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Sample records for fruits concentrate sensor

  1. Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhisam Misron

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced.

  2. Radioactivity distribution in each part of the fruit trees from radioactive fall out (8). Prediction of peach fruit radiocaesium concentration by thinning fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Daisuke; Yasunaga, Eriko; Sato, Mamoru; Abe, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    To explore the predictability of radiocaesium concentration in the mature peach fruits based on the radiocaesium concentration in the young superfluous fruits picked at the fruit thinning period, the change in the radiocaesium concentration as well as potassium ("4"0K) in peach fruits associated with fruit growth was monitored during the second year after the accident of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima. Radiocaesium concentration was found to be highest in the fruit 15 days after the full bloom stage, followed by the gradual decrease before harvest. In addition, variation of radiocaesium and "4"0K concentration with time was shown to be different in leaves and fruits. Finally, the young fruits 60 days after the full bloom date and the ripe fruits were taken from 24 orchards in Fukushima to compare their radiocaesium levels. The predictability of radiocaesium concentration and some considerations for practical use are discussed. (author)

  3. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Y.J.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl 2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl 2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45 Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45 CaCl 2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  4. All-in-one: a versatile gas sensor based on fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy for monitoring postharvest fruit conservation and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Tobias; Rahal, Leila; Suckert, Renè J; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2016-03-21

    In today's fruit conservation rooms the ripening of harvested fruit is delayed by precise management of the interior oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Ethylene (C2H4), a natural plant hormone, is commonly used to trigger fruit ripening shortly before entering the market. Monitoring of these critical process gases, also of the increasingly favored cooling agent ammonia (NH3), is a crucial task in modern postharvest fruit management. The goal of this work was to develop and characterize a gas sensor setup based on fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy for fast (time resolution of a few minutes) and non-destructive process gas monitoring throughout the complete postharvest production chain encompassing storage and transport in fruit conservation chambers as well as commercial fruit ripening in industrial ripening rooms. Exploiting a micro-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for analyte gas confinement and sensitivity enhancement, the sensor features simultaneous quantification of O2, CO2, NH3 and C2H4 without cross-sensitivity in just one single measurement. Laboratory measurements of typical fruit conservation gas mixtures showed that the sensor is capable of quantifying O2 and CO2 concentration levels with accuracy of 3% or less with respect to reference concentrations. The sensor detected ammonia concentrations, relevant for chemical alarm purposes. Due to the high spectral resolution of the gas sensor, ethylene could be quantified simultaneously with O2 and CO2 in a multi-component mixture. These results indicate that fiber enhanced Raman sensors have a potential to become universally usable on-site gas sensors for controlled atmosphere applications in postharvest fruit management.

  5. Concentration change of radiocaesium in persimmon leaves and fruits. Observation results in 2011 Spring - 2013 Summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    To make dried-fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki), its fresh fruits were generally processed to decrease their water-contents to about 30-50%. During this food process, their radiocaesium concentrations increased without any loss, and, occasionally, the dried-fruits may exceed the food standard level of 100 Bq/kg (edible form). Thus, it is necessary to estimate the radiocaesium concentrations in the products before the fresh fruit harvesting and processing. For this purpose, radiocaesium concentrations in leaves of persimmon trees were monitored with time. The 137 Cs concentrations in the fruits were usually lower than those in the leaves and the concentration ratio was less than 0.4 on a fresh weight basis. The ratio became smaller when closer the harvest season. Thus the concentration of leaves could be a good indicator to estimate the processed persimmon fruits. (author)

  6. Application of Microwave Moisture Sensor for Determination of Oil Palm Fruit Ripeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, You Kok; Abbas, Zulkifly; Khalid, Kaida

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a low cost coaxial moisture sensor for the determination of moisture content (30 % to 80 % wet-weight basis) of the oil palm fruits of various degree of fruit ripeness. The sensor operating between 1 GHz and 5 GHz was fabricated from an inexpensive 4.1 mm outer diameter SMA coaxial stub contact panel which is suitable for single fruit measurement. The measurement system consists of the sensor and a PC-controlled vector network analyzer (VNA). The actual moisture content was determined by standard oven drying method and compared with predicted value of fruit moisture content obtained using the studied sensor. The sensor was used to monitor fruit ripeness based on the measurement of the phase or magnitude of reflection coefficient and the dielectric measurement software was developed to control and acquire data from the VNA using Agilent VEE. This software was used to calculate the complex relative permittivity from the measured reflection coefficient between 1GHz and 5 GHz.

  7. Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor for Measuring Cholesterol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Budiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple design of a cholesterol concentration detection is proposed and demonstrated using a fiber optic displacement sensor based on an intensity modulation technique. The proposed sensor uses a bundled plastic optical fiber (POF as a probe in conjunction with a flat mirror as a target. It is obtained that the peak voltage reduces with increasing cholesterol concentration. The sensor is capable of measuring the cholesterol concentration ranging from 0 to 300 ppm in a distilled water with a measured sensitivity of 0.01 mV/ppm, a linearity of more than 99.62 % and a resolution of 3.9188 ppm. The proposed sensor also shows a high degree of stability and good repeatability. The simplicity of design, accuracy, flexible dynamic range, and the low cost of fabrication are favorable attributes of the sensor and beneficial for real- field applications. Fiber optic sensors

  8. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC

  9. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC.

  10. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hasmiza Harun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB. Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB. A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA. To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  11. Dual resonant frequencies effects on an induction-based oil palm fruit sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Mohd Sidek, Roslina; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-11-19

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  12. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  13. Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Paolucci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index and sensor response are discussed.

  14. Variation of ascorbic acid concentration in fruits of cultivated and wild apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Zhen, Qiaoling; Liao, Liao; Owiti, Albert; Zhao, Li; Korban, Schuyler S; Han, Yuepeng

    2017-06-15

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) content in mature fruits of 457 apple accessions were measured, and a great variation in AsA concentration was detected. Wild fruits showed significantly higher level of AsA than cultivated fruits. Fruit AsA content was positively correlated with malic acid content, but negatively correlated with fruit weight and soluble solid content. Thus, the difference in AsA content between the wild and cultivated fruits could be attributed to an indirect consequence of human selection for larger fruit size, less acidity, and increased sweetness during apple domestication. Additionally, AsA concentration was extremely high in fruit at the juvenile stage, but dramatically decreased at the expanding and mature stages. The expression levels of three genes controlling AsA accumulation, MdGGP1, MdDHAR3-3, and MdNAT7-2, were significantly negatively correlated with AsA contents in fruits, suggesting a feedback regulation mechanism in AsA-related gene expression. Our results could be helpful for future apple breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco... Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. A proprietor of a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar may alternate the use of...

  16. Wave Front Sensor for Solar Concentrator Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    terrestrial-based and space-based. Both types of concentrator can be either imaging or nonimaging and they can be rigid or inflatable. Other...and T is the temperature of the absorber and propellant. In (5), Iin is input intensity with effects of the optical path through the concentrator acting...Hartmann in 1900 and was used for checking optical telescopes for aberrations. It was an array of holes in a plate placed in front of the mirror of

  17. Intelligent fiber optic sensor for solution concentration examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, Michal; Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents the working principles of intelligent fiber-optic intensity sensor used for solution concentration examination. The sensor head is the ending of the large core polymer optical fiber. The head works on the reflection intensity basis. The reflected signal level depends on Fresnel reflection and reflection on suspended matter when the head is submersed in solution. The sensor head is mounted on a lift. For detection purposes the signal includes head submerging, submersion, emerging and emergence is measured. This way the viscosity turbidity and refraction coefficient has an effect on measured signal. The signal forthcoming from head is processed electrically in opto-electronic interface. Then it is feed to neural network. The novelty of presented sensor is implementation of neural network that works in generalization mode. The sensor resolution depends on opto-electronic signal conversion precision and neural network learning accuracy. Therefore, the number and quality of points used for learning process is very important. The example sensor application for examination of liquid soap concentration in water is presented in the paper.

  18. Relationships between fruit nutrients and concentrations of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in 'Elstar' apple skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.; Jager, de A.

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between fruit N, P, K, Mg and Ca concentrations during the season and flavonoid and chlorogenic acid concentrations in skin of `Elstar¿ apples at maturity have been studied during three seasons in a nutrition experiment (with the mutant `Elshof¿), and in a separate experiment with

  19. Concentration of radiocesium in rice, vegetables, and fruits cultivated in evacuation area at Okuma town, Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohse, Kenji; Kitayama, Kyo; Kanno, Akira; Suzuki, Chika; Kawatsu, Kencho; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Suenaga, Seiichi; Matsumoto, Kiyoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Rice, vegetables, and fruits were cultivated in the evacuation area at Okuma town, and the radiocesium concentration of the crop samples cultivated in contaminated and decontaminated soil was compared. Decrease of the concentration in every crop by decontamination was observed. The TF of brown rice was higher than previous reports. (author)

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED PASTES OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Developed a new system for producing concentrated semi-finished products in the form of pastes for the food industry. Currently, an important task of the food industry is the creation of new products with the aim of improving the structure of the range, saving scarce raw materials, as well as reduce sugar intake; development of product functionality and products with extended shelf life. The use of local non-traditional types of plant materials can contribute to solving existing problems. Fruit and vegetable pastes are a valuable food products which can be used as a semifinished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry. Fruit and vegetable purees have a distinct structurally viscous or pseudo-plastic properties and concentration form a very viscous mass. Already in the beginning of the process of concentration, i.e. at a relatively low degree of evaporation that leads to a rapid increase in the viscosity of the concentrate mass and reduce evaporation. With increasing temperature is the burning mass, and also change its color and flavor. Therefore, for the concentration of fruit and vegetable purees, you must use equipment whose design takes into account the possible rheological and thermal problems. The analysis of literary data structures evaporators and studies, we developed a system for producing concentrated pastes of fruit and vegetable raw materials. Developed installation can increase the quality of the finished product due to the intensification of the process of concentration, to reduce material and energy resources, increase productivity.

  1. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  2. EFFECT OF THIDIAZURON CONCENTRATION AND APPLICATION PERIOD ON ‘ROYAL GALA’ APPLE FRUITING AND PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVERLAN FAGUNDES

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘Gala’ apple trees have low fruit set in restrictive pollination situations, being an obstacle to the achievement of high production rates in orchards in southern Brazil, which can be minimized by the use of growth regulators. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thidiazuron concentrations in ‘Royal Gala’ apple fruiting and production, grown in mild winter conditions. The experiment was conducted during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 crop years in Fraiburgo, SC, on ‘Royal Gala’ apple trees in Marubakaido rootstock M9 with filter. In all evaluation cycles, the experimental design was a randomized block with factorial arrangement (6x2 with six TDZ concentrations and two application forms, with six replicates, and the experimental unit consisting of one plant. The TDZ concentrations of each treatment were applied split into two seasons. The first application was performed on pink bud stage (E2 and the second application was in full bloom stage (F2. The variables evaluated were: fruit set (%, return bloom (%, number and weight of fruits per plant, mean fruit weight (g and average number of seeds per fruit. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, in which for significant variables by the F test, analysis of contrast and polynomial regression were performed in order to evaluate the response of variables with increasing TDZ concentration. TDZ is effective even at low concentrations, increasing the production and fruit set of ‘Gala’ apples in the climatic conditions of southern Brazil.

  3. Monitoring of yeast cell concentration using a micromachined impedance sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Bomer, Johan G.; van den Berg, Albert; Li, X.; Ottens, M.; van der Wielen, L.A.M.; van Dedem, G.W.K.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Gulik, W.M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the design, modelling and experimental characterization of a micromachined impedance sensor for on-line monitoring of the viable yeast cell concentration (biomass) in a miniaturized cell assay. Measurements in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell culture show that the permittivity of

  4. Highly Sensitive Cadmium Concentration Sensor Using Long Period Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lalasangi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a simple and effective Long Period Grating chemical sensor for detecting the traces of Cadmium (Cd++ in drinking water at ppm level. Long Period gratings (LPG were fabricated by point-by-point technique with CO2 laser. We have characterized the LPG concentration sensor sensitivity for different solutions of Cd concentrations varying from 0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm by injecting white Light source and observed transmitted spectra using Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA. Proper reagents have been used in the solutions for detection of the Cd species. The overall shift in wavelength is 10 nm when surrounding medium gradually changed from water to 0.04 ppm of cadmium concentrations. A comparative study has been done using sophisticated spectroscopic atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP instruments. The spectral sensitivity enhancement was done by modifying grating surface with gold nanoparticles.

  5. Inter-species comparative analysis of components of soluble sugar concentration in fleshy fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwu eDai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The soluble sugar concentration of fleshy fruit is a key determinant of fleshy fruit quality. It affects directly the sweetness of fresh fruits and indirectly the properties of processed products (e.g. alcohol content in wine. Despite considerable divergence among species, soluble sugar accumulation in a fruit results from the complex interplay of three main processes, namely sugar import, sugar metabolism, and water dilution. Therefore, inter-species comparison would help to identify common and/or species-specific modes of regulation in sugar accumulation. For this purpose, a process-based mathematical framework was used to compare soluble sugar accumulation in three fruits: grape, tomato and peach. Representative datasets covering the time course of sugar accumulation during fruit development were collected. They encompassed 104 combinations of species (3, genotypes (32, and growing conditions (19 years and 16 nutrient and environmental treatments. At maturity, grape showed the highest soluble sugar concentrations (16.5-26.3 g /100 g FW, followed by peach (2.2 to 20 g /100 g FW and tomato (1.4 to 5 g /100 g FW. Main processes determining soluble sugar concentration were decomposed into sugar importation, metabolism and water dilution with the process-based analysis. Different regulation modes of soluble sugar concentration were then identified, showing either import-based, dilution-based, or import and dilution dual-based. Firstly, the higher soluble sugar concentration in grape than in tomato is a result of higher sugar importation. Secondly, the higher soluble sugar concentration in grape than in peach is due to a lower water dilution. The third mode of regulation is more complicated than the first two, with differences both in sugar importation and water dilution (grape vs cherry tomato; cherry tomato vs peach; peach vs tomato. On the other hand, carbon utilization for synthesis of non-soluble sugar compounds (namely metabolism was

  6. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine inventory and will be properly identified. Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will...

  7. Not-from-concentrate blueberry juice extraction utilizing frozen fruit, heated mash, and enzyme processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juice production is a multibillion dollar industry and an economical way to use fruit past seasonal harvests. To evaluate how production steps influence not-from-concentrate (NFC) blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) juice recovery, bench top and pilot scale experiments were performed. In bench-top, southern h...

  8. Minimizing 1/f Noise in Magnetic Sensors with a MEMS Flux Concentrator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edelstein, A. S; Fischer, Greg; Pulskamp, Jeff; Pedersen, Michael; Bernard, William; Cheng, Shu F

    2004-01-01

    .... This shift is accomplished by modulating the magnetic field before it reaches the sensor. In our device, the magnetic sensor, a GMR sensor, is placed between flux concentrators that have been deposited on MEMS flaps...

  9. Fabricated nano-fiber diameter as liquid concentration sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyad, Radhi M.; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    Nanofiber is characterized by thin, long, and very soft silica. Taper fibers are made using an easy and low cost chemical method. Etching is conducted with a HF solution to remove cladding and then a low molarity HF solution to reduce the fiber core diameter. One approach to on-line monitoring of the etching process uses spectrophotometer with a white light source. In the aforementioned technique, this method aims to determine the diameter of the reduced core and show the evolution of the two different processes from the nanofiber regime to the fixed regime in which the mode was remote from the surrounding evanescent field, intensity can propagate outside the segment fiber when the core diameter is less than 500 nm. Manufacturing technologies of nano-fiber sensors offer a number of approved properties of optical fiber sensors utilized in various sensory applications. The nano-fiber sensor is utilized to sense the difference in the concentration of D-glucose in double-distilled deionized water and to measure the refractive index (RI) of a sugar solution. Our proposed method exhibited satisfactory capability based on bimolecular interactions in the biological system. The response of the nano-fiber sensors indicates a different kind of interaction among various groups of AAs. These results can be interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and the structure making or breaking ability of solutes in the given solution. This study utilized spectra photonics to measure the transmission of light through different concentrations of sugar solution, employing cell cumber and nano-optical fibers as sensors.

  10. Estimation of Fluoride Concentration of Various Citrus and Non-Citrus Fruits Commonly Consumed and Commercially Available in Mathura City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Anand Ingle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since fluoride is available from various sources, the total ingestion of fluoride by a person should be estimated taking into consideration the fluoride consumed from all the sources including fruits. There are very few epidemiological studies carried out associated with fluoride estimation in fruit samplesand especially in the Indian scenario Objective: To estimate and compare the fluoride concentration of different commercially available citrus and non-citrus fruits in Mathura city. Materials & Method: Fifteen different types of fruits commercially available and consumed by people ofMathura City were collected. Out of the 15 fruit samples 5 were citrus fruits and 10 were non-citrus fruits. The fluoride estimation of fruit samples was done at Central Laboratory,Lucknow. Juices of all 15 fruit samples were prepared, from each sample 10 ml of juice was measured and fluoride testing of each sample was carried out by using Orion 4 star -ion electrode analyzer. The collected data was analyzed using the statistical software program SPSS, version 17. Results: The fluoride concentration in citrus fruits ranged from 0.04ppm (Orange to 0.08 ppm (Tomato while in non-citrus fruits it ranged from 0.04ppm (chikoo to 0.18 ppm (Guava. No significant difference was observed between the mean fluoride concentration of citrus and non citrus fruits. Conclusions: Both citrus and non citrus fruits have fluorides. Guava was found to have the maximumamount of fluoridecontent (0.18 ppm among both the citrus and non citrus fruits.

  11. Effect of soil surface management on radiocesium concentrations in apple orchard and fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaba, Shinnosuke; Matsuoka, Kaori; Abe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of soil surface management on radiocesium accumulation in an apple orchard in Fukushima Prefecture over 4 years after Tokyo Electric Power Company’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in mid-March 2011. Different types of soil surface management such as clean cultivation, intertillage management, intertillage with bark compost application, sod culture, and zeolite application were employed. The radiocesium concentrations in soil were higher in the surface layer (0–5 cm) than in the other layers. The radiocesium concentration in the surface layer soil with sod culture in 2014 increased non-significantly compared with that observed in 2011. The radiocesium concentration in the mid-layer soil (5–15 cm) managed with intertillage was higher than that in soil managed using other types of management. The radiocesium amount in the organic matter on the soil surface was the highest in sod culture, and was significantly lower in the management with intertillage. The radiocesium concentration in fruit decreased exponentially during the 4 years in each types of soil surface management. The decrease in radiocesium concentration showed similar trends with each type of soil surface management, even if the concentration in each soil layer varied according to the management applied. Furthermore, intertillage with bark compost application did not affect the radiocesium concentration in fruit. These results suggest that the soil surface management type that affected the radiocesium distribution in the soil or the compost application with conventional practice did not affect its concentration in fruit of apple trees for at least 4 years since the nuclear power plant accident, at a radiocesium deposition level similar to that recorded in Fukushima City. (author)

  12. Carotenoids concentration of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit oil using cross-flow filtration technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huỳnh Cang; Truong, Vinh; Debaste, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit, a traditional fruit in Vietnam and other countries of eastern Asia, contains an oil rich in carotenoids, especially lycopene and β-carotene. Carotenoids in gac fruit oil were concentrated using cross-flow filtration. In total recycle mode, effect of membrane pore size, temperature, and transmembrane pressure (TMP) on permeate flux and on retention coefficients has been exploited. Resistance of membrane, polarization concentration, and fouling were also analyzed. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. In batch mode, retentate was analyzed through index of acid, phospholipids, total carotenoids content (TCC), total antioxidant activity, total soluble solids, total solid content, color measurement, and viscosity. TCC in retentate is higher 8.6 times than that in feeding oil. Lipophilic antioxidant activities increase 6.8 times, while hydrophilic antioxidant activities reduce 40%. The major part of total resistance is due to polarization (55%) while fouling and intrinsic membrane contribute about 30% and 24%, respectively. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  14. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Lemuel M; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette

    2013-09-12

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  15. Effects of temperature sum on vitamin C concentration and yield of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides fruit: optimal time of fruit harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmou Yao

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of temperature sum on vitamin C concentration (Vc, yield and maturity of sea buckthorn fruit (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and to predict the optimal harvest time, berries were collected from eight genotypes at an interval of about one week from August 16 to December 2. Maturity was visually observed, berry weight measured and Vc determined. Berries matured at 1165-1316 degree-days (d.d.. Vc reached maximum at about 1229 d.d., while fruit size and yield reached maximum at 1380 d.d.. Mathematical models of polynomial equations were highly significant for predicting the effects of temperature sum on Vc, maturity and fruit yield. Optimal harvest time for maximizing Vc, yield or economic income could be determined according to differential equations. Great variations in Vc, fruit maturity and fruit size suggested good opportunities for selection and breeding. Low rank correlations in vitamin C concentration during fruit maturity, however, call for special attention in selection and breeding.

  16. Concentration of natural radionuclides (40K, 228Ra and 226Ra) in vegetables and fruits collected around Kudankulam, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahiban Ross, E.; Feroz Khan, M.; Lenin Raj, Y.; Godwin Wesley, S.; Kumar, M.; Sundar Rajan, P.

    2007-01-01

    Baseline activity concentration of the natural radio nuclides 40 K, 228 Ra and 226 Ra in vegetables and fruits was determined around Kudankulam. In many of the samples, 228 Ra and 226 Ra was below minimum detection limit. 40 K was found to be more in leafy vegetables followed by pods, tubers and fleshy fruits. The highest accumulator among the matrices was the leafy vegetables with the geometric mean of 189.47 Bq.kg -1 fresh for vegetables and fruits with the geometric mean of 128.95 Bq.kg -1 fresh. 228 Ra activity in vegetables and fruits ranged from 0.074 to 1.153 and 0.074 to 0.131 Bq.kg -l fresh respectively. 226 Ra in vegetables and fruits ranged from BDL to 0.07 and BDL-.044 Bq.kg -l fresh respectively. 40 K in vegetables and fruits followed a log normal distribution. (author)

  17. MACRONUTRIENT CONCENTRATION AND CONTENT IN PASSION FRUIT LEAVES UNDER SAMPLING METHODS AND N-K FERTILIZATION RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODINEI FACCO PEGORARO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen and potassium fertilization and assessment of adequate nutritional status are essential for increasing fruit production of passion fruit. However, studies related to characterization of the leaf nutrient concentration and content in passion fruit with different production capacities are scarce in the literature in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate macronutrient leaf concentration and content in different parts of the reproductive shoot of yellow passion fruit subjected to different ratios of N and K fertilization. The study was conducted in a randomized block design, with three replications, following a 4 x 6 factorial arrangement consisting of four cultivars of yellow passion fruit (BRS Gigante Amarelo, IAC 275, BRS Ouro Vermelho, and BRS Sol do Cerrado and six application rates of N-K2O fertilizer (0-0, 50-125, 100-250, 150-375, 200-500, and 250-625 kg ha-1 year-1. Two leaf sampling methods were adopted (leaf located at a position adjacent to the fruit, and leaf located at the end of the reproductive branch for nutritional assessment. The leaf located at the adjacent position had lower N, P, K, Mg, and S concentration and higher Ca concentration than the concentrations observed in the standard leaf. However, the higher leaf dry matter in adjacent leaves resulted in increased macronutrient concentration/content. The increase in N-K fertilizations inhibited Ca and Mg content in the leaves adjacent to the fruit of the Gigante Amarelo, IAC, and Ouro Vermelho passion fruit cultivars, but did not affect Ca and Mg content in the standard leaf. The passion fruit cultivars showed different leaf nutrient contents after N-K fertilization, indicating variable nutritional demands and the need for specific diagnostic methods for each cultivar.

  18. Design factors of sensors for the optical tracking systems of solar concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klychev, Sh. I.; Fazylov, A. K.; Orlov, S. A.; Burbo, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Basic diagrams for the sensors of the optical tracking systems of solar concentrators are considered, the design factors that determine their accuracy are analyzed, a new sensor design is suggested, and its optimal parameters are determined. (authors)

  19. Development of a scheffler fixed focus concentrator for the processing of medicinal plants and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, A.; Hensel, O.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing population and industrialization, there is need to cut down the load of fossil fuels and to reduce environmental pollution. A large part of industrial process heat lies from low to medium temperature range which can be supplied by solar energy. Scheffler fixed focus concentrators are successfully used for medium temperature applications in different parts of the world. These concentrators are taken as lateral sections of paraboloids and provide fixed focus away from the path of incident beam radiations throughout the year. The paper presents description and experimental results of medicinal and fruit processing using an 8 m/sup 2/ surface area Scheffler solar concentrator installed at solar campus, university of Kassel, Witzenhausen Germany. The research was focused to promote solar renewable energy in rural and remote locations. The solar system was equipped with Pyranometer and thermocouples to evaluate real time data which was used for performance evaluation of the solar system during processing of different products. In the first phase of the research, several trials were made to evaluate the performance of the system. Within the solar radiations range of 700- 800 W m-2, the receiver temperatures were recorded between 300 - 400 deg. C. The average power was found to be 1.55 kW and system efficiency was found to be 32.34%. Different medicinal plants like Melissa, Peppermint, Rosemary, Cumin, and Cloves buds were successfully processed by using solar energy. Different fruit and vegetables like Apples, Plums, cherries, tomatoes were also processed by using solar energy. Research results have showed that solar energy can be successfully used for the post harvest and fruit processing at rural location. (author)

  20. Application of Cross-Flow Filtration Technique in Purification and Concentration of Juice from Vietnamese Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Cang Mai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line., dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes, pineapple (Ananas comosus, pomelo (Citrus grandis L., and gac aril oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.. On a laboratory scale, the effect of different operating parameters such as trans-membrane pressures (TMP, temperature and membrane pore sizes on permeate flux was determined in order to optimize process conditions that would ensure acceptable flux with adequate juice quality. The quality of the samples coming from the ultrafiltration (UF process was evaluated in terms of: total soluble solids (TSS, suspended solids (SS, and vitamin C. For example, the purification process of cashew apple juice by cross-flow filtration was optimized at 0.5 μm membrane pore size, 2.5 bars TMP, and 60 min filtration time. Besides, this technique was applied to enhance carotenoids concentration from gac oil. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. Carotenoids were concentrated higher than that in feeding oil.

  1. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

  2. Molecular and biochemical characterization of caffeine synthase and purine alkaloid concentration in guarana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpl, Flávia Camila; Kiyota, Eduardo; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Gonçalves, José Francisco de Carvalho; da Silva, José Ferreira; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Guarana seeds have the highest caffeine concentration among plants accumulating purine alkaloids, but in contrast with coffee and tea, practically nothing is known about caffeine metabolism in this Amazonian plant. In this study, the levels of purine alkaloids in tissues of five guarana cultivars were determined. Theobromine was the main alkaloid that accumulated in leaves, stems, inflorescences and pericarps of fruit, while caffeine accumulated in the seeds and reached levels from 3.3% to 5.8%. In all tissues analysed, the alkaloid concentration, whether theobromine or caffeine, was higher in young/immature tissues, then decreasing with plant development/maturation. Caffeine synthase activity was highest in seeds of immature fruit. A nucleotide sequence (PcCS) was assembled with sequences retrieved from the EST database REALGENE using sequences of caffeine synthase from coffee and tea, whose expression was also highest in seeds from immature fruit. The PcCS has 1083bp and the protein sequence has greater similarity and identity with the caffeine synthase from cocoa (BTS1) and tea (TCS1). A recombinant PcCS allowed functional characterization of the enzyme as a bifunctional CS, able to catalyse the methylation of 7-methylxanthine to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), and theobromine to caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), respectively. Among several substrates tested, PcCS showed higher affinity for theobromine, differing from all other caffeine synthases described so far, which have higher affinity for paraxanthine. When compared to previous knowledge on the protein structure of coffee caffeine synthase, the unique substrate affinity of PcCS is probably explained by the amino acid residues found in the active site of the predicted protein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Concentrations of radionuclides and selected stable elements in fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two types of fruits and vegetables collected from two commercial supermarkets have been analyzed for their radionuclidic and stable-element composition. A specific gamma-emitting isotope analysis was performed on each sample for 40 K, 60 Co, 95 Zr-Nb, 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 226 Ra, and 232 Th. The concentration of the stable elements in each sample were determined using multi-element neutron-activation analysis (Al, Ag, Au, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mn, Mo, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Ti, Zn, Zr) and atomic absorption (Cd, Ni, Pb). Information on the composition of a typical diet is used to estimate the radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fruits and vegetables. The stable-elemental compositions of the foodstuffs analyzed were compared with estimated values assuming foliar deposition and long-term buildup of effluents from a large modern coal-fired steam plant. It is tentatively concluded that for the general case of a precipitator-equipped, coal-fired steam plant, no toxic levels of trace elements in foodstuffs are expected as a result of the plant operation

  4. Polymer Optical Fiber Compound Parabolic Concentrator fiber tip based glucose sensor: In-Vitro Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Janting, Jakob; Aasmul, Soren

    2016-01-01

    We present in-vitro sensing of glucose using a newly developed efficient optical fiber glucose sensor based on a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) tipped polymer optical fiber (POF). A batch of 9 CPC tipped POF sensors with a 35 mm fiber length is shown to have an enhanced fluorescence pickup...... efficiency with an average increment factor of 1.7 as compared to standard POF sensors with a plane cut fiber tip. Invitro measurements for two glucose concentrations (40 and 400 mg/dL) confirm that the CPC tipped sensors efficiently can detect both glucose concentrations. it sets the footnote at the bottom...

  5. Development of concentration measurement system in a mini-channel using a local NMR sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2008-01-01

    A local NMR sensor to measure methanol concentration of fluid flowing in a mini-channel was developed. The principle of the methanol sensor is based on the chemical shift of CH and OH species under high magnetic field. The sensor consists of a planar surface coil of 0.60 mm inside diameter. Using the sensors, local methanol concentration of water-methanol mixture in the mini-channel of 3.0 mm width and 1.5 mm depth was measured. The effects of flow velocity in the channel and the gravity direction on the methanol concentration distribution in the channel were investigated experimentally. (author)

  6. Optoelectronic sensor device for monitoring ethanol concentration in winemaking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Vázquez, J.; Úbeda, J.; Rodríguez-Rey, J.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    The supervision of key variables such as sugar, alcohol, released CO2 and microbiological evolution in fermenting grape must is of great importance in the winemaking industry. However, the fermentation kinetics is assessed by monitoring the evolution of the density as it varies during a fermentation, since density is an indicator of the total amount of sugars, ethanol and glycerol. Even so, supervising the fermentation process is an awkward and non-comprehensive task, especially in wine cellars where production rates are massive, and enologists usually measure the density of the extracted samples from each fermentation tank manually twice a day. This work aims at the design of a fast, low-cost, portable and reliable optoelectronic sensor for measuring ethanol concentration in fermenting grape must samples. Different sets of model solutions, which contain ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol dissolved in water and emulate the grape must composition at different stages of the fermentation, were prepared both for calibration and validation. The absorption characteristics of these model solutions were analyzed by a commercial spectrophotometer in the NIR region, in order to identify key wavelengths from which valuable information regarding the sample composition can be extracted. Finally, a customized optoelectronic prototype based on absorbance measurements at two wavelengths belonging to the NIR region was designed, fabricated and successfully tested. The system, whose optoelectronics is reduced after a thorough analysis to only two LED lamps and their corresponding paired photodiodes operating at 1.2 and 1.3 μm respectively, calculates the ethanol content by a multiple linear regression.

  7. About Error in Measuring Oxygen Concentration by Solid-Electrolyte Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates additional errors while measuring oxygen concentration in a gas mixture by a solid-electrolyte cell. Experimental dependences of additional errors caused by changes in temperature in a sensor zone, discharge of gas mixture supplied to a sensor zone, partial pressure in the gas mixture and fluctuations in oxygen concentrations in the air.

  8. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  9. Sensor development for in situ detection of concentration polarization and fouling of reverse osmosis membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrich, Kahlil T.; Goulbourne, Nakhiah C.

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate three polymer electroding techniques in developing a novel in situ sensor for an RO system using the electrical response of a thin film composite sensor. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to measure the sensor response when exposed to sodium chloride solutions with concentrations from 0.1 M to 0.8 M in both single and double bath configurations. An insulated carbon grease sensor was mechanically stable while a composite Direct Assembly Process (DAP) sensor was fragile upon hydration. Scanning electron microscopy results from an impregnation-reduction technique showed gold nanoparticles were deposited most effectively when presoaked in a potassium hydroxide solution and on an uncoated membrane; surface resistances remained too high for sensor implementation. Through thickness carbon grease sensors showed a transient response to changes in concentration, and no meaningful concentration sensitivity was noted for the time scales over which EIS measurements were taken. Surface carbon grease electrodes attached to the polyamide thin film were not sensitive to concentration. The impedance spectra indicated the carbon grease sensor was unable to detect changes in concentration in double bath experiments when implemented with the polyamide surface exposed to salt solutions. DAP sensors lacked a consistent response to changes in concentration too. A reverse double bath experiment with the polysulfone layer exposed to a constant concentration exhibited a transient impedance response similar to through thickness carbon grease sensors in a single bath at constant concentration. These results suggest that the microporous polysulfone layer is responsible for sensor response to concentration.

  10. Studies on measurement of chloride ion concentration in concrete structures with long-period grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jaw-Luen; Chiang, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Hsiang-Ping; Wang, Jian-Neng

    2006-03-01

    We report the development and demonstration of a simple and low-cost long-period grating (LPG) sensor for chloride ion concentration measurement in concrete structures. The LPG sensor is extremely sensitive to the refractive index of the medium surrounding the cladding surface of the sensing grating, thus allowing it to be used as an ambient index sensor or chemical concentration indicator with high stability and reliability. We have measured chloride ion levels in a concrete sample immersed in salt water solution with different weight concentration ranging from 0 % to 20 %, and results showed that the LPG sensor exhibited a linear decrease in the transmission loss and resonance wavelength shift when the concentration increased. The measurement accuracy for concentration of salt in water solution is estimated to be 0.6 % and the limit of detection for chloride ion is about 0.04 %. To further enhance its sensitivity for chloride concentrations, we have coated gold nanoparticles on the grating surface of the LPG sensor. The sensing mechanism is based on the sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance of self-assembled Au colloids on the grating portion of the LPG. With this method, a factor of two increases in sensitivity of detecting chemical solution concentrations was obtained. The advantage of this type of the sensor is relatively simple of construction and ease of use. Moreover, the sensor has the potential capability for on-site, in vivo, and remote sensing, and has the potential use for disposable sensors.

  11. Sensitive Capacitive-type Hydrogen Sensor Based on Ni Thin Film in Different Hydrogen Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Ghobad Behzadi; Aval, Leila Fekri; Eslami, Shahnaz

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen sensors are micro/nano-structure that are used to locate hydrogen leaks. They are considered to have fast response/recovery time and long lifetime as compared to conventional gas sensors. In this paper, fabrication of sensitive capacitive-type hydrogen gas sensor based on Ni thin film has been investigated. The C-V curves of the sensor in different hydrogen concentrations have been reported. Dry oxidation was done in thermal chemical vapor deposition furnace (TCVD). For oxidation time of 5 min, the oxide thickness was 15 nm and for oxidation time 10 min, it was 20 nm. The Ni thin film as a catalytic metal was deposited on the oxide film using electron gun deposition. Two MOS sensors were compared with different oxide film thickness and different hydrogen concentrations. The highest response of the two MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 87.5% and 65.4% respectively. The fast response times for MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 8 s and 21 s, respectively. By increasing the hydrogen concentration from 1% to 4%, the response time for MOS sensor (20nm oxide thickness), was decreased from 28s to 21s. The recovery time was inversely increased from 237s to 360s. The experimental results showed that the MOS sensor based on Ni thin film had a quick response and a high sensitivity.

  12. Whispering Gallery Mode Based Optical Fiber Sensor for Measuring Concentration of Salt Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical fiber solution-concentration sensor based on whispering gallery mode (WGM is proposed in this paper. The WGM solution-concentration sensors were used to measure salt solutions, in which the concentrations ranged from 1% to 25% and the wavelength drifted from the left to the right. The experimental results showed an average sensitivity of approximately 0.372 nm/% and an R2 linearity of 0.8835. The proposed WGM sensors are of low cost, feasible for mass production, and durable for solution-concentration sensing.

  13. Relative Estimation of Water Content for Flat-Type Inductive-Based Oil Palm Fruit Maturity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhisam Misron

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the sensor that identifies the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches by using a flat-type inductive concept based on a resonant frequency technique. Conventionally, a human grader is used to inspect the ripeness of the oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB which can be inconsistent and inaccurate. There are various new methods that are proposed with the intention to grade the ripeness of the oil palm FFB, but none has taken the inductive concept. In this study, the resonance frequency of the air coil is investigated. Samples of oil palm FFB are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 10 MHz and the results obtained show a linear relationship between the graph of the resonance frequency (MHz against time (Weeks. It is observed that the resonance frequencies obtained for Week 10 (pre-mature and Week 18 (mature are around 8.5 MHz and 9.8 MHz, respectively. These results are compared with the percentage of the moisture content. Hence, the inductive method of the oil palm fruit maturity sensor can be used to detect the change in water content for ripeness detection of the oil palm FFB.

  14. Semiconductor Sensors for Studying the Heterogeneous Destruction of Ozone at Low Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obvintseva, L. A.; Sharova, T. B.; Avetisov, A. K.; Sukhareva, I. P.

    2018-06-01

    Prospects for the use of semiconductor resistive sensors in studies of the heterogeneous destruction of ozone at low concentrations (5-400 μg/m3) were shown. The influence of various factors (sensor temperature, gas flow rate, ozone concentration) on the results of ozone concentration measurements with sensors of various types was studied. Methods for forming a sensitive layer of In2O3(3% Fe2O3) sensors with specified parameters of calibration curves were proposed. The optimum conditions for the operation of sensors in a flow mode were formulated. The results of the study of heterogeneous destruction of ozone on microfiber polymer and natural disperse (sand, coals) materials obtained by the developed method were presented.

  15. Optical sensor technology for simultaneous measurement of particle speed and concentration of micro sized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper; Han, Anpan; Kristensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Experimental characterization of a sensor technology that can measure particle speed and concentration simultaneously in liquids and gases is presented here. The basic sensor principle is based on an optical element that shapes a light beam into well-defined fringes. The technology can be described...

  16. Adaptive sensor-based ultra-high accuracy solar concentrator tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Jordyn; Hassanzadeh, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Conventional solar trackers use information of the sun's position, either by direct sensing or by GPS. Our method uses the shading of the receiver. This, coupled with nonimaging optics design allows us to achieve ultra-high concentration. Incorporating a sensor based shadow tracking method with a two stage concentration solar hybrid parabolic trough allows the system to maintain high concentration with acute accuracy.

  17. Using Potentiometric Free Drug Sensors to Determine the Free Concentration of Ionizable Drugs in Colloidal Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy; Chakraborty, Anjan; Xi, Xi

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of free drug sensors (FDS) to measure free ionized drug concentrations in colloidal systems, including micellar solutions, emulsions, and lipid formulations during in vitro lipolysis. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) and loperamide hydrochloride (LOP) wer...

  18. Estimation of local concentration from measurements of stochastic adsorption dynamics using carbon nanotube-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hong; Lee, Jay H.; Braatz, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method for estimating time varying local concentration of the target molecule proximate to the sensor from the time profile of monomolecular adsorption and desorption on the surface of the sensor at nanoscale. Recently, several carbon nanotube sensors have been developed that can selectively detect target molecules at a trace concentration level. These sensors use light intensity changes mediated by adsorption or desorption phenomena on their surfaces. The molecular events occurring at trace concentration levels are inherently stochastic, posing a challenge for optimal estimation. The stochastic behavior is modeled by the chemical master equation (CME), composed of a set of ordinary differential equations describing the time evolution of probabilities for the possible adsorption states. Given the significant stochastic nature of the underlying phenomena, rigorous stochastic estimation based on the CME should lead to an improved accuracy over than deterministic estimation formulated based on the continuum model. Motivated by this expectation, we formulate the MLE based on an analytical solution of the relevant CME, both for the constant and the time-varying local concentrations, with the objective of estimating the analyte concentration field in real time from the adsorption readings of the sensor array. The performances of the MLE and the deterministic least squares are compared using data generated by kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the stochastic process. Some future challenges are described for estimating and controlling the concentration field in a distributed domain using the sensor technology.

  19. Operating modes of electrochemical H-concentration probes for tritium sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhera, E.; Colominas, S.; Abellà, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis and chemical characterization of Sr(Ce_0_._9–Zr_0_._1)_0_._9_5Yb_0_._0_5O_3_−_α proton conductor ceramic. • Evaluation of the sensor performance at different hydrogen concentrations. • Two different operating modes of the sensors: amperometric and potentiometric. • In amperometric mode sensor sensitivity can be tuned by changing the applied voltage. - Abstract: Potentiometric hydrogen sensors using different solid-state electrolytes have been designed and tested at the Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS). The most promising element (Sr(Ce_0_._9–Zr_0_._1)_0_._9_5Yb_0_._0_5O_3_−_α) has been selected for this work in order to evaluate the sensor performance at different hydrogen concentrations in two different operating modes: amperometric and potentiometric. In addition, the sensor response has been evaluated at different working temperatures (500, 575 and 650 °C). The experiments performed proved that when the sensor was used in a potentiometric mode, there is a threshold hydrogen concentration that the sensor can detect depending on the working conditions; 15 mbar at 575 °C and 10 mbar 650 °C. At 500 °C the minimum working temperature of this ceramic has not been achieved, so large deviations between experimental data and theoretical calculations has been obtained. When the sensor was used in an amperometric mode the obtained currents increased as a function of the applied voltage. At a fixed potential, the higher the temperature the higher the current was. So the sensor sensitivity can be tuned by changing the applied voltage at a fixed temperature and hydrogen concentration.

  20. Nutrient and salinity concentrations effects on quality and storability of cherry tomato fruits grown by hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahirul Islam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of nutrient and salinity concentrations on the quality of deepflow technique hydroponic system cultivated cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ‘Unicorn’. The conditions were: (1 control (NS-1 × nutrient Solution, Electrical Conductivity – EC: 2.5 mS∙cm–1; (2 2 × NS (2 × NS-Double NS, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; (3 NS + 4.23 mM NaCl (NaCl-Sodium Chloride, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; and (4 NS + 13.70 mM Sea Water – SW (EC: 7.5 mS∙cm–1. NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment showed the lowest fresh weight loss. Visual quality as well as shelf life was the longest in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The longest shelf life at 5 °C, 11 °C, and 24 °C were 21, 16, and 8 days, respectively, in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The highest firmness was recorded in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits, which was retained after storage. Moreover, NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment increased the cherry tomato fruit’s quality, especially soluble solids and sugar contents. These results indicate that salinity concentration has effect the soluble solids and sugar of cherry tomato fruits. In addition, nutrient concentration influenced the shelf life and firmness of cherry tomato fruits.

  1. Evaluation of modified atmosphere bag and sulphur dioxide concentrations applied on highbush blueberries fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cv. Emerald

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Mario; Wyss, Anddy; Hormazábal, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to evaluate techniques for modified atmosphere and application of sulphur anhydride upon parameters of quality of postharvest on blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cv. Emerald, an experiment of six treatments was conducted, given by the combination of two factors, modified atmosphere (with and without) and different concentrations of sulphur dioxide (generated by 0, 1 and 2 g of sodium metabisulphite) during 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at 0 °C. The dose of 2 g of modified atmosphere s...

  2. Evanescent Wave Absorption Based Fiber Sensor for Measuring Glucose Solution Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Candra Pratiwi, Arni; Suryanti, Venty

    2018-03-01

    An optical fiber sensor based on evanescent wave absorption designed for measuring glucose solution consentration was proposed. The sensor was made to detect absorbance of various wavelength in the glucose solution. The sensing element was fabricated by side polishing of multimode polymer optical fiber to form a D-shape. The sensing element was immersed in different concentration of glucoce solution. As light propagated through the optical fiber, the evanescent wave interacted with the glucose solution. Light was absorbed by the glucose solution. The larger concentration the glucose solution has, the more the evanescent wave was absorbed in particular wavelenght. Here in this paper, light absorbtion as function of glucose concentration was measured as function of wavelength (the color of LED). We have shown that the proposed sensor can demonstrated an increase of light absorption as function of glucose concentration.

