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Sample records for fruit pericarp extract

  1. Enhanced antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of longan fruit pericarp by ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Shi, John; Yu, Chunyan; Zhao, Mouming; Xue, Sophia; Jiang, Yueming

    2010-01-20

    The health benefits of fruits acting against chronic diseases are ascribed to their antioxidant activities which are mainly responsible due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The use of ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction (UHPE) has shown great advantages for the extraction of these phenolic compounds from longan fruit pericarp (LFP). Studies were carried out to investigate the effects of UHPE at pressures of 200, 300, 400 and 500 MPa on total phenolic contents, extraction yield, antioxidant and antityrosinase activities from LFP. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were analyzed, using various antioxidant models like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. Extract from ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction at 500MPa (UHPE-500) showed the highest antioxidant activities of all the tested models. In addition, it also showed moderate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Three phenolic acids, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, and corilagin were identified and quantified by HPLC. Corilagin content was the highest compared to other phenolic acids identified. UHPE-500 obtained the higher phenolic acid contents compared to other high pressure processing and conventional extractions (CE). Compared with CE, UHPE-500 exhibited good extraction effectiveness in terms of higher extraction yields with high phenolic contents and also with higher antioxidant and antityrosinase activities.

  2. Cathecins in ethanolic extracts of Garcinia mangostana fruit pericarp and anti-inflammatory effect in atherosclerotic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochmad Romdoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was aimed to determine whether the ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen fruit pericarp (EEMP changes several markers of inflammation, such as nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB p65/p50 distribution, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels, and nitric oxide (NO in the atherosclerotic rats model. Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 each, including standard diet (control group, hypercholesterolemic diet (HD group, HD + EEMP at dose of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight (BW. Analysis of NF-κB p65/p50 distribution was done by imunnohistochemistry method. The levels of TNF-α and NO were measured by ELISA. Results: High cholesterol diet significantly increased NF-κB p65/p50 distribution, TNF-α levels and NO levels compared with control group. The levels of NF-κB p65/p50 distribution was significantly decreased in EEGM-treated group at doses 200 and 800 mg/kg BW than that in atherosclerosis group. The levels of NO and TNF-α were significantly decreased in EEGM-treated group at all doses compared to atherosclerosis group, but did not reach levels at standard diet. Conclusions: The present data suggests that EEMP inhibits inflammation in atherosclerotic rats due to inhibition of distribution NF-κB p65/p50 into the nucleus and decreases TNF-α and NO levels. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 137-140

  3. Comparison of ripening processes in intact tomato fruit and excised pericarp discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A D; Huysamer, M; Stotz, H U; Greve, L C; Labavitch, J M

    1990-12-01

    Physiological processes characteristic of ripening in tissues of intact tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were examined in excised pericarp discs. Pericarp discs were prepared from mature-green tomato fruit and stored in 24-well culture plates, in which individual discs could be monitored for color change, ethylene biosynthesis, and respiration, and selected for cell wall analysis. Within the context of these preparation and handling procedures, most whole fruit ripening processes were maintained in pericarp discs. Pericarp discs and matched intact fruit passed through the same skin color stages at similar rates, as expressed in the L(*)a(*)b(*) color space, changing from green (a(*) red (a(*) > 15) in about 6 days. Individual tissues of the pericarp discs changed color in the same sequence seen in intact fruit (exocarp, endocarp, then vascular parenchyma). Discs from different areas changed in the same spatial sequence seen in intact fruit (bottom, middle, top). Pericarp discs exhibited climacteric increases in ethylene biosynthesis and CO(2) production comparable with those seen in intact fruit, but these were more tightly linked to rate of color change, reaching a peak around a(*) = 5. Tomato pericarp discs decreased in firmness as color changed. Cell wall carbohydrate composition changed with color as in intact fruit: the quantity of water-soluble pectin eluted from the starch-free alcohol insoluble substances steadily increased and more tightly bound, water-insoluble, pectin decreased in inverse relationship. The cell wall content of the neutral sugars arabinose, rhamnose, and galactose steadily decreased as color changed. The extractable activity of specific cell wall hydrolases changed as in intact fruit: polygalacturonase activity, not detectable in green discs (a(*) = -5), appeared as discs turned yellow-red (a(*) = 5), and increased another eight-fold as discs became full red (a(*) value +20). Carboxymethyl-cellulase activity, low in extracts

  4. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Decontamination of the Pericarps of Fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perni, Stefano; Liu, David W; Shama, Gilbert; Kong, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    .... The operating voltage necessary for efficient microbial decontamination of fruit pericarps was first established using Escherichia coli at a concentration of 107 CFU/cm2 on the surface of mango...

  5. Cold atmospheric plasma decontamination of the pericarps of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Stefano; Liu, David W; Shama, Gilbert; Kong, Michael G

    2008-02-01

    This investigation describes the inactivation by cold atmospheric plasmas of one pathogenic and three spoilage organisms on the pericarps of mangoes and melons. The operating voltage necessary for efficient microbial decontamination of fruit pericarps was first established using Escherichia coli at a concentration of 10(7) CFU/cm2 on the surface of mango. It was found that, when the plasma was sustained slightly above its breakdown voltage of 12 kV (peak to peak), no inactivation was detected when cells were plated onto tryptone soya extract agar (TSA). However, when plated onto eosin methylene blue agar, sublethal injury corresponding to approximately 1 log reduction was achieved, whereas on TSA supplemented with 4% NaCl a greater reduction of 1.5 log was revealed. When the voltage was increased by 33% to 16 kV, a reduction in cell counts of 3 log was achieved on all three plating media. Further investigations at these new operating conditions were conducted using a range of spoilage microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens) all at a surface concentration of 106 CFU/cm2 on the pericarps of mango and melon. P. agglomerans and G. liquefaciens were reduced below the detection limit (corresponding to 3 log) after only 2.5 s on both fruits, whereas E. coli required 5 s to reach the same level of inactivation. S. cerevisae was the most resistant organism studied and was reduced in numbers below the detection limit after 10 s on mango and 30 s on melon. The optical emission spectra generated by the cold atmospheric plasma at both high and low operating voltages were compared in order to identify putative lethal species. It was shown that an increase in the applied voltage led to more efficient production of reactive plasma species, particularly oxygen atoms, and the production of oxygen atoms was related to the level of bacterial inactivation achieved. Production of atomic oxygen could be used as an indicator of

  6. An extensive proteome map of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxin; Pascual, Laura; Aurand, Rémy; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Valot, Benoît; Zivy, Michel; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2013-10-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the model species for studying fleshy fruit development. An extensive proteome map of the fruit pericarp is described in light of the high-quality genome sequence. The proteomes of fruit pericarp from 12 tomato genotypes at two developmental stages (cell expansion and orange-red) were analyzed. The 2DE reference map included 506 spots identified by nano-LC/MS and the International Tomato Annotation Group Database searching. A total of 425 spots corresponded to unique proteins. Thirty-four spots resulted from the transcription of genes belonging to multigene families involving two to six genes. A total of 47 spots corresponded to a mixture of different proteins. The whole protein set was classified according to Gene Ontology annotation. The quantitative protein variation was analyzed in relation to genotype and developmental stage. This tomato fruit proteome dataset is currently the largest available and constitutes a valuable tool for comparative genetic studies of tomato genome expression at the protein level. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000105. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. [Study on allelopathy effect of pericarp extract of Phellodendron amurense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Tianrui; Tao, Yuehong; Dai, Lingchao; Liu, Yanlu; Zhang, Bengang

    2011-02-01

    Through the study of allelopathy of the pericarp of Phellodendron amurense, the role of self-regeneration barriers was investigated in order to find ways and means for the protection of wild populations of P. amurense. Solution preparation: soaked pericarp of P. amurense in distilled water at 4 degrees C to get solution A, and reflux extraction of pericarp with distilled water at 100 degrees C to get solution B. Both of the solution A and solution B were used in the experiment of seed germination and seedling growth with the seeds of cabbage and wheat. The results showed that 20 g x L(-1) concentration of solution A and solution B inhibited significantly seed germination of cabbage and wheat, while 100 g x L(-1) concentration of solution A even completely inhibited the seed germination of wheat. 20 g x L(-1) concentration of solution A significantly inhibited the cabbage and wheat seedling growth, completely inhibited the root growth of cabbage, while 100 g x L(-1) concentrations of solution A completely inhibited seedling growth of cabbage and wheat. Comparing to solution A, the intensity of solution B are diminished on seed germination and seedling growth. It is concluded that the allelopathy of pericarp of P. amurense is multi-material role in the results, some of allelochemicals are easily degradable when exposed to heat. Overall, the allelopathy of pericarp of P. amurense can affect the seed germination and seedling growth. It is supposed that allelochemicals existed in the pericarp of P. amurense is one of the reason leading to difficulties in self-regeneration of its population.

  8. Isolation and characterization of xylans from seed pericarp of Argania spinosa fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Youssef; Vignon, Michel R

    2005-05-23

    Hemicellulose-type polysaccharides were isolated from the pericarp of seeds of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels fruit by sequential alkaline extractions and fractionated by precipitation. Water soluble and water insoluble fractions were obtained, purified and characterized by sugar analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The water soluble fractions were assumed to be (4-O-methyl-D-glucurono)-D-xylans, with 4-O-methyl-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid groups linked to C-2 of a (1-->4)-beta-D-xylan. The 1H NMR spectrum showed that the water soluble xylans have, on average, one non-reducing terminal residue of 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid for every seven xylose units. The water insoluble fractions consisted of a neutral xylan with linear (1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl units.

  9. Difference in volatile profile between pericarp tissue and locular gel in tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroma, a complex mixture of volatile compounds, plays an important role in the perception and acceptability of tomato products by consumers. Numerous studies have reported volatile profiles in tomatoes based on measurement of the whole fruit or pericarp tissue, however, little is understood regardin...

  10. An Intracellular Laccase Is Responsible for Epicatechin-Mediated Anthocyanin Degradation in Litchi Fruit Pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xue-lian; Luo, Hong-hui; Zhou, Jia-jian; Gong, Yi-hui; Li, Wen-jun; Shi, Zhao-wan; He, Quan; Wu, Qing; Li, Lu; Jiang, Lin-lin; Cai, Zhi-gao; Oren-Shamir, Michal; Zhang, Zhao-qi; Pang, Xue-qun

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to the detailed molecular knowledge available on anthocyanin synthesis, little is known about its catabolism in plants. Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit lose their attractive red color soon after harvest. The mechanism leading to quick degradation of anthocyanins in the pericarp is not well understood. An anthocyanin degradation enzyme (ADE) was purified to homogeneity by sequential column chromatography, using partially purified anthocyanins from litchi pericarp as a substrate. The purified ADE, of 116 kD by urea SDS-PAGE, was identified as a laccase (ADE/LAC). The full-length complementary DNA encoding ADE/LAC was obtained, and a polyclonal antibody raised against a deduced peptide of the gene recognized the ADE protein. The anthocyanin degradation function of the gene was confirmed by its transient expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves. The highest ADE/LAC transcript abundance was in the pericarp in comparison with other tissues, and was about 1,000-fold higher than the polyphenol oxidase gene in the pericarp. Epicatechin was found to be the favorable substrate for the ADE/LAC. The dependence of anthocyanin degradation by the enzyme on the presence of epicatechin suggests an ADE/LAC epicatechin-coupled oxidation model. This model was supported by a dramatic decrease in epicatechin content in the pericarp parallel to anthocyanin degradation. Immunogold labeling transmission electron microscopy suggested that ADE/LAC is located mainly in the vacuole, with essential phenolic substances. ADE/LAC vacuolar localization, high expression levels in the pericarp, and high epicatechin-dependent anthocyanin degradation support its central role in pigment breakdown during pericarp browning.

  11. Differences in the volatile components and their odor characteristics of green and ripe fruits and dried pericarp of Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihua; Kubota, Kikue

    2004-06-30

    The essential oils of green and ripe fruits and dried pericarp of Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC.), which are commonly used in Japanese dishes as spices, were extracted with methanol, followed by adsorption to Porapak Q resin. Their aroma profiles were characterized by a sensory evaluation, and their chemical constituents were investigated by using gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and aroma extract dilution analysis. Geraniol, citronellal, linalool, and methyl cinnamate were perceived to be important to the basic flavor of the three samples of Japanese pepper by GC-sniffing at high flavor dilution (FD) factors. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituting almost 76% of the essential oil are the major flavor compounds in the green fruit, and the stronger green and pine leaf notes in the green fruit were considered to be imparted mainly by the large amount of d-limonene, beta-phellandrene, and myrcene due to their high FD factors. On the other hand, the oxygenated terpenes including citronellal, geraniol, and geranial are predominant for the potent odorant in the ripe fruit. The marked citrus-like note in the ripe fruit was thought to be due to the amounts of geranial and citronellal, being 20% of the essential oil. In the dried pericarp, the ratio of oxygenated terpenoids was almost equal to that of monoterpene hydrocarbons. These seemed to induce the flavor character of the dried pericarp to be milder than that of the ripe fruit.

  12. In-depth characterization of the tomato fruit pericarp proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Clara I; Fabre, Bertrand; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Parsons, Harriet T; Deery, Michael J; Lilley, Kathryn S; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2017-01-01

    Since the genome of Solanum lycopersicum L. was published in 2012, some studies have explored its proteome although with a limited depth. In this work, we present an extended characterization of the proteome of the tomato pericarp at its ripe red stage. Fractionation of tryptic peptides generated from pericarp proteins by off-line high-pH reverse-phase phase chromatography in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis on a Fisher Scientific Q Exactive and a Sciex Triple-TOF 6600 resulted in the identification of 8588 proteins with a 1% FDR both at the peptide and protein levels. Proteins were mapped through GO and KEGG databases and a large number of the identified proteins were associated with cytoplasmic organelles and metabolic pathways categories. These results constitute one of the most extensive proteome datasets of tomato so far and provide an experimental confirmation of the existence of a high number of theoretically predicted proteins. All MS data are available in the ProteomeXchange repository with the dataset identifiers PXD004947 and PXD004932. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

  14. Pericarp polypeptides and SRAP markers associated with fruit quality traits in an interspecific tomato backcross.

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    Pereira da Costa, J H; Rodríguez, G R; Pratta, G R; Picardi, L A; Zorzoli, R

    2014-01-24

    The aim of this study was to detect polypeptides and genomic regions associated with fruit quality traits in a backcross generation using as parent the Argentinean cultivated tomato Caimanta of Solanum lycopersicum and the wild accession LA722 of S. pimpinellifolium. We tested two types of molecular marker: polypeptide profile (at two ripening stages, mature green and red ripe) and SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism). A polypeptide of 45 kDa present in the wild parents at the mature green stage was associated with larger fruit and long shelf life. Some amplification fragments from SRAP markers were associated with more than one quality trait such as fruit color, firmness, titratable acidity, and fruit soluble solids content. This study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of the polypeptide profiles of pericarp and SRAP markers in finding associations with quality fruit traits in a tomato backcross generation.

  15. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

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    Arun K. Das

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05 total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05 throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability.

  16. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun K.; Rajkumar, Vincent; Nanda, Pramod K.; Chauhan, Pranav; Pradhan, Soubhagya R.; Biswas, Subhasish

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration) in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm). The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability. PMID:27213457

  17. Cartography of cell morphology in tomato pericarp at the fruit scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legland, D; Devaux, M-F; Bouchet, B; Guillon, F; Lahaye, M

    2012-07-01

    In fleshy fruits, the variability of cell morphology at the fruit scale is largely unknown. It presents both a huge variability and a high level of organization. Better knowledge of cell morphology heterogeneity within the fruit is necessary to understand fruit development, to model fruit mechanical behaviour, or to investigate variations of physico-chemical measurements. A generic approach is proposed to build cartographies of cell morphology at the fruit scale, which depict regions corresponding to different cell morphologies. The approach is based on: (1) sampling the whole fruit at known positions; (2) imaging and quantifying local cell morphology; (3) pooling measurements to take biological variability into account and (4) projecting results in a morphology model of the whole fruit. The result is a synthetic representation of cell morphology variations within the whole fruit. The method was applied to the characterization of cell morphology in tomato pericarp. Two different imaging scales that provided complementary descriptions were used: 3D confocal microscopy and macroscopy. The approach is generic and can be adapted to other fruits or other products. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Cell Wall Microstructure Analysis Implicates Hemicellulose Polysaccharides in Cell Adhesion in Tomato Fruit Pericarp Parenchyma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose J. Ordaz-Ortiz; Susan E. Marcus; J. Paul Knox

    2009-01-01

    Methods developed to isolate intact cells from both unripe and ripe tomato fruit pericarp parenchyma have allowed the cell biological analysis of polysaccharide epitopes at the surface of separated cells. The LM7 pectic homoga-lacturonan epitope is a marker of the junctions of adhesion planes and intercellular spaces in parenchyma systems. The LM7 epitope persistently marked the former edge of adhesion planes at the surface of cells separated from unripe and ripened tomato fruit and also from fruits with the Cnr mutation. The LM 11 xylan epitope was associated, in sections, with cell walls lining intercellular space but the epitope was not detected at the surface of isolated cells, being lost during cell isolation. The LM15 xyloglucan epitope was present at the surface of cells isolated from unripe fruit in a pattern reflecting the former edge of cell adhesion planes/intercellular space but with gaps and apparent breaks, An equivalent pattern ofLM15 epitope occurrence was revealed at the surface of cells isolated by pectate lyase action but was not present in cells isolated from ripe fruit or from Cnr fruit. In contrast to wild-type cells, the LM5 galactan and LM21 mannan epitopes oc-curred predominantly in positions reflecting intercellular space in Cnr, suggesting a concerted alteration in cell wall mi-crostructure in response to this mutation. Galactanase and mannanase, along with pectic homogalacturonan-degrading enzymes, were capable of releasing cells from unripe fruit parenchyma. These observations indicate that hemicellulose polymers are present in architectural contexts reflecting cell adhesion and that several cell wall polysaccharide classes are likely to contribute to cell adhesion/cell separation in tomato fruit pericarp parenchyma.

  19. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp) Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-01-01

    Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark colored)The optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25...

  20. The pericarp extract of Prunus persica attenuates chemotherapy-induced acute nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Sang Kook; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2008-06-01

    The fruit of Prunus persica L. (peach) is one of the common fruits. Its seed is well known as a traditional medicine (Persicae Semen) in Japan, China, and other Asian countries. However, the biological activities of P. persica fruit except its seed are poorly understood. This study was aimed at evaluating the protective effect of the pericarp extract of P. persica (PPE) against cisplatin-induced acute toxicity in mice. PPE (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a significant protection against the acute nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by a single administration of cisplatin (45 mg/kg, i.p.) over a 16-hour period in mice. Its protective effect was evaluated by serum and tissue biochemical parameters. The pretreatment with PPE for 7 days prevented the cisplatin-induced decrease in the kidney and liver weights as a percentage of the total body weight. PPE significantly inhibited both the cisplatin-induced elevation in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels caused by kidney damage and the cisplatin-induced increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels by the liver damage. In addition, the administration of PPE caused recovery of the cisplatin-mediated changes in levels of serum nitric oxide and tissue lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione content returned to control levels. These results suggest that PPE protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity by reducing cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in mice.

  1. Extraction of valuable compounds from mangosteen pericarps by hydrothermal assisted sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmudah, Siti; Lestari, Sarah Duta; Shiddiqi, Qifni Yasa'Ash; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng; Wahyudiono, Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2015-12-01

    Valuable compounds, such as xanthone and phenolic compounds, from mangosteen pericarps was extracted by hydrothermal treatment at temperatures of 120-160 °C and pressures of 5 MPa using batch and semi-batch extractor. This method is a simple and environmentally friendly extraction method requiring no chemicals other than water. Under these conditions, there is possibility for the formation of phenolic compounds from mangosteen pericarps from decomposition of bounds between lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose via autohydrolysis. In order to increase the amount of extracted valuable compounds, sonication pre-treament was performed prior to the hydrothermal extraction process. 30 min of sonication pre-treatment could increase significantly the amount of xanthone and phenolic compounds mangosteen pericarps extraction. In batch-system, the xanthone recovery approach to 100 % at 160 °C with 30 min sonication pre-treatment for 150 min extraction time. Under semi-batch process, the total phenolic compounds in the extract was 217 mg/g sample at 160 °C with 30 min sonication pre-treatment for 150 min total extraction time. The results revealed that hydrothermal extraction assisted sonication pre-treatment is applicable method for the isolation of polyphenolic compounds from other types of biomass and may lead to an advanced plant biomass components extraction technology.

  2. Evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum) pericarp aqueous extract on Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica)

    OpenAIRE

    Berto, Bruno P.; Helcio R. Borba; Hataânderson Luiz C. dos Santos; Lima,Viviane M.; Walter Flausino; Teixeira-Filho,Walter L.; Lopes,Carlos Wilson G.

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties have been associated with the extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum) in several animals and conditions. The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current study investigated the effects of the pomegranate pericarp aqueous extract on the shedding, viability and morphometry of three Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails...

  3. Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Alfiah; Agustin, Melia Eka; Rokhimaningrum, Farida Ayu; Adro'i, Hasan; Darmanto, Win

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract on spermatogenics number, seminiferous tubules sized, profile protein of epididymal and testicular sperm, and fertility of mice (Mus musculus). Fourty two male mice strain BALB/C was divided equally into 7 groups. The control group was given 0.05 ml of 0.05% CMC solution. Three group were given mangosteen pericarp extract at various doses (75, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 7 days, while the other three groups were given the same extract dose for 35 days. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice. The results showed that mangosteen pericarp extract at 75 and 100 mg/kg dose for 7 days had no effect on spermatogenics number and seminiferous tubule sizes, but the treatment dose of 150 mg/kg for 7 days and all treatment (doses of 75, 100, and 150 mg/kg) for 35 days led to significant decrease on the number of spermatogenics and seminiferous tubule sizes; effect on protein profiles testicular and epididymal sperm; and lower fertilization.

  4. Evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract on Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties have been associated with the extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum in several animals and conditions. The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current study investigated the effects of the pomegranate pericarp aqueous extract on the shedding, viability and morphometry of three Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails, besides the weight gain and genotoxic activity. Although the pomegranate is recognized by multiple properties, including anti-coccidial, in the current study the results are contrary. The treated group shed greater amount of oocysts; the sporulation times and viability were similar in both groups; despite some morphometric differences, these were not expressive; weight gains were similar; and the pomegranate had insignificant effect genotoxic. Finally, these results suggest that the pomegranate pericarp extract did not influence on Eimeira spp. from Japanese quails; therefore, the pomegranate pericarp extract is not suggested in the prevention/treatment of coccidiosis in Japanese quails, or at least not using methods of preparation and administration applied in this study.

  5. Regulatory specialization of xyloglucan (XG) and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) in pericarp cell walls during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ayami; Hyodo, Hiromi; Wada, Kanako; Ishii, Tadashi; Satoh, Shinobu; Iwai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides by various cell wall hydrolases during fruit softening causes structural changes in hemicellulose and pectin that affect the physical properties and softening of tomato fruit. In a previous study, we showed that the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening were unique in each fruit tissue. In this study, to clarify the changes in hemicellulose in tissues during tomato fruit ripening, we focused on glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) and xyloglucan (XG). GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. The activity of hemicellulose degradation enzymes, such as β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase, decreased gradually during fruit ripening, although the tomato fruits continued to soften. In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. Our results suggest that changes in the cell wall architecture and tissue-specific distribution of XG and GAX might be required for the regulation of fruit softening and the maintenance of fruit shape.

  6. Regulatory specialization of xyloglucan (XG and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX in pericarp cell walls during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.

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    Ayami Takizawa

    Full Text Available Disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides by various cell wall hydrolases during fruit softening causes structural changes in hemicellulose and pectin that affect the physical properties and softening of tomato fruit. In a previous study, we showed that the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening were unique in each fruit tissue. In this study, to clarify the changes in hemicellulose in tissues during tomato fruit ripening, we focused on glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX and xyloglucan (XG. GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. The activity of hemicellulose degradation enzymes, such as β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase, decreased gradually during fruit ripening, although the tomato fruits continued to soften. In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. Our results suggest that changes in the cell wall architecture and tissue-specific distribution of XG and GAX might be required for the regulation of fruit softening and the maintenance of fruit shape.

  7. Fruit Pod Extracts as a Source of Nutraceuticals and Pharmaceuticals

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    Azrina Azlan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.

  8. Fruit pod extracts as a source of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Azila Abdul; Azlan, Azrina

    2012-10-10

    Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.

  9. Antibacterial activity of crude extract of Punica granatum pericarp on pathogenic Gram-negative bacilli.

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    Voravuthikunchai, S.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of crude extracts of Punica granatum Linn. pericarp with 3 different solvents against pathogenic Gram-negative bacilli. Ethanolic extracts showed the antibacterial activity against all strains tested including enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 4 strains (E. coli O157: H7, E. coli O26: H11, E. coli O111: NM, E. coli O22, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella boydii and Salmonella london. Inhibition zones ranged from 10.02 to 19.15 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 0.09 to 3.13 mg/ml and 3.13 to 25 mg/ml, respectively. Aqueous extract had low antibacterial activity while crude chloroform extracts had no effect on the growth of these strains. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. granatum pericarp demonstrated high activity with the best MIC and MBC values of 0.02 to 0.78 mg/ml and 0.19 to 6.25 mg/ml, respectively. As ethanolic extract of P. granatum was very effective against these pathogenic bacteria, further investigation on this plant species may provide alternative, but bioactive, medicines for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infection.

  10. Antioxidant properties of xanthones extracted from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen): A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Nguyen Minh; Quang, Duong Tuan; Bui, Ngoc Hoa Thi; Dao, Duy Quang; Nam, Pham Cam

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical study on antioxidant properties of fourteen xanthones extracted from the pericarp of G. Mangostana has been performed. Three main reaction mechanisms are investigated: hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single electron transfer-proton transfer (SETPT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET). The Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization energy (IE), proton affinity (PA) and electron transfer energy (ETE) parameters were computed in gas phase and water. The results show that HAT would be the most favorable mechanism for explaining antioxidant activity of xanthones in gas phase, whereas the SPLET mechanism is thermodynamically favored in water.

