'Tahiti' limes (Citrus latifolia at low temperature allows the marketing period to be extended. However, the loss of the green skin color and the occurrence of chilling injury (CI prevent this extension. The purpose of this work was to verify the efficiency of intermittent warming (IW in 'Tahiti' lime quality maintenance during cold storage. Fruit were submitted to IW (20ºC for 48 hours every 7 or 14 days or 38ºC for 24 hours every 14 days during cold storage at 5ºC. Fruit were also stored at 5 and 10ºC continuously. The evaluations were carried out after 30 and 60 days of storage (+ 3 days of simulated marketing at 20ºC. CI occurrence on fruit was not verified after 30 days of storage. However, after 60 days of storage 60% of the fruit kept continuously at 5ºC presented CI, while fruit intermittently warmed had 10 to 12.5% CI. Fruit stored at 10ºC did not present CI, but they showed high degreening after 30 days of storage. Fruit warmed at 38ºC for 24 hours every 14 days developed rot, loss of green skin color and vitamin C, high respiratory rates, as well as high levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the juice. Fruit can be stored at 5ºC during 30 days, without risk of CI, while IW can be used to reduce CI after 60 days of storage.

  19. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  20. Boron and calcium sprayed on 'Fuyu' persimmon tree prevent skin cracks, groove and browning of fruit during cold storage Boro e cálcio pulverizado em árvores de caqui "Fuyu" previnem fissuras, estrias e escurecimento do fruto durante o armazenamento refrigerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecir Carlos Ferri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Flesh softening, skin browning and rotting are chief problems during cold storage (CS of 'Fuyu' Persimmon. We studied the effects of boron (B and calcium (Ca sprayed on the trees during three consecutive years, on the development of skin cracks, grooves and browning in persimmon fruit under CS in Farroupilha, RS, Brazil (29°31' south, 51°21' west, about 750 m altitude. A homogeneous orchard area of 0.5 ha was delimitated and three sets of five plants for each treatment were randomly selected. The persimmon trees were sprayed at a 20 day interval, from 15th January until harvest, for three consecutive years, with: T1 water; T2 calcium nitrate at 0.5% (m/v; T3 calcium chloride at 0.5% (m/v; and T4 boron at 0.3% (m/v. The fruit were harvest with orange-reddish colour; 18-20°Brix, pulp firmness of 45 to 60N, and kept under CS at 0±1°C for 45 days. The fruits were evaluated immediately before CS, after six hours at 23±2°C after removal from CS, and after four days at 23±2°C after removal from CS. Equally boron and calcium sprayed on the trees prevented skin cracks, skin grooves and skin browning. Besides, when boron was sprayed on the trees, the mentioned effects were additive in the following year.As principais alterações indesejáveis observadas no período pós-colheita de caquis em armazenamento refrigerado (AR são a perda de firmeza de polpa, e a ocorrência de escurecimento epidérmico e de podridões. Este trabalho teve por objetivo principal estudar as respostas da aplicação de boro (B e cálcio (Ca, em três safras sucessivas, na prevenção da ocorrência de fissuras, estrias e escurecimento epidérmico de caquis "Fuyu". No pomar (Farroupilha-RS-Brasil, 29°31' Sul, 51°21' Oeste, aproximadamente 750m altitude delimitou-se uma área homogênea de 0,5ha., marcando-se, ao acaso, três repetições de cinco plantas para cada tratamento: T1 - controle, caquizeiros não-pulverizados com B e Ca; T2 - pulverizações com Nitrato de

  1. Underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  2. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  3. Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 °C and 20 °C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 °C than at 20 °C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 °C and 20 °C, although at 20 °C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 °C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of different coatings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighani, Hossein; Ghasemnezhad, Mahmood; Bakhshi, Davood

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three different coatings; resin wax (Britex Ti), carnauba wax (Xedasol M14), and chitosan (1 and 2 % w/v) on postharvest quality of pomegranate fruits were investigated. Fruits quality characteristics and bioactive compounds were evaluated during 40, 80 and 120 days storage at 4.5 °C and 3 additional days at 20 °C. The results showed that uncoated fruits showed higher respiration rate, weight loss, L* and b* values of arils, total soluble solids (TSS)/titratable acidity (TA), and pH than coated fruits during storage. Coating treatments could delay declining TSS and TA percent, a* value of arils, as well as bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The coated fruits with commercial resin and carnauba waxes showed significantly lower respiration rate and weight loss than other treatments, however carnauba wax could maintain considerably higher fruits quality and bioactive compounds than other coating treatments. The results suggested that postharvest application of carnauba wax have a potential to extend storage life of pomegranate fruits by reducing respiration rate, water loss and maintaining fruit quality.

  5. Improvement of the Antioxidant Properties and Postharvest Life of Three Exotic Andean Fruits by UV-C Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Andrade-Cuvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Andean fruits naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam., uvilla (Physalis peruviana L., and mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth were subjected to prestorage UV-C treatments (0, 8, or 12.5 kJ m−2 and evaluated weekly to select the most suitable dose for fruit quality maintenance during storage (21 days at 6°C. The highest dose retains quality through lower deterioration index for all three fruits and was selected to further analyze the effects on physicochemical and antioxidant properties during storage. UV-C exposure delayed softening in naranjilla and increased soluble solid content in uvilla. UV-C also improved the maintenance of antioxidant capacity (AC in mortiño and uvilla. Overall, results indicate that short prestorage UV-C exposure may be an effective nonchemical approach to supplement low temperature storage, maintain quality, and extend the postharvest life of Andean naranjilla, uvilla, and mortiño fruit.

  6. Effect of postharvest temperature on the shelf life of gabiroba fruit (Campomanesia pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pablo da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal temperature for storing gabiroba fruit (Campomanesia pubescens without affecting compounds' quality. The fruits were stored at different temperatures (0 ºC, 6 ºC, 12 ºC, and 20 ºC and the effect on the pH, total titratable acidity, soluble solids, total sugars, vitamin C, and antioxidant components such as tannins and total phenolic compounds was evaluated. It was observed an increase in the pH and total titratable acidity during storage at all the temperatures tested. Gabiroba fruits were stored for 9 and 3 days at 12 ºC and 20 ºC, respectively, and under both temperatures they showed a reduction in tannins and an increase in vitamin C content. As gabirobas armazenadas a 0º and 6 ºC alcançaram maior tempo de armazenamento After 12 days of storage, the fruits stored at 6 ºC contained higher amounts of water soluble solids, sugars, and antioxidants. In general, for long term storage, it is suggested to store gabiroba fruits at 6 ºC. On the other hand, for short term storage, the temperature of 12 ºC would be the better to keep high levels of vitamin C and phenolic compounds.

  7. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  8. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references

  9. Effect of CaCl2 and controlled atmosphere storage on phytochemical attributes of Guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sameem JAVED

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Guava is very delicate and alluring fruit which is being ignored since very long time despite of highly nutritious fruit and rich source of Vitamin C. It contains Vitamin C 2-3 times more than orange. Naturally the guava fruit is enriched with vitamin C and polyphenoles. Guavas fruits after harvesting were dunked in solutions of CaCl2 (1, 2 and 3% at room temperature for 5 minutes and stored for 24 days in 5% CO2 level at temperature of 10±1°C, while the humidity level of storage chamber were 80%. The stored fruits were analyzed at 6 days of interval for sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose g/100g total phenolic contents (mgGAE/100g, antioxidant activity (µmolTE/g, and organic acids (citric, tartaric, ascorbic, and malic acids mg/100 g. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of guava fruits were declined during progression in storage but in fewer amounts as compared to room storage condition. Citric acid and ascorbic acid contents were reduced with the progression in storage, however tartaric and malic acid values were amplified at end of storage but the rate of changes were slower. The pretreatments in combination with modified atmosphere storage escalate the shelf life of guava and slow down nutritional degradation process.

  10. Dry Fruits and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sohaib A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fruits are some of the essential foods a human body requires staying healthy. They are made after extracting water from them. These fruits are full of essential nutrients including minerals, vitamins, enzymes, fibers and protect the body from a number of different adversities. These fruits are also a source of healthy nutrition among diabetic people who are very concerned about what to eat and what not to eat. But besides their countless benefits, these dry fruits can cause a number of harms to the body and therefore, must be used in a balanced way. This article is based on healthy and unhealthy effects of dry fruits and their use in diabetes mellitus.

  11. Mandarin fruit quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Origanum dictamnus Oil Vapour Suppresses the Development of Grey Mould in Eggplant Fruit In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loulakakis, Kostas; Magan, Naresh; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea) development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L.) oil (DIT) and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L) and times of exposure (up to 120 h) examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure) and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value) increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres. PMID:25254209

  13. Origanum dictamnus Oil Vapour Suppresses the Development of Grey Mould in Eggplant Fruit In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriana Stavropoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L. oil (DIT and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L and times of exposure (up to 120 h examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on bitter pit of apple fruits (Malus Domestica Borkh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2000-12-01

    Tow varieties of apple fruits Golden and Starking were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kGy and with 0, 1.0, 1.5 kGy respectively. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 centigrade and relative humidity of 80 to 90%. Fruit quality (firmness, skin thickness and bitter pit) and juice characteristics (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, organic acids, Ph, and viscosity), were determined during storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months). The used doses of gamma irradiation significantly decreased the percentage and intensity of bitter pit. Irradiated fruits were softer immediately after irradiation and through storage periods, there were no differences in firmness between irradiated and unirradiated fruits. Gamma irradiation increased the thickness of skin in Golden fruits and decreased it in Starking. Juice production from both varieties immediately after irradiation was not affected by gamma irradiation. However the juice produced from irradiated fruits had higher organic acids (citric and malic acids), viscosity and Ph values than the control. (author)

  15. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ita, A; Flores, G; Franco, F

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different

  16. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  17. Rheological properties of strawberry fruit coating with methylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nadim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The maintenance of the quality of fresh products is still a major challenge for the consumers. The most important quality attributes contributing to the marketability of fresh fruit include appearance, color, texture, flavor, nutritional value and microbial safety. Strawberry fruits should be firm but not crunchy. Decreased quality during postharvest handling is most often associated with water loss and decay. The postharvest life of strawberries can be extended by coating technique combined with refrigeration. Application of edible coatings is a conventional method to increase shelf life and maintain fruit quality. Edible coatings can provide an alternative to enlarge fresh fruits’ postharvest life. In this study, the effects of application of methyl cellulose edible coatings and storage time on some mechanical properties, including: the yield stress, yield strain, energy of rupture and modulus of elasticity and also, the viscoelastic behavior of the strawberry fruit was investigated. Materials and Methods: MC (Methocel, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI coating was prepared by solubilizing MC powder (3.0 g per 100 mL in a water–ethyl alcohol mixture (2:1 at 75ºC under the high speedmixer (900 rpm for 15 min. Coatings were used directly on the fruit surface. The physical and mechanical characteristics of fruits were analyzed on 2, 5, 8 and 11 days of storage. The puncture test and relaxation test were done using a texture analyzer (Zwick/Roell Model BT1_FR0.5TH.D14, Zwick GmbH Co., Ulm, Germany; using Xforce HP model of loadcell with capacity of 500 N, by 2 mv/v characteristic. General Maxwell model is widely used to analyze experimental results of the stress tests applied for relaxation. The obtained model coefficients were determined and evaluated from relaxation stress curves. Residues were determined using the sequential model. Usually, multicomponent models can properly describe the actual behavior of agricultural

  18. Carbon utilization by fruit limits shoot growth in alternate-bearing citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Iglesias, Domingo J; Reig, Carmina; Mesejo, Carlos; Agustí, Manuel; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2015-03-15

    Fruit load in alternate-bearing citrus trees is reported to alter shoot number and growth during spring, summer, and autumn flushes, and the source-sink balance, which affects the storage and mobilization of reserve nutrients. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of shoot growth inhibition resulting from the presence of fruits in 'Moncada' mandarin trees loaded with fruit (ON) or with very light fruit load (OFF), and to identify the role of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds in the competition between fruits and shoots. Growth of reproductive and vegetative organs was measured on a monthly basis. (13)C- and (15)N-labeled compounds were supplied to trace the allocation of reserve nutrients and subsequent translocation from source to sink. At the end of the year, OFF trees produced more abundant flushes (2.4- and 4.9-fold higher in number and biomass, respectively) than ON trees. Fruits from ON trees accumulated higher C amounts at the expense of developing flushes, whereas OFF trees exhibited the opposite pattern. An inverse relationship was identified between the amount of C utilized by fruits and vegetative flush growth. (13)C-labeling revealed an important role for mature leaves of fruit-bearing branches in supporting shoot/fruit growth, and the elevated sink strength of growing fruits on shoots. N availability for vegetative shoots was not affected by the presence or absence of fruits, which accumulated important amounts of (15)N. In conclusion, our results show that shoot growth is resource-limited as a consequence of fruit development, and vegetative-growth inhibition is caused by photoassimilate limitation. The competence for N is not a decisive factor in limiting vegetative growth under the experimental conditions of this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  20. Iodine uptake and distribution in horticultural and fruit tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caffagni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in edible portion of two fruit trees: plum and nectarine, and two horticultural crops: tomato and potato. Two type of iodine treatments (soil and foliar spray application, and, for fresh market tomato, two production systems (open field and greenhouse hydroponic culture were tested. The distribution of iodine in potato stem and leaves, and in plum tree fruits, leaves, and branches was investigated. Iodine content of potato tubers after postharvest storage and processing (cooking, and iodine content of nectarine fruits after postharvest storage and processing (peeling were also determined. Differences in iodine accumulation were observed among the four crops, between applications, and between production systems. In open field, the maximum iodine content ranged from 9.5 and 14.3 μg 100 g−1 for plum and nectarine fruit, to 89.4 and 144.0 μg 100 g−1 for potato tuber and tomato fruit, respectively. These results showed that nectarine and plum tree accumulated significantly lower amounts of iodine in their edible tissues, in comparison with potato and tomato. The experiments also indicated hydroponic culture as the most efficient system for iodine uptake in tomato, since its fresh fruits accumulated up to 2423 μg 100 g−1 of iodine. Iodine was stored mainly in the leaves, in all species investigated. Only a small portion of iodine was moved to plum tree branches and fruits, and to potato stems and tubers. No differences in iodine content after fruit peeling was observed. A significant increase in iodine content of potato was observed after baking, whereas a significant decrease was

  1. Transportation and storage studies on irradiated Alphonso mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Dharkar, S.D.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1972-01-01

    Control as well as skin coated (6% ''Myvacet'') and/or irradiated (25 to 35 krad) mangoes were packed in baskets in dry paddy straw and shipped by rail. After a storage at a temperature of 25 to 32 0 C for a period of 8 days, the baskets were shipped back. After receipt in the laboratory the fruits were kept under observation for 5 more days and then scored for ripening and marketability as assessed by appearance, skin gloss and typical flavour. 100 per cent of fruits skin-coated and irradiated were marketable at the end of the experiment. None of the unirradiated control fruits were saleable by this time, while 66%, of the irradiated fruits were in acceptable condition. In further experiments one dozen mangoes each from control, irradiated and skin-coated and irradiated groups were wrapped individually in tissue paper and packed tightly in a plyweed box. This consignment was air-lifted from Bombay to Budapest, a distance of about 5600 kilometers. The time interval between irradiation and their receipt in Hungary was 4 days. The mangoes were assessed for their storage characteristics by various parameters that included physiological loss in weight, puncture resistance of the skin, pulp texture, carotenoids, acidity and organoleptic attributes, at various periods during storage. It was found that ripening and senescence are strikingly delayed in mangoes by skin-coating and radiation treatment. The treated mangoes retained their skin-resistance while the disappearance of chlorophyl and formation of carotenoids were substantially delayed. Weight loss in storage was lower and reduction of acidity and formation of sugars in the fruit flesh took place later. Organoleptically, the fruits subjected to the combination treatment were good. These studies point to the feasibility of the combination treatment in prolonging the shelf life of fruits significantly to enable their transport to distant countries. (F.G.)