  3. Application of Spectroscopic Techniques for the Determination of Trace Element Concentrations in some Sudanese vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. N.; Ali, A. H.; Eltayeb, M. A. H.; Othman, M. M.; Taha, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of the mineral nutrients, especially of trace elements, in some food items commonly consumed in Sudan and to compare the results of this work with local and international data. Food samples of fruits and vegetables were collected from different localities in Sudan. The samples were then prepared and their Br, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Na, Rb, Sr, and Zn content were determined using Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), flame photometry and colorimetry. Verified standards TDD-1D and Hay-9 (supplied by the IAEA) were measured using the techniques mentioned above for accuracy. The Sudanese food items analyzed were found to contain considerable ranges of nutrients as follows: - Concentration levels for some of these elements Ca, Cu and Fe show higher values in fruits (4709, 21, and 633 ppm, respectively), and lower in vegetables (4094, 13, and 255 ppm , respectively). Pb and Mn were higher in vegetables (2 and 32 ppm, respectively) and lower in fruits (1 and 18 ppm) respectively). Na and Zn were higher in vegetables (3149 and 26 ppm, respectively) and lower in fruits (269 and 13 ppm, respectively). The values obtained agree, in general, with data available from other countries. Variations were observed among certain varieties of food. (Authors)

  4. Nanostructure sensor of presence and concentration of a target molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system (i) to determine when a selected target molecule is present or absent in a fluid, (2) to estimate concentration of the target molecule in the fluid and (3) estimate possible presence of a second (different) target molecule in the fluid, by analyzing differences in resonant frequencies of vibration of a thin beam suspended in the fluid, after the fluid has moved across the beam.

  5. Tailored Algorithm for Sensitivity Enhancement of Gas Concentration Sensors Based on Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Everardo; Guzman-Chavez, Ana Dinora; Baeza-Serrato, Roberto

    2018-06-04

    In this work, a novel tailored algorithm to enhance the overall sensitivity of gas concentration sensors based on the Direct Absorption Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (DA-ATLAS) method is presented. By using this algorithm, the sensor sensitivity can be custom-designed to be quasi constant over a much larger dynamic range compared with that obtained by typical methods based on a single statistics feature of the sensor signal output (peak amplitude, area under the curve, mean or RMS). Additionally, it is shown that with our algorithm, an optimal function can be tailored to get a quasi linear relationship between the concentration and some specific statistics features over a wider dynamic range. In order to test the viability of our algorithm, a basic C 2 H 2 sensor based on DA-ATLAS was implemented, and its experimental measurements support the simulated results provided by our algorithm.

  6. Development of the interfacial area concentration measurement method using a five sensor conductivity probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euh, Dong Jin; Yun, Byong Jo; Song, Chul Hwa; Kwon, Tae Soon; Chung, Moon Ki; Lee, Un Chul

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial area concentration(IAC) is one of the most important parameters in the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analysis. The IAE can be measured by a local conductivity probe method that uses the difference of conductivity between water and air/steam. The number of sensors in the conductivity probe may be differently chosen by considering the flow regime of two-phase flow. The four sensor conductivity probe method predicts the IAC without any assumptions of the bubble shape. The local IAC can be obtained by measuring the three dimensional velocity vector elements at the measuring point, and the directional cosines of the sensors. The five sensor conductivity probe method proposed in this study is based on the four sensor probe method. With the five sensor probe, the local IAC for a given referred measuring area of the probe can be predicted more exactly than the four sensor prober. In this paper, the mathematical approach of the five sensor probe method for measuring the IAC is described, and a numerical simulation is carried out for ideal cap bubbles of which the sizes and locations are determined by a random number generator

  7. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  8. Application of spectroscopic Techniques for the determination of trace element concentrations in some Sudanese vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. N.; Ali, A. H.; Eltayeb, M. A. H.; Osman, M. M.; Taha, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study were to determine the levels of the mineral nutrients, especially of trace elements, in some food items commonly consumed in Sudan and to compare the results of this work with local and international data. To achieve these objectives, food samples analyzed were collected from different localities in Sudan, and the samples were prepared for analysis by using dry ashing and wet digestion. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), flame photometry and colorimetry were used for the determination of the concentrations of elements in the samples, samples were ashed using muffle furnace at temperature 550 C. The quality of the data was verified by the analysis of standard reference materials TDD-ID and Hay-9. The levels of the elemental contents (Br, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Na, Rb, Sr, and Zn) were determined in legumes, cereals, oil seeds, flour and cereals products, vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products, egg, meats and fish, and oils and fats. The Sudanese food items analyzed were found to contain considerable ranges of nutrients as follows. Concentration levels for some of these elements Ca, Cu and Fe show values which were higher in fruits(4709, 21, and 633 ppm, respectively), and lower in vegetables (4094, 13, and 255 ppm, respectively). Pb and Mn were higher in vegetables (2 and 32 ppm, respectively) and lower in fruits (1 and 18 ppm) respectively). Na and Zn were higher in vegetables (3149 and 26 ppm, respectively) and lower fruits (269 and 13 ppm, respectively). The values obtained agree, in general, with data available from other countries. Variations were observed among certain varieties of food.(Author)

  9. Effects of chronic elevated ozone concentration on the redox state and fruit yield of red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan, Armando Molina; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-02-01

    Ozone (O3) is one of the most harmful air pollutants to crops, contributing to high losses on crop yield. Tropospheric O3 background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many world regions. Capsicum peppers are the second most traded spice in the world, but few studies concerning the O3 effects in this genus are known. Thereby, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to elevated O3 concentrations in red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum with especial considerations on the leaf redox state and fruit yield. Fifteen C. baccatum plants were exposed to O3 in open-top chambers during fruit ripening (62 days) at a mean concentration of 171.6 µg/m(3) from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm. We found that O3 treated plants significantly decreased the amount and the total weight of fruits, which were probably a consequence of the changes on leaf oxidative status induced by ozone exposure. Ozone exposed plants increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels on the leaves, which may be associated with the observed decrease on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant defense system, as well with lower levels of polyphenol and reduced thiol groups. Enhanced ROS production and the direct O3 reaction lead to biomacromolecules damages as seen in the diminished chlorophyll content and in the elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels. Through a correlation analysis it was possible to observe that polyphenols content was more important to protect pepper plants against oxidative damages to lipids than to proteins. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Intelligent Fiber Optic Sensor for Estimating the Concentration of a Mixture-Design and Working Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Borecki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction and working principles of an intelligent fiber-optic intensity sensor used for examining the concentration of a mixture in conjunction with water. It can find applications e.g. in waste-water treatment plant for selection of a treatment process. The sensor head is the end of a large core polymer optical fiber, which constitutes one arm of an asymmetrical coupler. The head works on the reflection intensity basis. The reflected signal level depends on the Fresnel reflection from the air and from the mixture examined when the head is immersed in it. The sensor head is mounted on a lift. For detection purposes the signal can be measured on head submerging, submersion, emerging and emergence. Therefore, the measured signal depends on the surface tension, viscosity, turbidity and refraction coefficient of the solution. The signal coming from the head is processed electrically in an opto-electronic interface. Then it is fed to a neural network. The novelty of the proposed sensor lies in that it contains an asymmetrical coupler and a neural network that works in the generalization mode. The sensor resolution depends on the efficiency of the asymmetrical coupler, the precision of the opto-electronic signal conversion and the learning accuracy of the neural network. Therefore, the number and quality of the points used for the learning process is very important. By way of example, the paper describes a sensor intended for examining the concentration of liquid soap in water.

  11. A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new sensor-less methanol control algorithm based on feedback from the stack temperature is developed. • Feasibility of the algorithm is tested using a DMFC system with a recirculating fuel loop. • The algorithm precisely controls the methanol concentration without the use of methanol sensors. • The sensor-less controller shortens the time that the DMFC system requires to go from start-up to steady-state. • This controller is effective in handling unexpected changes in the methanol concentration and stack temperature. - Abstract: A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature (SLCCF) has been developed. The SLCCF algorithm is embedded into an in-house LabVIEW program that has been developed to control the methanol concentration in the feed of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This control method utilizes the close correlation between the stack temperature and the methanol concentration in the feed. Basically, the amounts of methanol to be supplied to the re-circulating feed stream are determined by estimating the methanol consumption rates under given operating conditions, which are then adjusted by a proportional–integral controller and supplied into the feed stream to maintain the stack temperature at a set value. The algorithm is designed to control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature for both start-up and normal operation processes. Feasibility tests with a 200 W-class DMFC system under various operating conditions confirm that the algorithm successfully maintains the methanol concentration in the feed as well as the stack temperature at set values, and the start-up time required for the DMFC system to reach steady-state operating conditions is reduced significantly compared with conventional sensor-less methods

  12. Design of interdigital spiral and concentric capacitive sensors for materials evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianming; Bowler, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design of two circular coplanar interdigital sensors with i) a spiral interdigital configuration and ii) a concentric interdigital configuration for the nondestructive evaluation of multilayered dielectric structures. A numerical model accounting for sensor geometry, test-piece geometry and real permittivity, and metal electrode thickness has been developed to calculate the capacitance of the sensors when in contact with a planar test-piece comprising up to four layers. Compared with a disk-and-ring coplanar capacitive sensor developed previously, the interdigital configurations are predicted to have higher signal-to-noise ratio and better accuracy in materials characterization. The disk-and-ring configuration, on the other hand, possesses advantages such as deeper penetration depth and better immunity to lift-off variations.

  13. Polymer optical fiber compound parabolic concentrator tip for enhanced coupling efficiency for fluorescence based glucose sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Nielsen, Kristian; Aasmul, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the light excitation and capturing efficiency of fluorescence based fiber-optical sensors can be significantly increased by using a CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) tip instead of the standard plane-cut tip. We use Zemax modelling to find the optimum CPC tip profile...... and fiber length of a polymer optical fiber diabetes sensor for continuous monitoring of glucose levels. We experimentally verify the improved performance of the CPC tipped sensor and the predicted production tolerances. Due to physical size requirements when the sensor has to be inserted into the body...... a non-optimal fiber length of 35 mm is chosen. For this length an average improvement in efficiency of a factor of 1.7 is experimentally demonstrated and critically compared to the predicted ideal factor of 3 in terms of parameters that should be improved through production optimization....

  14. Polymer optical fiber compound parabolic concentrator tip for enhanced coupling efficiency for fluorescence based glucose sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Nielsen, Kristian; Aasmul, Soren; Bang, Ole

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the light excitation and capturing efficiency of fluorescence based fiber-optical sensors can be significantly increased by using a CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) tip instead of the standard plane-cut tip. We use Zemax modelling to find the optimum CPC tip profile and fiber length of a polymer optical fiber diabetes sensor for continuous monitoring of glucose levels. We experimentally verify the improved performance of the CPC tipped sensor and the predicted production tolerances. Due to physical size requirements when the sensor has to be inserted into the body a non-optimal fiber length of 35 mm is chosen. For this length an average improvement in efficiency of a factor of 1.7 is experimentally demonstrated and critically compared to the predicted ideal factor of 3 in terms of parameters that should be improved through production optimization.

  15. Dragon Fruit Foliage Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Concentrated Latex Effluent: Comparison of Treatment with Ferric Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juferi Idris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of dragon fruit foliage as a natural coagulant for treatment of concentrated latex effluent was investigated and compared with ferric sulfate, a chemical coagulant. Dragon fruit is a round and often red-colored fruit with scales-like texture and is native to south American countries which is also cultivated and heavily marketed in southeast Asian countries. Its foliage represents a part of its overall plant system. Latex effluent is one of the main byproduct from rubber processing factories in Malaysia. Three main parameters investigated were chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SS, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of latex effluent pH as well as coagulation dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages for foliage were observed for effluent pH 10 at 94.7, 88.9, and 99.7%, respectively. It is concluded that the foliage showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes. The foliage could be used in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian latex effluent prior to secondary treatment.

  16. Sensor-triggered sampling to determine instantaneous airborne vapor exposure concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip A; Simmons, Michael K; Toone, Phillip

    2018-06-01

    It is difficult to measure transient airborne exposure peaks by means of integrated sampling for organic chemical vapors, even with very short-duration sampling. Selection of an appropriate time to measure an exposure peak through integrated sampling is problematic, and short-duration time-weighted average (TWA) values obtained with integrated sampling are not likely to accurately determine actual peak concentrations attained when concentrations fluctuate rapidly. Laboratory analysis for integrated exposure samples is preferred from a certainty standpoint over results derived in the field from a sensor, as a sensor user typically must overcome specificity issues and a number of potential interfering factors to obtain similarly reliable data. However, sensors are currently needed to measure intra-exposure period concentration variations (i.e., exposure peaks). In this article, the digitized signal from a photoionization detector (PID) sensor triggered collection of whole-air samples when toluene or trichloroethylene vapors attained pre-determined levels in a laboratory atmosphere generation system. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of whole-air samples (with both 37 and 80% relative humidity) collected using the triggering mechanism with rapidly increasing vapor concentrations showed good agreement with the triggering set point values. Whole-air samples (80% relative humidity) in canisters demonstrated acceptable 17-day storage recoveries, and acceptable precision and bias were obtained. The ability to determine exceedance of a ceiling or peak exposure standard by laboratory analysis of an instantaneously collected sample, and to simultaneously provide a calibration point to verify the correct operation of a sensor was demonstrated. This latter detail may increase the confidence in reliability of sensor data obtained across an entire exposure period.

  17. Effects of an Encapsulated Fruit and Vegetable Juice Concentrate on Obesity-Induced Systemic Inflammation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J. Williams

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 56 adults aged ≥40 years with a body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m2. Before and after eight weeks daily treatment with six capsules of F&V juice concentrate or placebo, peripheral blood gene expression (microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNFα (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA and lipid profiles were assessed. Following consumption of juice concentrate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα decreased and total lean mass increased, while there was no change in the placebo group. In subjects with high systemic inflammation at baseline (serum C-reactive protein (CRP ≥3.0 mg/mL who were supplemented with the F&V juice concentrate (n = 16, these effects were greater, with decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα and increased total lean mass; plasma CRP was unchanged by the F&V juice concentrate following both analyses. The expression of several genes involved in lipogenesis, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK signalling pathways was altered, including phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK, zinc finger AN1-type containing 5 (ZFAND5 and calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39, respectively. Therefore, F&V juice concentrate improves the metabolic profile, by reducing systemic inflammation and blood lipid profiles and, thus, may be useful in reducing the risk of obesity-induced chronic disease.

  18. Temperature Compensation in Determining of Remazol Black B Concentrations Using Plastic Optical Fiber Based Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Su Sin; Aziz, A.R. Abdul; Harun, Sulaiman W.; Arof, Hamzah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the construction and test of tapered plastic optical fiber (POF) sensors, based on an intensity modulation approach are described. Tapered fiber sensors with different diameters of 0.65 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.35 mm, were used to measure various concentrations of Remazol black B (RBB) dye aqueous solutions at room temperature. The concentrations of the RBB solutions were varied from 0 ppm to 70 ppm. In addition, the effect of varying the temperature of the RBB solution was also investigated. In this case, the output of the sensor was measured at four different temperatures of 27 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C, while its concentration was fixed at 50 ppm and 100 ppm. The experimental results show that the tapered POF with d = 0.45 mm achieves the best performance with a reasonably good sensitivity of 61 × 10−4 and a linearity of more than 99%. It also maintains a sufficient and stable signal when heat was applied to the solution with a linearity of more than 97%. Since the transmitted intensity is dependent on both the concentration and temperature of the analyte, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to combine the two independent variables into a single equation. The resulting equation was then validated experimentally and the best agreement between the calculated and experimental results was achieved by the sensor with d = 0.45 mm, where the minimum discrepancy is less than 5%. The authors conclude that POF-based sensors are suitable for RBB dye concentration sensing and, with refinement in fabrication, better results could be achieved. Their low fabrication cost, simple configuration, accuracy, and high sensitivity would attract many potential applications in chemical and biological sensing. PMID:25166498

  19. Temperature Compensation in Determining of Remazol Black B Concentrations Using Plastic Optical Fiber Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Sin Chong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the construction and test of tapered plastic optical fiber (POF sensors, based on an intensity modulation approach are described. Tapered fiber sensors with different diameters of 0.65 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.35 mm, were used to measure various concentrations of Remazol black B (RBB dye aqueous solutions at room temperature. The concentrations of the RBB solutions were varied from 0 ppm to 70 ppm. In addition, the effect of varying the temperature of the RBB solution was also investigated. In this case, the output of the sensor was measured at four different temperatures of 27 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C, while its concentration was fixed at 50 ppm and 100 ppm. The experimental results show that the tapered POF with d = 0.45 mm achieves the best performance with a reasonably good sensitivity of 61 × 10−4 and a linearity of more than 99%. It also maintains a sufficient and stable signal when heat was applied to the solution with a linearity of more than 97%. Since the transmitted intensity is dependent on both the concentration and temperature of the analyte, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to combine the two independent variables into a single equation. The resulting equation was then validated experimentally and the best agreement between the calculated and experimental results was achieved by the sensor with d = 0.45 mm, where the minimum discrepancy is less than 5%. The authors conclude that POF-based sensors are suitable for RBB dye concentration sensing and, with refinement in fabrication, better results could be achieved. Their low fabrication cost, simple configuration, accuracy, and high sensitivity would attract many potential applications in chemical and biological sensing.

  20. Performance of a low-cost methane sensor for ambient concentration measurements in preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Eugster

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and contributes to global warming. Its sources are not uniformly distributed across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and most of the methane flux is expected to stem from hotspots which often occupy a very small fraction of the total landscape area. Continuous time-series measurements of CH4 concentrations can help identify and locate these methane hotspots. Newer, low-cost trace gas sensors such as the Figaro TGS 2600 can detect CH4 even at ambient concentrations. Hence, in this paper we tested this sensor under real-world conditions over Toolik Lake, Alaska, to determine its suitability for preliminary studies before placing more expensive and service-intensive equipment at a given locality. A reasonably good agreement with parallel measurements made using a Los Gatos Research FMA 100 methane analyzer was found after removal of the strong sensitivities for temperature and relative humidity. Correcting for this sensitivity increased the absolute accuracy required for in-depth studies, and the reproducibility between two TGS 2600 sensors run in parallel is very good. We conclude that the relative CH4 concentrations derived from such sensors are sufficient for preliminary investigations in the search of potential methane hotspots.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide and glucose concentration measurement using optical fiber grating sensors with corrodible plasmonic nanocoatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Wu, Ze; Liu, Fu; Fu, Qiangqiang; Chen, Xiaoyong; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Zhaochuan; Huang, Yunyun; Tang, Yong; Guo, Tuan; Albert, Jacques

    2018-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and glucose concentration measurements using a plasmonic optical fiber sensor. The sensor utilizes a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) written in standard single mode communication fiber. The fiber is over coated with an nm-scale film of silver that supports surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). Such a tilted grating SPR structure provides a high density of narrow spectral resonances (Q-factor about 10 5 ) that overlap with the broader absorption band of the surface plasmon waves in the silver film, thereby providing an accurate tool to measure small shifts of the plasmon resonance frequencies. The H 2 O 2 to be detected acts as an oxidant to etch the silver film, which has the effect of gradually decreasing the SPR attenuation. The etching rate of the silver film shows a clear relationship with the H 2 O 2 concentration so that monitoring the progressively increasing attenuation of a selected surface plasmon resonance over a few minutes enables us to measure the H 2 O 2 concentration with a limit of detection of 0.2 μM. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applied to the determination of glucose in human serum for a concentration range from 0 to 12 mM (within the physiological range of 3-8 mM) by monitoring the H 2 O 2 produced by an enzymatic oxidation process. The sensor does not require accurate temperature control because of the inherent temperature insensitivity of TFBG devices referenced to the core mode resonance. A gold mirror coated on the fiber allows the sensor to work in reflection, which will facilitate the integration of the sensor with a hypodermic needle for in vitro measurements. The present study shows that Ag-coated TFBG-SPR can be applied as a promising type of sensing probe for optical detection of H 2 O 2 and glucose detection in human serum.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide and glucose concentration measurement using optical fiber grating sensors with corrodible plasmonic nanocoatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Wu, Ze; Liu, Fu; Fu, Qiangqiang; Chen, Xiaoyong; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Zhaochuan; Huang, Yunyun; Tang, Yong; Guo, Tuan; Albert, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose concentration measurements using a plasmonic optical fiber sensor. The sensor utilizes a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) written in standard single mode communication fiber. The fiber is over coated with an nm-scale film of silver that supports surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). Such a tilted grating SPR structure provides a high density of narrow spectral resonances (Q-factor about 105) that overlap with the broader absorption band of the surface plasmon waves in the silver film, thereby providing an accurate tool to measure small shifts of the plasmon resonance frequencies. The H2O2 to be detected acts as an oxidant to etch the silver film, which has the effect of gradually decreasing the SPR attenuation. The etching rate of the silver film shows a clear relationship with the H2O2 concentration so that monitoring the progressively increasing attenuation of a selected surface plasmon resonance over a few minutes enables us to measure the H2O2 concentration with a limit of detection of 0.2 μM. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applied to the determination of glucose in human serum for a concentration range from 0 to 12 mM (within the physiological range of 3-8 mM) by monitoring the H2O2 produced by an enzymatic oxidation process. The sensor does not require accurate temperature control because of the inherent temperature insensitivity of TFBG devices referenced to the core mode resonance. A gold mirror coated on the fiber allows the sensor to work in reflection, which will facilitate the integration of the sensor with a hypodermic needle for in vitro measurements. The present study shows that Ag-coated TFBG-SPR can be applied as a promising type of sensing probe for optical detection of H2O2 and glucose detection in human serum. PMID:29675315

  3. Fabrication of a novel electrochemical sensor for determination of hydrogen peroxide in different fruit juice samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nasirizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 sensor is fabricated based on a multiwalled carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNT-GCE and reactive blue 19 (RB. The charge transfer coefficient, α, and the charge transfer rate constant, ks, of RB adsorbed on MWCNT-GCE were calculated and found to be 0.44 ± 0.01 Hz and 1.9 ± 0.05 Hz, respectively. The catalysis of the electroreduction of H2O2 by RB-MWCNT-GCE is described. The RB-MWCNT-GCE shows a dramatic increase in the peak current and a decrease in the overvoltage of H2O2 electroreduction in comparison with that seen at an RB modified GCE, MWCNT modified GCE, and activated GCE. The kinetic parameters such as α and the heterogeneous rate constant, k', for the reduction of H2O2 at RB-MWCNT-GCE surface were determined using cyclic voltammetry. The detection limit of 0.27μM and three linear calibration ranges were obtained for H2O2 determination at the RB-MWCNT-GCE surface using an amperometry method. In addition, using the newly developed sensor, H2O2 was determined in real samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Utilizing an open-microcavity optoacoustic sensor for spectroscopic determination of methemoglobin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ralph W.; Kadugodinandareddy, Kavya; Karunakaran, Vinitha; Whitney, Casey; Ling, Jian; Ye, Jing Yong

    2015-03-01

    We present a simple, non-destructive photoacoustic spectroscopy method utilizing a unique open-microcavity optoacoustic sensor to measure the concentration ratio of Methemoglobin (MetHb) in an optically scattering medium. Elevated levels of MetHb, present for example in the blood disorder Methemeglobinemia, cannot be detected by conventional pulse oximetry, and may result in inaccurate arterial oxygen saturation measurements. Samples with different ratios of Oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO2), Deoxygenated Hemoglobin (HHb), and MetHb were obtained and mixed with nanoscale latex beads to present an optical scattering effect. Polymer encapsulated hemoglobin (PEH) samples were also studied. A sample chamber containing 20 μL of each sample was positioned directly underneath our patented optoacoustic sensor. Unlike a piezoelectric transducer, our optoacoustic sensor allows an excitation laser beam from an OPO laser to pass through and be absorbed by the sample to produce a photoacoustic signal. The cavity layer of the optoacoustic sensor is exposed directly to the resulting ultrasound signal, which causes an intensity modulation of a HeNe laser that is used to monitor the resonance condition of the sensor. A probe laser beam is total internally reflected off of the sensor and detected with a fiber-coupled APD detector. Three wavelengths are chosen for our excitation laser based on the absorption peaks and isobestic points of HHb, HbO2, and MetHb. Using established values of the molar extinction coefficients of HbO2, HHb, and MetHb a set of three simultaneous equations can be solved to accurately determine the concentration ratio of MetHb.

  5. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco H. Visser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulating-type (or integrating-type NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s, the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed.

  6. Numerical evaluation for a five-sensor probe method to measure the interfacial area concentration under the bubble fluctuation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euh, D. J.; Yun, B. J.; Song, C. H.

    2003-01-01

    Interfacial area concentration is an important parameter in the two phase flow models. Currently, two types of probe methods, double-sensor and four-sensor, are widely used to measure the interfacial area concentration. In this study, a configuration of five-sensor probe sensor tips and a measuring method for the interfacial area concentration by using the probe are proposed to improve the performance of the previous probe methods. The five-sensor probe method proposed in this study is essentially based on the four-sensor probe method but improves it by adapting one more sensor. The passing types of the interfaces through the sensors are categorized into four and independent methods are applied to the interfaces belonging to each category. This method has an advantage such that a more systematic approach for missing bubbles can be made when compared with the classical four sensor probe method. To verify the applicability of the five-sensor probe method, numerical tests are performed with consideration of the bubble lateral movement. The effects of bubble size and intensity of the bubble lateral motion on the measurement of the interfacial area concentration are also investigated. The bubble parameters related to the bubble fluctuation and interface geometry are determined by the Monte Carlo approach

  7. Fabrication of a novel electrochemical sensor for determination of hydrogen peroxide in different fruit juice samples

    OpenAIRE

    Nasirizadeh, Navid; Shekari, Zahra; Nazari, Ali; Tabatabaee, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    A new hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor is fabricated based on a multiwalled carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNT-GCE) and reactive blue 19 (RB). The charge transfer coefficient, α, and the charge transfer rate constant, ks, of RB adsorbed on MWCNT-GCE were calculated and found to be 0.44 ± 0.01 Hz and 1.9 ± 0.05 Hz, respectively. The catalysis of the electroreduction of H2O2 by RB-MWCNT-GCE is described. The RB-MWCNT-GCE shows a dramatic increase in the peak current and a de...

  8. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Detection of Nitrate Concentration in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. LALASANGI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of chemical species in drinking water are of great interest. We demonstrated etched fiber Bragg grating (FBG as a concentration sensor for nitrate by analyzing the Bragg wavelength shift with concentration of chemical solution. The FBG is fabricated by phase mask technique on single mode Ge-B co-doped photosensitive fiber. Sensitivity of FBGs to the surrounding solution concentration can be enhanced by reducing diameter of the cladding with 40 % HF solution. The maximum sensitivity achieved is 1.322 ´ 10-3 nm/ppm. The overall shift of Bragg wavelength is of the order of 6.611 ´ 10-2 nm for 10 to 50 ppm concentration.

  9. Comparison of questionnaire-based estimation of pesticide residue intake from fruits and vegetables with urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Han; Williams, Paige L; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Gillman, Matthew; Sun, Qi; Ospina, Maria; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2018-01-01

    We developed a pesticide residue burden score (PRBS) based on a food frequency questionnaire and surveillance data on food pesticide residues to characterize dietary exposure over the past year. In the present study, we evaluated the association of the PRBS with urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers. Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake was classified as having high (PRBS≥4) or low (PRBSEARTH study. Two urine samples per man were analyzed for seven biomarkers of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. We used generalized estimating equations to analyze the association of the PRBS with urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers. Urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers were positively related to high pesticide FV intake but inversely related to low pesticide FV intake. The molar sum of urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers was 21% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2%, 44%) higher for each one serving/day increase in high pesticide FV intake, and 10% (95% CI: 1%, 18%) lower for each one serving/day increase in low pesticide FV intake. Furthermore, intake of high pesticide FVs positively related to most individual urinary biomarkers. Our findings support the usefulness of the PRBS approach to characterize dietary exposure to select pesticides.

  10. Development of real-time measurement of methanol-concentration in polymer electrolyte membrane using a local NMR sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Ito, Kohei; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2007-01-01

    A real-time sensor to measure methanol concentration in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) was developed for reducing methanol cross-over in Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The principle of the methanol sensor is based on the chemical shift of CH and OH species under high magnetic field. The sensor consists of a planar surface coil of 1.3 mm outside diameter. NMR signal from PEM being exposed to CH3OH solvent was measured using NMR sensor. Time-dependence changes of methanol concentration in PEM were obtained from analyzing spectrum of NMR signal. (author)

  11. Design and Operation of an Electrochemical Methanol Concentration Sensor for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.; Chun, W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a 150-Watt packaged power source based on liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells is being pursued currently at the Jet propulsion Laboratory for defense applications. In our studies we find that the concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop affects the electrical performance and efficiency the direct methanol fuel cell systems significantly. The practical operation of direct methanol fuel cell systems, therefore, requires accurate monitoring and control of methanol concentration. The present paper reports on the principle and demonstration of an in-house developed electrochemical sensor suitable for direct methanol fuel cell systems.

  12. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farma, R.; Awitdrus,; Taer, E.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N 2 environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO 2 activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H 2 SO 4 electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes

  13. Development of metal oxide gas sensors for very low concentration (ppb) of BTEX vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favard, A.; Aguir, K.; Contaret, T.; Caris, L.; Bendahan, M.

    2017-12-01

    The control and analysis of air quality have become a major preoccupation of the last twenty years. In 2008, the European Union has introduced a Directive (2008/50/EC) to impose measurement obligations and thresholds to not exceed for some pollutants, including BTEX gases, in view of their adverse effects on the health. In this paper, we show the ability to detect very low concentrations of BTEX using a gas microsensor based on metal oxide thin-film. A test bench able to generate very low vapors concentrations has been achieved and fully automated. Thin metal oxides layers have been realized by reactive magnetron sputtering. The sensitive layers are functionalized with gold nanoparticles by thermal evaporation technique. Our sensors have been tested on a wide range of concentrations of BTEX (5 - 500 ppb) and have been able to detect concentrations of a few ppb for operating temperatures below 593 K. These results are very promising for detection of very low BTEX concentration for indoor as well as outdoor application. We showed that the addition of gold nanoparticles on the sensitive layers decreases the sensors operating temperature and increases the response to BTEX gas. The best results are obtained with a sensitive layer based on ZnO.

  14. Fungitoxic effect of concentrations of essential oils on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolated from the passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Teodoro Souza Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of essential oils on the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The essential oils were obtained from shoots of the plants Lippia sidoides, Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus and Psidium guayava var. pomifera. After the incorporation of oil in water-agar and PDA medium, in concentrations of 1μL/mL, 3μL/mL 5μL/mL and 10μL/mL and witness at 0μL/mL (oil/the culture medium, the inhibitions of conidia germination and mycelial growth, respectively, were evaluates. The results showed that from the concentration of 1μL/mL, essential oils of all plant species had an effect on conidia germination, with an inhibition of 100%. The species Lippia sidoides, Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia citriodora and Cymbopogon citratus inhibited the growth of the fungus mycelium by 100%. The oil of Psidium guayava var. pomifera had progressive control over the mycelium of C. gloeosporioides, in accordance with the increase in concentrations of essential oil.

  15. Optimization of moistening solution concentration on xylanase activity in solid state fermentation from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardawati, Efri; Parlan; Rialita, Tita; Nurhadi, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Xylanase is an enzyme used in the industrial world, including food industry. Xylanase can be utilized as a 1,4-β-xylosidic endo-hydrolysis catalyst of xylanase, a hemicellulose component for obtaining a xylose monomer. This study aims to determine the optimum concentration of the fermentation medium using Response Surface Method (RSM) in the production of xylanase enzyme from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) through solid state fermentation process. The variables varied in this study used factor A (ammonium sulphate concentration 1.0-2.0 g/L), B (concentration of potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1.5-2.5 g/L) and C (urea concentration 0.2 – 0.5 g/L). The data was analysed by using Design Expert version 10.0.1.0 especially CCD with total 17 running including 3 times replicated of canter point. Trichoderma viride was used for the process production of xylanase enzyme. The ratio between substrate and moistening solution used was 0.63 g / mL with temperature of 32.80C, 60 h incubation time. The analysis of enzyme activity was done by DNS method with 1% xylan as substrate. Analysis of protein content in enzyme was done by Bradford method. The optimum of moistening solution concentration in this fermentation was obtained. They are, the ammonium sulphate concentration of 1.5 g/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2.0 g/L and urea 0.35 g/L with activity of 684.70 U/mL, specific activity enzyme xylanase 6261.58 U/mg, protein content 0.1093 U/mg, the model was validated using experiment design with perfect reliability value 0.96.

  16. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  17. Establishing a Multi-spatial Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Nitrate Concentrations in Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, E.; Busek, N.; Park, Y.; Estrin, D.; Harmon, T. C.

    2004-12-01

    The use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation in agriculture can be a significant source of nutrients, in particular nitrogen species, but its use raises concern for groundwater, riparian, and water quality. A 'smart' technology would have the ability to measure wastewater nutrients as they enter the irrigation system, monitor their transport in situ and optimally control inputs with little human intervention, all in real-time. Soil heterogeneity and economic issues require, however, a balance between cost and the spatial and temporal scales of the monitoring effort. Therefore, a wireless and embedded sensor network, deployed in the soil vertically across the horizon, is capable of collecting, processing, and transmitting sensor data. The network consists of several networked nodes or 'pylons', each outfitted with an array of sensors measuring humidity, temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, and aqueous nitrate concentrations. Individual sensor arrays are controlled by a MICA2 mote (Crossbow Technology Inc., San Jose, CA) programmed with TinyOS (University of California, Berkeley, CA) and a Stargate (Crossbow Technology Inc., San Jose, CA) base-station capable of GPRS for data transmission. Results are reported for the construction and testing of a prototypical pylon at the benchtop and in the field.

  18. Highly Sensitive Multi-Channel IDC Sensor Array for Low Concentration Taste Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we designed and developed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC-based taste sensor array to detect different taste substances. The designed taste sensing array has four IDC sensing elements. The four IDC taste sensing elements of the array are fabricated by incorporating four different types of lipids into the polymer, dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP and tetrahydrofuran (THF to make the respective dielectric materials that are individually placed onto an interdigitated electrode (IDE via spin coating. When the dielectric material of an IDC sensing element comes into contact with a taste substance, its dielectric properties change with the capacitance of the IDC sensing element; this, in turn, changes the voltage across the IDC, as well as the output voltage of each channel of the system. In order to assess the effectiveness of the sensing system, four taste substances, namely sourness (HCl, saltiness (NaCl, sweetness (glucose and bitterness (quinine-HCl, were tested. The IDC taste sensor array had rapid response and recovery times of about 12.9 s and 13.39 s, respectively, with highly stable response properties. The response property of the proposed IDC taste sensor array was linear, and its correlation coefficient R2 was about 0.9958 over the dynamic range of the taste sensor array as the taste substance concentration was varied from 1 μM to 1 M. The proposed IDC taste sensor array has several other advantages, such as real-time monitoring capabilities, high sensitivity 45.78 mV/decade, good reproducibility with a standard deviation of about 0.029 and compactness, and the circuitry is based on readily available and inexpensive electronic components. The proposed IDC taste sensor array was compared with the potentiometric taste sensor with respect to sensitivity, dynamic range width, linearity and response time. We found that the proposed IDC sensor array has better performance. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA was applied

  19. Dynamics in the concentrations of health-promoting compounds: lupeol, mangiferin and different phenolic acids during postharvest ripening of mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithana, Mekhala Dk; Singh, Zora; Johnson, Stuart K

    2018-03-01

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) is renowned for its pleasant taste and as a rich source of health beneficial compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in concentrations of health-promoting compounds, namely ascorbic acid, carotenoids, antioxidants, lupeol, mangiferin, total phenols and individual phenolic acids, as well as ethylene production and respiration rates during climacteric ripening in 'Kensington Pride' and 'R2E2' mango fruit. The climacteric ethylene and respiration peaks were noted on the third day of the fruit ripening period. The concentrations of total carotenoids in the pulp, total antioxidants in both pulp and peel, and total phenols of the peel, lupeol and mangiferin were significantly elevated, whereas the concentration of ascorbic acid declined during post-climacteric ripening. Gallic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids were identified as the major phenolic acids in both pulp and peel of 'Kensington Pride' and 'R2E2' mangoes. The concentrations of phenolic acids (gallic, chlorogenic, vanillic, ferulic and caffeic acids) also increased during the post-climacteric phase. The concentrations of all phenolic compounds were several-fold higher in the peel than pulp. Mangoes at post-climacteric ripening phase offer the highest concentrations of health-promoting compounds. Peel, at this stage of fruit ripening, could be exploited as a good source for extraction of these compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor with High Figure of Merit Based on Concentric-Rings Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojian; Yang, Junbo; He, Xin; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Chen, Dingbo; Han, Yunxin

    2018-01-01

    A plasmonic refractive index (RI) sensor based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide coupled with concentric double rings resonator (CDRR) is proposed and investigated numerically. Utilizing the novel supermodes of the CDRR, the FWHM of the resonant wavelength can be modulated, and a sensitivity of 1060 nm/RIU with high figure of merit (FOM) 203.8 is realized in the near-infrared region. The unordinary modes, as well as the influence of structure parameters on the sensing performance, are also discussed. Such plasmonic sensor with simple framework and high optical resolution could be applied to on-chip sensing systems and integrated optical circuits. Besides, the special cases of bio-sensing and triple rings are also discussed. PMID:29300331

  1. Effects of CO[sub 2] concentration on photosynthesis, transpiration and production of greenhouse fruit vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    1994-10-25

    The effect of the CO[sub 2] concentration of the greenhouse air (C) in the range 200 to 1100 [mu]mol mol[sup -1] was investigated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), grown in greenhouses. The effect of C on canopy net photosynthetic CO[sub 2] assimilation rate (or photosynthesis, P) was expressed by a set of regression equations, relating P to PAR, C and LAI. A rule of thumb ('CO[sub 2]-rule') was derived, approximating the relative increase of P caused by additional CO[sub 2] at a certain C. This CO[sub 2]-rule is: X = (1000/C)[sup 2] * 1.5 (X in % per 100 [mu]mol[sup -1], and C in [mu]mol mol[sup -1]). Two models for canopy photosynthesis were examined by comparing them with the experimental photosynthesis data. No 'midday depression' in P was observed. The effects of C on leaf conductance (g) and on rate of crop transpiration (E) were investigated. An increase of 100 I[mu]mol mol[sup -1] ' in C reduced g by about 3-4% in sweet pepper, tomato and cucumber and by about 11% in eggplant. The effect of C on E was analyzed by combining the regression equation for g with the Penman-Monteith equation for E. C had only a relatively small effect on E, owing to thermal and hydrological feedback effects. The decoupling of g and E was quantified. No time-dependent variation or 'midday depression' in E was observed, and no significant effect of C on average leaf temperature was established. In five experiments, the effect of C on growth and production and on specific features were analyzed; fruit production (dry weight) was most affected by C in sweet pepper; fresh weight fruit production per unit CO[sub 2] was highest in cucumber; fruit quality was not influenced by C. High C promoted the 'short leaves syndrome' in tomato and 'leaf tip chlorosis' in eggplant, probably related to calcium and boron translocation

  2. Self-Powered Active Sensor with Concentric Topography of Piezoelectric Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin Kuen; Huang, Zih Ming; Wang, Bo Sheng; Li, Shan Chien

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a flexible and self-powered sensor based on piezoelectric fibers in the diameter range of nano- and micro-scales. Our work is distinctively different from previous electrospinning research; we fabricated this apparatus precisely via near-field electrospinning which has a spectacular performance to harvest mechanical deformation in arbitrary direction and a novel concentrically circular topography. There are many piezoelectric devices based on electrospinning polymeric fibers. However, the fibers were mostly patterned in parallel lines and they could be actuated in limited direction only. To overcome this predicament, we re-arranged the parallel alignment into concentric circle pattern which made it possible to collect the mechanical energy whenever the deformation is along same axis or not. Despite the change of topography, the output voltage and current could still reach to 5 V and 400 nA, respectively, despite the mechanical deformation was from different direction. This new arbitrarily directional piezoelectric generator with concentrically circular topography (PGCT) allowed the piezoelectric device to harvest more mechanical energy than the one-directional alignment fiber-based devices, and this PGCT could perform even better output which promised more versatile and efficient using as a wearable electronics or sensor.

  3. Diode Laser Sensor for Gas Temperature and H2O Concentration in a Scramjet Combustor Using Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rieker, Gregory B; Li, Jonathan T; Jeffries, Jay B; Mathur, Tarun; Gruber, Mark R; Carter, Campbell D

    2005-01-01

    A diode laser absorption sensor which probes three spectral features of water vapor in the near infrared region to infer gas temperature and water vapor concentration near the exit of a scramjet combustor is presented...

  4. Compound parabolic concentrator optical fiber tip for FRET-based fluorescent sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Nielsen, Kristian; Aasmul, Soren

    2015-01-01

    The Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) optical fiber tip shape has been proposed for intensity based fluorescent sensors working on the principle of FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer). A simple numerical Zemax model has been used to optimize the CPC tip geometry for a step-index multimode...... polymer optical fiber for an excitation and emission wavelength of 550 nm and 650nm, respectively. The model suggests an increase of a factor of 1.6 to 4 in the collected fluorescent power for an ideal CPC tip, as compared to the plane-cut fiber tip for fiber lengths between 5 and 45mm...

  5. The Impact of Sepiolite on Sensor Parameters during the Detection of Low Concentrations of Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorska-Woźniak, Patrycja; Rac, Olga; Fiedot, Marta; Teterycz, Helena

    2016-11-09

    The article presents the results of the detection of low-concentration C1-C4 alcohols using a planar sensor, in which a sepiolite filter was applied next to the gas-sensitive layer based on tin dioxide. The sepiolite layer is composed of tubes that have a length of several microns, and the diameter of the single tube ranges from several to tens of nanometers. The sepiolite layer itself demonstrated no chemical activity in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOC), and the passive filter made of this material did not modify the chemical composition of the gaseous atmosphere diffusing to the gas-sensitive layer. The test results revealed that the structural remodelling of the sepiolite that occurs under the influence of temperature, as well as the effect of the filter (a compound with ionic bonds) with molecules of water, has a significant impact on the improvement of the sensitivity of the sensor in relation to volatile organic compounds when compared to the sensor without a filter.

  6. Development of novel potentiometric sensors for determination of tartrazine dye concentration in foodstuff products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Shawish, Hazem M; Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Saadeh, Salman M; El Harazeen, Heba

    2013-05-01

    Tartrazine dye Na(3)TZ in foodstuff products was determined by a new modified carbon paste electrode, encoded sensor A, and a coated silver wire electrode, encoded sensor B, based on tartrazine TZ- cetryltrimethyl ammoniumbromide CTAB as a chemical modifier TZ-CTA. The electrodes exhibit the following characteristics listed respectively: a Nernstian slope of 17.9±0.5 and 19.4±0.2 mV/decade for tartrazine ion over a wide concentration range from 4.3×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-2) and 1.1×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-2) M. The lower detection limits: 3.2×10(-7) and 5.5×10(-8) M. Short response time (5-8 s) over the pH range 3.8-7.7 and 4.2-8.1. The proposed sensors display significantly high selectivity for TZ ion over a wide variety of sugars, some anions, common organic, inorganic compounds and additives. The developed electrodes were applied to the potentiometric determination of tartrazine ion in different kinds of foodstuffs: solid jelly (strawberry and custard) powder samples and soft drink (orange) samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  8. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, Peter A.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Serrano, Brenda E.; Fredrickson, Guy L.; Cowan, Ben F.; Herrmann, Steven D.; Li, Shelly X.

    2010-01-01

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-β(double p rime)-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-β(double p rime)-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in

  9. Field calibration of optical sensors for measuring suspended sediment concentration in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guillén

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The water turbidity measured with optical methods (transmittance and backscattering is usually expressed as beam attenuation coefficient (BAC or formazin turbidity units (FTU. The transformation of these units to volumetric suspended sediment concentration (SSC units is not straightforward, and accurate calibrations are required in order to obtain valuable information on suspended sediment distributions and fluxes. In this paper, data from field calibrations between BAC, FTU and SSC are presented and best-fit calibration curves are shown. These calibrations represent an average from different marine environments of the western Mediterranean (from estuary to continental slope. However, the general curves can only be applied for descriptive or semi-quantitative purposes. Comparison of turbidity measurements using the same sensor with different calibration ranges shows the advantage of simultaneously combining two instruments calibrated in different ranges when significant changes in suspended sediment concentrations are expected.

  10. Active/passive microwave sensor comparison of MIZ-ice concentration estimates. [Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, B. A.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Keller, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Active and passive microwave data collected during the 1984 summer Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in the Fram Strait (MIZEX 84) are used to compare ice concentration estimates derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to those obtained from passive microwave imagery at several frequencies. The comparison is carried out to evaluate SAR performance against the more established passive microwave technique, and to investigate discrepancies in terms of how ice surface conditions, imaging geometry, and choice of algorithm parameters affect each sensor. Active and passive estimates of ice concentration agree on average to within 12%. Estimates from the multichannel passive microwave data show best agreement with the SAR estimates because the multichannel algorithm effectively accounts for the range in ice floe brightness temperatures observed in the MIZ.