  11. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity

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    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark coloredThe optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25oC, suggest sorting of harvesting fruits in three groups. (1 fruits are harvested 9-24 days after the fruits reach its yellowish green color, Ao, (2 25 - 32 days after Ao, and (3 33 - 38 days after Ao.Fermenting at 35o C grouping into four types of maturation degree. (1 9 - 11 days after Ao, (2 12 - 22 days after Ao, (3 23 - 30 days after Ao, and (4 24-36 days after Ao. The optimum harvesting time is when the beans reach light red until the color starts getting dark. The optimum activity of the enzyme pectinase is at 35oC.

  12. Reduction in Activity/Gene Expression of Anthocyanin Degradation Enzymes in Lychee Pericarp is Responsible for the Color Protection of the Fruit by Heat and Acid Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Fang; ZHANG Zhao-qi; ZHANG Xue-lian; WU Zhen-xian; YIN Hui-fang; PANG Xue-qun

    2013-01-01

    Heat and acid treatments were reported to be a promising substitute for SO2 fumigation in color protection of postharvest lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruits, but the mechanism was not clear. In the present study, hot water (70°C) dipping followed by immersion in 2%HCl (heat-acid) substantially protected the red color of the fruit during storage at 25°C and inhibited anthocyanin degradation while hot water dipping alone (heat) led to rapidly browning and about 90%loss in anthocyanin content. The pH values in the pericarp of the heat-acid treated fruit dropped to 3.2, while the values maintained around 5.0 in the heat-treated and control fruit. No significantly different pH values were detected among the arils of heat-acid, heat treated and control fruit. Heat-acid treatment dramatically reduced the activities of anthocyanin degradation enzyme (ADE), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase in the pericarp. A marked reduction in LcPOD gene expression was also detected in heat-acid treated fruit, in contrast, induction was found in heat treated fruit. The pericarp of heat-acid treated fruit exhibited significantly lower respiration rate but faster water loss than that of the untreated or heat treated fruit. Taken together, heat treatment triggered quick browning and anthocyanin loss in lychee fruit, while heat-acid treatment protected the fruit color by a great reduction in the activities/gene expression of anthocyanin degradation enzymes and acidification of lychee pericarp.

  13. A study of antioxidant properties from Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp extract

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    Arasali Sulaiman Zarena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to assess the radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp extracts obtained by various solvents and its mixtures of different polarity. The extracts were evaluated by FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power, ABTS (2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid diammonium salt], DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, reducing power and chelating ability on ferrous ion. Among the different extracts studied, ethyl acetate and acetone extract were observed to have good antioxidant activity. The FRAP values for ethyl acetate and acetone extract were 1.30 and 1.01 mM TEAC respectively at 1 mg/ml. The TEAC values for ABTS assay were 38.21 and 38.15 μM respectively at 100 μg/ml. The IC50 values to quench the DPPH free radicals of these two extracts were 30.01 μg/ml and 33.32 μg/ml, but the chelating assay was observed to be better in aqueous fractions of Acetone: water (80:20 at 12 mg/ml. From the above results it can be inferred that ethyl acetate and acetone were suitable solvent to extract the antioxidant compounds form mangosteen.

  14. Cytotoxic effect of xanthones from pericarp of the tropical fruit mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) on human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing J; Sanderson, Barbara J S; Zhang, Wei

    2011-09-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree from South East Asia and its fruit pericarp is a well-known traditional medicine. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of three xanthone compounds (α-mangostin, γ-mangostin, and 8-deoxygartanin) from mangosteen pericarp was investigated using the human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell line. Significant dose-dependent reduction in % cell viability was induced. γ-Mangostin and 8-deoxygartanine at 5 μg/ml increased the cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase (90% and 92%) compared with untreated cells (78%). All compounds induced apoptosis, of the highest being α-mangostin at 7.5 μg/ml that induced 59.6% early apoptosis, compared to 1.7% in untreated cells. The apoptotic effect of α-mangostin was via caspase activation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane pathways as evidenced by 25-fold increased caspase-3 activity and 9-fold decreased mitochondrial membrane potential when compared to untreated cells. In conclusion, these xanthones, especially α-mangostin, are potential candidates as anti-melanoma agents.

  15. Effects of bagging and storage temperature on anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL activity in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. fruit pericarp during maturation

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    Kobkiat Saengnil

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of bagging and storage temperature on anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activity of mangosteen fruit pericarp. Six maturity stages (stage 1 to stage 6, defined by the extension of red or purple colouration on the pericarp of attached mangosteen fruits with bagged and unbagging were compared. It was found that sunlight had no significant effect on both anthocyanin content and PAL activity. The effect of storage temperature onanthocyanin content and PAL activity were also studied. Fruits at stage 1 (indicated by scattered of pink spot on pericarp were harvested and allowed to develop red colour to stage 6 at different storage temperatures: 15º, 25º, 30º (room temperature and 35ºC. It was found that temperature had no effect on anthocyanin content in any stage of fruit development. At all temperature levels, the anthocyanin content was increased accordingly and had the highest level at stage 6. Temperature affected on PAL activity at different stages. Levels of PAL activity decreased at the early stages and increased at the final stage of maturity except for fruits held at 25ºC, PAL activity remained at a low level through stage 6, while fruit at 35ºC had the highest level of PAL at stage 5.

  16. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE INNOVATIVE BRUSH-GRATER DEVICE FOR EXTRACTING FOREST SEEDS FROM PERICARP

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    Sviridov L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protective forest plantations, shelter belts and plantings along the highways of Central - Black Earth region and southern Russia are badly damaged, and in some areas destroyed. Therefore, they can not perform their functions and require major reconstruction or restoration. The most resistant and applicable trees and shrubs to create protective forest plantings are: maple, ash, elm species and three-thorned acacia, honey-locust, white and yellow acacia, and other legumes breeds with high drought tolerance, disease resistance, technogenic pollution and pest damage. For the creation and restoration of protective forest plantations we require seeds of these species containing pericarp. In Voronezh State Forestry Academy we have carried out a scientific research for creation of a machine for extracting seeds from the legumes. Analysis of the results of scientific research of prototyping machines showed that they were made without considered technological and mechanical properties of the legumes theoretical researches workflow machines for extracting seeds from the legumes and scientific basis of design parameters and operating modes. In this article we have a presentation of the experimental sample of the machine for extracting seeds from the legumes and theoretical investigation of the workflow in the batch hopper. According to the results of the study, we have obtained a mathematical expression, which allows you to define the parameters and modes of operation of a brush-grater device

  17. Activity assay of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract for decreasing fasting blood cholesterol level and lipid peroxidation in type-2 diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Saikhu Akhmad; Winarni, Dwi; Khaleyla, Firas; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Ansori, Arif Nur Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the activity of pericarp extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Mangosteen pericarp contains various active compounds which are beneficial for human health. In-vivo antioxidant assay of pericarp extract was carried out using 3-4 month male mice of strain BALB/c weighed 30-40 g. The mice were divided into two groups: normal control (KN) group and STZ-induced diabetic group. STZ induction was performed using multiple low-dose method 30 mg/kg body weight treated daily for five consecutive days. Diabetic group was separated into two subgroups: diabetic control (KD), metformin control (KM), and crude extract treatment subgroups. The fasting blood glucose and the cholesterol level were measured before and after lard treatment, we also did it on the first, seventh, and fourteenth day of mangosteen pericarp crude extract treatment. The mice were treated with mangosteen pericarp crude extract for 14 days. The MDA level of the fasting blood serum was measured. The body weight and fasting blood cholesterol level before and after lard treatment were analyzed by t-test, whereas, the fasting blood cholesterol and the MDA level were analyzed using one-way variant analysis continued with Duncan test. The correlation between the increasing body weight and the fasting blood cholesterol level was determined by Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that the administration of mangosteen pericarp crude extract was able to reduce the fasting blood cholesterol and the malondialdehide level significantly.

  18. Distribution of major xanthones in the pericarp, aril, and yellow gum of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana linn.) fruit and their contribution to antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukatta, Udomlak; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Okadome, Hiroshi; Sotome, Itaru; Nanayama, Kazuko; Thanapase, Warunee; Isobe, Seiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Xanthone compounds in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) fruit have been reported to have biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and the major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are α-mangostin and γ-mangostin. The objectives of this research were to quantify and qualify the major xanthones in each part of the mangosteen fruit with and without yellow gum from the point of view of effective utilization of agricultural product. Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of α-mangostin and γ-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril. In mangosteen fruit with yellow gum inside, xanthones seemed to have shifted from the pericarp and to have concentrated in a gum on the surface of aril, and there was almost no difference between the amounts of α-mangostin and γ-mangostin in whole fruits with and without yellow gum. Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril.

  19. 龙眼果皮化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents from pericarp of longan fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑公铭; 魏孝义; 徐良雄; 谢海辉; 吴萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究龙眼Dimocarpus longan果皮的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱、聚酰胺柱以及葡聚糖凝胶色谱等手段对龙眼果皮乙醇提取物进行分离纯化,并利用理化性质和光谱数据鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从龙眼果皮乙醇提取物中分离出13个化合物,分别鉴定为木栓酮(1)、木栓醇(2)、(24R)-豆甾-4-烯-3-酮(3)、β-谷甾醇(4)、呋喃丙烯酸(5)、异莨菪亭(6)、β-胡萝卜苷(7)、没食子酸(8)、柯里拉京(9)、对羟基苯甲酸庚酯(10)、没食子酸甲酯(11)、4-O-α-L-鼠李糖基-鞣花酸(12)、鞣花酸(13).结论 化合物3~7、10和12为首次从龙眼果皮中分得,其中化合物5为首次报道的天然产物.%Objective To investigate the chemical constituents of pericarp of longan (Dimocarpus longan) fruits. Methods The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel, polyamide, as well as Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physical and chemical properties and spectral analysis. Results Thirteen compounds were isolated and identified as: friedelin (1), friedelanol (2), (24R)-stigmast-4-en-3-one (3), β-sitosterol (4), β-(2-furyl) acrylic acid (5), 6-hydroxy7-methoxycoumarin (6), β-daucosterol (7), gallic acid (8), corilagin (9), heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate (10), methyl gallate (11),4-O-α-L-rhanmopyranosyl-ellagic acid (12), and ellagic acid (13). Conclusion Compounds 3-7, 10, and 12 are reported from the pericarp of longan fruits for the first time, and this is the first report for compound 5 as a natural product.

  20. Production of quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosidic derivatives from the aqueous-organic extracted residue of litchi pericarp with Aspergillus awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Zhu, Qinqin; Wen, Lingrong; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Guoxiang; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Yueming

    2014-02-15

    Our previous work exhibited Aspergillus awamori fermentation of the litchi pericarp increased significantly antioxidant activity and DNA protection effect. In this present study, the litchi pericarp and its aqueous-organic extracted residues were fermented by A. awamori in order to elucidate the enhanced beneficial effects. The study identified that rutin which present in litchi pericarp could be deglycosylated to form quercetin and quercetin-3-glucoside after the fermentation. Application the standard compounds (rutin, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol-3-glucoside and kaempferol) further revealed the effective biotransformation by A. awamori fermentation. It was hypothesised that rutin was initially dehydroxylated to form kaempferol-3-rutinoside and then deglycosylated to form kaempferol-3-glucoside and kaempferol. To our best knowledge, it is the first report on dehydroxylated effect of polyphenols caused by A. awamori fermentation. Thus, A. awamori fermentation can provide an effective way to produce health benefiting value-added products from litchi pericarp in food industry.

  1. Adsorption efficiencies of calcium (II ion and iron (II ion on activated carbon obtained from pericarp of rubber fruit

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    Orawan Sirichote

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of adsorption efficiencies of activated carbon from pericarp of rubber fruit for calcium (II ion and iron (II ion has been performed by flowing the solutions of these ions through a column of activated carbon. The weights of activated carbon in 500 mL buret column (diameter 3.2 cm for flowing calcium (II ion and iron (II ion solutions were 15 g and 10 g, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ion was prepared to be about eight times more diluted than the true concentration found in the groundwater from the lower part of southern Thailand. Calcium (II ion concentrations were analysed by EDTA titration and its initial concentration was found to be 23.55 ppm. With a flow rate of 26 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 11.4 % with passed through volume 4.75 L. Iron (II ion concentrations were analysed by spectrophotometric method; its initial concentration was found to be 1.5565 ppm. At a flow rate of 22 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 0.42 % with passed through volume of 34.0 L.

  2. Formulation of Oil-in-Water Cream from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. Pericarp Extract Preserved by Gamma Irradiation

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    E. Isabella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to formulate mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp extract into oil-in-water (O/W cream which stable and durable. In order to improve the shelf life durability of the formula, the irradiation of formula using gamma rays from cobalt-60 was done. The concentrations of extract were varied to 1, 2 and 3% and were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy. Physicochemical and microbiological properties of these formulas were carried out for 90 days stored at 30 ± 2°C and 40 ± 2°C. It was found that both of physicochemical and microbiological properties of the formulas were changed by extract concentrations and after irradiation. The irradiated formulas with dose up to 7.5 kGy, which were stored at 30 ± 2°C and 40 ± 2°C, presented acceptable physicochemical and microbiological stability for at least 90 days. Analysis by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography-densitometry to study decomposition of G. mangostana pericarp extract cream formulas was carried out 24 h after preparation and 90 day after storage. The result of TLC-densitometry analysis showed that G. mangostana pericarp extract in the cream formulas did not develope significant decomposition after 90 days of storage. Decontamination dose for all formulas was found to be about 7.5 kGy. At this condition, the bacteria and mold-yeast have been killed, without reducing the antioxidant activity

  3. Development and Validation of High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Method for Determination of α-Mangostin in Fruit Pericarp of Mangosteen Plant (Garcinia mangostana L. using Ultraviolet – Visible Detection

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    Himanshu Misra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast and precise quantitative high performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed for quantitative estimation of α-mangostin in fruit pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. (Hypericaceae. Best solvent for extraction of a-mangostin optimized after screening with five solvents under same conditions using hot solid-liquid extraction through soxhlet apparatus. Methanol and chloroform gave highest and second highest recovery of a-mangostin, respectively. Plates were developed in chloroform-methanol in the ratio of 27-3 (v/v. Post-chromatographic derivatization performed using anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent and scanned at 382 nm in ultraviolet-visible mode. The developed method was found to be linear in the range 1.0 to 5.0 mg spot-1, limits of detection and quantitation were 150 and 450 ng spot-1. The developed method was validated in terms of system suitability, specificity and robustness.

  4. Study of the inhibition effect of ethanolic extract of mangosteen pericarp on atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic rat

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    Titin Andri Wihastuti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of mangosteen pericarp (EEMP through lipid profile, H2O2, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS measurement in hypercholesterolemic rat. Methods: A total of 20 rats were used in true laboratory experiment which were divided into 5 groups (n = 4 using posttest-only design. There were a normal diet group, a hypercholesterol diet (HCD group, a group that was given HCD with EEMP 200 mg/kg body weight, a group that was given HCD with 400 mg/kg body weight and a group that was given HCD with 800 mg/kg body weight. The lipid profile was measured using Cobas Mira. On the other hand, H2O2 was analysed using colorimetric hydrogen peroxide kit. Double staining immunofluorescence was given to observe NF-κB, iNOS and eNOS by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result was analyzed quantitatively using Olymphus Fluoview software (version 1.7a. Results: Lipid profile was significantly worsened in HCD and H2O2 level and expressions of NF-κB, iNOS and eNOS were also increased in HCD. EEMP 200 mg/kg body weight generally did not show significant results. However, high density lipoprotein level was affected by EEMP 400 mg/kg body weight, but not for other lipid profiles which reduced H2O2 level and NF-κB, iNOS and eNOS expressions significantly. EEMP 800 mg/kg body weight had been shown to be the most effective dose to improve lipid profile, decrease level of H2O2 and the expression of NF-κB and iNOS and maintain expression of eNOS. Conclusions: EEMP is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent to inhibit atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic rat.

  5. Antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating activity of Vangueria madagascariensis leaves and ripe fruit pericarp against human pathogenic clinical bacterial isolates

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    M. Fawzi Mahomoodally

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating property of Vangueria madagascariensis (VM (fruit and leaf extracts against 10 clinical isolates. A microdilution broth susceptibility assay for bacteria was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and associated with antibiotics to evaluate any synergistic effect. VM extracts were found to potentiate the activity of 3 conventional antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin showed no activity against Acinetobacter spp. but when mixed with VM (in a ratio of 50% VM extracts: 30% antibiotic, showed potentiating effect. The methanolic fruit extract at lower concentration of Chloramphenicol (30% gave better synergistic effect (MIC = 3.75 μg/mL as compared to 50% (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL. With Gentamicin, no activity was detected with leaf decoction but other extracts (methanolic leaf/fruit extract and fruit decoction showed enhancement (MIC- 0.47, 7.5 and 15 μg/mL respectively. Interestingly, Chloramphenicol showed no activity against MRSA, but when mixed with VM, produced low MICs (<0.39–0.78 μg/mL with 50% antibiotic and from <0.47 to 0.94 μg/mL with 30% antibiotic. Combining Gentamicin with VM extracts showed an enhancement in the potentiating activity against MRSA. In conclusion, the observed antimicrobial property of VM tend to suggest a promising alternative and complementary strategy to manage bacterial infections and hence can open new avenues for further research using traditional medicinal food plant.

  6. Antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating activity of Vangueria madagascariensis leaves and ripe fruit pericarp against human pathogenic clinical bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomoodally, M Fawzi; Dilmohamed, Schajeed

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating property of Vangueria madagascariensis (VM) (fruit and leaf extracts) against 10 clinical isolates. A microdilution broth susceptibility assay for bacteria was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and associated with antibiotics to evaluate any synergistic effect. VM extracts were found to potentiate the activity of 3 conventional antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin showed no activity against Acinetobacter spp. but when mixed with VM (in a ratio of 50% VM extracts: 30% antibiotic), showed potentiating effect. The methanolic fruit extract at lower concentration of Chloramphenicol (30%) gave better synergistic effect (MIC = 3.75 μg/mL) as compared to 50% (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL). With Gentamicin, no activity was detected with leaf decoction but other extracts (methanolic leaf/fruit extract and fruit decoction) showed enhancement (MIC- 0.47, 7.5 and 15 μg/mL respectively). Interestingly, Chloramphenicol showed no activity against MRSA, but when mixed with VM, produced low MICs (<0.39-0.78 μg/mL with 50% antibiotic and from <0.47 to 0.94 μg/mL with 30% antibiotic). Combining Gentamicin with VM extracts showed an enhancement in the potentiating activity against MRSA. In conclusion, the observed antimicrobial property of VM tend to suggest a promising alternative and complementary strategy to manage bacterial infections and hence can open new avenues for further research using traditional medicinal food plant.

  7. Antiatherogenic activity of extracts of Argania spinosa L. pericarp: beneficial effects on lipid peroxidation and cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cherki, Mounia; Koumbadinga, Geremy Abdull; Isabelle, Maxim; Douville, Jasmin; Spino, Claude; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2007-09-01

    Prevention of lipoprotein oxidation by natural compounds may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated for the first time the beneficial properties of methanolic extract of argania pericarp (MEAP) towards atherogenesis by protecting human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation while promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. By measuring the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated diene as well as the lag phase and the progression rate of lipid peroxidation, the MEAP was found to possess an inhibitory effect. In addition, MEAP reduced the rate of disappearance of alpha-tocopherol as well as the apoB electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. These effects are related to the free radical scavenging and copper-chelating effects of MEAP. In terms of cell viability, MEAP has shown a cytotoxic effect (0-40 microg/mL). Incubation of 3H-cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages with HDL in the presence of increasing concentrations of MEAP enhanced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux independently of ABCA1 receptor pathways. Our findings suggest that argania seed pericarp provides a source of natural antioxidants that inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance cholesterol efflux and thus can prevent development of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. The Hygroscopic Opening of Sesame Fruits Is Induced by a Functionally Graded Pericarp Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Ilana; Elbaum, Rivka; Bar-On, Benny

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the distribution of their seeds, plants often utilize hygroscopic deformations that actuate dispersal mechanisms. Such movements are based on desiccation-induced shrinkage of tissues in predefined directions. The basic hygroscopic deformations are typically actuated by a bi-layer configuration, in which shrinking of an active tissue layer is resisted by a stiff layer, generating a set of basic movements including bending, coiling, and twisting. In this study, we investigate a new type of functionally graded hygroscopic movement in the fruit (capsule) of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Microscopic observations of the capsules showed that the inner stiff endocarp layer is built of a bilayer of transverse (i.e., circumferential) and longitudinal fiber cells with the layers positioned in a semi-circle, one inside the other. The outer mesocarp layer is made of soft parenchyma cells. The thickness of the fibrous layers and of the mesocarp exhibits a graded architecture, with gradual changes in their thickness around the capsule circumference. The cellulose microfibrils in the fiber cell walls are lying parallel to the cell long axis, rendering them stiff. The outer mesocarp layer contracted by 300% as it dried. Removal of this outer layer inhibited the opening movement, indicating that it is the active tissue. A biomechanical hygro-elastic model based on the relative thicknesses of the layers successfully simulated the opening curvature. Our findings suggest that the sesame capsules possess a functionally graded architecture, which promotes a non-uniform double-curvature hygroscopic bending movement. In contrast to other hygroscopic organs described in the literature, the sesame capsule actuating and resisting tissues are not uniform throughout the device, but changing gradually. This newly described mechanism can be exploited in bio-inspired designs of novel actuating platforms. PMID:27777579

  9. A new method of standartization of health-promoting pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Del Rio, M; Ramazanov, A; Sikorski, S; Ramazanov, Z; Chkhikvishvili, I

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzes the major phenolic constituents of pomegranate fruit juice and pericarp feedstock, and dry extracts thereof, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pomegranate pericarp was extracted with water (WE) and alcohol (AE) as solvents, and liquid extracts were subsequently freeze-dried. The results indicate that ellagitannins punicalagin A and punicalagin B are the major constituents in the primary pomegranate feedstock and in both types of extracts. Ellagic acid, a common botanical constituent that is currently used to standardize pomegranate extracts, as well as ellagitannin punicalin, were found to be only minor constituents. Total punicalagins (the sum of punicalagins A+B and punicalin) and ellagic acid content in the pomegranate fruit pericarp feedstock WE were 7,6+/-0,3% and 0,2+/-0,1% by dry weight, respectively, and in the AE feedstock 7,0+/-0,2 and 0,4+/-0,1%, respectively. Total phenolic content (the sum of punicalagins and ellagic acid) in the pomegranate WE and AE were 45,8+/-1,2% and 42,3+/-1,1%, respectively. The concentrations of ellagic acid in the pomegranate WE and AE were 0,8+/-0,2% and 3,9+/-0,2%, respectively. Total phenolics in fresh single-strength pomegranate whole fruit juice contained 2,216+/-70 mg/L (95% punicalagins), whereas commercial pomegranate juice that was purchased from local stores was 317+/-13 mg/L (70% punicalagins). Our results strongly suggest that the commercially produced pomegranate extracts should be standardized to the content of total punicalagins as well as ellagic acid. The current standard uses only ellagic acid, which is unreliable, potentially misleading and vulnerable to commercial adulteration.

  10. PARTIAL OPTIMIZATION AND STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE (PPO AND PEROXIDASE (POD EXTRACTED FROM CHILLY PEPPER PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Roy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase(PPO (E.C. number 1.10.3.1 has ubiquitous distribution in almost all living organism. Whereas, peroxidase(POD (E.C. number 1.11.1 act as hormone regulation and defense mechanism in plants. Keeping in pace with their present-day industrial application, efforts have been made to evaluate the activity of these two enzymes (PPO and POD using pepper pericarp (Capsicum annuum L. as an experimental material using catechol and guaiacol as a substrate, respectively. The effects of enzyme extract, substrate, hydrogen peroxide concentration (only for POD, pH and temperature and antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains were investigated.

  11. Preparation and characterisation of Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract loaded chitosan-collagen-starch membrane: role in wound healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amal, B; Veena, B; Jayachandran, V P; Shilpa, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Engineered scaffolds made from natural biomaterials are crucial elements in tissue engineering strategies. In this study, biological scaffold like chitosan-collagen-starch membrane (CCSM) loaded with the antibacterial agent, Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract was explored for enhanced regeneration of epithelial tissue during wound healing. Collagen was extracted from Rachycentron canadum fish skin. Membranous scaffold was prepared by mixing collagen, starch and chitosan in a fixed proportion, loaded with aqueous extract of P. granatum and its anti-pseudomonal activity was studied. Morphological characterization by SEM and mechanical property like tensile strength of the membrane were studied. Excision wound of 2 cm(2) size was induced in Guinea pig and the effect of P. granatum extract loaded CCSM in wound healing was studied. The SEM image showed deep pores in the membrane and also possessed good tensile strength. Wound surface area was reduced prominently in the experimental group with P. granatum extract loaded CCSM when compared to the group with unloaded membrane and the one with no membrane. Punica granatum extract loaded CCSM has antipseudomonal property and supported enhanced epithelial cell proliferation without leaving a scar after wound healing. This has significant therapeutic application in membranous scaffold mediated skin repair and regeneration.

  12. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Anthocyanins from Defatted Canarium odontophyllum Pericarp and Peel Using In Vitro Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-01-01

    Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

  13. Inhibition of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins from defatted Canarium odontophyllum pericarp and peel using in vitro bioassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock Eng Khoo

    Full Text Available Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD(+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection.

  14. Antioxidant-Enhancing Property of the Polar Fraction of Mangosteen Pericarp Extract and Evaluation of Its Safety in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numpraphrut, Pornpayom; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Neungton, Neelobol; Tunrungruangtavee, Vachara; Jaisupa, Nattapon; Charoensak, Suwit

    2016-01-01

    Crude extract from the pericarp of the mangosteen (mangosteen extract [ME]) has exhibited several medicinal properties in both animal models and human cell lines. Interestingly, the cytotoxic activities were always observed in nonpolar fraction of the extract whereas the potent antioxidant was often found in polar fraction. Although it has been demonstrated that the polar fraction of ME exhibited the antioxidant activity, the safety of the polar fraction of ME has never been thoroughly investigated in humans. In this study, we investigated the safety of oral administration of the polar fraction of ME in 11 healthy Thai volunteers. During a 24-week period of the study, only minor and tolerable side effects were reported; no serious side effects were documented. Blood chemistry studies also showed no liver damage or kidney dysfunction in all subjects. We also demonstrated antioxidant property of the polar fraction of ME both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oral administration of the polar fraction of ME enhanced the antioxidant capability of red blood cells and decreased oxidative damage to proteins within red blood cells and whole blood. PMID:27703599

  15. Antioxidant-Enhancing Property of the Polar Fraction of Mangosteen Pericarp Extract and Evaluation of Its Safety in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichit Suthammarak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract from the pericarp of the mangosteen (mangosteen extract [ME] has exhibited several medicinal properties in both animal models and human cell lines. Interestingly, the cytotoxic activities were always observed in nonpolar fraction of the extract whereas the potent antioxidant was often found in polar fraction. Although it has been demonstrated that the polar fraction of ME exhibited the antioxidant activity, the safety of the polar fraction of ME has never been thoroughly investigated in humans. In this study, we investigated the safety of oral administration of the polar fraction of ME in 11 healthy Thai volunteers. During a 24-week period of the study, only minor and tolerable side effects were reported; no serious side effects were documented. Blood chemistry studies also showed no liver damage or kidney dysfunction in all subjects. We also demonstrated antioxidant property of the polar fraction of ME both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oral administration of the polar fraction of ME enhanced the antioxidant capability of red blood cells and decreased oxidative damage to proteins within red blood cells and whole blood.