  2. The transformation and translocation of 14C-labelled glucose in the course of granulation development of Batangas mandarin fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangyang

    1996-01-01

    In the middle of storage period for Batangas mandarin fruits, the fruits segment was injected with 14 C-labelled glucose. Radioisotope was found in the rind and non-injected segments of the granulated fruits or normal fruits. The results showed that the radioactivity in the rind of slight-granulated fruits was significantly lower than that in normal fruits. The diffusion of 14 C-labelled glucose to the rind or to the segments of slightly granulated fruits was significantly higher than that of normals. These results indicated that granulation was not caused by the shift of nutritive matter from the juice sac to the rind but likely by its senescence. In the course of granulation development, the radioactivity of insoluble carbohydrate of the juice sac in severely granulated fruits was 24.65% of the total sac radioactivity. However, it was only 6.41% in normal fruits. Although the radioactivity in the rind of granulated fruits was lower than that in normal fruits, it increased faster. The respiratory rate of medium granulated fruit was 17.18 CO 2 ml/kg·h and that of severely granulated fruit was 23.64 CO 2 mol/kg·h. Both were significantly higher than that of normal fruits (11.03 CO 2 ml/kg·h). It was suggested that the sharp loss of soluble nutritive matter in the juice sac of granulated fruits might result from their transformation into insoluble matter, translocation to the rind and respiration consumption

  3. Medicinal Fruits in Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to man. There are many references to fruits in ancient literature. According to Quran, the fruits like grape, date, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenly fruits of God.  Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food of man. They contain substantial quantities of essential nutrients in a rational proportion. Persons subsisting on this natural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, fresh and dry fruits are thus not only a good food but also a good medicine. Holy Quran is one of the reference books describing the importance of plants used for different ailments in various verses. There are several verses in Quran talking about the fruits in Paradise, including; date, olive, pomegranate, grape, banana and fig. What has been mentioned in the Quran is what scientists have achieved over the time, since the Quran is governed by logic. Although we do not know the reasons for many things in the Quran, we consider it as the foundation.

  4. Contribution of polyamines metabolism and GABA shunt to chilling tolerance induced by nitric oxide in cold-stored banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-04-15

    Effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on polyamines (PAs) catabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, proline accumulation and chilling injury of banana fruit under cold storage was investigated. Banana fruit treated with NO sustained lower chilling injury index than the control. Notably elevated nitric oxide synthetase activity and endogenous NO level were observed in NO-treated banana fruit. PAs contents in treated fruit were significantly higher than control fruit, due to the elevated activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase. NO treatment increased the activities of diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase and glutamate decarboxylase, while reduced GABA transaminase activity to lower levels compared with control fruit, which resulted the accumulation of GABA. Besides, NO treatment upregulated proline content and significantly enhanced the ornithine aminotransferase activity. These results indicated that the chilling tolerance induced by NO treatment might be ascribed to the enhanced catabolism of PAs, GABA and proline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of fruit colour in avian fruit selection: an objective approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Veronika

    2002-01-01

    To explain the prevalence of red and black fruits in fruit colour patterns, the following hypotheses were addressed, using reflectance spectra of fruits as colour assessment: 1. Birds prefer red and black fruits, or these hues are cues for food recognition in migrants or fledglings. 2. Fruit colours correlate with chemical compounds. 3. Fruit colours serve as advertisement for ripe fruits. Reflectance spectra are the most objective colour assessment currently possible. Birds show no colour pr...

  6. Correlações entre características físico-químicas e sensoriais em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa durante o armazenamento Correlation between physico-chemical and sensory characteristcs of yellow passin fruit juice over storaging time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2003-12-01

    correlations were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa submitted to thermal processing treatment, during 120 days of storage under two different temperatures. The color characteristics, Hunter 'L', 'a'and 'b'values, reducing sugars and non reducing sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose, volatile compounds (ethyl butyrate, hexyl butyrate, ethyl caproate and hexyl caproate and furfural were correlated with sensory characteristics (juice homogeneity of color, orange color, characteristic aroma, floral aroma, sweet aroma, characteristic flavor, off flavor, oxidized flavor, cooked flavor, sweet taste and bitter taste by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The color parameters and sensory characteristic correlations such as juice homogeneity of color and orange color, and a-value was proportional, instead ofL and b-values. Important correlations were observed between volatile compounds and characteristics flavor and aroma, sweet and floral aroma; furfural and oxidized, cooked and off flavor. The sucrose levels were statistically correlationated with sweet and floral aroma, characteristic flavor and sweet taste, while the reducing sugars were correlated with off flavor and bitter taste. From the results it can be concluded that the instrumental methods can be indicated, such as the browning color where colorimetric parameters like a-value is the best one.

  7. Mushroom's spore size and time of fruiting are strongly related: is moisture important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Halvorsen, Rune; Boddy, Lynne; Høiland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-04-23

    Most basidiomycete fungi produce annual short-lived sexual fruit bodies from which billions of microscopic spores are spread into the air during a short time period. However, little is known about the selective forces that have resulted in some species fruiting early and others later in the fruiting season. This study of relationships between morphological and ecological characteristics, climate factors and time of fruiting are based upon thorough statistical analyses of 66 520 mapped records from Norway, representing 271 species of autumnal fruiting mushroom species. We found a strong relationship between spore size and time of fruiting; on average, a doubling of spore size (volume) corresponded to 3 days earlier fruiting. Small-spored species dominate in the oceanic parts of Norway, whereas large-spored species are typical of more continental parts. In separate analyses, significant relationships were observed between spore size and climate factors. We hypothesize that these relationships are owing to water balance optimization, driven by water storage in spores as a critical factor for successful germination of primary mycelia in the drier micro-environments found earlier in the fruiting season and/or in continental climates.

  8. Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.

  9. Firmness at Harvest Impacts Postharvest Fruit Softening and Internal Browning Development in Mechanically Damaged and Non-damaged Highbush Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Claudia; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel; González, Guillermina; Lobos, Gustavo A

    2017-01-01

    Fresh blueberries are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which limits postharvest life and firmness. Softening and susceptibility of cultivars "Duke" and "Brigitta" to developing internal browning (IB) after mechanical impact and subsequent storage was evaluated during a 2-year study (2011/2012, 2012/2013). On each season fruit were carefully hand-picked, segregated into soft (<1.60 N), medium (1.61-1.80 N), and firm (1.81-2.00 N) categories, and then either were dropped (32 cm) onto a hard plastic surface or remained non-dropped. All fruit were kept under refrigerated storage (0°C and 85-88% relative humidity) to assess firmness loss and IB after 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. In general, regardless of cultivar or season, high variability in fruit firmness was observed within each commercial harvest, and significant differences in IB and softening rates were found. "Duke" exhibited high softening rates, as well as high and significant r 2 between firmness and IB, but little differences for dropped vs. non-dropped fruit. "Brigitta," having lesser firmness rates, exhibited almost no relationships between firmness and IB (especially for non-dropped fruit), but marked differences between dropping treatments. Firmness loss and IB development were related to firmness at harvest, soft and firm fruit being the most and least damaged, respectively. Soft fruit were characterized by greater IB development during storage along with high soluble solids/acid ratio, which could be used together with firmness to estimate harvest date and storage potential of fruit. Results of this work suggest that the differences in fruit quality traits at harvest could be related to the time that fruit stay on the plant after turning blue, soft fruit being more advanced in maturity. Finally, the observed differences between segregated categories reinforce the importance of analyzing fruit condition for each sorted group separately.

  10. Mycoflora and production of wine from fruits of soursop (Annona Muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael N Okigbo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Raphael N Okigbo1, Omokaro Obire21Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: An investigation was conducted on the mycoflora associated with the different parts of fresh and rotten fruits of soursop (Annona muricata L. and the potential of using both indigenous yeast flora and commercial yeast extract for wine production. Isolation of fungi and pathogenicity test were carried out with Sabouraud dextrose agar. Mycoflora were more in the rotten fruits than in the fresh fruits. Botryodiplodia theobromae was isolated only from the rotten fruits (skin while Trichoderma viride was isolated only from the fresh fruits. Penicillium sp., was the most dominant in all the fruit part of fresh soursop fruit with Rhizopus stolonifer having the highest percentage occurrence (36.39% in the rotten fruit. Most of the isolated fungi indicated occurrence of such common airborne fungi on soursop fruits and the potential to induce rot in fresh healthy fruits of soursop in storage. Soursop juice was fermented for 10 days and wine was obtained. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the alcoholic content of the wines obtained from the indigenous and commercial yeasts. The wine obtained from the pasteurized, ameliorated soursop juice inoculated with propagated indigenous yeast yielded the highest alcoholic content. Based on the level of the nutritional composition of soursop juice, the ability to support yeast growth, the high alcoholic content and palatability of the wine, the Annona muricata is good source for wine production and single-cell protein.Keywords: fermentation, fruit yeast, fungi, incidence, rot

  11. Effect of Chitosan Coating with Cinnamon Oil on the Quality and Physiological Attributes of China Jujube Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yage; Lin, Hongbin; Cao, Dong; Xu, Qinglian; Han, Wenfeng; Wang, Ranran; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the physiological attributes and preservation quality of China jujube fruits during storage at 4°C for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that weight loss and decay of jujube fruits were significantly reduced by chitosan-oil coating during the period of 60-day storage, which also exhibited a quite beneficial effect on maintaining the sensory quality for jujube fruits. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and titratable acid decreased to 3.08 mg·g−1 and 0.342% for the fruits treated by chitosan-oil coating (1.0% + 0.10%), respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were 13.40 U·g−1, 14.53 U·g−1, and 63.6 U·g−1 at the end of storage, respectively. The contents of total soluble phenolics and MDA were 34.51 mg·g−1 and 19.43 μmol·g−1 for the combined coating treated samples and control fruits, respectively. These results suggested that the chitosan-oil coating might be recognized as one efficiency technology on the preservation quality of jujube fruits during the storage time. PMID:26495315

  12. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  13. Controlled atmosphere pO2 alters ripening dynamics of 1-MCP treated ‘d’Anjou’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripening and development of physiological disorders and decay were assessed in ‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit following 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and cold storage in air or controlled atmosphere (CA). Fruit were exposed after harvest to 0 or 12.6 µmol•L-1 1-MCP and then stored at 0.5 oC in air o...

  14. TRANSCRIPTOME DYNAMICS IN MANGO FRUIT PEEL REVEALS MECHANISMS OF CHILLING STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu Sivankalyani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C and suboptimal (5°C cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during chilling injury by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit.

  15. Transcriptome Dynamics in Mango Fruit Peel Reveals Mechanisms of Chilling Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Sela, Noa; Feygenberg, Oleg; Zemach, Hanita; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological, and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C) and suboptimal (5°C) cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases, and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during CI by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit. PMID:27812364

  16. Climate control of a bulk storage room for foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van S.; Zwart, H.; Keesman, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A storage room contains a bulk of agricultural products, such as potatoes, onions, fruits, etcetera. The products produce heat due to respiration, see for example [1, 2]. A ventilator blows cooled air around to keep the products at a steady temperature and prevent spoilage. The aim is to design a

  17. Effect of ionizing radiation on the respiration intensity of pears during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Sass, P.

    1993-01-01

    According to the results of a 3-year series of experiments on ionizing radiation ( 60 Co and X-rays) a relationship exists between the radiation doses chosen (40, 60, 100, 500, 1000, 1500 Gy) and changes in the quality of the fruits varieties.Radiation was generally found to have a stimulatory effect on the ripening processes. This is particularly so for fruits at a stage of ripening less suitable so for storage. The acceleration of ripening takes place for a short time (5-7 days) immediately after irradiation, as proved by respiration and enzyme activity tests. When the physiological conditions during storage are taken into consideration, it can be established that on removal from storage the rate of respiration of treated fruits was lower both in controlled and in constant atmosphere, which suggests that irradiated fruits can be stored for a longer time. (author). 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Effect of irradiation and storage temperature on quality parameters of Kesar mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, M.K.; Patel, N.L.; Patel, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiation and storage temperatures on quality parameters in Kesar mango fruits. The fruits were exposed to gamma radiation of different doses i.e. 0.00, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.60 kGy) from 60 Co source and stored at various storage environment viz., ambient temperature 27 ± 2℃ and RH 60-70 %; temperature 9℃ and RH 90 %; 12℃ and RH 90 % and control atmospheric (CA) storage at 12℃, O 2 2 %, CO 2 3 % and RH 90 %. The data indicated that highest total soluble solids, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid contend and minimum acidity were noted in 0.40 kGy gamma rays irradiated fruits stored at 12℃ compared to unirradiated fruits stored at ambient condition at ripening stage. (author)

  19. SELECTED INDIGENOUS WILD FRUITS INFLUENCE ON FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... afternoon routine feeding. Data were collected on fruit choice to determine fruits preference; time spent to remove or break the fruits pericarp; and the position of the animal while ... of others irrespective of their nutritional quality. Time spent to remove or ... may exert selection pressures on fruit characteristics ...

  20. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-03

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  1. A general review on the effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on vitamin C in fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuntang; Guo Dongquan; Yang Zhongqiang; Zhang Jianwei; Yang Baoan; Wang Yulian

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin C is a nutrient component in fruits and vegetables, it's also an important bioactive substance in human body, and there are also many factors that affect the contents of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. There papers reported that 60 Co γ-rays irradiation has effects on vitamin C in fruits and vegetables, but the effect degree has some differences. Some reports says the contents of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables could be significantly reduced by irradiation, while some literatures reported that irradiation at low doses had no significant effect. The content of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables could be influenced by various factors, such as ascorbic oxidative enzyme, chemical composition, irradiation dose, irradiation environment, physiological metabolism of fruits and vegetables, etc. Irradiation treatment is an important preservation technique of fruits and vegetables. Though there were some effects of irradiation on vitamin C of fruits and vegetables, it would not influence the applications of irradiation technology in the fruit and vegetable storage, because the effects of irradiation on vitamin C could be avoided or minimized through appropriate technical treatment. This paper tries systematically analyses and summarizes the results of related investigation and provides a helpful reference in scientific applications of irradiation technology on fruits and vegetables preservation. (authors)

  2. Anoxia Treatment for Delaying Skin Browning, Inhibiting Disease Development and Maintaining the Quality of Litchi Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Litchi fruit has a very short shelf life after harvest, so marketers and consumers alike desire longer periods of storage, transportation and distribution. To extend shelf life, anoxia treatments were used for the fruit. Litchi fruit were exposed to pure N2 for 0, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h. They were then kept individually in closed but vented containers for 6 days in the dark at 20 °C and 95–100 % relative humidity. Exposure of litchi fruit to N2 for 3 or 6 h markedly delayed skin browning, reduced rot development and maintained higher concentrations of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid after 6 days of storage. Anoxia treatment for 24 h reduced browning index, but it accelerated disease development, compared to the control. Thus, a pre-storage pure N2 treatment for 3 or 6 h can be an effective means of reducing rotting while maintaining the physical quality of the fruit.

  3. Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Miao

    Full Text Available Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.

  4. Identification of Genes Encoding Granule-Bound Starch Synthase Involved in Amylose Metabolism in Banana Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixin; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage. PMID:24505384

  5. Potassium permanganate effects on the quality and post-harvest conservation of sapodilla (Manilkara zapota (L. P.Royen fruits under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Edelky de Souza Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota (L. P. Royen is a climacteric fruit, very perishable, with high metabolic activity, rapid ripening and reduced storage time at room temperature, thus making difficult its commercialization. However, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 on the quality and post-harvest conservation of sapodilla fruit under modified atmosphere at room temperature. The sapodilla fruits were harvested when they reached physiological maturity and then accommodated in Styrofoam trays with PVC film coating. Within each package, KMnO4 were placed at different concentrations (0, 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 g of KMnO4 per kg of fruit, respectively, impregnated in vermiculite. In addition, were kept in storage at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C and 54 ± 5% RU for fifteen days, with fruit quality analysis every five days. The potassium permanganate doses influenced the sapodilla fruit quality, wherein the concentration of 0.375 g of KMnO4 per kg of fruit was the most efficient, retarding the loss of firmness and vitamin C degradation of sapodilla fruits throughout five days storage under modified atmosphere at room temperature. The sapodilla fruit postharvest life stored under modified atmosphere with potassium permanganate 25 ± 1 °C and 54 ± 5% RU, is ten days.