  11. Effect of ascorbic acid and dehydration on concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins, and color in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Ereifej, Khalil I; Howard, L

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to report on the total phenolics, anthocyanins, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of strawberry, peach, and apple, the influence of dehydration and ascorbic acid treatments on the levels of these compounds, and the effect of these treatments on fruit color. Results showed that fresh strawberry had the highest levels for total phenolics [5317.9 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE)/kg], whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peach (3392.1 and 1973.1 mg of CAE/kg, respectively), and for anthocyanins (138.8 mg/kg), whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peaches (11.0 and 18.9 mg/kg, respectively; fresh strawberry had an ORAC value of 62.9 mM/kg Trolox equivalents. The fresh apple and peach were found to have ORAC values of 14.7 and 11.4 mM/kg of Trolox equivalents, respectively. The color values indicated that the addition of 0.1% ascorbic acid increased the lightness (L) and decreased the redness (a) and yellowness (b) color values of fresh strawberry, peach, and apple, sliced samples, and the puree made from them. Also, results showed that dehydration is a good method to keep the concentrations of total phenolics and anthocyanins and ORAC values at high levels.

  12. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farma, R.; Awitdrus,; Taer, E. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia); Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-16

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N{sub 2} environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO{sub 2} activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes.

  13. Effect of Sodium Chloride Concentrations and Its Foliar Application Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pomegranate Fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rouhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. belong to Punicaceae family is native to Iran and grown extensively in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. Pomegranate is also important in human medicine and its components have a wide range of clinical applications. Cracking causes a major fruit loss, which is a serious commercial loss to farmers. Fruit cracking, seems to be a problem that lessens the marketability to a great extent. Fruit cracking is one of the physiological disorders wherever pomegranate trees are grown. It may be due to moisture imbalances as this fruit is very sensitive to variation in soil moisture prolonged drought causes hardening of skin and if this is followed by heavy irrigation the pulp grows then skin grows and cracks. Many factors i.e., climate, soil and irrigation, varieties, pruning, insects and nutrition statues influence the growth and production of fruit trees. Deficiencies of various nutrients are related to soil types, plants and even to various cultivars. Most nutrients are readily fixed in soil having different PH. Plant roots are unable to absorb these nutrients adequately from the dry topsoil. Foliar fertilization is particularly useful under conditions where the absorption of nutrients through the soil and this difficult situation to be present in the nutrients such as calcium. Since the calcium element is needed, so spraying them at the right time is correct way to save the plant requirements. Therefore, a research conducted on effect of sodium chloride concentrations and its foliar application time on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”. Materials and Methods: An experiment conducted at Jarghoyeh, Esfahan, Iran in 2012. The factors were Sodium chloride (0, 5 and 10 g/L and times of spray (15, 45 and 75 days before harvest. The study was factorial experiment in the base of randomized complete blocks design with three replications

  14. A Microfluidic Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensor Platform for Chloride Ion Concentration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Neng Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber sensors based on waveguide technology are promising and attractive in chemical, biotechnological, agronomy, and civil engineering applications. A microfluidic system equipped with a long-period fiber grating (LPFG capable of measuring chloride ion concentrations of several sample materials is presented. The LPFG-based microfluidic platform was shown to be effective in sensing very small quantities of samples and its transmitted light signal could easily be used as a measurand. The investigated sample materials included reverse osmosis (RO water, tap water, dilute aqueous sample of sea sand soaked in RO water, aqueous sample of sea sand soaked in RO water, dilute seawater, and seawater. By employing additionally a chloride ion-selective electrode sensor for the calibration of chloride-ion concentration, a useful correlation (R2 = 0.975 was found between the separately-measured chloride concentration and the light intensity transmitted through the LPFG at a wavelength of 1,550 nm. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the LPFG sensor by light intensity interrogation was determined to be 5.0 × 10−6 mW/mg/L for chloride ion concentrations below 2,400 mg/L. The results obtained from the analysis of data variations in time-series measurements for all sample materials show that standard deviations of output power were relatively small and found in the range of 7.413 × 10−5–2.769 × 10−3 mW. In addition, a fairly small coefficients of variations were also obtained, which were in the range of 0.03%–1.29% and decreased with the decrease of chloride ion concentrations of sample materials. Moreover, the analysis of stability performance of the LPFG sensor indicated that the random walk coefficient decreased with the increase of the chloride ion concentration, illustrating that measurement stability using the microfluidic platform was capable of measuring transmitted optical power with accuracy in the range of −0

  15. An Integrated Multimodal Sensor for the On-site Monitoring of the Water Content and Nutrient Concentration of Soil by Measuring the Phase and Electrical Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato FUTAGAWA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated a new multimodal sensor chip which is capable of simultaneous on-site measurements of the water content and nutrient concentration. Until now, in agriculture, water content sensors, such as TDR sensors, have been unable to provide accurate measurements, since these sensors are affected by the nutrient concentration in the soil solution. Therefore, tensiometers have generally been used. However, these are large-scale sensors and are not suitable for the precise measurements required in agriculture. Our proposed sensors are the world’s first to enable independent measurements of the water content and nutrient concentration.

  16. Anthocyanin indexes, quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin concentration in leaves and fruit of Abutilon theophrasti Medik. genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanin indexes, quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin may provide industry with potential new medicines or nutraceuticals. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik) leaves from 42 accessions were analyzed for anthocyanin indexes while both leaves and fruit were used for quercetin, kaempferol, and ...

  17. Software sensors for biomass concentration in a SSC process using artificial neural networks and support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Gonzalo; Ramirez, Cristian; Curilem, Millaray

    2014-01-01

    The lack of sensors for some relevant state variables in fermentation processes can be coped by developing appropriate software sensors. In this work, NARX-ANN, NARMAX-ANN, NARX-SVM and NARMAX-SVM models are compared when acting as software sensors of biomass concentration for a solid substrate cultivation (SSC) process. Results show that NARMAX-SVM outperforms the other models with an SMAPE index under 9 for a 20 % amplitude noise. In addition, NARMAX models perform better than NARX models under the same noise conditions because of their better predictive capabilities as they include prediction errors as inputs. In the case of perturbation of initial conditions of the autoregressive variable, NARX models exhibited better convergence capabilities. This work also confirms that a difficult to measure variable, like biomass concentration, can be estimated on-line from easy to measure variables like CO₂ and O₂ using an adequate software sensor based on computational intelligence techniques.

  18. Minimal processing of fruit and vegetables: influence of concentration and activity of some naturally occurring antioxidants in orange derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli, Maria Cristina; Piga, Antonio; Vacca, Vincenzo; Gambella, Filippo; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Agabbio, Mario Carlo Salvatore

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional factors are widely proved to be critical for human health. Overwhelming, evidence from epidemiological studies showed that diets rich in fruit and vegetables are associated with a reduced risk of degenerative diseases. This is attributed to the fact that these foods may provide an optimal mix of phytochemicals, such as antioxidants and their precursors. However, it is widely recognised that the health promoting capacity of fruit and vegetables strictly depends on their technologic...

  19. Microfabricated Collector-Generator Electrode Sensor for Measuring Absolute pH and Oxygen Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Adam K; Wightman, R Mark; McCarty, Gregory S

    2015-10-20

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has attracted attention for studying in vivo neurotransmission due to its subsecond temporal resolution, selectivity, and sensitivity. Traditional FSCV measurements use background subtraction to isolate changes in the local electrochemical environment, providing detailed information on fluctuations in the concentration of electroactive species. This background subtraction removes information about constant or slowly changing concentrations. However, determination of background concentrations is still important for understanding functioning brain tissue. For example, neural activity is known to consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide which affects local levels of oxygen and pH. Here, we present a microfabricated microelectrode array which uses FSCV to detect the absolute levels of oxygen and pH in vitro. The sensor is a collector-generator electrode array with carbon microelectrodes spaced 5 μm apart. In this work, a periodic potential step is applied at the generator producing transient local changes in the electrochemical environment. The collector electrode continuously performs FSCV enabling these induced changes in concentration to be recorded with the sensitivity and selectivity of FSCV. A negative potential step applied at the generator produces a transient local pH shift at the collector. The generator-induced pH signal is detected using FSCV at the collector and correlated to absolute solution pH by postcalibration of the anodic peak position. In addition, in oxygenated solutions a negative potential step at the generator produces hydrogen peroxide by reducing oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is detected with FSCV at the collector electrode, and the magnitude of the oxidative peak is proportional to absolute oxygen concentrations. Oxygen interference on the pH signal is minimal and can be accounted for with a postcalibration.

  20. In-vitro performance of the Enlite Sensor in various glucose concentrations during hypobaric and hyperbaric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Peter; Ornhagen, Hans; Eriksson, Bengt M; Gautham, Raghavendhar; Jendle, Johan

    2012-11-01

    There is a need for reliable methods of glucose measurement in different environmental conditions. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the performance of the Enlite® Sensor when connected to either the iPro™ Continuous Glucose Monitor recording device or the Guardian® REAL-Time transmitting device, in hypobaric and hyperbaric conditions. Sixteen sensors connected to eight iPro devices and eight Guardian REAL-Time devices were immersed in three beakers containing separate glucose concentrations: 52, 88, and 207 mg/dl (2.9, 4.9, and 11.3 mmol/liter). Two different pressure tests were conducted: a hypobaric test, corresponding to maximum 18000 ft/5500 m height, and a hyperbaric test, corresponding to maximum 100 ft/30 m depth. The linearity of the sensor signals in the different conditions was evaluated. The sensors worked continuously, and the sensor signals were collected without interruption at all pressures tested. When comparing the input signals for glucose (ISIGs) and the different glucose concentrations during altered pressure, linearity (R(2)) of 0.98 was found. During the hypobaric test, significant differences (p hyperbaric test, no differences were found. The Enlite Sensors connected to either the iPro or the Guardian REAL-Time device provided values continuously. In hyperbaric conditions, no significant differences were seen during changes in ambient pressure; however, during hypobaric conditions, the ISIG was significantly different in the low and high glucose concentrations. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Electrochemical behaviour of polyphenol rich fruit juices using disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes: towards a rapid sensor for antioxidant capacity and individual antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaba, Jordi Giné; Terry, Leon A

    2012-02-15

    The analysis of antioxidants in different foodstuffs and especially fruits has become an active area of research which has lead to numerous antioxidant-assays being recently developed. Many antioxidants exhibit inherent electroactivity, and hence employing electrochemical methods could be a viable approach for evaluating the overall antioxidant capacity of a fresh produce matrix without the need for added reactive species. This work shows the possibility of using square wave voltammetry (SWV) and other electrochemical methods with disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes, to quantify and assess antioxidant activity and abundance of specific antioxidants, mainly polyphenols in selected soft fruit juices. Freshly squeezed black currant and strawberry juices of different cultivars and maturity stages were chosen according to known differences in their antioxidant profile. As a result of the increasing applied potential (0-1000 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) the electroactive compounds present in the juices were oxidised leading to a characteristic voltammetric profile for each of the samples analysed. Generally, black currant juices had greater oxidation peaks at lower potentials (<400 mV) which were indicators of higher antioxidant capacities. The relationship between sensor cumulative responses at different applied potentials and total or individual antioxidants, as determined by conventional spectrophotometric methods (FRAP, Folin-Ciocalteu) and HPLC (individual anthocyanins and ascorbate), respectively, are discussed in the context of the development of a rapid sensor for antioxidants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A preliminary study on 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in vegetables and fruits frequently consumed by inhabitants of Elazig Region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumhur Canbazoglu; Mahmut Dogru

    2013-01-01

    Determining radioactivity levels in foodstuffs is of great importance for the protection of human health. In addition, the literature includes few studies related to this subject in Turkey. In this study, gamma spectroscopic system was used in order to measure 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs activity concentrations in vegetables and fruits produced in Elazig( Region. The average activity concentrations in vegetables was calculated as 0.64 ± 0.26 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 0.65 ± 0.14 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th, 13.98 ± 1.22 Bq kg -1 for 40 K, and 0.54 ± 0.04 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs. The average activity concentrations in fruits were 1.52 ± 0.34, 0.98 ± 0.23, 18.66 ± 1.13 and 0.59 ± 0.16 Bq kg -1 , respectively for 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs. Total committed effective dose value was determined as 20 and 30.55 μSv y -1 , respectively for vegetables and fruits. The findings were compared with previous data reported for Turkey and other regions of the world. (author)

  3. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Concentration on Survival of Foodborne Pathogens in Deciduous Fruit Processing Environments for Effective Hygiene Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2016-11-01

    Temperature and good sanitation practices are important factors for controlling growth of microorganisms. Fresh produce is stored at various temperatures to ensure quality and to prolong shelf life. When foodborne pathogens survive and grow on fresh produce at storage temperatures, then additional control strategies are needed to inactivate these pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine how temperatures associated with deciduous fruit processing and storage facilities (0.5, 4, and 21°C) affect the growth and/or survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus under different nutrient conditions (nutrient rich and nutrient poor) and on simulated contact surfaces (vinyl coupons). Information on the growth and survival of foodborne pathogens at specific deciduous fruit processing and storage temperatures (0.5°C) is not available. All pathogens except E. coli O157:H7 were able to survive on vinyl coupons at all temperatures. L. monocytogenes proliferated under both nutrient conditions independent of temperature. S. aureus was the pathogen least affected by nutrient conditions. The survival of foodborne pathogens on the vinyl coupons, a model system for studying surfaces in fruit preparation and storage environments, indicates the potential for cross-contamination of deciduous fruit products under poor sanitation conditions. Foodborne pathogens that can proliferate and survive at various temperatures under different nutrient conditions could lead to fruit cross-contamination. Temperature mismanagement, which could allow pathogen proliferation in contaminated fruit packing houses and storage environments, is a concern. Therefore, proper hygiene and sanitation practices, removal of possible contaminants, and proper food safety management systems are needed to ensure food safety.

  4. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  5. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  6. Numerical evaluation of the five sensor probe method for measurement of local interfacial area concentration of cap bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euh, D.J.; Yun, B.J.; Song, C.H.; Kwon, T.S.; Chung, M.K.; Lee, U.C.

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial area concentration (IAC) is one of the most important parameters in the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analysis. The IAC can be measured by a local conductivity probe method that uses the difference of conductivity between water and air/steam. The number of sensors in the conductivity probe may be differently chosen by considering the flow regime of two-phase flow. The four sensor conductivity probe method predicts the IAC without any assumptions of the bubble shape. The local IAC can be obtained by measuring the three dimensional velocity vector elements at the measuring point, and the directional cosines of the sensors. The five sensor conductivity probe method proposed in this study is based on the four sensor probe method. With the five sensor probe, the local IAC for a given referred measuring area of the probe can be predicted more exactly. In this paper, the mathematical approach of the five sensor probe method for measuring the IAC is described, and a numerical simulation is carried out for ideal cap bubbles of which the sizes and locations are determined by a random number generator. (author)

  7. Gamma radiation and osmotic potential of the nutrient solution differentially affect macronutrient concentrations, pH and EC in chilhuacle pepper fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Garcia-Gaytan, Libia Iris Trejo-Tellez; Olga Tejeda-Sartorius; Maribel Ramirez-Martinez; Julian Delgadillo-Martinez; Fernando Carlos Gomez-Merino; Soledad Garcia-Morales

    2018-01-01

    Chilhuacle pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds were exposed to gamma radiation (GR) doses (0, 10, 80 and 120 Gy), and plants were grown in hydroponics with different osmotic potentials (OP) (- 0.036, - 0.072, - 0.092, and - 0.108 MPa) in the nutrient solution. We measured the nutrient concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in fruits at different time points after transplanting (70, 90 and 130 dat), and found the GR, nutrient solution OP and their interactions differentially affected N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations, as well as pH and EC in chilhuacle peppers. (author)

  8. Influences of air and controlled atmosphere storage on the concentration of potentially healthful phenolics in apples and other fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.; Jager, de A.

    2003-01-01

    A diverse array of fruit and vegetable constituents including vitamins such as C, E and A, phytochemicals such as folates, glucosinolates, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids, lycopene, selenium and dietary fibres form an antioxidant network that is essential in maintaining human health. In

  9. Current Methods for Extraction and Concentration of Enteric Viruses from Fresh Fruit and Vegetables: Towards International Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croci, L.; Dubois, E.; Cook, N.

    2008-01-01

    Virus-contaminated soft fruits or vegetables are increasingly identified as causes of foodborne viral illness. Noroviruses and hepatitis A virus are the most common pathogens in viral infections transmitted by these kinds of foods. To improve microbiological detection and monitoring and to increa...

  10. Evaluation of a Non-Destructive Impact Sensor to Determine On-Line Fruit Firmness Evaluación de un Sensor de Impacto No-Destructivo para la Determinación de la Firmeza de Frutos en Líneas de Manipulación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Homer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A non-destructive impact sensor to measure on-line fruit firmness was evaluated. This sensor is an adaptation of a static model used in the laboratory to measure fruit quality and was installed in an experimental fruit packing line with a commercial sizer chain. The firmness index is related to the acceleration-time curve supplied by an accelerometer attached to an impacting arm. The main objective of this study was to evaluate sensor performance and sources of variation. We made classification trials on three fruits: peaches (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, apples (Malus domestica Borkh., and pears (Pyrus communis L., as well as working trials, such as placing the fruit, orientation, and others. The sensor works correctly at a speed of 7 fruits s-1 (0.63 m s-1 and allows fruit classification at three levels of firmness using specific software. Good discrimination was obtained only for soft peaches. There were variations in results between different fruits and different parts of the same fruit mainly due to the non-uniformity of fruit shape and lack of ripeness homogeneity of each one.Se evaluó un sensor de impacto no destructivo para medir firmeza de frutas en líneas de manipulación. Este sensor es una adaptación de la versión estática utilizada en algunos laboratorios de calidad de frutas, el cual fue modificado e instalado en una línea experimental de manipulación de fruta que contaba con un calibrador comercial. La firmeza de los frutos está relacionada con la curva de aceleración-tiempo que suministra un acelerómetro unido a un brazo que impacta la fruta. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar funcionamiento y fuentes de variación del sensor. Para ello se realizaron ensayos de clasificación con duraznos (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh., y peras (Pyrus communis L., y ensayos de funcionamiento como pruebas de posicionamiento del fruto, orientación, entre otras. El sensor funciona correctamente a una

  11. Determination of macro, essential trace elements, toxic heavy metal concentrations, crude oil extracts and ash composition from Saudi Arabian fruits and vegetables having medicinal values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana R. Alzahrani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of essential elements (Mg, Ca, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Al, Ni, and Cu and toxic heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr, Cd, and Cr from Saudi Arabian fruits and vegetables were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometry (ICP/OES. Two types of butters, Caralluma munbayana and Caralluma hesperidum, Vigna (Vigna unguiculata, common fig (Ficus carica, Annona seeds (Annonaceae seeds, Annona fruits (Annonaceae fruits, Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, and Fennel flowers (Nigella sativa were investigated, because they are used by indigenous groups as traditional medicines with Soxhlet-extraction and dry-ashing protocol. The estimated daily dietary element intake in food samples was further calculated in order to evaluate the element dietary intake and fruit and vegetable consumption pattern of the indigenes of Saudi Arabia. The crude oil and ash compositions varied widely, but suggested that most of the foods were good sources of oils and minerals. The figures-of-merit of the ICP-OES calibration curves were excellent with good linearity (R2 > 0.9921. The use of ICP-OES in this study allowed the accurate analysis and the detection of the elements at low levels. Essential elements (K, Ca, Na, and Mg had the highest concentrations while toxic heavy metals (As, Pb, and Cd had the lowest in the foods. Essential element pairs (Mg-Na, Mg-Ca, Fe-Al were highly correlated, suggesting that these foods are sources of multiple nutrients. Toxic element pairs (Pb-Cd, Pb-As, and Cd-As, however, were poorly correlated in the foods, suggesting that these elements do not have a common source in these foods. Average consumption of these foods should provide the recommended daily allowances of essential elements, but will not expose consumers to toxic heavy metals. The ICP-OES method was validated by determining method detection limits and percent recoveries of laboratory-fortified blanks, which were generally 90–100%.

  12. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  13. Augmented switching linear dynamical system model for gas concentration estimation with MOX sensors in an open sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lello, Enrico; Trincavelli, Marco; Bruyninckx, Herman; De Laet, Tinne

    2014-07-11

    In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian time series model approach for gas concentration estimation using Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors in Open Sampling System (OSS). Our approach focuses on the compensation of the slow response of MOX sensors, while concurrently solving the problem of estimating the gas concentration in OSS. The proposed Augmented Switching Linear System model allows to include all the sources of uncertainty arising at each step of the problem in a single coherent probabilistic formulation. In particular, the problem of detecting on-line the current sensor dynamical regime and estimating the underlying gas concentration under environmental disturbances and noisy measurements is formulated and solved as a statistical inference problem. Our model improves, with respect to the state of the art, where system modeling approaches have been already introduced, but only provided an indirect relative measures proportional to the gas concentration and the problem of modeling uncertainty was ignored. Our approach is validated experimentally and the performances in terms of speed of and quality of the gas concentration estimation are compared with the ones obtained using a photo-ionization detector.

  14. Sensor-less control of the methanol concentration of direct methanol fuel cells at varying ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new algorithm is proposed for the sensor-less control of methanol concentration. • Two different strategies are used depending on the ambient temperatures. • Energy efficiency of the DMFC system has been improved by using the new algorithm. - Abstract: A new version of an algorithm is used to control the methanol concentration in the feed of DMFC systems without using methanol sensors under varying ambient temperatures. The methanol concentration is controlled indirectly by controlling the temperature of the DMFC stack, which correlates well with the methanol concentration. Depending on the ambient temperature relative to a preset reference temperature, two different strategies are used to control the stack temperature: either reducing the cooling rate of the methanol solution passing through an anode-side heat exchanger; or, lowering the pumping rate of the pure methanol to the depleted feed solution. The feasibility of the algorithm is evaluated using a DMFC system that consists of a 200 W stack and the balance of plant (BOP). The DMFC system includes a sensor-less methanol controller that is operated using a LabView system as the central processing unit. The algorithm is experimentally confirmed to precisely control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature at target values under an environment of varying ambient temperatures

  15. Endogenous Ethylene Concentration Is Not a Major Determinant of Fruit Abscission in Heat-Stressed Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah Najeeb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of ethylene in the response of cotton to high temperature using cotton genotypes with genetically interrupted ethylene metabolism. In the first experiment, Sicot 71BRF and 5B (a lintless variant with compromised ethylene metabolism were exposed to 45°C, either by instantaneous heat shock or by ramping temperatures by 3°C daily for 1 week. One day prior to the start of heat treatment, half the plants were sprayed with 0.8 mM of the ethylene synthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG. In a subsequent experiment, Sicot 71BRF and a putatively heat-tolerant line, CIM 448, were exposed to 36 or 45°C for 1 week, and half the plants were sprayed with 20 μM of the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, (ACC. High temperature exposure of plants in both experiments was performed at the peak reproductive phase (65–68 days after sowing. Elevated temperature (heat shock or ramping to 45°C significantly reduced production and retention of fruits in all cotton lines used in this study. At the termination of heat treatment, cotton plants exposed to 45°C had at least 50% fewer fruits than plants under optimum temperature in all three genotypes, while plants at 36°C remained unaffected. Heat-stressed plants continued producing new squares (fruiting buds after termination of heat stress but these squares did not turn into cotton bolls due to pollen infertility. In vitro inhibition of pollen germination by high temperatures supported this observation. Leaf photosynthesis (Pn of heat-stressed plants (45°C measured at the end of heat treatments remained significantly inhibited, despite an increased leaf stomatal conductance (gs, suggesting that high temperature impairs Pn independently of stomatal behavior. Metabolic injury was supported by high relative cellular injury and low photosystem II yield of the heat-stressed plants, indicating that high temperature impaired photosynthetic electron transport. Both

  16. Fruit ripening in Vitis vinifera: light intensity before and not during ripening determines the concentration of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alfredo; Ebeler, Susan E; Williams, Larry E; Matthews, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The roles of light and temperature in the accumulation of the vegetal impact compound 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries were determined. Individual clusters were exposed to various light intensities using neutral density shade cloth before ripening, during ripening or throughout the season in three growing seasons. A recently developed method using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode was employed to measure MIBP in berries. Berry MIBP concentration increased subsequent to berry set, reached a maximum prior to onset of ripening, and then decreased thereafter until harvest. Complete shading of clusters increased the concentration of MIBP more than 100% compared to unshaded controls in 2 out of 3 years. Light increasingly inhibited MIBP concentrations up to 25-50% of ambient light intensities (1500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ). However, only changes in light intensity before ripening had any effect on MIBP accumulation or final MIBP concentration. Analyses of weather data showed that the 1 year in which shading was ineffective was unusually warm, warm early in the season, and had more hot days and higher early season degree days than the other 2 years. In controlled environment experiments, warm growth conditions reduced MIBP concentrations in fruit about as much as light exposure reduced MIBP concentrations in the field experiments. The results indicate that both light and temperature significantly affect MIBP in harvested fruit, but that the light environment during ripening does not significantly affect MIBP concentrations in the berries at harvest. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  17. Concentrations of p-synephrine in fruits and leaves of Citrus species (Rutaceae) and the acute toxicity testing of Citrus aurantium extract and p-synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbo, M D; Larentis, E R; Linck, V M; Aboy, A L; Pimentel, A L; Henriques, A T; Dallegrave, E; Garcia, S C; Leal, M B; Limberger, R P

    2008-08-01

    Dietary supplements containing bitter orange unripe fruit extract/p-synephrine are consumed worldwide for lose weight. This study were conducted to determine the concentration of p-synephrine in unripe fruits and leaves from Citrus aurantium Lin, C. sinensis Osbeck, C. deliciosa Ten, C. limon Burm and C. limonia Osbeck, collected in Southern Brazil, and to evaluate the acute toxicity of C. aurantium extract and p-synephrine. A high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was optimized and validated for determination of p-synephrine. The results indicate that all of analyzed samples present p-synephrine in amounts that range from 0.012% to 0.099% in the unripe fruits and 0.029 to 0.438% in the leaves. Acute oral administration of C. aurantium extracts (2.5% p-synephrine, 300-5,000 mg/kg) in mice produced reduction of locomotor activity, p-synephrine (150-2,000 mg/kg) produced piloerection, gasping, salivation, exophtalmia and reduction in locomotor activity, which was confirmed in spontaneous locomotor activity test. All the effects were reversible and persisted for 3-4h. The toxic effects observed seem to be related with adrenergic stimulation and should alert for possible side effects of p-synephrine and C. aurantium.

  18. Optimization of Two-Step Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for High Sugar Concentration in Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Getting high sugar concentrations in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate with reasonable yields of sugars is commercially attractive but very challenging. Two-step acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB was conducted to get high sugar concentrations in the hydrolysate. The biphasic kinetic model was used to guide the optimization of the first step dilute acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of EFB. A total sugar concentration of 83.0 g/L with a xylose concentration of 69.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 84.0% was experimentally achieved, which is in well agreement with the model predictions under optimal conditions (3% H2SO4 and 1.2% H3PO4, w/v, liquid to solid ratio 3 mL/g, 130°C, and 36 min. To further increase total sugar and xylose concentrations in hydrolysate, a second step hydrolysis was performed by adding fresh EFB to the hydrolysate at 130°C for 30 min, giving a total sugar concentration of 114.4 g/L with a xylose concentration of 93.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 56.5%. To the best of our knowledge, the total sugar and xylose concentrations are the highest among those ever reported for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of lignocellulose.

  19. Quantitative cross-sectional measurement of solid concentration distribution in slurries using a wire-mesh sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, Eduardo Nunes; Da Silva, Marco Jose; Schleicher, Eckhard; Reinecke, Sebastian; Hampel, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Wire-mesh sensors have so far been widely applied in gas–liquid flows where resistance or capacitance distributions are measured and converted into gas or liquid holdup distributions. In this work we report on the qualification of the wire-mesh imaging technique for the measurement of cross-sectional solid concentrations in solid–liquid mixtures. As the dielectric constants of solid particles are different from those of gas, water or oil in the flow, measuring this property can be used as an indication of solid distribution. Experiments were performed in a stirred tank of 100 mm diameter equipped with a capacitance wire-mesh sensor. The wire-mesh sensor was operated at an acquisition speed of 4000 frames per second and has a spatial resolution of 6.25 mm. As solids we used silica sand particles (diameter ∼250 μm) which were suspended in water in a volume concentration range of 1% to 35% to form slurries. By varying the stirring speed, different solid concentration distributions were produced and investigated. In order to convert the measured relative permittivity distribution into a solid concentration distribution, an empirical approach was employed. (paper)

  20. A glucose concentration and temperature sensor based on long period fiber gratings induced by electric-arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chao; Wang, Qi

    2017-10-01

    As one of the key parameters in biological and chemical reactions, glucose concentration objectively reflects the characteristics of reactions, so the real-time monitoring of glucose concentration is important in the field of biochemical. Meanwhile, the influence from temperature should be considered. The fiber sensors have been studied extensively for decades due to the advantages of small size, immunity to electromagnetic interference and high sensitivity, which are suitable for the application of biochemical sensing. A long period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor induced by electric-arc discharge has been fabricated and demonstrated for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentration and temperature. The proposed sensor was fabricated by inscribing a sing mode fiber (SMF) with periodic electric-arc discharge technology. During the fabrication process, the electric-arc discharge technology was produced by a commercial fusion splicer, and the period of inscribed LPFG was determined by the movement of translation stages. A serials of periodic geometrical deformations would be formed in SMF after the fabrication, and the discharge intensity and discharge time can be adjusted though the fusion splicer settings screen. The core mode can be coupled into the cladding modes at certain wavelength when they satisfy the phase-matching conditions, and there will be several resonance dips in the transmission spectrum in LPFG. The resonance dips formed by the coupling between cladding modes and core mode have different sensitivity responses, so the simultaneous measurement for multi-parameter can be realized by monitoring the wavelength shifts of the resonance dips. Compared with the LPFG based on conventional SMF, the glucose concentration sensitivity has been obviously enhanced by etching the cladding with hydrofluoric acid solution. Based on the independent measured results, a dual-parameter measurement matrix has been built for signal demodulation. Because of the easy

  1. Simultaneous remote measurement of CO2 concentration, humidity and temperature with a matrix of optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokiński, Karol; Filipowicz, Marta; Stańczyk, Tomasz; Lipiński, Stanisław; Napierała, Marek; Murawski, Michał; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    A matrix of optical fiber sensors eligible for remote measurements is reported in this paper. The aim of work was to monitor the air quality with a device, which does not need any electricity on site of the measurement. The matrix consists of several sensors detecting carbon dioxide concentration, relative humidity and temperature. Sensors utilize active optical materials, which change their color when exposed to varied conditions. All the sensors are powered with standard light emitting diodes. Light is transmitted by an optical fiber from the light source and then it reaches the active layer which changes its color, when the conditions change. This results in a change of attenuation of light passing through the active layer. Modified light is then transmitted by another optical fiber to the detector, where simple photoresistor is used. It is powered by a stabilized DC power supply and the current is measured. Since no expensive elements are needed to manufacture such a matrix of sensors, its price may be competitive to the price of the devices already available on the market, while the matrix also exhibits other valuable properties.

  2. Crossed Optical Fiber Sensor Arrays for High-Spatial-Resolution Sensing: Application to Dissolved Oxygen Concentration Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veronica Rigo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber sensors using luminescent probes located along an optical fiber in the cladding of this fiber are of great interest for monitoring physical and chemical properties in their environment. The interrogation of a luminophore with a short laser pulse propagating through the fiber core allows for the measurement of the location of these luminophores. To increase the spatial resolution of such a measurements and to measure multiple analytes and properties in a confined space, a crossed optical fiber sensing platform can be employed. Here we describe the application of this platform to measuring the concentration of dissolved oxygen. The sensor is based on luminescence quenching of a ruthenium complex immobilized in a highly crosslinked film and covalently attached to the optical fibers. Both luminescence-intensity and luminescence-lifetime changes of the sensor molecules in response to changes in the concentration of oxygen dissolved in water are reported. For luminescence-intensity measurements, a second adjacent sensor region is employed as reference to account for laser pulse energy fluctuations. Enhanced quenching response in water is demonstrated by the use of organically modified poly(ethylene glycol precursors, which increase the hydrophobicity of the film surface.

  3. The Effect of Addition Super Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus Costaricensis Peels Concentrate to Physico Chemical and Microstucture by SEM of Chicken Saussage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Eka Oktaviningsih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this reasearch was to determine SRDF (Super Red Dragon Fruit peel concentrate added on Physico-chemical quality and Microstucture by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope of chicken sausages. The method research was experimental and designed using completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of 5 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were T0: Chicken Sausage +  0% of SRDF peels concentrate (control, T1: Chicken Sausage +  5% SRDF peels concentrate,  T2: Chicken Sausage +  10% of SRDF peels concentrate, T3: Chicken Sausage +  15% of SRDF peels concentrate, T4: Chicken Sausage +  20% of SRDF peels concentrate. The variables measured were moisture content, fat content, color measure L*a*b*, texture and microstructure. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova, if there were a significant effect between the treatments then continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The addition 20% of SRDF peels concentrate on chicken sausage could decreasing color L* 43.56± 1.30, increasing the color a* 33.78± 2.36, decreasing color b* 12.96±0.48, decreasing fat content 40.87 ± 0.68, decreasing texture 3.16± 0.35, and increasing moisture 44.75 ± 8.7.

  4. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-01-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr_3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. - Highlights: • A small-sized UAV airborne sensor system was developed. • Three radioactive models were chosen to simulate the Fukushima accident. • Both the air and ground radiation were considered in the models. • The efficiency calculations and MDAC values were given. • The sensor system is able to monitor in serious nuclear accidents.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting pseudomonads increases anthocyanin concentration in strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva) in conditions of reduced fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Guido; Bona, Elisa; Manassero, Paola; Marsano, Francesco; Todeschini, Valeria; Cantamessa, Simone; Copetta, Andrea; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Gamalero, Elisa; Berta, Graziella

    2013-08-06

    Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry.

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonads Increases Anthocyanin Concentration in Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva in Conditions of Reduced Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Gamalero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry.

  7. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonads Increases Anthocyanin Concentration in Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva) in Conditions of Reduced Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Guido; Bona, Elisa; Manassero, Paola; Marsano, Francesco; Todeschini, Valeria; Cantamessa, Simone; Copetta, Andrea; D’Agostino, Giovanni; Gamalero, Elisa; Berta, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry. PMID:23924942

  8. Metals and metalloids in fruits of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and their cultivation soils in the Basque Country: concentrations and accumulation trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iruretagoiena, Azibar; Trebolazabala, Josu; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2015-04-15

    The concentrations of several elements (Al, Fe, As, Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, and Zn) were measured in soils and the edible part of different vegetables (tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum "Raf") peppers (Capsicum annuum), chards (Betavulgaris var. cicla), artichokes (Cynarascholymus)) and fruits (Raspberries (Rubusidaeus)) from 13 orchards in the Basque Country affected by different pollution sources. Multivariate analysis of data was used to look for possible correlations between metals in soil and metals in the edible part of the plant. Only manganese showed a correlation significantly different from zero. The metal concentrations found in the edible part were always below the upper limits recommended by the European legislation in force. The Bioaccumulation Index was used to investigate how efficient the plant is to uptake an element from the cultivation soil and to preserve its edible part from the element. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children...... by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self...

  10. Quantification of Fine-grained Sediment Concentration in the Aquatic Environment Using Optical and Acoustic Sensors: Insight from Lab Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K.; Champagne, B. N.

    2017-12-01

    The transport of sediment in the coastal zone and continental shelf is highly impacted by fluvial and oceanographic dynamics. In Louisiana, the Mississippi River delivers a bulk of water, sediment, and nutrients to the coast. However, coastal land loss highlights the importance of the sediment deposited at the mouth of the river. Sediment is the foundation to build land and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) tracks the delivery, deposition, and erosion of sediment. On a more applicable scale, variables such as SSC can be used to calculate sediment transport flux, an important parameter for projects such as sediment diversions and barrier island restoration. In order to rely on suspended sediment concentration (SSC) as continuous data, lab experiments are needed to establish the relationship between turbidity and SSC. Factors such as sensor type (optical or acoustic) and grain size (coarse or fine) can greatly impact the estimated SSC. In this study, fine-grained sediment was collected from multiple sites in coastal Louisiana and used to calibrate both optical backscatter (OBS) and acoustic backscatter (ABS) sensors to establish the relationship between sensor type and accuracy of the SSC estimation. Multiple grain-size analyses using a Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer helped determine the effects of sensor accuracy regarding grain size. The results of these experiments were combined in order to establish the calibration curves of SSC. Our results indicated that the OBS-3A sensor's turbidity data were more correlated with the SSC than the OBS-5+'s data. Possible explanations for this could be due to differences between the instruments' measuring ranges and their sensitivity to various grain sizes. This technology development has a broad impact to the studies of sediment delivery, transport, and deposition in multiple types of coastal protection and restoration projects.

  11. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue; Knuthsen, Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Andersen, Lene F; Brockhoff, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-07-14

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (Pjuice consumption showed higher correlations than vegetables with plasma carotenoid concentration (0·38 and 0·42 v. 0·33) (P< 0·01). A total of 82 % of the participants fell into the same or adjacent quartiles when cross-classified by FJV intake and carotenoids biomarkers. WebDASC attained 82 % reporting matches overall and a higher percentage match for reporting fruits compared with beverages. The present study indicated that WebDASC can be used to rank 8- to 11-year-old Danish children according to their intake of FJV overall and at school meals.

  12. Concentration of radiocesium in rice, vegetables, and fruits cultivated in the evacuation area in Okuma Town, Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenji Ohse; Kyo Kitayama; Akira Kanno; Chika Suzuki; Kencho Kawatsu; Hirofumi Tsukada

    2015-01-01

    Radiocesium concentration in the crops cultivated in contaminated and decontaminated soils in the evacuation area were measured. The radiocesium concentration in the decontaminated soil decreased approximately one-quarter to that in the contaminated soil. The radiocesium concentration in the rice and vegetables cultivated in the decontaminated soil decreased to one-half to tenth of that in the contaminated soil. Except for eggplant and pumpkin cultivated in the decontaminated field, the radiocesium concentration in crops was higher than the standard limit in foods in Japan. The obtained transfer factors of most crops were within the reported values. (author)

  13. Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  14. Hydrothermal green synthesis of magnetic Fe3O4-carbon dots by lemon and grape fruit extracts and as a photoluminescence sensor for detecting of E. coli bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Fard-Fini, Shahla; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Ghanbari, Davood

    2018-10-05

    The aim of this work is preparing of a photoluminescence nanostructures for rapid detection of bacterial pathogens. Firstly, carbon dots (CDs) were synthesized by grape fruit, lemon, turmeric extracts and hydrothermal method. Then Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite) nanoparticles was achieved using these bio-compatible capping agents. Finally, magnetite-carbon dots were synthesized as a novel magnetic and photoluminescence nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the crystallinity and phase of the products, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigate the morphology, shape and size of the magnetite, carbon dot and nanocomposites. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy shows the purity of the nanostructures. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption and photo-luminescence (PL) spectroscopy show suitable photo-luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows super paramagnetic property of the product. Interestingly carbon dots were used as a non-toxic photoluminescence sensor for detecting of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. Results show quenching of photoluminescence of the CDs nanocomposite by increasing amount of E. coli bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple sensor integration for seizure onset detection in human patients comparing conventional disc versus novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Ding, Quan; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Gaitanis, John; Kay, Steven M; Besio, Walter G

    2013-01-01

    As epilepsy affects approximately one percent of the world population, electrical stimulation of the brain has recently shown potential for additive seizure control therapy. Closed-loop systems that apply electrical stimulation when seizure onset is automatically detected require high accuracy of automatic seizure detection based on electrographic brain activity. To improve this accuracy we propose to use noninvasive tripolar concentric ring electrodes that have been shown to have significantly better signal-to-noise ratio, spatial selectivity, and mutual information compared to conventional disc electrodes. The proposed detection methodology is based on integration of multiple sensors using exponentially embedded family (EEF). In this preliminary study it is validated on over 26.3 hours of data collected using both tripolar concentric ring and conventional disc electrodes concurrently each from 7 human patients with epilepsy including five seizures. For a cross-validation based group model EEF correctly detected 100% and 80% of seizures respectively with tripolar concentric ring electrodes.

  16. Acetone sensors based on microsheet-assembled hierarchical Fe2O3 with different Fe3+ concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Yan, Lei; Li, Shuo; Li, Yu; Liu, Li; Du, Liting; Duan, Haojie; Cheng, Yali

    2018-02-01

    Several different morphologies of microsheet-assembled Fe2O3 have been fabricated by hydrothermal method using diverse concentrations of Fe3+ precursor solutions (0.025, 0.020, 0.015, 0.010 mol/L Fe3+). The as-synthesized materials have been characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The SEM images reflect that the morphologies of as-synthesized materials are affected by the concentrations of Fe3+ in precursor solutions. The less concentration of Fe3+, the more porous of Fe2O3 microflowers, and thinner of slices distributed on the surface. Furthermore, gas sensors based on these Fe2O3 microflowers manufactured and tested to various common gases. The optimum response value to 100 ppm acetone is 52 at the working temperature of 220 °C. Meanwhile, the Fe2O3 microflower sensors possess ultrafast response-recovery speed, which are 8 and 19 s, respectively. The possible sensing mechanism was mainly attributed to the high surface area, three-dimensional porous structure.

  17. Metal and PAH concentrations in fruit of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush Blueberry) : a comparison among Whitney Pier, North Sydney and supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science

    2004-07-01

    The concentration of various metals in the fruit harvested from Lowbush blueberry plants in Whitney Pier, Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS), North Sydney (NS) and supermarket were quantified in this report. The concentrations were compared among the 3 sources to determine whether the metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the blueberries from Whitney Pier were higher or lower compared to the reference blueberries from North Sydney and the supermarket. Mean values for each of the analytes were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study determined whether washed berries have lower concentrations of contaminants than unwashed berries. The risk to human health of exposure to metals and PAHs through consumption of blueberry samples was also calculated. It was concluded that concentrations of selenium and zinc are elevated in blueberries from Whitney Pier compared to berries from North Sydney and the supermarket, but are well within safe levels. Other elements such as arsenic, titanium, vanadium, lead, copper and molybdenum were similar, and only thallium was elevated in supermarket berries relative to those from Whitney Pier and North Sydney. Chromium was not detected in any samples. It was determined that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the metals analyzed, regardless of whether they were Whitney Pier samples or reference samples. Only 2 PAHs were detected in one of the unwashed samples from Whitney Pier. No PAHs were found in washed berries or unwashed berries from the supermarket or North Sydney. It was concluded that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the PAHs. Washed and unwashed samples had similar metal concentrations, indicating that surface contamination did not occur. A full methodology of the testing program was provided. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Bacterial concentration detection using a portable embedded sensor system for environmental monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi , Marco; Riccò , Bruno; Parolin , Carola; Vitali , Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The detection of bacterial concentration is important in different fields since high microbial contamination or the presence of particular pathogens can seriously endanger human health. The reference technique to measure bacterial concentration is Standard Plate Count (SPC) that, however, has long response times (24 to 72 hours) and is not suitable for automatic implementation. This paper presents a portable embedded system for bacterial concentration measurement based...

  19. Evaluation of the response time of H-concentration probes for tritium sensors in lead–lithium eutectic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llivina, L.; Colominas, S.; Abellà, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.edu

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis and chemical characterization of proton conductor ceramics. • Qualification of ceramics for hydrogen sensors in molten lithium–lead. • Ceramics have well-defined grains with a wide distribution of sizes. • Good agreement with predictions obtained with BaCe{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.3}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} ceramic. - Abstract: Dynamic tritium concentration measurement in lead–lithium eutectic is of major interest for a reliable tritium testing program in ITER TBM and for an experimental proof of tritium self-sufficiency in liquid metal breeding systems. Potentiometric hydrogen sensors using different solid-state electrolytes for molten lead–lithium eutectic have been reported and tested by the Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS). In the present work the following ceramic elements have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to be tested as a Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM) H-probes: BaCeO{sub 3}, BaCe{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.3}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} and Sr(Ce{sub 0.9}–Zr{sub 0.1}){sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3−δ}. Potentiometric measurements of the synthesized ceramic elements have been performed shifting from a fixed hydrogen partial pressure at the working electrode to high purity argon. In this experimental campaign a fixed and known hydrogen pressure has been used in the reference electrode. The goal of these experiments is to evaluate the sensor response time when the hydrogen concentration in the environment is rapidly changed. All experiments have been done at 500 °C and 600 °C. The sensor constructed using the proton conductor element BaCe{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.3}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} exhibited stable output potential and its value was close to the theoretical value calculated with the Nernst equation. In contrast, the sensors constructed using the proton conductor elements BaCeO{sub 3} and Sr(Ce{sub 0.9}–Zr{sub 0.1}){sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3−δ} showed higher

  20. Real-time monitoring of methanol concentration using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor for direct methanol fuel cell without reference liquid measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kyosuke; Nozawa, Takuya; Kondoh, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for sensors that continuously measure liquid concentrations and detect abnormalities in liquid environments. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor is applied for the continuous monitoring of liquid concentrations. As the SH-SAW sensor functions using the relative measurement method, it normally needs a reference at each measurement. However, if the sensor is installed in a liquid flow cell, it is difficult to measure a reference liquid. Therefore, it is important to establish an estimation method for liquid concentrations using the SH-SAW sensor without requiring a reference measurement. In this study, the SH-SAW sensor is installed in a direct methanol fuel cell to monitor the methanol concentration. The estimated concentration is compared with a conventional density meter. Moreover, the effect of formic acid is examined. When the fuel temperature is higher than 70 °C, it is necessary to consider the influence of liquid conductivity. Here, an estimation method for these cases is also proposed.