  16. Anti-skin cancer properties of phenolic-rich extract from the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing J; Shi, Qing H; Zhang, Wei; Sanderson, Barbara J S

    2012-09-01

    Skin cancers are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy. This study examined the anti-skin cancer properties of crude ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp (MPEE) on human squamous cell carcinoma A-431 and melanoma SK-MEL-28 lines. Significant dose-dependent reduction in% viability was observed for these cell lines, with less effect on human normal skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk and keratinocyte HaCaT cell lines. Cell distribution in G(1) phase (93%) significantly increased after 10 μg/ml of MPEE versus untreated SK-MEL-28 cells (78%), which was associated with enhanced p21(WAF1) mRNA levels. In A-431 cells, 10 μg/ml MPEE significantly increased the sub G(1) peak (15%) with concomitant decrease in G(1) phase over untreated cells (2%). In A-431 cells, 10 μg/ml MPEE induced an 18% increase in early apoptosis versus untreated cells (2%). This was via caspase activation (15-, 3- and 4-fold increased caspse-3/7, 8, and 9 activities), and disruption of mitochondrial pathways (6-fold decreased mitochondrial membrane potential versus untreated cells). Real-time PCR revealed increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cytochrome c release, and decreased Akt1. Apoptosis was significantly increased after MPEE treatment of SK-MEL-28 cells. Hence, MPEE showed strong anti-skin cancer effect on these two skin cancer cell lines, with potential as an anti-skin cancer agent.

  17. Extraction and determination of ellagic acid contentin chestnut bark and fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekiari, S A; Gordon, M H; García-Macías, P; Labrinea, H

    2008-10-15

    Chestnuts are an important economic resource in the chestnut growing regions, not only for the fruit, but also for the wood. The content of ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring inhibitor of carcinogenesis, was determined in chestnut fruits and bark. EA was extracted with methanol and free ellagic acid was determined by HPLC with UV detection, both in the crude extract and after hydrolysis. The concentration of EA was generally increased after hydrolysis due to the presence of ellagitannins in the crude extract. The concentration varied between 0.71 and 21.6mgg(-1) (d.w.) in un-hydrolyzed samples, and between 2.83 and 18.4mgg(-1) (d.w.) in hydrolyzed samples. In chestnut fruits, traces of EA were present in the seed, with higher concentrations in the pellicle and pericarp. However, all fruit tissues had lower concentrations of EA than had the bark. The concentration of EA in the hydrolyzed samples showed a non-linear correlation with the concentration in the unhydrolyzed extracts.

  18. Cell-wall-associated endo-B-mannanase increases in the skin and outer pericarp of tomato fruits during ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.D.; Banik, M.; Bourgault, R.; Fuertado, A.; Toorop, P.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2000-01-01

    Activity of endo-ß-mannanase increases during ripening of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit of the cultivar Trust. ß-Mannoside mannohydrolase is also present during ripening, but its pattern of activity is different from that of endo-ß-mannanase. The increase in endo-ß-mannanase activity

  19. Correlations of carotenoid content and transcript abundances for fibrillin and carotenogenic enzymes in Capsicum annum fruit pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcrease, James; Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Richins, Richard D; Arcos, Juan Manuel Garcia; Victorino, Jesus; O'Connell, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    The fruits of Capsicum spp. are especially rich sites for carotenoid synthesis and accumulation, with cultivar-specific carotenoid accumulation profiles. Differences in chromoplast structure as well as carotenoid biosynthesis are correlated with distinct carotenoid accumulations and fruit color. In the present study, the inheritance of chromoplast shape, carotenoid accumulation profiles, and transcript levels of four genes were measured. Comparisons of these traits were conducted using fruit from contrasting variants, Costeño Amarillo versus Costeño Red, and from F1 hybrids; crosses between parental lines with novel versions of these traits. Intermediate chromoplast shapes were observed in the F1, but no association between specific carotenoid accumulation and chromoplast shape was detected. Increased total carotenoid content was associated with increased β-carotene and violaxanthin content. Transcript levels for phytoene synthase (Psy) and β-carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ-2) were positively correlated with increased levels of specific carotenoids. No correlation was detected between transcript levels of capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (Ccs) and carotenoid composition or chromoplast shape. Transcript levels of fibrillin, were differentially correlated with specific carotenoids, negatively correlated with accumulation of capsanthin, and positively correlated with violaxanthin. The regulation of carotenoid accumulation in chromoplasts in Capsicum fruit continues to be a complex process with multiple steps for control.

  20. Effects of alpha-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp extract and imidacloprid on Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) and non-target organisms: toxicity and detoxification mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Visetson, Suraphon; Milne, John; Milne, Manthana; Sudthongkong, Chaiwud; Pronbanlualap, Somchai

    2007-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvato lugens Stat. (BPH) is the most devastating insect pest in rice fields. Outbreaks of BPH, which are resistant to many synthetic insecticides, can cause total rice crop loss. This research was done to evaluate the efficiency of extracts of mangosteen pericarp (Garcina mangostana L.) as an alternative control of BPH Thailand strain. Topical spraying was applied to various stages of nymphal and adult BPH to determine toxicity. An ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp extract gave the best control of BPH, with LC50 of 4.5% w/v (r2 = 0.95) with 3rd instar BPH nymphs when compared with the other solvents, hexane, acetone and dichloromethane. The active compound, alpha-mangostin showed an LC50 of 5.44%w/v (r2 = 0.88). The toxicity of this extract was less than that of Imidacloprid which showed an LC50 of 0.0042% w/v (r2 = 0.99). The toxicity to non-target organisms was determined. This extract showed toxicity to guppies ((LC50 = 2.53 and 4.27 ppm for females and males, respectively; r2 = 0.97 and 0.97, respectively), bees (LC50 = 4.38% w/v, r2 = 0.95) and mice (no oral acute toxicity and no dermal inflammation but showed eye irritation in 1 day which became normal within 3 days). In vitro detoxification enzyme activities of carboxylesterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-s-transferase from BPH after 24 hours exposure were also observed. Carboxylesterase showed stronger activity than other enzymes. Toxicity in terms of LC50 values of both the extract and imidacloprid treatments increased in each generation. The LC50 values for each generation were 4.22-6.67 after sequential spraying. After the ethanol extract was kept at 4 degrees C, room temperature and 55 degrees C for 3 months, the quantity of alpha-mangostin and the BPH control efficiency was lower at 55 degrees C than those for other temperatures. The results from this research indicate that mangosteen pericarp extract can be an alternative insecticide for the control of BPH

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL, and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE. The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  2. Antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75-1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC(50) from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  3. Vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1α, NF-κB, and iNOS inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract (Garcinia mangostana Linn in hypercholesterol-diet-given Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wihastuti TA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Titin Andri Wihastuti,1 Djanggan Sargowo,2 Askandar Tjokroprawiro,3 Nur Permatasari,4 Mohammad Aris Widodo,4 Setyowati Soeharto4 1Department of Biomedical, Medical Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia; 2Department of Cardiology, Medical Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia; 3Department of Endocrinology, Medical Faculty, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia; 4Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia Background: Oxidative stress in atherosclerosis produces H2O2 and triggers the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB and increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. The formation of vasa vasorum occurs in atherosclerosis. Vasa vasorum angiogenesis is mediated by VEGFR-1 and upregulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α. The newly formed vasa vasorum are fragile and immature and thus increase plaque instability. It is necessary to control vasa vasorum angiogenesis by using mangosteen pericarp antioxidant. This study aims to demonstrate that mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract can act as vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1α, NF-κB, and iNOS inhibition in rats given a hypercholesterol diet. Methods: This was a true experimental laboratory, in vivo posttest with control group design, with 20 Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats divided into five groups (normal group, hypercholesterol group, and hypercholesterol groups with certain doses of mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract: 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The parameters of this study were H2O2 measured by using colorimetric analysis, as well as NF-κB, iNOS, and HIF-1α, which were measured by using immunofluorescence double staining and observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope in aortic smooth muscle cell. The angiogenesis of vasa vasorum was quantified from VEGFR-1 level in aortic tissue and confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Analysis of variance

  4. Xanthones from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyue Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. is one of the most popular tropical fruits (called the “Queen of Fruits”, and is a rich source of oxygenated and prenylated xanthone derivatives. In the present work, phytochemical investigation has resulted in one new prenylated xanthone and 13 known xanthones isolated from the pericarp of G. mangostana. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analysis, including X-ray diffraction. The new one was further tested for cytotoxic activity against seven cancer cell lines (CNE-1, CNE-2, A549, H490, PC-3, SGC-7901, U87, displaying the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values 3.35, 4.01, 4.84, 7.84, 6.21, 8.09, and 6.39 μM, respectively. It is noteworthy that the new compound can promote CNE-2 cells apoptosis in late stage, having a remarkable inhibition effect on the side population growth of CNE-2 at 1.26 μM. The bioactive compound was also detected in extract from fresh mangosteen flesh, which indicated that the popular fruit could have potential cytotoxic activity for cancer cell lines.

  5. Alterations in Cell Cycle and Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells Treated with α-Mangostin Extracted from Mangosteen Pericarp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Kurose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of molecularly targeted drugs has greatly advanced cancer therapy, despite these drugs being associated with some serious problems. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the anticancer effects of natural products. α-Mangostin, a xanthone isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen fruit, has been shown to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines and to exhibit antitumor activity in a mouse mammary cancer model. In this study, we investigated the influence of α-mangostin on apoptosis and cell cycle in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 (carrying a p53 mutation, and HER2, ER, and PgR negative in order to elucidate its anticancer mechanisms. In α-mangostin-treated cells, induction of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis was observed. On cell-cycle analysis, G1-phase arrest, increased p21cip1 expression and decreases in cyclins, cdc(s, CDKs and PCNA were observed. In conclusion, α-mangostin may be useful as a therapeutic agent for breast cancer carrying a p53 mutation and having HER2- and hormone receptor-negative subtypes.

  6. Extracts from Vatica diospyroides type SS fruit show low dose activity against MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell-line via apoptotic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisawat, Theera; Sukpondma, Yaowapa; Chimplee, Siriphon; Kanokwiroon, Kanyanatt; Tedasen, Aman; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2014-01-01

    Very strong antiproliferative action of V. diospyroides type SS fruit extracts (IC50 range of 1.60-17.45 µg/mL) in MDA-MB-468 cell-line was observed in an MTT assay. After dosing of an extract concentration at half IC50 to cell line for 24 to 72 hours, treated cells were subjected to Annexin V-FITC/PI binding assay, followed by FACS and western blot analyses. Significant apoptotic death was observed with all extract treatments and both exposure times. Dosing with acetone extract of pericarp and cotyledon induced the highest apoptotic populations (33 and 32%, resp.), with the lowest populations of viable cells (65 and 67%, resp.). During 24 to 72 hours of dosing with methanolic extract of pericarp, the populations of viable and early apoptotic cells decreased significantly from 72.40 to 71.32% and from 12.00 to 6.36%, respectively, while the late apoptotic and nonviable cell populations continuously increased from 15.30 to 19.18% and from 0.30 to 3.14%, respectively. The expression of Bax increased within 12-48 hours of dosing, confirming apoptosis induced by time-dependent responses. The mutant p53 of MDA-MB-468 cells was expressed. Our results indicate that apoptosis and time-dependent therapeutic actions contribute to the cytotoxic effects of V. diospyroides type SS fruit on MDA-MB-468 cell.

  7. HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT IN PREVENTION BROWNING OF LYCHEE PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias1

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The browning of litchi pericarp (Litchi chinensis Sonn. occurs rapidly after harvest, limiting the marketing period of the fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hot water treatments in preventing browning of the pericarp and the maintenance of postharvest quality of litchi fruit. Fruits of litchi cv. Bengal uniformly red pericarp were submitted to immersion in water at tree temperature (45, 50 and 55°C x five soaking times (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 minutes in a completely randomized design with tree replications and five fruit per replicate. After drying, the fruits were packed in polystyrene trays, covered with plastic wrap with 12 mm thick and stored in the lab benches at room temperature (19.0 ± 2.4°C and 75 ± 5% RH to simulate the exposure conditions at supermarket counters. Every two days, during eight days, were evaluated the weight loss, color of the pericarp, soluble solids, titratable acidity of the pulp and ascorbic acid content of the pericarp and pulp. It was observed that the weight loss was higher in fruits that were not subjected to hydrothermal treatment. Fruits subjected to 50°C during 16 minutes and 55°C in all immersion times were evaluated only until the 4th day, thereafter, these fruits are not suitable for commercialization. Immersion at 45°C during four minutes was the most effective in maintaining the red color of the pericarp and did not affect the quality measured during the experimental period.

  8. 山竹果皮提取物农药活性研究①%Pesticide Activity of the Extracts from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶火春; 张静; 周颖; 肖建辉; 闫超; 冯岗

    2016-01-01

    探索山竹果皮提取物在农业中的杀虫抗菌活性,为新型植物源农药的开发提供理论依据。采用浸叶法测定山竹果皮乙醇、石油醚、氯仿、乙酸乙酯及正丁醇等5种提取物对斜纹夜蛾3龄幼虫拒食和毒杀活性;以生长速率法测定这5种提取物对12种植物病原真菌的抗菌活性。结果显示院山竹果皮提取物对斜纹夜蛾3龄幼虫均具有一定的拒食及毒杀作用,以氯仿提取物的拒食活性最高,其24和48 h拒食率分别为72.51%和65.75%;而毒杀作用以石油醚提取物最强,其处理5 d后,斜纹夜蛾的校正死亡率为53.70%。抑菌试验显示山竹氯仿提取物对芒果炭疽病菌、水稻纹枯病菌、番茄灰霉病菌和芒果蒂腐病菌等4种植物病原真菌具有明显抑制菌丝生长作用,其EC50值分别为0.2305、0.4293、0.2652和0.3901 mg/mL。由此说明,山竹果皮提取物具有良好的杀虫抗菌活性,基于山竹产物开发新型植物源农药具有潜在的利用价值。%The insecticidal and antifungal activities of the extracts from the mangosteen pericarp was evaluated to provide some evidence for new botanical pesticides development. The extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol were isolated from ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp. Insecticidal effects of five different polar extracts against the third instar larvae of Prode nia litura Fab. was conducted by the method of leaf dipping and antifungal activity of the extracts against several phytopathogenic fungi were assessed using mycelium growth rate assay. The results indicated that these extracts had larvicidal and antifeedant activities. Among antifeedant activity the chloroform extract at 1 mg/mL was the most significant with antifeedant rate values of 72.51% and 65.75% for 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively. Besides, the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most significant larvicidal activity, the corrected

  9. Fruits foraging patterns and seed dispersal effect of frugivorous birds on Hippophae rhamnoides sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xianwen; SUN Kun; MA Ruijun; ZHANG Hui; SU Xue; WANG Mingli

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors of 18 species of birds eating fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides spp.sinensis were observed from September 2003 to March 2004.Their foraging patterns were found to be very different and Can be divided into five classes:(1)direct swallowing the fruits on crown of the shrubs and sometimes regurgitating seeds soon after;(2)carrying the fruits to their perching sites and swallowing;(3)pecking the fruits from the shrubs to the ground,eating pulp and seeds but leaving pericarp;(4)pecking through the pericarp,eating pulp and leaving pericarp and seeds;(5)pecking through the pericarp on the top of fruits,and only eating seeds.These foraging patterns have different effects on seed dispersal of H.rhamnoides spp.sinensis.The germination experiment of three groups of seeds(seeds from feces,dry fruits and extracted seeds from dry fruits)was carried out.Although ingestion processes of birds had some adverse effects on the seed germination of H.rhamnoides spp.sinensis,the seeds from feces still have a relatively higher germination ratio.H.rhamnoides spp.sinensis provides food to a variety of frugivorous birds.and the birds disperse its seeds.Thus,a mutually beneficial relationship between the bird and the seed is formed.

  10. Major Proteome Variations Associated with Cherry Tomato Pericarp Development and Ripening[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurobert, Mireille; Mihr, Christina; Bertin, Nadia; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Negroni, Luc; Sommerer, Nicolas; Causse, Mathilde

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a model plant for studying fleshy fruit development. Several genetic and molecular approaches have been developed to increase our knowledge about the physiological basis of fruit growth, but very few data are yet available at the proteomic level. The main stages of fruit development were first determined through the dynamics of fruit diameter and pericarp cell number. Then, total proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue at six relevant developmental stages and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein patterns were markedly different between stages. Proteins showing major variations were monitored. We identified 90 of 1,791 well-resolved spots either by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight peptide mass fingerprinting or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry sequencing and expressed sequence tag database searching. Clustered correlation analysis results pointed out groups of proteins with similar expression profiles during fruit development. In young fruit, spots linked to amino acid metabolism or protein synthesis were mainly expressed during the cell division stage and down-regulated later. Some spots linked to cell division processes could be identified. During the cell expansion phase, spots linked to photosynthesis and proteins linked to cell wall formation transiently increased. In contrast, the major part of the spots related to C compounds and carbohydrate metabolism or oxidative processes were up-regulated during fruit development, showing an increase in spot intensity during development and maximal abundance in mature fruit. This was also the case for spots linked to stress responses and fruit senescence. We discuss protein variations, taking into account their potential role during fruit growth and comparing our results with already known variations at mRNA and metabolite-profiling levels. PMID:17208958

  11. Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Effects of Mangosteen Pericarps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic lipase plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of lipids, inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase (PL is considered as a new approach to obesity treatment. The objective of the present study was to find PL inhibitors from natural food sources. Eighteen natural food products sampled from local supermarkets in Zhuhai were tested for PL inhibitory activity using a copper-soap photometric method. Among the samples tested, the crude extracts from mangosteen pericarp, lemon pulp, celery, cucumber and dry longan were found to be able to suppress the PL activity to different extents, while dry red chili, fresh green chili and dry clove exhibited a promotion effect on the PL. Shiitake mushroom, green bell pepper, lemon peel and spices (ginger, oregano leaf, bay leaf, cinnamon and dry tangerine showed no significant influence either on the inhibition or promotion. The crude extract of mangosteen pericarp was further fractioned to trace active fractions. It was found that the n-butanol fraction was the major contributor to the PL-inhibitory effect of mangosteen pericarp and the inhibition rate was 43.9% at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, the IC50 value was 0.918 mg/mL. Mangosteen pericarp is worthy of utilization as functional food constituents for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  12. Gastroprotective effect of Benincasa hispida fruit extract

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    Rachchh Manish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The antiulcer activity of Benincasa hispida (Thunb. Cogn. fruit was evaluated in rats against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage, pylorus ligated (PL gastric ulcers, and cold restraint-stress (CRS-induced gastric ulcer models. Methods: Petroleum ether and methanol extracts were administrated orally at the dose of 300 mg/kg, and omeprazole (reference standard at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Ulcer index was common parameter studied in all the models. Further, vascular permeability was evaluated in ethanol model, and effect on lipid peroxidation, viz. melondialdehyde (MDA content, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels were studied in CRS model. Results: Both the extracts produced significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.05 in all the models and the results were comparable with that of omeprazole-treated group. Further, significant reduction in vascular permeability (P < 0.05 was observed. In CRS model, MDA content was significantly reduced along with increase in CAT levels as compared to control group. Conclusions: Petroleum ether and methanol extracts of B. hispida possess significant antiulcer as well as antioxidant property.

  13. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins from mangosteen pericarps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Caili; Loo, Alvin Eng Kiat; Chia, Fiona Ping Ping; Huang, Dejian

    2007-09-19

    Oligomeric proanthocyanidins were extracted from mangosteen pericarps and fractionated by a Sephadex LH-20 column to give 0.66% yield (dry matter). (13)C and (1)H NMR signals showed the presence of predominantly procyanidins together with a few prodelphinidin units along with small amounts of stereoisomers of afzelechin/epiafzelechin, catechin/epicatechin, and gallocatechin/epigallocatechin. Depolymerization with benzylmercaptan resulted in epicatechin thioether as the major product, and the mean degree of polymerization was determined to be 6.6. The electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra revealed the dominant B type oligomers with mainly epicatechin units and with a small amount of A type oligomers. The isolated proanthocyanidins are potent peroxyl radical scavengers as evidenced by the high oxygen radical scavenging capacity at 1.7 x 10 (4) micromol TE/g, much higher than that of pine bark and grape seed extracts.

  14. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive.

  15. Phenolic-compound-extraction systems for fruit and vegetable samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Salas, Patricia; Morales-Soto, Aranzazu; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2010-12-03

    This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE) can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process.

  16. Insulin secretion stimulating effects of mogroside V and fruit extract of luo han kuo (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle) fruit extract..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Yan; Ebersole, Jeff; Huang, Chi-fu

    2009-11-01

    Luo han kuo fruit (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle), a fruit native to China, has been used as a natural sweetening agent for centuries and has been reported to be beneficial for diabetic population. However, limited research has been conducted to elucidate the relationship between the sweetening action and biological parameters that may be related to potential health benefits of LHK fruit (Luo Han Kuo fruit). The present study examined the effect of LHK fruit and its chemical components on insulin secretion using an in vitro cell model system. Mogroside V is the most abundant and the sweetest chemical component among the mogrosides in LHK fruit. The experimental data demonstrated that the crude LHK extract stimulated the secretion of insulin in pancreatic beta cells; furthermore, pure mogroside V isolated from LHK fruit also exhibited a significant activity in stimulating insulin secretion by the beta cells, which could partially be responsible for the insulin secretion activity of LHK fruit and fruit extract. The current study supports that LHK fruit/extract has the potential to be natural sweetener with a low glycemic index, and that mogroside V, possible other related mogrosides, can provide a positive health impact on stimulating insulin secretion.

  17. Cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of Annona muricata pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, M C; Arango, G J; González, M C; Robledo, S M; Velez, I D

    2000-04-01

    Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona muricata pericarp were tested in vitro against Leishmania braziliensis and L. panamensis promastigotes, and against cell line U-937. The ethyl acetate extract was more active than the other extracts and even of Glucantime used as reference substance. Its fractionation led to the isolation of three acetogenins--annonacin, annonacin A and annomuricin A.

  18. Haematinic properties of methanolic stem bark and fruit extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematinic properties of methanolic stem bark and fruit extracts of Ficus sur in rats pre-exposed to ... African Journal of Biomedical Research ... The Haematocrit and Haemoglobin concentration and Red Blood Cell Count of rats treated with ...

  19. Changes in Gene Expression during Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, M S; Harriman, R W; Handa, A K

    1986-06-01

    Total proteins from pericarp tissue of different chronological ages from normally ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers) fruits and from fruits of the isogenic ripening-impaired mutants rin, nor, and Nr were extracted and separated by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the stained bands revealed increases in 5 polypeptides (94, 44, 34, 20, and 12 kilodaltons), decreases in 12 polypeptides (106, 98, 88, 76, 64, 52, 48, 45, 36, 28, 25, and 15 kilodaltons), and fluctuations in 5 polypeptides (85, 60, 26, 21, and 16 kilodaltons) as normal ripening proceeded. Several polypeptides present in ripening normal pericarp exhibited very low or undetectable levels in developing mutant pericarp. Total RNAs extracted from various stages of Rutgers pericarp and from 60 to 65 days old rin, nor, and Nr pericarp were fractionated into poly(A)(+) and poly(A)(-) RNAs. Peak levels of total RNA, poly(A)(+) RNA, and poly(A)(+) RNA as percent of total RNA occurred between the mature green to breaker stages of normal pericarp. In vitro translation of poly(A)(+) RNAs from normal pericarp in rabbit reticulocyte lysates revealed increases in mRNAs for 9 polypeptides (116, 89, 70, 42, 38, 33, 31, 29, and 26 kilodaltons), decreases in mRNAs for 2 polypeptides (41 and 35 kilodaltons), and fluctuations in mRNAs for 5 polypeptides (156, 53, 39, 30, and 14 kilodaltons) during normal ripening. Analysis of two-dimensional separation of in vitro translated polypeptides from poly(A)(+) RNAs isolated from different developmental stages revealed even more extensive changes in mRNA populations during ripening. In addition, a polygalacturonase precursor (54 kilodaltons) was immunoprecipitated from breaker, turning, red ripe, and 65 days old Nr in vitro translation products.

  20. Morfo-anatomia do fruto (hipanto, pericarpo e semente em desenvolvimento de Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2046 Morphology and anatomy of the fruit (hypanthium, pericarp and seed development of Pereskia aculeate Miller (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maciel da Rosa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do fruto (hipanto, pericarpo e semente de Pereskia aculeata Miller é analisado desde a flor em antese até a maturidade. A flor é perígina e apresenta no hipanto bractéolas verdes e acúleos. O fruto é pomáceo, tipo cactídio e caracteriza-se por apresentar hipanto carnoso, pericarpo e massa gelatinosa, formada pela destruição parcial do pericarpo e columela, onde estão imersas as sementes. A semente é exotestal e origina-se do óvulo anfítropo, bitegumentado e crassinucelado. A semente apresenta reserva perispérmica e resíduos de endosperma. O embrião é curvo e tem eixo hipocótilo-radicular longo, dois cotilédones com mesofilo homogêneo e plúmula indiferenciadaThe development of Pereskia aculeate Miller fruit (hypanthium, pericarp and seed was analyzed. The flower is perigynous and presents a hypanthium with bracteoles and aculeus. The fruit is pomaceous, type cactídio, with succulent hypanthium, pericarp, and seeds immersed in a gelatinous mass. This gelatinous mass originates from the pericarp and the columella. The seed is exotestal and develops from an amphitropous, bitegmic and crassinucelate ovule. It has perisperm and an endosperm residue. The embryo is curved and is composed of elongated hypocotyl-radicle axis, two cotyledons with uniform mesophyll, and undifferentiated plumule

  1. Pentacylic triterpenes ofJurinea anatolic boiss. andJurinea consanguinea DC. Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, K L; Smith, C R

    1967-03-01

    Pentacyclic triterpene alcohols, together with their acetate, myristate, and palmitate esters, comprise about 40% of the petroleum ether extract of the fruit (seed and pericarp) of twoJurinea species. All the triterpene esters and a porition of the free triterpene alcohols in theJ. anatolica extract are derived from the pericarp portion of the fruit. The triterpene alcohol moieties and their approximate percentage of the hydrolyzed extract ofJ. anatolica fruit are alpha-amyrin, 5%; beta-amyrin, 6%; lupeol, 6%; and psi-taraxasterol plus taraxasterol, 16%.J. consanguinea fruit extract yields essentially the same amount of the same five triterpene alcohols on hydrolysis. These concentrations of triterpenoid materials are believed to be the largest found in plant tissues.