  6. Genetic and biochemical analysis reveals linked QTLs determining natural variation for fruit post-harvest water loss in pepper (Capsicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovsky-Sarid, Sigal; Borovsky, Yelena; Faigenboim, Adi; Parsons, Eugene P; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A; Paran, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    Molecular markers linked to QTLs controlling post-harvest fruit water loss in pepper may be utilized to accelerate breeding for improved shelf life and inhibit over-ripening before harvest. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop world-wide. However, marketing is limited by the relatively short shelf life of the fruit due to water loss and decay that occur during prolonged storage. Towards breeding pepper with reduced fruit post-harvest water loss (PWL), we studied the genetic, physiological and biochemical basis for natural variation of PWL. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fruit PWL in multiple generations of an interspecific cross of pepper, which resulted in the identification of two linked QTLs on chromosome 10 that control the trait. We further developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) for characterization of the QTL effects. Transcriptome analysis of the NILs allowed the identification of candidate genes associated with fruit PWL-associated traits such as cuticle biosynthesis, cell wall metabolism and fruit ripening. Significant differences in PWL between the NILs in the immature fruit stage, differentially expressed cuticle-associated genes and differences in the content of specific chemical constituents of the fruit cuticle, indicated a likely influence of cuticle composition on the trait. Reduced PWL in the NILs was associated with delayed over-ripening before harvest, low total soluble solids before storage, and reduced fruit softening after storage. Our study enabled a better understanding of the genetic and biological processes controlling natural variation in fruit PWL in pepper. Furthermore, the genetic materials and molecular markers developed in this study may be utilized to breed peppers with improved shelf life and inhibited over-ripening before harvest.

  7. Quality Maintenance and Storability Extension of Cornelian Cherry Fruit by Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mohebbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of packaging with two types of polymeric films (Low density polyethylene and polypropylene and three gas compositions (Air, 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ and 20% CO₂ + 5% O₂ on quantitative and qualitative attributes and storage life of cornelian cherry fruits were evaluated. Also some fruits in containers without cap were considered as control. After treatment, the fruits were stored at 1°C and 90-95% Relative Humidity for 35 days. Samples were taken initially and at 7-day intervals during storage, and to simulate market conditions they were placed at room temperature for 24 hr, and then qualitative and quantitative parameters such as weight loss, surface color, anthocyanin index, visual quality, decay, pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solid and vitamin C were measured. The results showed that gas combination of 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ with polyethylene packaging and air in polypropylene packaging had a significant effect on maintaining pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solid compared with control fruits. Also, the fruits packed with polyethylene packaging in 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ showed the best effect on retaining of vitamin C and anthocyanin index. In conclusion, the application of MAP regardless of gas combination was found to be more effective in maintaining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics compared with fruits without packaging.

  8. Investigation of repressive and enhancive effects of fruit extracts on the activity of glucose-6-phophatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Naz, Sumaira

    2016-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase is a key enzyme of glucose metabolic pathways. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to glycogen storage disease. This enzyme also plays a negative role in diabetes mellitus disorder in which the catalytic activity of this enzyme increases. Thus there is need for activators to enhance the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase in glycogen storage disease of type 1b while in diabetes mellitus repressors are needed to reduce its activity. Crude extracts of apricot, fig, mulberry and apple fruits were investigated for their repressive/enhancive effects on glucose-6-phosphatase in vivo. Albino mice were used as experimental animal. All the selected extracts showed depressive effects on glucose-6-phosphatase, which shows that all these extracts can be used as antidiabetic supplement of food. The inhibitory pattern was competitive one, which was evident from the effect of increasing dose from 1g/Kg body weight to 3g/Kg body weight for all the selected fruit extracts. However fig and apple fruit extracts showed high repressive effects for high doses as compared to apricot and mulberry fruit extracts. None of these selected fruit extracts showed enhancive effect on glucose-6-phosphatase activity. All these fruits or their extracts can be used as antidiabetic dietary supplement for diabetes mellitus.

  9. Effect of tannic acid on iron absorption in straw-colored fruit bats(Eidolon helvum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive absorption and subsequent storage of dietary iron has been found in a variety of captively held birds and mammals, including fruit bats. It is thought that feeding a diet that is low in iron can prevent the onset of this disease; however, manufacturing a diet with commonly available foodst...

  10. Effect of gamma radiation and some growth regulators on ripening and senescence in mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Kady, S.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken during the seasons of 1979 and 1980 to study the effect of gamma irradiation, some growth regulators, benlate and 'vaporgard' on ripening and senescence of 'Hindi Be - Sinnara' mango fruits during storage under room conditions and also to determine the optimum treatment for maximum extension in shelf - life

  11. Fruit quality attributes of low chilling requirement ‘Snowchaser’ blueberry cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria Jimenes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil there are still few studies on the post-harvest quality of low-chill blueberry cultivars, which have been recently introduced in the country. ‘Snowchaser’ blueberries were evaluated during a six-day storage period regarding fruit physical and chemical properties, and its antioxidant capacity. During fruit storage there was an increased weight loss and maintenance of some skin color properties such as luminosity (L* and b*, whereas the values of parameter a* decreased and chroma (C values increased. The levels of anthocyanins and flavonoids in the pulp increased, as well as the antioxidant activity. Maximum fruit shelf life at room temperature was six days without reduction on the antioxidant activity along the period, which is beneficial to consumers’ health.

  12. Biochemical response of skin-coated citrus fruits irradiated for preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    Orange fruits (citrus Sinensis) Kind Egyptian Balady variety, were irradiated for 100, 200 and 400 Krad γ-ray doses in combination with sodium orthophenylphenate, 0.0025% incorporated in wax coatings as preirradiation treatment. The data revealed the utility of combined treatment to control postharvest decay in citrus fruits. 100 Krad extend shelflife of skin-coated fruits by 15 weeks without significant losses in Vitamin C, reducing sugars, or free amino acids and without storage disorders. Unirradiated non skin-coated and unirradiated skin-coated had a shelf-life of 7, and 10 weeks, respectively, under the same experimental storage conditions (14-20 C and R.H. 65-75%)

  13. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Postharvest Quality of Mango cvs. Sindhri and Sufaid Chaunsa During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Hafeez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP technology is gaining popularity worldwide for its potential of extending shelf life of fresh produce with better fruit quality. Effect of MAP (using Xtend® bags, was investigated on postharvest storage life and quality of mango cvs Sindhri and Sufaid Chaunsa stored at 11°C with 80-85% RH for 4 and 5 weeks respectively, in comparison with un-bagged (control fruit. Uniform physiological mature fruit of Sindhri and Sufaid Chaunsa were harvested from a commercial mango orchard along with 4-5 cm long pedicel and were de-sapped in 0.5% lime solution (to avoid sap burn injury. Later on fruit were given cold water fungicidal dip (Sportak @ 0.5ml/L, Active Ingredient: Prochloraz followed by hot water treatment (52°C; 5 min. After shade drying and pre-cooling (11°C; 10-12 hours, fruit were packed according to the treatment combination and stored at 11°C. Fruit of both varieties were removed after 2, 3 and 4 weeks of storage followed by ripening at 24±2°C with an additional removal after 5 weeks for Sufaid Chaunsa only. Fruit quality was evaluated for various bio-chemical, organoleptic and physical parameters at two stages of ripening (at removal day and at final ripening day. Fruit of both varieties stored in MAP exhibited better firmness and retained green colour as compared to un-bagged fruit. Quality of fruit subjected to postharvest fungicidal application and hot water treatments and stored under MAP at 11°C showed better peel colour development and less disease development. Moreover, storage durations and post storage ripening stages significantly affected fruit peel colour, textural softness and disease development. Further, cv. Sindhri showed better storage potential with lower disease incidence as compared to cv. Sufaid Chaunsa which warrants further studies on disease control aspects.

  14. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  15. The Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Vapour on Some Characteristics of Fruit Ripening, Carotenoids and Tomatine Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato ripening in normal red-fruited cultivar (Fiorin was delayed by treatment with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me vapour. A visual scoring system for describing tomato ripening was used. Surface of fruits exposed to JA-Me vapour, increased in yellow and decreased in red as determined by HunterLab colour meter. JA-Me significantly altered the firmness of fruits after 21 days storage. Vapour of JA-Me enhanced the level of β-carotene in outer part (peel with 3 mm pericarp tissue of fruit, while it had no effect in peeled fruit pericarp. JA-Me treatment decreased the level of lycopene in outer part and pericarp tissue, however, in outer part lycopene content decreased at a higher rate than in pericarp. Amount of tomatine in fruits treated with JA-Me had enhanced four-fold in outer part and by 62% in peeled fruit pericarp as compared with the control.

  16. Processing of mixed fruit juice from mango, orange and pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeda Begam

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to prepare mixed fruit juice by using mango pulp, pineapple and orange juices and the quality in terms of nutritional value, keeping quality, shelf life and consumers’ acceptability were investigated. Chemical analysis showed that TSS, acidity were increased slightly whereas vitamin C and pH were decreased gradually during the storage periods. Storage studies were carried out up to one month with an interval of one week and the result showed that all the samples were in good condition after one month, though little bit of faded color was found at the end of storage periods. Sample with 35% mango juice, 40% orange juice and 25% pineapple secured the highest score on sensory evaluation and showed the best consumer acceptance. This research reveals that perishable fruits can be converted to attractive mixed juice and thus increase the shelf-life, which increase value of the product. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 440-445

  17. Effect of safe environmental pre and post harvest treatments and irradiation on handling of some fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawito, M A.A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2005 and 2006 seasons on{sup M}ontakhab El-Kanater{sup g}uavas and{sup H}achiya{sup p}ersimmons.two different experiments were studied, the first one for pre harvest and second post harvest. Regarding pre harvest experiment,hand or chemical flower thinning by urea or ethrel and date of fruit picking (maturity) were evaluated on both guavas and persimmons.All flower thinning treatments increased fruit set,total yield,average fruit weight and decreased fruit abscission.However,a great effect on fruit quality and chemical compositions were also found with flower thinning treatments. Chemical flower thinning was more effective than hand thinning in improving yield and quality in {sup M}ontakhab El-Kanater{sup g}uavas and {sup H}achiya{sup p}ersimmons. However,early maturation(120 and 150 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced poor fruit quality.Whereas, medium maturity(130 and 180 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruit with high quality.However,late picking(140 and 210 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruits with less marketability. On the other side, post harvest treatments including irradiation of fruits with or without pre-cooling process at 0.2,0.4,and 0.8 K.Gy for guavas and 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 K.Gy for persimmons. Also,hot water at 45 degree C, fungicide at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L.and ethanol vapor at 25 and 50% were evaluated on both fruits. The obtained data were evaluated on discarded fruits %, weight loss %, fruit firmness,fruit marketability, total soluble solids,acidity,L-ascorbic acid (guava), tannins (persimmon), total sugars and fruit respiration. All supplementary refrigeration treatments improved fruit quality during cold storage but ethanol vapor either 25 or 50 % were more effective than other treatments.

  18. The effects of pre-harvest napthalene acetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments on storage performance of ‘ Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar grown in Erzincan conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan OZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of pre-harvest aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, 150, 225 ve 300 mg/L and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 20 mg/L treatments in different doses on storage performance of ‘Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. in 2012. The changes on some fruit quality parameters were measured at 2±1 oC temperature and with 90±5 % relative humidity at 45 days interval during storage. The lowest weight loss was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. In the all analysis date, the highest L* value was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits, and the lowest hue angle value was reported from the fruits of control treatment. The flesh firmness was determined that the best kept in the 225 and 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. The flesh firmness significantly reduced with NAA treatment at the end of storage. The highest soluble solids concentration (SSC was obtain from control fruit during the storage, whereas the lowest SSC was observed in fruit treated with 300 mg/L AVG. In the all analysis date, the highest titratable acidity was obtained in fruits treated with 225 and 300 mg/L AVG. The starch degradation was delayed with AVG treatments.

  19. A bulk segregant gene expression analysis of a peach population reveals components of the underlying mechanism of the fruit cold response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Clara; Martí, Cristina; Forment, Javier; Crisosto, Carlos H; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Granell, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Peach fruits subjected for long periods of cold storage are primed to develop chilling injury once fruits are shelf ripened at room temperature. Very little is known about the molecular changes occurring in fruits during cold exposure. To get some insight into this process a transcript profiling analyses was performed on fruits from a PopDG population segregating for chilling injury CI responses. A bulked segregant gene expression analysis based on groups of fruits showing extreme CI responses indicated that the transcriptome of peach fruits was modified already during cold storage consistently with eventual CI development. Most peach cold-responsive genes have orthologs in Arabidopsis that participate in cold acclimation and other stresses responses, while some of them showed expression patterns that differs in fruits according to their susceptibility to develop mealiness. Members of ICE1, CBF1/3 and HOS9 regulons seem to have a prominent role in differential cold responses between low and high sensitive fruits. In high sensitive fruits, an alternative cold response program is detected. This program is probably associated with dehydration/osmotic stress and regulated by ABA, auxins and ethylene. In addition, the observation that tolerant siblings showed a series of genes encoding for stress protective activities with higher expression both at harvest and during cold treatment, suggests that preprogrammed mechanisms could shape fruit ability to tolerate postharvest cold-induced stress. A number of genes differentially expressed were validated and extended to individual genotypes by medium-throughput RT-qPCR. Analyses presented here provide a global view of the responses of peach fruits to cold storage and highlights new peach genes that probably play important roles in the tolerance/sensitivity to cold storage. Our results provide a roadmap for further experiments and would help to develop new postharvest protocols and gene directed breeding strategies to better

  20. A bulk segregant gene expression analysis of a peach population reveals components of the underlying mechanism of the fruit cold response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Pons

    Full Text Available Peach fruits subjected for long periods of cold storage are primed to develop chilling injury once fruits are shelf ripened at room temperature. Very little is known about the molecular changes occurring in fruits during cold exposure. To get some insight into this process a transcript profiling analyses was performed on fruits from a PopDG population segregating for chilling injury CI responses. A bulked segregant gene expression analysis based on groups of fruits showing extreme CI responses indicated that the transcriptome of peach fruits was modified already during cold storage consistently with eventual CI development. Most peach cold-responsive genes have orthologs in Arabidopsis that participate in cold acclimation and other stresses responses, while some of them showed expression patterns that differs in fruits according to their susceptibility to develop mealiness. Members of ICE1, CBF1/3 and HOS9 regulons seem to have a prominent role in differential cold responses between low and high sensitive fruits. In high sensitive fruits, an alternative cold response program is detected. This program is probably associated with dehydration/osmotic stress and regulated by ABA, auxins and ethylene. In addition, the observation that tolerant siblings showed a series of genes encoding for stress protective activities with higher expression both at harvest and during cold treatment, suggests that preprogrammed mechanisms could shape fruit ability to tolerate postharvest cold-induced stress. A number of genes differentially expressed were validated and extended to individual genotypes by medium-throughput RT-qPCR. Analyses presented here provide a global view of the responses of peach fruits to cold storage and highlights new peach genes that probably play important roles in the tolerance/sensitivity to cold storage. Our results provide a roadmap for further experiments and would help to develop new postharvest protocols and gene directed breeding

  1. Effects of cutting and maturity on lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomatoes during storage at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Dekker, M.; Linssen, R.F.A.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the changes in lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits at different stages of maturity were cut into 7 mm slices and stored at temperatures varying from 2°C to 16°C. To assess the effect of cutting, intact fruit were stored in an additional experiment

  2. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effects of Chitin and Its Derivative Chitosan on Postharvest Decay of Fruits: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable economic losses to harvested fruits are caused by postharvest fungal decay during transportation and storage, which can be significantly controlled by synthetic fungicides. However, considering public concern over pesticide residues in food and the environment, there is a need for safer alternatives for the control of postharvest decay to substitute synthetic fungicides. As the second most abundant biopolymer renewable source in nature, chitin and its derivative chitosan are widely used in controlling postharvest decay of fruits. This review aims to introduce the effect of chitin and chitosan on postharvest decay in fruits and the possible modes of action involved. We found most of the actions discussed in these researches rest on physiological mechanisms. All of the mechanisms are summarized to lay the groundwork for further studies which should focus on the molecular mechanisms of chitin and chitosan in controlling postharvest decay of fruits.