  1. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants.

  2. Computing time-series suspended-sediment concentrations and loads from in-stream turbidity-sensor and streamflow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Doug; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, use of a method for computing suspended-sediment concentration and loads using turbidity sensors—primarily nephelometry, but also optical backscatter—has proliferated. Because an in- itu turbidity sensor is capa le of measuring turbidity instantaneously, a turbidity time series can be recorded and related directly to time-varying suspended-sediment concentrations. Depending on the suspended-sediment characteristics of the measurement site, this method can be more reliable and, in many cases, a more accurate means for computing suspended-sediment concentrations and loads than traditional U.S. Geological Survey computational methods. Guidelines and procedures for estimating time s ries of suspended-sediment concentration and loading as a function of turbidity and streamflow data have been published in a U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report, Book 3, Chapter C4. This paper is a summary of these guidelines and discusses some of the concepts, s atistical procedures, and techniques used to maintain a multiyear suspended sediment time series.

  3. Effect of Sodium Chloride Concentrations and Its Foliar Application Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pomegranate Fruit (Punica granatum L.) CV. “Malas Saveh”

    OpenAIRE

    V. Rouhi; A. Nikbakht; S. Houshmand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) belong to Punicaceae family is native to Iran and grown extensively in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. Pomegranate is also important in human medicine and its components have a wide range of clinical applications. Cracking causes a major fruit loss, which is a serious commercial loss to farmers. Fruit cracking, seems to be a problem that lessens the marketability to a great extent. Fruit cracking is one of the physiological disorders wherev...

  4. Fruitful symbiosis: Why an export bundled with wind energy is the most feasible option for North African concentrated solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Christoph; Pfluger, Benjamin; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Ragwitz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The idea of generating electricity in North Africa using concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) has been around for some time now but has recently gained momentum through the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the formation of the Desertec Industrial Initiative. This paper argues that while the large-scale deployment of CSP in North Africa does not seem economically attractive for either European or African institutions or countries on their own at present, combining domestic use and electricity exports could be profitable for both parties. A detailed economic portfolio covering both solar and wind power plants can achieve competitive price levels, which would accelerate the diffusion of solar technology in North Africa. This portfolio could be financed partially by exporting electricity from solar thermal plants in North Africa via HVDC interconnections to European consumers. Sharing the costs in this way makes it possible to generate solar electricity for the domestic market at a reasonable cost. Some of the electricity produced from the solar power plants and wind parks in North Africa is sold on European energy markets in the form of a long-term contracted solar-wind portfolio, which would qualify for support from the financial incentive schemes of the European Member States (e.g. feed-in tariffs). This transfer of green electricity could help to meet the targets for energy from renewable energy sources (RES) in the EU Member States as the new EU Directive of 2009 opened the European electricity market to imports from third states. - Research highlights: → This paper describes a feasible approach to financing a larger deployment of CSP in North Africa. → The proposed portfolio includes local consumption and electricity export to Europe. → Bundling wind with solar power as a business model for exporting solar electricity. → Prices of the solar-wind mix are competitive with other renewable energy sources. → Scenario outlook for the North African CSP

  5. Fruitful symbiosis: Why an export bundled with wind energy is the most feasible option for North African concentrated solar power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.kost@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Pfluger, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.pfluger@isi.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhammer, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.eichhammer@isi.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ragwitz, Mario, E-mail: mario.ragwitz@isi.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The idea of generating electricity in North Africa using concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) has been around for some time now but has recently gained momentum through the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the formation of the Desertec Industrial Initiative. This paper argues that while the large-scale deployment of CSP in North Africa does not seem economically attractive for either European or African institutions or countries on their own at present, combining domestic use and electricity exports could be profitable for both parties. A detailed economic portfolio covering both solar and wind power plants can achieve competitive price levels, which would accelerate the diffusion of solar technology in North Africa. This portfolio could be financed partially by exporting electricity from solar thermal plants in North Africa via HVDC interconnections to European consumers. Sharing the costs in this way makes it possible to generate solar electricity for the domestic market at a reasonable cost. Some of the electricity produced from the solar power plants and wind parks in North Africa is sold on European energy markets in the form of a long-term contracted solar-wind portfolio, which would qualify for support from the financial incentive schemes of the European Member States (e.g. feed-in tariffs). This transfer of green electricity could help to meet the targets for energy from renewable energy sources (RES) in the EU Member States as the new EU Directive of 2009 opened the European electricity market to imports from third states. - Research Highlights: > This paper describes a feasible approach to financing a larger deployment of CSP in North Africa. > The proposed portfolio includes local consumption and electricity export to Europe. > Bundling wind with solar power as a business model for exporting solar electricity. > Prices of the solar-wind mix are competitive with other renewable energy sources. > Scenario outlook for the North African CSP market in

  6. Thoron and radon progeny concentration measurements using direct progeny sensors in HLNRAs of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.; Prajith, R.; Gole, A.C.; Kanse, S.D.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.; Jayalekshmi, P.; Nair, Raghu Ram K.

    2010-01-01

    Passive Progeny Dosimeters (PPDs) were deployed in 500 houses in 3 villages namely Allapad, Chavara and Neendakara villages of Karunagapally Taluk of Kollam district of Kerala. Each PPD unit is a combination of a DTPS and a DRPS placed side-by-side for time integrated thoron and radon progeny concentration estimation respectively. The PPDs were suspended vertically in the rooms, such that the nearest distance from any wall or surface was at least 30 cm. These are, as of now, being exposed for a period of 3 months, after which they will be retrieved and analysed by chemical etching and track counting. Simultaneously, external gamma radiation measurements have also been made using a survey meter; these showed a variation from 13 to 118 μR/h in indoors and 21 to 213 μR/h in the outdoor environments. Spot measurements of thoron progeny concentrations were also made in 7 selected houses using the conventional grab filter-paper sampling technique at a flow-rate of 21 min -1 for 30 minutes, followed by alpha counting. The average thoron progeny concentration was found to be 2.0 ± 0.7 Bq m -3 . In the outdoor environment, filter-paper sampling was carried out for 2 hours at 21 min -1 and the thoron progeny concentration was measured as 2.96 Bq m -3 . To corroborate these measurements, a flow mode integrated sampler which uses the DTPS and DRPS elements was used

  7. Femtosecond laser micromachining of compound parabolic concentrator fiber tipped glucose sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Lacraz, Amédée; Kalli, Kyriacos

    2017-01-01

    We report on highly accurate femtosecond (fs) laser micromachining of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) fiber tip on a polymer optical fiber (POF). The accuracy is reflected in an unprecedented correspondence between the numerically predicted and experimentally found improvement in fluoresc...

  8. Comparison of fungal spores concentrations measured with wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor and Hirst methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, S.; Tormo-Molina, R.; Lemonis, N.; Clot, B.; O'Connor, D. J.; Sodeau, John R.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to provide both a comparison of traditional and novel methodologies for airborne spores detection (i.e. the Hirst Burkard trap and WIBS-4) and the first quantitative study of airborne fungal concentrations in Payerne (Western Switzerland) as well as their relation to meteorological parameters. From the traditional method -Hirst trap and microscope analysis-, sixty-three propagule types (spores, sporangia and hyphae) were identified and the average spore concentrations measured over the full period amounted to 4145 ± 263.0 spores/m3. Maximum values were reached on July 19th and on August 6th. Twenty-six spore types reached average levels above 10 spores/m3. Airborne fungal propagules in Payerne showed a clear seasonal pattern, increasing from low values in early spring to maxima in summer. Daily average concentrations above 5000 spores/m3 were almost constant in summer from mid-June onwards. Weather parameters showed a relevant role for determining the observed spore concentrations. Coniferous forest, dominant in the surroundings, may be a relevant source for airborne fungal propagules as their distribution and predominant wind directions are consistent with the origin. The comparison between the two methodologies used in this campaign showed remarkably consistent patterns throughout the campaign. A correlation coefficient of 0.9 (CI 0.76-0.96) was seen between the two over the time period for daily resolutions (Hirst trap and WIBS-4). This apparent co-linearity was seen to fall away once increased resolution was employed. However at higher resolutions upon removal of Cladosporium species from the total fungal concentrations (Hirst trap), an increased correlation coefficient was again noted between the two instruments (R = 0.81 with confidence intervals of 0.74 and 0.86).

  9. Effect of the consumption of a fruit and vegetable soup with high in vitro carotenoid bioaccessibility on serum carotenoid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tomás, Rebeca; Larqué, Elvira; González-Silvera, Daniel; Sánchez-Campillo, María; Burgos, María Isabel; Wellner, Anna; Parra, Soledad; Bialek, Lucy; Alminger, Marie; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of the daily intake of a fruit & vegetable soup with high in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids on β-carotene and lycopene serum concentrations. Fourteen healthy young men (24 ± 1 years) received 300 mL/day of a carrot, tomato, and broccoli soup, containing 3.9 mg β-carotene and 4 mg lycopene, for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. The serum carotenoid response and oxidative markers were analyzed after 3 and 4 weeks of soup consumption and after a 4-week washout. The in vitro bioaccessibility of β-carotene and lycopene was 55 and 43%, respectively, in the soup. Serum β-carotene concentrations were significantly higher than baseline (0.33 ± 0.05 μmol/L) after 3 weeks (0.69 ± 0.06 μmol/L) and 4 weeks (0.78 ± 0.10 μmol/L) of soup consumption (P soup supplementation compared with baseline, while superoxide dismutase was significantly lower only after 3 weeks. Glutathione reductase, lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative markers remained unchanged. The soup contributed to increasing the concentration of each carotenoid by more than 100% after 3 and 4 weeks of consumption, the maximum increase being observed after 4 weeks. Oxidative markers did not show any variation except for GPx. Serum lycopene half-life was longer than that of β-carotene, which may be important for studies evaluating both carotenoids.

  10. Flexible electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for instantaneous concentration measurements of NaCl, KCl, MnCl2 and CuCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostynska, O; Ortoneda-Pedrola, M; Mason, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2014-01-01

    A novel electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for real-time chlorides concentration analysis is reported. The sensor response to deionized water, NaCl, KCl, MnCl 2  and CuCl solutions at various concentrations was tested. The sensing element, in the form of a silver pattern antenna that emits an electromagnetic field, was printed on a polyimide flexible laminate substrate to form a sensor to suit a broad range of applications, where a sensor could be placed in water reservoirs or fluid-carrying pipes for continuous analysis. The developed system confirmed the viability of using microwaves for real-time chloride solutions monitoring as the reflected signals represented by S 11  parameters were unique with clearly observed shifts in the resonant frequencies and amplitude changes when placed in direct contact with 20 µl of each solution. (paper)

  11. Non-invasive estimation of firmness in apple fruit using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, M.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2012-01-01

    Better and steady fruit quality evaluation at harvest is a major challenge for commercial growers of apples in Denmark. Those fruits not meeting the requirements for the fresh market traditionally go to the juice concentrate industry where low cost products are obtained. Special fruit qualities...... are needed to develop commodities that can obtain a premium added value on the market. Nowadays in the food industry, quality evaluation is commonly performed non-destructively by means of optical sensors such as spectrometers, hyperspectral and multispectral cameras, that allow rapid measurements of fruit...... as for eating apples. Invasive and non-invasive measurements of firmness, on the shaded and exposed side of the fruits were carried out for three Danish apple cultivars of known commercial usage. Resulting data determined wavelengths between 415 to 715 nm to be predictive for firmness. A PLS model for all three...

  12. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Jhe; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lin, Jiun-Ling; Chou, Sin-Houng; Chen, Ping-Hung; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Kuo, Shin-Hung; Lai, Shin-Chi

    2016-04-02

    This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA) was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP) between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine) polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10(-4) to 3.16 × 10(-2) M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R² = 0.995). This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h) for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications.

  13. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jhe Ma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10−4 to 3.16 × 10−2 M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R2 = 0.995. This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications.

  14. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Jhe; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lin, Jiun-Ling; Chou, Sin-Houng; Chen, Ping-Hung; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Kuo, Shin-Hung; Lai, Shin-Chi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA) was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP) between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine) polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10−4 to 3.16 × 10−2 M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R2 = 0.995). This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h) for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications. PMID:27049390

  15. Estimation of Low Concentration Magnetic Fluid Weight Density and Detection inside an Artificial Medium Using a Novel GMR Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthaka GOONERATNE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia treatment has been gaining momentum in the past few years as a possible method to manage cancer. Cancer cells are different to normal cells in many ways including how they react to heat. Due to this difference it is possible for hyperthermia treatment to destroy cancer cells without harming the healthy normal cells surrounding the tumor. Magnetic particles injected into the body generate heat by hysteresis loss and temperature is increased when a time varying external magnetic field is applied. Successful treatment depends on how efficiently the heat is controlled. Thus, it is very important to estimate the magnetic fluid density in the body. Experimental apparatus designed for testing, numerical analysis, and results obtained by experimentation using a simple yet novel and minimally invasive needle type spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR sensor, to estimate low concentration magnetic fluid weight density and detection of magnetic fluid in a reference medium is reported.

  16. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Schultealbert; Tobias Baur; Andreas Schütze; Tilman Sauerwald

    2018-01-01

    Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO) using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR). For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can ...

  17. The biochemical adaptations of spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to fresh fruits reduced fructose concentrations and glutathione-S transferase activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive and economically damaging pest in Europe and North America, because the females have a serrated ovipositor enabling them to infest ripening almost all small fruits before harvest. Also flies are strongly attracted to fresh fruits rath...

  18. Study on fuel supplying method and methanol concentration sensor for the high efficient operation of methanol fuel cells. Methanol nenryo denchi no unten ni okeru nenryo kyokyu hoho no kento to methanol nodo sensor no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukui, Tsutomu; Doi, Ryota; Yasukawa, Saburo; Kuroda, Osamu [Hirachi, Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1990-01-20

    A fuel supplying method was studied and demonstrated, essential to the high efficient operation of methanol fuel cells. Methanol and water were supplied independently from each tank to an anordic electrolyte tank in a circulating system, detecting a methanol concentration and liquid level of anordic electrolyte by each sensor, respectively. A methanol sensor was also developed to detect accurately the concentration based on electrochemical reaction under a constant voltage. A detection control circuit was insulated from a constant-voltage power supply to prevent external noises. The methanol sensor output was compensated for temperature, and a new level sensing method was adopted to send out a command comparing different responses to electrolyte shortage. As the methanol fuel cell was operated with this fuel supplying system, the stable characteristics of the cell were obtained within the variation of {plus minus} 0.1mol/l from the specified methanol concentration. 6 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Non-contact optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using a magneto-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; García, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we aim to experimentally verify a speckle based technique for non-contact measurement of glucose concentration in blood stream while the vision for the final device aims to contain a single wristwatch-style device containing an AC (alternating) electro-magnet generated by a solenoid, a laser and a camera. The experiments presented in work are performed in-vitro in order to verify the effects that are responsible for the operation principle. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an alternating magnetic field it exhibits Faraday rotation which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle patterns distribution. The temporal frequency resulting from the AC magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.

  20. Noncontact speckle-based optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using magneto-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally verify a speckle-based technique for noncontact measurement of glucose concentration in the bloodstream. The final device is intended to be a single wristwatch-style device containing a laser, a camera, and an alternating current (ac) electromagnet generated by a solenoid. The experiments presented are performed in vitro as proof of the concept. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an ac magnetic field, it exhibits Faraday rotation, which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle pattern distributions. The temporal frequency resulting from the ac magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role, which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.

  1. [Development of a portable mid-infrared rapid analyzer for oil concentration in water based on MEMS linear sensor array].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-fan; Zeng, Li-bo; Shi, Lei; Li, Kai; Yang, Yuan-zhou; Wu, Qiong-shui

    2014-06-01

    Aiming at the existing problems such as weak environmental adaptability, low analytic efficiency and poor measuring repeatability in the traditional spectral oil analyzers, the present paper designed a portable mid-infrared rapid analyzer for oil concentration in water. To reduce the volume of the instrument, the non-symmetrical folding M-type Czerny-Turner optical structure was adopted in the core optical path. With a periodically rotating chopper, controlled by digital PID algorithm, applied for infrared light modulation, the modulating accuracy reached ±0.5%. Different from traditional grating-scanning spectrophotometers, this instrument used a fixed grating for light dispersion and avoided rotating error in the course of the measuring procedures. A new-type MEMS infrared linear sensor array was applied for modulated spectral signals detection, which improved the measuring efficiency remarkably. Optical simulation and experimental results indicate that the spectral range is 2 800 - 3 200 cm(-1), the spectral resolution is 6 cm(-1) (@3 130 cm(-1)), and the signal to noise ratio is up to 5 200 : 1. The acquisition time is 13 milliseconds per spectrogram, and the standard deviation of absorbance is less than 3 x 10(-3). These performances meet the standards of oil concentration measurements perfectly. Compared with traditional infrared spectral analyzers for oil concentration, the instrument demonstrated in this paper has many advantages such as smaller size, more efficiency, higher precision, and stronger vibration & moisture isolation. In addition, the proposed instrument is especially suitable for the environmental monitoring departments to implement real-time measurements in the field for oil concentration in water, hence it has broad prospects of application in the field of water quality monitoring.

  2. Escherichia coli Fiber Sensors Using Concentrated Dielectrophoretic Force with Optical Defocusing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Wei; Chang, Dao-Ming; Lai, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Ding-Wei; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2018-05-25

    A sensitive tapered optical fiber tip combined with dielectrophoretic (DEP) trapping was used for rapid and label-free detection of bacteria in water. The angular spectrum of the optical field at the fiber tip was changed with the surrounding refractive index (RI). By measuring far-field intensity change at the defocus plane, the intensity sensitivity was up to 95 200%/RIU (RI unit), and the detection limit was 5.2 × 10 -6 RIU at 0.5% intensity stability. By applying an AC voltage to a Ti/Al coated fiber tip and an indium-tin-oxide glass, the DEP force effectively trapped the Escherichia coli ( E. coli) near the fiber tip. Those bacteria can be directly measured from optical intensity change due to the increase of surrounding RI. By immobilizing the antibody on the Ti/Al fiber tip, the tests for specific K12 bacteria and nonspecific BL21 bacteria verified the specificity. The antibody-immobilized Ti/Al coated fiber tip with DEP trapping can detect bacteria at a concentration about 100 CFU/mL.

  3. Simulation of a thermoelectric gas sensor that determines hydrocarbon concentrations in exhausts and the light-off temperature of catalyst materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ritter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalyst materials can be characterized with a thermoelectric gas sensor. Screen-printed thermopiles measure the temperature difference between an inert part of the planar sensor and a part that is coated with the catalyst material to be analyzed. If the overall sensor temperature is modulated, the catalytic activity of the material can be varied. Exothermic reactions that occur at the catalyst layer cause a temperature increase that can then be measured as a sensor voltage due to the Seebeck coefficient of the thermopiles. This mechanism can also be employed at stationary conditions at constant sensor temperature to measure gas concentrations. Then, the sensor signal changes linearly with the analyte concentration. Many variables influence the sensing performance, for example, the offset voltage due to asymmetric inflow and the resulting inhomogeneous temperature distributions are an issue. For even better understanding of the whole sensing principle, it is simulated in this study by a 3-D finite element model. By coupling all influencing physical effects (fluid flow, gas diffusion, heat transfer, chemical reactions, and electrical properties a model was set up that is able to mirror the sensor behavior precisely, as the comparison with experimental data shows. A challenging task was to mesh the geometry due to scaling problems regarding the resolution of the thin catalyst layer in the much larger gas tube. Therefore, a coupling of a 3-D and a 1-D geometry is shown. This enables to calculate the overall temperature distribution, fluid flow, and gas concentration distribution in the 3-D model, while a very accurate calculation of the chemical reactions is possible in a 1-D dimension. This work does not only give insight into the results at stationary conditions for varying feed gas concentrations and used substrate materials but shows also how various exhaust gas species behave under transient temperature modulation.

  4. A novel inter-fibre light coupling sensor probe using plastic optical fibre for ethanol concentration monitoring at initial production rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Sanober F.; Lewis, Elfed; Pembroke, J. Tony; Chowdhry, Bhawani S.

    2017-04-01

    A novel, low cost and highly sensitive optical fibre probe sensor for concentration measurement of ethanol solvent (C2H5OH) corresponding to bio-ethanol production rate by an algae is reported. The principle of operation of the sensor is based on inter-fibre light coupling through an evanescent field interaction to couple the light between two multimode fibres mounted parallel to each other at a minimum possible separation i.e. plastic optical fibre (POF) and was characterized for real time measurement in the broadband spectrum including visible and near infra-red. The wavelength dependency of this sensor design was also investigated by post processing analysis of real time data and hence the optimum wavelength range determined. The proposed sensor has shown significant response in the range of 0.005 - 0.1 %v/v (%volume/volume or volume concentration) which depicts the high sensitivity for monitoring very minute changes in concentration corresponding refractive index changes of the solution. Numerically, sensor has shown the sensitivity of 21945 intensity counts/%v/v or 109.7 counts per every 0.0050 %v/v.

  5. The Effect of Red Fruit's (Pandanus conoideus Extract to Eritrocytes, Hemoglobin, PCV and TPP Concentrations of Mice (Mus musculus Infected by Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Dwi Utami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic parasites caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The red fruit’s extract contains tocopherol and betacarotene as antioxidant and it can repair the bodies immune system. This research was aimed to study the effect of red fruit’s extract to erithrocytes, hemoglobine, the values of PCV and TPP concentration of mice infected with T. gondii, so that the red fruit extract can be used as alternative herbal medicine for eliminating Toxoplasmosis. 15 of Balb/C mice, male, three months, 30 gr of body weight were used as experimental animals. The mice were then devided into three groups. Group I was a control, group II  was tachyzoite infected and group III was tachyzoite infected and given red fruit’s extract. Group III given red fruit’s extract on first day with 0,53 g/kg BW/mice/day. Mice in group II and III were infected by injection Toxoplasma gondii tachyziote 1x103 a mice intraperitoneally. The blood sample was taken from five mice in each group at 7th and 12th day pass through cantus medialis. The blood was examinated in Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University. Data were analyzed by using Factorial 2 x 3. The result showed no significant difference (P>0,05 in hemoglobin, and PCV’s value between groups I, II and III before and after infection of T. gondii’s tachyzoite. The TPP’s value between groups I, II and III before and after infection of T. gondii’s tachyzoite was significantly difference (P<0,05.

  6. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit.

  7. Concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva e número de frutos sobre a qualidade de frutos de melão Nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution and number of fruits on quality of melon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Villani Purquerio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, na UNESP-FCAV, em Jaboticabal (SP, de junho a novembro de 2001, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade dos frutos do meloeiro (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, híbrido Bônus nº2, cultivado em sistema hidropônico NFT, em função da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva (80; 140; 200 e 300 mg L-1 e do número de fruto por planta (2; 3; 4 e livre. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável foram maiores em frutos colhidos de plantas com menor número de frutos pré-estabelecidos. O aumento da concentração de N na solução nutritiva proporcionou aumento na acidez total titulável e nenhum efeito sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Houve redução nos diâmetros longitudinal, transversal e na espessura do mesocarpo com o aumento da concentração de N, bem como com o aumento do número de frutos por planta. O índice de formato de fruto manteve-se igual ou muito próximo a 1.The effect of nitrogen concentrations (80; 140; 200 and 300 mg L-1 and fruit number per plant (2; 3; 4 and free setting, on the quality of net melon fruits (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, Bonus nº 2 hybrid was investigated. The experiment was carried out at UNESP-FCAV, Jaboticabal, Brazil, using a NFT hydroponic system, from June to November/2001. The experimental design was of randomized split plots, with six replications. Total soluble solids content and total acidity were higher in fruits harvested from plants with a smaller number of pre-set fruits. A slight increase was observed on total acidity due to the increase of nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution, without any significant effect on total soluble solids. An increase of the N concentration and the number of fruits per plant resulted in a reduction of fruit longitudinal and transversal diameters and pulp thickness. Fruit

  8. Fluctuations of the number of adsorbed micro/nanoparticles in sensors for measurement of particle concentration in air and liquid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model of fluctuations of the number of adsorbed micro/nanoparticles in environmental sensors operating in air and liquids is presented, taking into account the effects of the mass transfer processes of the target particles in a sensor reaction chamber. The expressions for the total power of the corresponding adsorption-desorption noise, and for the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio are also derived. The presented analysis shows that the transfer processes can have a significant influence on the sensors limiting performance. The influence on both the fluctuations spectrum and the signal-to-noise ratio is estimated at different values of target particles concentration, functionalization sites surface density, and adsorption and desorption rate constants (the values are chosen from the ranges corresponding to real conditions. The analysis provides the guidelines for optimization of sensor design and operating conditions for the given target substance and sensor functionalization, in order to decrease the influence of the mass transfer, thus improving the ultimate performance (e.g. minimal detectable signal, signal-to-noise ratio of sensors for particle detection. The calculations we performed show that it is possible to increase the signal-to-noise ratio for as much as two orders of magnitude by using the optimization that eliminates the mass transfer influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32008

  9. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  10. Design of an optical and micro-fluidic sensor for concentration measurement by photo-thermal effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimpf, A.

    2011-01-01

    This work has been done in the context of fuel reprocessing in the nuclear industry. In fact, the handling of nuclear waste is one of the major issues in the nuclear industry. Its implications reach from economical to political to ecological dimensions. Since used nuclear fuel consists of 97% of recyclable substances, many countries have chosen to reprocess used fuel, not only for economical reasons but also to limit the quantity of nuclear waste. The most widely employed extraction technique is the PUREX process where the used fuel is diluted in nitric acid. The recyclable compounds can then be extracted by solvent techniques. Such processes need to be monitored crucially. However, nowadays, the process supervision is carried out by manually sampling the radioactive effluents and analyzing them in external laboratories. Not only prone to potential risks, this approach is little responsive and produces radio-toxic samples that cannot be reintroduced in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this study, we therefore present the developpement of a micro-fluidic glass sensor, based on the detection of a photothermal effect induced in the sample fluid. Micro-fluidic allows fluid handling on a microliter-scale and can therefore significantly reduce the sample volume and thereby the radio-toxicity of the analyzed fluids. Photothermal spectrometry is well suited for small-scale sample analysis since its sensitivity does not rely on the length of optical interaction with the analyte. The photothermal effect is a local refractive index variation due to the absorption of photons by the analyte species which are contained in the sample. On the sensor chip, the index refraction change is being sensed by an integrated Young interferometer made by ion-exchange in glass. The probed volume in the channel was (33.5± 3.5) pl. The interferometric system can sense refractive index changes as low as Δn(min)=7.5*10 -6 , allowing to detect a minimum concentration of cobalt(II) in ethanol c

  11. Performance of solid-state sensors for continuous, real-time measurement of soil CO2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in sensor technology provide a robust capability for continuous measurement of soil gases. The performance of solid-state CO2 sensors (Model GMM220 series, Vaisala, Finland) was evaluated in laboratory, greenhouse, and irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In ambient CO2 concentrat...

  12. Examination of tapered plastic multimode fiber-based sensor performance with silver coating for different concentrations of calcium hypochlorite by soft computing methodologies--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rozalina; Sheng, Ong Yong; Wern, Kam; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Petković, Dalibor; Saboohi, Hadi

    2014-05-01

    A soft methodology study has been applied on tapered plastic multimode sensors. This study basically used tapered plastic multimode fiber [polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)] optics as a sensor. The tapered PMMA fiber was fabricated using an etching method involving deionized water and acetone to achieve a waist diameter and length of 0.45 and 10 mm, respectively. In addition, a tapered PMMA probe, which was coated by silver film, was fabricated and demonstrated using a calcium hypochlorite (G70) solution. The working mechanism of such a device is based on the observation increment in the transmission of the sensor that is immersed in solutions at high concentrations. As the concentration was varied from 0 to 6 ppm, the output voltage of the sensor increased linearly. The silver film coating increased the sensitivity of the proposed sensor because of the effective cladding refractive index, which increases with the coating and thus allows more light to be transmitted from the tapered fiber. In this study, the polynomial and radial basis function (RBF) were applied as the kernel function of the support vector regression (SVR) to estimate and predict the output voltage response of the sensors with and without silver film according to experimental tests. Instead of minimizing the observed training error, SVR_poly and SVR_rbf were used in an attempt to minimize the generalization error bound so as to achieve generalized performance. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy interference system (ANFIS) approach was also investigated for comparison. The experimental results showed that improvements in the predictive accuracy and capacity for generalization can be achieved by the SVR_poly approach in comparison to the SVR_rbf methodology. The same testing errors were found for the SVR_poly approach and the ANFIS approach.

  13. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.

  14. Simultaneous in situ characterisation of bubble dynamics and a spatially resolved concentration profile: a combined Mach–Zehnder holography and confocal Raman-spectroscopy sensor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guhathakurta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For a reaction between a gaseous phase and a liquid phase, the interaction between the hydrodynamic conditions, mass transport and reaction kinetics plays a crucial role with respect to the conversion and selectivity of the process. Within this work, a sensor system was developed to simultaneously characterise the bubble dynamics and the localised concentration measurement around the bubbles. The sensor system is a combination of a digital Mach–Zehnder holography subsystem to measure bubble dynamics and a confocal Raman-spectroscopy subsystem to measure localised concentration. The combined system was used to investigate the chemical absorption of CO2 bubbles in caustic soda in microchannels. The proposed set-up is explained and characterised in detail and the experimental results are presented, illustrating the capability of the sensor system to simultaneously measure the localised concentration of the carbonate ion with a good limit of detection and the 3-D position of the bubble with respect to the spot where the concentration was measured.

  15. Efeito da carga de frutos e concentrações salinas no crescimento do meloeiro Cultivado em substrato Effect of fruit load and saline concentrations on the growth of melon cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da S Duarte

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do número de frutos por planta e de concentrações salinas em solução nutritiva recirculante, no crescimento do meloeiro cultivado em ambiente protegido e em substrato de casca de arroz crua, durante os meses de fevereiro a maio de 2003. Três números de frutos por planta (2, 3 e 4 e três concentrações salinas da solução nutritiva (1,9; 2,3 e 2,9 dS m-1 foram estudados. A partir dos dados da matéria seca (MS e fresca (MF e da área foliar, acumuladas aos 62 dias após o transplante, foi determinada a produção e a distribuição de biomassa entre as diferentes partes da planta. Os frutos compreenderam de 49 a 55% da MS aérea total produzida pela planta, demonstrando que estes são os órgãos drenos de assimilados mais potentes. O aumento do número de frutos reduziu o peso médio dos frutos, sem afetar a produção e a distribuição de MS total, vegetativa e generativa. Entretanto, aumentou levemente a produção de MF dos frutos e da parte aérea como um todo, favorecendo a distribuição de MF para os frutos. Portanto, o acúmulo de água nos frutos ocorreu em uma proporção diferente do acúmulo da MS. A menor concentração salina da solução nutritiva testada pode ser indicada para o cultivo do meloeiro em substrato de casca de arroz crua durante o outono, pois promove um crescimento da planta similar ao observado nas concentrações mais altas.The effect of fruit load and of saline concentrations in nutrient solution recirculating, was evaluated on the growth of melon plants cultivated under protected cultivation and in raw rice husk, during the months February to May of 2003. Three numbers of fruits/plant (2, 3 and 4 and three saline concentrations of the nutrient solution (1,9; 2,3 and 2,9 dS m-1 were studied. From the data of dry and fresh matter (DM and FM, and of the leaf area accumulated at 62 days after setting, the biomass production and distribution among the different plant parts

  16. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  17. A Simple and Rapid Determination of ATP, ADP and AMP Concentrations in Pericarp Tissue of Litchi Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed to determine levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP in litchi fruit pericarp tissue. This HPLC method used acetonitrile gradient elution and shortened the time required for determinations of adenosine phosphates. This analysis exhibited good repeatability (coefficients of variation 1.28–1.80 % and recovery rate (94.7–97.1 %. The correlation coefficients of ATP, ADP and AMP with their peak areas at a range of 0–80 ng were 0.9946, 0.9994 and 0.9974, respectively. This method was applied to determine levels of adenosine phosphates in pericarp tissue of litchi fruit at harvest. There were 27.4 μg/g of ATP, 35.4 μg/g of ADP and 7.9 μg/g of AMP on a fresh mass basis.

  18. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schultealbert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR. For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can directly be used for quantification. For higher concentrations, the time constant for reaching a stable conductance during the same low-temperature phase is evaluated. Both signals represent the reaction rate of the reducing gas on the strongly oxidized surface at this low temperature and provide a linear calibration curve, which is exceptional for MOS sensors. By determining these reaction rates on different low-temperature plateaus and applying pattern recognition, the resulting footprint can be used for identification of different gases. All methods are tested over a wide concentration range from 10 ppb to 100 ppm (4 orders of magnitude for four different reducing gases (CO, H2, ammonia and benzene using randomized gas exposures.

  19. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultealbert, Caroline; Baur, Tobias; Schütze, Andreas; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2018-03-01

    Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO) using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR). For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can directly be used for quantification. For higher concentrations, the time constant for reaching a stable conductance during the same low-temperature phase is evaluated. Both signals represent the reaction rate of the reducing gas on the strongly oxidized surface at this low temperature and provide a linear calibration curve, which is exceptional for MOS sensors. By determining these reaction rates on different low-temperature plateaus and applying pattern recognition, the resulting footprint can be used for identification of different gases. All methods are tested over a wide concentration range from 10 ppb to 100 ppm (4 orders of magnitude) for four different reducing gases (CO, H₂, ammonia and benzene) using randomized gas exposures.

  20. Characteristics of the Fiber Laser Sensor System Based on Etched-Bragg Grating Sensing Probe for Determination of the Low Nitrate Concentration in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thanh Binh; Bui, Huy; Le, Huu Thang; Pham, Van Hoi

    2016-12-22

    The necessity of environmental protection has stimulated the development of many kinds of methods allowing the determination of different pollutants in the natural environment, including methods for determining nitrate in source water. In this paper, the characteristics of an etched fiber Bragg grating (e-FBG) sensing probe-which integrated in fiber laser structure-are studied by numerical simulation and experiment. The proposed sensor is demonstrated for determination of the low nitrate concentration in a water environment. Experimental results show that this sensor could determine nitrate in water samples at a low concentration range of 0-80 ppm with good repeatability, rapid response, and average sensitivity of 3.5 × 10 -3 nm/ppm with the detection limit of 3 ppm. The e-FBG sensing probe integrated in fiber laser demonstrates many advantages, such as a high resolution for wavelength shift identification, high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR of 40 dB), narrow bandwidth of 0.02 nm that enhanced accuracy and precision of wavelength peak measurement, and capability for optical remote sensing. The obtained results suggested that the proposed e-FBG sensor has a large potential for the determination of low nitrate concentrations in water in outdoor field work.

  1. Characteristics of the Fiber Laser Sensor System Based on Etched-Bragg Grating Sensing Probe for Determination of the Low Nitrate Concentration in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Binh Pham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of environmental protection has stimulated the development of many kinds of methods allowing the determination of different pollutants in the natural environment, including methods for determining nitrate in source water. In this paper, the characteristics of an etched fiber Bragg grating (e-FBG sensing probe—which integrated in fiber laser structure—are studied by numerical simulation and experiment. The proposed sensor is demonstrated for determination of the low nitrate concentration in a water environment. Experimental results show that this sensor could determine nitrate in water samples at a low concentration range of 0–80 ppm with good repeatability, rapid response, and average sensitivity of 3.5 × 10−3 nm/ppm with the detection limit of 3 ppm. The e-FBG sensing probe integrated in fiber laser demonstrates many advantages, such as a high resolution for wavelength shift identification, high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR of 40 dB, narrow bandwidth of 0.02 nm that enhanced accuracy and precision of wavelength peak measurement, and capability for optical remote sensing. The obtained results suggested that the proposed e-FBG sensor has a large potential for the determination of low nitrate concentrations in water in outdoor field work.

  2. The impact of water and hydrocarbon concentration on the sensitivity of a polymer-based quartz crystal microbalance sensor for organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejcic, Bobby; Crooke, Emma; Doherty, Cara M.; Hill, Anita J.; Myers, Matthew; Qi, Xiubin; Ross, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The response of a polymer coated QCM sensor is affected by water soaking time. → Polymer-water interfacial processes influence the QCM sensitivity for hydrocarbons. → The QCM sensitivity of high Tg polymer films is affected by plasticization processes. - Abstract: Long-term environmental monitoring of organic compounds in natural waters requires sensors that respond reproducibly and linearly over a wide concentration range, and do not degrade with time. Although polymer coated piezoelectric based sensors have been widely used to detect hydrocarbons in aqueous solution, very little information exists regarding their stability and suitability over extended periods in water. In this investigation, the influence of water aging on the response of various polymer membranes [polybutadiene (PB), polyisobutylene (PIB), polystyrene (PS), polystyrene-co-butadiene (PSB)] was studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). QCM measurements revealed a modest increase in sensitivity towards toluene for PB and PIB membranes at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. In contrast, the sensitivity of PS and PSB coated QCM sensors depended significantly on the toluene concentration and increased considerably at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) showed that there is a change in the sorption mechanism at higher toluene levels for PS and PSB. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) studies were performed to investigate the free volume properties of all polymers and to monitor any changes in the free volume size and distribution due to water and toluene exposure. The PALS did not detect any considerable variation in the free volume properties of the polymer films as a function of solution composition and soaking time, implying that viscoelastic and/or interfacial processes (i.e. surface area changes) are probably responsible

  3. Fabrication of Implantable, Enzyme-Immobilized Glutamate Sensors for the Monitoring of Glutamate Concentration Changes in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina T.-C. Tseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate sensors based on the immobilization of glutamate oxidase (GlutOx were prepared by adsorption on electrodeposited chitosan (Method 1 and by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (Method 2 on micromachined platinum microelectrodes. It was observed that glutamate sensors prepared by Method 1 have faster response time (<2 s and lower detection limit (2.5 ± 1.1 μM compared to that prepared by Method 2 (response time: <5 sec and detection limit: 6.5 ± 1.7 μM; glutamate sensors prepared by Method 2 have a larger linear detection range (20–352 μM and higher sensitivity (86.8 ± 8.8 nA·μM−1·cm−2, N = 12 compared to those prepared by Method 1 (linear detection range: 20–217 μM and sensitivity: 34.9 ± 4.8 nA·μM−1·cm−2, N = 8. The applicability of the glutamate sensors in vivo was also demonstrated. The glutamate sensors were implanted into the rat brain to monitor the stress-induced extracellular glutamate release in the hypothalamus of the awake, freely moving rat.

  4. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within −3%–8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s.

  5. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Calibration-free sensor for pressure and H2O concentration in headspace of sterile vial using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tingdong; Gao, Guangzhen; Liu, Ying

    2013-11-10

    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials using a distributed-feedback (DFB) diode laser near 1.4 μm are reported. A H2O line located near 7161.41 cm(-1) is selected based on its strong absorption strength and isolation from interference of neighboring transitions. Direct absorption spectra of H2O are obtained for the measurement path as well as the reference path by scanning the laser wavelength. The pressure and H2O vapor concentration in the headspace of a vial are inferred from a differential absorption signal, which is the difference between the measured and the referenced absorbance spectra. This sensor is calibration-free and no purge gas is needed. The demonstrated capability would enable measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials within 2.21% and 2.86%, respectively. A precision of 1.02 Torr and 390 ppm is found for the pressure and H2O concentration, respectively. A set of measurements for commercial freeze-dried products are also performed to illustrate the usefulness of this sensor.

  7. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  8. Evaluation of the postharvest quality of Cagaita fruits ( Eugenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cagaita fruits are subject to seasonality and perishability. This work aims to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, texture, color and physical structure of cagaita fruits coated with different chitosan concentrations. The fruits were divided as follows: T0 (uncoated fruits), ...

  9. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, C; Dumitras, D C; Patachia, M; Banita, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones. (paper)

  10. A low-cost and temperature-insensitive fibre Bragg grating sensor for monitoring localized strain concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C E; Thompson, A; Li, H C H; Dethlefsen, A F; Stoddart, P R

    2009-01-01

    A simple, self-diagnostic strain sensor is described, based on a strongly reflective optical fibre Bragg grating illuminated by a broadband source. The total reflected power from these gratings is shown to be a function of the strain gradient experienced by the grating. This is because a change in pitch within a section of the grating results in the emergence of reflected energy in other spectral regions, without any significant reduction in the peak intensity at the Bragg wavelength. Thus, the presence of a localized strain can be inferred directly from an intensity measurement without the need for an optical filter or other more complex interrogation schemes. For spectrally flat light sources, the measurement is relatively insensitive to environmental temperature changes. The sensing mechanism can also be considered 'self-diagnostic' as a signal is returned by the grating even under zero load unless the sensor has failed. Modelling results are presented to determine the minimum grating strength required to achieve this effect, while the technique has been experimentally verified by measuring the strain transfer on a loaded scarf repair joint at room and elevated temperatures. The scarf repair was loaded to failure and a reduction in strain transfer was observed as the failure grew along the bondline, in accordance with finite element modelling results

  11. Production of high concentration of l-lactic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans JI12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juturu, Veeresh; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2018-03-01

    Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans JI12 was used to ferment hemicellulose hydrolysate obtained by acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch at 50 °C and pH 6, producing 105.4 g/L of l-lactic acid with a productivity of 9.3 g/L/H by fed-batch fermentation under unsterilized conditions. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed at pH 5.5 and 50 °C to convert both hemicellulose hydrolysate and cellulose-lignin complex in the presence of Cellic Ctec2 cellulases using yeast extract (20 g/L) as the nitrogen source, giving 114.0 g/L of l-lactic acid with a productivity of 5.7 g/L/H. The SSF was also conducted by replacing yeast extract with equal amount of dry Bakers' yeast, achieving 120.0 g/L of l-lactic acid with a productivity of 4.3 g/L/H. To the best of our knowledge, these lactic acid titers and productivities are the highest ever reported from lignocellulose hydrolysates. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. ON-LINE MONITORING OF BIOMASS CONCENTRATION BASED ON A CAPACITANCE SENSOR: ASSESSING THE METHODOLOGY FOR DIFFERENT BACTERIA AND YEAST HIGH CELL DENSITY FED-BATCH CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. L. Horta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The performance of an in-situ capacitance sensor for on-line monitoring of biomass concentration was evaluated for some of the most important microorganisms in the biotechnology industry: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris and Bacillus megaterium. A total of 33 batch and fed-batch cultures were carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor and biomass formation trends were followed by dielectric measurements during the growth phase as well as the induction phase, for 5 recombinant E. coli strains. Permittivity measurements and viable cellular concentrations presented a linear correlation for all the studied conditions. In addition, the permittivity signal was further used for inference of the cellular growth rate. The estimated specific growth rates mirrored the main trends of the metabolic states of the different cells and they can be further used for setting-up control strategies in fed-batch cultures.

  13. Development of an integrated sampler based on direct 222Rn/220Rn progeny sensors in flow-mode for estimating unattached/attached progeny concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    A flow-mode integrated sampler consisting of a wire-mesh and filter-paper array along with passive solid state nuclear track detectors has been developed for estimating unattached and attached fraction of 222 Rn/ 220 Rn progeny concentration. The essential element of this sampler is the direct 222 Rn/ 220 Rn progeny sensor (DRPS/DTPS), which is an absorber-mounted-LR115 type nuclear track detector that selectively registers the alpha particles emitted from the progeny deposited on its surface. During sampling at a specified flow-rate, the unattached progeny is captured on the wire-mesh; while the attached progeny gets transmitted and is captured on the filter-paper. The alpha particles emitted by the deposited progeny atoms are registered on the sensors placed at a specified distance facing the wire-mesh and the filter-paper, respectively. The various steps involved in the development of this flow-mode direct progeny sampler such as the optimization of the sampling rate and the distance between the sensor and the deposition substrate are discussed. The sensitivity factor of the DTPS-loaded sampler for 220 Rn progeny deposited on the wire-mesh and filter-paper is found to be 23.77 ± 0.64 (track cm -2 h -1 ) (Bq m -3 ) -1 and 22.30 ± 0.18 (track cm -2 h -1 ) (Bq m -3 ) -1 , respectively; while that of DRPS-loaded sampler for 222 Rn progeny deposition, is 3.03 ± 0.14 (track cm -2 h -1 ) (Bq m -3 ) -1 and 2.08 ± 0.07 (track cm -2 h -1 ) (Bq m -3 ) -1 , respectively. The highlight of this flow-mode sampler is its high sensitivity and that it utilizes the passive technique for estimating the unattached and attached progeny concentration, thus doing away with the alpha counting procedures.