  2. Changes in the cell-wall polysaccharides of outer pericarp tissues of kiwifruit during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingjun; Nakagawa, Naoki; Nevins, Donald J; Sakurai, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    Changes in pectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose in the cell walls of outer pericarp tissues of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) were determined during development. An extensive amylase digestion was employed to remove possible contaminating starch before and after fractionation of wall polysaccharides. An initial treatment of crude cell walls with alpha-amylase and iso-amylase or DMSO, was found to be insufficient removing the contaminating starch from wall polysaccharides. After EDTA and alkaline extraction, the pectic and hemicellulose fractions were again treated with the combination of alpha-amylase and iso-amylase. The amounts of predominant pectic sugars Gal, Rha and Ara, unaffected by the first and second amylase digestion, decreased markedly during the early fruit enlargement (8-12 weeks after anthesis, WAA), then increased during 16-20 WAA, and finally declined during fruit maturity (20-25 WAA). The molecular-mass of pectic polysaccharides decreased during fruit enlargement (8-16 WAA), and then changed little during fruit maturity. The higher molecular-mass components of hemicelluloses in HC-I and HC-II fractions detected at the early stage of fruit enlargement (8-12 WAA) were degraded at the late stage of fruit enlargement (16 WAA), but then remained stable at the much lower molecular-mass till fruit maturity. The amount of Xyl in the HC-II fraction decreased during the early fruit enlargement and fruit maturity, an observation that was consistent with xyloglucan (XG) content. The gel permeation profiles of XG showed a slight increase in higher molecular-mass components during 8-12 WAA, but thereafter there was no significant down-shift of molecular-mass until harvest time. The cellulose fraction increased steadily during fruit enlargement through maturity, but the XG contents in HC-I and HC-II fractions remained at a low level during these stages. Methylation analysis of HC-I and HC-II fractions confirmed the low level of XG in the

  3. Metabolic profiling and outer pericarp water state in Zespri, CI.GI, and Hayward kiwifruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Donatella; Mannina, Luisa; Proietti, Noemi; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Tomassini, Alberta; Miccheli, Alfredo; Di Cocco, Maria E; Capuani, Giorgio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Delfini, Maurizio

    2013-02-27

    The metabolic profiling of aqueous extracts of Zespri Gold ( Actinidia chinensis ) and CI.GI (a controlled crossbreed from different species of Actinidia deliciosa ) kiwifruits and the water state of the outer pericarp of entire fruits were monitored over the season by means of high-field NMR spectroscopy and T(2) relaxation time measurements, respectively, and compared with the corresponding ones of Hayward kiwifruits previously investigated. A more complete assignment of the (1)H spectrum with respect to that obtained previously was reported: histidine, phenylalanine, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, and epicatechin were identified. Metabolic profiling confirmed Zespri's earlier maturation compared with the two other varieties. The water state of entire kiwifruits was measured nondestructively on fruits attached to the plants or detached from the plants. T(2) relaxation times were found to be sensitive to the kiwifruit developmental stage.

  4. Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

  5. CHITOSAN ON DELAYING OF THE DARKENING OF THE PERICARP IN LYCHEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Cristina Rosa de Lins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available After harvest of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. pericarp browning occurs rapidly, this causes the fruit to submit short postharvest life. This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of chitosan in delaying the browning of the pericarp and in maintaining the postharvest quality of lychees. Fruits of litchi ‘Bengal’ uniformly red pericarp were immersed for one minute in solution with different concentrations of chitosan (0 g.L-1, 5 g.L-1, 10 g.L-1, 15 g.L-1 and 20 g.L-1. After drying the environment, the fruits were packed in polystyrene trays, covered with plastic wrap for 12 mm thick and stored at 19.0 ± 2.4°C and 75 ± 5% RH. Every two days, during eight days, the fruits were evaluated for weight loss, color of the pericarp, soluble solids and titratable acidity and vitamin C from the pulp of the pericarp and pulp. The weight loss increased linearly during the period of storage, independent of the concentration predominantly of chitosan. The concentrations of 5 and 10 g.L-1 were the most effective in keeping the color of the pericarp for up to four days, without compromising other characteristics.

  6. 荔枝皮中原花青素提取工艺优化及其黄烷-3-醇HPLC分析%Optimization ofconditions on extraction procyanidins and flavan-3-ol of HPLC analysis from litchi pericarp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 余小平; 游江舟; 娄彬

    2012-01-01

    To optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of proantho-cyanidins of litchi pericarp and the contents of flavan-3-ol of were studied from litchi pericarp. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to evaluate the effects of four independent variables(the smash degree, the ratio of solvent to material, ultrasonic duration and ultrasonic power ) on the absorbance values of proanthocyanidins of litchi pericarp. Under the optimized conditions, the contents of flavan-3-ol of were analyzed by the methods of catalytic colorimetry with ferric i-ons and HPLC analysis from litchi pericarp. The results showed that the optimal conditions were as follows: the smash degree of litchi pericarp was 71. 91 mesh, the ratio of solvent to material was 29. 97 : 1 (V : m) , ultrasonic duration was 21. 75 min, ultrasonic power was 390. 48 W with the ultrasonic extraction method. Under the above conditions, the confirmed tests absorbance value of proanthocyanidins was 2. 157 Abs, which was close relation with the predicted absorbance value of proanthocyanidins was 2. 189 86 Abs. The contents of flavan-3-ol showed that procyanidins was 89. 32 mg/g, gallic acid was 1. 11 mg/g, epigallocatechin was 87. 09 mg/g, catechin was 3. 37 mg/g, epicatechin was 31. 15 mg/g and epicatechin-gallate was 7. 02 mg/g by the methods of catalytic colorimetry with ferric ions and HPI-C analysis.%优化荔枝皮中原花青素超声波辅助提取工艺,并对其黄烷-3-醇类成份进行分析定量.用Box-Behnken Design设计考察荔枝皮粉碎度、料液比、超声时间和超声波功率4个因素对荔枝皮中原花青素提取的影响程度.在最佳工艺参数条件下,超声破碎荔枝皮1次,采用铁盐催化比色法和HPLC法分析得出荔枝皮黄烷-3-醇类成份及含量.荔枝皮中原花青素超声波辅助提取最佳工艺参数为荔枝皮粉碎度71.91目、料液比1∶29.97(m ∶V)、超声时间21.75 min和超声波功率390.48W.在最佳提取工艺参数下超声

  7. Study on the Antioxidant Activity in the Extracts of Mangosteen(Garcinia mangostana)Pericarp%山竹果皮提取物抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝友; 李春英; 赵春建

    2012-01-01

    采用DPPH自由基清除能力、超氧自由基清除能力、β-胡萝卜素漂白抑制、还原力测定及抗脂质过氧化等试验方法对山竹果皮提取物及其二氯甲烷可溶部分、正丁醇可溶部分、水可溶部分进行抗氧化活性评估,同时对总酚含量进行测定。结果表明,山竹果皮提取物的各分离部位以正丁醇可溶部分的抗氧化活性最好,总酚含量也最高。因此,山竹果皮提取物正丁醇可溶部分具有极佳的抗氧化能力,有进一步开发应用的价值。%The antioxidant activities of the extracts from mangosteen(Garcinia mangostana)pericarp and its various fractions including the dichloromethane soluble fraction,butanol soluble fraction,water soluble fraction were assessed using various antioxidant assays,including DPPH free radical and superoxide free radical scavenging assays,β-carotene bleaching inhibition,reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation assay.In addition,total phenolic contents of these extracts were also determined.Results showed that among the various fractions,the butanol soluble fraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity and the content of total phenolic compounds in them was the highest.Therefore,the butanol soluble fraction in the extracts of mangosteen pericarp has excellent antioxidant activities,indicating its potential application values for further development.

  8. Antinociceptive Effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia Fruits on Sciatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Karimi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe role of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit as an analgesic agent in acute pain has been proved earlier. In this study, the effects of aqueous extracts of three parts of this fruit (pericarp, medulla and seed on chronic pain were investigated in mice. Materials and MethodsA partial nerve injury was made using a tight ligature around the sciatic nerve, then doses (0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg, i.p. of pericarp, medulla and seed extracts were injected in nerve ligated mice. The effect of different doses of three parts of this fruit on chronic pain was examined 14 days after sciatic nerve ligation using the hot-plate test. Controls received saline (5 ml/kg, i.p. and imipramine (40 mg/kg.ResultsIn the hot plate test, intraperitoneal injection of different doses of three parts of this fruit showed considerable analgesic effect on nerve ligated mice that was dose dependent with duration of action of 120 min. ConclusionAdministration of the aqueous extracts of pericarp, medulla and seed of E. angustifolia fruit indicated significant analgesic effect on chronic pain in nerve ligated animals.

  9. Effect of Steam Blanching and Drying on Phenolic Compounds of Litchi Pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessy, Honest N E; Hu, Zhuoyan; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Molin

    2016-06-03

    The effects of different treatment methods on the stability and antioxidant capacity of the bioactive phenolic compounds of litchi pericarps were investigated. Fresh litchi pericarps were open air-dried, steam-blanched for 3 min in combination with hot air oven drying at 60 and 80 °C, and unblanched pericarps were dried in a hot air oven at 40, 60, 70 and 80 °C until equilibrium weight was reached. The total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and individual procyanidins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed. The combination of blanching and drying at 60 °C significantly (p phenolic compounds, individual procyanidins, and the extracts' antioxidant capacity compared with the unblanched hot air oven-dried and open air-dried pericarps. Drying of fresh unblanched litchi pericarps in either open air or a hot air oven caused significant losses (p phenolic compounds and individual procyanidins, leading to a reduction in the antioxidant activity. A similar increase, retention or reduction was reflected in flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins because they are sub-groups of phenolic compounds. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity of the treated pericarps were significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.927, p phenolic compounds. Thus, the combination of steam blanching and drying treatments of fresh litchi pericarps could produce a stable and dry litchi pericarp that maintains phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity as a raw material for further recovery of the phytochemicals.

  10. Electroanalytical tools for antioxidant evaluation of red fruits dry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Isaac Yves Lopes; Garcia, Luane Ferreira; Oliveira Neto, Jerônimo Raimundo; de Siqueira Leite, Karla Carneiro; Ferreira, Valdir Souza; Ghedini, Paulo César; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2017-02-15

    Red fruits are rich sources of antioxidant compounds with recognized health benefits. Since they are perishable, dried extracts emerge as more durable products and their quality control must include antioxidant capacity assays. In this study, the redox behavior of commercial dried products obtained from camu-camu, açai, acerola and cranberry red fruits was evaluated by electroanalytical approaches. The antioxidant potential was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay and the electrochemical index concept. The total phenol content was estimated by using a laccase based biosensor. A significant correlation was found between all methods and literature data. The voltammetric profile (cyclic, differential and square wave) obtained for each type of dried extract showed distinguishable features that were correlated with their main major markers, being also useful for identification purposes. The electrochemical methods were cheaper and more practical for evaluation of antioxidant properties and total phenol content in dried powders obtained from different red fruits.

  11. Anti Epileptic Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn Fruit Extract

    OpenAIRE

    P. Muralidharan; Srikanth, J

    2010-01-01

    Fruit extract of Morinda citrifolia (Noni), a medicinal plant used in many neuro protective ayurvedic preparations was evaluated for its protective effect against seizures induced by Maximal Electro Shock (MES) method in rats. A daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract was administered to the animals for 15 days, after which seizures were induced by maximum electro shock method and the duration of various phases of epileptic attacks were recorded and compared with the control animals. A...

  12. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  13. [Study on condition for extraction of arctiin from fruits of Arctium lappa using supercritical fluid extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-hong; Liu, Ben

    2006-08-01

    To study the feasibility of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for arctiin from the fruits of Arctium lappa. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC, optimum extraction conditions were studied by orthogonal tests. The optimal extraction conditions were: pressure 40 MPa, temperature 70 degrees C, using methanol as modifier carrier at the rate of 0.55 mL x min(-1), static extraction time 5 min, dynamic extraction 30 min, flow rate of CO2 2 L x min(-1). SFE has the superiority of adjustable polarity, and has the ability of extracting arctiin.

  14. Green extraction of polyphenols from whole pomegranate fruit using cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti, Amalia C; Igoumenidis, Panagiotis E; Mourtzinos, Ioannis; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate is a source of bioactive phytochemicals. The objective of this study was the derivation of a sustainable method to exploit the whole fruit, both edible and non-edible parts, as a source of polyphenols. Pomegranate peel contains a 10-fold higher phenolic content than the pulp. The fruit was freeze-dried and the resulting dry matter was extracted with solid-liquid percolation equipment using non-toxic and eco-friendly extraction solvents: either deionized water or aqueous solutions of cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are known molecular encapsulators and our results prove enhancement of the extraction of pomegranate polyphenols by 20%. In order to examine the formation of inclusion complexes between CD's and polyphenols of the extract, polyphenols were isolated using solid-phase extraction. NMR studies with the purified extracts and the individual CDs confirmed inclusion complex formation in water. Pomegranate liquid extracts may be used as raw materials for several end-users in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Study on ultraviolet-screening effect of extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.)pericarp%山竹果壳提取物抗紫外线辐射作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成中; 卜其涛; 郑毅男; 宋波; 李伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the ultraviolet-screening of the n-butanol extracts of mangosteen pericarp and α-mangostin, compare the ultraviolet-screening effect of the extracts with rutin and ultramicro-titanium dioxide ( TiO2 ).Methods The samples ( n-butanol extract from mangosteen pericarp, α-mangostin, rutin and TiO2 ) were scanned at different wavelength and Pan-wavelength by ultraviolet spectrophotometry.Results The n-butanol extracts and α-mangostin had relatively satisfactory effects on ultraviolet-screening when the concentration was over 0.40mg/ml and the effects on ultraviolet-screening was better than TiO2.Conclusion The n-butanol extracts and α-mangostin had a positive ultraviolet-screening activity which was better than TiO2.%目的 分析山竹果壳提取物及倒捻子素对紫外线的防护作用,比较其与芦丁、纳米TiO2的抗紫外线防护作用.方法 使用紫外可见分光光度计测定不同波长下及全波长扫描时山竹果壳正丁醇萃取物、倒捻子素、芦丁和纳米TiO2的紫外线吸收率.结果 山竹正丁醇萃取物及倒捻子素浓度≥0.40mg/ml时具有很好的抗紫外线防晒作用,在低浓度(≤0.40mg/ml)条件下两者抗紫外线作用优于TiO2.结论 山竹正丁醇萃取物及倒捻子素抗紫外线辐射作用优于纳米TiO2.

  16. Characterization of cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisak, Muhammad Asri Abdul; Daik, Rusli; Ramli, Suria

    2015-09-01

    Recently, cellulose has been studied by many researchers due to its promising properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and robustness. Due to that it is applied in many fields such as paper, film, drug delivery, membranes, etc. Cellulose can be extracted from various plants while oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the one of its sources. In this study, cellulose was extracted by chemical treatments which involved the use of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove hemicellulose and lignin components. Maximum yield was 43.22%. Based on the FT-IR spectra, the peak of wax (1735 cm-1), hemicellulose (1375 cm-1) and lignin (1248 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1) were not observed in extracted cellulose. TGA analysis showed that the extracted cellulose starts to thermally degrade at 340 °C. The SEM analysis suggested that the cellulose extracted from OPEFB was not much different from commercial cellulose.

  17. Antidiabetic Evaluation of Momordica charantia L Fruit Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahira, S; Hussain, F

    2014-01-01

    To investigate hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and pancreatic beta cell regeneration activities of Momordica charantia L fruits (MC). Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were treated with methanolic and ethanolic MC extract. Effects of plant extracts and the drug glibenclamide on serum glucose, lipid profile and pancreatic beta cell were determined after two weeks of treatment. Serum glucose and lipid profiles were assayed by kit methods. Pancreatic tissue histopathology was performed to study pancreatic beta cell regeneration. Momordica charantia extracts produced significant hypoglycaemic effects (p Momordica charantia supplementations were unable to normalize glucose and lipid profiles. Glibenclamide, a standard drug, not only lowered hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia but also restored the normal levels. Regeneration of pancreatic beta cells by MC extracts was minimal, with fractional improvement produced by glibenclamide. The most significant finding of the present study was a 28% reduction in hyperglycaemia by MC ethanol extracts. To determine reliable antidiabetic potentials of MC, identification of the relevant antidiabetic components and underlying mechanisms is warranted. PMID:25429471

  18. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Phyllanthus acidus Fruit Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianto, D.; Widianti, W.; Bintang, M.

    2017-03-01

    Phyllanthus acidus is an Indonesian plant belonging to the Euphorbiaccae family. Extraction of P. acidus was performed using the maceration method. Four-solvent extraction process by ethanol, 70% ethanol, 30% ethanol, and water was used. The antioxidant activity from this extract was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH) and cytotoxicity (biological potency from this extract) using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) method. We found that the extraction yields of samples ranging from 1.13% to 20.25%. The ethanol extract showed the highest yield, while the lowest yield was reported in the water extract of P. acidus fruit. Among the samples, water extract of P. acidus exhibited high antioxidant activity with IC50 26.06 μg/mL. LC50 values for BSLT ranging from 473.26 to 908.98 μg/mL, with the water extract having the lowest value and therefore the most potent, and the ethanol extract having the highest value

  19. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia Indica Fruit Rind Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the easily reproducible biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature with extract prepared using three year old dried Garcinia Indica (GI) fruit rind. Due to the presence of two major bioactive compounds garcinol and hydroxy citric acid, rinds of GI fruit exhibit anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. The quantity of fruit rind extract directed the morphology of the as synthesized particles. The nucleation and growth of AuNPs and catalytic activity are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystalline nature of biosynthesized AuNPs is corroborated by X-ray Diffraction techniques. The morphology is studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of AuNPs. As the Fermi potential of noble metal NPs becomes more negative, they are used in various electron transfer processes. The AuNPs produced using GI extract showed excellent catalytic activity when used as a catalyst in the reduction of well-known toxic pollutant 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of excess sodium borohydride.

  20. Anxiogenic Like activity of Sarcocephalus latifolius Fruit Extract in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    David Arome; Enegide Chinedu; Solomon Fidelis Ameh

    2014-01-01

    The use of pharmacological agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders have fallen out of favour as their unwanted side effects have become evident. The present challenges call for an inward look into harnessing the full potential of medicinal plants that abound around us. The present study evaluates the anxiogenic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius in mice. The prepared extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg as well as 2.5 mg/kg of diazepam, the reference standard w...

  1. Characterization and preparation of oligomeric procyanidins from Litchi chinensis pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yong; Zheng, Yan; Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Shuyi; Xie, Bijun; Sun, Zhida

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study is to characterize and prepare A-type oligomeric procyanidins from litchi pericarp (Litchi chinensis Baila). The variety of oligomeric procyanidins was characterized by LC-ESI-MS analysis. There were (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, twelve dimers and six trimers of procyanidins were found in litchi pericarp extracts, and A-type procyanidins were much more abundant than B-type procyanidins. The main flavan-3-ol monomer and oligomeric procyanidins in litchi pericarp were (-)-epicatechin, A-type dimers (A1 and A2) and trimer (epicatechin-(4β-8, 2β-O-7)-epicatechin- (4β-8)-epicatechin). Procyanidin A1 (epicatechin-(4β-8, 2β-O-7)-catechin) was identified by NMR in litchi pericarp for the first time. (-)-Epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins were prepared by the combination of AB-8 column chromatography and Toyopearl HW-40S column chromatography. The results showed that each fraction predominantly owned a single compound and gave a high yield with (-)-epicatechin, A-type dimers (A1 and A2) and trimer, suggesting a useful method to obtain pure (-)-epicatechin and A-type oligomeric procyanidins.

  2. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  3. Phenolic contents and bioactive potential of peach fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrani, Abderrahmane; Krisa, Stéphanie; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Da Costa, Grégory; Temsamani, Hamza; Renouf, Elodie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Madani, Khodir; Mesnil, Marc; Monvoisin, Arnaud; Richard, Tristan

    2016-07-01

    Several cultivars of peach fruit (Prunus persica L.) were investigated. Their phenolic composition and concentration were assessed by LC-MS. Concentrations were calculated in mg per g of dry weight extract. Their antioxidant capacity (Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, DPPH, ABTS, PFRAP and ICA), inhibitory property against β-amyloid and α-synuclein fibril formation and protective capacity against Aβ-induced toxicity on PC12 cell lines (viability assessed by MTT assay and intracellular ROS production by DCFH-DA assay) were evaluated. Fifteen different phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. In particular, new isorhamnetin derivatives were identified. Phenolic contents were ranged between 19 and 82mg/g. Spring Belle extract had the highest content and Romea the lowest. Except for the ICA assay, a good correlation between phenolic content and the antioxidant capacities of peach fruit extracts was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are major contributors to their antioxidant capacity. Results indicate that the phenolic extract of peach cultivars inhibits Aβ and αS fibril formation and protects PC12 cell lines against Aβ-induced toxicity.

  4. Viability of Cabralea canjerana extracts to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-04-10

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus.

  5. Viability of Cabralea canjerana Extracts to Control the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus. PMID:25373194

  6. Hypolipidemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghule, B V; Ghante, M H; Saoji, A N; Yeole, P G

    2006-11-01

    Bottle gourd [(Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Stand.] fruit is ascribed with many therapeutic effects. The present study was undertaken to explore the antihyperlipidemic effect of four different extracts viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, alcoholic and aqueous extracts from bottle gourd in Triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats and their hypolipidemic effects in normocholesteremic rats. The study is comprised preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts. Oral administration of the extracts, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight in rats, dose-dependently inhibited the total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins level, and significantly increased the high density lipoproteins level. However, petroleum ether extract did not show the significant effects. Both the chloroform and alcoholic extract exhibited more significant effects in lowering total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoproteins along with increase in HDL as compared to the others. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, sterols, cucurbitacin saponins, polyphenolics, proteins, and carbohydrates. The results obtained suggest marked antihyperlipidemic and hypolipidemic activity of the extracts.

  7. Difference in capsaicinoid biosynthesis gene expression in the pericarp reveals elevation of capsaicinoid contents in chili peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Nakashima, Fumihiro; Kirii, Erasmus; Goto, Tanjuro; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yasuba, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-02-01

    This research reveals that the up-regulated expression of multiple capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pericarp tissue leads to the elevation of total capsaicinoid content in chili pepper fruit. Capsaicinoids are health-functional compounds that are produced uniquely in chili pepper fruits. A high capsaicinoid level is one of the major parameters determining the commercial quality and health-promoting properties of chili peppers. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for its high contents, we compared an extremely pungent cultivar 'Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Yellow' (MY) with other cultivars of different pungency levels (Fushimi-amanaga, Takanotsume, Red Habanero). Capsaicinoid concentrations were markedly higher in MY fruit (23.9 mg/g DW) than in other pungent cultivars including 'Red Habanero' (HB) fruit (14.3 mg/g DW). Comparative analysis of MY and HB reveals that both cultivars accumulated similar capsaicinoid concentrations in the placental septum, with that in the HB pericarp (1.8 mg/g DW) being markedly lower than that in the placental septum (69.1 mg/g DW). The capsaicinoid concentration in HB fruit is dependent on the placental septum, as reported in other accessions. Therefore, even though placental septum tissue contains high capsaicinoid concentrations, those in the pericarp and seeds attenuated its total content. In contrast, the MY pericarp exhibited a markedly higher concentration (23.2 mg/g DW). A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that multiple capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway genes (Pun1, pAMT, KAS, and BCAT) were strongly up-regulated in placental septum of pungent cultivars. The genes were expressed exclusively in the MY pericarp, but were barely detected in the pericarps of other pungent cultivars. Collectively, the present study indicates that the up-regulated expression of these genes not only in placental septum but also in pericarp plays an important role in driving capsaicinoid accumulation in the whole fruit.

  8. Flavonoids from Rhizophora conjugata fruit extract blocks virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, D.; Tilvi, S.; DeSouza, L.

    : chloroform (1:1) extracts of 7 mangrove plants on P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 motilities (swarming, swimming and twitching). Amongst the 22 extracts tested, methanolic extract of Rhizophora conjugata fruit showed maximum inhibition. The butanol (RcBu) fraction...

  9. Polyphenolic Constituents of the Pericarp of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Morio; Ninomiya, Kana; Tagashira, Yukari; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Amakura, Yoshiaki

    2015-09-01

    Three new polyphenols, together with 14 known compounds, were isolated from a hot water extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp, a plant that has been used medicinally in Southeast Asia. The three new polyphenols were characterized as a 4-aryl-2-flavanylbenzopyran derivative (tentatively named GM-1), 1, 3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-5-methoxybenzophenone (GM-2), 2, and 2,3-dihydrochromone derivative (GM-3), 3 on the basis of NMR and MS data. The relative stereostructure of GM-1 was assigned to have 2,3-cis-3,4-trans- and 2″,3″-cis configurations on the basis of the coupling constants of heterocyclic ring protons in the (1)H NMR spectrum along with nuclear Overhauser effect correlations. The HPLC analysis indicated that major polyphenolic components in the hot water extract of mangosteen pericarp were epicatechin and procyanidin B2 (epicatechin dimer).