  4. Ethanol, vinegar and Origanum vulgare oil vapour suppress the development of anthracnose rot in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakis, Nikos G

    2010-08-15

    Anthracnose rot (Colletotrichum coccodes) development in vitro or in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with absolute ethyl alcohol (AEA), vinegar (VIN), chlorine (CHL) or origanum oil (ORI) and storage at 12 degrees C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. Fruit treated with vapours reduced fungal spore germination/production, but in the case of AEA- and VIN-treated fruits, fungal mycelium development was accelerated. Fruit lesion development was suppressed after fruit exposure to pure (100% v/v) AEA or ORI vapours which were accompanied by increased fruit cracking. Exposure to pure VIN-, CHL- and ORI vapours reduced (up to 92%) spore germination in vitro, but no differences were observed in the AEA treatment. The benefits associated with volatiles-enrichment were maintained in fruit pre-exposed to vapours, resulting in suppression in spore germination and spore production. However, studies performed on fungi grown on Potato Dextrose Agar revealed fewer direct effects of volatiles on fungal colony development and spore germination per se, implying that suppression of pathogen development was due in a large part to the impact of volatiles on fruit-pathogen interactions and/or 'memory' effects on fruit tissue. Work is currently focussing on the mechanisms underlying the impacts of volatiles on fruit quality related attributes. The results of this study indicate that volatiles may be considered as an alternative to the traditional postharvest sanitizing techniques. Each commodity needs to be individually assessed, and the volatile concentration and sanitising technique optimised, before the volatile treatment is used commercially. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pineapple Fruit Collapse: Newly Emerging Disease of Pineapple Fruit in Lampung, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Prasetyo; Titik Nur Aeny

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial...

  6. Recommended domestic handling of fruits and vegetables to preserve their nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Basulto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of daily consumption of at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables are well documented. The World Health Organization (WHO public health goal, established in 600 grams per person/day, is not achieved in Spain, so it is important to improve access to these foods, maintain their potential nutritive value and overcome barriers for their consumption. The objectives of this paper are: facilitate responsible decision-making regarding health; maximize the nutritional value of fruit and vegetables, help overcome barriers for fruit and vegetables consumption and report on how their storage at home, their handling and cooking affect to nutritional value of fruit and vegetables.In order to minimize nutrients loss and improve their bioavailability during fruit and vegetables handling, the Association for the promotion of fruit and vegetables “5 a day” (Spain recommends: avoid prolonged storage of fruit and vegetables in the fridge; use layers and outer leaves; peel and/or cut them just before consumption; wash the whole pieces and then chop them; controlling the soaking time of cut pieces; prefer cooking techniques that do not require direct contact with water; a shorter cooking time, less loss of nutrients; the correct frying retains nutrients very well, although it is a technique of which should not be abused; add a few drops of vinegar or lemon juice to the cooking water if it does not change the taste and dish acceptance; use the water of cooking to elaborate other foods (e.g. sauces, soups, purees, etc. except those coming from chard, spinach or beets. The “5 a day” Association (Spain recommends increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables, and state that theloss of nutrients during their home handling should not be understood as a barrier for their consumption.

  7. Elastic stresses and plastic deformations in 'Santa Clara' tomato fruits caused by package dependent compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA ADRIANA VARGAS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the fruit compression behavior aiming to develop new tomato packages. Deformations caused by compression forces were observed inside packages and in individual 'Santa Clara' tomato fruit. The forces applied by a transparent acrylic lever to the fruit surface caused pericarp deformation and the flattened area was proportional to the force magnitude. The deformation was associated to the reduction in the gas volume (Vg, caused by expulsion of the air from the loculus cavity and reduction in the intercellular air volume of the pericarp. As ripening advanced, smaller fractions of the Vg reduced by the compressive force were restored after the stress was relieved. The lack of complete Vg restoration was an indication of permanent plastic deformations of the stressed cells. Vg regeneration (elastic recovery was larger in green fruits than in the red ones. The ratio between the applied force and the flattened area (flattening pressure, which depends on cell turgidity, decreased during ripening. Fruit movements associated with its depth in the container were observed during storage in a transparent glass container (495 x 355 x 220 mm. The downward movement of the fruits was larger in the top layers because these movements seem to be driven by a summation of the deformation of many fruits in all layers.

  8. Waxes and plastic film in relation to the shelf life of yellow passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Wagner Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa reduces its postharvest conservation and availability, mainly for in natura consumption. These losses of quality and commercial value occur due to the high respiration and loss of water. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of a modified atmosphere - wax emulsions and plastic film - on the shelf life of the yellow passion fruit. Plastic film (Cryovac D-955, 15 mum thickness reduced fresh weight loss and fruit wilting, kept higher fruit and rind weight and higher pulp osmotic potential over the storage period. However, it was not efficient in the control of rottenness. Sparcitrus wax (22-23% polyethylene/maleyc resin caused injury to the fruit, high fruit weight losses and wilting and resulted in lower pulp osmotic potential; this wax lead to a higher concentration of acid and a lower relation of soluble solids/acidity. Among the tested waxes, Fruit Wax (18-21% carnauba wax was the best, promoting reduced weight loss, wilting and rottenness.

  9. The role of the embryo and ethylene in avocado fruit mesocarp discoloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Vera; Friedman, Haya; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.; Pesis, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Chilling injury (CI) symptoms in avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruit, expressed as mesocarp discoloration, were found to be associated with embryo growth and ethylene production during cold storage. In cvs Ettinger and Arad most mesocarp discoloration was located close to the base of the seed and was induced by ethylene treatment in seeded avocado fruit. However, ethylene did not increase mesocarp discoloration in seedless fruit stored at 5 °C. Application of ethylene to whole fruit induced embryo development inside the seed. It also induced seedling elongation when seeds were imbibed separately. Persea americana ethylene receptor (PaETR) gene expression and polyphenol oxidase activity were highest close to the base of the seed and decreased gradually toward the blossom end. By contrast, expressions of PaETR transcript and polyphenol oxidase activity in seedless avocado fruit were similar throughout the pulp at the base of the fruit. Application of the ethylene inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene, decreased mesocarp browning, embryo development, seedling growth, and ion leakage, and down-regulated polyphenol oxidase activity. The results demonstrate that ethylene-mediated embryo growth in whole fruit is involved in the mesocarp response to ethylene perception and the development of CI disorders. PMID:19196750

  10. The anti-senescence effect of resveratrol reduces postharvest softening rate in cherimoya fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaran Aquilino Morales Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its climateric behavior, the cherimoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill. is a very perishable commodity. Present research aimed to observe the anti-senescence effect of resveratrol (RVS; this plant bioregulator was applied at 1.6, 0.16, 0.016 and 0 mM at 0, 8 and 15 days before harvest (DBH. At 1, 7 and 15 days of postharvest life, several physical and biochemical determinations were performed on the cherimoya fruit. After 15 days under room temperature conditions, in relation to control fruit, those fruit with 1.6 mM RVS applied 15 DBH reduced skin softening rate 78% and 54% for ‘Fino de Jete’ and ‘Bronceada’, respectively. Similarly, after 15 days of storage, a non-trained group of tasters preferred those fruit treated with 1.6 mM RVS 15 DBH; they qualified the fruit as better than the control fruit in presentation, aroma and taste.

  11. Liming and postharvest quality of carambola fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of lime application on the postharvest quality of carambola fruit, an experiment with carambola trees cultivated on an acid soil was conducted at the Bebedouro, São Paulo, Brazil. The trees were treated with increasing doses of lime during the pre-planting period. Liming led to a increase in calcium concentration of carambola leaves and fruits. Adequate nutrition of the plant with calcium improved post-harvest fruit quality, permitting a longer (~ 2 days period of storage under ambient conditions.Tendo como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de doses crescentes de calcário ao solo, na qualidade de frutos de caramboleira pela avaliação das alterações físico-químicas dos frutos após a colheita, foi instalado um experimento em Bebedouro-SP,Brasil, sobre um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, ácido. Os tratamentos foram doses crescentes de calcário, em pré-plantio, como segue: D0 = zero; D1 = metade da dose; D2 = a dose; D3 = 1,5 vez a dose; e D4 = 2 vezes a dose para elevar V= 70%. No florescimento da caramboleira, avaliou-se o teor de cálcio na folha. Após a colheita dos frutos, determinou-se o teor de cálcio na polpa, o peso dos frutos, diâmetro transversal, comprimento, peso da polpa, % de polpa, ºBrix, acidez titulável e Ratio dos frutos. Diariamente, durante sete dias de armazenamento em condições ambiente, determinou-se a perda de massa fresca e a firmeza dos frutos. A calagem proporcionou um aumentou linear de cálcio nas folhas e nos frutos da caramboleira. A nutrição adequada da planta com cálcio melhorou a qualidade dos frutos pós-colheita, permitindo um período de armazenamento mais longo (~ 2 days, em condições ambiente.

  12. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose ( 3 H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and 3 H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate

  13. MASA SIMPAN BUAH MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana L. PADA BERBAGAI TINGKAT KEMATANGAN, SUHU DAN JENID KEMASAN [Shelf life of Manggis Fruit (Garcinia mangostana L. at Various Fruit Maturity Levels, Temperature, and Types of Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasbi1

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of manggis fruit maturity levels, temperature, and types of packaging on the shelf fife of manggis fruit (Garcinia mangostana L, The experimental design used was Factorial Completely Randomized Design with three factors consisting of manggis fruit maturity levels (tinged with purple and brown, packaging types (flexible and stretch film, and storage temperature (l50C and 250C using two replication for each treatment. The result showed that maturity level had significant effect on weight toss, color but had no significant effect on hardness, total sugar and total acid of manggis fruit during storage. The suitable packaging type to maintain the quality of manggis fruit with maturity level of tinged purple was the flexible type, which result n a shelf life of 33 days. Packaging suitable for manggis fruit with maturity level of brown was the stretch type, which had the shelf life of 39 days. Storage temperature to maintain quality was l50C.

  14. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  15. Shelf stable intermediate moisture fruit cubes using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed to prepare shelf stable ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes using radiation technology. The combination of hurdles including osmotic dehydration, blanching, infrared drying, and gamma radiation dose of 1 kGy successfully reduced the microbial load to below detectable limit. The shelf life of the intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes was found to be 40 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2 deg C). The control samples spoiled within 6 days. The RTE intermediate moisture fruit products were found to have good texture, colour and sensory acceptability during this 40 days storage. (author)

  16. Lipid peroxidation and seed emergency in progenies of the yellow passion fruit plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Bestete de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the percentage of emergency plantlets and lipid peroxidation in seeds of 29 half-sib progenies of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. after 24 months under storage. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications of 50 seeds each, from which the treatments were the progenies (1-29. The evaluation of the percent plantlet emergency was accomplished at 14 and 28 days after sowing. The lipid peroxidation of the seeds was expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA content that was determined by the TBARS method. Approximately 21% of those half-sib progenies maintained the viability of their seeds for twenty-four months under storage. The results point out a remarkable genetic variability for vigor and emergency of the yellow passion fruit plantlets, with occurrence of individuals with high and other ones with low capacity to maintaining the physiologic quality of their seeds after storage.

  17. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  18. Measuring Device for Air Speed in Macroporous Media and Its Application Inside Apple Storage Bins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Geyer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In cold storage facilities of fruit and vegetables, airflow is necessary for heat removal. The design of storage facilities influences the air speed in the surrounding of the product. Therefore, knowledge about airflow next to the product is important to plan the layout of cold stores adapted to the requirements of the products. A new sensing device (ASL, Air speed logger is developed for omnidirectional measurement of air speed between fruit or vegetables inside storage bins or in bulk. It consists of four interconnected plastic spheres with 80 mm diameter each, adapted to the size of apple fruit. In the free space between the spheres, silicon diodes are fixed for the airflow measurement based on a calorimetric principle. Battery and data logger are mounted inside the spheres. The device is calibrated in a wind tunnel in a measuring range of 0–1.3 m/s. Air speed measurements in fruit bulks on laboratory scale and in an industrial fruit store show air speeds in gaps between fruit with high stability at different airflow levels. Several devices can be placed between stored products for determination of the air speed distribution inside bulks or bin stacks in a storage room.

  19. Extended storage of gamma-irradiated mango at tropical ambient temperature by film wrap packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janave, Machhindra T.; Sharma, A.

    2005-01-01

    Low dose gamma-irradiation of pre-climacteric mango (Mangifera indica L var.'Alphonso') fruits at 100 Gy extended the shelf-life at ambient temperature (28-32 degC) by 5-6 days. The extension of shelf-life was dose dependent, maximum being at 200 Gy by about 8-10 days. Wrapping the fruits in food grade Klin Wrap film resulted in more number of fruits remaining in semiripe condition after 21 days of storage as revealed by colour of the fruits, texture, TSS, pH, acidity and vitamin C content. The fruits retained about 40% of chlorophyll however, unwrapped fruits were complete yellow. Physiological weight loss (PWL) was reduced by 50% in Klin film wrapped fruits as compared to that in unwrapped fruits. More than 70-80% fruits remained as marketable fruits at the end of experiment when control fruits were slightly overripe. The shelf-life in Klin film wrapped irradiated mangoes was extended by about 10-15 days over irradiated unwrapped fruits resulting in total shelf-life of about 25-30 days at room temperature. In mangoes of variety 'Dasheri', gamma-irradiation extended the shelf-life by 4-5 days, which could be increased further, by another 7-10 days by Klin wrap packaging. These fruits also remained green at the end of experiment, confirming the observations with 'Alphonso' mango. These results show that low dose gamma-irradiation in combination with Klin film packaging delayed ripening as indicated by higher retention of fruit colour and reduction of PWL. (author)

  20. Combination of ozone and packaging treatments maintained the quality and improved the shelf life of tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuri; Jayaputra; Sauqi, A.; Sjah, T.; Desiana, R. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato is very important vegetable crop but has short shelf life. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of ozone and packaging combination treatment on the quality and the storage life of tomato fruit. There were six treatments including: control (without ozone and packaging); without ozone and packaged with polyethylene bag; without ozone and polyethylene terephtalate punnet; with ozone but without packaging; with ozone and packaged with polyethylene bag; and with ozone and polyethylene terephtalate punnet. Each treatment was made into 3 replications. Tomato samples were harvested at turning stage. Ozone treatment was applied for 60 seconds. Tomatoes were then treated with and without packaging. The fruit were then stored at room temperature for up to 12 days. The parameters for assessment were water content, color, texture, weight loss and the population of naturally contamination Escherichia coli. Each parameter was assessed on day 0, 6 and 12 of storage. The results indicated that combination of ozone and packaging treatments significantly affected the physical and biochemical changes (water content, color, texture and weight loss) of the fruit, suppressed the microbiological contamination on the fruit and maintained fruit freshness or quality after 12 days of storage. The combination of ozone and perforated polyethylene packaging treatment was the best treatment to maintain the quality and prolonged the shelf life of tomato fruit to be 12 days at room temperature.

  1. The size and germination of eggplant seed in relation to fruit maturity at harvest, after-ripening and ethylene application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina MAKROGIANNI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In eggplant cultivars Black Beauty, Emi, Long Negro and Tsakoniki cultivated for seed, flower induction and flower weight decreased in the presence of developing fruit on the plant. Harvesting prior to maturity (25-35 days after anthesis, aimed at increasing flower induction and fruit set, resulted in small seeds that failed to germinate or germinated poorly. When these fruit were stored for 20 days at 25±30C before seed extraction, seed size and germination increased indicating seed filling and maturation (‘after-ripening’ within the harvested fruit. In year 1, a single application of ethylene before storage increased the germination of Black Beauty and Long Negro harvested 25-35 days after anthesis, but reduced that of Emi and Tsakoniki. In year 2, ethylene application once before the storage of fruits harvested 35 days after anthesis promoted the germination of Tsakoniki and Emi, and when ethylene was applied three times germination was increased further. The possible applications of early harvest, fruit storage prior to seed extraction and ethylene treatment to eggplant seed production are discussed.