  14. A GIS-based assessment of the suitability of SCIAMACHY satellite sensor measurements for estimating reliable CO concentrations in a low-latitude climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbeja, Mofoluso A; Hill, Jennifer L; Chatterton, Tim J; Longhurst, James W S

    2015-02-01

    An assessment of the reliability of the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite sensor measurements to interpolate tropospheric concentrations of carbon monoxide considering the low-latitude climate of the Niger Delta region in Nigeria was conducted. Monthly SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO) column measurements from January 2,003 to December 2005 were interpolated using ordinary kriging technique. The spatio-temporal variations observed in the reliability were based on proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, seasonal variations in the intensities of rainfall and relative humidity, the presence of dust particles from the Sahara desert, industrialization in Southwest Nigeria and biomass burning during the dry season in Northern Nigeria. Spatial reliabilities of 74 and 42 % are observed for the inland and coastal areas, respectively. Temporally, average reliability of 61 and 55 % occur during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Reliability in the inland and coastal areas was 72 and 38 % during the wet season, and 75 and 46 % during the dry season, respectively. Based on the results, the WFM-DOAS SCIAMACHY CO data product used for this study is therefore relevant in the assessment of CO concentrations in developing countries within the low latitudes that could not afford monitoring infrastructure due to the required high costs. Although the SCIAMACHY sensor is no longer available, it provided cost-effective, reliable and accessible data that could support air quality assessment in developing countries.

  15. Estimativa indireta de teores de licopeno em frutos de genótipos de tomateiro via análise colorimétrica Indirect estimation of lycopene concentration in fruits of tomato genotypes via chromaticity values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Carvalho

    2005-07-01

    licopeno foi correlacionada com os resultados das relações a*/b* e (a*/b*², sendo que os valores de cromaticidade da polpa homogeneizada apresentaram novamente as mais elevadas correlações. Estes resultados confirmam que é possível estimar indiretamente e com relativa precisão, o teor de licopeno em frutos do tomateiro a partir de valores de cromaticidade. Esta metodologia pode ser empregada para seleção de genótipos com maiores teores de licopeno, de maneira mais simplificada, evitando o dispêndio e os problemas de descarte dos solventes orgânicos utilizados nos métodos espectrofotométricos.Lycopene (C40H56 is a red carotenoid pigment, which naturally accumulates in flowers, fruits and roots of some vegetable and fruit crops. The unique properties of the lycopene molecule make this pigment one of the most powerful antioxidants available. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. fruits and processed tomato products are the main sources of lycopene in the human diet. There is a growing amount of experimental data indicating that lycopene intake is associated with decreased risk of many types of degenerative and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancers in humans. In addition, lycopene concentration is associated with improved visual perception of tomato products. Therefore, there is a strong demand to increase the total amount of lycopene in tomato cultivars for either fresh market or processing. The development of cultivars for improved lycopene content is dependent upon the availability of simple yet accurate methodologies to quantify this carotene in tomato fruits and processed tomato products. The main objective of this work was to estimate the degree of correlation between the total lycopene content in tomato fruits measured spectrophotometrically and the chromaticity values (L*, a* and b* obtained using a tristimulus colorimeter. Colorimetric readings were taken using three sampling strategies: (1 external fruit wall; (2 internal fruit wall and (3 the

  16. Effects of cooking process on the changes of concentration and total amount of radioactive caesium in beef, wild plants and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Rieko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain information about effects of the cooking process on the changes of concentration and amount of radioactive materials in foods, we determined the concentration of radioactive caesium in several foods such as beef, edible wild plants, blueberries and mushrooms, before and after cooking. Our results showed that drying after soaking in liquid seasoning and the removal of astringent taste were effective in removing radioactive caesium from foods. More than 80% of radioactive caesium could be removed by these cooking methods. These results suggest that cooking processes such as boiling and soaking in liquid seasoning or water are effective to remove radioactive caesium from foods. Moreover, appropriate food additives such as baking soda were useful to promote the removal of radioactive caesium from foods. On the other hand, simple drying, jam making, grilling and tempura cooking could not remove radioactive caesium from foods. In addition, we showed that the concentration of radioactive caesium in foods was raised after simple drying, although the amount of radioactive caesium was unchanged. It would be necessary to monitor radioactive caesium concentration in processed foods because they might have undergone dehydration by cooking, which could result in concentrations exceeding regulatory levels. (author)

  17. Geohelminth contamination of some common fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits and vegetables were bought directly from rural farmers between the hours of 07:00 and 09:00hrs. Separately, each fruit and about 200gram of each type of vegetable was carefully washed in 200ml of distilled water. Formol-ether concentration technique was employed to concentrate the parasites. Fruits examined ...

  18. Rare earth elements concentration in mushroom cultivation substrates affects the production process and fruit-bodies content of Pleurotus ostreatus and Cyclocybe cylindracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Danezis, Georgios P; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2018-04-20

    Concentrations of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) and two actinides were determined for the first time both in cultivated mushrooms and in their production substrates by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Moreover, the effect of REEs on cultivation parameters and composition of the final product was assessed, together with their potential use for authentication purposes. The concentrations of REEs varied greatly among seven cultivation substrates and correlated with measurements in Cyclocybe cylindracea mushrooms; no such correlation was established in Pleurotus ostreatus. Reduction of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin in substrates during P. ostreatus cultivation was positively correlated with REE concentrations, which also affected the production performance depending on the species examined. In all cases, a negative correlation was established between bioconcentration factors (BCF) in mushrooms and REE content in substrates, while the effect of substrate composition on BCF values varied according to the element studied. The estimated daily intake values of REEs through mushroom consumption was at much lower levels than those reported as potentially harmful for human health. The content of REEs in cultivation substrates and in mushrooms revealed that the bioaccumulation of elements differed in each fungus. The nature/origin of substrates seemed to affect the concentration of REEs in mushrooms to a considerable extent. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not 100% fruit juice, is associated with fasting high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations in U.S. adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia, characterized by high triglyceride (TG) and low HDL concentrations, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Decreasing dietary sugar consumption is one dietary modification that may influence dyslipidemia risk to reduce the risk for CVD. Two major sources of di...

  20. The Effect of Selected Fruit Juice Concentrates Used as Osmotic Agents on the Drying Kinetics and Chemical Properties of Vacuum-Microwave Drying of Pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lech

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the osmotic dehydration of pumpkin slices in chokeberry, flowering quince, and raspberry concentrated juices. Products obtained were subjected to vacuum-microwave finish drying (VMD. The objective of the study was to evaluate the drying kinetics and the chemical properties, that is, total polyphenolics content and antioxidant capacity of the vacuum-microwave-dried pumpkin products. The concentration and temperature of the juices were 40°Brix and 45°C, respectively. The pumpkin slices were pretreated in concentrated juices for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 6 hours. Vacuum-microwave finish drying was carried out at the power of magnetrons that ensured the maintenance of the safe temperature (below 90°C of the slices measured with the use of infrared camera. The results of the study showed that the moisture content of samples during the pretreatment in concentrated juices was decreasing until the equilibrium stage. The logarithmic model was used to describe the drying kinetics of pumpkin during VMD. Osmotic pretreatment resulted in a decrease in colour coordinates, improved the antioxidant activity of dried product, and prolonged the duration of VMD.

  1. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael

    2006-05-17

    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  2. Using ground-based spectral reflectance sensors and photography to estimate shoot N concentration and dry matter of potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Jabloun, Mohamed; Plauborg, Finn

    2018-01-01

    Two years experiments were set up to evaluate the performance of different vegetation indices (VI) to estimate shoot N concentration (Nc) and shoot dry matter (DM) for a potato crop grown under different nitrogen (N) treatments. Possibilities to improve the performance of VI using normalization b...

  3. Measurement differences between turbidity instruments, and their implications for suspended sediment concentration and load calculations: A sensor inter-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymszewicz, A; O'Sullivan, J J; Bruen, M; Turner, J N; Lawler, D M; Conroy, E; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2017-09-01

    The use of turbidity for indicating environmentally detrimental levels of suspended and colloidal matter in freshwater systems, and for defining acceptable water quality standards in national and European drinking water regulations, is well established. Turbidity is therefore frequently adopted as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), or as a relative and objective measure of water clarity in monitoring programmes. Through systematic, controlled experimentation, we tested the response of 12 commercially available turbidity sensors, of various designs, to gauge their measurement consistency when benchmarked against pre-prepared sediment suspensions of known SSC. Results showed that despite calibration to a Formazin standard, sensor responses to identical SSC solutions (in the range of 20-1000 mg L -1 ) varied considerably. For a given SSC, up to five-fold differences in recorded turbidity were recorded across the tested instruments. Furthermore, inconsistent measurements were identified across instruments, regardless of whether they operated using backscatter or side-scatter optical principles. While the findings may have implications for compliance with turbidity-based water quality standards, they are less likely to be an issue when turbidity is being used as a surrogate for SSC, provided that instrument use remains constant and that instrument drift is not an issue. In this study, a field comparison of a subset of four study sensors showed that despite very different absolute turbidity readings for a given SSC, well correlated and reliable turbidity - SSC ratings were established (as evidenced by r 2 coefficients from 0.92 to 0.98). This led to reasonably consistent suspended sediment load estimates of between 64.7 and 70.8 tonnes for a rainfall event analysed. This study highlights the potential for issues to arise when interpreting water turbidity datasets that are often assumed to be comparable, in that measurement inconsistency of the

  4. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optical sensor system for time-resolved quantification of methane concentrations: Validation measurements in a rapid compression machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauke, Stephan; Golibrzuch, Kai; Wackerbarth, Hainer; Fendt, Peter; Zigan, Lars; Seefeldt, Stefan; Thiele, Olaf; Berg, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Lowering greenhouse gas emissions is one of the most challenging demands of today's society. Especially, the automotive industry struggles with the development of more efficient internal combustion (IC) engines. As an alternative to conventional fuels, methane has the potential for a significant emission reduction. In methane fuelled engines, the process of mixture formation, which determines the properties of combustion after ignition, differs significantly from gasoline and diesel engines and needs to be understood and controlled in order to develop engines with high efficiency. This work demonstrates the development of a gas sensing system that can serve as a diagnostic tool for measuring crank-angle resolved relative air-fuel ratios in methane-fuelled near-production IC engines. By application of non-dispersive infrared absorption spectroscopy at two distinct spectral regions in the ν3 absorption band of methane around 3.3 μm, the system is able to determine fuel density and temperature simultaneously. A modified spark plug probe allows for straightforward application at engine test stations. Here, the application of the detection system in a rapid compression machine is presented, which enables validation and characterization of the system on well-defined gas mixtures under engine-like dynamic conditions. In extension to a recent proof-of-principle study, a refined data analysis procedure is introduced that allows the correction of artefacts originating from mechanical distortions of the sensor probe. In addition, the measured temperatures are compared to data obtained with a commercially available system based on the spectrally resolved detection of water absorption in the near infrared.

  6. Sensor integration of multiple tripolar concentric ring electrodes improves pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure onset detection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Ding, Quan; Kay, Steven M; Besio, Walter G

    2012-01-01

    As epilepsy affects approximately one percent of the world population, electrical stimulation of the brain has recently shown potential for additive seizure control therapy. Previously, we applied noninvasive transcranial focal stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes on the scalp of rats after inducing seizures with pentylenetetrazole. We developed a system to detect seizures and automatically trigger the stimulation and evaluated the system on the electrographic activity from rats. In this preliminary study we propose and validate a novel seizure onset detection algorithm based on exponentially embedded family. Unlike the previously proposed approach it integrates the data from multiple electrodes allowing an improvement of the detector performance.

  7. Progress on the development of H-concentration probes in eutectic lead-lithium: Synthesis and characterization of electrochemical sensor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llivina, L.; Colominas, S. [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Reyes, G. [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Industrial Engineering Department, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Abella, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.es [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Dynamic tritium concentration measurement in lithium-lead eutectic (17% Li-83% Pb) is of major interest for a reliable tritium testing program in ITER TBM and for an experimental proof of tritium self-sufficiency in liquid metal breeding systems. Potentiometric hydrogen sensors for molten lithium-lead eutectic have been designed at the Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS) at Barcelona and are under development and qualification. The probes are based on the use of solid state electrolytes and works as Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM). In this work, the following compounds have been synthesized in order to be tested as PEM H-probes: BaCeO{sub 3}, BaCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}}, SrCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} and Sr(Ce{sub 0.9}-Zr{sub 0.1}){sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{delta}}. Potentiometric measurements of the synthesized ceramic elements have been performed at different hydrogen concentrations at 500 Degree-Sign C. In this campaign, a fixed and known hydrogen pressure has been used in the reference electrode. The sensors constructed using the proton conductor elements BaCeO{sub 3}, SrCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} and Sr(Ce{sub 0.9}-Zr{sub 0.1}){sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{delta}} exhibited quite stable output potential and its value was quite close to the theoretical value calculated with the Nernst equation (deviation less than 100 mV). Unstable measurement was obtained using BaCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a solid state electrolyte in the sensor.

  8. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose ( 3 H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and 3 H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate

  9. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  10. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  11. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  12. The influence of bias magnetization of nanoparticles on GMR sensor signal and sensitivity for the ultra-low concentration detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Xu, Jie; Cao, Derang; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Guoxia; Sun, Nian X.; Li, Shandong

    2018-05-01

    In the broad research of the GMR bio-sensing technology, it is vital to explore appropriate magnetic labels and its influences on the detection signal. In this work, four kinds of ferrite particles of γ-Fe2O3, CoFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and NiZnFe2O4 were prepared through calcining the Dimethyl Formamide (DMF) solution of the transition metal nitrates [Fe(NO3)3 and X(NO3)2, X = Co, Ni, Zn] to study the effect of magnetic properties on detection signals using a DC in-plane measuring method. It was revealed that for four particles, the output voltage differences |ΔV| between with and without magnetic particles exhibit log-linear functions of the particles concentrations x in the range from 0.1 to 10 ng/mL. A very low limitation of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/mL for all the samples was obtained, which is two orders smaller than that in the previous work. Moreover, the change of output voltage difference at the LOD (|ΔVlim|) is proportional to the magnetization at bias field (bias magnetization, Mbias), which indicates that larger Mbias leads to a lower LOD. This work provides a useful guidance in selecting or preparing magnetic labels to enhance the sensitivity of GMR biosensors.

  13. 137Cs behaviour in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.; Quaggia, S.; Pompei, F.; Fratarcangeli, S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of measurements carried out during the period 1987-1988, to evaluate the levels of 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in fruit samples and in various components of fruit-trees have been reported. It has been demonstrated that, in the case of an accidental contamination of the air, the contamination of fruit is mainly due to the foliar translocation of radionuclide. Data of radioactivity content in fruits collected through a period of three years show that the radioactivity content in fruit diminishes exponentially. Rough estimates of ''translocation coefficient'' defined as the ratio (radionuclide concentration in fruit)/(radionuclide deposition on soil), and of the ''biological half time'' have been carried out in the case of hazel-nut, walnut, apple, chestnut and olive

  14. Phenylpropenes: Occurrence, Distribution, and Biosynthesis in Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G

    2018-03-14

    Phenylpropenes such as eugenol, chavicol, estragole, and anethole contribute to the flavor and aroma of a number of important herbs and spices. They have been shown to function as floral attractants for pollinators and to have antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Phenylpropenes are also detected as free volatiles and sequestered glycosides in a range of economically important fresh fruit species including apple, strawberry, tomato, and grape. Although they contribute a relatively small percentage of total volatiles compared with esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, phenylpropenes have been shown to contribute spicy anise- and clove-like notes to fruit. Phenylpropenes are typically found in fruit throughout development and to reach maximum concentrations in ripe fruit. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropenes have been characterized and manipulated in strawberry and apple, which has validated the importance of these compounds to fruit aroma and may help elucidate other functions for phenylpropenes in fruit.

  15. Real-time investigation of human topoisomerase I reaction kinetics using an optical sensor: a fast method for drug screening and determination of active enzyme concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Emil L.; Jørgensen, Line A.; Franch, Oskar; Etzerodt, Michael; Frøhlich, Rikke; Bjergbæk, Lotte; Stougaard, Magnus; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2015-05-01

    Human DNA topoisomerase I (hTopI) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes relaxation of super helical tension that arises in the genome during essential DNA metabolic processes. This is accomplished through a common reaction mechanism shared among the type IB topoisomerase enzymes, including eukaryotic and poxvirus topoisomerase I. The mechanism of hTopI is specifically targeted in cancer treatment using camptothecin derivatives. These drugs convert the hTopI activity into a cellular poison, and hence the cytotoxic effects of camptothecin derivatives correlate with the hTopI activity. Therefore, fast and reliable techniques for high throughput measurements of hTopI activity are of high clinical interest. Here we demonstrate potential applications of a fluorophore-quencher based DNA sensor designed for measurement of hTopI cleavage-ligation activities, which are the catalytic steps affected by camptothecin. The kinetic analysis of the hTopI reaction with the DNA sensor exhibits a characteristic burst profile. This is the result of a two-step ping-pong reaction mechanism, where a fast first reaction, the one creating the signal, is followed by a slower second reaction necessary for completion of the catalytic cycle. Hence, the burst profile holds information about two reactions in the enzymatic mechanism. Moreover, it allows the amount of active enzyme in the reaction to be determined. The presented results pave the way for future high throughput drug screening and the potential of measuring active hTopI concentrations in clinical samples for individualized treatment.Human DNA topoisomerase I (hTopI) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes relaxation of super helical tension that arises in the genome during essential DNA metabolic processes. This is accomplished through a common reaction mechanism shared among the type IB topoisomerase enzymes, including eukaryotic and poxvirus topoisomerase I. The mechanism of hTopI is specifically targeted in cancer treatment using

  16. Real-time investigation of human topoisomerase I reaction kinetics using an optical sensor: a fast method for drug screening and determination of active enzyme concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Emil L; Jørgensen, Line A; Franch, Oskar; Etzerodt, Michael; Frøhlich, Rikke; Bjergbæk, Lotte; Stougaard, Magnus; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R

    2015-06-07

    Human DNA topoisomerase I (hTopI) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes relaxation of super helical tension that arises in the genome during essential DNA metabolic processes. This is accomplished through a common reaction mechanism shared among the type IB topoisomerase enzymes, including eukaryotic and poxvirus topoisomerase I. The mechanism of hTopI is specifically targeted in cancer treatment using camptothecin derivatives. These drugs convert the hTopI activity into a cellular poison, and hence the cytotoxic effects of camptothecin derivatives correlate with the hTopI activity. Therefore, fast and reliable techniques for high throughput measurements of hTopI activity are of high clinical interest. Here we demonstrate potential applications of a fluorophore-quencher based DNA sensor designed for measurement of hTopI cleavage-ligation activities, which are the catalytic steps affected by camptothecin. The kinetic analysis of the hTopI reaction with the DNA sensor exhibits a characteristic burst profile. This is the result of a two-step ping-pong reaction mechanism, where a fast first reaction, the one creating the signal, is followed by a slower second reaction necessary for completion of the catalytic cycle. Hence, the burst profile holds information about two reactions in the enzymatic mechanism. Moreover, it allows the amount of active enzyme in the reaction to be determined. The presented results pave the way for future high throughput drug screening and the potential of measuring active hTopI concentrations in clinical samples for individualized treatment.

  17. Monte-Carlo calculation of the calibration factors for the interfacial area concentration and the velocity of the bubbles for double sensor conductivity probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Pena, J.; Chiva, S.; Mendez, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the estimation of the correction factors for the interfacial area concentration and the bubble velocity in two phase flow measurements using the double sensor conductivity probe. Monte-Carlo calculations of these correction factors have been performed for different values of the relative distance (ΔS/D) between the tips of the conductivity probe and different values of the relative bubble velocity fluctuation parameter. Also this paper presents the Monte-Carlo calculation of the expected value of the calibration factors for bubbly flow assuming a log-normal distribution of the bubble sizes. We have computed the variation of the expected values of the calibration factors with the relative distance (ΔS/D) between the tips and the velocity fluctuation parameter. Finally, we have performed a sensitivity study of the variation of the average values of the calibration factors for bubbly flow with the geometrical standard deviation of the log-normal distribution of bubble sizes. The results of these calculations show that the total interfacial area correction factor is very close to 2, and depends very weakly on the velocity fluctuation, and the relative distance between tips. For the velocity calibration factor, the Monte-Carlo results show that for moderate values of the relative bubble velocity fluctuation parameter (H max ≤ 0.3) and values of the relative distance between tips not too small (ΔS/D ≥ 0.2), the correction velocity factor for the bubble sensor conductivity probe is close to unity, ranging from 0.96 to 1

  18. Frutas estruturadas de umidade intermediária obtidas de polpas concentradas de abacaxi, manga e mamão Restructured fruits of intermediate moisture from concentrated pineapple, mango and papaya pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer procedimento tecnológico para produção de fruta estruturada com elevados teores (450 a 700 g/kg de polpas concentradas de abacaxi (39ºBrix, manga (35ºBrix e mamão (16ºBrix, e quantidade mínima de sacarose, utilizando alginato ou pectina baixamente metoxilada. Glicose ou glicerol foi utilizado como supressor de atividade de água. Valores de firmeza de 240 g para géis de alginato e 1300 g para géis de pectina, determinados em Analisador de Textura TA.XT2, podem ser utilizados como indicadores para a estruturação, baseando-se nas propriedades de corte das frutas estruturadas. O processo de estruturação compreende a mistura sob vácuo (88 kPa da polpa concentrada previamente aquecida a 60ºC e o hidrocolóide disperso em açúcar. Soluções de CaHPO e Glucona-Delta-Lactona foram adicionadas à mistura para favorecer a formação do gel. Os resultados mostraram a importância de elevar o pH de polpas de abacaxi e manga para 4,00 com NaOH. O alginato produziu 4 géis mais firmes e o glicerol foi o supressor de atividade de água mais eficiente. As frutas estruturadas de mamão com alginato apresentaram maior firmeza (acima de 3 kg. Os géis de abacaxi com alginato não puderam ser cortados com a faca, embora os géis de manga puderam ser cortados, eles aderiram à faca.The objective of this research was to establish a technological procedure for the production of restructured fruits with high contents (450 to 700 g/kg of concentrated pineapple (39ºBrix, mango (35ºBrix and papaya (16ºBrix pulps, and minimal amounts of sucrose using alginate or low methoxy pectin. Glycerol or glucose was used to suppress the water activity. Firmness values of 240 g for alginate gels or 1300 g for pectin gels, measured using the TA.XT2 Texture Analyser, can be used as indicators for structuring based on the cutting properties of the structured fruits. The structuring process includes the mixing under vacuum (88

  19. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  20. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  1. Composição centesimal do fruto, extrato concentrado e da farinha da uva-do-japão Chemical composition of fruit, concentrated extract and flour from "Japanese grape"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Bampi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A Hovenia dulcis, mais conhecida como uva-do-japão, pertence à família Rhamnaceae, é natural da China, Japão e Coréia, sendo largamente difundida no sul do Brasil. Rica em açúcares e bem aceita para consumo humano, pode ser consumida in natura ou processada. Não há na literatura relatos de seu aproveitamento em produtos alimentícios. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a composição centesimal do fruto, do extrato concentrado e da farinha. Foram obtidos teores em torno de 54,08, 52,44 e 19,08g 100g-1 para umidade; 2,16, 4,09 e 4,48g 100g-1 para cinzas; 3,74, 2,77 e 5,73g 100g-1 para proteína bruta; 1,42, 0,37 e 1,82g 100g-1 para extrato etéreo; 12,56, 3,33 e 25,62g 100g-1 para fibra alimentar; 19,46, 37,34 e 42,53g 100g-1 para açúcares totais, além do valor calórico de 105,56, 165,14 e 216,09kcal 100g-1, respectivamente, em fruto, extrato concentrado e farinha. A quantificação por cromatografia líquida confirmou o conteúdo dos açúcares redutores (frutose, 6,15g 100g-1 e glicose, 6,57g 100g-1 superior ao teor de açúcares não redutores no fruto (sacarose, 3,56g 100g-1. A farinha é rica em açúcares e possui elevado teor de fibra alimentar, podendo ser utilizada como um ingrediente alternativo em produtos de panificação. Em termos sensoriais, o extrato concentrado obteve um índice de aceitabilidade de 82% entre os julgadores, apresentando bom potencial para elaboração de geleias.Hovenia dulcis, whose popular name is Japanese grape, belongs to the family Rhamnaceae, native of China, Japan and Korea, is widely distributed in southern Brazil. Rich in sugar and with good acceptance for human consumption it can be consumed fresh or processed. There are no literature reports of its use in food products. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the Japanese grape fruit, concentrated extract and flour. The contents for moisture (54.08, 52.44 e 19.08g 100g-1, ash (2.16, 4.09 e 4.48g

  2. Evaluation of chloride-ion-specific electrodes as in situ chemical sensors for monitoring total chloride concentration in aqueous solutions generated during the recovery of plutonium from molten salts used in plutonium electrorefining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.

    1992-10-01

    Two commercially available chloride-ion-specific electrodes (CLISEs), a solid-state type and a membrane type, were evaluated as potential in situ chemical sensors for determining total chloride ion concentration in mixed sodium chloride/potassium chloride/hydrochloric acid solutions generated during the recovery of plutonium from molten salts used in plutonium electrorefining operations. Because the response of the solid-state CLISE was closer than was the response of the membrane-type CLISE to the theoretical response predicted by the Nernst equation, the solid-state CLISE was selected for further evaluation. A detailed investigation of the characteristics of the chloride system and the corresponding CLISE response to concentration changes suggested four methods by which the CLISE could be used either as a direct, in situ sensor or as an indirect sensor through which an analysis could be performed on-line with a sample extracted from the process solution

  3. Densidade de plantio na produtividade e nos teores de nutrientes nas folhas e frutos da bananeira cv. Thap Maeo Plants density on yield and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade de plantio na produtividade, tempo de colheita e teores dos nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos de bananeira cv. Thap Maeo (AAB cultivada em Manaus (AM. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos fatores: três densidades de plantio (1.111; 1.667 e 3.333 plantas ha-1 e duas épocas de colheita (primeiro e segundo ciclos. Os resultados do primeiro e segundo ciclos mostraram incremento significativo da produtividade, com aumento da densidade de plantio. O tempo médio para colheita dos cachos foi menor na densidade de 1.111 plantas ha-1 (1º ciclo, 338 e 2º ciclo, 401 dias. Na média das densidades e independentemente do ciclo, os teores de macronutrientes nos frutos apresentaram a ordem de: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, enquanto a dos micronutrientes foi: 1º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu e 2º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plants density on yield, period of harvest and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo (AAB, cultivated in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The experiment was conduced in a randomized blocks, with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of planting density (1,111; 1,667 and 3,333 plants ha-1, and two cycles of harvest (sub treatments. The results obtained from 1st cycle and 2nd cycle showed significant increase in the yield per unit area as the employed plant density increased. The shortest average period to harvest banana bunches (1st cycle, 338 days and 2nd cycle, 401 days was observed for the lower density (1,111 plants ha-1. Pooled data of density and cycles showed that exportation of macronutrients through the fruits was, in order: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, while in micronutrients was: 1st cycle - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu, and 2nd cycle - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of p-type nanocrystalline NiO nanoplates for high response and low concentration hydrogen gas sensor application

    KAUST Repository

    Nakate, Umesh T.; Lee, Gun Hee; Ahmad, Rafiq; Patil, Pramila; Bhopate, Dhanaji P.; Hahn, Y.B.; Yu, Y.T.; Suh, Eun-kyung

    2018-01-01

    High quality nanocrystalline NiO nanoplates were synthesized using surfactant and template free hydrothermal route. The gas sensing properties of NiO nanoplates were investigated. The nanoplates morphology of NiO with average thickness ~20 nm and diameter ~100 nm has been confirmed by FE-SEM and TEM. Crystalline quality of NiO has been studied using HRTEM and SAED techniques. Structural properties and elemental compositions have been analysed by XRD and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) respectively. The detailed investigation of structural parameters has been carried out. The optical properties of NiO were analyzed from UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectra. NiO nanoplates have good selectivity towards hydrogen (H2) gas. The lowest H2 response of 3% was observed at 2 ppm, whereas 90% response was noted for 100 ppm at optimized temperature of 200 °C with response time 180 s. The H2 responses as functions of different operating temperature as well as gas concentrations have been studied along with sensor stability. The hydrogen sensing mechanism was also elucidated.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of p-type nanocrystalline NiO nanoplates for high response and low concentration hydrogen gas sensor application

    KAUST Repository

    Nakate, Umesh T.

    2018-05-30

    High quality nanocrystalline NiO nanoplates were synthesized using surfactant and template free hydrothermal route. The gas sensing properties of NiO nanoplates were investigated. The nanoplates morphology of NiO with average thickness ~20 nm and diameter ~100 nm has been confirmed by FE-SEM and TEM. Crystalline quality of NiO has been studied using HRTEM and SAED techniques. Structural properties and elemental compositions have been analysed by XRD and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) respectively. The detailed investigation of structural parameters has been carried out. The optical properties of NiO were analyzed from UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectra. NiO nanoplates have good selectivity towards hydrogen (H2) gas. The lowest H2 response of 3% was observed at 2 ppm, whereas 90% response was noted for 100 ppm at optimized temperature of 200 °C with response time 180 s. The H2 responses as functions of different operating temperature as well as gas concentrations have been studied along with sensor stability. The hydrogen sensing mechanism was also elucidated.

  6. Modelling Chemical Preservation of Plantain Hybrid Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available New plantain hybrids plants have been developed but not much has been done on the post-harvest keeping quality of the fruits and how they are affected by microbial colonization. Hence fruits from a tetraploid hybrid PITA 2 (TMPx 548-9 obtained by crossing plantain varieties Obino l’Ewai and Calcutta 4 (AA and two local triploid (AAB plantain landraces Agbagba and Obino l’Ewai were subjected to various concentrations of acetic, sorbic and propionic acid to determine the impact of chemical concentration, chemical type and plantain variety on ripening and weight loss of plantain fruits. Analysis of titratable acidity, moisture content and total soluble solids showed that there were no significant differences between fruits of hybrid and local varieties. The longest time to ripening from harvest (24 days was achieved with fruits of Agbagba treated with 3% propionic acid. However, fruits of PITA 2 hybrid treated with propionic and sorbic acid at 3% showed the longest green life which indicated that the chemicals may work better at higher concentrations. The Obino l’Ewai cultivar had the highest weight loss for all chemical types used. Modelling data obtained showed that plantain variety had the most significant effect on ripening and indicates that ripening of the fruits may depend on the plantain variety. It appears that weight loss of fruits from the plantain hybrid and local cultivars was not affected by the plantain variety, chemical type. The chemicals at higher concentrations may have an effect on ripening of the fruits and will need further investigation.

  7. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  8. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  9. Produtividade e qualidade de frutos de meloeiro cultivado em substrato com três doses de solução nutritiva Yield and quality of muskmelon fruits grown in substrate under three concentrations of the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Luiz Andriolo

    2005-08-01

    .0 K+ ; 5.01 Ca++ ; 2.25 Mg++ ; 2.25 SO4-, with added micronutrients. For treatments T1 and T3, quantities of fertilizers from T2 were multiplied by a factor of 0.5 and 2, respectively. LAI values at the ending date were 1.99; 2.22 and 2.28 m² m-2 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively, T1 differing significantly from T2 and T3. Fruit yield reached 56.2; 65.0 and 65.9 Mg++ ha-1, for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Maximum fruit yield was estimated by a nutrient concentration of 44.1 mmol L-1, corresponding to the following composition of the nutrient solution, in mmol L-1: 19.5 of NO3-; 1.35 of H2PO4-; 9.0 of K+; 7.51 of Ca++; 3.37 of Mg++; 3.37 of SO4-, and in mumol L-1: 50.25 of Fe; 22.5 of Mn; 3.45 of Zn; 1.5 of Cu; 22.5 of B e 0.78 of Mo. Similar results were observed for fruit quality variables.

  10. Concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva e a qualidade e número de frutos de melão por planta em hidroponia Potassium concentration in nutrient solution and quality and number of fruits of melon, cultivated in hidroponic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciana Cavalcanti Costa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em hidroponia (NFT no período de junho a novembro de 2001, na FCAV-UNESP em Jaboticabal-SP, situada a 21º15’ 22" Sul, 48º18’58" Oeste, e altitude de 575 metros. O híbrido Bônus n0 2 foi cultivado em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. Os elementos avaliados foram número de frutos por planta (2, 3, 4 e fixação livre e concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva (66; 115,5; 165 e 247,5mg L-1. O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva e número de frutos por planta sobre a qualidade dos frutos do meloeiro. Concentrações maiores do que 66mg L-1 de potássio na solução nutritiva não promoveram incrementos nas características de qualidade dos frutos do meloeiro como: teor de sólidos solúveis médio de todos os frutos da planta, do segundo fruto, da acidez total titulável média de todos os frutos da planta, do primeiro fruto, do segundo fruto, do índice de maturação, da espessura da polpa e do índice de formato dos frutos. Frutos oriundos de plantas de melão com dois frutos apresentaram maior teor de sólidos solúveis e acidez total titulável, independente da concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva. O maior número de frutos por planta reduziu a espessura do mesocarpo dos frutos.The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal-SP. The hybrid Bonus n0 2 was cropped in randomized blocks design, in split-plot scheme and six replications. Fruit number per plant (2, 3, 4 e free fruit set and potassium concentration in the nutrient solution (66, 115.5, 165 and 247.5mg L-1 were the studied factors. The increase of potassium concentration in the nutrient solution did not promote increase melon fruit quality characteristics such as: average soluble solid content from all plant fruits or that of the second fruit; average total tritratable acidity from all plant fruits and that of the first or

  11. Fruit yield and root system distribution of 'Tommy Atkins' mango under different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the fruit yield and the distribution of 'Tommy Atkins' mango root system under different irrigation regimes in the semiarid region of Bahia. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and three replicates: 1 - Irrigation supplying 100% of ETc in phases I, II and III; 2 - Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI supplying 50% of ETc in phase I (beginning of flowering to early fruit growth; 3 - RDI supplying 50% ETc in phase II (start of expansion until the beginning of physiological maturity; 4 - RDI supplying 50% ETc in phase III (physiological mature fruits; 5 - No irrigation during all three phases. The regulated deficit irrigation supplying 50% of the ETc during phase I and II provided larger root length density of 'Tommy Atkins' mango. Regardless of management strategy, the roots were developed in all evaluated soil volume and the highest density is concentrated from 0.50 to 1.50 m distance from the trunk and in 0.20 to 0.90 m depth in the soil, that suggests this region to be the best place for fertilizer application as well for soil water sensor placement. The application of RDI during fruit set does not influence either root distribution or production. Root system and crop production is significantly reduced under no irrigation conditions.

  12. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  13. Estudo da vida-de-prateleira de fruta estruturada e desidratada obtida de polpa concentrada de mamão Shelf life studies of restructured and dried fruit made from concentrated papaya pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A fruta estruturada contendo polpa concentrada de mamão (700 g/kg, sacarose (340 g/kg, alginato de sódio (7 g/kg, pectina de baixa metoxilação (7 g/kg e glicerol (50 g/kg, cortada no formato cilindro sólido (vol. aprox. 2 cm³, desidratada (12% umidade, com cobertura de açúcar impalpável, foi utilizada no estudo de vida-de-prateleira. Foram realizadas análises físicas, químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas no produto devidamente acondicionado em sacos de filme multilaminado, para acompanhar a evolução da perda de qualidade do produto armazenado a 0, 25 e 35 °C, durante 120 dias. Os resultados mostraram que a firmeza objetiva e as avaliações subjetivas da textura e qualidade global, foram as que melhor identificaram a queda na qualidade da fruta estruturada durante a estocagem. Na condição acelerada (35 °C, o produto foi considerado próprio para consumo até 56 dias de armazenamento, quando atingiu a nota 4,5 (não gostei/nem desgostei da escala de qualidade global do teste sensorial. Os dados cinéticos, Ea = 19,89 kcal/mol e Q10 = 3, estabelecidos no teste acelerado, permitiram estimar o limite da vida útil em 168 dias para o produto armazenado a 25 °C. Em condições normais de armazenamento, estimam-se 154 dias de vida útil com base na equação da qualidade global dos resultados sensoriais.The restructured fruit made with concentrated papaya pulp (700 g/kg, sugar (340 g/kg, sodium alginate (7 g/kg, low methoxy pectin (7 g/kg and glycerol (50 g/kg, cut in a solid cylindrical form (volume approx. 2 cm³, dehydrated (12% humidity and covered with icing sugar, was chosen for the shelf life studies. The physical, chemical, sensory and microbiological analyses were made on the product packaged in a multi layer film and stored at 0, 25 and 35 °C, for 120 days to check for quality loss. The results showed that the firmness (TA.XT2 Texturometer and the subjective evaluations of texture and overall quality were the evaluation

  14. Pesticide residue quantification analysis by hyperspectral imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan-Hsun; Lo, Wei-Sheng; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Kao, Ching-Hua; Chou, Tau-Meu; Chen, Junne-Jih; Wen, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chinsu; Chen, Hsian-Min; Ouyang, Yen-Chieh; Wu, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Shih-Yu; Chang, Chein-I.

    2015-05-01

    Pesticide residue detection in agriculture crops is a challenging issue and is even more difficult to quantify pesticide residue resident in agriculture produces and fruits. This paper conducts a series of base-line experiments which are particularly designed for three specific pesticides commonly used in Taiwan. The materials used for experiments are single leaves of vegetable produces which are being contaminated by various amount of concentration of pesticides. Two sensors are used to collected data. One is Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The other is a hyperspectral sensor, called Geophysical and Environmental Research (GER) 2600 spectroradiometer which is a batteryoperated field portable spectroradiometer with full real-time data acquisition from 350 nm to 2500 nm. In order to quantify data with different levels of pesticide residue concentration, several measures for spectral discrimination are developed. Mores specifically, new measures for calculating relative power between two sensors are particularly designed to be able to evaluate effectiveness of each of sensors in quantifying the used pesticide residues. The experimental results show that the GER is a better sensor than FTIR in the sense of pesticide residue quantification.

  15. Produção do melão rendilhado em função da concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva e do número de frutos por planta Net melon yield as affected by potassium concentration in nutrient solution and number of fruits per plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciana C. Costa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em hidroponia (NFT, de junho a novembro de 2001, na UNESP, em Jaboticabal. A cultivar Bônus nº 2 foi cultivada sob blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. Foram avaliados o número de frutos por planta (2; 3; 4 e fixação livre e a concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva (66; 115,5; 165 e 247,5 mg L-1 de K. Nas colheitas ocorridas entre 105 e 133 dias após o transplantio (DAT, foram obtidos 2,0; 2,5; 2,7 e 2,3 frutos por planta, enquanto que aos 85 DAT, o número de frutos fixados tinha sido, respectivamente, 2; 3; 4 e 6,2 frutos por planta. O incremento da concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva aumentou, inicialmente, o número de frutos fixados, e contribuiu, posteriormente, para a redução do abortamento dos frutos. Também, promoveu aumento no peso médio do segundo fruto. A produção e o peso médio dos frutos não foram influenciados pelo emprego de soluções nutritivas com concentração de potássio acima de 66 mg L-1. Entretanto, o número de frutos por planta afetou a produção e o peso médio dos frutos, promovendo respectivamente, aumento e redução à medida que maior foi o número de frutos por planta.The experiment was carried out using hidroponic solution (NFT from June to November-2001, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The 'Bonus nº 2' was cultivated in randomized blocks design, with split-plot scheme and six replications. Fruit number per plant (2; 3; 4 and free and potassium concentration in the nutrient solution (66; 115.5; 165 e 247.5 mg L-1 were the studied factors. At harvests [105 to 133 days after transplant (DAT], 2.0; 2.5; 2.7 and 2.3 fruits per plant were obtained, whereas at 85 DAT, 2; 3; 4 and 6.2 fruits had been set, respectively. Increasing potassium concentration in the nutrient solution improved initially fruit set and contributed later to reduce the fruit aborting in plants. Also the potassium promoted

  16. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  17. Detection of Germination inhibitors in fruits of Terminalia laxiflora Engl. and Diels using biochemical assays

    OpenAIRE

    Mai M. A. Hassan; Fatima Algunaid Hassan; Sayda M. Mohammed; Nada Babiker

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia laxiflora is multipurpose tree in Sudan. But it has low germination percentage, which may affect its natural regeneration. There were evidence that the fruits have an inhibitory effect, so this study was carried out to determine which part of the fruit that affect germination and seedlings growth. Three parts of the fruit extraction were examine (Coat, Pulp and Wing) with tow concentration to each part (200 fruit/litre, 100 fruit/litre).the results showed that all extractions had n...

  18. Physiological Responses and Fruit Retention of Carambola Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. Induced by 2,4-D and GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEKTI KURNIAWATI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in cultivation of carambola fruit is the high of flower and fruit drop during fruit development. To understand these problems and to improve fruit retention, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and total sugar in carambola fruit and leaves were analysed in response to application of gibberellic acid (GA3 and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. The experiments used 1,5 year old of carambola plants (Averrhoa carambola L. var Dewi grown in polybag of 40 x 50 cm. GA3 with the concentration of 0, 20, 40, and 60 ppm and 2,4-D of 0, 5, 10, and 15 ppm were applied to the flower and the supporting leaves of carambola plant. The parameters analysed were number of flower drop, fruit formation, fruit retention, number of harvestable fruit per cluster, fruit weight per cluster, the content of sugar in the leaves and IAA in the fruit. The result showed that IAA content of the fruit increased in response to single as well as combination of GA3 and 2,4-D application. Sugar content of the leaves also increased in response to GA3 and 2,4-D application; however, the pattern was different with that of IAA. The best treatment to improve fruit retention was a single application of 10 ppm 2,4-D or 60 ppm GA3, and combined application of 5 ppm 2,4-D and 60 ppm GA3.

  19. Features Extraction of Flotation Froth Images and BP Neural Network Soft-Sensor Model of Concentrate Grade Optimized by Shuffled Cuckoo Searching Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-sheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For meeting the forecasting target of key technology indicators in the flotation process, a BP neural network soft-sensor model based on features extraction of flotation froth images and optimized by shuffled cuckoo search algorithm is proposed. Based on the digital image processing technique, the color features in HSI color space, the visual features based on the gray level cooccurrence matrix, and the shape characteristics based on the geometric theory of flotation froth images are extracted, respectively, as the input variables of the proposed soft-sensor model. Then the isometric mapping method is used to reduce the input dimension, the network size, and learning time of BP neural network. Finally, a shuffled cuckoo search algorithm is adopted to optimize the BP neural network soft-sensor model. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization results and prediction accuracy.