  10. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Central nervous system activity ofIllicium verum fruit extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Divya Chouksey; Neeraj Upmanyu; RS Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum(I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system.Methods:TheTLC andHPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum.Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study.The powdered material was successively extracted withn-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using aSoxhlet extractor.Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines.TheCNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity.The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each.The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight.The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol.Results:Toxicity studies reported2000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic doseIntraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantlyalter muscles coordination activity.The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts.Conclusions:The observation suggested that the extracts ofI. verum possess potentCNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination.

  12. Anxiogenic Like activity of Sarcocephalus latifolius Fruit Extract in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pharmacological agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders have fallen out of favour as their unwanted side effects have become evident. The present challenges call for an inward look into harnessing the full potential of medicinal plants that abound around us. The present study evaluates the anxiogenic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius in mice. The prepared extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg as well as 2.5 mg/kg of diazepam, the reference standard was administered orally. The anxiogenic activity of the extract was evaluated using elevated plus maze and open field models. In the elevated plus maze, the extract showed an anxiogenic effect in all the experimental dosage levels by decreasing the time spent and number within the open arms. Animals in the extract and physiological saline groups spent more time in the enclosed arms to avoid the open arms, probably to avoid falling off. The reference standard showed a significant (P

  13. Gibberellic Acid, Synthetic Auxins, and Ethylene Differentially Modulate α-l-Arabinofuranosidase Activities in Antisense 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase Tomato Pericarp Discs1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, Gabriel O.; Greve, L. Carl; Prody, Gerry A.; Labavitch, John M.

    2002-01-01

    α-l-Arabinofuranosidases (α-Afs) are plant enzymes capable of releasing terminal arabinofuranosyl residues from cell wall matrix polymers, as well as from different glycoconjugates. Three different α-Af isoforms were distinguished by size exclusion chromatography of protein extracts from control tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and an ethylene synthesis-suppressed (ESS) line expressing an antisense 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic synthase transgene. α-Af I and II are active throughout fruit ontogeny. α-Af I is the first Zn-dependent cell wall enzyme isolated from tomato pericarp tissues, thus suggesting the involvement of zinc in fruit cell wall metabolism. This isoform is inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline, but remains stable in the presence of NaCl and sucrose. α-Af II activity accounts for over 80% of the total α-Af activity in 10-d-old fruit, but activity drops during ripening. In contrast, α-Af III is ethylene dependent and specifically active during ripening. α-Af I released monosaccharide arabinose from KOH-soluble polysaccharides from tomato cell walls, whereas α-Af II and III acted on Na2CO3-soluble pectins. Different α-Af isoform responses to gibberellic acid, synthetic auxins, and ethylene were followed by using a novel ESS mature-green tomato pericarp disc system. α-Af I and II activity increased when gibberellic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was applied, whereas ethylene treatment enhanced only α-Af III activity. Results suggest that tomato α-Afs are encoded by a gene family under differential hormonal controls, and probably have different in vivo functions. The ESS pericarp explant system allows comprehensive studies involving effects of physiological levels of different growth regulators on gene expression and enzyme activity with negligible wound-induced ethylene production. PMID:12114586

  14. Aphrodisiac activity of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DK Patel; R. Kumar; D. Laloo; K. Sairam; S. Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study represents an interesting case report for a very good aphrodisiac activity observed during an oral glucose tolerance test performed while evaluating the antidiabetic potential of Pedalium murex Linn. fruit. Methods: Ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex at a dose of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. was given to the rats followed by administration of 2 g/kg p.o. of glucose 30 min after the administration of extract. Results: Pregnancy was observed in the treated groups after 20-25 days of treatment in females which resulted in birth of pubs ranging upto ten in some females (more significant in case of 500 mg/kg p.o.). The observation also showed a significant increase in weights of pubs along with a normal behavior pattern. The increased pregnancy rate in the drug treated groups may be due to the healthy viable sperm and enhancement of sexual desire of the rats. Conclusion: From the results it may be concluded that the fruits of the plant may be used as a good aphrodisiac agent to promote fertility rate.

  15. Transformation of Litchi Pericarp-Derived Condensed Tannin with Aspergillus awamori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensed tannin is a ubiquitous polyphenol in plants that possesses substantial antioxidant capacity. In this study, we have investigated the polyphenol extraction recovery and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity of the extracted polyphenol after litchi pericarp is treated with Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. We have further explored the activity of A. awamori in the formation of condensed tannin. The treatment of A. awamori appeared to produce the highest antioxidant activity of polyphenol from litchi pericarp. Further studies suggested that the treatment of A. awamori releases the non-extractable condensed tannin from cell walls of litchi pericarp. The total extractable tannin in the litchi pericarp residue after a six-time extraction with 60% ethanol increased from 199.92 ± 14.47–318.38 ± 7.59 μg/g dry weight (DW after the treatment of A. awamori. The ESI-TOF-MS and HPLC-MS2 analyses further revealed that treatment of A. awamori degraded B-type condensed tannin (condensed flavan-3-ol via C4–C8 linkage, but exhibited a limited capacity to degrade the condensed tannin containing A-type linkage subunits (C4–C8 coupled C2–O–C7 linkage. These results suggest that the treatment of A. awamori can significantly improve the production of condensed tannin from litchi pericarp.

  16. ANTIFERTILITY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM FRUIT IN FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y Sushma; Gajanana Kulkarni; Shilender Singh

    2016-01-01

      Semecarpus anacardium plant derivatives has been used since antiquity, the fruit and nut extract of Semecarpus anacardium shows various activities like antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant...

  17. α-Mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn reduces tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in an immunocompetent xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer carrying a p53 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuno Yasushi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mangosteen fruit has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Recently, the compound α-mangostin, which is isolated from the pericarp of the fruit, was shown to induce cell death in various types of cancer cells in in vitro studies. This led us to investigate the antitumor growth and antimetastatic activities of α-mangostin in an immunocompetent xenograft model of mouse metastatic mammary cancer having a p53 mutation that induces a metastatic spectrum similar to that seen in human breast cancers. Methods Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of BALB/c mice syngeneic with metastatic BJMC3879luc2 cells, were subsequently treated with α-mangostin at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day using mini-osmotic pumps and histopathologically examined. To investigate the mechanisms of antitumor ability by α-mangostin, in vitro studies were also conducted. Results Not only were in vivo survival rates significantly higher in the 20 mg/kg/day α-mangostin group versus controls, but both tumor volume and the multiplicity of lymph node metastases were significantly suppressed. Apoptotic levels were significantly increased in the mammary tumors of mice receiving 20 mg/kg/day and were associated with increased expression of active caspase-3 and -9. Other significant effects noted at this dose level were decreased microvessel density and lower numbers of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells in mammary carcinoma tissues. In vitro, α-mangostin induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and G1-phase arrest and S-phase suppression in the cell cycle. Since activation by Akt phosphorylation plays a central role in a variety of oncogenic processes, including cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic cell death, angiogenesis and metastasis, we also investigated alterations in Akt phosphorylation induced by α-mangostin treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that

  18. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts from Morus alba L. leaves, stems and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts (leaves, stems and fruits) from Morus alba L., a traditional Chinese medicine, were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Ethanolic extracts showed higher contents of both total phenolics and flavonoids than aqueous extracts. The total phenolic content was in the order of: leaf extracts > fruit extracts > stem extracts, whereas the total flavonoids was: leaf extracts > stem extracts > fruit extracts. Using DPPH assays, the concentrations providing 50% inhibition (IC(50)) values of aqueous extracts from leaves, stems and fruits were 7.11 ± 1.45 mg/ml, 86.78 ± 3.21 mg/ml and 14.38 ± 2.83 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC(50) values of ethanolic extracts were 3.11 ± 0.86 mg/ml, 14.62 ± 2.45 mg/ml and 12.42 ± 2.76 mg/ml, respectively. In sum, the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from M. alba L. were stronger than the aqueous extracts, and in the order of: leaf extracts > fruit extracts > stem extracts. The ethanolic extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activities, whereas the aqueous extracts showed poor antimicrobial properties in our test system. This study validated the medicinal potential of M. alba L.

  19. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, E Christy; Jenothiny, S; Pathmanathan, M K; Jeyadevan, J P

    2012-10-01

    To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals. Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (Peffect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100 µl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower. The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  20. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Christy Jeyaseelan; S Jenothiny; MK Pathmanathan; JP Jeyadevan

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals.Results:Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/ 100 μl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower.Conclusions:The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  1. Extraction and chemical characterization of starch from S. lycocarpum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, Aline M; Di-Medeiros, Maria Carolina B; Batista, Karla A; Leles, Maria Inês Gonçalves; Lião, Luciano Moraes; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2013-11-06

    In this study the pulp from Solanum lycocarpum fruits was used as raw material for extraction of starch, resulting in a yield of 51%. The starch granules were heterogeneous in size, presenting a conical appearance, very similar to a high-amylose cassava starch. The elemental analysis (CHNS) revealed 64.33% carbon, 7.16% hydrogen and 0.80% nitrogen. FT-IR spectroscopy showed characteristic peaks of polysaccharides and NMR analysis confirmed the presence of the α-anomer of d-glucose. The S. lycocarpum starch was characterized by high value of intrinsic viscosity (3515 mPa s) and estimated molecular weight around 645.69 kDa. Furthermore, this starch was classified as a B-type and high amylose content starch, presenting 34.66% of amylose and 38% crystallinity. Endothermic transition temperatures (To=61.25 °C, Tp=64.5 °C, Tc=67.5 °C), gelatinization temperature (ΔT=6.3 °C) ranges and enthalpy changes (ΔH=13.21 J g(-1)) were accessed by DCS analysis. These results make the S. lycocarpum fruit a very promising source of starch for biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring candidate genes for pericarp russet pigmentation of sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia via RNA-Seq data in two genotypes contrasting for pericarp color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia russet pericarp is an important trait affecting both the quality and stress tolerance of fruits. This trait is controlled by a relative complex genetic process, with some fundamental biological questions such as how many and which genes are involved in the process remaining elusive. In this study, we explored differentially expressed genes between the russet- and green-pericarp offspring from the sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. 'Qingxiang' × 'Cuiguan' F1 group by RNA-seq-based bulked segregant analysis (BSA. A total of 29,100 unigenes were identified and 206 of which showed significant differences in expression level (log2fold values>1 between the two types of pericarp pools. Gene Ontology (GO analyses detected 123 unigenes in GO terms related to 'cellular_component' and 'biological_process', suggesting developmental and growth differentiations between the two types. GO categories associated with various aspects of 'lipid metabolic processes', 'transport', 'response to stress', 'oxidation-reduction process' and more were enriched with genes with divergent expressions between the two libraries. Detailed examination of a selected set of these categories revealed repressed expressions of candidate genes for suberin, cutin and wax biosynthesis in the russet pericarps.Genes encoding putative cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD and peroxidase (POD that are involved in the lignin biosynthesis were suggested to be candidates for pigmentation of sand pear russet pericarps. Nine differentially expressed genes were analyzed for their expressions using qRT-PCR and the results were consistent with those obtained from Illumina RNA-sequencing. This study provides a comprehensive molecular biology insight into the sand pear pericarp pigmentation and appearance quality formation.

  3. Anti Epileptic Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn Fruit Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muralidharan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit extract of Morinda citrifolia (Noni, a medicinal plant used in many neuro protective ayurvedic preparations was evaluated for its protective effect against seizures induced by Maximal Electro Shock (MES method in rats. A daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract was administered to the animals for 15 days, after which seizures were induced by maximum electro shock method and the duration of various phases of epileptic attacks were recorded and compared with the control animals. A significant (P<0.01 and P<0.001 reduction in the time taken for righting reflex (recovery was noted in the experimental animals. The levels of biogenic amines such as dopamine, serotonin and nor-adrenaline in the forebrain region were also estimated and a significant level of restoration was opserved in the extract treated animals. Significant results were opserved in the estimated parameters thereby justifying the use of this medicinal plant in the treatment of epilepsy.

  4. Comparison of physicochemical and gelation properties of pectins extracted from six pericarps%六种果皮原料果胶的理化及凝胶特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建华; 戴思齐; 刘家明; 黎嘉嘉; 李敏; 蔡乔; 任娇艳

    2012-01-01

    In order to supply useful information to guide the practical production of pectins, the pectins extracted from six pericarps (shaddock peel, passionflower peel, navel orange peel, pomegranate rind, durian shell, sunflower head) were studied for their physicochemical and gelation properties. The recovery, color, viscosity, pectic acid content, methoxy content, the degree of esterification and gelation properties of pectins from the six pericarps were determined. The molecular weights of pectins were exactly analyzed by HPLC. The results showed the pectins of shaddock peel, sunflower head, navel orange peel and passionflower peel were 18.06%, 14.61%, 14.43% and 8.76%, respectively, while those in pomegranate rind and durian shell were low (<3%). The molecular weights of pomegranate rind and navel orange peel pectin were larger than 1000 kDa, and that of the sunflower head was the lowest (483 kDa). Besides, these pectins demonstrated low viscosity (<25 centipoise), which was proved to be the highest at pH value 7.0 and the lowest at pH value 5.0. Pomegranate rind demonstrated the largest molecular weight and the strongest gelatin strength, which was high methoxy pectin, and the recovery was very low. As a comparison, pectins extracted from sunflower head exhibited low molecular weight, high recovery, which was low methoxy pectin, since it could form good gelatin with or without the presence of sugar, which was proved to be a good material for pectin production.%为了解不同品种水果的果皮(柚子皮、西番莲皮、脐橙皮、石榴皮、榴莲皮)以及向日葵盘所提取果胶的理化和质构特性,研究了不同原料果胶的得率、色泽、果胶酸含量、甲氧基含量、酯化度、黏度及质构特性,特别是采用高效液相色谱准确测定了各类果胶的分子量.结果表明:柚子皮、向日葵盘和脐橙皮果胶质量分数较高,分别为18.06%、14.61%和14.43%;西番莲皮果胶质量分数为8.76%;而石榴

  5. Structural investigations and morphology of tomato fruit starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengwilai, Kietsuda; Beckles, Diane M

    2009-01-14

    The physicochemical properties of starch from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) pericarp and columella of cv. Moneymaker fruit at 28 days post anthesis (DPA) were investigated, providing the first description of the composition and structure of tomato fruit starch. Starch granules from pericarp were mainly polygonal, 13.5-14.3 microm, and increased in size through development, being largest in ripening fruit. Amylopectin content was 81-83% and was of molecular weight 1.01 x 10(8) g/mol; the phosphorus content was 139 ppm, and starch showed a C-type pattern with crystallinity of 30%. Starch characteristics were similar in columella except granule size (16.8-17.8 microm) and crystallinity (40%), although 6-fold more starch accumulated in the pericarp. Solara, a high-sugar tomato cultivar, was also studied to determine if this affects starch granule architecture. There were few differences from Moneymaker, except that Solara columella starch crystallinity was lower (26%), and more starch granule-intrinsic proteins could be extracted by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  6. Effects of fruit extracts on the formation of acrylamide in model reactions and fried potato crisps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Wing; Shi, Jian-Jun; Ou, Shi-Yi; Wang, Mingfu; Jiang, Yue

    2010-01-13

    Natural products extracted from plants and fruits have attracted increasing attention for the development of effective inhibitors against the formation of acrylamide during food processing. In this study, six fruit extracts (apple, blueberry, mangosteen, longan, dragon fruit with white flesh, and dragon fruit with red flesh) were compared for their activities against acrylamide formation in chemical models containing equal molar quantities of glucose and asparagine in distilled water (160 degrees C for 30 min). Apple extract demonstrated potent inhibition on acrylamide formation. Blueberry, mangosteen, and longan extracts did not have significant impact, whereas dragon fruit extracts enhanced acrylamide formation. Column chromatography guided by chemical model analysis showed that the proanthocyanidin-rich subfraction played a key role in mediating the inhibitory activity. The inhibitory activity was finally corroborated in fried potato crisps. The present study identified some natural products that might have important applications in the food industry to inhibit acrylamide formation.

  7. Chilling injury in mangosteen fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choehom, R.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Major components of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit quality include pericarp hardening, and shrinkage of both the stem and the sepals (calyx). At room temperature in South-East Asia (29±308C) the fruit remains acceptable for about 6±8.d. To determine optimum storage temperature, fruit were

  8. Evaluation of anti-melanogenic activity of Ziziphus jujuba fruits obtained by two different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salimi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dried pulps and peels of Ziziphus jujuba fruits are commonly applied as food because of their high nutritional value. It has been widely used in traditional medicine as laxative, tonic, wound healing agent and appetizer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-melanogenic effects of Z. jujuba fruit. Methods: Fruit extracts were obtained by two different extraction methods, percolation (cold extraction and soxhlet (hot extraction using methanol 80% as the solvent. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity and anti-tyrosinase capacity of the MeOH extracts from Z. jujuba fruits were evaluated in vitro. In addition, the effects of fruit extracts on the melanin content and cytotoxicity on human melanoma SKMEL-3 cells were determined after 72 hours. Results: The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the cold extract were found higher in comparison to the hot extract. Moreover, the antioxidant (SC50 =1.40 mg/mL and anti-tyrosinase activities (IC50 = 0.54 mg/mL of the cold extract were significantly stronger than the hot extract. At the dose of 500 μg/mL, the cold extract showed weaker toxicity to the melanoma cells than the hot extract. Melanin content of the cold extract was reduced to 30% at this concentration, while the hot extract had no inhibitory effect on melanin formation. Conclusion: The results showed that the percolation method was more suitable for extraction of the (poly phenolics from Z. jujuba fruits. In addition, the results of tyrosinase activity and melanin content assays suggested that the cold extract of Z. jujuba fruit can be considered as a dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  9. Fiber purified extracts of carob fruit decrease carbohydrate absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-González, A; Garcimartín, A; López-Oliva, M E; Bertocco, G; Naes, F; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Benedí, J

    2017-06-21

    The postprandial state plays a central role in the development and setting of chronic diseases. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenols with a known ability to modify carbohydrate digestion and absorption. The high concentration of CT in the pulp of carob fruit suggests a potential antidiabetic effect. The aim of this work was to analyze the in vitro and in vivo effects of carob fruit extract (CFE) on the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. α-Glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion were tested in vitro using 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg mL(-1) CFE concentrations. Two in vivo absorption studies, acute and subchronic, were carried out in four groups of 6 two-month-old male Wistar rats (control and CFE 25, 50 and 150 mg per kg b.w.), administering 1 mL of olive oil and 0.5 g per kg b.w. of glucose solution by oral gavage. CFE significantly inhibited α-glucosidase activity, through a competitive mechanism, from 1 mg mL(-1), and also reduced glucose diffusion in a dose-dependent manner. In the acute study, CFE (50 and 150 mg per kg b.w.) significantly reduced the area under the curve (AUC) of blood glucose. Subchronic CFE administration induced further AUC decreases; and CFE at 150 mg per kg b.w. reduced sodium-glucose-linked transporter-1 (SGLT1) levels in the duodenum. This study demonstrates the hypoglycemic properties of CFE, highlighting its potential role as a suitable nutritional strategy in diabetic patients.

  10. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction-heating gas flow transfer-headspace single drop microextraction of essential oil from pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shigang; Zhang, Huihui; Wang, Yeqiang; Wang, Lu; Li, Xueyuan; Wang, Yinghua; Zhang, Hanqi; Xu, Xu; Shi, Yuhua

    2011-07-22

    The ultrasonic nebulization extraction-heating gas flow transfer coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HGFT-HS-SDME) was developed for the extraction of essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to the determination of the constituents in the essential oil. The contents of the constituents from essential oil obtained by the proposed method were found to be more similar to those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) than those obtained by ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HS-SDME). The heating gas flow was firstly used in the analysis of the essential oil to transfer the analytes from the headspace to the solvent microdrop. The relative standard deviations for determining the five major constituents were in the range from 1.5 to 6.7%. The proposed method is a fast, sensitive, low cost and small sample consumption method for the determination of the volatile and semivolatile constituents in the plant materials.

  11. Isolation of Native Proanthocyanidins from Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and Other Fruits in Aqueous Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillouet, Jean-Marc; Fulcrand, Hélène; Carrillo, Stéphanie; Rouméas, Laurent; Romieu, Charles

    2017-04-05

    Condensed tannins (also called proanthocyanidins) present in strategic tissues of fruits (outer pericarp and vascular bundles) were known as short polymers of flavan-3-ols. A pretreatment of the plant material (fruits from the grapevine, persimmon) with buffered ascorbic acid and Triton X-100 followed by acetone extraction provided native white fully depolymerizable tannins. Tannins are usually extracted with aqueous solvents and further purified, although artifactual oxidations occur, altering their physicochemical characteristics. Compared to artifactually oxidized tannins prepared according to standard protocols, white tannins (also called leukotannins) exhibit a higher degree of polymerization and a far lower polydispersity.

  12. Blood-brain barrier permeability of bioactive withanamides present in Withania somnifera fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareed, Shaiju K; Bauer, Alison K; Nair, Kavitha M; Liu, Yunbao; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2014-08-01

    The neuroprotective effect of Withania somnifera L. Dunal fruit extract, in rodent models, is known. Withanamides, the primary active constituents in W.somnifera fruit extract exhibited neuroprotective effects against β-amyloid-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cell culture studies. Therefore, we investigated the blood-brain barrier permeability of withanamides in W.somnifera fruit extract in mice using HPLC coupled with high resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF/MS) detection. Mice were administered with 250 mg/kg of W.somnifera extract by intraperitoneal injection, and the blood and brain samples analyzed by Q-TOF/MS detection. Four major withanamides were detected in brain and blood of mice administered with W.somnifera extract. The results suggested that the withanamides crossed the blood-brain barrier. These results may help to develop W.somnifera fruit extract as a preventive or therapeutic botanical drug for stress-induced neurological disorders.

  13. Supercritical CO(2) extraction of carotenoids from pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L.)

    OpenAIRE

    FILHO, Genival L.; ROSSO, VeridianaV. De; M. Angela A. MEIRELES; ROSA, Paulo T. V.; OLIVEIRA, Alessandra L.; MERCADANTE, Adriana Z.; CABRAL,Fernando A.

    2008-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction was employed to extract carotenoids from the freeze-dried pulp of pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L.), an exotic fruit, rich in carotenoids and still little explored commercially. The SC-CO(2) extraction was carried out at two temperatures, 40 and 60 degrees C, and seven pressures, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 bar. The carotenoids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to photodiode array and mass spectro...

  14. Influence of pericarp, cotyledon and inhibitory substances on sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (STO, mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS, removing the pericarp (RP, and cutting off 1/2 (HC and 2/3 (TC cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis seeds (CCS were also investigated for CCS cultivated in a Sanyo growth cabinet watered by distilled water and 80% methanol extracts from the acorn embryo, cotyledon and pericarp with concentrations of 1.0 g, 0.8 g, 0.6 g and 0.4 g dry acorn weight per ml methanol. The results showed that the majority of roots and shoots from acorns with RP and HC treatment emerged two weeks earlier, more simultaneously, and their total emergencies were more than 46% and 28% higher, respectively. TC accelerated root and shoot emergence time and root length, but root and shoot germination rate and shoot height had no significant difference from the control. Positive consequences were not observed on all indices of RS treatment. The germination rates of CCS watered by 1.0 g · ml(-1 methanol extracts from the embryo and cotyledon were significantly lower than those from the pericarp, and all concentrations resulted in decreased growth of root and shoot. Methanol extracts from pericarp significantly reduced root length of CCS, but presented little response in germination percentage and shoot length. The inhibitory effect was gradually increased with the increasing concentration of the methanol extract. We conclude that both the mechanical restriction of the pericarp and the presence of germination inhibitors in the embryo, cotyledon and pericarp are the causes for delayed and asynchronous germination of STO acorns.

  15. The dose dependent in vitro responses of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines to extracts of Vatica diospyroides symington type SS fruit include effects on mode of cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisawat, Theera; Sukpondma, Yaowapa; Graidist, Potchanapond; Chimplee, Siriphon; Kanokwiroon, Kanyanatt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vatica diospyroides type LS is a known source of valuable compounds for cancer treatment, however, in contrast little is known about therapeutic efficacy of type SS. Objective: This study focused on in vitro cytotoxicity of these fruit extracts, and the cell death mode they induce in breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Acetone extracts of fruit were tested for cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The apoptosis and necrosis of these cells were quantified by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) and western blot analyses. Results: After 72 h of treatment, the 50% growth inhibition concentrations (IC50) levels were 16.21 ± 0.13 µg/mL against MCF-7 and 30.0 ± 4.30 µg/mL against MDA-MB-231, indicating high and moderate cytotoxicity, respectively. From the FACS results, we estimate that the cotyledon extract at half IC50 produced 11.7% dead MCF-7 cells via apoptosis, whereas another concentrations both apoptosis and necrosis modes co-existed in a dose-dependent manner. In MDA-MB-231 cell line, only the apoptosis was induced by the pericarp extract in a dose-dependent manner. With the extracts at half IC50 concentration, in both cells, the expression of p21 decreased while that of Bax increased within 12–48 h of dosing, confirming apoptosis induced by time-dependent responses. Apoptosis dependent on p53 was found in MCF-7, whereas the mutant p53 of MDA-MB-231 cells was expressed. Conclusion: The results indicate that fruit extracts of V. diospyroides have cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells via apoptosis pathway in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that the extracts could provide active ingredients for the development, targeting breast cancer therapy. PMID:26109760

  16. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle G Beckman

    Full Text Available Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  17. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  18. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  19. Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh Shan Wong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Methods. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v, extraction times (60-300 min, and extraction temperatures (25-60°C that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and β-carotene bleaching (BCB assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. Results. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. Conclusion. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

  20. Systematic Analysis of Pericarp Starch Accumulation and Degradation during Wheat Caryopsis Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xurun; Li, Bo; Wang, Leilei; Chen, Xinyu; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Although wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pericarp starch granule (PSG) has been well-studied, our knowledge of its features and mechanism of accumulation and degradation during pericarp growth is poor. In the present study, developing wheat caryopses were collected and starch granules were extracted from their pericarp to investigate the morphological and structural characteristics of PSGs using microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Relative gene expression levels of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (APGase), granule-bound starch synthase II (GBSS II), and α-amylase (AMY) were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. PSGs presented as single or multiple starch granules and were synthesized both in the amyloplast and chloroplast in the pericarp. PSG degradation occurred in the mesocarp, beginning at 6 days after anthesis. Amylose contents in PSGs were lower and relative degrees of crystallinity were higher at later stages of development than at earlier stages. Short-range ordered structures in the external regions of PSGs showed no differences in the developing pericarp. When hydrolyzed by α-amylase, PSGs at various developmental stages showed high degrees of enzymolysis. Expression levels of AGPase, GBSS II, and AMY were closely related to starch synthesis and degradation. These results help elucidate the mechanisms of accumulation and degradation as well as the functions of PSG during wheat caryopsis development.