  2. Using an on-line UV-C apparatus to treat harvested fruit for controlling postharvest decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Upchurch, B.; El Ghaouth, A.; Stevens, C.; Khan, V.; Droby, S.; Chalutz, E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus was designed to deliver low-dose UV-C light to the surface of fruit on a processing line and tested for its control of postharvest decay. It consisted of a row of UV-C emitting lamps mounted on a frame above a conveyer belt that transported the fruit. The dosage of the UV-C light delivered to the fruit surface was regulated by varying the speed of the conveyor belt. Postharvest decay after 28 days storage of 'Empire' apples was reduced 52% relative to the untreated checks when the fruit were conveyed at 6.2 m · min -1 (1.38 kJ · m -2 dose) under the UV-C apparatus. Factors affecting the practical application of UV-C irradiation of fruit for controlling postharvest decay are discussed

  3. Effect of 'oxygen and carbon-dioxide' on the post-harvest management in tree-ripe mango storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H.; Ahmad, S.; Anwar, R.; Noor-un-Nisa; Nafees, M.; Thompson, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing niche market demand for tree-ripe mango fruit due to their pleasant level of sweetness and flavour than artificially ripened fruits. However, tree-ripe mango fruits normally have a short storage life therefore, some time these fruits can not be reached to the ultimate consumers and heavy losses occurred. To avoid this problem growers try to harvest the mangoes at early stage of maturity which directly affect the physico-chemical constituents of fruit. Research was carried out to investigate the Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage feasibility and optimum storage conditions for tree-ripe cv. Chaunsa mangoes in order to extend their shelf life without compromising their quality. Tree ripe mangoes were stored in 1, 3, or 5% O/sub 2/ combined with 3, 6, and 9 % CO/sub 2/ at 10 deg. C for two weeks and compared with those stored in 21% O/sub 2/ and 0% CO/sub 2/ as control. It was found that the rate of fruit weight loss decreased with an increase of CO/sub 2/ in the storage atmosphere. Higher acidity was found in the fruit which were stored at lower concentration of O/sub 2/ and higher concentration of CO/sub 2/ which might be due to the accumulation of higher concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the fruit tissues. CA storage showed better retention of Ascorbic acid but did not show any systematic trend regarding citric acid, tartaric acid and malic acid. Fruits stored under controlled atmosphere showed better retention of freshness, colour, firmness, total soluble solids and flavour in comparison with the fruit stored in air (control). Mangoes stored in 3% O/sub 2/ with 6% CO/sub 2/ were highly acceptable by the panellists due to their better sweetness, flavour as compared to others. (author

  4. Application of Cold Storage for Raja Sere Banana (Musa acuminata colla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismas, S. R. S.; Purwanto, Y. A.; Sutrisno

    2018-05-01

    Raja Sere is one of the indigenous banana cultivars in Indonesia. This cultivar has a yellow color when ripen, small size and sweet taste. Traditionally, the growers market this banana cultivar to the market without any treatment to delay the ripening process. Banana fruits are commonly being harvested at the condition of hard green mature. At this condition of hard green mature, banana fruits can be stored for a long-term period. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cold storage on the quality of raja sere banana that stored at 13°C. Banana fruits cultivar Raja Sere were harvested from local farmer field at the condition of hard green mature (about 14 weeks age after the flower bloom). Fifteen bunches of banana were stored in cold storage with a temperature of 13°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days, respectively. For the control, room temperature storage (28°C) was used. At a storage period, samples of banana fruits ripened in the ripening chamber by injecting 100 ppm of ethylene gas at 25°C for 24 hours. The quality parameters namely respiration rate, hardness, total soluble solids (TSS), change in color, and weight loss were measured. For those banana fruits stored at room temperature, the shelf-life of banana was only reached up to 6 days. For those banana fruits stored in cold storage, the condition of banana fruits was reached up to 12 days. After cold storage and ripening, the third day measurement was the optimal time for bananas to be consumed which indicated by the yellow color (lightness value = 68.51, a* = 4.74 and value b* = 62.63), TSS 24.30 °Brix and hardness 0.48 kgf, weight loss about 7.53-16.45% and CO2 respiration rate of 100.37 mLCO2 / kg.hr.

  5. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  6. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., seeds, pits, and cores: Factor Referred to in Paragraph (d)(2) of This Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5.... Each such fruit ingredient in any such combination is an optional ingredient. (c) The following safe...

  7. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  8. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  9. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  10. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  11. A chitosan coating containing essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. to control postharvest mold infections and keep the quality of cherry tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 µL/mL for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25 °C; 12 days and cold (12 °C; 24 days temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures by more than. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by six days and by more than nine days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness ( > 2 N/mm and lower weight loss ( > 2 % compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1 - 9 mg/g in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  12. Thyme oil vapour and modified atmosphere packaging reduce anthracnose incidence and maintain fruit quality in avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Mafune, Mpho; Sivakumar, Dharini; Soundy, Puffy

    2013-09-01

    Postharvest application of prochloraz fungicide is commercially practiced to control anthracnose, a postharvest disease in avocado. Increasing consumer concern regarding food safety and demand for organically produced fruits make it necessary to search for natural environmentally friendly alternative products and processes for the fruit industry. A combination of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; ∼8% CO₂, 2% O₂) plus thyme oil (TO) was evaluated on the incidence and severity of anthracnose, physiological disorders (grey pulp, vascular browning), fruit quality parameters (L*, h°, firmness, weight loss) and sensory parameters (taste, texture, flavour and overall acceptance), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activity, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in avocados ('Fuerte' and 'Hass' cultivars) held at 10 °C cold storage for 18 days and thereafter, ripened at 25 °C for 5-10 days. Stand-alone MAP, commercial treatment (prochloraz 0.05%) and untreated (control) fruit were included for comparison. MAP + TO treatment significantly (P anthracnose, grey pulp, vascular browning, weight loss and loss of fruit firmness, and showed acceptable taste, flavour, texture and higher overall acceptance, increased PAL activity, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity, after ripening at 25 °C followed by cold storage at 10 °C. This investigation recommends MAP + TO combination treatment as a suitable alternative to the currently adopted prochloraz application. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice; Avaliacao fisico-quimica do suco de maca irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple`s juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Fatty acid composition of oil obtained from irradiated and non-irradiated whole fruit and fruit flesh of olives (Olea europaea L. 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz  Al-BACHIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the fatty acid profile of olive oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh of "Kaissy cultivar" olives, irradiated with 0, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation, and stored for 0, 6 and 12 months. Results on the fatty acid profile showed that the studied oils contained mostly oleic acid (68.1570.80% followed by palmitic acid (14.38-15.89% and linoleic acid (10.3412.51%. Generally, there are slight differences in the fatty acid profile between the oil extracted from whole olives and fruit flesh, but sometime significant (p<0.05. Also, the storage time influenced to a limited extent the fatty acid profile of both type of oils. Immediately after treatment, irradiation caused a significant (p<0.01 gradual decrease in the unsaturated fatty acid content and a significant (p<0.01 saturated fatty acid content increased in virgin olive oils.

  15. Suitability of Dukat strawberries for studying effects on shelf life of irradiation combined with cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegota, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new Dukat variety of strawberries was used to study the effect of irradiation combined with cold storage on their shelf life and chemical composition. Strawberries, with or without stems, were irradiated with a dose of 2.5 or 3.0 kGy within 6-10 or 20-24 h after harvesting. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that the minimum storage time for the fruits could be extended by a minimum of 9 days. If the time between harvest and irradiation was shorter, better results for storage experiments were obtained. Fruits with stems were more suitable for cold storage after irradiation than those without stems. Irradiation of strawberries did not change the titratable acidity and content of the reducing sugars. Colour intensity and ascorbic acid levels decreased in proportion to the absorbed dose and storage time. (orig.)

  16. Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... heterosis; LSD, least significant difference; CV, co-variance. ... The North West Frontier Province of the country .... Mean squares for flowers per cluster, fruits per cluster, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight and yield per plant.

  17. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  18. Radiation processing of foods: fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Post-harvest irradiation of fruits and vegetables improves their shelf-life by: (1) delaying ripening and senescence of fruits, (2) controlling fungal diseases, (3) inhibiting sprouting, and (4) disinfestation. Nutritional and quality aspects of irradiated fruits and vegetables are discussed. Commercial prospects are briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  19. Effect of ionizing radiation on the respiration intensity of pears during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Bachir, Mahfouz; Sass, P.

    1989-01-01

    According to the results of a 3-year series of experiments on the effect of ionizing radiation (gamma radiation and X radiation, respectively) on the storage life of fruits a relationship exists between the radiation doses (40, 60, 100, 500, 1000, 1500 Gy) and the changes in the quality of the fruit varieties. Radiation was generally found to stimulate the ripening process. The acceleration of ripening takes place for a short time (5-7 days) immediately after irradiation, as proved by respiration and enzyme activity tests. It can be concluded that on removal from storage, the rate of respiration of the treated fruits was lower both in controlled and in constant atmosphere which suggests that irradiated fruits can be stored for a longer time. (author) 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 6 tabs

  20. Histochemistry and morphoanatomy study on guava fruit during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a highly perishable fruit due to its intense metabolism during ripening. Information on the enzyme activities that degrade pectic substances, as well as the amount of pectin, is very contradictory and not clearly defined. Thus, this study aimed to monitor the changes occurred in the fruit during ripening through histochemical, physical, and scanning microscopy processes. Guavas were picked at the half-mature stage and stored for 9 days at 22 ± 1 °C and 78 ± 1% RH. The analyses conducted on the day of harvest (0 and each day of storage (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 days were: firmness and histochemical analyses (ferric chloride, lugol, comassie blue, vanillin hydrochloric, and ruthenium red observed under an optic microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Ruthenium red showed a high amount of pectin in the cell wall on day zero as well as its decrease in the wall during ripening and its accumulation in the central area of the cell. Scanning microscopy showed loss of the cell structure during ripening. Those observations suggest that the pectin is the main polymer responsible for firmness maintenance in the guava fruit.

  1. Active package for wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, Eva; Del Valle, Valeria; Catala, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2007-03-21

    An antimicrobial active package has been developed to improve the safety and quality of wild strawberries, as well as extending their shelf life. The fruits were packed in equilibrium-modified atmosphere packaging (EMAP), and the effect on Botrytis cinerea growth and on the quality parameters of the fruit by the addition of different amounts of 2-nonanone, an antifungal volatile compound naturally present in strawberries, was investigated during storage at 10 and 22 degrees C. The temperature of 10 degrees C was chosen as the temperature used at points of sale, and 22 degrees C was chosen as the control temperature. Fungal growth was inhibited in all cases, possibly due to the synergistic effect of high CO2 partial pressures and the presence of the antifungal compound. Weight, soluble solids, titrable acidity, and anthocyanin losses were retarded by the presence of 2-nonanone. This effect was more pronounced as the 2-nonanone concentration was increased at both temperatures. Therefore, an active package that releases 2-nonanone inhibits fungal decay and delays the senescence of highly perishable wild strawberry fruit.

  2. Anatomical traits of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of the epidermis as well as the anatomy of the pericarp and fruit pedicle in Capsicum annuum L., cv. 'Red Knight F1', were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The pericarp was found to consist of an epidermis with strongly thickened outer walls, several layers of tangential and angular collenchyma as well as multi-layered parenchyma composed of cells of varying size in which very large lobed nuclei were observed. Chromoplasts were found in the cells of the above-mentioned tissues. The inner epidermis of the pericarp was characterized by thick cell walls and numerous straight pits. Among the tissues of the fruit pedicle, we observed epidermis with numerous stomata, collenchyma, chlorenchyma with very large intercellular spaces, small clusters of sclerenchyma, secondary phloem and xylem as well live and dead cells of the pith which were characterized by the presence of thin walls with numerous pits. The structural traits of the pericarp of the red pepper cultivar under study show adaptations to significantly reduced transpiration, which is an important feature during storage. At the same time, the strongly thickened and cutinized walls of the fruit contribute to a reduction in its digestibility and impede nutrient penetration in non-root feeding.

  3. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L(-1) of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox-oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  4. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the l...

  5. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  6. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  7. Storage in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanes, J.M.; Rottenberg, J.; Abiad, A.; Caudron, S.; Girault, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    Storage represents one of the key elements among the different modulation tools. How the problem of storage is put forward in Europe in front of the increasing uncertainty of the gas demand and prices? What are the policies implemented by storage facility operators? To what extend storage can amortize gas prices volatility or allow the market actors to take the best profit of this volatility? These are the questions debated at this workshop by four specialists of this domain. (J.S.)

  8. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  9. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Concentration on Survival of Foodborne Pathogens in Deciduous Fruit Processing Environments for Effective Hygiene Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2016-11-01

    Temperature and good sanitation practices are important factors for controlling growth of microorganisms. Fresh produce is stored at various temperatures to ensure quality and to prolong shelf life. When foodborne pathogens survive and grow on fresh produce at storage temperatures, then additional control strategies are needed to inactivate these pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine how temperatures associated with deciduous fruit processing and storage facilities (0.5, 4, and 21°C) affect the growth and/or survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus under different nutrient conditions (nutrient rich and nutrient poor) and on simulated contact surfaces (vinyl coupons). Information on the growth and survival of foodborne pathogens at specific deciduous fruit processing and storage temperatures (0.5°C) is not available. All pathogens except E. coli O157:H7 were able to survive on vinyl coupons at all temperatures. L. monocytogenes proliferated under both nutrient conditions independent of temperature. S. aureus was the pathogen least affected by nutrient conditions. The survival of foodborne pathogens on the vinyl coupons, a model system for studying surfaces in fruit preparation and storage environments, indicates the potential for cross-contamination of deciduous fruit products under poor sanitation conditions. Foodborne pathogens that can proliferate and survive at various temperatures under different nutrient conditions could lead to fruit cross-contamination. Temperature mismanagement, which could allow pathogen proliferation in contaminated fruit packing houses and storage environments, is a concern. Therefore, proper hygiene and sanitation practices, removal of possible contaminants, and proper food safety management systems are needed to ensure food safety.

  10. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, C; Dumitras, D C; Patachia, M; Banita, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones. (paper)

  11. Respiration climacteric in tomato fruits elucidated by constraint-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Sophie; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Vercambre, Gilles; Le Gall, Sophie; Biais, Benoit; Cabasson, Cécile; Maucourt, Mickaël; Bernillon, Stéphane; Moing, Annick; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Gibon, Yves

    2017-03-01

    Tomato is a model organism to study the development of fleshy fruit including ripening initiation. Unfortunately, few studies deal with the brief phase of accelerated ripening associated with the respiration climacteric because of practical problems involved in measuring fruit respiration. Because constraint-based modelling allows predicting accurate metabolic fluxes, we investigated the respiration and energy dissipation of fruit pericarp at the breaker stage using a detailed stoichiometric model of the respiratory pathway, including alternative oxidase and uncoupling proteins. Assuming steady-state, a metabolic dataset was transformed into constraints to solve the model on a daily basis throughout tomato fruit development. We detected a peak of CO 2 released and an excess of energy dissipated at 40 d post anthesis (DPA) just before the onset of ripening coinciding with the respiration climacteric. We demonstrated the unbalanced carbon allocation with the sharp slowdown of accumulation (for syntheses and storage) and the beginning of the degradation of starch and cell wall polysaccharides. Experiments with fruits harvested from plants cultivated under stress conditions confirmed the concept. We conclude that modelling with an accurate metabolic dataset is an efficient tool to bypass the difficulty of measuring fruit respiration and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ripening. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Effect on tomato plant and fruit of the application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdones, Ángela; Tur, Núria; Chiralt, Amparo; Vargas, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Oregano essential oil (EO) was incorporated into film-forming dispersions (FFDs) based on biopolymers (chitosan and/or methylcellulose) at two different concentrations. The effect of the application of the FFDs was evaluated on tomato plants (cultivar Micro-Tom) at three different stages of development, and on pre-harvest and postharvest applications on tomato fruit. The application of the FFDs at '3 Leaves' stage caused phytotoxic problems, which were lethal when the EO was applied without biopolymers. Even though plant growth and development were delayed, the total biomass and the crop yield were not affected by biopolymer-EO treatments. When the FFDs were applied in the 'Fruit' stage the pre-harvest application of FFDs had no negative effects. All FFDs containing EO significantly reduced the respiration rate of tomato fruit and diminished weight loss during storage. Moreover, biopolymer-EO FFDs led to a decrease in the fungal decay of tomato fruit inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer spores, as compared with non-treated tomato fruit and those coated with FFDs without EO. The application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings has been proven to be an effective treatment to control R. stolonifer in tomato fruit. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  14. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  15. Changes in alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase activity in peel and pulp of banana (Musa sp.) fruits during ripening and softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun-Ping; Su, Jing; Li, Xue-Ping; Chen, Wei-Xin

    2007-04-01

    Arabinose is one of the most dynamic cell wall glycosyl residues released during fruit ripening, alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase (alpha-Arab) are major glycosidases that may remove arabinose units from fruit cell wall polysaccharides. To find out whether alpha-Arab plays important roles in banana fruit softening, the enzyme activities in peel and pulp, fruit firmness, respiration rate and ethylene release rate were assayed during banana softening. The results showed that alpha-Arab activities in banana pulp and peel increased slightly at the beginning of storage and reached their maxima when the fruit firmness decreased drastically, alpha-Arab activity increased by more than ten folds in both pulp and peel during ripening and alpha-Arab activities were higher in pulp than in peel. Treatment of banana fruits with ethylene absorbent postponed the time of reaching of its maxima of respiration and ethylene, enhanced the firmness of pup and decreased alpha-Arab activity in the peel and pulp. These results suggest that alpha-Arab induced the decrease of fruit firmness and played an important role in banana fruit softening, and its activity was regulated by ethylene.