  20. Effects of solar radiation on grape (Vitis vinifera L.) composition and dried fruit colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlig, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Most sun-exposed fruit (Vitis vinifera L.) produced dark brown berries with low L-values, whereas most dried berries from shade fruit were acceptable in lightness although some had a green tinge. Fruit shaded by the natural vine canopy or exposed to direct solar radiation had similar drying ratios. However, berry weights were significantly higher in the shade than in the sun for both cultivars. The difference in berry weight between the two positions was less pronounced in the heat affected year. Solar radiation changed the composition of fresh berries and the colour of the dried fruit. The soluble-solid concentration was higher in fresh fruit exposed to direct solar radiation than in fruit grown in shaded conditions within the canopy. In the heat affected year the berries from both positions had the same soluble-solid concentrations, possibly due to dehydration of the fruit. No significant difference was found between the pH of sun fruit and shade fruit, but the titratable acidity was higher in shade fruit. Malate and tartrate concentrations in berry skin and the polyphenol oxidase activities had carotenoid concentrations in whole fresh berries were not significantly different for sun and shade fruit. Total phenol concentrations in berry skin were higher in sun fruit and chlorophyll concentrations in whole, fresh berries were higher in shade fruit. (author)

  1. CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Wei

    2012-05-25

    A sensor for sensitive in situ measurements of carbon monoxide and temperature in combustion gases has been developed using absorption transitions in the (v′ = 1 ← v″ = 0) and (v′ = 2 ← v″ = 1) fundamental bands of CO. Recent availability of mid-infrared quantum-cascade (QC) lasers provides convenient access to the CO fundamental band near 4.7 μm, having approximately 104 and 102 times stronger absorption line-strengths compared to the overtone bands near 1.55 μm and 2.3 μm used previously to sense CO in combustion gases. Spectroscopic parameters of the selected transitions were determined via laboratory measurements in a shock tube over the 1100-2000 K range and also at room temperature. A single-laser absorption sensor was developed for accurate CO measurements in shock-heated gases by scanning the line pair v″ = 0, R(12) and v″ = 1, R(21) at 2.5 kHz. To capture the rapidly varying CO time-histories in chemical reactions, two different QC lasers were then used to probe the line-center absorbance of transitions v″ = 0, P(20) and v″ = 1, R(21) with a bandwidth of 1 MHz using fixed-wavelength direct absorption. The sensor was applied in successful shock tube measurements of temperature and CO time-histories during the pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl formate, illustrating the capability of this sensor for chemical kinetic studies. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  2. CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Wei; Farooq, Aamir; Davidson, David Frank; Hanson, Ronald Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A sensor for sensitive in situ measurements of carbon monoxide and temperature in combustion gases has been developed using absorption transitions in the (v′ = 1 ← v″ = 0) and (v′ = 2 ← v″ = 1) fundamental bands of CO. Recent availability of mid-infrared quantum-cascade (QC) lasers provides convenient access to the CO fundamental band near 4.7 μm, having approximately 104 and 102 times stronger absorption line-strengths compared to the overtone bands near 1.55 μm and 2.3 μm used previously to sense CO in combustion gases. Spectroscopic parameters of the selected transitions were determined via laboratory measurements in a shock tube over the 1100-2000 K range and also at room temperature. A single-laser absorption sensor was developed for accurate CO measurements in shock-heated gases by scanning the line pair v″ = 0, R(12) and v″ = 1, R(21) at 2.5 kHz. To capture the rapidly varying CO time-histories in chemical reactions, two different QC lasers were then used to probe the line-center absorbance of transitions v″ = 0, P(20) and v″ = 1, R(21) with a bandwidth of 1 MHz using fixed-wavelength direct absorption. The sensor was applied in successful shock tube measurements of temperature and CO time-histories during the pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl formate, illustrating the capability of this sensor for chemical kinetic studies. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  3. An Innovative Optical Sensor for the Online Monitoring and Control of Biomass Concentration in a Membrane Bioreactor System for Lactic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate real-time process control is necessary to increase process efficiency, and optical sensors offer a competitive solution because they provide diverse system information in a noninvasive manner. We used an innovative scattered light sensor for the online monitoring of biomass during lactic acid production in a membrane bioreactor system because biomass determines productivity in this type of process. The upper limit of the measurement range in fermentation broth containing Bacillus coagulans was ~2.2 g·L−1. The specific cell growth rate (µ during the exponential phase was calculated using data representing the linear range (cell density ≤ 0.5 g·L−1. The results were consistently and reproducibly more accurate than offline measurements of optical density and cell dry weight, because more data were gathered in real-time over a shorter duration. Furthermore, µmax was measured under different filtration conditions (transmembrane pressure 0.3–1.2 bar, crossflow velocity 0.5–1.5 m·s−1, showing that energy input had no significant impact on cell growth. Cell density was monitored using the sensor during filtration and was maintained at a constant level by feeding with glucose according to the fermentation kinetics. Our novel sensor is therefore suitable for integration into control strategies for continuous fermentation in membrane bioreactor systems.

  4. An electrokinetic pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Duckjong

    2008-01-01

    A new concept for a micro pressure sensor is demonstrated. The pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of glass nanochannels is obtained by measuring the electrokinetically generated electric potential. To demonstrate the proposed concept, experimental investigations are performed for 100 nm wide nanochannels with sodium chloride solutions having various concentrations. The proposed pressure sensor is able to measure the pressure difference within a 10% deviation from linearity. The sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor with 10 −5 M sodium chloride solution is 18.5 µV Pa −1 , which is one order of magnitude higher than that of typical diaphragm-based pressure sensors. A numerical model is presented for investigating the effects of the concentration and the channel width on the sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor. Numerical results show that the sensitivity increases as the concentration decreases and the channel width increases

  5. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  6. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  7. Brave new fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, N.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma rays are being used for artificially inducing mutations in deciduous fruits, so that improvements in characteristics and quality can be developed and new fruit cultivars sent out to compete on international markets. Progress in this field of research at Stellenbosch is described

  8. Prunus fruit juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  9. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  10. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  11. Electrocatalytic glucose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, U; Luft, G; Mund, K; Preidel, W; Richter, G J

    1983-01-01

    An artificial pancreas consists of an insulin depot, a dosage unit and a glucose sensor. The measurement of the actual glucose concentration in blood is still an unsolved problem. Two methods are described for an electrocatalytic glucose sensor. Under the interfering action of amino acids and urea in-vitro measurements show an error of between 10% and 20%.

  12. Effect of thinning on flower and fruit and of edible coatings on postharvest quality of jaboticaba fruit stored at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Pimenta do Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaboticaba is a Brazilian fruit, native to the Atlantic forest, which belongs to the Myrtaceae family. In this work we describe the effect of the thinning of "flower", "fruit" and "flower & fruit" compared to non-thinned fruit (control and of edible coatings with respect on nutritional composition, overall acceptability and shelf-life of jaboticaba ‘Sabara’, grown in an irrigated commercial orchard. "Flower and fruit" thinning allows fruit with higher quality as diameter, volume and mass. Non-thinned fruit shows higher yield, however fruit have lower quality. As a result of the improving quality at harvest, the shelf life was twice (~8 days for thinned fruit. The lack of change in concentration of soluble sugar and absence of formation of volatile compounds during storage indicate that there was no natural fermentation of the jaboticaba pulp after harvest. Treatments with wax and calcium did not improve the jaboticaba shelf life.

  13. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  14. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Blood plasma glucose regulation in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...

  16. Effect of fruiting on micronutrients, antinutrients and toxic substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetable leaves were harvested at both market maturity (vegetative phase) and fruiting (reproductive phase), and were subjected to chemical analysis. ... at fruiting stage of vegetables grown on both control and nitrogen applied soil, while the nitrate and β-carotene concentration in T. occidentalis were significantly reduced ...

  17. Geohelminth contamination of some common fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of contamination by helminths of some common vegetable and fruits sold in markets in Enugu metropolis was assessed between January and April 2002. The vegetables and fruits were bought directly from the rural farmers and checked for helminthes and larvae by the formalin-ether concentration method.

  18. Efeito da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva e do número de frutos por planta sobre a produção do meloeiro Effect of nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution and number of fruits per plant on yield of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe V. Purquerio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, na UNESP em Jaboticabal (SP, de junho a novembro de 2001, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção do melão (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, híbrido Bônus nº2, cultivado em sistema hidropônico NFT, em função da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva (80, 140, 200 e 300 mg L-1 e número de frutos por planta (2, 3, 4 e livre. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. Aos 80 dias após o transplantio, foram observados 2, 3, 4 e 5,1 frutos por planta e, posteriormente na colheita, 2, 2,9, 3,0 e 3,4 frutos por planta, respectivamente para os tratamentos com 2, 3, 4 e fixação livre, sendo esta redução atribuída ao abortamento de frutos. Houve redução no peso médio do 1º, 2º e 3º fruto colhido, com o aumento da concentração de nitrogênio. Plantas com o menor número de frutos, apresentaram maior peso médio dos mesmos, porém com menor produção por planta. A maior produção (2.474 g/planta foi obtida com 80 mg L-1 de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva.The effects of different nitrogen concentrations (80; 140; 200 and 300 mg L-1 and fruit number per plant (2; 3; 4 and free setting, were investigated on net melon production (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, Bonus nº 2 hybrid. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, in NFT hydroponic system, from June to November, 2001. The experimental design was of randomized split plots, replicated six times. At 80 days after seedling transplant 2; 3; 4 and 5.1 fruits per plant were found. However, at harvest there were 2; 2.9; 3.0 and 3.4 fruits per plant, relative to 2; 3; 4 and free setting per plant treatment. This observed fruit reduction was attributed to fruit abortion. With the increase of nitrogen concentrations a reduction in first, second and third fruit weight was found. Plants with fewer fruits, produced higher average

  19. Potassium incorporation in fruits of South American tropical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, Alberto S.; Anjos, Roberto M.; Macario, Kita D.; Veiga, Rodrigo; Lacerda, Thiago; Velasco, Hugo; Rizzoto, Marcos; Valladares, Daniel; Zamboni, Cibelle B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This work proposes the use of a new mathematical model liable for describing the temporal evolution of potassium concentration in fruits of tropical species. Studies of the potassium incorporation are important for two main reasons: a) from the physiological point of view, this flux characterizes the dynamics of the demand of this essential macro nutrient during the gestation period of the fruit; and b) from a radioecological perspective, potassium is a chemical analogue of cesium, particularly of 137 Cs, one of the most important contaminant deposited after accidental releases of radionuclides into the environment. Therefore, describing the potassium incorporation, we can obtain crucial information on how this radionuclide can enter to the human food chain trough fruits. Nutrients accumulation by fruits has been extensively studied for different trees. These investigations have been addressed to evaluate the nutritional status at different stages of the fruit development, estimating the amount of the soil nutrient removal and then to know the better time to program the control and supply of fertilizers. The fruit quality and its aptitude to the conservation are closely related with de nutrient content and the equilibrium between them. The rate of the weight increment in fruit is not uniform. The dry mass accumulation is small in the initial period, later a more expressive increment is observed and, finally during the maturation period, a lower dry mass accumulation was observed. The lengths in days of each one of these grown phases depend of the fruit type. A sigmoid grown model appears to be a very good approximation. The nutrient accumulations follow characteristics patterns along these fruit grown phases. When food-chain model are used to describe the radionuclide key transfer processes for dose assessment, the steady state radionuclide concentration is assumed in each compartment. In many cases that could be a strict simplification of the reality

  20. Potassium incorporation in fruits of South American tropical species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Alberto S.; Anjos, Roberto M.; Macario, Kita D.; Veiga, Rodrigo; Lacerda, Thiago [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Velasco, Hugo; Rizzoto, Marcos; Valladares, Daniel [Univesidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina); Zamboni, Cibelle B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This work proposes the use of a new mathematical model liable for describing the temporal evolution of potassium concentration in fruits of tropical species. Studies of the potassium incorporation are important for two main reasons: a) from the physiological point of view, this flux characterizes the dynamics of the demand of this essential macro nutrient during the gestation period of the fruit; and b) from a radioecological perspective, potassium is a chemical analogue of cesium, particularly of {sup 137}Cs, one of the most important contaminant deposited after accidental releases of radionuclides into the environment. Therefore, describing the potassium incorporation, we can obtain crucial information on how this radionuclide can enter to the human food chain trough fruits. Nutrients accumulation by fruits has been extensively studied for different trees. These investigations have been addressed to evaluate the nutritional status at different stages of the fruit development, estimating the amount of the soil nutrient removal and then to know the better time to program the control and supply of fertilizers. The fruit quality and its aptitude to the conservation are closely related with de nutrient content and the equilibrium between them. The rate of the weight increment in fruit is not uniform. The dry mass accumulation is small in the initial period, later a more expressive increment is observed and, finally during the maturation period, a lower dry mass accumulation was observed. The lengths in days of each one of these grown phases depend of the fruit type. A sigmoid grown model appears to be a very good approximation. The nutrient accumulations follow characteristics patterns along these fruit grown phases. When food-chain model are used to describe the radionuclide key transfer processes for dose assessment, the steady state radionuclide concentration is assumed in each compartment. In many cases that could be a strict simplification of the

  1. A one-step colorimetric acid-base titration sensor using a complementary color changing coordination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hui Hun; Kim, Si Hyun; Heo, Jun Hyuk; Moon, Young Eel; Choi, Young Hun; Lim, Dong Cheol; Han, Kwon-Hoon; Lee, Jung Heon

    2016-06-21

    We report the development of a colorimetric sensor that allows for the quantitative measurement of the acid content via acid-base titration in a single-step. In order to create the sensor, we used a cobalt coordination system (Co-complex sensor) that changes from greenish blue colored Co(H2O)4(OH)2 to pink colored Co(H2O)6(2+) after neutralization. Greenish blue and pink are two complementary colors with a strong contrast. As a certain amount of acid is introduced to the Co-complex sensor, a portion of greenish blue colored Co(H2O)4(OH)2 changes to pink colored Co(H2O)6(2+), producing a different color. As the ratio of greenish blue and pink in the Co-complex sensor is determined by the amount of neutralization reaction occurring between Co(H2O)4(OH)2 and an acid, the sensor produced a spectrum of green, yellow green, brown, orange, and pink colors depending on the acid content. In contrast, the color change appeared only beyond the end point for normal acid-base titration. When we mixed this Co-complex sensor with different concentrations of citric acid, tartaric acid, and malic acid, three representative organic acids in fruits, we observed distinct color changes for each sample. This color change could also be observed in real fruit juice. When we treated the Co-complex sensor with real tangerine juice, it generated diverse colors depending on the concentration of citric acid in each sample. These results provide a new angle on simple but quantitative measurements of analytes for on-site usage in various applications, such as in food, farms, and the drug industry.

  2. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations in plantain ( Musa spp.) ... Fruit parameters measured were fruit weight, edible proportion and pulp dry matter content; also, the concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in fruits were determined.

  3. An inventory of recent innovations in fruit and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zajac, J.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to make an inventory of recent and ongoing fruit and fruit product innovations, to assess what novelty or improvement they offer, and whether consumers could identify and/or recognise them. Researchers from 11 European countries submitted 386 examples of fruit and fruit

  4. Bulk Fluidity and Apparent Wall Slip of Aqueous Kaolin Suspensions Studied Using the Cone-cone (KK) Sensor: The Effect of Concentration and Temperature.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pěnkavová, Věra; Tihon, Jaroslav; Wein, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 511, DEC 20 (2016), s. 272-284 ISSN 0927-7757 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Grant - others:COST- European Coperation in Science and Technology(XE) MP1305; COST- European Coperation in Science and Technology(XE) MP1106 Program:LD COST Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aqueous kaolin suspensions * apparent wall slip * cone-cone (KK) sensor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry , Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  5. Influence of Alternate Bearing on Leaf and Fruit Mineral Composition at Different Developmental Stages of Date Palm Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. El-Mardi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of leaflets and fruits at different stages were collected from 6 “on-palms” and 6 “off-palms” (15-16 years of the Fard Cultivar. Samples were dried, ashed and digested. Macro and micronutrient concentrations of K, Ca, Mg,Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mg were determined by ICP-AES and N was measured by Kjeldhal method. Significant changes in the elemental concentrations of leaf and fruit occurred between Kimri (green color and Bisir (yellowish-red color development stages. Potassium and Mg concentration was reduced in leaf and fruit. Calcium and Na were reduced in the fruit and increased in the leaf. Iron, Zn and Mn were not significantly different between Bisir and Kimi. However, Fe in the fruit and leaf increased between Kimri and Bisir and decreased from Bisir to Rutab stages. The concentration of Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn was higher in the leaf than fruit. In contrast K, Zn and Cu were higher in the fruit. Higher Ca and Mg in leaves through the developmental stages were associated with higher concentration of K in the fruit than the leaf. These variations in the leaf and fruit elemental concentration were associated with physiological and biochemical changes during fruit development. Significant differences in the fruit elemental concentrations between the “on” (high yield producing and “off” (low yield producing palms during the developmental stages were in Ca, K, Mn and Fe and in the leaf in Mg and K. However, the general trend during Rutab (honey color, soft tissue indicates that “off-palm” leaves have higher N, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn than “on-palm” leaves. Potassium and Na were higher in the “on-palm” leaves than “off-palm” leaves. But in the fruit, Rutab Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn content followed similar trends as in the “off-palm” leaves; in contrast to leaves, K and Na were higher in “off-palms” fruits and Cu and Mn higher in “on-palm” fruits. The results indicate the need for further research.

  6. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  7. (Forssk) Fiori Fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This fruit-producing deciduous shrub or small tree is prevalent in African and Southeast. Asian countries, with ... Gezira State, Sudan and then placed in plastic bags and ..... Eastern Africa. Rome: FAO ... International. Washington, DC, USA 1995.

  8. Hydroalcohol Fruit Peel Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L) fruit peel using 80 % ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Methods: Male ... Conclusion: The study shows indicates the antiulcer properties of the methanol extracts of north white ... experimentation, Cimetidine was obtained from.

  9. Fruit 4.0: de vruchten van meer technologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, R.S.; Verdouw, C.N.; Jong, de P.F.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Robbemond, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modern fruit production is not possible without reliable and up-to-date information. In addition, developments of technologies in the field of the internet, sensors, drones and robotics are gaining momentum. Consequently, production is changing radically towards flexible, autonomous and

  10. Seasonality of nutrients in leaves and fruits of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtigall Gilmar Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient accumulation curves of apple trees are good indicators of plant nutrient demand for each developmental stage. They are also a useful tool to evaluate orchard nutritional status and to estimate the amount of soil nutrient removal. This research aimed at evaluating the seasonality of nutrients in commercial apple orchards during the agricultural years of 1999, 2000, and 2001. Therefore, apple tree leaves and fruits of three cultivars 'Gala', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Fuji' were weekly collected and evaluated for fresh and dry matter, fruit diameter and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Leaf and fruit sampling started one or two weeks after full bloom, depending on the cultivar, and ended at fruit harvest or four weeks later (in the case of leaf sampling. In general, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Cu, and B decreased; Ca increased; and Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn did vary significantly along the plant vegetative cycle. In fruits, the initial nutrient concentrations decreased quickly, undergoing slow and continuous decreases and then remaining almost constant until the end of fruit maturation, indicating nutrient dilution, once the total nutrient accumulation increased gradually with fruit growth. Potassium was the nutrient present in highest quantities in apple tree fruits and thus, the most removed from the soil.

  11. Translocation of the radioactive caesium via the calyx in persimmon fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekizawa, Haruhito; Sato, Mari; Aihara, Takashi; Murakami, Toshifumi; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate pathways of radioactive caesium contamination of persimmon fruit, we investigated translocation via the calyx. We treated calyces of immature and mature fruits (at either stage and both stages) with water containing caesium-137 (1000 Bq/kg) and measured concentrations in the calyx, pericarp, and flesh with a germanium semiconductor detector. All treated fruits had higher levels of radioactive caesium in all tissues than untreated fruits at harvest. The translocated radioactive caesium was retained in the fruit and not retranslocated. These results indicate that radioactive caesium is translocated via the calyx of persimmon at all stages of fruit development and is accumulated in the flesh. (author)

  12. Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks, concentrates, ... effect in human due to continual consumption of food contaminated with heavy metals gotten from raw materials, manufacturing and packaging processes.

  13. Anticancer Activity of Limonia acidissima Linn (Rutaceae) Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutaceae) which has long been used traditionally for various infectious and malignant diseases. Methods: The fruit extract of Limonia acidissima Linn was obtained by macerating 3 times with methanol and then concentrating it at reduced pressure.

  14. Nutritional quality of raw and processed unripe Carica papaya fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the unripe or green fruit is added into fresh salads (Boshra .... Copper showed the least concentration being undetectable in the raw and dried-cooked samples ..... meat. COMPETING INTERESTS. The authors declare that there is no conflict of ...

  15. Concentric and eccentric time-under-tension during strengthening exercises: Validity and reliability of stretch-sensor recordings from an elastic exercise-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas Quaade

    2013-01-01

    Total, single repetition and contraction-phase specific (concentric and eccentric) time-under-tension (TUT) are important exercise-descriptors, as they are linked to the physiological and clinical response in exercise and rehabilitation....

  16. Guidelines and Procedures for Computing Time-Series Suspended-Sediment Concentrations and Loads from In-Stream Turbidity-Sensor and Streamflow Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    In-stream continuous turbidity and streamflow data, calibrated with measured suspended-sediment concentration data, can be used to compute a time series of suspended-sediment concentration and load at a stream site. Development of a simple linear (ordinary least squares) regression model for computing suspended-sediment concentrations from instantaneous turbidity data is the first step in the computation process. If the model standard percentage error (MSPE) of the simple linear regression model meets a minimum criterion, this model should be used to compute a time series of suspended-sediment concentrations. Otherwise, a multiple linear regression model using paired instantaneous turbidity and streamflow data is developed and compared to the simple regression model. If the inclusion of the streamflow variable proves to be statistically significant and the uncertainty associated with the multiple regression model results in an improvement over that for the simple linear model, the turbidity-streamflow multiple linear regression model should be used to compute a suspended-sediment concentration time series. The computed concentration time series is subsequently used with its paired streamflow time series to compute suspended-sediment loads by standard U.S. Geological Survey techniques. Once an acceptable regression model is developed, it can be used to compute suspended-sediment concentration beyond the period of record used in model development with proper ongoing collection and analysis of calibration samples. Regression models to compute suspended-sediment concentrations are generally site specific and should never be considered static, but they represent a set period in a continually dynamic system in which additional data will help verify any change in sediment load, type, and source.

  17. Gamma irradiation of fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1983-08-01

    At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits

  18. Occurrence of Alicyclobacillus in the fruit processing environment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Catharina E; Cameron, Michelle; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2011-05-14

    Concentrated fruit products have a significant place in modern consumption markets and are valuable semi-prepared food components to the bakery, dairy, confectionary, canning, baby food, frozen food, distilling and beverage industries. There is continuous pressure on the beverage industry to improve the quality of concentrated fruit products in order for reconstituted fruit beverages to compete with beverages that are made from fresh fruits. In recent years, Alicyclobacillus spp. have become a major concern to the beverage industry worldwide as many high-acid, concentrated fruit products have been found to be contaminated with these spoilage microbes. The thermo-acidophilic nature of alicyclobacilli and highly resistant endospores allows for their survival during the production of concentrated fruit products. Under favourable conditions, endospores can germinate and multiply to numbers high enough to cause spoilage and product deterioration through the production of chemical taint compounds. It is imperative to understand the nature of Alicyclobacillus within the fruit concentrate processing environment so as to develop effective control strategies and to prevent spoilage in juice and beverage products that are reconstituted from fruit concentrates. This paper reviews the occurrence of alicyclobacilli in the fruit processing environment, control measures, as well as detection, identification and standardised test methods that are currently used for Alicyclobacillus in concentrated fruit products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, K.I.; Dimov, K.G.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2014-01-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation. - Highlights: • The EPR analysis of juices, nectars and syrups proves that the sample has been irradiated. • Two sample preparation procedures were used. • The stability of the radiation induced EPR signals was studied over 2 months. • Application of European standards can be extended for irradiated juices and syrups

  20. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  1. Approximate Mathematical Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Cone-Shaped Fruits and Vegetables in Hypertonic Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sirousazar

    2017-01-01

    Water loss kinetics in osmotic dehydration of cone-shaped fruits and vegetables was modeled on the basis of diffusion mechanism, using the Fick’s second law. The model was developed by taking into account the influences of the fruit geometrical characteristics, initial water content of fruit, water diffusion coefficient in fruit, and the water concentration in hypertonic solution. Based on the obtained model, it was shown that the water diffusion coefficient and the initial water concentratio...

  2. Approximate Mathematical Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Cone-Shaped Fruits and Vegetables in Hypertonic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sirousazar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water loss kinetics in osmotic dehydration of cone-shaped fruits and vegetables was modeled on the basis of diffusion mechanism, using the Fick’s second law. The model was developed by taking into account the influences of the fruit geometrical characteristics, initial water content of fruit, water diffusion coefficient in fruit, and the water concentration in hypertonic solution. Based on the obtained model, it was shown that the water diffusion coefficient and the initial water concentration of fruit have direct effects on the dehydration rate and also inverse influence on the dehydration duration. The geometrical parameters of fruit and water concentration in hypertonic solution showed direct effect on the dehydration duration as well as inverse effect on the dehydration rate. The presented model seems to be useful tool to predict the dehydration kinetics of cone-shaped fruit during osmotic dehydration process and to optimize the process prior to perform the experiments.

  3. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  4. Radioactivity of some dried fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedova, G.; Mamatkulov, O.B.; Hushmuradov, Sh.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radioactivity radiation from natural and artificial sources often acts at the same time in complicated combinations and without exception on all inhabitants of our planet. Natural and artificial radioactive isotopes pass into living organism by biological chain: soil-water-air-plants-foodstuffs-person and can be sources of inside irradiation. Accumulation of radionuclides in living organism in large quantities limit permissible concentration (LPC) can lead to pathological changes in organism. With above mentioned at the radioecological investigations, researches and control of changes of radionuclides concentration in environmental objects have important interests. Investigations of determination of radioactivity of environmental objects, which began in 1960 by professor Muso Muminov are continued in the department of nuclear physics of Samarkand State University. We work out semiconducting gamma-spectrometric method of determination of radionuclides concentration in weak -active environmental samples. We investigated radioactivity of different samples of natural environment and generalized results. In this work the results of investigation of radioactivity of same dried fruits are presented. The spectra of γ-radiation of following dried fruits as grapes, apricot, apple and peach was investigated. In measured gamma-radiation spectra of these samples gamma-transitions of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K natural radionuclides and product of 137 Cs division. The specific gamma-activities these radionuclides were determined. The 40 K have most specific activity and 137 Cs - least. The calculated quantities of specific gamma-activity of radionuclides in gamma-spectra of investigated samples can replace to following row: 40 K > 232 Th > 226 Ra > 137 Cs

  5. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  6. Electric current sensors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripka, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The review makes a brief overview of traditional methods of measurement of electric current and shows in more detail relatively new types of current sensors. These include Hall sensors with field concentrators, AMR current sensors, magneto-optical and superconducting current sensors. The influence of the magnetic core properties on the error of the current transformer shows why nanocrystalline materials are so advantageous for this application. Built-in CMOS current sensors are important tools for monitoring the health of integrated circuits. Of special industrial value are current clamps which can be installed without breaking the measured conductor. Parameters of current sensors are also discussed, including geometrical selectivity. This parameter specific for current sensors means the ability to suppress the influence of currents external to the sensor (including the position of the return conductor) and also suppress the influence on the position of the measured conductor with respect to the current. (topical review)

  7. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  8. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  9. Radioactivity distribution of the fruit trees ascribable to radioactive fall out (6). Effect of heterogeneity of caesium-137 concentration in soil on transferability to grape trees and fig trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Daisuke; Yasunaga, Eriko; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the heterogeneity of 137 Cs concentration in soil on transferability to shallow rooted fig and non-shallow rooted grapes. Three-year-old trees were planted into the pots filled with soil changed to the concentration of radioactivity Cs in surface (0 - 5cm) and deep soil (5 - 15cm). Transfer rate of radioactive 137 Cs to plants from the soil was higher in fig than in grapes when grown under the same conditions. In fig trees, transfer rate of radioactive 137 Cs to plants from the soil was higher the plants cultivated under high concentration of 137 Cs in surface soil than in deep soil. (author)

  10. Detection of salmonella on globe fruits using pulse excited magnetoelastic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, Howard C.; Du, Songtao; Prorok, Barton C.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the results of a research project to investigate magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors actuated with a pulse excitation to measure the concentration of Salmonella Typhimurium of globe fruits. The ME biosensors are based on an acoustic wave resonator platform that is a freestanding (free-free) thin ribbon of magnetostrictive material with a lengthto- width ratio of 5:1. A biorecognition probe coated on the surface of the resonator platform binds with a targeted pathogen, i.e. E2 phage that binds with S. Typhimurium. The biosensor was actuated to vibrate longitudinally such that the resonant frequency depended primarily on the length of sensor and its overall mass. A pulsed excitation and measurement system was used to actuate micron scale ME biosensors to vibrate. The biosensor responds in a ring-down manner, a damped decay of the resonance amplitude, from which the resonant frequency was measured. An increase in mass due to the binding of the target pathogen resulted in a decrease in the resonant frequency. The pulsed excitation and measurement system that was developed under this effort and the characterization of its performance on the measurement of Salmonella concentrations on globe fruits is described.

  11. IoT based Growth Monitoring System of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, W.; Irham, N. M.; Sutan, M. S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Growth monitoring of plant is important especially to evaluate the influence of environment or growing condition on its productivity. One way to monitor the plant growth is by measuring the radial growth (i.e., the change of circumference) of certain part of plant such as trunk, branch, and fruit. In this study we develop an internet of things (IoT) based monitoring system of radial growth of plant using a low-cost optoelectronic sensor. The system was applied to monitor radial growth of guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.). The principle of the developed sensor is based on the optoelectronic sensor which detects alternating white and black narrow bar printed on reflective tapes. Reflective tape was installed encircling the fruit. The movement of reflective tapes will follow the radial growth of the fruit so that the infrared sensor on the optoelectronic would response reflective tapes movement. This device is designed to measure object continuously and long-term monitor with minimum maintenance. The data collected by the sensors are then sent to the server and also can be monitored in real-time. Based on field test, at current stage, the developed sensor could measure the radial growth of the fruits with a maximum error 2 mm. In term of data transfer, the success rate of the developed system was 97.54%. The result indicated that the developed system can be used as an effective tool for growth monitoring of plant.

  12. Concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva, na produtividade e na qualidade de frutos de melão cultivado em substrato Nitrogen concentration of the nutrient solution on yield and quality of muskmelon fruits grown in substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Freitas Fogaça

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, na UFSM, entre agosto de 2004 e janeiro de 2005, com o híbrido "Magelan". As mudas foram plantadas em sacolas de polietileno contendo 4,5dm3 do substrato Plantmax PXT®, na densidade de 3,3 plantas m-2. As plantas foram conduzidas verticalmente em haste única, com até dois frutos por planta, e despontadas ao atingir a altura de 2m. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por concentrações de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva de 8 (T1, 11 (T2, 14 (T3, 17 (T4 e 20 (T5 mmol L-1. Os demais nutrientes foram fornecidos nas concentrações, em mmol L-1, de 0,9 de H2PO4-; 2,25 de SO4--; 10,0 de Ca++; 6,0 de K+ e 5,0 de Mg++, e, em mg L-1, 0,42 de Mn; 0,26 de Zn; 0,05 de Cu; 0,50 de B; 0,04 de Mo e 4,82 de quelato de Fe. A solução nutritiva foi fornecida várias vezes ao dia, de acordo com a demanda hídrica da cultura, com um coeficiente de drenagem diário não inferior a 30%. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foi observada resposta linear dos tratamentos na matéria seca vegetativa e de frutos, na área foliar, no número de frutos e na produtividade. Quanto às características qualitativas dos frutos, somente a acidez titulável apresentou diferença significativa, decrescendo com o aumento da concentração de N. A concentração de até 20mmol L-1 de N pode ser empregada na fertirrigação de lavouras comerciais dessa cultura em substrato.The experiment was carried out inside a greenhouse at UFSM, from August to January 2005, using the hybrid Magelan. Planting was made in polyethylene bags with 4.5dm3 of the commercial substrate Plantmax PXT®, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. Plants were vertically trained with two fruits per plant and the main stem was cut at 2m height. Treatments were N concentrations of 8 (T1, 11 (T2, 14 (T3, 17 (T4 and 20 (T5 mmol L-1 in the nutrient solution. The other nutrients were supplied at

  13. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  14. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat or choose fruits from a salad bar. Individual containers of fruits like peaches or applesauce are easy to carry and convenient for lunch. 7 Enjoy fruit at dinner, too At dinner, add crushed pineapple to coleslaw ...

  15. Automated mango fruit assessment using fuzzy logic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Suzanawati Abu; Kin, Teoh Yeong; Sauddin@Sa'duddin, Suraiya; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Othman, Mahmod; Mansor, Ab Razak; Parnabas, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    In term of value and volume of production, mango is the third most important fruit product next to pineapple and banana. Accurate size assessment of mango fruits during harvesting is vital to ensure that they are classified to the grade accordingly. However, the current practice in mango industry is grading the mango fruit manually using human graders. This method is inconsistent, inefficient and labor intensive. In this project, a new method of automated mango size and grade assessment is developed using RGB fiber optic sensor and fuzzy logic approach. The calculation of maximum, minimum and mean values based on RGB fiber optic sensor and the decision making development using minimum entropy formulation to analyse the data and make the classification for the mango fruit. This proposed method is capable to differentiate three different grades of mango fruit automatically with 77.78% of overall accuracy compared to human graders sorting. This method was found to be helpful for the application in the current agricultural industry.

  16. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  17. Emerging fruit crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  18. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  19. Local Fruit Wastes as a Potential Source of Natural Antioxidant: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, U. K.; Kamarrudin, N.; Suzihaque, M. U. H.; Hashib, S. Abd

    2017-06-01

    Food industry in Malaysia which used fruits as one of the raw material such as the production of fruit juices, concentrates, jams and dried fruits, the main wastes of the production are the peel and the seed of the fruit. Nowadays, people have shown the interests to study the antioxidant content in the fruit wastes. All kind of fruits are believed to contain high amount of natural antioxidant properties such as vitamins, phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid. Thus, this paper presented the work done by researcher on antioxidant activity in the peel especially on local fruit such as mango peel, watermelon rind, banana peel and mangosteen pericarp. The review shows that the peel of the fruit is a good source of antioxidant and other bioactive compounds which have many benefits especially towards human health.

  20. Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple

  1. Characterisation of phenolic compounds in wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-12-15

    This study aimed to analyse the phenolic composition of wild fruits of Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn), Rosa canina and Rosa micrantha (wild roses). Analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. P spinosa fruits presented the highest concentration in phenolic acids (29.78 mg/100 g dry weight), being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid the most abundant one, and flavone/ols (57.48 mg/100 g), among which quercetin3-O-rutinoside (15.63 mg/100 g) was the majority compound. (+)-Catechin was the most abundant compound in A. unedo (13.51 mg/100 g) and R. canina (3.59 mg/100 g) fruits. A. unedo fruits presented the highest concentration in flavan-3-ols (36.30 mg/100 g). Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was found in all the studied fruits, being the major anthocyanin in most of them, with the exception of P. spinosa samples, in which cyaniding 3-O-rutinoside and peonidin 3-O-rutinoside predominated; P. spinosa fruit presented the more complex anthocyanin profile among the analysed fruits and also the highest anthocyanin concentrations, which was coherent with its greater pigmentation. All in all, P. spinosa presented the highest levels of phenolic acids and flavonoids, including anthocyanins, flavonols and flavones, although no flavan-3-ols could be identified in its fruits. The present study represents a contribution to the chemical characterisation of phenolic compounds from wild fruits with acknowledged antioxidant activity and traditionally used for several folk medicinal applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Miniature sensor suitable for electronic nose applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Gehl, A. C.; Allman, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    A major research effort has been devoted over the years for the development of chemical sensors for the detection of chemical and explosive vapors. However, the deployment of such chemical sensors will require the use of multiple sensors probably tens of sensors in a sensor package to achieve sel...... microcantilevers. The sensor can detect parts-per-trillion concentrations of DMMP within 10 s exposure times. The small size of the sensor makes it ideally suited for electronic nose applications. © 2007 American Institute of Physics....

  3. Antimicrobial Ellagitannin of Punica granatum Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Thelma de B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethyl acetate extract of Punica granatum fruits was fractionated by chromatographic techniques to afford the ellagitannin punicalagin. The substance was found to be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and was identified by HPLC/UV and ¹HNMR. The antibacterial assays which guided the isolation of the tannin were conducted using the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by the dilution method according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedure.

  4. Ideal sweetness of mixed juices from Amazon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-drink fruit juices represent a large share of the market and are an important target for product development. The mixture of fruits can bring about improvements to nutritional and sensory aspects of these beverages while making used of the wide variety of exotic fruits from the Amazon region. Therefore, it is necessary to select mixed fruits and determine their ideal sweetness according to consumer acceptance. Consumers in the city of Belém (Brazil evaluated five different concentrations of sugar using the just-about-right scale in two blends selected by preference ranking. For the cupuassu-acerola-açai blend, the optimum concentration of sugar was 9.5 g/100 mL, and for the soursop-camucamu-yellow mombin blend, it was 10.7 g/100 mL.

  5. Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

    2014-05-01

    Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  7. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  8. The surface properties of biopolymer-coated fruit: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cristina Moncayo Martinez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conservation concerns have led to research and development regarding biodegradable materials from biopolymers, leading to new formulations for edible films and coatings for preserving the quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. Determining fruit skin surface properties for a given coating solution has led to predicting coating efficiency. Wetting was studied by considering spreading, adhesion and cohesion and measuring the contact angle, thus optimising the coating formulation in terms of biopolymer, plasticiser, surfactant, antimicrobial and antioxidant concentration. This work reviews the equations for determining fruit surface properties by using polar and dispersive interaction calculations and by determining the contact angle.

  9. A Novel Gas Sensor Based on MgSb2O6 Nanorods to Indicate Variations in Carbon Monoxide and Propane Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Guillén-Bonilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bystromite (MgSb2O6 nanorods were prepared using a colloidal method in the presence of ethylenediamine, after a calcination step at 800 °C in static air. From X-ray powder diffraction analyses, a trirutile-type structure with lattice parameters a = 4.64 Å and c = 9.25 Å and space group P42/mnm was identified. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, microrods with sizes from 0.2 to 1.6 μm were observed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses revealed that the nanorods had a length of ~86 nm and a diameter ~23.8 nm. The gas-sensing properties of these nanostructures were tested using pellets elaborated with powders of the MgSb2O6 oxide (calcined at 800 °C at temperatures 23, 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C. The pellets were exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO and propane (C3H8 at these temperatures. The results showed that the MgSb2O6 nanorods possess excellent stability and high sensitivity in these atmospheres.

  10. A Novel Gas Sensor Based on MgSb2O6 Nanorods to Indicate Variations in Carbon Monoxide and Propane Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Bonilla, Héctor; Flores-Martínez, Martín; Rodríguez-Betancourtt, Verónica-María; Guillen-Bonilla, Alex; Reyes-Gómez, Juan; Gildo-Ortiz, Lorenzo; de la Luz Olvera Amador, María; Santoyo-Salazar, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Bystromite (MgSb2O6) nanorods were prepared using a colloidal method in the presence of ethylenediamine, after a calcination step at 800 °C in static air. From X-ray powder diffraction analyses, a trirutile-type structure with lattice parameters a = 4.64 Å and c = 9.25 Å and space group P42/mnm was identified. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microrods with sizes from 0.2 to 1.6 μm were observed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed that the nanorods had a length of ~86 nm and a diameter ~23.8 nm. The gas-sensing properties of these nanostructures were tested using pellets elaborated with powders of the MgSb2O6 oxide (calcined at 800 °C) at temperatures 23, 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C. The pellets were exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and propane (C3H8) at these temperatures. The results showed that the MgSb2O6 nanorods possess excellent stability and high sensitivity in these atmospheres. PMID:26840318

  11. Sensors for Highly Toxic Gases: Methylamine and Hydrogen Chloride Detection at Low Concentrations in an Ionic Liquid on Pt Screen Printed Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Murugappan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available Pt screen printed electrodes (SPEs have been employed as possible electrode materials for methylamine (MA and hydrogen chloride (HCl gas detection. The room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide ([C2mim][NTf2] was used as a solvent and the electrochemical behaviour of both gases was first examined using cyclic voltammetry. The reaction mechanism appears to be the same on Pt SPEs as on Pt microelectrodes. Furthermore, the analytical utility was studied to understand the behaviour of these highly toxic gases at low concentrations on SPEs, with calibration graphs obtained from 10 to 80 ppm. Three different electrochemical techniques were employed: linear sweep voltammetry (LSV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and square wave voltammetry (SWV, with no significant differences in the limits of detection (LODs between the techniques (LODs were between 1.4 to 3.6 ppm for all three techniques for both gases. The LODs achieved on Pt SPEs were lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limit (OSHA PEL limits of the two gases (5 ppm for HCl and 10 ppm for MA, suggesting that Pt SPEs can successfully be combined with RTILs to be used as cheap alternatives for amperometric gas sensing in applications where these toxic gases may be released.

  12. Effect of low-oxygen-concentration layer on iron gettering capability of carbon-cluster ion-implanted Si wafer for CMOS image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka-Masada, Ayumi; Nakai, Toshiro; Okuyama, Ryosuke; Okuda, Hidehiko; Kadono, Takeshi; Hirose, Ryo; Koga, Yoshihiro; Kurita, Kazunari; Sueoka, Koji

    2018-02-01

    The effect of oxygen (O) concentration on the Fe gettering capability in a carbon-cluster (C3H5) ion-implanted region was investigated by comparing a Czochralski (CZ)-grown silicon substrate and an epitaxial growth layer. A high Fe gettering efficiency in a carbon-cluster ion-implanted epitaxial growth layer, which has a low oxygen region, was observed by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It was demonstrated that the amount of gettered Fe in the epitaxial growth layer is approximately two times higher than that in the CZ-grown silicon substrate. Furthermore, by measuring the cathodeluminescence, the number of intrinsic point defects induced by carbon-cluster ion implantation was found to differ between the CZ-grown silicon substrate and the epitaxial growth layer. It is suggested that Fe gettering by carbon-cluster ion implantation comes through point defect clusters, and that O in the carbon-cluster ion-implanted region affects the formation of gettering sinks for Fe.

  13. Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

  14. (Solanum aethiopicum L.) fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eggplant is grown in almost every region and is one of the most traded indigenous vegetables in local markets (Chadha, 2006). African eggplant fruits have relatively higher carbohydrate. (7.2 g/100g), fibers (2.0g/100g), calcium (28 mg/100g), iron (1.5 mg/100g) and considerable amount of beta carotene (0.35 mg/100g),.

  15. A comprehensive survey of fruit grading systems for tropical fruits of Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

    2015-01-01

    It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms.

  16. Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-06-01

    Peel extracts from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca were investigated for their effects on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. In vitro inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced LPO in red blood cells of rats by 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca peel extracts was observed in a dose-specific manner. Maximum inhibition was observed at 0.50 microg/mL C. sinensis, 2.0 microg/mL P. granatum, and 1.0 microg/mL M. paradisiaca. In the in vivo investigation, out of four different concentrations of each peel extract, 25, 200, and 100 mg/kg C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca, respectively, were found to maximally inhibit hepatic LPO. The most effective doses were further evaluated for effects on serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), insulin, and glucose concentrations. C. sinensis exhibited antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory activities, in addition to inhibition of LPO, as it significantly decreased the serum T(4) (P paradisiaca strongly inhibited the serum level of thyroid hormones (P < .01 for both T(3) and T(4)) but increased the level of glucose (P < .05). These findings reveal the hitherto unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the regulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Besides antiperoxidative activity, C. sinensis extract has antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory properties, which suggest its potential to ameliorate both hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus.

  17. Fermentation for Disinfesting Fruit Waste From Drosophila Species (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, R; Dobrovin-Pennington, A; Shaw, B; Buss, D S; Cross, J V; Fountain, M T

    2017-08-01

    Economic losses in a range of fruit crops due to the Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) have become severe. Removal and treatment of fruit waste, which may harbor D. suzukii, is a key step in preventing reinfestation of fruit production. Natural fermentation for disinfesting fruit wastes from D. suzukii was examined at ambient air temperatures of 12-20 °C. Soft and stone fruit wastes infested with eggs, larvae, and pupae of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) or D. suzukii were placed in sealed vessels containing fruit wastes, and samples were retrieved at intervals and tested for the emergence of adults. Mean temperatures of the fruit waste in the sealed vessels during fermentation were 15-23 °C. Fermentation for 3 d was effective in disinfesting waste from different life stages of D. suzukii. Treatment for 4 d also ensured that the waste was free of viable life stages of D. melanogaster, which could be used as an indicator species for disinfestation of waste from D. suzukii owing to its greater tolerance of fermentation. The O2 concentration of the headspace air in the vessels became undetectable after 13-16 h, with a corresponding increase in CO2 concentration, which exceeded 80% vol/vol. The resulting hypoxia and hypercapnia may explain the efficacy of the fermentation treatment in disinfesting the waste. Fermented fruit remained attractive to D. suzukii and retained its capacity to rear a life cycle. Covering or mixing fermented fruit with a sufficient depth (0.1 m) or volume (×9) of soil or coir prevented the reinfestation of treated waste. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Ethylene: Role in Fruit Abscission and Dehiscence Processes 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, John A.; Morgan, Page W.