  1. [Determination of total tannins in the roots, branches, leaves and pericarps of Juglans mandshurica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianmin; Sun, Xiaoli; Peng, Xue; Zhai, Yanjun; Chu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Hui; Kang, Tingguo; Chen, Hubiao

    2011-01-01

    The roots, barks, branches and pericarps of Juglans mandshurica were used as folk medicine in China and reputed for its treatment of several cancers, such as gastric cancer, liver cancer and leukemia. The extracts of the roots, branches, leaves and pericarps of J. mandshurica have been experimentally proved to show anti-tumor activities. Tannins, which exhibited antioxidant and anti-tumor activities, were the main constituents in J. mandshurica. In this paper, a simple spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of total tannins in the roots, branches, leaves and pericarps of J. mandshurica collected in Dalian and Anshan of Liaoning Province. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the content of total tannins was calculated as gallic acid equivalent. As a result of the method validation, a good linearity (r = 0.9997, n = 5) and a high recovery of gallic acid (99.02%, RSD 3.7%, n = 9) was achieved. Eight samples including four parts of J. mandshurica collected in two places were analyzed for their total tannins with the established method. In the corresponding parts of J. mandshurica, except the pericarps, the contents of total tannins showed no significant difference between samples collected in Dalian and Anshan, while the content of total tannins in different parts of J. mandshurica were significantly different. The average content of total tannins in the roots, branches, leaves and pericarps of samples collected in Dalian and Anshan was 45.66, 23.40, 58.24, 3.58 mg g(-1), respectively.

  2. Altered Middle Lamella Homogalacturonan and Disrupted Deposition of (1¿5)-a -L-Arabinan in the Pericarp of Cnr, a Ripening Mutant of Tomato1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfila, C.; Seymour, G.B; Willats, William George Tycho;

    2001-01-01

    -swollen cell walls (CW) throughout the pericarp and extensive intercellular space in the inner pericarp. Using electron energy loss spectroscopy imaging of calcium-binding capacity and anti-homogalacturonan (HG) antibody probes (PAM1 and JIM5) we demonstrate that maturation processes involving middle lamella...... HG are altered in Cnr fruit, resulting in the absence or a low level of HG-/calcium-based cell adhesion. We also demonstrate that the deposition of (1 5)- -L-arabinan is disrupted in Cnr pericarp CW and that this disruption occurs prior to fruit ripening. The relationship between the disruption of (1...

  3. Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sithisarn, Patchima; Nantateerapong, Petcharat; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Pongtip

    2016-01-01

    .... Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghian

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: The extracts from pomegranate fruit skin possess strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. Therefore this plant could be an important source of new antimicrobial compounds to treat bacterial and fungal infections.

  5. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ndikau, Michael; Noah, Naumih M; Andala, Dickson M; Masika, Eric

    2017-01-01

    .... This work reports a green method where silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using silver nitrate and the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit rind as the reductant and the capping agent...

  6. Extracts of Fruits and Vegetables Activate the Antioxidant Response Element in IMR-32 Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orena, Stephen; Owen, Jennifer; Jin, Fuxia; Fabian, Morgan; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Zeisel, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    .... The goal of this study was to develop an assay to assess the ARE activation capacity of fruit and vegetable extracts and determine whether such capacity was predicted by TP content and/or ORAC activity...

  7. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Spraying KH_2PO_4 on Cell-wall Metalbolism of Pericarp and Pitting Fruit Rate in Navel Orange%磷酸二氢钾对脐橙陷痕果发生及果皮细胞壁代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 罗伟金; 陈杰忠; 姚青; 万继锋; 黄战威

    2011-01-01

    Based on the different incidence of pitting fruit,two navel orange cultivars ‘Cara cara’ navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck‘Cara Cara’)and ‘Newhall’ navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck ‘Newhall’)were used to research on cell wall composition,related enzymes in cell wall metabolism of peel and pitting fruit rate with the KH2PO4 foliar application during ripening.The results showed that the difference existed in the peel thickness,hardness and homogeneity between‘Cara Cara’and‘Newhall’ navel orange with the KH2PO4 spraying,the pitting fruit rate o‘fCara Cara’navel orange was significantly decreased.There was a few effects on cell-wall metalbolism and pericarp character in‘Newhall’than‘Cara Cara’navel orange,and there have no significant difference in pitting fruit rate of‘Newhall’between KH2PO4 foliar application and control.The decreasing of polygalacturonase(PG),cellulose(CX),xylanase(Xyn),and peroxidase(POD)activities maybe low the decomposition of protopectin,hemicellulose and cellulose,increase peel hardness and thickness,low pitting fruit incidence.%研究‘卡拉卡拉’(Citrus sinensis Osbeck‘Cara Cara’)和‘纽荷尔’(Citrus sinensis Osbeck‘Newhall’)脐橙果实膨大期叶面喷施钾肥(0.2%KH2PO4)后,成熟期陷痕果发生率、果皮细胞壁物质成分、细胞壁代谢相关酶活性的变化规律及其关系。结果表明,KH2PO4处理对卡拉卡拉脐橙和纽荷尔脐橙的果皮厚度、硬度及其均匀度有不同程度的影响,卡拉卡拉脐橙的陷痕果发生率显著降低。纽荷尔脐橙的细胞壁代谢以及果皮力学性能受KH2PO4的影响较小,陷痕果率无显著变

  9. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of charantin from Momordica charantia fruits using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Javed Ahamad; Saima Amin; Showkat R. Mir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are well known for their beneficial effects in diabetes that are often attributed to its bioactive component charantin. Objective: The aim of the present study is to develop and optimize an efficient protocol for the extraction of charantin from M. charantia fruits. Materials and Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions. RSM was based on a three-leve...

  10. Phytochemical profile and free radical nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suluvoy, Jagadish Kumar; Berlin Grace, V M

    2017-05-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi L. belongs to family Oxalidaceae. Traditionally, people use this plant (root, bark, leaves and fruits) for treating several illnesses include itches, boils, syphilis, whooping cough, hypertension, fever and inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity and GC-MS analysis of A. bilimbi L. fruit extract. Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruits were collected for the preliminary phytochemical analysis, antioxidant scavenging activity and biologically important compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. The preliminary phytochemicals, GC-MS, total phenolic content and NO scavenging activity of the plant were analysed. In the present investigation, the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract has major phytochemicals. Among the 151 compounds identified in GC-MS, 15 compounds are found to have diverse biological activity. We also observed that the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract has high level of total phenolic compounds at a concentration of 209.25 GAE mg/g. Presence of phenolic compound apparently explains the antioxidant activity of the plant. Antioxidant activity of A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is proven from its high level of NO scavenging activity of potent IC50 value of 108.10. From the above study, it is apparent that the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is a rich source of phytochemicals (natural products) with biological activity. The GC-MS report on this fruit proves that natural products have pharmacologically and biologically active compounds. A high phenolic content is observed in our study. A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is also found to have NO scavenging activity in our study.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions of hexanic fruits of Campomanesia species (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Claudia Andréa Lima; Salmazzo, Gustavo Ruivo; Honda, Neli Kika; Prates, Crislaine Batista; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Coelho, Roberta Gomes

    2010-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the hexanic extracts and fractions of fruits of Campomanesia pubescens pubescens (D.C) O. Berg and Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O. Berg were assayed against six microorganisms. The hexanic extracts of C. pubescens and C. adamantium fruits were also investigated in their composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The results of this study showed the presence of 34 volatile compounds and flavonoids in the hexanic extract of C. pubescens and 33 volatile compounds and flavonoids in the hexanic extract of C. adamantium.

  12. Evaluation of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits and Vegetables Using a Modified Enzymatic Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are considered a good source of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities which are beneficial in protecting the human body against damage induced by reactive species. The objective of this work is to conduct an assessment of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of diff erent fruit (kiwi, pear, green apple, raspberry, blackberry, strawberry and blueberry and vegetable (pumpkin, green and red pepper extracts using both chemical extraction and a modified in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction in order to compare results. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of different fruits, vegetables and fruit juices were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP methods, respectively. It was observed that polyphenol content expressed as gallic acid equivalents of extracts obtained with the two extraction methods was signifi cantly (p<0.05 different (on average 310.3 and 231.8 mg per 100 g of fresh sample in enzymatic and methanolic extracts, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was also significantly (p<0.05 different in the extracts obtained by the two methods, with higher values in enzymatic extracts (1.91 mmol of Fe2+ per 100 g of fresh sample. Analyses of apple samples with and without skin also revealed important differences related to methodology and composition. Additionally, the original enzymatic extraction method was improved to avoid interferences caused by the presence of protein residues in the extract.

  13. Regulation of Propylene and 1-Methylcyclopropene on Expressions of ACS and ACO Genes in Persimmon Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Le; RAO Jing-ping; CHANG Xiao-xiao; YI Shun-chao

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of postharvest treatment with propylene and 1-MCP on ethylene release rate and expressions of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes in Fuping Janshi persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruit were investigated. Fruits were treated with propylene and 1-MCP, then stored at 20℃, ethylene release rate of the treated fruits was measured at regular intervals and RNA was extracted for Northern blotting analysis. The results suggested that treatment with propylene accelerated the expressions of ACS and ACO genes and then enhanced the ethylene biosynthesis, while treatment with 1-MCP inhibited the expressions of two genes and their ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, different effects on expressions caused by treatments with propylene and 1-MCP existed in various fruit tissues, the inhibitory effect on ACS and ACO genes by 1-MCP was the strongest in pericarp, followed by pulp and core tissues, in the area near fruit stalk, the inhibitory effect was the weakest. While the enhanced effect on ACS and ACO genes by propylene increased from pulp, core, and pericarp to the area near fruit stalk. Expression of each member of ACS and ACO families in various tissues was also completely different, in control and propylene treatment, DKACS3 gene just expressed in the area near fruit stalk and did not express in other tissues, but DKACS2 gene expressed in four tissues by treatment with propylene.

  14. Screening of antibacterial activity of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruit and pomace extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of fruit and pomace extracts (concentration 50 mg/ml of two raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cultivars (Meeker and Willamette was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (reference and wild strains. Disc diffusion method with 15 μl of extracts and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 μl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control. Both raspberry fruit extracts showed the strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (wild strain and Bacillus cereus, where the largest clear zones (without growth appeared. Escherichia coli was the most resistant strain, with only zone of reduced growth. The highest antibacterial activity of pomace extracts was against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. There were no differences in the antibacterial activity between cultivars for both fruit and pomace extracts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  15. Comparison of methods for extraction of biologically active substances from hawthorn fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trapeznikova

    2016-02-01

    Extraction was performed by infusion, GM = 1: 10 (raw materials: extractant, heated in different conditions: 1 in an incubator at 60 ° C for 1.5 hours; duration of 1st extraction stage 1 h, a second - 30 minutes; 2 in a microwave oven at 300 W power for 5 min (1st extraction step; 3 in an oven with simultaneous sonication (ultrasound mode in the 1st embodiment. In extracts of the fruit and extract the content of ascorbic acid is determined, the free organic acids and sugars, calculated yield of extractives (EV.

  16. Morphogenesis of pericarp in two varieties of Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Uchchey and Korala, two common Indian varieties of Momordica charantia L. have the same length and diameter in initial stages. But with age the rate of lengthwise growth becomes higher in Karola, which differs from Uchchey by its larger size and much elongated shape. The major cause of their difference in size and shape is the higher cell number of Karola in its axial direction from the earliest stages of development, and their rapid transverse division during maturation. Differentiation of xylem bundles of the pericarp starts at the middle and apical parts of the ovary. The courses of differentiation of xylem in the middle, apical and basal bundles are bidirectional, basipetal and acropetal, respectively.

  17. Delayed dehiscence of the pericarp: role in germination and retention of viability of seeds of two cold desert annual Brassicaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J J; Tan, D Y; Baskin, C C; Baskin, J M

    2017-01-01

    Considerable variation occurs in post-maturity timing of dehiscence in fruits of Brassicaceae species, and several studies have shown that the pericarp plays an important role in seed germination and retention of viability in species with indehiscent fruits. However, little is known about the significance to seed biology of delay in pericarp dehiscence for seed germination and retention of seed viability. We compared dormancy-break via after-ripening in the laboratory and germination phenology and retention of seed viability in intact siliques and isolated seeds buried in an experimental garden. Seeds of both species have Type 6 non-deep physiological dormancy, which is enhanced by the pericarp. Seeds of both species after-ripened during summer 2013, and some of them germinated in autumn and some in the following spring in watered and non-watered soil. Germination percentages of seeds in siliques increased in soil in spring 2014, after the pericarps had opened. Most isolated seeds of L. filifolium and N. korolkovii had germinated or were dead by spring 2014 and summer 2015, respectively, whereas 60% of the seeds of both species in the (opened) pericarps were viable after 24 months. Thus, although the pericarp opened 9-10 months after burial, its presence had a significant effect on seed dormancy, germination phenology and retention of viability of seeds of L. filifolium and N. korolkovii. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Study on Extraction of Flavonoids from the Pericarp of Mangosteen Fruit%山竹果皮中总黄酮提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳军; 彭重威; 廖日权; 郑韵英; 邓勤

    2013-01-01

    优化工艺条件,从山竹(Garcinia mangosteen)果皮中提取具有多种生物活性的黄酮.采用传统溶剂提取法,用乙醇为溶剂,用紫外可见分光光度法对提取液中黄酮含量进行测定,另外利用超声波辅助萃取法与传统溶剂回流法相比较,根据L9(34)正交实验对黄酮的提取条件进行了优化.确定溶剂提取黄酮的工艺参数为:溶剂回流法,乙醇浓度40%、提取温度70℃、料液比1 g∶30 mL、提取时间3h,该条件下黄酮得提取率8.13%.

  19. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from the Fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Lin, Sheng-Jun; Li, Ya; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-02-18

    The fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims is an edible and sweet wild fruit. In our previous study, the fruit was found to have a strong antioxidant property. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed to extract natural antioxidants from the fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims, and a response surface methodology was used to optimize the conditions of UAE to maximize the extraction efficiency. The influence of five independent extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extracting time, temperature, and ultrasound power) on the extraction efficiency were investigated using a single factor experiment, and then a central composite rotatable design was used to investigate the interaction of three key parameters. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 42.98% ethanol, 28.29 mL/g solvent/material ratio, 34.29 min extracting time, 60 °C temperature, and 600 W ultrasound power. Under these conditions, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of the extracts was 1074.61 ± 32.56 μmol Trolox/g dry weight (DW). Compared with conventional maceration (723.27 ± 11.61 μmol Trolox/g DW) and Soxhlet extraction methods (518.37 ± 23.23 μmol Trolox/g DW), the UAE method improved the extraction efficiency, in a shorter period of time. In addition, epicatechin gallate, epicatechin, rutin, epigallocatechin, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin, were identified and quantified in the fruit extracts of Melastoma sanguineum Sims by UPLC-MS/MS.

  20. Isolation and structure elucidation of phenolic antioxidants from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds and pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjaroen, Y; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Hull, W E; Erben, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Changbumrung, S; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2005-11-01

    Although it is already known that Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds contain phenolic substances, the individual components of the seeds have not been fully identified and quantitated, and in the case of Tamarind pericarp not reported. Therefore, major polyphenolic compounds were extracted using organic solvents and the metabolites were isolated by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by liquid chromatography-electrospray-ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), nano-electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and where possible by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1H and 13C NMR. Quantitative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in Tamarind seeds and pericarp was conducted by analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), calculated against standard curves of authentic compounds. The yields of total phenolic compounds after Soxhlet extraction with methanol were 6.54 and 2.82 g/kg (dry weight) in the seeds and pericarp respectively. The profile (%) of polyphenolics in Tamarind pericarp was dominated by proanthcyanidins (73.4) in various forms (+)-catechin (2.0), procyanidin B2 (8.2), (-)-epicatechin (9.4), procyanidin trimer (11.3), procyanidin tetramer (22.2), procyanidin pentamer (11.6), procyanidin hexamer (12.8) along with taxifolin (7.4), apigenin (2.0), eriodictyol (6.9), luteolin (5.0) and naringenin (1.4) of total phenols, respectively. The content of Tamarind seeds comprised only procyanidins, represented (%) mainly by oligomeric procyanidin tetramer (30.2), procyanidin hexamer (23.8), procyanidin trimer (18.1), procyanidin pentamer (17.6) with lower amounts of procyanidin B2 (5.5) and (-)-epicatechin (4.8). Extraction of Tamarind pericarp and seeds using acetone:methanol:acetic acid gave only procyanidin oligomers, but in much higher yield and variety. The antioxidant capacities of the Soxhlet methanolic extracts were determined, and indicates that Tamarind may be an

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of

  2. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  3. A novel approach for the efficient extraction of silybin from milk thistle fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk Thistle fruit is an important herb popularly consumed worldwide for a very long time. Silybin is the main bioactive constituent of the herb, and it has been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA as a medicine to treat liver diseases. Presently, using conventional technology, the meal of Milk Thistle fruit is used as the raw material to extract silybin. Objective: To investigate the necessity of detaching husk from kernel of the herb and also to propose a novel approach to enhance the extraction technology in pharmaceutical practices. Materials and Methods: The husk of Milk Thistle fruit was detached from the kernel of the herb using an automatic huller specially designed for this application. The husk and the meal of Milk Thistle fruit was subsequently refluxed, separately, with production rate of silybin as index for comparison of their extraction effect. Results: The highest production rate was achieved under optimized condition. The husk was extracted 2 times (3 hrs each using ethyl acetate, and the ratio of solvent to raw material was 8:1. The extract was allowed to be crystallized out. Conclusion: The separation of kernel from the husk of Milk Thistle fruit and using only the husk as raw material can largely enhance the extraction of silybin.

  4. Studies on the optimal extraction of flavonoids from the fruit of Juniperus virginiana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunči Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and quantitative determination of flavonoid compounds in fruit of Juniperus virginiana L. (Cupressaceae are described. A method for the detection of those flavonoids was high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Rutin and kaempferol were determined in accordingly extracts and quercetin only in hydrolysated extracts.

  5. Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Compounds in Nutmeg (Myristicafragrans) Pericarp as Determined by in vitro Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-rui; Jayashre, Ettannil; Kumar, Paramasivam Suresh; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2015-08-01

    Nutmeg, Myristicafragrans, is known for its culinary and medicinal values. The nutmeg pericarp, abundant during the production of the seed, is also used in food and beverage preparations. In this study, the pericarp of M. fragrans was evaluated for its bioactive components using in vitro antioxidant and antiinflammatory assays. The hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 82.5, 70.1 and 73.2%, and cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 by 44, 44 and 42% and COX-2 by 47, 41 and 36%, respectively, at 100 microg/mL. The bioassay-guided purifications of extracts yielded 20 compounds belonged to neolignans (0.13%), phenylpropanoids (0.28%), phenolic aldehyde (0.35%), triterpenoids (0.06%), triglycerides (0.20%), sugars (10.2%) and steroids (0.49%). Pure isolates 1-5 inhibited LPO by 70-99% and 3-12 inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 37-49%. This is the first report on the bioassay-guided characterization of constituents in nutmeg pericarp. Our results support the medicinal claims of nutmeg pericarp.

  6. Effects of cream containing ficus carica L. fruit extract on skin parameters: In vivo evaluation

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    H Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit ([Figure 1] extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle.

  7. Antioxidative effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in soybean oil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods with supercritical fluid extraction on antioxidant activity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in stability of soybean oil at 25°C. Oxidative stability alterations of soybean oils containing 400 (SEA) and 1000 ppm (SEB) of ethanol extract, 400 (SSA) and 1000 ppm (SSB) of supercritical CO2 extract, 400 (SUA) and 1000 ppm (SUB) of ultrasound-assisted extract, and 100 ppm...

  8. The role of fleshy pericarp in seed germination and dispersal under flooded conditions in three wetland forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juan P.; Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Zúñiga-Feest, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    In flooded habitats, inundations affect important forest regeneration processes, such as seed dispersal and germination. The main seed dispersal mechanism used by species in Austral South American temperate swamp and riparian forests is endozoochory, which releases seeds from the fleshy pericarp. Endozoochory could be favorable or unfavorable in wetland habitats, since this mechanism exposes seeds directly to water and can, in some cases, be detrimental to germination. In this study, we studied whether or not the fleshy pericarp favors germination after the flooding period's end. Furthermore, we quantified if the number of days which the fruit was found to be floating related to its germination success. We used the seeds of three common fleshy fruit species of flooded habitats from southern Chile, the trees Luma apiculata and Rhaphithamnus spinosus, and the vine Luzuriaga radicans. We simulated flooding periods of 7, 15, 30 and 45 days submerging seeds, with and without pericarps, in water. We found that the pericarp's presence significantly increased Luma's germination success and significantly decreased that of Luzuriaga. The germination of Rhaphithamnus was low after periods of flooding in both seed treatments, with no significant differences found between them. The fruits could float for an average of one to four weeks, depending on the species, which did not relate to their germination success. These results show that germination was affected by the presence of fleshy pericarps in flooded conditions and furthermore, that flotation allows for hydrochory from one week to one month. We suggest that in swamp forests multiple seed dispersal mechanisms are advantageous, especially for fleshy-fruited species.

  9. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol-water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol-water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol-water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques.

  10. Antioxidative effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods with supercritical fluid extraction on antioxidant activity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in stability of soybean oil at 25°C. Oxidative stability alterations of soybean oils containing 400 (SEA) and 1000 ppm (SEB) of ethanol extract, 400 (SSA) and 1000 ppm (SSB) of supercritical CO2 extract, 400 (SUA) and 1000 ppm (SUB) of ultrasound-assisted extract, and 100 ppm of tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) were monitored by measuring the peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes and trienes values. Oxidative changes in SEA were lower than that of oils treated with other extracts, but the best protection was observed in soybean oil consisting TBHQ. The solvent extraction method produces the maximum amount of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin. Therefore, solvent extraction method had a better effect on antioxidant activity of the loquat fruit skin extract.

  11. Protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract against bromobenzene-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Jalali, Mohammadtaha; Jalali, Amir; Mahdavinia, Masood; Salimi, Abobakr; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad; Gesztelyi, Rudolf

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, hepatoprotective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract was investigated in mice. Animals were divided into six groups receiving normal saline (1), bromobenzene (460 mg/kg) alone (2) and together with increasing doses (200, 400, 600, 800 mg/kg) of a crude hydro-alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula fruit (3-6, respectively). All administrations were carried out orally, daily, for 10 days. On the 11th day, animals were sacrificed. Serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γGT) were determined; serum levels of direct and total bilirubin were measured; furthermore, livers were prepared for histological examination. Our results showed that bromobenzene treatment alone elicited a significant increase in activities of AST, ALT, ALP (but not γGT), and it significantly elevated the levels of direct and total bilirubin. Co-treatment with Cassia fistula fruit extract, however, significantly and dose-dependently decreased the above-mentioned enzyme activities (with exception of γGT) and bilirubin levels, producing a recovery to the naive state. The protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract against liver injury evoked by bromobenzene was confirmed by histological examination as well. In conclusion, the Cassia fistula fruit extract has significant hepatoprotective effect in our murine model.

  12. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults

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    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.

  13. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Cytotoxicity of Phaleria macrocarpa (Boerl. Scheff Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Rudi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl (Thymelaceae originates from Papua Island, Indonesia and grows in tropical areas. The different parts of the fruit of P. macrocarpa were evaluated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities. Methods Phaleria macrocarpa fruit were divided into pericarp, mesocarp and seed. All parts of the fruit were reflux extracted with methanol. The antioxidant activity of the extracts were characterized in various in vitro model systems such as FTC, TBA, DPPH radical, reducing power and NO radical. Anti-inflammatory assays were done by using NO production by macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines induced by LPS/IFN-γ and cytotoxic activities were determined by using several cancer cell lines and one normal cell line Results The results showed that different parts (pericarp, mesocarp, and seed of Phaleria macrocarpa fruit contain various amount of total phenolic (59.2 ± 0.04, 60.5 ± 0.17, 47.7 ± 1.04 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and flavonoid compounds (161.3 ± 1.58, 131.7 ± 1.66, 35.9 ± 2.47 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. Pericarp and mesocarp showed high antioxidant activities by using DPPH (71.97%, 62.41%, ferric reducing antioxidant power (92.35%, 78.78% and NO scavenging activity (65.68%, 53.45%. Ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid tests showed appreciable antioxidant activity in the percentage hydroperoxides inhibitory activity from pericarp and mesocarp in the last day of the assay. Similarly, the pericarp and mesocarp inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthesis with values of 63.4 ± 1.4% and 69.5 ± 1.4% in macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines induced by LPS/IFN-γ indicating their notable anti-inflammatory potential. Cytotoxic activities against HT-29, MCF-7, HeLa and Chang cell lines were observed in all parts. Conclusions These results indicated the possible application of P. macrocarpa fruit as a source of bioactive compounds, potent as an antioxidant, anti inflammatory and

  14. A novel 'green' synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Dillenia indica fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susmita; Saikia, Jyoti P; Buragohain, Alak K

    2013-02-01

    In the present research we have defined a novel green method of silver nanoparticles synthesis using Dillenia indica fruit extract. D. indica is an edible fruit widely distributed in the foothills of Himalayas and known for its antioxidant and further predicted for cancer preventive potency. The maximum absorbance of the colloidal silver nanoparticle solution was observed at 421 nm when examined with UV-vis spectrophotometer.

  15. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were was...