  16. Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening is considered to be the main process in fruit development, and all studies had been focused on this process which included physicochemical, biochemical, and molecular analysis. With the development of genomic analysis the strategies to study fruit ripening have been changing and now there are new perspectives and opportunities. The objective of this review is to describe the state of the art in the studies related to fruit ripening with emphasis in molecular studies.

  17. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  18. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1987-01-01

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  19. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  20. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  1. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  2. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  3. Managing Sustainability in Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, N.; Van Passel, S.; Zwiekhorst, W.

    2012-01-01

    As fruit growers are faced with a growing need for sustainable development, it is important to integrate sustainability into their management processes. This research applies and evaluates a self-analysis tool for entrepreneurs called the ‘sustainability scan’. The scan identifies 23 sustainability themes, divided according to the 3P-framework (People, Planet and Profit). In the scan, it is assumed that the management of these themes is at the core of sustainable entrepren...

  4. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  5. Modelling the transfer of radionuclides to fruit. Report of the Fruits Working Group of BIOMASS Theme 3. Part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    studies have also been discussed during the biannual meetings of the Group. These findings, as well as results from those experimental studies reported directly to the Group and key interactions reported in the literature, are reported below. Radionuclides reach fruit by three principal routes: (i) deposition to soil, vertical migration in soil, root uptake, migration to the fruit (and other plant parts); and/or (ii) deposition to exposed plant surfaces, translocation to plant interior, migration to the fruit (and other plant parts); and/or (iii) deposition to exposed fruit surfaces. The relative significance of each pathway depends upon the season during which contamination occurs, upon the stage of plant development and upon how this development is affected by climatic, edaphic and management factors. Root uptake followed by migration to the fruit is represented in literature by the soil to plant Transfer Factor (TF), a parameter that relates radionuclide concentration in fruit to that in the soil. A collection of data on TFs for fruit crops provides ranges for caesium, strontium, plutonium and americium. The variability in TF for a given radionuclide is mainly ascribable to differences in soil properties, rather than differences between fruit species. TF values for caesium are the most variable and cover six orders of magnitude. Concentration in the fruit varies both as the fruit develops and according to the time of contamination relative to production of the fruit. For caesium, complex patterns in concentration may be observed during a growing season as a result of the combination of rate of transfer to the fruit, rate of biomass production of the fruit, and degree of water content. Fruit storage before consumption as well as industrial or domestic processing may reduce the activity concentration in the foodstuff that is actually consumed, with implications for assessments of doses from releases of radionuclides to the environment

  6. Modelling the transfer of radionuclides to fruit. Report of the Fruits Working Group of BIOMASS Theme 3. Part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    radioecologists. Results on current experimental studies have also been discussed during the biannual meetings of the Group. These findings, as well as results from those experimental studies reported directly to the Group and key interactions reported in the literature, are reported below. Radionuclides reach fruit by three principal routes: (i) deposition to soil, vertical migration in soil, root uptake, migration to the fruit (and other plant parts); and/or (ii) deposition to exposed plant surfaces, translocation to plant interior, migration to the fruit (and other plant parts); and/or (iii) deposition to exposed fruit surfaces. The relative significance of each pathway depends upon the season during which contamination occurs, upon the stage of plant development and upon how this development is affected by climatic, edaphic and management factors. Root uptake followed by migration to the fruit is represented in literature by the soil to plant Transfer Factor (TF), a parameter that relates radionuclide concentration in fruit to that in the soil. A collection of data on TFs for fruit crops provides ranges for caesium, strontium, plutonium and americium. The variability in TF for a given radionuclide is mainly ascribable to differences in soil properties, rather than differences between fruit species. TF values for caesium are the most variable and cover six orders of magnitude. Concentration in the fruit varies both as the fruit develops and according to the time of contamination relative to production of the fruit. For caesium, complex patterns in concentration may be observed during a growing season as a result of the combination of rate of transfer to the fruit, rate of biomass production of the fruit, and degree of water content. Fruit storage before consumption as well as industrial or domestic processing may reduce the activity concentration in the foodstuff that is actually consumed, with implications for assessments of doses from releases of radionuclides to the

  7. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  8. Interplay between ABA and phospholipases A(2) and D in the response of citrus fruit to postharvest dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paco; Gandía, Mónica; Alférez, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    The interplay between abscisic acid (ABA) and phospholipases A2 and D (PLA2 and PLD) in the response of citrus fruit to water stress was investigated during postharvest by using an ABA-deficient mutant from 'Navelate' orange named 'Pinalate'. Fruit from both varieties harvested at two different maturation stages (mature-green and full-mature) were subjected to prolonged water loss inducing stem-end rind breakdown (SERB) in full-mature fruit. Treatment with PLA2 inhibitor aristolochic acid (AT) and PLD inhibitor lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) reduced the disorder in both varieties, suggesting that phospholipid metabolism is involved in citrus peel quality. Expression of CsPLDα and CsPLDβ, and CssPLA2α and CssPLA2β was studied by real-time RT-PCR during water stress and in response to ABA. CsPLDα expression increased in mature-green fruit from 'Navelate' but not in 'Pinalate' and ABA did not counteract this effect. ABA enhanced repression of CsPLDα in full-mature fruit. CsPLDβ gene expression decreased in mature-green 'Pinalate', remained unchanged in 'Navelate' and was induced in full-mature fruit from both varieties. CssPLA2α expression increased in mature-green fruit from both varieties whereas in full-mature fruit only increased in 'Navelate'. CssPLA2β expression increased in mature-green flavedo from both varieties, but in full-mature fruit remained steady in 'Navelate' and barely increased in 'Pinalate' fruit. ABA reduced expression in both after prolonged storage. Responsiveness to ABA increased with maturation. Our results show interplay between PLA2 and PLD and suggest that ABA action is upstream phospholipase activation. Response to ABA during water stress in citrus is regulated during fruit maturation and involves membrane phospholipid degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing storage adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirault, P.

    2004-01-01

    Government policy encourages the use of natural gas. It is expected that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and Arctic gas will make up 20 to 25 per cent of supply. This presentation provided an outlook of storage value based on a technical analysis by the National Petroleum Counsel (NPC) report. A moderately robust growth is expected in the residential and commercial load which may be partially offset by robust growth in electricity. The net result is an increase in storage requirements. It was concluded that there is a strong case for growth in storage demand but a lack of good sites for additional capacity. This will lead to higher storage values. The NPC sees the need for 1 Tcf more storage use by 2025, of which 700 Bcf will need to come from new storage. In particular, current storage levels may not be sufficient to meet a colder than normal winter, and deliverability is affected by field inventory. Most storage capacity was built before 1985, mostly by regulated entities. It is expected that only 250 to 400 Bcf will be added over the next 25 years in North America. If storage becomes scarce, prices will move to the marginal cost of new additions, and the upper limit on price will be determined by salt cavern storage. An increase of $1.00 in the price of leasing storage would add about $0.11 to the average price of consumed gas. tabs., figs

  10. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Matsuo; Uchiyama, Yuichi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and facilitate the design by limiting the relative displacement in a storage rack. Constitution: The outer wall of a storage rack disposed in water within a fuel pool, the pool wall opposing to the storage rack and the structure between the opposing storages racks are made as a space for confining the pool water or a structure formed with a slight gap, for example, a combination of a recessed structure and a protruded structure. In such a constitution, a space for confirming the pool water is established and the pool water thus confined forms a flow resistance when the storage rack vibrates upon earthquakes, serves as a damper and significantly reduces the responsivity. Furthermore, the relative displacement in the storage rack is limited to inhibit excess earthquake forces to exert on setting bolts and rack clamping bolts of the storage rack. (Sekiya, K.)

  11. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  12. Frozen fruit skin prick test for the diagnosis of fruit allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Teresa; Guilarte, Mar; Luengo, Olga; Guillén, Mercé; Labrador-Horrillo, Moisés; Fadeeva, Tatiana; Sala, Anna; Cardona, Victória

    2010-12-01

    Diagnosis of fruit sensitisation by skin prick test (SPT) is fast and easy to perform. Nevertheless, some fruit is not available throughout the year. Freezing aliquots of these fresh fruits to be defrosted would be a good solution to perform SPT at any time. To compare the reproducibility of SPT with Rosaceae and Cucurbitaceae frozen fruit with fresh and commercial fruit extracts. SPT with the following fruit were performed: apricot, cherry, strawberry, nectarine, Japanese medlar, peach, (peel and pulp), yellow and red plum, melon and watermelon. We compared fresh fruit, commercial extract and fruit which had been frozen at -18 degrees C. Results were read by planimetry (Inmunotek prick-film) after 15 minutes. The study group comprised 48 patients (9 males, 39 females) with a mean age of 31, 6 +/- 2.0 years. Concordance of positive and negative results was extremely high and significant in all cases. Correlation between frozen fruit and commercial extract, frozen fruit and fresh and commercial extract and fresh fruit was statistically significant in all cases except for strawberry. The use of frozen fruit is a valid method, as the performance of the SPT is similar to that of fresh fruit. This enables diagnostic procedures with seasonal fruit at any time of the year.

  13. Effects of chlorogenic acid on capacity of free radicals scavenging and proteomic changes in postharvest fruit of nectarine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xi

    Full Text Available To study how chlorogenic acid affects changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the proteins involved in ROS scavenging of nectarine during storage time, the fruits were treated with chlorogenic acid (CHA then stored at 25°C for further studies. The CHA-treatment significantly reduced O2-· production rate, H2O2 content, and membrane permeability of nectarine fruit during storage. The key proteins related the nectarine fruit senescence during storage were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Level and enzymatic activity of peroxidase were reduced, while both the protein levels and the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase and monodehydroascorbate reductase were enhanced in nectarine fruit treated with CHA. In addition, levels of several pathogen-related proteins were also enhanced by CHA-treatment. Taking together, the present study showed that CHA could influence changes in defense related proteins and reduced oxidative damage in nectarine fruit during postharvest ripening.

  14. Reducing irradiation damage to 'Arkin' carambola by plastic packaging or storage temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Carambolas (Averrhoa carambola L.) require quarantine treatment for control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa Loew) (CFF) prior to shipment to certain domestic and export markets. Low-dose irradiation, less than or equal to kGy, is effective for sterilizing CFF and other fruit flies; however, carambolas are susceptible to irradiation-induced peel injury. Low-dose gamma irradiation treatment generally reduced fruit quality, but the effects were mitigated by packaging carambola fruit in ''clamshell'' polystyrene containers, rather than conventional fiberboard boxes, prior to treatment. Use of clamshell containers reduced peel pitting, stem-end breakdown, shriveling, and loss of mass after storage for 14 days at 5 or 7 degrees C. In addition, fruit held in clamshell containers were firmer, with slightly less green peel, and had lower total soluble solids, but the flavor was not quite as good as that of fruit stored in fiberboard boxes. There was no difference in the mastication texture or acidity of fruit by package type at final storage. Packing carambolas in clamshell containers increased their tolerance to irradiation-induced peel disorders and improved the potential for usage of low-dose irradiation for quarantine treatment

  15. Expression of the urease gene of Agaricus bisporus: a tool for studying fruit body formation and post-harvest development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, M.J.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Drift, van der C.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Burton, K.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Camp, op den H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit body initials of Agaricus bisporus contain high levels of urea, which decrease in the following developmental stages until stage 4 (harvest) when urea levels increase again. At storage, the high urea content may affect the quality of the mushroom, i.e. by the formation of ammonia from urea

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation and vapor gard on keeping quality of fuerte avocado fruits stored at temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, S.M.; Hassan, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    'Fuerte'avocado fruits, at mature stage, were treated after harvest by gamma rays and Vapor-Gard either alone or in combination, and stored at room temperature. Irradiation with 0.025 or 0.05 kGy increased loss of weight and decay percentage. However, fruit firmness, total carotenoids content, total phenolic compounds and total carbohydrates content were not affected. In all Vapor-Gard treatments at 0.5 or 1.0% either alone or combined with irradiation decreased the weight loss, decay percentage and total carotenoids content, but increased significantly each of fruit firmness, total phenols content and total carbohydrates content during storage periods. Avocados treated by Vapor-Gard at 0.5 or 1.0% alone or combined with irradiation delayed the ripening and extended shelf by 4 and 8 days respectively compared with those of the control or irradiated fruits which reached the fair quality after 8 days of storage. Concerning the changes in oil properties, it is noticed that, refractive index at 25 degree C and iodine value of avocado oil were not affected by treatments or storage periods, while storage periods caused a noticeable decrease in the free fatty acid percentage in all treatments and this reduction was greater in all Vapor-Gard treatments compared with the control.8 tab

  17. Skin carotenoids as biomarker for vegetable and fruit intake: Validation of the reflection-spectroscopy based “Veggie Meter”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin is a relatively stable storage medium for carotenoids; non-invasive optical measurements of carotenoids in this tissue via Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) serve as a non-invasive biomarker for fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake. The RRS method has been validated with HPLC-based measurements of...

  18. Post-harvest conservation of camu–camu fruits (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh using different temperatures and packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza GRIGIO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The camu-camu tree (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh is fruit-bearing tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae. This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the type of storage temperature and package which allow better conservation of the quality attributes of camu-camu. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized with three replications in a factorial arrangement (3x3x8, constituted of three different storage temperatures (laboratory ambiente or 25 ± 2 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C, three types of packages (no package, PET and PVC and fourteen days’ storage, the fruits being analyzed every two days. The fruits were evaluated as to fresh mass loss, pH, soluble solids contents, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, anthocyanins, chlorophylls A and B and maturation index (SS/AT. According to the results obtained, the quality attributes and ascorbic acid content were conserved for longer time in the fruits stored on PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene trays at 15 °C. It follows that the best temperature for the storage of camu-camu is 15 °C and the package that best keeps its quality attributes is the PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene tray.

  19. Review: computer vision applied to the inspection and quality control of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the current existing literature concerning the inspection of fruits and vegetables with the application of computer vision, where the techniques most used to estimate various properties related to quality are analyzed. The objectives of the typical applications of such systems include the classification, quality estimation according to the internal and external characteristics, supervision of fruit processes during storage or the evaluation of experimental treatments. In general, computer vision systems do not only replace manual inspection, but can also improve their skills. In conclusion, computer vision systems are powerful tools for the automatic inspection of fruits and vegetables. In addition, the development of such systems adapted to the food industry is fundamental to achieve competitive advantages.

  20. Two endogenous substrates for polyphenoloxidase in pericarp tissues of postharvest rambutan fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Su, Weiqiang; Peng, Hongxiang; Zhu, Jianhua; Xu, Liangxiong; Bruñá, Nuria Martí

    2010-08-01

    The catalytic oxidation of phenolic substrates by polyphenoloxidase (PPO) causes pericarp browning of postharvest rambutan fruit. In the present study, PPO and its endogenous substrates were extracted from rambutan pericarp tissues (RPT). The substrate extracts were sequentially partitioned with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The analysis of total phenolic content showed that the most phenolic compounds were distributed in ethyl acetate fraction. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (-)-epicatechin (EC) and proanthocyanidin A2 (PA2) were identified from this fraction. After reacting with rambutan PPO, EC turned brown rapidly within 10 min, indicating that it was a significant endogenous substrate. Although PA2 could also be oxidized by the PPO, it turned brown very slowly. In addition, because EC and PA2 were continually catalyzed into browning products by PPO during storage of the fruit at 4 and 25 degrees C, their contents in RPT gradually declined with the extended storage time. It was further observed that both substrate contents in rambutan fruit storing at 25 degrees C decreased more rapidly than that storing at 4 degrees C, suggesting that low temperature inhibited the catalytic oxidation of substrates so as to slow down pericarp browning. Practical Application: Pericarp browning is a serious problem to storage and transport of harvested rambutan fruit. A generally accepted opinion on the browning mechanism is the oxidation of phenolic substrates by PPO. Ascertaining PPO substrates will effectively help us to control enzymatic reaction by chemical methods so as to delay or even prevent pericarp browning of harvested rambutan fruit.