    1972-01-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  19. Ethylene: role in fruit abscission and dehiscence processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, J A; Morgan, P W

    1972-12-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  20. Vertical stratification of the nutritional value of fruit: macronutrients and condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Alain; Conklin-Brittain, Nancy L; Wrangham, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Competing successfully for the best feeding sites is an important behavioral strategy but little is known about how feeding sites vary nutritionally within a fruit tree. To answer this question we tested how the nutritional value of a fruit is influenced by its ripeness and its height within the tree crown. A complementary objective was to assess the nutritional value of the midripe fruit, a food item rarely mentioned in the literature despite being exploited on a daily basis by many frugivores. We measured how the dry weight of pulp, water content, and concentration of macronutrients and condensed tannins varied within the tree crowns of 15 fruit species. Collections occurred early in the fruiting cycle, so as to assess the amount of food in the tree before its exploitation by primates. We found that (1) the upper crown produced fruit densities 4.2 times higher, and a fruit crop 4.8 times larger, than the lower crown of the same tree; (2) considering only midripe and ripe stages, upper-crown fruits contained 28.6% more dry pulp, 21.1% more water, and 13.5% more sugars per dry matter than lower-crown fruits of the same tree; (3) midripe fruits contained 80% of the concentrations of sugars of ripe fruits, making them a sweeter food item than one would expect from the intermediate color of their epidermis; (4) cellulose, hemicellulose, proteins, and ash proportionally decreased in concentration while dry pulp and sugars increased during ripening; and (5) ripe fruits were usually rare in the tree (<0.5% of all fruit available) compared to midripe fruits (3-8%). Overall, upper-crown feeding sites produced a higher density and quality of food than lower-crown sites of the same tree. Our data therefore provide a clear nutritional explanation for why tree-feeding frugivores compete for the highest feeding sites. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Electrochemical Sensor for Determination of Parathion Based on Electropolymerization Poly(Safranine Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathion has been determined with voltammetric technique based on a novel sensor fabricated by electropolymerization of safranine on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The electrochemical behavior of poly(safranine film electrode and its electrocatalytic activity toward parathion were studied in detail by cyclic voltammetry (CV and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV. All experimental parameters were optimized, and LSV was proposed for its determination. In optimal working conditions, the reduction current of parathion at this poly(safranine-modified electrode exhibited a good linear relationship with parathion concentration in the range of 3.43×10−8 to 3.43×10−5 mol L−1. The detection limit was 1.0×10−8 mol L−1. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor were demonstrated by its practical application for the determination of trace amounts of parathion in fruit samples.

  2. Effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mokter Hossain

    2018-04-01

    The investigation was carried out at Germplasm Centre (BAU-GPC, Bangladesh Agricultural University, during March to July 2016 in order to investigate the effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. Four different bagging materials viz. brown paper bag, white paper bag, white polythene bag, black polythene bag included for the study and uncovered fruits were used as control treatment. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Fruit bagging treatments showed significant effects on different parameters studied. It was observed that fruit size, fruit weight, vitamin C concentration, and moisture content increased due to fruit bagging. Fruits were gained maximum in size (6.59 cm length, 5.86 cm diameter and weight (164.26 g under white paper bag followed by white polythene bag (131.3g. The skin color of fruits was very attractive in case of white paper bag than that of other treatments. Total soluble solid concentration of the fruit was found maximum (12.33% Brix under brown paper bag while maximum vitamin C concentration (162.14 mg 100 g-1 was recorded under white paper bag. Uncovered fruits showed maximum total sugar, non-reducing sugar, reducing sugar concentrations (10.13%, 6.05%, 4.08%, respectively.The results revealed that fruit bagging in general, improved the growth and quality of guava fruits as compared to control. Among the various fruit covering materials, white paper bag was found to be the best for overall improvement of physical and chemical quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(1.000: 363-371

  3. Automated visual fruit detection for harvest estimation and robotic harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Puttemans, Steven; Vanbrabant, Yasmin; Tits, Laurent; Goedemé, Toon

    2016-01-01

    Fully automated detection and localisation of fruit in orchards is a key component in creating automated robotic harvesting systems, a dream of many farmers around the world to cope with large production and personnel costs. In recent years a lot of research on this topic has been performed, using basic computer vision techniques, like colour based segmentation, as a suggested solution. When not using standard RGB cameras, research tends to resort to other sensors, like hyper spectral or 3D. ...

  4. Sensors, Volume 4, Thermal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jorg; Ricolfi, Teresio

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume describes the construction and applicational aspects of thermal sensors while presenting a rigorous treatment of the underlying physical principles. It provides a unique overview of the various categories of sensors as well as of specific groups, e.g. temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, and radiation thermometers), noise and acoustic thermometers, heat-flow and mass-flow sensors. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including process control, automotive technology and cryogenics. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  5. Time-domain fiber loop ringdown sensor and sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Malik

    Optical fibers have been mostly used in fiber optic communications, imaging optics, sensing technology, etc. Fiber optic sensors have gained increasing attention for scientific and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. In this study, fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) sensors were fabricated for scientific, SHM, and sensor networking applications. FLRD biosensors were fabricated for both bulk refractive index (RI)- and surface RI-based DNA sensing and one type of bacteria sensing. Furthermore, the effect of glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilization at the sensor head on sensor performance was evaluated for both glucose and synthetic urine solutions with glucose concentration between 0.1% and 10%. Detection sensitivities of the glucose sensors were achieved as low as 0.05%. For chemical sensing, heavy water, ranging from 97% to 10%, and several elemental solutions were monitored by using the FLRD chemical sensors. Bulk index-based FLRD sensing showed that trace elements can be detected in deionized water. For physical sensing, water and cracking sensors were fabricated and embedded into concrete. A partially-etched single-mode fiber (SMF) was embedded into a concrete bar for water monitoring while a bare SMF without any treatment was directly embedded into another concrete bar for monitoring cracks. Furthermore, detection sensitivities of water and crack sensors were investigated as 10 ml water and 0.5 mm surface crack width, respectively. Additionally fiber loop ringdown-fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors were developed in the laboratory; two sensor units for water, crack, and temperature sensing were deployed into a concrete cube in a US Department of Energy test bed (Miami, FL). Multi-sensor applications in a real concrete structure were accomplished by testing the six FLRD sensors. As a final stage, a sensor network was assembled by multiplexing two or three FLRD sensors in series and parallel. Additionally, two FLRD sensors were combined in series and

  6. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  7. Biospeckle Supported Fruit Bruise Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson M. Enes; Juliana A. Fracarolli; Inácio M. Dal Fabbro; Silvestre Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    This research work proposed a study of fruit bruise detection by means of a biospeckle method, selecting the papaya fruit (Carica papaya) as testing body. Papaya is recognized as a fruit of outstanding nutritional qualities, showing high vitamin A content, calcium, carbohydrates, exhibiting high popularity all over the world, considering consumption and acceptability. The commercialization of papaya faces special problems which are associated to bruise generation during harvesting, packing an...

  8. Fruits of neutron research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, C.

    1994-01-01

    Car windshields that don't break during accidents and jets that fly longer without making a refueling stop. Compact discs, credit cards, and pocket calculators. Refrigerator magnets and automatic car window openers. Beach shoes, food packaging, and bulletproof vests made of tough plastics. The quality and range of consumer products have improved steadily since the 1970s. One of the reasons: neutron research. Industries, employing neutron scattering techniques, to study materials properties, to act as diagnostics in tracing system performance, or as sources for radioactive isotopes used in medical fields for diagnostics or treatment, have all benefited from the fruits of advanced work with neutron sources

  9. Calmodulin Gene Expression in Response to Mechanical Wounding and Botrytis cinerea Infection in Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Jurick, Wayne M.

    2014-01-01

    Calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium sensor, plays an important role in decoding stress-triggered intracellular calcium changes and regulates the functions of numerous target proteins involved in various plant physiological responses. To determine the functions of calmodulin in fleshy fruit, expression studies were performed on a family of six calmodulin genes (SlCaMs) in mature-green stage tomato fruit in response to mechanical injury and Botrytis cinerea infection. Both wounding and pathogen in...

  10. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  11. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  12. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  13. Water quality sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Keiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ibe, Hidefumi.

    1994-01-01

    The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in reactor water under radiation irradiation condition, and it has a long life time. Namely, an oxygen sensor comprises electrodes attached on both sides of high temperature/radiation resistant ion conductive material in which ions are sufficiently diffused within a temperature range of from a room temperature to 300degC. It has a performance for measuring electromotive force caused by the difference of a partial pressure between a reference gas and a gas to be measured contained in the high temperature/radiation resistant material. A hydrogen peroxide sensor has the oxygen sensor described above, to which a filter for causing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is attached. The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in a reactor water of a BWR type reactor under high temperature/radiation irradiation condition. Accordingly, accurate water quality environment in the reactor water can be recognized. As a result, determination of incore corrosion environment is established thereby enabling to attain reactor integrity, safety and long life. (I.S.)

  14. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  15. Application of Palm Stearin-Chitosan Edible Coating on Star Fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Hanani Mohamad Zaki; Halimahton Zahrah Mohamed Som; Zaibunnisa Abdul Haiyee

    2012-01-01

    An edible coating comprising of hydrophilic (chitosan) and hydrophobic (palm stearin) components which demonstrated gas barrier and moisture barrier properties respectively, was developed to prolong the post harvest life of star fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.). The physicochemical properties of the coated star fruits were evaluated in terms of weight loss, firmness, visual appearance, colour and glossiness, respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) concentrations and ethylene concentration during storage at chilled temperature for 40 days. The results obtained showed that coating reduced weight loss, and maintained firmness and appearance of star fruits. Formulation 1:1 (chitosan:stearin) prevented decline in oxygen production, slowed down carbon dioxide production, and maintained firmness of star fruits. Visual appearance of star fruits showed that coating had lengthened the post harvest life of star fruits up to 40 days with no sign of mould growth. (author)

  16. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de

    2011-01-01

    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 ± 0.04 gkg -1 ) and raisin (0.30 ± 0.08 gkg -1 ) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 ± 0.12 gkg -1 ). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  17. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Jose A.G. de [Universidade Cidade de Sao Paulo, UNICID, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 {+-} 0.04 gkg{sup -1}) and raisin (0.30 {+-} 0.08 gkg{sup -1}) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 {+-} 0.12 gkg{sup -1}). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  18. A role for anthocyanin in determining wine tannin concentration in Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmister, Rachel L; Mazza, Marica; Baker, Nardia K; Faulkner, Peta; Downey, Mark O

    2014-01-01

    Four wines were made to investigate the effect of different anthocyanin and tannin fruit concentrations on wine phenolics and colour. Wines that were made from fruit with high anthocyanin concentration had high tannin concentrations regardless of the concentration of tannin in fruit, while wines made from fruit with low anthocyanin also had low tannin concentration. It was found that fruit anthocyanin concentration correlated with wine tannin concentration, wine colour and polymeric pigment formation. Anthocyanin concentration might be a key component for increasing tannin solubility and extraction into wine and the formation of polymeric pigments. Industry implications include managing tannin and anthocyanin fruit concentration for targeting tannin extraction and polymeric pigment formation in wine. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.

  20. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  1. Surface Embedded Metal Oxide Sensors (SEMOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Talat Ali, Syed; Pleth Nielsen, Lars

    SEMOS is a joint project between Aalborg University, Danish Technological Institute and Danish Technical University in which micro temperature sensors and metal oxide-based gas sensors are developed and tested in a simulated fuel cell environment as well as in actual working fuel cells. Initially......, sensors for measuring the temperatures in an operating HT-PEM (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell are developed for detecting in-plane temperature variations. 5 different tracks for embedded thermal sensors are investigated. The fuel cell MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly) is quite...... complex and sensors are not easily implemented in the construction. Hence sensor interface and sensor position must therefore be chosen carefully in order to make the sensors as non-intrusive as possible. Metal Oxide Sensors (MOX) for measuring H2, O2 and CO concentration in a fuel cell environment...

  2. From ratites to rats: the size of fleshy fruits shapes species' distributions and continental rainforest assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Maurizio; Kooyman, Robert; Yap, Jia-Yee S; Laffan, Shawn W

    2015-12-07

    Seed dispersal is a key process in plant spatial dynamics. However, consistently applicable generalizations about dispersal across scales are mostly absent because of the constraints on measuring propagule dispersal distances for many species. Here, we focus on fleshy-fruited taxa, specifically taxa with large fleshy fruits and their dispersers across an entire continental rainforest biome. We compare species-level results of whole-chloroplast DNA analyses in sister taxa with large and small fruits, to regional plot-based samples (310 plots), and whole-continent patterns for the distribution of woody species with either large (more than 30 mm) or smaller fleshy fruits (1093 taxa). The pairwise genomic comparison found higher genetic distances between populations and between regions in the large-fruited species (Endiandra globosa), but higher overall diversity within the small-fruited species (Endiandra discolor). Floristic comparisons among plots confirmed lower numbers of large-fruited species in areas where more extreme rainforest contraction occurred, and re-colonization by small-fruited species readily dispersed by the available fauna. Species' distribution patterns showed that larger-fruited species had smaller geographical ranges than smaller-fruited species and locations with stable refugia (and high endemism) aligned with concentrations of large fleshy-fruited taxa, making them a potentially valuable conservation-planning indicator. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  4. Variability of 137Cs and 40K soil-to-fruit transfer factor in tropical lemon trees during the fruit development period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, H.; Cid, A.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Zamboni, C.B.; Rizzotto, M.; Valladares, D.L.; Juri Ayub, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation we evaluate the soil uptake of 137 Cs and 40 K by tropical plants and their consequent translocation to fruits, by calculating the soil-to-fruit transfer factors defined as F v = [concentration of radionuclide in fruit (Bq kg −1 dry mass)/concentration of radionuclide in soil (Bq kg −1 dry mass in upper 20 cm)]. In order to obtain F v values, the accumulation of these radionuclides in fruits of lemon trees (Citrus limon B.) during the fruit growth was measured. A mathematical model was calibrated from the experimental data allowing simulating the incorporation process of these radionuclides by fruits. Although the fruit incorporates a lot more potassium than cesium, both radionuclides present similar absorption patterns during the entire growth period. F v ranged from 0.54 to 1.02 for 40 K and from 0.02 to 0.06 for 137 Cs. Maximum F v values are reached at the initial time of fruit growth and decrease as the fruit develops, being lowest at the maturation period. As a result of applying the model a decreasing exponential function is derived for F v as time increases. The agreement between the theoretical approach and the experimental values is satisfactory. - Highlights: ► We assessed the transfer of 137 Cs and 40 K from soil to fruits in tropical plants. ► A mathematical model was developed to describe the dry mass growth of lemon fruits. ► The transfer factors ranged from 0.54 to 1.02 for 40 K and from 0.02 to 0.06 for 137 Cs. ► Maximum values of transfer factors were reached in the initial phase of fruit growth. ► The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results was satisfactory.

  5. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ∼1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Dry Fruits and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sohaib A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fruits are some of the essential foods a human body requires staying healthy. They are made after extracting water from them. These fruits are full of essential nutrients including minerals, vitamins, enzymes, fibers and protect the body from a number of different adversities. These fruits are also a source of healthy nutrition among diabetic people who are very concerned about what to eat and what not to eat. But besides their countless benefits, these dry fruits can cause a number of harms to the body and therefore, must be used in a balanced way. This article is based on healthy and unhealthy effects of dry fruits and their use in diabetes mellitus.

  7. Mandarin fruit quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Relationships between nutrient composition of flowers and fruit quality in orange trees grown in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Maribela; Beja, Pedro; Correia, Pedro José; de Varennes, Amarilis; Faria, Eugénio Araújo

    2005-06-01

    To determine if flower nutrient composition can be used to predict fruit quality, a field experiment was conducted over three seasons (1996-1999) in a commercial orange orchard (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. 'Valencia Late', budded on Troyer citrange rootstock) established on a calcareous soil in southern Portugal. Flowers were collected from 20 trees during full bloom in April and their nutrient composition determined, and fruits were harvested the following March and their quality evaluated. Patterns of covariation in flower nutrient concentrations and in fruit quality variables were evaluated by principal component analysis. Regression models relating fruit quality variables to flower nutrient composition were developed by stepwise selection procedures. The predictive power of the regression models was evaluated with an independent data set. Nutrient composition of flowers at full bloom could be used to predict the fruit quality variables fresh fruit mass and maturation index in the following year. Magnesium, Ca and Zn concentrations measured in flowers were related to fruit fresh mass estimations and N, P, Mg and Fe concentrations were related to fruit maturation index. We also established reference values for the nutrient composition of flowers based on measurements made in trees that produced large (> 76 mm in diameter) fruit.

  9. Heavy metals in summer squash fruits grown in soil amended with municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Snyder, John C; Dennis, Sam O

    2010-02-01

    The increasing awareness of the value of vegetables and fruits in the human diet requires monitoring of heavy metals in food crops. The effects of amending soil with compost made from municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and MSS mixed with yard waste (MSS-YW) on Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations in soil and the potential bioaccumulation of heavy metals in squash fruits at harvest were investigated. A field study was conducted in a silty-loam soil at Kentucky State University Research Farm. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with MSS at 15 t acre(-1), six plots were mixed with MSS-YW at 15 t acre(-1) (on dry weight basis), and six unamended plots (no-mulch) were used for comparison purposes. Plots were planted with summer squash and heavy metals were analyzed in soil and mature fruits at harvest. Analysis of heavy metals in squash fruits was conducted using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Zinc and Cu concentrations in soil mixed with MSS were extremely high compared to other metals. In squash fruits, concentrations of Zn were generally greater than Cu. Total squash marketable yield was greatest in MSS-YW and MSS treatments compared to no-mulch conventional soil. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in soil amended with MSS averaged 0.1 and 1.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. These levels were much lower than the limits in the U.S. guidelines for using MSS in land farming. Data revealed that maximum concentrations of Cd and Pb in squash fruits were 0.03 and 0.01 microg g(-1) dry fruit, respectively. Nickel concentration in squash fruits fluctuated among harvest dates reaching a maximum of 2.5 microg g(-1) dry fruit. However, these concentrations were far below their permissible limits in edible fruits.

  10. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ita, A; Flores, G; Franco, F

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different

  11. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  12. Determination of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead in canned fruits from the Czech market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Diviš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global production of metal cans is more than 300 billion cans. Benefits of metal packaging consist mainly from the great strenght, excellent barrier properties and good thermal conductivity. The main problem of used metal packaging are the corrosion processes. The corrosion of metal container causes dissolution of tin which is used as a protective layer of the steel shell of the can and other metallic elements used in the manufacture of cans. In this work 31 samples of canned fruit was analysed and the concentration of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead was determined in fruit and in syrup using ICP-OES and ICP-MS techniques. The results showed no difference between the concentration of analysed elements in fruit and in syrup. In none of the analyzed samples the permitted maximum concentration of tin 200 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. Maximum concentration of tin was measured in canned grepfruit (59.8 ±1.9 mg.kg-1. The age of cans had no significant effect on the concentration of tin in canned fruit. The concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans with protective layer of lacquer was significantly lower than the concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans without protective layer of lacquer. Concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead in the analysed samples was very low at the natural levels of occurrence of these metals in fruit and it was impossible to determine unequivocally that the measured concentrations of these metals in canned fruit originate from the corrosion of can. The corrosion of the tinplate was studied using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer. By analyzing the SEM pictures and EDS spectra, critical areas of tin plate corrosion were observed. Based on the measured results it can be concluded that the consumption of fresh canned fruit is not a major problem for the inhabitants of the Czech Republic in terms of intake of potentially hazardous metals.

  13. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  14. Physicochemical quality and antioxidant changes in ‘Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannipa Youryon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and antioxidant changes of ‘Kluai Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit (Musa AA group were investigated during ripening. The visual appearance, peel and pulp color, firmness, total soluble solids concentration (TSS, total acidity (TA and bioactive compounds of the fruit at three stages of ripening (mature green, ripe and overripe were monitored. Changes in both the peel and pulp color, texture, TSS and TA contents during banana ripening were similar to those of other banana fruits. Interestingly, the highest total antioxidants capacity and total phenols concentration were found in the ripe banana fruit. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity remained constant and the highest total flavonoids concentration was found in the mature green fruit.

  15. Modular chemiresistive sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Maksudul M.; Sampathkumaran, Uma

    2018-02-20

    The present invention relates to a modular chemiresistive sensor. In particular, a modular chemiresistive sensor for hypergolic fuel and oxidizer leak detection, carbon dioxide monitoring and detection of disease biomarkers. The sensor preferably has two gold or platinum electrodes mounted on a silicon substrate where the electrodes are connected to a power source and are separated by a gap of 0.5 to 4.0 .mu.M. A polymer nanowire or carbon nanotube spans the gap between the electrodes and connects the electrodes electrically. The electrodes are further connected to a circuit board having a processor and data storage, where the processor can measure current and voltage values between the electrodes and compare the current and voltage values with current and voltage values stored in the data storage and assigned to particular concentrations of a pre-determined substance such as those listed above or a variety of other substances.

  16. Studies on the effect of gamma irradiation, growth regulators and preservatives on the storage ability of eggplant fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarouf, Abd El-Aziz.A.E

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was carried out in the early summer seasons of 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988 on eggplant fruits cultivar B alady Black . To determine the maturity stage and the most suitable age for harvesting. Gamma irradiation, growth regulators and preservatives were tested as tools to improve the shelf life of the fruits. The fruit length, diameter, size and weight showed a continuous increase all over the growth periods. Both T.S.S. and ascorbic acid increased during the development of fruit up to the age of 30 days then followed by a decrease till the last examined age of 36 days. The fruit titratable acidity exhibited a decrease trend while tannins showed an increase one with age advance. Fruits reached the maturity stage after 27 days. This fruit age exhibited the least loss in weight and the lowest unmarketable fruits during storage beside it kept the moderate concentrations of titratable acidity

  17. Determination of Glucose Concentration in Yeast Culture Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Seiichi; Kishimoto, Tomokazu; Muraji, Masafumi; Tsujimoto, Hiroaki; Azuma, Masayuki; Ooshima, Hiroshi

    The present paper describes a sensor for measuring the glucose concentration of yeast culture medium. The sensor determines glucose concentration by measuring the yield of hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase, which is monitored as luminescence using photomultiplier. The present sensor is able to measure low glucose concentration in media in which yeast cells keep respiration state. We herein describe the system and the characteristics of the glucose sensor.

  18. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    All matter is more or less hygroscopic. The moisture content varies with vapour concentration of the surrounding air and, as a consequence, most material properties change with humidity. Mechanical and thermal properties of many materials, such as the tensile strength of adhesives, stiffness of plastics, stoutness of building and packaging materials or the thermal resistivity of isolation materials, all decrease with increasing environmental humidity or cyclic humidity changes. The presence of water vapour may have a detrimental influence on many electrical constructions and systems exposed to humid air, from high-power systems to microcircuits. Water vapour penetrates through coatings, cable insulations and integrated-circuit packages, exerting a fatal influence on the performance of the enclosed systems. For these and many other applications, knowledge of the relationship between moisture content or humidity and material properties or system behaviour is indispensable. This requires hygrometers for process control or test and calibration chambers with high accuracy in the appropriate temperature and humidity range. Humidity measurement methods can roughly be categorized into four groups: water vapour removal (the mass before and after removal is measured); saturation (the air is brought to saturation and the `effort' to reach that state is measured); humidity-dependent parameters (measurement of properties of humid air with a known relation between a specific property and the vapour content, for instance the refractive index, electromagnetic spectrum and acoustic velocity); and absorption (based on the known relation between characteristic properties of non-hydrophobic materials and the amount of absorbed water from the gas to which these materials are exposed). The many basic principles to measure air humidity are described in, for instance, the extensive compilations by Wexler [1] and Sonntag [2]. Absorption-type hygrometers have small dimensions and can be

  19. Physiological changes in pre-harvest dropped fruits in the pummelo cultivars ‘Thong Dee’ and ‘Khao Nam Phueng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation of physiological changes in pummelo pre-harvest dropped fruit, termed “yellow fruit calyx symptoms” in Thailand, aimed to examine in two particular cultivars Thong Dee and Khao Nam Phueng grown in the central regionof Thailand. The results show that the normal pummelo fruits of either variety had statistically more total non-structuralcarbohydrate (TNC in their peel and pulp than did those of the dropped fruits. On the other hand, the leaves of normal fruittrees of both cultivars show less TNC than those found in the leaves of pre-harvest dropped fruit trees. There were significantdifferences in some plant nutrients in the leaves, peel and pulp of the dropped and normal pummelo cultivars. IAA concentration in fruit was determined with the result that normal fruits had a statistically higher IAA concentration than did those inpre-harvest dropped fruits. The PCR technique used for the greening disease test identified infections in leaves taken fromthe pre-harvest dropped fruit trees but none in leaves from the normal fruit trees. There were no differences in soil chemicalproperties between soil samples taken from the normal and pre-harvest dropped fruit trees. It seems likely that greeningdisease is the cause of ‘yellow fruit calyx symptom’ in Thailand and is the resulting from low TNC concentrations, low plantnutrients and low IAA concentrations in the pre-harvest dropped fruits in the pummelo cultivars.

  20. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  1. Piezoceramic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  2. In vitro biological activity of tannins from Acacia and other tree fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate impact of tannins on in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters as well as relationships between concentration and in vitro biological activity of tannins present in tree fruits. Dry and mature fruits of known phenolic content harvested from Acacia nilotica, A. erubescens, A. erioloba, ...

  3. Dried fruit and its functional properties from a consumer's point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesionkowska, K.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Konopacka, D.; Symoneaux, R.

    2009-01-01

    Modern drying technology provides the opportunity to obtain dried fruits with high concentrations of bioactive compounds. Such products may also be fortified with functional ingredients. The adoption of dried fruit as a carrier of functional ingredients for consumers is indispensable to launch this

  4. Issues with fruit dietary supplements in the US - authentication by anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current fruit-based dietary supplements in the US marketplace have no obligation to meet any fruit-component concentration requirement. For example, berry supplements might be promoted for their high anthocyanin content, but they actually have no standard or minimum anthocyanin threshold for legal s...

  5. Accumulation of 137Cs and 40K in aboveground organs of tropical woody fruit plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R.M.; Sanches, N.; Macario, K.D.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Valladares, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of 40 K and 137 Cs in tissues of the Citrus aurantifolia was measured by gamma spectrometry. A simple theoretical model is also proposed to describe the temporal evolution of 40 K activity concentration in such tropical woody fruit species. This model exhibits close agreement with the 40 K experimental results, in the leaf growing and fruit ripening processes of lemon trees. (author)

  6. Effect of Acute and Chronic Treatment of the 80% Ethanolic Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment of the 80% ethanolic extract of dried fruits of E. schimperi in rats. The fruits of the plant were collected from Bahir Dar area, north-western Ethiopia; dried, crushed into powder and percolated in 80% ethanol. The percolate was concentrated in a vacuum ...

  7. Medicinal Fruits in Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to man. There are many references to fruits in ancient literature. According to Quran, the fruits like grape, date, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenly fruits of God.  Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food of man. They contain substantial quantities of essential nutrients in a rational proportion. Persons subsisting on this natural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, fresh and dry fruits are thus not only a good food but also a good medicine. Holy Quran is one of the reference books describing the importance of plants used for different ailments in various verses. There are several verses in Quran talking about the fruits in Paradise, including; date, olive, pomegranate, grape, banana and fig. What has been mentioned in the Quran is what scientists have achieved over the time, since the Quran is governed by logic. Although we do not know the reasons for many things in the Quran, we consider it as the foundation.

  8. FUZZY RIPENING MANGO INDEX USING RGB COLOUR SENSOR MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Razak Mansor; Mahmod Othman; Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar; Khairul Adilah Ahmad; Tajul Rosli Razak

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the mango ripeness classification is determined manually by human graders according to a particular procedure. This method is inconsistent and subjective in nature because each grader has different techniques. Thus, it affects the quantity and quality of the mango fruit that can be marketed. In this project, a new model for classifying mango fruit is developed using the fuzzy logic RGB sensor colour model build in the MATLAB software. The grading system was programme...

  9. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Hutter, F.; Edelhaeuser, R.

    1992-01-01

    WO 2010040565 A1 UPAB: 20100506 NOVELTY - The integrated optical sensor comprises a first waveguide (4), a second waveguide (5) optically coupled to the first waveguide via a directional coupler, a substrate, which carries the first and the second waveguides, a single waveguide coupled with a light source, and an output waveguide coupled with a light-sensitive element. The sensor has a functional surface in the region of the directional coupler for depositing or deposition of the substance to...

  10. Wireless sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  11. The role of fruit colour in avian fruit selection: an objective approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Veronika

    2002-01-01

    To explain the prevalence of red and black fruits in fruit colour patterns, the following hypotheses were addressed, using reflectance spectra of fruits as colour assessment: 1. Birds prefer red and black fruits, or these hues are cues for food recognition in migrants or fledglings. 2. Fruit colours correlate with chemical compounds. 3. Fruit colours serve as advertisement for ripe fruits. Reflectance spectra are the most objective colour assessment currently possible. Birds show no colour pr...

  12. USE OF METHYL EUGENOL SOLUTION AND RED GUAVA EXTRACT FOR FRUIT FLY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the constraints increase fruit production in Indonesia is the fruit fly pests. The introduction of fruit fly pest attack prevention using attractant methyl eugenol is considered expensive and troublesome. Therefore, researchers are interested in doing this experiment. Objective: (1 determine the volume of a solution of methyl eugenol most appropriate in the fruit fly trap to get optimum results. (2 determine the most appropriate time of application. Conducted experiments using attractant methyl eugenol is mixed into the guava fruit extract. Research conducted in the guava orchard belonging to farmers in the village Sumberagung, Jetis, Bantul begins July through September 2015. The research used randomized block design factorial design with two treatment factors. The first factor is the concentration of the solution Petrogenol which consists of three levels, repeated five times. Data were analyzed by F test, if they depict real effect, continued treatment mean comparison test using HSD test at five percent level. Conclusions (1 The solution Methyl eugenol is a fruit fly attractant potential in the control of fruit flies in the crop guava. (2 The concentration of Methyl eugenol 0.60 ml per 100 ml guava fruit extract with the application time of 10 days is more effective to trap fruit flies in guava crop

  13. Nanotech extends shelf life of fresh fruit | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Image. Mango growers in India's Tamil Nadu state. IDRC / Vijay Kutty ... Spraying orchards with a low concentration of the compound slowed fruit ripening ... with it, within 48 hours it's all gone — you can't find even a trace using a microscope.

  14. Optical Fiber Grating based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis differenct optical fiber gratings are used for sensor purposes. If a fiber with a core concentricity error (CCE) is used, a directional dependent bend sensor can be produced. The CCE direction can be determined by means of diffraction. This makes it possible to produce long......-period gratings in a fiber with a CCE direction parallel or perpendicular to the writing direction. The maximal bending sensitivity is independent on the writing direction, but the detailed bending response is different in the two cases. A temperature and strain sensor, based on a long-period grating and two...... sampled gratings, was produced and investigated. It is based on the different temperature and strain response of these gratings. Both a transfer matrix method and an overlap calculation is performed to explain the sensor response. Another type of sensor is based on tuning and modulation of a laser...

  15. Fruit Leathers: Method of Preparation and Effect of Different Conditions on Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit leathers are dehydrated fruit products which are eaten as snacks or desserts. They are flexible sheets that have a concentrated fruit flavor and nutritional aspects. Most fruit leathers are prepared by mixing fruit puree and other additives like sugar, pectin, acid, glucose syrup, color, and potassium metabisulphite and then dehydrating them under specific conditions. Various drying systems including combined convective and far-infrared drying, hot air drying, microwave drying, solar drying, and sun drying have been used to make fruit leathers. Most fruit leathers are dried at 30 to 80°C for up to 24 hours until the target final moisture content (12–20% has been reached. Research about fruit leathers began in the 1970s. This work has reviewed published papers on fruit leathers in order to summarize useful information about fruit leathers on methods of preparation, effects of drying condition, and effects of packaging and storage, which will be useful to many in the food industry and consumers who are health-conscious.

  16. Fruit Leathers: Method of Preparation and Effect of Different Conditions on Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Lemuel M.; Bai, Xue; Busch, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Fruit leathers are dehydrated fruit products which are eaten as snacks or desserts. They are flexible sheets that have a concentrated fruit flavor and nutritional aspects. Most fruit leathers are prepared by mixing fruit puree and other additives like sugar, pectin, acid, glucose syrup, color, and potassium metabisulphite and then dehydrating them under specific conditions. Various drying systems including combined convective and far-infrared drying, hot air drying, microwave drying, solar drying, and sun drying have been used to make fruit leathers. Most fruit leathers are dried at 30 to 80°C for up to 24 hours until the target final moisture content (12–20%) has been reached. Research about fruit leathers began in the 1970s. This work has reviewed published papers on fruit leathers in order to summarize useful information about fruit leathers on methods of preparation, effects of drying condition, and effects of packaging and storage, which will be useful to many in the food industry and consumers who are health-conscious. PMID:26904618

  17. Effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  18. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  19. Storage of irradiated strawberry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.

    1977-01-01

    Pocahontas strawberries both of green house and field production have been stored at 3 deg C for 10 and 12 days, respectively, after treatment with 100000, 200000 and 300000 Roe in comparison with unirradiated fruits. No explicit correlation was observed regarding the keeping qualities of fruits, their chemical composition (dry matter, sugars, acids and vitamin C) when stored after a different gamma-ray irradiation. (S.P.)

  20. SELECTED INDIGENOUS WILD FRUITS INFLUENCE ON FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... afternoon routine feeding. Data were collected on fruit choice to determine fruits preference; time spent to remove or break the fruits pericarp; and the position of the animal while ... of others irrespective of their nutritional quality. Time spent to remove or ... may exert selection pressures on fruit characteristics ...

  1. Chemical sensors are hybrid-input memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, V. I.; Arkhipov, V. E.; Okotrub, A. V.; Pershin, Y. V.

    2018-04-01

    Memristors are two-terminal electronic devices whose resistance depends on the history of input signal (voltage or current). Here we demonstrate that the chemical gas sensors can be considered as memristors with a generalized (hybrid) input, namely, with the input consisting of the voltage, analyte concentrations and applied temperature. The concept of hybrid-input memristors is demonstrated experimentally using a single-walled carbon nanotubes chemical sensor. It is shown that with respect to the hybrid input, the sensor exhibits some features common with memristors such as the hysteretic input-output characteristics. This different perspective on chemical gas sensors may open new possibilities for smart sensor applications.

  2. Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleut, I.; Levy-Tacher, S.I.; Boer, de W.F.; Galindo-Gonzalez, J.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated

  3. Pithy brown core in ‘d’Anjou’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit developing during controlled atmosphere storage at pO2 determined by monitoring chlorophyll fluorescense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological responses and fruit quality of ‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit from five orchard lots were evaluated after cold storage in air or controlled atmospheres (CA) with the oxygen (O2) concentration based on assessment of fruit chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) or standard conditions (1.5 kPa O2). The pCO2...

  4. ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Honeycrisp’ apple response to controlled atmosphere storage with oxygen set point determined in response to fruit chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest management of apple fruit ripening using controlled atmosphere (CA) cold storage can be enhanced as CA oxygen concentration is decreased to close to the anaerobic compensation point (ACP). Monitoring fruit chlorophyll fluorescence is one technology available to assess fruit response to ...

  5. Otimização via metodologia de superfície de respostas dos parâmetros tecnológicos para produção de fruta estruturada e desidratada a partir de polpa concentrada de mamão Optimization by the surface methodology of thecnological parameters for the production of restructured and dried fruit made from concentrated papaya pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar os parâmetros tecnológicos relevantes no processo de estruturação de polpa concentrada de mamão (16ºBrix, utilizando um delineamento experimental associado a Metodologia de Superfície de Respostas. Os resultados do planejamento composto central utilizado mostraram que as variáveis pectina (x1 e alginato (x2 foram estatisticamente significativas para aumentar a firmeza de fruta estrutura de mamão. Foram realizados experimentos para confirmar as previsões do modelo matemático proposto para firmeza. As frutas estruturadas obtidas com os menores níveis de pectina (7g/kg e alginato (7g/kg apresentaram firmeza elevada, em torno de 3,2kg, cerca de 2,4 vezes maior que o valor previsto pelo modelo, provavelmente devido a variações no pH da polpa de mamão. Os resultados mostraram ser possível produzir fruta estruturada com teor elevado de polpa de mamão concentrada (672g/kg e quantidade mínima de sacarose (364g/kg. O glicerol (x3 na concentração de 100g/kg suprimiu a atividade de água dos géis de polpa concentrada de mamão para 0,922. A secagem (60ºC/6h sob vácuo (0,8kgf/kg das frutas estruturadas minimizou o problema de adesividade superficial das frutas estruturadas e, concomitantemente, promoveu redução na atividade de água, para níveis de umidade intermediária, em torno de 0,860.The objective of this study was to investigate the relevant technological parameters of the manufacturing process of restructured fruit made from concentrated papaya pulp (16ºBrix using an experimental delineation method associated with the Surface Response Methodology. The results of the Central Composed Design utilized show that the effect of the variables pectin (x1 and alginate (x2 on the increase in firmness of the papaya fruit restructured is statistically significant. A series of experiments was conducted to confirm the values predicted by the mathematical model proposed for firmness. The

  6. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  7. Chloride stress triggers maturation and negatively affects the postharvest quality of persimmon fruit. Involvement of calyx ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.L.; Geronime, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation sensor and thermocouple, respectively, which can be used for reactor in-core instrumentation. The radiation sensor consists of an inconel conductor wire and rhodium emitter wire, the thermocouple of two intertwined alumel or chromel wires. Both are arranged in the center of a metal tube relative to which they are separated by an insulator made of SiO 2 fibers. This insulator is first introduced as a loose fabric between the radiation sensor and the thermocouple, respectively, and the metal tube and then compacted to a density of 35-73% of pure SiO 2 by drawing the tube. There is no need for soldering or welding. The insulation resistivity at room temperature ist between 10 14 and 10 15 ohms. (ORU) [de

  9. Water Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  10. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  11. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and ben......Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose...

  12. Influence of silicon on production and fruit quality of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Souza Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the culture of strawberries is an important activity for small and medium farmers. Among the important factors for culture is fertilization, which can interfere in production and fruit quality. Silicon (Si is one of the little studied in fertilization, which demonstrated some beneficial to several different cultures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Si on production and concentration of anthocyanin and titratable acid in the fruit and reading SPAD (chlorophyll in the leaves of the strawberry. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using pots containing 14.5 kg of limed soil, fertilized and three plants (cultivar Milsei Tudla were transplanted to pots. Treatments consisted of application of Si at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 rates, via soil or foliar. During this experiment the reading of SPAD (chlorophyll and the end of the experiment, the shoots was collected, dried, weighed, ground and analyzed by content and accumulation Si. The fruits were weighed and analyzed the concentration of anthocyanin, titratable acidity and Si concentration. The fertilization with Si, via soil or foliar applied, contributed to the increase in fruit production, especially with the application via soil. Applying foliar or soil promoted an increase in the values of titratable acidity and anthocyanins. Rates of Si via soil or foliar applied influenced the reading SPAD (chlorophyll, in the leaves. The Si independent of the form of application promoted improvements in strawberry crop.

  13. Effect of process variables on the osmotic dehydration of star-fruit slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Dalben Madeira Campos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of blanching and the influence of temperature, solution concentration, and the initial fruit:solution ratio on the osmotic dehydration of star-fruit slices. For blanching, different concentrations of citric and ascorbic acids were studied. The samples immersed in 0.75% citric acid presented little variation in color in relation to the fresh star-fruit. Osmotic dehydration was carried out in an incubator with orbital shaking, controlled temperature, and constant shaking at 120 rpm. The influence of process variables was studied in trials defined by a complete 23 central composite design. In general, water loss and solids gain were positively influenced by temperature and by solution concentration. Nevertheless, lower temperatures reduced water loss throughout the osmotic dehydration process. An increase in the amount of dehydrating solution (initial fruit:solution ratio slightly influenced the evaluated responses. The process carried out at 50 ºC with a solution concentration of 50% resulted in a product with lower solids gain and greater water loss. Under these conditions, blanching minimized the effect of the osmotic treatment on star-fruit browning, and therefore the blanched fruits showed little variation in color in relation to the fresh fruit.

  14. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-01

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  15. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-15

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  16. Effects of different plant growth regulators on blueberry fruit quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. C.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Wang, Y. N.; Luo, C.; Wang, X.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on blueberry fruit growth, various concentrations of Abscisic acid (ABA), Methyl jasmonate (MJ), Brassinolide (BR), Melatonin (MT) were sprayed on blueberry cv. ‘Brigita’ fruits. The results showed that all the PGRs put into effect on improving the quality of blueberry fruit. Comparing with the control plants no PGR spraying,300 mg/L of MT treatment promoted effectively accumulation of the soluble sugar. ABA 20mg/L treatment in-creased effectively accumulation of anthocyanin, and significantly decreased titratable acid content. The treatment of MJ 10mg/L improved significantly the soluble solid content. The effect of the four PGRs treatments on appearance did not show obvious difference.

  17. Effect of maleic hydrazide and waxing on quality and shelf life of papaya (carica papaya L.) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Goukh, A. A.; Shattir, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of post harvest treatment of maleic hydrazide (MH) with and with out waxing on the quality and shelf-life of Baladi and Ekostika I papaya fruits at 18 ±1°C and 85%-90% relative humidity was evaluated. Maleic hydrazide at 250 and 500 ppm significantly delayed fruit ripening by two and three days in both papaya cultivars, respectively, compared with untreated fruits. The higher the concentration, the more was the delay in fruit ripening. The results also showed that waxing addition to MH resulted in a delay of two more days in fruit ripening that treatment with MH alone. The effect of MH and waxing treatments in delaying papaya fruits ripening was manifested in retarded respiratory climacteric, reduced weight loss and delayed fruit softening and increase in total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content.(Author)

  18. Absorption and distribution of calcium (labelled with 45Ca) applied after harvest to Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, A.R.; Dhatt, A.S.; Dhillon, K.S.; Dhillon, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the disorders related to calcium are due to its unequal distribution within the plant rather than poor uptake. Immediately after fruit set, calcium uptake by roots as well as its translocation to developing fruit is extensive. However, the absorbed calcium does not reach the fruit in desired amounts during the subsequent fruit development stages and thereby, resulting in physiological disorders. Some corky spots underneath the peel of the fruit at harvest or during storage have been observed in Asian pear (cv. Patharnakh) which is extensively grown in northern India. There is need to increase the Ca concentration in the body of the fruit to prolong its life. The present investigation was, therefore, undertaken to study the absorption and distribution of post-harvest applied Ca in Asian pear fruit using radiotracer techniques. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs

  19. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity.

  20. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Etienne

    Full Text Available Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity.

  1. Applications of stable Isotope ratios determinations in fruit juice authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Voica, Cezara; Puscas, Romulus

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Adulteration of a product consists in making it impure by fraudulent addition of a foreign or inferior substance. The result is either an alteration of the product and of its quality or a falsification. The falsification is a voluntary act with the intention of abuse. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. Vacuum concentration with aroma does not affect the chemical composition of fruit juices and therefore the determination of deuterium (D) and oxygen-18 content in waters is the most confident procedure for differentiating between a natural single strength juice and a juice rediluted from a concentrate. This technique is based on the fact that when absorbed by a plant, the rainwater or the irrigation water is fractionated by evapotranspiration, and enriched in the heavy isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) with respect to the light isotope (hydrogen and oxygen-16, respectively). It is known that climatic conditions affect the isotope content of rain waters and therefore that of fruit juices waters: the warmer climate, the higher the deuterium and oxygen-18 contents in water. Rainwater and tap water have nearly the same isotopic content and the water of fruit juices derived from concentrate by dilution with tap water has an isotopic content close to that of tap water. This makes it easy to distinguish diluted concentrates from the isotopically more enriched water of authentic single strength juice. In this study, single strength juice, in Romanian fruits, were investigated by mean of stable isotope measurements (oxygen, hydrogen and carbon) in order to offer a discussion basis for the authenticity of some fruit juices currently available on Romanian market. (authors)

  2. Pineapple Fruit Collapse: Newly Emerging Disease of Pineapple Fruit in Lampung, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Prasetyo; Titik Nur Aeny

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial...

  3. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  4. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  5. Analyzing Responses of Chemical Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a third-generation electronic nose (ENose) capable of continuous monitoring of the International Space Station s cabin atmosphere for specific, harmful airborne contaminants. Previous generations of the ENose have been described in prior NASA Tech Briefs issues. Sensor selection is critical in both (prefabrication) sensor material selection and (post-fabrication) data analysis of the ENose, which detects several analytes that are difficult to detect, or that are at very low concentration ranges. Existing sensor selection approaches usually include limited statistical measures, where selectivity is more important but reliability and sensitivity are not of concern. When reliability and sensitivity can be major limiting factors in detecting target compounds reliably, the existing approach is not able to provide meaningful selection that will actually improve data analysis results. The approach and software reported here consider more statistical measures (factors) than existing approaches for a similar purpose. The result is a more balanced and robust sensor selection from a less than ideal sensor array. The software offers quick, flexible, optimal sensor selection and weighting for a variety of purposes without a time-consuming, iterative search by performing sensor calibrations to a known linear or nonlinear model, evaluating the individual sensor s statistics, scoring the individual sensor s overall performance, finding the best sensor array size to maximize class separation, finding optimal weights for the remaining sensor array, estimating limits of detection for the target compounds, evaluating fingerprint distance between group pairs, and finding the best event-detecting sensors.