  16. HPLC测定石榴皮提取物颗粒剂中不同时期鞣花酸含量的变化%Detection of Ellagic Acid in the Granules of Extracts of Punica granatum L. Pericarp in Different Periods by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任杰; 姚敬明; 武果桃; 樊振华; 赵娟; 吴忻; 刘文俊; 孟冬霞

    2012-01-01

    The ellagic acid in the granules of extracts of Punica granatum L. pericarp in different periods was detected by HPLC. Chromatography was performed on a PT -230A Colume heater Apollo C18 column (150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 254 nm and 30℃. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile - 1.2% phosphoric acid (20 : 80) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The linear range of ellagic acid was 0.52 -5.20 txg with (R2 =0. 99786). The average recovery was 97.8% and RSD was 1.6%. The samples of March 25, 2008 and March 25, 2011 were 0. 495 mg/g, 0. 439 mg/g. The results showed that the granules of extracts of Punica granatum L. pericarp was stable within three years. The method is simple and accurate and reproducibe for quality control of Punica granatum L. pericarp.%采用高效液相色谱法测定了石榴皮提取物颗粒剂在不同时期的有效成分鞣花酸含量的变化。色谱柱PT-230A Colume heater Apollo C18柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),柱温30℃;流动相为乙腈-1.2%磷酸溶液(20∶80);检测波长254 nm;流速1.0 mL/min。结果显示,鞣花酸含量测定的线性范围0.52~5.20μg(R2=0.99786),平均加样回收率为97.8%,RSD为1.6%。样品于2008年3月25日测定的颗粒剂鞣花酸含量为0.495 mg/g,2011年3月25日测定的含量为0.439 mg/g。表明该石榴皮提取物颗粒剂稳定性良好,有效期可达到三年以上。该方法简便、准确,可用于中药石榴皮的质量控制。

  17. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsaftakis, A.; Vekiari, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphe...

  18. Volatiles composition and extraction kinetics from Schinus terebinthifolius and Schinus molle leaves and fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano dos Santos Cavalcanti; Marcela de Souza Alves; Laurine Cristina Paulo da Silva; Daiane dos Santos Patrocínio; Mirza Nalesso Sanches; Douglas Siqueira de Almeida Chaves; Marco Andre Alves de Souza

    2015-01-01

    AbstractEssential oils extracted from Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, leaves and fruit hydrodistillation, as well as, their chemical composition and extraction kinetic were evaluated. For this proposal, 6 h extraction and aliquots collected at sequencing different times (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h) were carried out allowing calculating accumulated content (% w/w) and verifying essential oil chemical profile. β-caryophyllene (35.2%), α-pinene (28.1%) and...

  19. The Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Vapour on Some Characteristics of Fruit Ripening, Carotenoids and Tomatine Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato ripening in normal red-fruited cultivar (Fiorin was delayed by treatment with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me vapour. A visual scoring system for describing tomato ripening was used. Surface of fruits exposed to JA-Me vapour, increased in yellow and decreased in red as determined by HunterLab colour meter. JA-Me significantly altered the firmness of fruits after 21 days storage. Vapour of JA-Me enhanced the level of β-carotene in outer part (peel with 3 mm pericarp tissue of fruit, while it had no effect in peeled fruit pericarp. JA-Me treatment decreased the level of lycopene in outer part and pericarp tissue, however, in outer part lycopene content decreased at a higher rate than in pericarp. Amount of tomatine in fruits treated with JA-Me had enhanced four-fold in outer part and by 62% in peeled fruit pericarp as compared with the control.

  20. Synergistic effect of Croton caudatus (fruits) and Tiliacora acuminata (flowers) extracts against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Someshwar Singha; Siddharthasankar Banerjee; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the synergistic effect of crude and solvent extract of Croton caudatus (C. caudatus ) (fruits) and Tiliacora acuminata (T. acuminata) (flowers) against the larval form of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Crude and solvent [chloroform:methanol (1:1 v/v), benzene and ethyl acetate] extracts of two plants, C. caudatus (fruits) and T. acuminata (flowers) were examined separately against filarial vector Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae with gradually increasing concentration i.e. from 0.1%to 0.5%of crude extract and 25 ppm to 75 ppm of solvent extracts. To observe the synergistic effect, if any, extracts of these two plant parts were mixed at different concentrations and treated against mosquito larvae. Phytochemical analyses of extracts of both the plant parts were carried out. Results: In a 72-h bioassay experiment with plant extracts, highest mortalities were recorded at 0.5% (crude) and 75 ppm (solvent) concentration for fruits of C. caudatus and flowers of T. acuminata individually. For synergistic effect, only 0.2%of the mixture of these two crude extracts and 75 ppm concentration of chloroform:methanol (1:1 v/v) and ethyl acetate extracts showed 100%mortality after 24 h and 48 h of exposure respectively. Conclusions:In the field of mosquito control, insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative to the toxic chemicals. Some secondary metabolites in combination may be responsible for better larvicidal activity.

  1. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  2. Effectiveness of the Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel Extract as the Colorant, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial on Beef Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Fitri M Manihuruk; Tuti Suryati; Irma Isnafia Arief

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel extracts addition on beef sausages. Red dragon fruit peel extracts were obtained by maceration using solvent at pH 5. Phytochemical characteristics, total phenols, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the peel extracts were observed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were associated with high phytochemical compounds and total phenols contained in the extracts. Red drago...

  3. Application of Flower Extract Wuluh Star Fruit(Averrhoa Billimbi L. On Effervescent Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslina Haslina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excavation alternative natural ingredients that could potentially be used as a coloring agent continues, one source of natural antioxidants are used as raw material for functional foods is the flower star fruit. This study aims to determine the application star fruit flower extract (Averrhoabilimbi L in effervescent powder and indigo determine solubility, antioxidant activity, total acid and water content. This study uses a randomized block design (RAK are arranged with one factor and three replication. Further tests were used test of Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5%. Starfruit flower extract formulations were applied to the effervescent powder significant effect (p <0.05 on the solubility, antioxidant activity, total acid and water content. The best treatment in effervescent powder formula II star fruit flower extract with a solubility of 0.15%, 95.95% antioxidant activity, total acid content  2.13% and moisture content 3.62%.

  4. Optimum on acid-extraction technoloGy of pectin in Stauntonia latifolia pericarp by response surface methodoloGy%响应面法优化八月瓜果皮中果胶的酸提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪峰; 符智荣; 欧阳玉祝; 黄亚娟

    2014-01-01

    用盐酸提取八月瓜果皮的果胶,考察了pH 值、提取时间和提取温度对果胶得率的影响。结果表明,pH值、温度对果胶得率有显著影响,八月瓜果皮果胶提取的最佳工艺条件为:pH=1,提取时间156 min,提取温度91℃,果胶得率为7.11%。%With StauNtONia latifOlia as experimental raw material,extraction technology of pectin in StauN-tONia latifOlia pericarp was studied. Influence of pH,extraction time and extraction temperature on extrac-tion ratio of pectin were investigated by response surface methodology. Experimental results show that the best process condition of extraction ratio of pectin is 7. 11% at pH=1 and 91 ℃,extraction 156 min.

  5. Sequential extraction of flavonoids and pectin from yellow passion fruit rind using pressurized solvent or ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Caroline G; Rodrigues, Tigressa Hs; E Silva, Lorena Ma; Ribeiro, Paulo Rv; de Brito, Edy S

    2017-07-31

    Passion fruit rind (PFR) represents 90% of the total fruit weight and is wasted during juice processing. Passion fruit rind is known to contain flavonoids and pectin. An alternative use for this fruit juice industrial residue is to obtain these compounds. This study aimed to verify the influence of pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) or ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) of flavonoid and pectin in a sequential process. The PSE using ethanol at 60:40 (v/v) yielded a total polyphenol content of 4.67 g GAE kg(-1) PFR, orientin-7-O-glucoside (1.57 g kg(-1) PFR) and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (2.44 g kg(-1) PFR). Pectin yield was 165 g kg(-1) PFR, either in PSE or UAE. Pectin characterization indicates that the pectic structure has basically homogalacturonans and galacturonate followed by a galacturonic acid ester unit, with methylation degree of 70%. With this study it can be concluded that mixtures of alcohols with water favor the extraction of bioactive compounds of passion fruit peel. Both PSE and UAE were effective in sequentially extracting flavonoids and pectin. The preferred solvent is ethanol due to its lower toxicity. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Sambucus nigra Fruit Extract Using Alternative Methods

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    Elena Doroftei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro antioxidant activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra fruit extract and to study its toxicity in a plant model system with regard to its possible application in food and agricultural industry. The antioxidant capacity of Sambucus nigra fruit powder was quantified by a photochemiluminescence method. The study of phytotoxicity of aqueous solutions of powder extract was performed using Allium cepa as a test organism. Photochemiluminescence determinations showed a very high antioxidant capacity of the product but also revealed its cytotoxic effect, along with mitodepressive activity and even inhibiton of mitosis at the preprophase stage when the fruit extract was used at higher concentrations. Aqueous solutions of the fruit powder have a reasonably expressed mutagenic activity in vivo on the radicles of Allium cepa, especially when they are used at a concentration of 1 g/dL for a prolonged time (48 h. At lower concentrations (0.1 g/dL, however, the mutagenic effect was not observed any more. The conclusion of our study is that Sambucus nigra fruit extract powder has a very high in vitro antioxidant activity and no mutagenic effects at low concentrations, which makes it recommendable for applications in the food industry.

  7. A critical review on the spray drying of fruit extract: effect of additives on physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.

  8. Differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in relation to anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp of Litchi chinensis Sonn.

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    Yong-Zan Wei

    Full Text Available Litchi has diverse fruit color phenotypes, yet no research reflects the biochemical background of this diversity. In this study, we evaluated 12 litchi cultivars for chromatic parameters and pigments, and investigated the effects of abscisic acid, forchlorofenron (CPPU, bagging and debagging treatments on fruit coloration in cv. Feizixiao, an unevenly red cultivar. Six genes encoding chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS and UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT were isolated from the pericarp of the fully red litchi cv. Nuomici, and their expression was analyzed in different cultivars and under the above mentioned treatments. Pericarp anthocyanin concentration varied from none to 734 mg m(-2 among the 12 litchi cultivars, which were divided into three coloration types, i.e. non-red ('Kuixingqingpitian', 'Xingqiumili', 'Yamulong'and 'Yongxing No. 2', unevenly red ('Feizixiao' and 'Sanyuehong' and fully red ('Meiguili', 'Baila', Baitangying' 'Guiwei', 'Nuomici' and 'Guinuo'. The fully red type cultivars had different levels of anthocyanin but with the same composition. The expression of the six genes, especially LcF3H, LcDFR, LcANS and LcUFGT, in the pericarp of non-red cultivars was much weaker as compared to those red cultivars. Their expression, LcDFR and LcUFGT in particular, was positively correlated with anthocyanin concentrations in the pericarp. These results suggest the late genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were coordinately expressed during red coloration of litchi fruits. Low expression of these genes resulted in absence or extremely low anthocyanin accumulation in non-red cultivars. Zero-red pericarp from either immature or CPPU treated fruits appeared to be lacking in anthocyanins due to the absence of UFGT expression. Among these six genes, only the expression of UFGT was found significantly correlated

  9. Differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in relation to anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp of Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong-Zan; Hu, Fu-Chu; Hu, Gui-Bing; Li, Xiao-Jing; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong

    2011-04-29

    Litchi has diverse fruit color phenotypes, yet no research reflects the biochemical background of this diversity. In this study, we evaluated 12 litchi cultivars for chromatic parameters and pigments, and investigated the effects of abscisic acid, forchlorofenron (CPPU), bagging and debagging treatments on fruit coloration in cv. Feizixiao, an unevenly red cultivar. Six genes encoding chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were isolated from the pericarp of the fully red litchi cv. Nuomici, and their expression was analyzed in different cultivars and under the above mentioned treatments. Pericarp anthocyanin concentration varied from none to 734 mg m(-2) among the 12 litchi cultivars, which were divided into three coloration types, i.e. non-red ('Kuixingqingpitian', 'Xingqiumili', 'Yamulong'and 'Yongxing No. 2'), unevenly red ('Feizixiao' and 'Sanyuehong') and fully red ('Meiguili', 'Baila', Baitangying' 'Guiwei', 'Nuomici' and 'Guinuo'). The fully red type cultivars had different levels of anthocyanin but with the same composition. The expression of the six genes, especially LcF3H, LcDFR, LcANS and LcUFGT, in the pericarp of non-red cultivars was much weaker as compared to those red cultivars. Their expression, LcDFR and LcUFGT in particular, was positively correlated with anthocyanin concentrations in the pericarp. These results suggest the late genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were coordinately expressed during red coloration of litchi fruits. Low expression of these genes resulted in absence or extremely low anthocyanin accumulation in non-red cultivars. Zero-red pericarp from either immature or CPPU treated fruits appeared to be lacking in anthocyanins due to the absence of UFGT expression. Among these six genes, only the expression of UFGT was found significantly correlated with the

  10. Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Activities of Various Extracts from the Fruiting Bodies of Lentinus lepideus

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    Tae Soo Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus lepideus is an edible mushroom currently available in Korea. The acetone, methanol and hot water extracts were prepared and assayed for their antioxidant and antityrosinase inhibitory activities. The hot water extract showed the strongest β-carotene-linoleic acid inhibition compared to the other extracts. At 8 mg/mL, the methanolic extract showed a high reducing power of 1.21. The acetone and methanol extracts were more effective in scavenging DPPH radicals than the hot water extract. The strongest chelating effect was obtained from the methanolic extract. Xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the acetonic, methanol and hot water extracts increased with increasing concentration. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillin, naringin, naringenin, formononetin, and biochanin-A were detected in the acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid (5:1 solvent extract. This study suggests that fruiting bodies of L. lepideus can potentially be used as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants.

  11. Effects of Mesua ferrea leaf and fruit extracts on growth and morphology of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruldass, Claira Arul; Marimuthu, Mani Maran; Ramanathan, Surash; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2013-02-01

    Mesua ferrea is traditionally used for treating bleeding piles, fever, and renal diseases. It has been reported to have antimircobial activity. In the present study, antibacterial efficacy of leaf and fruit extracts on the growth and morphology of Staphylococcus aureus is evaluated. Both extracts display good antibacterial activity against S. aureus with a minimum inhibition concentration of 0.048 mg/mL. Both extracts are bacteriostatic at a minimum bacteriostatic concentration of 0.39 mg/mL. The bacteriostatic activity lasts for 24 h, and then cells start to grow as normal as shown in time-kill analysis. Scanning electron microscopy study indicated potential detrimental effect of the extracts of leaf and fruits of M. ferrea on the morphology of S. aureus. The treatment with the extracts caused extensive lysis of the cells, leakage of intracellular constituents, and aggregation of cytoplasmic contents forming an open meshwork of the matrix.

  12. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  13. Fruit-specific overexpression of wound-induced tap1 under E8 promoter in tomato confers resistance to fungal pathogens at ripening stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesanakurti, Divya; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bhardwaja

    2012-10-01

    Based on high economic importance and nutritious value of tomato fruits and as previous studies employed E8 promoter in fruit ripening-specific gene expression, we have developed transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tomato anionic peroxidase cDNA (tap1) under E8 promoter. Stable transgene integration was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern analysis for nptII. Northern blotting confirmed elevated tap1 levels in the breaker- and red-ripe stages of T(1) transgenic fruits, whereas wild-type (WT) plants did not show tap1 expression in these developmental stages. Further, tap1 expression levels were significantly enhanced in response to wounding in breaker- and red-ripe stages of transgenic fruits, whereas wound-induced expression of tap1 was not detected in WT fruits. Confocal microscopy revealed high accumulation of phenolic compounds at the wound site in transgenic fruits suggesting a role of tap1 in wound-induced phenolic polymerization. Total peroxidase activity has increased remarkably in transgenic pericarp tissues in response to wounding, while very less or minimal levels were recorded in WT pericarp tissues. Transgenic fruits also displayed reduced post-harvest decay and increased resistance toward Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani infection with noticeable inhibition in lesion formation. Conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. solani were severely inhibited when treated with E8-tap1 fruit extracts compared to WT fruits. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed reduced spore viability when incubated in E8-tap1 fruit extracts. Thus, fruit-specific expression of tap1 using E8 promoter is associated with enhanced total peroxidase activity and high phenolic accumulation in fruits with minimized post-harvest deterioration caused by wounding and fungal attack in tomato fruits.

  14. Microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Camellia oleifera fruit hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man; Chen, Jiahong

    2011-05-27

    The abundant fruit hulls of tea-oil tree (Camellia oleifera) are still underutilized and wastefully discaded to pollute the environment. In order to solve this problem and better utilize the fruit hulls of C. oleifera, a microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract their polyphenols using water as the extraction solvent. A central composite design (CCD) was used to monitor the effects of three extraction processing parameters--liquid:solid ratio (mL/g), extraction time (min) and extraction temperature (°C)--on the polyphenol yield (%). The results showed that the optimal conditions were liquid:solid ratio of 15.33:1 (mL/g), extraction time of 35 min and extraction temperature of 76 °C. Validation tests indicated that under the optimized conditions the actual yield of polyphenols was 15.05 ± 0.04% with RSD = 0.21% (n = 5), which was in good agreement with the predicted yield. Phenolic compounds in the extracts were analysed by HPLC, and gallic acid was found to be the predominant constituent. The total flavonoid content in the extracts was determined and high total flavonoid content was revealed (140.06 mg/g dry material).

  15. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Camellia oleifera Fruit Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The abundant fruit hulls of tea-oil tree (Camellia oleifera are still underutilized and wastefully discaded to pollute the environment. In order to solve this problem and better utilize the fruit hulls of C. oleifera, a microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract their polyphenols using water as the extraction solvent. A central composite design (CCD was used to monitor the effects of three extraction processing parameters – liquid:solid ratio (mL/g, extraction time (min and extraction temperature (°C – on the polyphenol yield (%. The results showed that the optimal conditions were liquid:solid ratio of 15.33:1 (mL/g, extraction time of 35 min and extraction temperature of 76 °C. Validation tests indicated that under the optimized conditions the actual yield of polyphenols was 15.05 ± 0.04% with RSD = 0.21% (n = 5, which was in good agreement with the predicted yield. Phenolic compounds in the extracts were analysed by HPLC, and gallic acid was found to be the predominant constituent. The total flavonoid content in the extracts was determined and high total flavonoid content was revealed (140.06 mg/g dry material.

  16. Antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of aqueous extract of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayalil, Praveen K

    2002-01-30

    Fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) are very commonly consumed in many parts of the world and are a vital component of the diet in most of the Arabian countries. This preliminary study documents for the first time its antioxidant and antimutagenic properties in vitro. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by an aqueous extract of date fruit. The amount of fresh extract required to scavenge 50% of superoxide radicals was equivalent to 0.8 mg/mL of date fruit in the riboflavin photoreduction method. An extract of 2.2 mg/mL of date fruit was needed for 50% hydroxyl-radical-scavenging activity in the deoxyribose degradation method. Concentrations of 1.5 and 4.0 mg/mL completely inhibited superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Aqueous date extract was also found to inhibit significantly the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In an Fe(2+)/ascorbate system, an extract of 1.9 mg/mL of date fruit was needed for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxides. In a time course inhibition study of lipid peroxide, at a 2.0 mg/mL concentration of date extract, there was a complete inhibition of TBARS formation in the early stages of the incubation period that increased during later stages of the incubation. Similarly, in the high Fe(2+)/ascorbate induction system a concentration of 2.3 mg/mL inhibited carbonyl formation measured by DNPH reaction by 50%. Moreover, a concentration of 4.0 mg/mL completely inhibited lipid peroxide and protein carbonyl formation. Date fruit extract also produced a dose-dependent inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mutagenecity on Salmonella tester strains TA-98 and TA-100 with metabolic activation. Extract from 3.6 mg/plate and 4.3 mg/plate was found required for 50% inhibition of His+ revertant formation in TA-98 and TA-100, respectively. These results indicate that antioxidant and antimutagenic activity in date fruit is quite potent and implicates the presence

  17. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Methanolic Extract Of Moringa Olieifera Lam. Fruits

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    Mohammed Abu Sayeed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate antibacterial and antifungal activity of Methanol extract from the fruits of Moringa oleifera. The extract were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity by Disc diffusion method. The fruit extract of Moringa oleifera showed a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and antifungal activity. The highest zone of inhibition was found at the concentration of 200µg/ disc for Pseudomonas aeruginosa(22mm and Colletotrichum Sp (14mm. Methanol extract possessed moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains- Staphylococccus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species and Proteus species and antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi- Alternaria SP, Colletotrichum SP, Curvularia SP and Fusarium SP.

  18. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadiani, A; Hosseiny, J; Semnanian, S; Javan, M; Saeedi, F; Kamalinejad, M; Saremi, S

    2000-09-01

    In this study, probable antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit components, were evaluated. For evaluation of antinociceptive effects, the chronic (formalin test) and acute (tail-flick) pain models of rats were used. For the anti-inflammatory effects, the paw inflammation model was used through subcutaneous injection of 5% formalin to the paw of male rats. Water extracts of the fruit and its components in the single dose were assessed through comparison with the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of sodium salicylate (SS) as a positive control. Administration of 300 mg/kg of SS (i.p.) had no effect on tail flick latency, while 1000 mg/kg of total (i.p. and p.o.) and endocarp (i.p.) extract, increased this latency (Pangustifolia fruit contains flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides.

  19. Effect of ligustrum fruit extract on reproduction in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Liang FENG; Shu-Hua LI; Yan WANG; Chang-Chun CHEN; Bin GAO

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of ligustrum fruit on spermatogenesis and blood gonadal hormones in diabetic rats.Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats with streptozotocin. Ligustrum fruit extract was given by gastric gavage at a dose of crude drug 30 g@ kg- 1@ d- 1 for 110 days. The serum gonadadotropic hormones and testosterone were determined on d 60 and testicular histology examined on d 110. Results: In the control diabetic rats, the seminiferous tubules were dilated and the spermatogenic cells irregularly arranged. Spermatogenesis was arrested with the number of spermatids highly reduced and spermatozoa not observed. In the treated rats, all types of spermatogenic cells were practically normal. The serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)and testosterone levels were higher in the treated than in the control rats, but the difference was insignificant. Conclusion: In experimental diabetic rats, ligustrum fruit extract protects the damaging effect of experimental diabetes on spermatogenesis.

  20. A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hee-Kwon; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-06-19

    Mosquito larvicidal activity of Piper longum fruit-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was examined. A crude methanol extract of P. longum fruits was found to be active against the larvae, and the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality. The biologically active component of P. longum fruits was characterized as pipernonaline by spectroscopic analyses. The LC(50) value of pipernonaline was 0.25 mg/L. The toxicity of pipernonaline is comparable to that of pirimiphos-methyl as a mosquito larvicide. In tests with available components derived from P. longum, no activity was observed with piperettine, piperine, or piperlongumine.

  1. Effectiveness of the Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Extract as the Colorant, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial on Beef Sausage

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    Fitri M Manihuruk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel extracts addition on beef sausages. Red dragon fruit peel extracts were obtained by maceration using solvent at pH 5. Phytochemical characteristics, total phenols, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the peel extracts were observed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were associated with high phytochemical compounds and total phenols contained in the extracts. Red dragon fruit peel extracts with various percentages (0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were added on beef sausages, and their physicochemical characteristics, nutrients, antioxidant activity, and microbiological profile were analyzed. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts significantly reduced texture values, but increased intensity of luminosity, intensity of red color, and intensity of yellow color (P<0.05 beef sausages. It could be concluded that red dragon fruit peel extract containing phytochemical compounds was effective as an antibacterial agent and natural antioxidant. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts was effective in increasing the antioxidant activity and decreasing TBARS values. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extract did not affect the reddish colorization of beef sausages, but it was capable of increasing the yellowish colorization on beef sausage.

  2. Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchima Sithisarn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant. Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two clinically isolated bacteria, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius, using disc diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts from O. indicum fruits collected from Nakorn Pathom province at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL exhibited intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with an inhibition zone of 15.11 mm. Moreover, it promoted moderate inhibitory effects on S. suis with an inhibition zone of 14.39 mm. The extracts prepared by maceration with ethanol promoted higher antibacterial activities than those prepared with water. The ethanol extract from the seeds of this plant, purchased in Bangkok, showed stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than the other extracts, with an EC50 value of 26.33 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis suggested that the seed ethanol extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.66 g% gallic acid equivalent and 7.16 g% quercetin equivalent, respectively by a significant amount. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extracts showed the chromatographic band that could correspond to a flavonoid baicalein. From the results, extracts from O. indicum fruits have an in vitro antioxidant effect, with antibacterial potential, on

  3. Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarn, Patchima; Nantateerapong, Petcharat; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Pongtip

    2016-04-07

    Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant. Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two clinically isolated bacteria, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius, using disc diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts from O. indicum fruits collected from Nakorn Pathom province at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL exhibited intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with an inhibition zone of 15.11 mm. Moreover, it promoted moderate inhibitory effects on S. suis with an inhibition zone of 14.39 mm. The extracts prepared by maceration with ethanol promoted higher antibacterial activities than those prepared with water. The ethanol extract from the seeds of this plant, purchased in Bangkok, showed stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than the other extracts, with an EC50 value of 26.33 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis suggested that the seed ethanol extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.66 g% gallic acid equivalent and 7.16 g% quercetin equivalent, respectively) by a significant amount. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extracts showed the chromatographic band that could correspond to a flavonoid baicalein. From the results, extracts from O. indicum fruits have an in vitro antioxidant effect, with antibacterial potential, on clinically pathologic

  4. Absorption spectral analysis of proteins and free amino acids in Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting body extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyshyn, S.; Gorshynska, I.; Guminetsky, S. G.

    2002-02-01

    The paper deals with the results of spectrophotometric studies of the extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies, grown in natural conditions in different habitats of Chernivtsy region, in the spectral interval of 215 - 340 nm. It is shown that the samples reveal considerable difference both in free amino acid content and reserved protein content of albumins, globulins, prolamins, glutelins.

  5. Protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract on bromobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Jalali, Mohammadtaha; Jalali, Amir; Salimi, Abobakr; Alhalvachi, Foad; Varga, Balazs; Juhasz, Bela; Jakab, Anita; Kemeny-Beke, Adam; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Tosaki, Arpad; Zsuga, Judit

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of a crude hydro-alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula (golden shower tree) fruit to protect the kidney against bromobenzene-induced toxicity was studied. Negative control mice received normal saline; positive control mice were given 460 mg/kg of bromobenzene; Cassia fistula treated mice received 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg of Cassia fistula fruit extract followed by 460 mg/kg bromobenzene (daily by oral gavage for 10 days). On the 11th day, the mice were sacrificed, blood samples were obtained to assess blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, and kidneys were removed for histological examination. We found that bromobenzene induced significant nephrotoxicity reflected by an increase in levels of BUN and creatinine that was dose dependently prevented by the Cassia fistula fruit extract. The nephroprotective effect of the Cassia fistula fruit extract was confirmed by the histological examination of the kidneys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the protective effect of Cassia fistula in nephrotoxicity.