  1. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and measured performance of a porous evaporative cooler for preservation of fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyanwu, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    The design, construction and measured performance of a porous evaporative cooler for preservation of fruits and vegetables are reported. The experimental cooler, with a total storage space of 0.014 m 3 , consists of a cuboid shaped porous clay container located inside another clay container. The gap between them is filled with coconut fibre. A water reservoir linked to the cooler at the top through a flexible pipe supplied water to fill the gap, thus keeping the coconut fibre continuously wet. Results of the transient performance tests revealed that the cooler storage chamber temperature depression from ambient air temperature varied over 0.1-12 deg. C. Ambient air temperatures during the test periods ranged over 22-38 deg. C. The results also illustrate superior performance of the cooler over open air preservation of vegetables soon after harvest during the diurnal operations. Thus, the evaporative cooler has prospects for use for short term preservation of vegetables and fruits soon after harvest

  3. Hydrogen peroxide-induced pericarp browning of harvested longan fruit in association with energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yifen; Lin, Yixiong; Lin, Hetong; Ritenour, Mark A; Shi, John; Zhang, Shen; Chen, Yihui; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-15

    Energy metabolism of "Fuyan" longan fruit treated with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), the most stable of the reactive oxygen, and its relationship to pericarp browning were investigated in this work. The results displayed that H 2 O 2 significantly decreased contents of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It also inhibited activities of H + -ATPase, Ca 2+ -ATPase and Mg 2+ -ATPase in membranes of plasma, vacuole and mitochondria during the early-storage and mid-storage (except for mitochondrial membrane Mg 2+ -ATPase). These results gave convincing evidence that the treatment of H 2 O 2 accelerating pericarp browning in harvested longans was due to a decrease of ATPase activity and available ATP content. This might break the ion homeostasis and the integrity of mitochondria, which might reduce energy charge and destroy the function and compartmentalization of cell membrane. These together aggravated browning incidence in pericarp of harvested longan fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Soft X-ray radio-sensitivities of pollens in several fruit species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chungen; Deng Xiuxin

    1996-01-01

    Irradiated with different dosages of soft X-ray, pollen germinations of prunus baimang, pear kieffer, trifoliate orange and pummelo, were investigated immediately or several days later after irradiation. The results revealed that the pollens of these fruit tress had different sensitivites to soft X-ray and various responses to storage duration. Therefore, even to the same kind of pollen, irradiation with different optimal exposure doses, as well as pollination at different times during storage, should be adopted variously according to the different aims and methods of breeding programs. (author)

  5. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low ...

  6. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  7. 137Cs behaviour in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.; Quaggia, S.; Pompei, F.; Fratarcangeli, S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of measurements carried out during the period 1987-1988, to evaluate the levels of 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in fruit samples and in various components of fruit-trees have been reported. It has been demonstrated that, in the case of an accidental contamination of the air, the contamination of fruit is mainly due to the foliar translocation of radionuclide. Data of radioactivity content in fruits collected through a period of three years show that the radioactivity content in fruit diminishes exponentially. Rough estimates of ''translocation coefficient'' defined as the ratio (radionuclide concentration in fruit)/(radionuclide deposition on soil), and of the ''biological half time'' have been carried out in the case of hazel-nut, walnut, apple, chestnut and olive

  8. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  9. Phenylpropenes: Occurrence, Distribution, and Biosynthesis in Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G

    2018-03-14

    Phenylpropenes such as eugenol, chavicol, estragole, and anethole contribute to the flavor and aroma of a number of important herbs and spices. They have been shown to function as floral attractants for pollinators and to have antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Phenylpropenes are also detected as free volatiles and sequestered glycosides in a range of economically important fresh fruit species including apple, strawberry, tomato, and grape. Although they contribute a relatively small percentage of total volatiles compared with esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, phenylpropenes have been shown to contribute spicy anise- and clove-like notes to fruit. Phenylpropenes are typically found in fruit throughout development and to reach maximum concentrations in ripe fruit. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropenes have been characterized and manipulated in strawberry and apple, which has validated the importance of these compounds to fruit aroma and may help elucidate other functions for phenylpropenes in fruit.

  10. DETERMINATION OF SHELF-LIFE OF JABOTICABA´S FRUITS CV. ‘SABARÁ’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Henrique

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The jaboticaba is a fruit tree with great potential, both for fresh consumption, as for industrialization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of jaboticabas’s fruits cv. ‘Sabará’ stored under refrigeration and at room temperature. After harvest, the fruits were washed, screened, packed in plastic trays, in single layer, and stored under refrigeration (5 °C, and 49% UR, and at room temperature (27 ºC, and 33% UR. The determinations performed in triplicate immediately after harvest and every other day, until the disposal of the fruit, were: pH, soluble solids (°Brix, total titratable acidity (% citric acid, total and reducer sugars (%, vitamin C (mg/100g and phytopathological. The design adopted was entirely randomized, realized the analysis of variance (F test and comparison of averages by Tukey test to 5% of significance. Under refrigeration, the storage was more than 9 days to 12 days, the fruits showed intense shriveling (loss of moisture, being unsuitable for marketing. The soluble solids remained stable during this period, but there was decrease of pH and the levels of total and reducer sugars, in addition to increased acidity, facts that indicate occurrence of fermentation process. The losses of vitamin C were of the order of 72,5, from 4,952mg/100g in zero time, and 3,593mg/100g at the end of this period. The stored fruits at room temperature were discarded at the beginning of storage, by shriveling, incidence of microorganisms and strange odor.

  11. The impact of cold storage and ethylene on volatile ester production and aroma perception in 'Hort16A' kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Catrin S; Marsh, Ken B; Winz, Robert A; Harker, Roger F; Wohlers, Mark W; White, Anne; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-02-15

    Fruit esters are regarded as key volatiles for fruit aroma. In this study, the effects of cold storage on volatile ester levels of 'Hort16A' (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var chinensis) kiwifruit were examined and the changes in aroma perception investigated. Cold storage (1.5°C) for two or four months of fruit matched for firmness and soluble solids concentration resulted in a significant reduction in aroma-related esters such as methyl/ethyl propanoate, methyl/ethyl butanoate and methyl/ethyl hexanoate. Levels of these esters, however, were restored by ethylene treatment (100ppm, 24h) before ripening. A sensory panel found that "tropical" and "fruit candy" aroma was stronger and "green" odour notes less intensively perceived in kiwifruit which were ethylene-treated after cold storage compared to untreated fruit. The key findings presented in this study may lead to further work on the ethylene pathway, and innovative storage and marketing solutions for current and novel fruit cultivars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  13. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  14. Effects of Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings on Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System of Strawberry during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a nutritious, but highly perishable fruit. Three polysaccharide-based edible coatings (alginate, chitosan, and pullulan were applied to postharvest strawberry fruit during cold storage (4°C, and their effects on fruit quality and antioxidant enzyme system were investigated in the present study. The results showed that polysaccharide coatings showed a significant delay in fruit softening and rot and reduced changes in total soluble solid and titratable acidity content during 16 d storage. Polysaccharide coatings also maintained higher ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents than control from day 2 and significantly inhibited fruit decay and respiration after 12 d storage (p<0.05. Polysaccharide treatments enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and ascorbate peroxidase so as to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce membrane damage. Additionally, chitosan coating had the most positive effects on fruit quality amongst three polysaccharide-based edible coatings and presented the highest relative activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results indicated that polysaccharide-based edible coatings were helpful in postharvest quality maintenance of strawberry fruit.

  15. Advances in edible coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, R K

    2013-01-01

    Edible coatings are an environmentally friendly technology that is applied on many products to control moisture transfer, gas exchange or oxidation processes. Edible coatings can provide an additional protective coating to produce and can also give the same effect as modified atmosphere storage in modifying internal gas composition. One major advantage of using edible films and coatings is that several active ingredients can be incorporated into the polymer matrix and consumed with the food, thus enhancing safety or even nutritional and sensory attributes. But, in some cases, edible coatings were not successful. The success of edible coatings for fresh products totally depends on the control of internal gas composition. Quality criteria for fruits and vegetables coated with edible films must be determined carefully and the quality parameters must be monitored throughout the storage period. Color change, firmness loss, ethanol fermentation, decay ratio and weight loss of edible film coated fruits need to be monitored. This review discusses the use of different edible coatings (polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and composite) as carriers of functional ingredients on fresh fruits and vegetables to maximize their quality and shelf life. This also includes the recent advances in the incorporation of antimicrobials, texture enhancers and nutraceuticals to improve quality and functionality of fresh-cut fruits. Sensory implications, regulatory status and future trends are also reviewed.

  16. Rearing technique and biological traits of Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) in coconut fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, S.W.J.; Barros, R.; Torres, J.B.; Gondim Junior, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Larvae of the coconut moth Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) develop in flowers and fruits of coconut, Cocos nucifera, causing precocious abscission of these structures and, hence, yield decrease. This work studied a feasible and suitable rearing technique for A. subrufella using fruits of coconut. We first determined the appropriate density of larvae to be reared per coconut fruit (among two, three, four or five larvae) and later tested the suitability of this rearing technique for three successive generations. The storage of egg and pupal stages during 0, 5, 10 and 20 days was also studied at 12 deg C. Based on the fertility life table parameters, the best results were achieved by rearing two or three larvae per fruit as they yielded the best net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of population increase. In addition, eggs and pupae of A. subrufella can be stored at 12 deg C up to five days with viability higher than 90%. Adult moths emerged from pupae stored for five days at 12 deg C produced an average of 219.4 eggs and lived 18.8 days. Storage periods for eggs and pupae over 10 days significantly reduced egg viability and adult fecundity, respectively. Thus, the technique in here described was shown to be suitable for the continuous rearing of A. subrufella in laboratory conditions. (author)

  17. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....

  18. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Need For Paradigm Shift to Improve Supply Chain Management of Fruits & Vegetables in India

    OpenAIRE

    Piali Halder; Simayan Pati

    2011-01-01

    As the Indian population is increasing, the demand for fresh fruits and vegetables is also increasing. Owing to the perishable nature and very short shelf life, these items require proper storage and transportation facilities in order to reach to the customer in fresh state. A lack of investment in agriculture makes the country vulnerable to international price shocks as well as exchange-rate volatility. This requires a considerable amount of effort from the involved parties. The entire chain...

  20. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO; LEONARDO THOMAZ DINIZ; ADRIANO DO NASCIMENTO SIMÕES; ROLF PUSCHMANN

    2014-01-01

    Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Rec...

  1. Application of physics technology in the preservation of food and fresh fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yaxiang; Hu Yucai; Xu Jianping

    2003-01-01

    Physics provides a new way for food storage and preservation. Experiments show that application of radiation, electrostatic fields, high voltage pulsed electric fields and microwaves to food, fruits and vegetables plays the part of insecticide, pasteurization and antisepsis without damaging nutritional structure and original flavor. Recent advances in the application of physics technology in food pasteurization and preservation are summarized, and prospects for future developments presented

  2. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatema H. Brishti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  3. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  4. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the levels that become consumer preference in purchasing fruit leather product. There were 60 samples respondents taken accidentally at Bangkalan Plaza Shopping area. Method being used was conjoint analysis. Result showed that fruit leather being chosen by consumers as preference are gummy, mixed fruit taste, yellow color small roll shape, at 100 grams and in a plastic tube package.

  5. Optimization of fruit punch using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G

    2010-01-01

    A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango.

  6. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  7. Transcriptomic events associated with internal browning of apple during postharvest storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Buts, Kim; Hatoum, Darwish; Ho, Quang Tri; Johnston, Jason W; Watkins, Christopher B; Schaffer, Robert J; Gapper, Nigel E; Giovannoni, Jim J; Rudell, David R; Hertog, Maarten LATM; Nicolai, Bart M

    2014-01-01

    Background Postharvest ripening of apple (Malus x domestica) can be slowed down by low temperatures, and a combination of low O2 and high CO2 levels. While this maintains the quality of most fruit, occasionally storage disorders such as flesh browning can occur. This study aimed to explore changes in the apple transcriptome associated with a flesh browning disorder related to controlled atmosphere storage using RNA-sequencing techniques. Samples from a browning-susceptible cultivar (‘Braeburn...

  8. Cold storage of peaches cv. Aurora grown in the Zona da Mata Mineira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postharvest behavior of peach cv. Aurora 1 harvested in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais in two ripening stages and kept under different storage temperatures. Fruits on mid-ripe and fully ripe stages were stored at three temperatures: 5.6 ± 1.57 °C and 72.8 ± 3.8% RH; 10.4 ± 0.5 °C and 95.8 ± 5.5% RH; 21.04 ± 1.63 °C and 96.9 ± 2.6% RH up to 28 storage days (SD . During storage, fruits stored at 21.04 ± 1.63 °C were evaluated every two days until 8 SD, and every four days for fruits stored at other temperatures. The harvest day was assigned as day zero. The variables evaluated were CO2 production, color of the pericarp and pulp, fresh mass loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids. The fresh mass loss increased during storage, peaking at 5.6 °C. The reduction in ascorbic acid content was higher in fully ripe fruits at all temperatures. Mid-ripe fruits reached the end of the storage period with better quality. The temperature of 10.4 °C was the most efficient in keeping postharvest quality of peach cv. Aurora 1 harvested in the Zona da Mata region.

  9. Changes in antioxidant and biochemical activities in castor oil-coated Capsicum annuum L. during postharvest storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Jitendriya; Patel, Mansi; Patel, Niyati; Gheewala, Bhumi; Gantait, Saikat

    2018-06-01

    This study, for the first time, evaluates the efficiency of castor oil when used as an external coating on Capsicum annuum L., to increase postharvest storage-life at 4 ± 1 °C. The castor oil-coated fruits were successfully stored for 36 days, while the non-coated fruits could only sustain for 18 days. Throughout the storage period (at 9-day intervals), different antioxidants and biochemical assays (allied with storage) such as titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, ferrous ion chelating activity, reducing power, DPPH scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total sugar estimation, and enzymatic study of polyphenol oxidase and pectate lyase, were assessed. During storage, the castor oil-coated fruits showed a substantial decrease in titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content, including antioxidant activities such as reducing power and DPPH activity; however, an increase in ferrous ion chelating activity, total soluble sugar content, polyphenol oxidase activity and initial pectate lyase activity was observed, in contrast to that of the non-coated fruits. The application of castor oil proved to be effective in delaying the ripening process of fruits during storage.