  6. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Responses of Phospholipase D and Antioxidant System to Mechanical Wounding in Postharvest Banana Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana fruits are susceptible to mechanical damage. The present study was to investigate the responses of phospholipase D (PLD and antioxidant system to mechanical wounding in postharvest banana fruits. During 16 d storage at 25°C and 90% relative humidity, PLD activity in wounded fruits was significantly higher than that in control (without artificial wounding fruits. The higher value of PLD mRNA was found in wounded fruits than in control. PLD mRNA expression reached the highest peak on day 4 in both groups, but it was 2.67 times in wounded fruits compared to control at that time, indicating that PLD gene expression was activated in response to wounding stress. In response to wounding stress, the higher lipoxygenase (LOX activity was observed and malondialdehyde (MDA production was accelerated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX in wounded fruits were significantly higher than those in control. The concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS such as superoxide anion (O2•- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in fruits increased under mechanical wounding. The above results provided a basis for further investigating the mechanism of postharvest banana fruits adapting to environmental stress.

  8. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  9. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  10. Multiparametric methane sensor for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Duk, M.; Kociubiński, A.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Today, methane sensors find applications mostly in safety alarm installations, gas parameters detection and air pollution classification. Such sensors and sensors elements exists for industry and home use. Under development area of methane sensors application is dedicated to ground gases monitoring. Proper monitoring of soil gases requires reliable and maintenance-free semi-constant and longtime examination at relatively low cost of equipment. The sensors for soil monitoring have to work on soil probe. Therefore, sensor is exposed to environment conditions, as a wide range of temperatures and a full scale of humidity changes, as well as rain, snow and wind, that are not specified for classical methane sensors. Development of such sensor is presented in this paper. The presented sensor construction consists of five commercial non dispersive infra-red (NDIR) methane sensing units, a set of temperature and humidity sensing units, a gas chamber equipped with a micro-fan, automated gas valves and also a microcontroller that controls the measuring procedure. The electronics part of sensor was installed into customized 3D printed housing equipped with self-developed gas valves. The main development of proposed sensor is on the side of experimental evaluation of construction reliability and results of data processing included safety procedures and function for hardware error correction. Redundant methane sensor units are used providing measurement error correction as well as improved measurement accuracy. The humidity and temperature sensors are used for internal compensation of methane measurements as well as for cutting-off the sensor from the environment when the conditions exceed allowable parameters. Results obtained during environment sensing prove that the gas concentration readings are not sensitive to gas chamber vertical or horizontal position. It is important as vertical sensor installation on soil probe is simpler that horizontal one. Data acquired during six

  11. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  12. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  13. Evading plant defence: Infestation of poisonous milkweed fruits (Asclepiadaceae) by the fruit fly Dacus siliqualactis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Wunder, Cora; Reuss, Esther; Toennes, Stefan W; Mebs, Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    To cope with toxic metabolites plants use for defence, herbivorous insects employ various adaptive strategies. For oviposition, the fruit fly Dacus siliqualactis (Tephritidae) uses milkweed plants of the genus Gomphocarpus (Asclepiadaceae) by circumventing the plant's physical (gluey latex) and chemical (toxic cadenolides) defence. With its long, telescope-like ovipositor, the fly penetrates the exo- and endocarp of the fruit and places the eggs on the unripe seeds located in the centre of the fruit. Whereas most plant parts contain high concentrations of cardenolides such as gomphoside, calotropin/calacatin and gomphogenin, only the seeds exhibit low cardenolide levels. By surmounting physical barriers (fruit membranes, latex), the fly secures a safe environment and a latex-free food source of low toxicity for the developing larvae. One amino acid substitution (Q111V) at the cardenolide binding site of the fly's Na + , K + -ATPase was detected, but the significance of that substitution: reducing cardenolide sensitivity or not, is unclear. However, poisoning of the larvae by low levels of cardenolides is assumed to be prevented by non-resorption and excretion of the polar cardenolides, which cannot passively permeate the midgut membrane. This example of an insect-plant interaction demonstrates that by morphological and behavioural adaptation, a fruit fly manages to overcome even highly effective defence mechanisms of its host plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphometry, floral resources and efficiency of natural and artificial pollination in fruit quality in cultivars of sour passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Alves Lage

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to provide information on the biology and floral resources, stigmatic receptivity and viability of pollen grains during rainy season and dry season, and to evaluate the efficiency of natural and artificial pollination on quality of fruits of eight passion fruit cultivars sourced in Tangará da Serra - MT. Five commercial cultivars and three populations of the genetic improvement program of the sour passion fruit from the Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso were evaluated. The climatic conditions of the rainy season favored the greater development of the floral pieces. The sugar concentration in the nectar presented higher averages in the rainy season, in all cultivars, except for FB 200. The climatic conditions of the dry season favored the replacement of the nectar volume. All cultivars evaluated presented pollen viability and stigmatic receptivity higher than 79% and 90%, respectively. The characteristics of fruit mass and percentage of pulp were better in artificial pollination, and the fruits obtained from natural and artificial pollination in all cultivars evaluated presented physical and chemical characteristics that are within the quality standards desired in the commercialization.

  15. Polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, C.; Periaswami, G.; Mathews, C.K.; Shankar, P.

    1993-01-01

    A polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor has been developed for measuring hydrogen in argon. Polyvinyl alcohol-phosphoric acid serves as the solid electrolyte for proton conduction. The electrolyte is sandwiched between two palladium films. Short circuit current between the film at room temperature is measured and is found to be linearly dependant on hydrogen concentration in argon to which one side of the film is exposed. The other side is exposed to air. The response time of the sensor is found to be improved on application of a D.C. potential of 200 mV in series. The sensitivity of the sensor is in ppm range. This may be sufficient for monitoring cover gas hydrogen in FBTR. Work is underway to improve the long-term stability of the sensor. (author)

  16. Cadmium contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees and its potential health risk in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.T. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Qiu, J.W. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang, X.W. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhong, Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Lan, C.Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: ls04@zsu.edu.cn; Shu, W.S. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: ls53@zsu.edu.cn

    2006-09-15

    This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents. - Carambola fruit can accumulate high levels of cadmium and may be a health risk for humans.

  17. Cadmium contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees and its potential health risk in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.T.; Qiu, J.W.; Wang, X.W.; Zhong, Y.; Lan, C.Y.; Shu, W.S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents. - Carambola fruit can accumulate high levels of cadmium and may be a health risk for humans

  18. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  19. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  20. Portable equipment for determining ripeness in Hass avocado using a low cost color sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Jessica; Daza, Carolina; Vega, Fabio; Diaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar

    2015-08-01

    The avocado is a one climacteric fruit that not ripe on the tree because it produces a maturation inhibitor that passes the fruit through the pedicel, the ripening occurs naturally during storage or to be induced as required. In post-harvest ripening stage is basically determined by experience of the farmer or buyer. In this word us developed portable equipment for determining ripeness is hass avocado using a low cost sensor color sensor TC3200 and LCD for display result. The prototype read of RGB color frequencies of the sensor and estimates the stage of ripeness in fourth different stages in post-harvest ripening.

  1. Artificial Fruit: Postharvest Online Monitoring of Agricultural Food by Measuring Humidity and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübert, T.; Lang, C.

    2012-09-01

    An online monitoring of environmental and inherent product parameters is required during transportation and storage of fruit and vegetables to avoid quality degradation and spoilage. The control of transpiration losses is suggested as an indicator for fruit freshness by humidity measurements. For that purpose, an electronic sensor is surrounded by a wet porous fiber material which is in contact with the outer atmosphere. Transpiration reduces the water content of the porous material and thus also the internal water activity. The sensor system, known as "artificial fruit," measures the relative humidity and temperature inside the wet material. Humidity and temperature data are collected and transmitted on demand by a miniaturized radio communication unit. The decrease in the measured relative humidity has been calibrated against the mass loss of tomatoes under different external influencing parameters such as temperature, humidity, and air flow. Current battery life allows the sensor system, embedded in a fruit crate, to transmit data on transpiration losses via radio transmission for up to two weeks.

  2. Semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  3. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-07-19

    Recent progress in the development of artificial skin concepts is a result of the increased demand for providing environment perception such as touch and flow sensing to robots, prosthetics and surgical tools. Tactile sensors are the essential components of artificial skins and attracted considerable attention that led to the development of different technologies for mimicking the complex sense of touch in humans. This dissertation work is devoted to the development of a bioinspired tactile sensing technology that imitates the extremely sensitive hair-like cilia receptors found in nature. The artificial cilia are fabricated from permanent magnetic, biocompatible and highly elastic nanocomposite material, and integrated on a giant magneto-impedance magnetic sensor to measure the stray field. A force that bends the cilia changes the stray field and is therefore detected with the magnetic sensor, providing high performance in terms of sensitivity, power consumption and versatility. The nanocomposite is made of Fe nanowires (NWs) incorporated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Fe NWs have a high remanent magnetization, due the shape anisotropy; thus, they are acting as permanent nano-magnets. This allows remote device operation and avoids the need for a magnetic field to magnetize the NWs, benefiting miniaturization and the possible range of applications. The magnetic properties of the nanocomposite can be easily tuned by modifying the NWs concentration or by aligning the NWs to define a magnetic anisotropy. Tactile sensors are realized on flexible and rigid substrates that can detect flow, vertical and shear forces statically and dynamically, with a high resolution and wide operating range. The advantage to operate the sensors in liquids and air has been utilized to measure flows in different fluids in a microfluidic channel. Various dynamic studies were conducted with the tactile sensor demonstrating the detection of moving objects or the texture of objects. Overall

  4. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  5. Image Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Paul; Stefanov, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    An image sensor of the type for providing charge multiplication by impact ionisation has plurality of multiplication elements. Each element is arranged to receive charge from photosensitive elements of an image area and each element comprises a sequence of electrodes to move charge along a transport path. Each of the electrodes has an edge defining a boundary with a first electrode, a maximum width across the charge transport path and a leading edge that defines a boundary with a second elect...

  6. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Fischer, A.

    1995-01-01

    An optical sensor (1) comprising an integrated optical arrangement has a waveguide (4) and at least one defraction grating (5) arranged in this waveguide. Light can launched into the waveguide via the defraction grating. In the reflection area of defraction grating, part of the light is dispersed through the waveguide at the beam angle for which the launch conditions and thus the defraction in the waveguide are fulfilled, so that, at this angle, a dark line (14) occurs whose position is evalu...

  7. Gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Korotchenkov, Gh.; Vieru, T.; Prodan, I.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the gas sensors on base of metal-oxide films (SnO, InO), which may be used for enviromental control, in the fireextinguishing systema etc. The gas includes an insulating substrate, an active layer, a resistive layer with ohmic contacts. The resistive layer has two or more regions with dofferent resistances , and on the active layer are two or more pairs of ohmic contacts

  8. [Research on identification of species of fruit trees by spectral analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dong-Xing; Chang, Qing-Rui

    2009-07-01

    Using the spectral reflectance data (R2) of canopies, the present paper identifies seven species of fruit trees bearing fruit in the fruit mature period. Firstly, it compares the fruit tree species identification capability of six kinds of satellite sensors and four kinds of vegetation index through re-sampling the spectral data with six kinds of pre-defined filter function and the related data processing of calculating vegetation indexes. Then, it structures a BP neural network model for identifying seven species of fruit trees on the basis of choosing the best transformation of R(lambda) and optimizing the model parameters. The main conclusions are: (1) the order of the identification capability of the six kinds of satellite sensors from strong to weak is: MODIS, ASTER, ETM+, HRG, QUICKBIRD and IKONOS; (2) among the four kinds of vegetation indexes, the identification capability of RVI is the most powerful, the next is NDVI, while the identification capability of SAVI or DVI is relatively weak; (3) The identification capability of RVI and NDVI calculated with the reflectance of near-infrared and red channels of ETM+ or MODIS sensor is relatively powerful; (4) Among R(lambda) and its 22 kinds of transformation data, d1 [log(1/R(lambda))](derivative gap is set 9 nm) is the best transformation for structuring BP neural network model; (5) The paper structures a 3-layer BP neural network model for identifying seven species of fruit trees using the best transformation of R(lambda) which is d1 [log(1/R(lambda))](derivative gap is set 9 nm).

  9. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., seeds, pits, and cores: Factor Referred to in Paragraph (d)(2) of This Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5.... Each such fruit ingredient in any such combination is an optional ingredient. (c) The following safe...

  10. Photo-acoustic sensor based on an inexpensive piezoelectric film transducer and an amplitude-stabilized single-mode external cavity diode laser for in vitro measurements of glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail; Erdogan, Yasar Kemal

    2018-06-01

    The present paper focuses on development of a compact photo-acoustic sensor using inexpensive components for glucose analysis. An amplitude-stabilized wavelength-tunable single-mode external cavity diode laser operating around 1050 nm was realized and characterized for the use of laser beam as an excitation light source. In the established setup, a fine tuning range of 9 GHz was achieved. The glucose solution was obtained by diluting D-glucose in sterile water. The acoustic signal generated by the optical excitation was detected via a chip piezoelectric film transducer. A detection limit of 50 mM (900 mg/dl) was achieved. The device may be of great interest for its applications in medicine and health monitoring. The sensor is promising for non-invasive in vivo glucose measurements from interstitial fluid.

  11. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  12. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  13. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  14. Uptake and translocation of zinc absorbed through roots and fruiting organs in peanuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahal, R.S.; Singh, S.P.; Shukla, U.C.

    1979-01-01

    Peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L.) are known to absorb Ca, P and S through the fruiting organs but information on Zn uptake pattern is lacking. Therefore, a green-house experiment was conducted to study the uptake and translocation of Zn when applied in the rooting and fruiting zones of peanut plants. To locate the pathway and distribution of radioactive Zn, autoradiographs of plants were also taken. Zinc uptake data and autoradiographs indicated that a substantial amount of 65 Zn was absorbed through the fruiting organs (auxillary system). Of the total 65 Zn in the whole plant, 55.2 per cent was absorbed through roots and remaining 44.8 per cent through fruiting organs. Zinc was translocated to all the plant parts regardless of its absorption through roots or fruiting organs. The highest zinc concentration was recorded in the kernels, followed by leaves, stem and the shell. (Auth.)

  15. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  16. Modeling the vacuolar storage of malate shed lights on pre- and post-harvest fruit acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Lobit, Philippe; Bugaud, Christophe

    2014-11-18

    Malate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. Several studies suggest that malate accumulation in fruit cells is controlled at the level of vacuolar storage. However, the regulation of vacuolar malate storage throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the malate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we adapted the mechanistic model of vacuolar storage proposed by Lobit et al. in order to study the accumulation of malate in pre and postharvest fruits. The main adaptation concerned the variation of the free energy of ATP hydrolysis during fruit development. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having separate growth and post-harvest ripening stages, during which malate concentration undergoes substantial changes. Moreover, the concentration of malate in banana pulp varies greatly among cultivars which make possible to use the model as a tool to analyze the genotypic variability. The model was calibrated and validated using data sets from three cultivars with contrasting malate accumulation, grown under different fruit loads and potassium supplies, and harvested at different stages. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of malate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars (mean RRMSE = 0.25-0.42). The sensitivity of the model to parameters and input variables was analyzed. According to the model, vacuolar composition, in particular potassium and organic acid concentrations, had an important effect on malate accumulation. The model suggested that rising temperatures depressed malate accumulation. The model also helped distinguish differences in malate concentration among the three cultivars and between the pre and post-harvest stages by highlighting the probable importance of proton pump activity and particularly of the free

  17. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy based MEMS sensors for phthalates detection in water and juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Asif I; Syaifudin, A R Mohd; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Yu, P L; Al-Bahadly, I H; Gooneratne, Chinthaka P; Kosel, Juergen; Liao, Tai-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental and food pollutants well known as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These developmental and reproductive toxicants pose a grave risk to the human health due to their unlimited use in consumer plastic industry. Detection of phthalates is strictly laboratory based time consuming and expensive process and requires expertise of highly qualified and skilled professionals. We present a real time, non-invasive, label free rapid detection technique to quantify phthalates' presence in deionized water and fruit juices. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique applied to a novel planar inter-digital (ID) capacitive sensor plays a vital role to explore the presence of phthalate esters in bulk fluid media. The ID sensor with multiple sensing gold electrodes was fabricated on silicon substrate using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device fabrication technology. A thin film of parylene C polymer was coated as a passivation layer to enhance the capacitive sensing capabilities of the sensor and to reduce the magnitude of Faradic current flowing through the sensor. Various concentrations, 0.002ppm through to 2ppm of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in deionized water, were exposed to the sensing system by dip testing method. Impedance spectra obtained was analysed to determine sample conductance which led to consequent evaluation of its dielectric properties. Electro-chemical impedance spectrum analyser algorithm was employed to model the experimentally obtained impedance spectra. Curve fitting technique was applied to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit based on Randle's equivalent circuit model. The sensing system was tested to detect different concentrations of DEHP in orange juice as a real world application. The result analysis indicated that our rapid testing technique is able to detect the presence of DEHP in all test samples distinctively.

  18. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy based MEMS sensors for phthalates detection in water and juices

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I

    2013-06-10

    Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental and food pollutants well known as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These developmental and reproductive toxicants pose a grave risk to the human health due to their unlimited use in consumer plastic industry. Detection of phthalates is strictly laboratory based time consuming and expensive process and requires expertise of highly qualified and skilled professionals. We present a real time, non-invasive, label free rapid detection technique to quantify phthalates\\' presence in deionized water and fruit juices. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique applied to a novel planar inter-digital (ID) capacitive sensor plays a vital role to explore the presence of phthalate esters in bulk fluid media. The ID sensor with multiple sensing gold electrodes was fabricated on silicon substrate using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device fabrication technology. A thin film of parylene C polymer was coated as a passivation layer to enhance the capacitive sensing capabilities of the sensor and to reduce the magnitude of Faradic current flowing through the sensor. Various concentrations, 0.002ppm through to 2ppm of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in deionized water, were exposed to the sensing system by dip testing method. Impedance spectra obtained was analysed to determine sample conductance which led to consequent evaluation of its dielectric properties. Electro-chemical impedance spectrum analyser algorithm was employed to model the experimentally obtained impedance spectra. Curve fitting technique was applied to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit based on Randle\\'s equivalent circuit model. The sensing system was tested to detect different concentrations of DEHP in orange juice as a real world application. The result analysis indicated that our rapid testing technique is able to detect the presence of DEHP in all test samples distinctively.

  19. Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... heterosis; LSD, least significant difference; CV, co-variance. ... The North West Frontier Province of the country .... Mean squares for flowers per cluster, fruits per cluster, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight and yield per plant.

  20. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  1. Radiation processing of foods: fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Post-harvest irradiation of fruits and vegetables improves their shelf-life by: (1) delaying ripening and senescence of fruits, (2) controlling fungal diseases, (3) inhibiting sprouting, and (4) disinfestation. Nutritional and quality aspects of irradiated fruits and vegetables are discussed. Commercial prospects are briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  2. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  3. Fruit Wines Inhibitory Activity Against α-Glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Uros; Grozdanic, Nada; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Pejin, Boris; Nastasijevic, Branislav; Markovic, Bojan; Dordevic, Brizita

    2017-01-01

    Fruit wines are well known for their profound health-promoting properties including both enzyme activations and inhibitions. They may act preventive in regard to diabetes melitus and other chronic diseases. Potential α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of fruit wines made from blueberry, black chokeberry, blackberry, raspberry and sour cherry was the subject of this study. In order to increase the alcohol content due to enriched extraction of total phenolics, sugar was added in the fruit pomace of the half of the examined fruit wine samples. Compared with acarbose used as a positive control (IC50 = 73.78 µg/mL), all fruit wine samples exhibited higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Indeed, blueberry wine samples stood out, both prepared with IC50 = 24.14 µg/mL, lyophilised extract yield 3.23% and without IC50 = 46.39 µg/mL, lyophilised extract yield 2.89% and with addition of sugar before fermentation. Chlorogenic acid predominantly contributed to α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the blueberry, black chokeberry and sour cherry wine samples. However, ellagic acid, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor possessing a planar structure, only slightly affected the activity of the blueberry wine samples, due to the lower concentration. In addition to this, molecular docking study of chlorogenic acid pointed out the importance of binding energy (-8.5 kcal/mol) for the inhibition of the enzyme. In summary, fruit wines made from blueberry should be primarily taken into consideration as a medicinal food targeting diabetes mellitus type 2 in the early stage, if additional studies would confirm their therapeutic potential for the control of postprandial hyperglycemia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Study of diffusion processes in pumpkin particles during candied fruits production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Atamanyuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of candied fruits is a priority development area of the food industry. The basic process in candied fruits production is diffusion of sugar syrup into vegetable raw material. Kinetics of the diffusion processes depends on sucrose concentration, medium temperature, particles size and internal structure of the fruits.The experiments to determine the factors influencing the diffusion processes were carried out using the installation designed by the authors; the experimental dependences of sucrose concentration change in pumpkin candied fruits on time have been determined at temperatures of 20, 40, 60 and 80°C. Cell sizes and diameter of pores between the cells in raw and blanched pumpkin have been determined. This makes it possible to determine the internal porosity of the pumpkin particle, the value of which determines the coefficient of mass transfer.On the basis of the experiments we derived the dependence, allowing to determine the mass transfer coefficients for sucrose molecules in blanched pumpkin fruits within the temperatures corresponding to the quality of the finished product. The experimental studies and the chosen mathematical model allow us to calculate the change in sucrose concentration in the pumpkin fruits in time at different temperatures and to determine the time required for the candied fruits to reach the equilibrium concentration. Also, the coefficients not depending on temperature, but depending only on the shape of the particles being saturated with sugar syrup, have been determined using the kinetic model of diffusion processes. The obtained theoretical dependences are in good agreement with the experimental data and substantiate the expediency of the chosen temperature and concentration ranges. The designed installation, the obtained experimental and theoretical dependences, and the calculated coefficients allow to create an intensive sucrose diffusion process in pumpkin particles during pumpkin candied

  5. Ethylene independent induction of lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruits by jasmonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jia; Wang, Qiaomei

    2012-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is a massive accumulation of carotenoids (mainly lycopene), which may contribute to the nutrient quality of tomato fruit and its role in chemoprevention. Previous studies have shown that ethylene (ET) plays a central role in promoting fruit ripening. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) in controlling lycopene accumulation in tomato fruits was analysed by measuring fruit lycopene content and the expression levels of lycopene biosynthetic genes in JA-deficient mutants (spr2 and def1) and a 35S::prosystemin transgenic line (35S::prosys) with increased JA levels and constitutive JA signalling. The lycopene content was significantly decreased in the fruits of spr2 and def1, but was enhanced in 35S::prosys fruits. Simultaneously, the expression of lycopene biosynthetic genes followed a similar trend. Lycopene synthesis in methyl jasmonate (MeJA) vapour-treated fruits showed an inverted U-shaped dose response, which significantly enhanced the fruit lycopene content and restored lycopene accumulation in spr2 and def1 at a concentration of 0.5 µM. The results indicated that JA plays a positive role in lycopene biosynthesis. In addition, the role of ET in JA-induced lycopene accumulation was also examined. Ethylene production in tomato fruits was depressed in spr2 and def1 while it increased in 35S::prosys. However, the exogenous application of MeJA to Never ripe (Nr), the ET-insensitive mutant, significantly promoted lycopene accumulation, as well as the expression of lycopene biosynthetic genes. Based on these results, it is proposed that JA might function independently of ethylene to promote lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruits. PMID:22945939

  6. Effects of silicon on the growth and genetic stability of passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Nogueira Souza Costa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the silicon concentration that would provide good growth in passion fruit plants. Passion fruit seeds were sown in polystyrene. After 60 days, when they were approximately 15 cm tall, the plants were transplanted into polyethylene pots containing 1.1 kg Tropstrato® substrate. Treatments consisted of four concentrations (0, 0.28, 0.55, and 0.83 g pot-1 of silicon applied as a silicic acid solution 1%. This solution was applied around the stem of the plants (drenched, with the first application being administered 15 days after transplanting. In total, three applications were made at intervals of 15 days. After the last application, the plants were subjected to chemical analysis to determine the silicon concentration and to X-ray microanalysis and flow cytometry. Phytotechnical analyses were performed during the applications. The use of silicon in concentrations of 0.28 and 0.55 g pot-1 provides better growth of the passion fruit, and the absorption and deposition of the silicon in the passion fruit leaves are proportional to the availability of this element in the plant. The roots of the passion fruit plant are silicon accumulators, and the DNA stability and amount are preserved in the silicon-treated passion fruit plants.

  7. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controlled intervention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souverein, Olga W; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Freese, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    concentrations. Furthermore, a prediction model of fruit and vegetable intake based on these biomarkers and subject characteristics (i.e. age, sex, BMI and smoking status) was established. Data from twelve diet-controlled intervention studies were obtained to develop a prediction model for fruit and vegetable...

  8. Injuries caused to fruit trees by fluorine containing gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovay, E

    1958-01-01

    Determinations of chlorine and fluorine have been made on leaves of various fruit trees growing in the vicinity of two factories, the first one being an aluminium factory and the second one a soda factory. The gases released by the first factory are of the fluorine type and those of the second one of the chlorine type. While the concentrations of fluorine are generally higher than 10 mg per 100 g of leaf dry matter, they hardly reached 2.5 mg% in 1957; the aluminium factory was not in operation that year. Moreover no symptoms of burns were observed in 1957 on the leaves of the fruit trees. In contrast to fluorine, the concentrations of chlorine remained constant.

  9. Quantitative Ethylene Measurements with MOx Chemiresistive Sensors at Different Relative Air Humidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Krivec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of two commercial metal oxide (MOx sensors to ethylene is tested at different relative humidities. One sensor (MiCS-5914 is based on tungsten oxide, the other (MQ-3 on tin oxide. Both sensors were found to be sensitive to ethylene concentrations down to 10 ppm. Both sensors have significant response times; however, the tungsten sensor is the faster one. Sensor models are developed that predict the concentration of ethylene given the sensor output and the relative humidity. The MQ-3 sensor model achieves an accuracy of ±9.2 ppm and the MiCS-5914 sensor model predicts concentration to ±7.0 ppm. Both sensors are more accurate for concentrations below 50 ppm, achieving ±6.7 ppm (MQ-3 and 5.7 ppm (MiCS-5914.

  10. Mediterranean fruit fly on Mimusops zeyheri indigenous to South Africa: a threat to the horticulture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Zakheleni P; Mashela, Phatu W; Mathabatha, Raesibe V

    2016-08-01

    Claims abound that the Transvaal red milkwood, Mimusops zeyheri, indigenous to areas with tropical and subtropical commercial fruit trees and fruiting vegetables in South Africa, is relatively pest free owing to its copious concentrations of latex in the above-ground organs. On account of observed fruit fly damage symptoms, a study was conducted to determine whether M. zeyheri was a host to the notorious quarantined Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Fruit samples were kept for 16-21 days in plastic pots containing moist steam-pasteurised growing medium with tops covered with a mesh sheath capable of retaining emerging flies. Microscopic diagnosis of the trapped flies suggested that the morphological characteristics were congruent with those of C. capitata, which was confirmed through cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequence alignment with a 100% bootstrap value and 99% confidence probability when compared with those from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database. This study demonstrated that M. zeyheri is a host of C. capitata. Therefore, C. capitata from infestation reservoirs of M. zeyheri fruit trees could be a major threat to the tropical and subtropical fruit industries in South Africa owing to the fruit-bearing nature of the new host. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Rehydration properties of hybrid method dried fruit enriched by natural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Hanna; Marzec, Agata; Kowalska, Jolanta; Ciurzyńska, Agnieszka; Samborska, Kinga; Bialik, Michał; Lenart, Andrzej

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of osmotic pre-dehydration and drying of fruit on the rehydration properties of dried fruit. Herein, the effect of fruit juice, applied as a natural enriching substance was very important. In addition, the properties of dried fruits obtained through combined air-drying and subsequent microwave-vacuum drying with `puffing' effect were similar to the freeze-dried fruits, but showed other rehydration properties. As raw material, frozen strawberry (Honeoye variety) and fresh apples (Idared variety) were used in the study. The apples and partially defrosted strawberries were prior dehydrated in solutions of sucrose and a mixture of sucrose with chokeberry juice concentrate at 50°C for 2 h. Next, the fruit samples were dried by one of two ways: air-drying (50°C, 5 h) and microwavevacuum drying for about 360 s; and freeze-drying (30°C, 63 Pa, 24 h). The rehydration was carried out in distilled water (20°C, 5 h). The osmotic pre-dehydration hindered fruit drying process. The impact of drying method became particularly evident while examining the kinetics of rehydration. During the rehydration of the pre-dehydrated dried fruit a slower hydration could be observed. Freeze-dried strawberries absorbed 2-3 times more water than those dried by the `puffing' effect.

  12. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the l...

  13. Chemical and Biological Studies on Cumin Fruits Irradiated by GAMMA Rays for Conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSANEIN, R.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 10 and 15 KGy) and different storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months) in different package materials (cotton or polyethylene bags) on essential oil quality and chemical composition of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) fruits. On the other hand antimicrobial activity of treated cumin fruits essential oil and its extracts at 0, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 40000 ppm were investigated. Results showed that the highest essential oil % was obtained from fruits stored for 3 months in cotton bag without gamma irradiation. Concerning the effect of essential oil as antimicrobial agent, the highest antibacterial activity was obtained by essential oil isolated from irradiated polyethylene packed fruits at 5 KGy then stored for 3 months (Staphylococcus aureus) or irradiated polyethylene packed ones at 15 KGy without storage (Salmonella typhimurium). On the other hand, the highest antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum was obtained by essential oil isolated from unirradiated packed in polyethylene fruits then stored for 6 months. Non-stored packed in cotton bag fruits irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KGy produced essential oil with highest antiyeastal activity. Cumin fruits extract at 40000 ppm when combined with different treatments presented the highest antimicrobial activity (represents as inhibition zone) against all studied microbes except with P. digitatum. Cumin extract at 40000 ppm when extracted from irradiated packed fruits in polyethylene bags with gamma rays at 5 KGy without storage or with 6 months storage or irradiated at 15 KGy of packed fruits in cotton bag with storage for 3 months presented the highest significant inhibition zones against S. aureus. The same concentration of extracted cumin from uni radiated packed in cotton bag fruits and storage for 6 months presented the highest inhibition zone of S. typhimurium. Also, with the same concentration

  14. Intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1978-07-01

    Intrusion detection sensors are an integral part of most physical security systems. Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security, Sandia Laboratories has conducted a survey of available intrusion detection sensors and has tested a number of different sensors. An overview of these sensors is provided. This overview includes (1) the operating principles of each type of sensor, (2) unique sensor characteristics, (3) desired sensor improvements which must be considered in planning an intrusion detection system, and (4) the site characteristics which affect the performance of both exterior and interior sensors. Techniques which have been developed to evaluate various intrusion detection sensors are also discussed

  15. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  16. Effect of irradiation with black light fluorescent lamp on coloration and hardness of strawberry [Fragaria ananassa] fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashio, H.; Hirono, H.; Sato, F.; Tokuda, S.; Uragami, A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of irradiation by black light fluorescent lamp on the coloration and hardness of detached strawberry fruits was studied. Only the coloring of fruits (var. Toyonoka) that had started to pigment was accelerated by lamp irradiation. Maintaining the irradiation distance and ambient temperature after treatment was very important to obtain the maximum effect, and the action of lamps was restricted to the irradiated parts. The accelerating effect of a lamp on coloration was observed in all 3 of other varieties examined, and in some varieties, the level of anthocyanin concentration in fruits was greater than that in ripening stage. However, the lamp did not affect the hardness of fruits

  17. Carbon nanotube-based ethanol sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahim, Sean; Colbern, Steve; Gump, Robert; Moser, Alex; Grigorian, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Sensors containing metal-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid materials as the active sensing layer were demonstrated for ethanol vapor detection at room temperature. The metal-CNT hybrid materials were synthesized by infiltrating single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with the transition metals Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pd or Pt. Each sensor was prepared by drop-casting dilute dispersions of a metal-CNT hybrid onto quartz substrate electrodes and the impedimetric responses to varying ethanol concentration were recorded. Upon exposure to ethanol vapor, the ac impedance (Z') of the sensors was found to decrease to different extents. The sensor containing pristine CNT material was virtually non-responsive at low ethanol concentrations (<50 ppm). In contrast, all metal-CNT hybrid sensors showed extremely high sensitivity to trace ethanol levels with 100-fold or more gains in sensitivity relative to the starting SWNT sensor. All hybrid sensors, with the exception of Ni filled CNT, exhibited significantly larger sensor responses to ethanol vapor up to 250 ppm compared to the starting SWNT sensor.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of olive fruits (Olea Europaea L. ), and its oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bashir, M.

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on accelerating the debittering steps of olive fruits, oil extractability and the quality of extracted oil. Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 669 Gy/hr., a part of these fruits was debittered in distilled water, the second was processed with NaOH (3.6% concentration) for 3 or 6 hr. Both treated fruits with a control part were kept in brine (5.6% sodium chloride) and stored for 12 months at room temperature. Portions of all these treated fruits were subjected to oil extraction by mechanical means immediately after treatment. During the debittering period (8 days) the total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and ph values were determined in wastewater (daily), whereas the peroxide value, iodine number and the total acidity were measured in the extracted oil. The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, a and K in wastewater. The most significant effect was noticed when irradiated fruits were processed with NaOH for 3 hrs. as indicated by the values of total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K concentration in wastewater. All used doses of gamma radiation, increased the extractability of the oil from the treated fruits, the total acidity and the peroxide value of that oil. (Author)

  19. Modelling the transfer of radionuclides to fruit. Report of the Fruits Working Group of BIOMASS Theme 3. Part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    studies have also been discussed during the biannual meetings of the Group. These findings, as well as results from those experimental studies reported directly to the Group and key interactions reported in the literature, are reported below. Radionuclides reach fruit by three principal routes: (i) deposition to soil, vertical migration in soil, root uptake, migration to the fruit (and other plant parts); and/or (ii) deposition to exposed plant surfaces, translocation to plant interior, migration to the fruit (and other plant parts); and/or (iii) deposition to exposed fruit surfaces. The relative significance of each pathway depends upon the season during which contamination occurs, upon the stage of plant development and upon how this development is affected by climatic, edaphic and management factors. Root uptake followed by migration to the fruit is represented in literature by the soil to plant Transfer Factor (TF), a parameter that relates radionuclide concentration in fruit to that in the soil. A collection of data on TFs for fruit crops provides ranges for caesium, strontium, plutonium and americium. The variability in TF for a given radionuclide is mainly ascribable to differences in soil properties, rather than differences between fruit species. TF values for caesium are the most variable and cover six orders of magnitude. Concentration in the fruit varies both as the fruit develops and according to the time of contamination relative to production of the fruit. For caesium, complex patterns in concentration may be observed during a growing season as a result of the combination of rate of transfer to the fruit, rate of biomass production of the fruit, and degree of water content. Fruit storage before consumption as well as industrial or domestic processing may reduce the activity concentration in the foodstuff that is actually consumed, with implications for assessments of doses from releases of radionuclides to the environment

  20. Modelling the transfer of radionuclides to fruit. Report of the Fruits Working Group of BIOMASS Theme 3. Part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    radioecologists. Results on current experimental studies have also been discussed during the biannual meetings of the Group. These findings, as well as results from those experimental studies reported directly to the Group and key interactions reported in the literature, are reported below. Radionuclides reach fruit by three principal routes: (i) deposition to soil, vertical migration in soil, root uptake, migration to the fruit (and other plant parts); and/or (ii) deposition to exposed plant surfaces, translocation to plant interior, migration to the fruit (and other plant parts); and/or (iii) deposition to exposed fruit surfaces. The relative significance of each pathway depends upon the season during which contamination occurs, upon the stage of plant development and upon how this development is affected by climatic, edaphic and management factors. Root uptake followed by migration to the fruit is represented in literature by the soil to plant Transfer Factor (TF), a parameter that relates radionuclide concentration in fruit to that in the soil. A collection of data on TFs for fruit crops provides ranges for caesium, strontium, plutonium and americium. The variability in TF for a given radionuclide is mainly ascribable to differences in soil properties, rather than differences between fruit species. TF values for caesium are the most variable and cover six orders of magnitude. Concentration in the fruit varies both as the fruit develops and according to the time of contamination relative to production of the fruit. For caesium, complex patterns in concentration may be observed during a growing season as a result of the combination of rate of transfer to the fruit, rate of biomass production of the fruit, and degree of water content. Fruit storage before consumption as well as industrial or domestic processing may reduce the activity concentration in the foodstuff that is actually consumed, with implications for assessments of doses from releases of radionuclides to the

  1. Inhibition of α-glucosidase by polysaccharides from the fruit hull of Camellia oleifera Abel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Xiang-Zhou

    2015-01-22

    We isolated and purified polysaccharides from the Camellia oleifera Abel. fruit hull and studied its hypoglycemic potential. Our results revealed six polysaccharides (CFPA-1-5 & CFPB) from the aqueous extract from the defatted C. oleifera fruit hull. Purified polysaccharides (purity >90%) were investigated for the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro. Two polysaccharides, CFPB and CFPA-3 were present in high concentration in the fruit hull and showed a dose-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 concentrations of 11.80 and 10.95 μg/mL, respectively. This result suggests that polysaccharides (CFP) extracted from the fruit hull of C. oleifera may have potential as functional foods with featuring a hypoglycemic effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Uranium estimation in toothpastes and fruit juices using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    A fission track analysis has been used to estimate the uranium concentration in some toothpastes manufactured in India and fruit juices derived from the fruits available in the local market of Amritsar. The uranium content in these toothpastes has been found to vary from 0.91 to 3.56 ppm. The uranium content in fruit juices has been found to vary from 0.25 to 1.69 ppb. The present investigations have been carried out with an aim to estimate the level of U content in these materials for the studies of radiation health hazards. (author)

  3. Acute kidney injury associated with ingestion of star fruit: Acute oxalate nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, A K; Goel, R; Sharma, M; Mahanta, P J

    2016-01-01

    Starfruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) and its juice are popular in the Indian subcontinent as an indigenous medicine. Oxalate concentration in this fruit and it's freshly prepared juice is very high. We present a report of patients presenting with acute kidney injury due to oxalate nephropathy admitted in a single center. All patients had history of ingesting star fruit. Patients became symptomatic after 10-12 h of eating and main symptoms were pain abdomen and decrease in urine output. Three patients needed hemodialysis. All improved with complete renal recovery. Taking star fruit in large amount on an empty stomach and in a dehydrated state is a risk factor for nephrotoxicity.

  4. Alcohol Control: Mobile Sensor System and Numerical Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf SEIFERT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An innovative mobile sensor system for alcohol control in the respiratory air is introduced. The gas sensor included in the sensor system is thermo-cyclically operated. Ethanol is the leading component in this context. However, other components occur in the breathing air which can influence the concentration determination of ethanol. Therefore, mono- ethanol samples and binary gas mixtures are measured by the sensor system and analyzed with a new calibration and evaluation procedure which is also incorporated in the system. The applications demonstrate a good substance identification capability of the sensor system and a very good concentration determination of the components.

  5. Determining the confidence levels of sensor outputs using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broten, G S; Wood, H C [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an approach for determining the confidence level of a sensor output using multi-sensor arrays, sensor fusion and artificial neural networks. The authors have shown in previous work that sensor fusion and artificial neural networks can be used to learn the relationships between the outputs of an array of simulated partially selective sensors and the individual analyte concentrations in a mixture of analyses. Other researchers have shown that an array of partially selective sensors can be used to determine the individual gas concentrations in a gaseous mixture. The research reported in this paper shows that it is possible to extract confidence level information from an array of partially selective sensors using artificial neural networks. The confidence level of a sensor output is defined as a numeric value, ranging from 0% to 100%, that indicates the confidence associated with a output of a given sensor. A three layer back-propagation neural network was trained on a subset of the sensor confidence level space, and was tested for its ability to generalize, where the confidence level space is defined as all possible deviations from the correct sensor output. A learning rate of 0.1 was used and no momentum terms were used in the neural network. This research has shown that an artificial neural network can accurately estimate the confidence level of individual sensors in an array of partially selective sensors. This research has also shown that the neural network`s ability to determine the confidence level is influenced by the complexity of the sensor`s response and that the neural network is able to estimate the confidence levels even if more than one sensor is in error. The fundamentals behind this research could be applied to other configurations besides arrays of partially selective sensors, such as an array of sensors separated spatially. An example of such a configuration could be an array of temperature sensors in a tank that is not in

  6. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  7. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  8. Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening is considered to be the main process in fruit development, and all studies had been focused on this process which included physicochemical, biochemical, and molecular analysis. With the development of genomic analysis the strategies to study fruit ripening have been changing and now there are new perspectives and opportunities. The objective of this review is to describe the state of the art in the studies related to fruit ripening with emphasis in molecular studies.

  9. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1987-01-01

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  10. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  11. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  12. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik

    2000-07-01

    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  13. A study of the distribution and uptake of boron in mango fruits using neutron-capture-radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, G.; Jimenez, R.; Gallardo, M.; Martini, F.; Thellier, M.

    1992-01-01

    The method of neutron-capture-radiography (NCR) was used to study the distribution of boron in mango fruit. There was a regular decrease of the concentration of natural boron from the skin (83.9 ppm, dry weight) to the interior of the fruit (2.4 ppm, dry weight, 5.6 mm deep in the fruit). When drops of a solution of ( 10 B)BO 3 H 3 were placed on the fruit surface, boron accumulated in restricted zones, within the fruit skin, which apparently corresponded to skin secretory-glands. The apparent coefficient of diffusion of boric acid from these zones of high boron accumulation to the interior of the fruit was of the order of 1.6 x 10 -12 m 2 s -1

  14. A Sentinel Sensor Network for Hydrogen Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Mason

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network is presented for in-situ monitoring of atmospheric hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen sensor network consists of multiple sensor nodes, equipped with titania nanotube hydrogen sensors, distributed throughout the area of interest; each node is both sensor, and data-relay station that enables extended wide area monitoring without a consequent increase of node power and thus node size. The hydrogen sensor is fabricated from a sheet of highly ordered titania nanotubes, made by anodization of a titanium thick film, to which platinum electrodes are connected. The electrical resistance of the hydrogen sensor varies from 245 Ω at 500 ppm hydrogen, to 10.23 kΩ at 0 ppm hydrogen (pure nitrogen environment. The measured resistance is converted to voltage, 0.049 V at 500 ppm to 2.046 V at 0 ppm, by interface circuitry. The microcontroller of the sensor node digitizes the voltage and transmits the digital information, using intermediate nodes as relays, to a host node that downloads measurement data to a computer for display. This paper describes the design and operation of the sensor network, the titania nanotube hydrogen sensors with an apparent low level resolution of approximately 0.05 ppm, and their integration in one widely useful device.

  15. Managing Sustainability in Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, N.; Van Passel, S.; Zwiekhorst, W.

    2012-01-01

    As fruit growers are faced with a growing need for sustainable development, it is important to integrate sustainability into their management processes. This research applies and evaluates a self-analysis tool for entrepreneurs called the ‘sustainability scan’. The scan identifies 23 sustainability themes, divided according to the 3P-framework (People, Planet and Profit). In the scan, it is assumed that the management of these themes is at the core of sustainable entrepren...

  16. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  17. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  18. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  19. Radiation disinfestation of dry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Sattar, A.; Wahid, M.; Jan, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dry fruits such as apricots, dates, figs, and raisins were irradiated in a Gamma Cell 220 (dose rate 0.04 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 kGy, and the samples were stored at room temperatures (25 to 40 0 C) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Insect infestation and the changes in acidity, discoloration, ascorbic acid, and sugars were determined after 2,4,6,8,10, and 12 months. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited infestation throughout the storage, while infestation in 0.50 and 0.25 kGy samples increased with storage time between 2 and 10 months. It was 100 percent in all fruits except raisins (60 percent) after 12 months. Tribolium species were predominant in all of the samples followed by the Caudra and Corcyra species. Discoloration increased, acidity and ascorbic acid contents decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and sugars were little affected during the entire storage. Radiation doses had insignificant influence on these nutrients except for the ascorbic acid, which was adversely affected, especially at higher doses (P < 0.05). Results of sensory evaluation of dried fruits showed 1.00 kGy treated samples rated as highest, 0.25 and 0.50 kGy as intermediates, and the control as lowest during different storage intervals

  20. Organic Thin-Film Transistor (OTFT-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elkington

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic thin film transistors have been a popular research topic in recent decades and have found applications from flexible displays to disposable sensors. In this review, we present an overview of some notable articles reporting sensing applications for organic transistors with a focus on the most recent publications. In particular, we concentrate on three main types of organic transistor-based sensors: biosensors, pressure sensors and “e-nose”/vapour sensors.