  10. The effect of dropping impact on bruising pomegranate fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Shafie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pomegranate journey from orchard to supermarket is very complex and pomegranates are subjected to the variety of static and dynamic loads that could result in this damage and bruise occurring. Bruise area and bruise volume are the most important parameters to evaluate fruit damage occurred in harvest and postharvest stages. The bruising is defined as damage to fruit flesh usually with no abrasion of the peel. The two different types of dynamic loading which can physically cause fruit bruising are impact and vibration. The impact and vibration loadings may occur during picking or sorting as the pomegranates are dropped into storage bins and during transportation. The focus of this work was on the impact loading as this appeared to be the most prevalent. In view of the limitations of conventional testing methods (ASTM D3332 Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Shock Fragility of Products, the method and procedure for determining dropping bruise boundary of fruit were also established by adapting free-fall dropping tests. Materials and Methods: After the ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ pomegranates had been selected, they were numbered, and the weight and dimension of each sample were measured and recorded. Firmness in cheek region of each fruit was also measured. Fruit firmness was determined by measuring the maximum force during perforating the sample to a depth of 10 mm at a velocity of 100 mm min-1 with an 8 mm diameter cylindrical penetrometer mounted onto a STM-5 Universal Testing Machine (SANTAM, Design CO. LTD., England. Free-fall dropping tests with a series of drop heights (6, 7, 10, 15, 30 and 60 cm were conducted on fresh ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ pomegranates. Three samples were used for each dropping height, and each sample was subjected to impact on two different positions. Before the test was started, it was necessary to control the sample's drop position. The cheek of sample was placed on the fruit holder. An aluminum plate mounted

  11. Mutation breeding in Philippine fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espino, R.R.C.

    1987-09-01

    Studies were made to establish standard conditions for mutation induction by gamma-irradiation to be performed in combination with in-vitro culture for banana and citrus spp. Besides this, radio-sensitivity of seeds and/or plantlets of mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit was investigated and primary observation on the occurrence of mutation was made. For the mutagenesis of banana shoot tip cultures, radio-sensitivity of plantlets derived from the culture as well as fresh-cultured shoots was examined and phenotypes indicative of mutation, such as chlorophyl streaking, slow growth, pigmentation and varied bunch orientation were recorded. Isozyme analysis for mutated protein structure was not conclusive. In the in-vitro culture of Citrus spp., seeds placed on fresh media as well as germinating seeds and two-leaf stage seedlings in test tubes were examined for their radio-sensitivity. Irradiated materials were propagated for further observation. In these two crops, basic methodology for mutation induction with combined use of in-vitro culture and gamma-irradiation was established. In mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit, basic data on radiosensitivity were obtained. In mango, leaf abnormalities were observed after the treatment of scions

  12. Water Storage: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smakhtin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Humans stored water - in various forms - for ages, coping with water resources variability, and its extremes - floods and droughts. Storage per capita, and other storage-related indicators, have essentially become one way of reflecting the progress of economic development. Massive investments went into large surface water reservoirs that have become the characteristic feature of the earth's landscapes, bringing both benefits and controversy. As water variability progressively increases with changing climate, globally, on one hand, and the idea of sustainable development receives strong traction, on another - it may be worth the while to comprehensively examine current trends and future prospects for water storage development. The task is surely big, to say the least. The presentation will aim to initiate a structured discussion on this multi-facet issue and identify which aspects and trends of water storage development may be most important in the context of Sustainable Development Goals, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, and examine how, where and to what extent water storage planning can be improved. It will cover questions like i) aging of large water storage infrastructure, the current extent of this trend in various geographical regions, and possible impacts on water security and security of nations; ii) improved water storage development planning overall in the context of various water development alternatives and storage options themselves and well as their combinations iii) prospects for another "storage revolution" - speed increase in dam numbers, and where, if at all this is most likely iv) recent events in storage development, e.g. is dam decommissioning a trend that picks pace, or whether some developing economies in Asia can do without going through the period of water storage construction, with alternatives, or suggestions for alleviation of negative impacts v) the role of subsurface storage as an

  13. [Spectral navigation technology and its application in positioning the fruits of fruit trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2010-03-01

    An innovative technology of spectral navigation is presented in the present paper. This new method adopts reflectance spectra of fruits, leaves and branches as one of the key navigation parameters and positions the fruits of fruit trees relying on the diversity of spectral characteristics. The research results show that the distinct smoothness as effect is available in the spectrum of leaves of fruit trees. On the other hand, gradual increasing as the trend is an important feature in the spectrum of branches of fruit trees while the spectrum of fruit fluctuates. In addition, the peak diversity of reflectance rate between fruits and leaves of fruit trees is reached at 850 nm of wavelength. So the limit value can be designed at this wavelength in order to distinguish fruits and leaves. The method introduced here can not only quickly distinguish fruits, leaves and branches, but also avoid the effects of surroundings. Compared with the traditional navigation systems based on machine vision, there are still some special and unique features in the field of positioning the fruits of fruit trees using spectral navigation technology.

  14. ProfitFruit: Decision Support System for Evaluation of Investments in Fruit Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Groot, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative techniques were developed in the Isafruit project in order to create a more ecological sustainable way of fruit growing. Before fruit growers will consider implementation of these innovations they need information concerning their economic sustainability. The economic model ProfitFruit is

  15. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  16. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Essential oils to control Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in vivo on plum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminifard, Mohammad Hossein; Mohammadi, Samane

    2013-01-01

    The consequence of misusing chemical biocides in controlling pests and diseases has drawn the attention of policy makers to the development of methods potentially available in nature for this purpose. In the present study the inhibitory effects of black caraway, fennel and peppermint essential oils against Botrytis cinerea were tested at various concentrations in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro results showed that the growth of B. cinerea was completely inhibited by the application of black caraway and fennel oils at concentrations of 400 and 600 µL L⁻¹ respectively. The in vivo results indicated that black caraway, fennel and peppermint oils at all applied concentrations inhibited B. cinerea growth on plum fruits compared with the control. In addition, all three oils at higher concentrations showed positive effects on fruit quality characteristics such as titrable acidity, total soluble solids, carbohydrate content, pH and weight loss percentage. Thus the oils inhibited the infection of plum fruits by B. cinerea and increased their storage life. This research confirms the antifungal effects of black caraway, fennel and peppermint essential oils both in vitro and in vivo on plum fruits postharvest. Therefore these essential oils could be an alternative to chemicals to control postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on plum fruits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Volatile compounds in medlar fruit (Mespilus germanica L. at two ripening stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Milovan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medlar is the fruit of Mespilus germanica L. in the family of Rosaceae. The fruit can be eaten only if ‘bletted’ (softened by frost or longer storage. The effect of the maturation stages on the volatile compounds of the medlar fruit was investigated during two different stages. Volatile flavour substances were isolated from the minced pulp of unripe and full ripe medlar fruits by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE with methilen chloride as the extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-FID-MS. Hexanoic and hexadecanoic acids were the predominant acids, hexanal and (E-2-hexenal were the predominant aldehydes, (Z-3-hexenol and hexanol were the predominant alcohols, with p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpiene (the terpenes responsible for the characteristic medlar flavour being also present. The C6 aliphatic compounds, such as hexanal and (E-2-hexenal, were observed as the major volatile constituents in the green stage. In contrast, hexanol and (Z-3-hexenol were the main volatiles in ripe fruits.

  20. Involvement of WRKY Transcription Factors in Abscisic-Acid-Induced Cold Tolerance of Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong-Lan; Ba, Liang-Jie; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2017-05-10

    Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated to play important roles in various stress responses. The involvement of WRKY TFs in ABA-mediated cold tolerance of economical fruits, such as banana fruit, however remains largely unknown. Here, we reported that ABA application could induce expressions of ABA biosynthesis-related genes MaNCED1 and MaNCED2, increase endogenous ABA contents, and thereby enhance cold tolerance in banana fruit. Four banana fruit WRKY TFs, designated as MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71, were identified and characterized. All four of these MaWRKYs were nuclear-localized and displayed transactivation activities. Their expressions were induced by ABA treatment during cold storage. More importantly, the gel mobility shift assay and transient expression analysis revealed that MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71 directly bound to the W-box elements in MaNCED1 and MaNCED2 promoters and activated their expressions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that banana fruit WRKY TFs are involved in ABA-induced cold tolerance by, at least in part, increasing ABA levels via directly activating NECD expressions.

  1. Gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh pome fruits produced in Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J.; Lires, C.; Horak, C.; Pawlak, E.; Docters, A.; Kairiyama, E.

    2009-07-01

    Argentina produces 1.8 million tons/year of apples ( Malus domestica L.) and pears ( Pyrus communis L.) in the Patagonia region. Cydia pomonella, codling moth, and Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth, ( Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests in pome fruits. Irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment because a dose of 200 Gy completely prevents pest adult emergence. A pilot irradiation process of commercially packaged 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears was performed in an irradiation facility with a Cobalt 60 source. Quality analyses were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage (1 °C, RH 99%) to evaluate fruit tolerance at 200, 400 and 800 Gy. Irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy had no undesirable effects on fruit quality (pulp firmness, external colour, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluations). Irradiation of 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears can be applied as a commercial quarantine treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 200 Gy (to control codling moth and Oriental fruit moth) and <800 Gy (according to quality results).

  2. Modified atmosphere packaging extending the storage life of 'douradão' peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Douradão' peach is a perishable product and when cold stored is subject to chilling injury. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP and cold storage on quality and storage life of these peaches. Fruits were packed in polypropylene (PP trays and placed inside low density polyethylene (LDPE bags (30, 50, 60, 75 μm thickness with active modified atmosphere (10 kPa CO2 + 1.5kPa O2, balance N2. The control was made with peaches held in nonwrapped PP trays. Fruits were kept at 1 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH for 28 days and CO2 and O2 within packages was monitored every two days. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from MAP and kept in air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH for ripening. On the day of removal from the cold storage and after 4 days, peaches were evaluated for weight loss, decay incidence, flesh firmness, woolliness incidence, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and juice content. The results showed that MAP had influence on reducing weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. MAP of 1-2 kPa O2 and 3-6 kPa CO2 at 1 °C (from 50 and 60 μm LDPE films were effective for keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. Packages of 30 and 75 μm LDPE films were ineffective for reducing woolliness during cold storage. MAP fruits showed lower SSC and no relevant effect on TA. Control fruits did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  3. A Fruitful Endeavor: Modeling ALS in the Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2014-01-01

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. PMID:25289585

  4. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  5. System for secure storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A system (100) comprising read means (112) for reading content data and control logic data from a storage medium (101), the control logic data being uniquely linked to the storage medium (101), processing means (113-117), for processing the content data and feeding the processed content data to an

  6. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  7. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  8. Optical storage networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Ulrich

    2001-11-01

    For efficient business continuance and backup of mission- critical data an inter-site storage network is required. Where traditional telecommunications costs are prohibitive for all but the largest organizations, there is an opportunity for regional carries to deliver an innovative storage service. This session reveals how a combination of optical networking and protocol-aware SAN gateways can provide an extended storage networking platform with the lowest cost of ownership and the highest possible degree of reliability, security and availability. Companies of every size, with mainframe and open-systems environments, can afford to use this integrated service. Three mayor applications are explained; channel extension, Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and how optical networks address the specific requirements. One advantage of DWDM is the ability for protocols such as ESCON, Fibre Channel, ATM and Gigabit Ethernet, to be transported natively and simultaneously across a single fiber pair, and the ability to multiplex many individual fiber pairs over a single pair, thereby reducing fiber cost and recovering fiber pairs already in use. An optical storage network enables a new class of service providers, Storage Service Providers (SSP) aiming to deliver value to the enterprise by managing storage, backup, replication and restoration as an outsourced service.

  9. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  10. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among schoolchildren: efforts in middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Orito, Aya; Löwik, Marianne; Mclean, Catherine; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    To reverse the trend of rising child obesity rates in many middle-income countries, recommendations include increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Schools can positively impact children's eating behavior, and multicomponent interventions that include the curriculum, school food environments, and parental involvement are most effective. To find out how fruits and vegetables feature in the dietary guidelines provided to schools, what specific schemes are available for providing these foods, the extent to which nutrition education is included in the curriculum, and how vegetables and fruits are procured in primary schools. In 2008, a survey questionnaire previously validated and revised was sent electronically to national program managers and focal points for school feeding programs in 58 middle-income countries. The rationale was to obtain information relevant to the entire country from these key informants. The survey response rate was 46%. The information provided by 22 respondents in 18 countries was included in the current study. On average, respondents answered 88% of the questions analyzed in this paper. Of the respondents, 73% worked for the national authority responsible for school food programs, with 45% at the program coordinator or director level. Few countries have any special fruit and vegetable schemes; implementation constraints include cost and lack of storage facilities. Although 11 of 18 countries have both nutrient-based guidelines and school food guidelines for meals, fruits and vegetables are often not adequately specified. In some countries, nutrition education, special activities, school gardens, and parental participation are used to promote fruits and vegetables. Specific schemes are needed in some, together with school food guidelines that include fruits and vegetables.

  11. Fermentation characteristics and nutritional quality of elephant grass silage added the buriti fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Ribeiro Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluated the inclusion of buriti fruit peel as additive on the fermentation profile, losses, chemical composition and degradability of elephant grass silage. We used a completely randomized design with five levels of buriti fruit peel (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 g kg-1. The silos were opened after 28 days of storage. In situ degradability monitoring was conducted using a split-plot design in which four animals represented the blocks and silage supplemented with five levels of buriti fruit peel represented the treatments. The use of the additive in elephant silage increased dry matter (DM (P < 0.001, ether extract (EE (P < 0.001, ash (P < 0.001, neutral detergent fiber (NDF (P < 0.001 and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P= 0.0000. The pH (P= 0.0000, N-NH3 (P = 0.024 and there was a decrease in gas losses (P < 0.001, effluent losses and dry matter recovery (P = 0.218 not were influenced by the addition of buriti fruit peel. The inclusion of buriti fruit peel linearly reduced the ruminal degradability DM of soluble fraction (a (P < 0.001 and potentially degradable insoluble fraction (b (P < 0.001. The DM content increase with the addition of the buriti fruit peel to the elephant grass silage promotes improvements in the fermentation process, reduces losses of nutrients and ruminal disappearance of dry matter and does not significantly change the chemical composition with the inclusion of 166.7 g kg-1 of the buriti fruit peel.

  12. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  13. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  14. Compact nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Churakov, Yu.A.; Danchenko, Yu.V.; Bylkin, B.K.; Tsvetkov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Different constructions of racks for compact storage of spent fuel assemblies (FA) in ''coolin''g pools (CP) of NPPs with the BWR and PWR type reactors are described. Problems concerning nuclear and radiation safety and provision of necessary thermal conditions arising in such rack design are discussed. It is concluded that the problem of prolonged fuel storage at NPPs became Very actual for many countries because of retapdation of the rates of fuel reprocessing centers building. Application of compact storage racks is a promising solution of the problem of intermediate FA storage at NPPs. Such racks of stainless boron steel and with neutron absorbers in the from of boron carbide panels enable to increase the capacity of the present CP 2-2.6 times, and the period of FA storage in them up to 5-10 years

  15. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alexander, E-mail: ajw36@cam.ac.uk [Hopkinson Laboratory, Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge. CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  16. Use of irradiation in combination with preservation techniques to extend the shelf-life of tropical fruits and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Ilangantileke, S.G.; Upadhyay, I.P.; Karki, D.B.; Apintanapong, M.

    1998-01-01

    Gamma irradiation in combination with other treatment processes was investigated with a view to extending the shelf-life of some tropical fruits in fresh and processed conditions. A low dose of irradiation (0.6 kGy) combined with hot water treatment (at 55 deg. C for 20 min) extended the shelf-life of fresh mangoes from 15 to 32 days at 20 deg. C storage. The shelf-life of fresh lychees was extended to 16 days by irradiation (1 kGy) and storage at 5 deg. C through reducing the rotting and preserving the fruit colour. A shelf-life of up to 30 days was obtained by a combination of hot benomyl dipping of the lychess (at 55 deg. C for 2 min) and polyethylene packaging, whereas modified atmosphere storage in CO 2 did not control pericarp browning. Irradiation as a means of preservation was investigated in processed fruits such as semi-dried mangoes and longans, and mango puree. A minimum dose of 2 kGy extended the shelf-life of the semi-dried mangoes and longans for up to 75 days when stored at 14 deg. C, without mould growth, whereas these fruits deteriorated at 30 deg. C storage, as indicated by discoloration and a deterioration in the flavour. On the other hand, doses of up to 4 kGy and storage at a low temperature (5 deg. C) were necessary to maintain microorganism growth (as determined by the aerobic plate count) at the lowest level; no microorganisms were observed at 6 kGy and higher. The chemical attributes of the puree tended to remain unaffected by the irradiation treatment but were more sensitive to the storage duration and conditions. The puree was preserved for as long as 60 days at 5 deg. C, without compromising the keeping quality. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  18. Postharvest quality of GA-treated Florida grapefruit after gamma irradiation with TBZ and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Macf.), harvested from gibberellic acid (GA) treated trees were irradiated at 0.3 or 0.6 kGy, and evaluated for quality after treatment and simulated commercial storage. The peel of GA-treated fruit retained green color and the fruit were firmer than control fruit after treatment. A condition, not observed before with grapefruit, was described and termed ‘spongy fruit’, which increased as irradiation dosage increased. The incidence of fruit peel pitting after five weeks' storage increased from < 2% to 11% and 25% as irradiation dose increased from 0 to 0.3 and 0.6 kGy. The majority of pitting at 0.3 kGy was slight and would not have an affect on U.S. #1 Grade for grapefruit. Incidence of decay (mostly green mold) was reduced with thiabendazole (TBZ), and mean decay among all treatments was < 1%. Total soluble solids, titratable acidity and the resulting ratio was not affected by GA or irradiation. There was a general decline in the sensory preference for juice flavor, and pulp flavor and texture as irradiation dose increased. We conclude that GA-treated grapefruit will tolerate irradiation dosage of 0.3 kGy without serious damage; however, at dosage of 0.6 kGy, serious peel damage detrimental to fruit quality will likely develop during storage. (author)

  19. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation...

  20. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.