  6. Structural investigation of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P.

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharide material, extracted from the stipes of the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus by hot water, was fractionated by sequential weak anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The relevant fractions were subjected to structural analysis, including (D/L) monosaccharide/me

  7. Hepatoprotective Effect of Citrus limon Fruit Extract against Carbofuran Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Jaiswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranol methylcarbamate, is known to induce oxidative stress and to cause inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. The present work was envisaged to evaluate the effect of carbofuran on redox indices and its interactions with hepatic markers in rat. The ameliorating effect of Citrus limon fruit extract on carbofuran induced toxicity was also monitored. The results indicated that carbofuran treatment caused significant alterations in the levels of activities of AST, ALT, and LDH in liver tissues and serum. The levels of enzymatic oxidative stress markers such as SOD and catalase and nonenzymatic redox molecules such as total thiol, GSH, and protein thiol also showed significant perturbations in rat liver due to carbofuran treatment. The administration of Citrus limon fruit extract, however, was able to markedly ameliorate the toxicity of carbofuran by protecting the levels of aforesaid biomarkers to near normal levels. The ameliorative effect of Citrus limon fruit extract may be due to the presence of different antioxidants in it which may neutralize the ROS and RNS generated in the body tissue due to pesticide stress. These results suggested that Citrus limon fruit extract may be utilized as a potential supplement in proper management of pesticide intoxication in association with relevant therapeutics.

  8. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Deligni

  9. Changes in properties of starch isolated from whole rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp after storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Goebel, Jorge Tiago Schwanz; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Santetti, Gabriela Soster; Gutkoski, Luiz Carlos; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, morphological, crystallinity, thermal, and pasting properties of starches isolated from rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp. Starch was isolated from the rice grains at initial storage time, and after 6months of storage at different storage temperatures (16, 24, 32 and 40°C). Starch isolated from the grains stored for 6months at 40°C showed darker coloration, surface deformation of granules, and a significant reduction in the extraction yield, final viscosity, enthalpy, and crystallinity, independent of the grain pericarp coloration. The time and storage temperature not influence the swelling power and solubility of starch isolated from grains with brown pericarp, while for the grains with black and red pericarp there was reduction in swelling power and solubility of starches isolated of grains stored at 40°C. Grains stored at 16°C showed minimum changes in starch properties.

  10. Aqueous Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Galactomannans from Aren Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different aqueous extraction conditions on the crude gum extraction yield of Aren sugar palm (Arenga pinnata fruit was evaluated. A water-soluble polysaccharide was extracted from the endosperm of A. pinnata fruit with water at different extraction conditions. The results indicated that water to seed ratio, alkaline pH and temperature were significantly (p<0.05 effect the extraction yield of the crude gum. The ideal extraction conditions (W/S ratio: 20:1, pH: 10 and temperature: 80˚C led to the highest yield (5.50% of the A. pinnata fruit gum. The purified gum was characterized as white, thread-like precipitate and become a powder-like substance after being freeze dried. It had relatively low protein content (1.15% and partially solubilised at ambient (50.93% and at elevated temperature (71.00%. The gum had a high water holding capacity but lower oil-holding capacity which was 150.00 g water/100 g and 103.33 g oil/100 g of gum respectively. The viscosity of the purified gums increased with the increase of solution concentration. This revealed that A. pinnata gum is suitable for applications as stabilizer for oil-in-water emulsion or as food additives due to its capability to hold water molecules and form a viscous solution at low concentration.

  11. Volatiles composition and extraction kinetics from Schinus terebinthifolius and Schinus molle leaves and fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano dos Santos Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEssential oils extracted from Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, leaves and fruit hydrodistillation, as well as, their chemical composition and extraction kinetic were evaluated. For this proposal, 6 h extraction and aliquots collected at sequencing different times (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h were carried out allowing calculating accumulated content (% w/w and verifying essential oil chemical profile. β-caryophyllene (35.2%, α-pinene (28.1% and germacrene D (15.5% represent S. terebinthifolius dried leaves essential oil major components, as well as, α-pinene (44.9%, germacrene D (17.6% and β-pinene (15.1% in the fruit. Cubenol (27.1%, caryophyllene oxide (15.3% and spathulenol (12.4% represent S. molle dried leaves essential oil major components, and β-pinene (36.3% α-pinene (20.3%, germacrene D (12.1% and spathulenol in the fruit. Essential oil extraction kinetics showed a hyperbolic distribution; monoterpene content presented exponential decay in time function and sesquiterpene showed exponential growth. Faster monoterpene extraction than the sesquiterpene extraction was observed, however, both presented increasing exponential distribution.

  12. Leucaena leucocephala fruit aqueous extract stimulates adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Arumugam, Bavani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro "insulin-like" activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties.

  13. Leucaena leucocephala Fruit Aqueous Extract Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in Primary Rat Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umah Rani Kuppusamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro “insulin-like” activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1 involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties.

  14. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-04

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimized Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Pyracantha fortuneana Fruit and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities

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    Yun Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction (UAE method was developed for extraction of total flavonoids from Pyracantha fortuneana fruit. The UAE parameters and the antioxidant activities of flavonoids extract were investigated. Important variables and their levels were obtained using single factor analysis method and central composite design. Through Response Surface Methodology (RSM design experiments, the processing conditions were optimized as follows: ethanol concentration, 81.15%; liquid-solid ratio, 30.00 mL/g; extraction time, 3.14 h; and temperature, 69.55°C. Under the optimum condition, the extraction yield was 1.261%, which was well matched with the predicted values of 1.263%. The antibacterial activities of extract against four bacterial strains were determined by agar well diffusion method and the results indicated that the extract showed potent antibacterial activities, which concludes its application as natural antibacterial agent.

  16. Enzymatic added extraction and clarification of fruit juices-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harsh P; Patel, Hiral; Sugandha

    2017-04-13

    Enzymatic treatment for juice extraction is most commonly used now a days. The enzymatic process is claimed to offer a number of advantages over mechanical-thermal comminution of several fruit pulps. Enzymes are an integral component of modern fruit juice manufacturing and are highly suitable for optimizing processes. Their main purposes are: increase extraction of juice from raw material, increase processing efficiency (pressing, solid settling or removal), and generate a final product that is clear and visually attractive. Juice extraction can be done by using various mechanical processes, which may be achieved through diffusion extraction, decanter centrifuge, screw type juice extractor, fruit pulper and by different types of presses. Enzymatic treatment prior to mechanical extraction significantly improves juice recovery compared to any other extraction process. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cell walls increases the extraction yield, reducing sugars, soluble dry matter content and galacturonic acid content and titrable acidity of the products. Enzymatic degradation of the biomaterial depends upon the type of enzyme, incubation time, incubation temperature, enzyme concentration, agitation, pH and use of different enzyme combinations. We can conclude from the technical literature that use of the enzymes i.e. cellulases, pectinases, amylases and combination of these enzymes can give better juice yield with superior quality of the fruit juice. Pectinase enzyme can give maximum juice yield i.e. 92.4% at 360 minutes incubation time, 37°C incubation temperature and 5 mg/100 g of enzyme concentration. Whereas the combination of two enzymes i.e. pectin methyl esterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) at 120 minutes of incubation time, 50°C of incubation temperature and 0.05 mg/100 gm of enzymatic concentration can give the maximum yield of 96.8% for plum fruits. This paper discusses the use of enzymes in fruit juice production focusing on the juice recovery

  17. Photoelectric characterization of fabricated dye-sensitized solar cell using dye extracted from red Siahkooti fruit as natural sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Saeidi, Mahsa; Rahmanian, Reza

    2015-05-05

    Natural dye extracted from Siahkooti fruit with/without purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) technique was used in the fabrication of DSSC as natural sensitizer. The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were employed to indicate the presence of anthocyanins in the fruit of red Siahkooti. The photoelectrochemical performance and the efficiency of assembled DSSC using Siahkooti fruit dye extract were evaluated and efficiency enhancement was obtained by a preliminary purification of extracted dye. The efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC using purified Siahkooti fruit dye were 0.32% and 0.73%, respectively. The results successfully showed that the DSSC, using Siahkooti fruit extract as a dye sensitizer, is useful for the preparation of environmentally friendly, low-cost, renewable and clean sources of energy.

  18. Optimization of Antifungal Extracts from Ficus hirta Fruits Using Response Surface Methodology and Antifungal Activity Tests

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    Chuying Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Ficus hirta (FH display strong antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. In order to optimize the extraction conditions of antifungal extracts from FH fruit, various extraction parameters, such as ethanol concentration, extraction time, solvent to solid ratio and temperature, were chosen to identify their effects on the diameters of inhibition zones (DIZs against these two Penicillium molds. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to obtain the optimal combination of these parameters. Results showed that the optimal extraction parameters for maximum antifungal activity were: 90% (v/v ethanol concentration, 65 min extraction time, 31 mL/g solvent to solid ratio and 51 °C temperature. Under the abovementioned extraction conditions, the experimental DIZs values obtained experimentally were 57.17 ± 0.75 and 39.33 ± 0.82 mm, which were very close to the values of 57.26 and 39.29 mm predicted by the model. Further, nine kinds of phytopathogens were tested in vitro to explore the antifungal activity of the FH extracts. It was found for the first time that the FH extracts showed significant inhibition on the growth of P. italicum, A. citri, P. vexans, P. cytosporella and P. digitatum.

  19. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits,flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L.from Jaffna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E; Christy; Jeyaseelan; S; Jenothiny; MK; Pathmanathan; JP; Jeyadevan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits,flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis(L against)some pathogenic bacteria.Methods:Powders of fruits,flowers and leaves of L inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane(DCM),ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature.The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method,and also the extracts were tested to detennine the available phytochemicals.Results:Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly(P<0.05).The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus)and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P.aeruginosa),and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli(E.coli)and Bacillus subtilis(6.subtilis).The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower,fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100μl against all test bacteria.Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower.Conclusions:The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  20. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE

  1. Anti-acne-inducing bacterial activity of mangosteen fruit rind extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the most effective solvent extract of mangosteen, anti-acne- inducing bacterial activity and the amount of alpha-mangostin, a major active component in each mangosteen fruit rind extract, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fruit rinds of mangosteen were extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and water. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against bacteria that induce acne, including Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thin-layer chromatographic autobiography against these bacteria was also performed for each extract, while the alpha-mangostin content was analyzed using a validated HPLC method. The dichloromethane extract exhibited the strongest antibacterial effect with minimum inhibitory concentration values for both bacterial species at 3.91 microg/ml, while the minimum bactericidal concentration values against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 3.91 and 15.63 microg/ml, respectively. Thin-layer chromatographic autobiography indicated that alpha-mangostin was present in all extracts, except the water extract, and is a major active component against both P. acnes and S. epidermidis. Using HPLC, the dichloromethane extract yielded the highest content (46.21% w/w) of alpha-mangostin followed by the ethanol extract (18.03% w/w), the hexane extract (17.21% w/w) and the water extract (0.54% w/w). Dichloromethane extract exhibited the strongest anti-acne-inducing bacterial effect and this extract yielded the highest amount of alpha-mangostin. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Natural Arctium lappa fruit extract improves the clinical signs of aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Anja; Reuschlein, Katja; Mielke, Heiko; Wensorra, Ursula; Mummert, Christopher; Koop, Urte; Kausch, Martina; Kolbe, Ludger; Peters, Nils; Stäb, Franz; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    Subclinical, chronic tissue inflammation involving the generation of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) might contribute to the cutaneous aging process. This study aims to screen for an active ingredient with anti-inflammatory (i.e., reduction of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and matrix-stimulating efficacy which improves the clinical signs of skin aging in vivo. In vitro studies with pure Arctiin were performed investigating the inhibition of cytokine induction and stimulation of collagen neo-synthesis. In vivo home-in-use studies using an Arctium lappa fruit extract-containing formulation were carried out to determine procollagen and hyaluronan synthesis, hyaluronan synthase-2 gene expression, and reduction of wrinkle volume after treatment. In vitro studies on human dermal fibroblasts and monocyte-derived dendritic cells supplemented with pure Arctiin showed relative to untreated control cells a stimulation of collagen synthesis and a decrease in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration, respectively. In addition, topical in vivo application of an A. lappa fruit extract-containing formulation for 12 weeks significantly stimulated procollagen synthesis and increased hyaluronan synthase-2 expression as well as hyaluronan levels compared to vehicle-treated control areas. Similarly, after a 4-week treatment with an A. lappa fruit extract-containing formulation, wrinkle volume in the crow's feet area was significantly reduced as compared to treatment with the vehicle. Our data show that topical treatment with a natural A. lappa fruit extract significantly improves the metabolism of the dermal extracellular matrix and leads to a visible wrinkle reduction in vivo. In conclusion, A. lappa fruit extract represents a targeted means to regenerate dermal structures and, thus, offers an effective treatment option for mature skin.

  3. Inhibition of α-Glucosidase, Total Phenolic Content and Flavonoid Content on Skin Fruit and Flesh Extracts of Some Varieties of Snake Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaeti, E.; Fauzi, M. R.; Batubara, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the antidiabetic activity of the skin fruit and flesh of snack fruit through α-glucosidase inhibition and correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as thin layer chromatography bio-autography. Seven varieties of varieties of skin and flesh of the fruits each extracted by maceration using ethanol 70%. The results show the highest power of the α-glucosidase inhibition obtained at Manonjaya skin extract with IC50 value of 17.9 µg/mL. The TLC pattern indicates the presence of four active spot on skin extract and two spots on flesh extracts on the use of solvent BuOH:HAc:water (6:2:2). The highest phenolic content obtained at skin fruit extract of Salak Mawar 186.15 ± 1.66 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram extract. The highest total flavonoid content obtained in Salak Malaka skin fruit extract that is 7:43 ± 0:04 milli gram of quercetin equivalents

  4. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Parts In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2015-01-01

    Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v) of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed) on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)]. Radicals scavenging and Fe(2+) chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined. Our data revealed that the extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase and ACE activities dose-dependently. The effective concentration of the extract causing 50% antioxidant activity (EC50) revealed that pericarp extract had the highest α-amylase (0.46 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (0.37 mg/mL), and ACE (0.03 mg/mL) inhibitory activities while the seed extract had the least [α-amylase (0.76 mg/mL); α-glucosidase (0.73 mg/mL); and ACE (0.20 mg/mL)]. Furthermore, the extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+), and chelated Fe(2+). The phenolic contents in the extracts ranged from 85.65 to 560.21 mg/100 g. The enzymes inhibitory and antioxidants potentials of the extracts could be attributed to their phenolic distributions which could be among the scientific basis for their use in the management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the pericarp appeared to be most promising.

  5. Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Various Extracts of Rhus typhina Fruits and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of various extracts (methanol, hexane, dichloro-methane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol water of Rhus typhina fruits and leaves were investigated using different methods and the main phenolic compounds were analyzed by LC-MS. The ethyl acetate extracts from fruits and leaves of R. typhina exhibited the highest DPPH, hydroxyl radical and nitrite scavenging activity, reducing potential and protein protection ability. The phenolic and flavonoïd contents were highest in the ethyl acetate fraction. The LC-MS analysis showed that the contents of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide in leaves are little higher (34.49 and 32.69%, respectively than that (32.49 and 27.89%, respectively in the fruits, the content of rutin in fruits (16.73% is higher than that (7.79% in the leaves. These results implied that the leaves of R. typhina might serve as a natural source of antioxidant using as the food additive for its good nutrition as well as the fruits of Rhus typhina.

  6. Extraction, Identification and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Flavonoids From Fruit Extracts of Arbutus unedo L from Tiaret Area (Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadidja Bouzid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the total phenolic, flavonoid content and to investigate the antioxidant capacities of the fruit extracts of Arbutus unedo L. that grows in Tiaret area (Western Algeria. First we have extracted the fruit by some non-polar solvent (chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and a colorimetric method, respectively. Extracts content was determined by using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV method. The total phenolic contents of A.unedo L. varied between 12.75±0.06 to 34.17±1.36 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight of extract. The total flavonoid varied from 2.18±0.10 to 6.54±1.14 mg catechin equivalent/g. The antioxidant potential of all extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the IC50 of acetate ethyl was the best by 0,009 mg/ml may due to the phenolic compound, in the second was the chloroform extract by IC50=0,015mg/ml, in the third was butanol extract by IC50= 0,022 mg/ml and in the last was water extract by IC50= 0,048mg/ml. the antioxidant activity of all extracts was better than ascorbic acid. The extract obtained under optimum conditions was analyzed by HPLC and five flavonoid compounds were identified; they are catechin, apiginin, silybin, fisetine and naringin.

  7. Antidiarrhoeal effect of the crude methanol extract of the dried fruit of Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae

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    Mohammed Musa Suleiman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of the methanol extract of the fruit of Adansonia digitata using laboratory animal models. Materials and Methods: The acute oral toxicity (LD50 of the extract was determined in mice, while the antidiarrhoeal effect of different doses of the extract was evaluated in both mice and rats. The effect of the extract at doses of 300, 700 and 1000 mg/kg were tested against intestinal transit time, magnesium sulphate-induced gastrointestinal motility test and castor oil-induced diarrhoea, respectively in mice. Similarly, the extract at the doses mentioned above was evaluated against castor-oil induced enteropooling in rats. Results: The methanol extract of A. digitata was shown to have no toxic effect in mice at doses up to 5000 mg/kg. At doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg the extract significantly (p<0.01 decrease intestinal transit time in mice. In addition, the extract at doses of 300, 700 and 1000 mg/kg, significantly (p<0.05 lowered diarrhoea induced by magnesium sulphate and castor oil in mice. Similarly, the extract produced a significant (p<0.05 inhibition of enteropooling caused by castor oil in rats. The antidiarrhoeal effect of the extract was shown to be dose-dependent. Conclusion: These findings revealed the potential of the extract of fruit of A. digitata as an antidiarrhoeal agent. The detailed mechanism of the extract antidiarrhoeal action is yet to be ascertained. However, one or more of the phytoconstituents contained in the extract could be responsible for the observed antidiarrhoeal effect.

  8. Anti-Cancer Effects of Xanthones from Pericarps of Mangosteen

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    Yoshinori Nozawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a tree found in South East Asia, and its pericarps have been used as traditional medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that they contain a variety of secondary metabolites, such as oxygenated and prenylated xanthones. Recent studies revealed that these xanthones exhibited a variety of biological activities containing anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer effects. We previously investigated the anti-proliferative effects of four prenylated xanthones from the pericarps; α-mangostin, β-mangostin, γ-mangostin, and methoxy-β-mangostin in various human cancer cells. These xanthones are different in the number of hydroxyl and methoxy groups. Except for methoxy-β-mangostin, the other three xanthones strongly inhibited cell growth at low concentrations from 5 to 20 μM in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Our recent study focused on the mechanism of α-mangostin-induced growth inhibition in DLD-1 cells. It was shown that the anti-proliferative effects of the xanthones were associated with cell-cycle arrest by affecting the expression of cyclins, cdc2, and p27; G1 arrest by α- mangostin and β-mangostin, and S arrest by γ-mangostin. α-Mangostin found to induce apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic pathway following the down-regulation of signaling cascades involving MAP kinases and the serine/threonine kinase Akt. Synergistic effects by the combined treatment of α-mangostin and anti-cancer drug 5-FU was to be noted. α-Mangostin was found to have a cancer preventive effect in rat carcinogenesis bioassay and the extract from pericarps, which contains mainly α-mangostin and γ- mangostin, exhibited an enhancement of NK cell activity in a mouse model. These findings could provide a relevant basis for the development of xanthones as an agent for cancer prevention and the combination therapy with

  9. IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF HYDROMETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AVERRHOA BILIMBI L. FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sultana Chowdhury et al.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. (Family: Oxalidiaceae is a medicinal plant which is extensively used in traditional medicine to cure cough, cold, itches, boils, rheumatism, syphilis, diabetes, whooping cough, and hypertension. In this study, hydromethanolic extract of A. bilimbi fruits was examined for its antioxidant action using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were also estimated. Moreover, brine shrimp lethality bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic potential of A. bilimbi. The extract exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with and IC50 value of 20.35μg/ml as opposed to the IC50 value of the reference standard, ascorbic acid (12.6μg/ml. It also displayed remarkable total antioxidant capacity (417.093±6.577mg/g in ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE. Total phenol and total flavonoid contents of the extract were 106.16±2.818 mg/g in gallic acid equivalent (GAE and 276.73±25.25 mg/g in quercetin equivalent (QE, respectively. A. bilimbi fruit extract also showed strong cytotoxic potential with an LC50 value of 5.011μg/ml in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Our results suggest that, in addition to having cytotoxic potential, A. bilimbi fruits are rich in polyphenolic antioxidants with strong radical scavenging capacity.

  10. Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosalec, Ivan; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kustrak, Danica

    2005-12-01

    Antifungal activities of fluid extract and essential oil obtained from anise fruits Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro on clinical isolates of seven species of yeasts and four species of dermatophytes. Diffusion method with cylinders and the broth dilution method were used for antifungal activity testing. Anise fluid extract showed antimycotic activity against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis and C. krusei with MIC values between 17 and 20% (v/v). No activity was noticed against C. glabrata, and anis fruits extracts showed growth promotion activity on Geotrichum spp. Anise fruits extract inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum) with MIC values between 1.5 and 9.0% (V/V). Anise essential oil showed strong antifungal activity against yeasts with MIC lower than 1.56% (V/V) and dermatophytes with MIC lower than 0.78% (V/V). Significant differences in antifungal activities were found between anise fluid extract and anise essential oil (p<0.01). Anise essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activities against yeasts and dermatophytes with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.56% (V/V), respectively.

  11. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF GARCINIA INDICA LINN ALCOHOLIC FRUITS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Rawri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research was an attempt to reiterate the antioxidant potential of alcoholic fruit extract of Garcinia indica invitro. The fruits of Garcinia indica were collected and shade dried at room temperature. The powdered mass was defatted with petroleum ether then filtered and residue was extracted with ethanol (95% into soxhlet apparatus. The suspension of extract was prepared freshly in normal saline with the help of 0.5% w/v carboxymethylcellulose (CMC. Varying concentration of extract (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml was tested for invitro antioxidant properties. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH assay, reducing power ability, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical (OH- scavenging activity. The ethanolic fruit extract of Garcinia indica demonstrated antioxidant potential dose dependently with best activity at 100 µg/ml. In conclusion, traditionally claimed medicinal benefits of Garcinia indica might be due to its potent anti-oxidant nature. However, further studies to be carried out on animal models using their biological tissues before exploiting for its clinical benefits.

  12. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of fruit extracts of Calamus tenuis Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaki Uddin Ahmed; Seheli Sejuti Bithi; Md Minhazur Rahman Khan; Md Mofazzol Hossain; Suriya Sharmin; Satyajit Roy Rony

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the fruits of Calamus tenuis Roxb. Methods:The preliminary phytochemical group tests were done, which revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid and steroid. The dried fruit was extracted in soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant potential of each extract was evaluated using total phenol content, total flavonoid content, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and total antioxidant capacity determinations. Results:The extracts were found to possess moderate to high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid contents. In cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assay the extracts showed moderate reducing power which increases with concentration. Scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical was found to rise with concentration with lowest IC50 value for methanol extract, which was confirmed by total antioxidant activity test that shows highest (95 mg/g of extract) in ascorbic acid equivalent for methanol extract. In Brine shrimp lethality bioassay the methanol and petroleum ether extracts were found to be toxic to Brine shrimp nauplii, with LC50 of 25.53 µg/mL and 28.07 µg/mL respectively while the LC50 of the reference vincristine sulphate was 1.32 µg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract was found to be moderately cytotoxic showing LC50 of 47.79 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the fruits of Calamus tenuis Roxb possess antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. Moreover, phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid and steroid, which may be responsible for the observed bioactivities.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Constituents of the Extract from Jatropha curcas Fruit

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    Kanda Saosoong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of the methanolic extract from J. curcas fruit were evaluated in this study. The crude extract was achieved by extraction with 60 % (v/v methanol. It showed the potencies of antimicrobial activity against P. putida, P. syringae pv. sesami, X. campestris, X. campestris pv. glycines, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and R. solanacearum with the presence of inhibition zone in the range of 8.0 ± 0.0 to 13.7 ± 0.6 mm and MIC value at 214.29 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Furthermore, flavone compound can be proposed by the analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. According to the group of flavonoid compounds have strong bioactive properties; the results suggested that J. curcas fruit has highly potential as effective natural bioactive sources.

  14. Regression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lung Metastases after Guyabano Fruit Extract Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Senthil S; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Landers, Lisa A; Gaba, Ron C

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of worldwide cancer-related mortality, and even with established treatment paradigms, its global burden demands greater research into therapeutic options. In the following case report, a patient suffering from HCC with lung metastasis demonstrated regression of metastatic disease while consuming guyabano fruit extract in the absence of conventional chemotherapy. While the antineoplastic effects of the guyabano fruit is well documented, there is sparse clinical documentation of HCC regression associated with it, and a better understanding of guyabano and its antineoplastic activity may trigger discovery of novel therapeutic options for this deadly disease.

  15. Effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its iridoid glycosides on blood fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Futamura-Masuda, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Deng, Shixin; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit on blood fluidity. M. citrifolia fruit extract (MCF-ext) was investigated for its influence on blood aggregation and fibrinolysis. MCF-ext inhibited polybrene-induced erythrocyte aggregation and thrombin activity. The fibrinolytic activity of MCF-ext, in the euglobulin lysis time test and fibrin plate assay, is reported here for the first time. One of the active compounds was an iridoid glycoside, asperulosidic acid. The results indicated that MCF-ext is a potentially useful health food which is capable of improving blood flow and preventing lifestyle-related diseases.

  16. Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts from Fruiting Body of Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June Woo; Baek, Seong Jin; Bae, Woo Chul; Park, Jeong Min; Kim, Yong Seok

    2006-12-01

    Fruiting bodies of Phellinus linteus were extracted by hot water and alkali methods. Sugar contents of PL-H (hot water extract) and PL-A (alkali water extract) were 81.1%, 37.4% and protein contents were 6.2%, 21.8%, respectively. Amino acid pattern showed that two extracts contained large amount of aspartic acid and alanine. Two extracts showed characteristic IR absorption pattern for glycosidic bond at 890 cm(-1). PL-H was divided two fractions by gel filtration chromatography and the molecular weights of each fraction were estimated to be about 10 kD and 225 kD, respectively and also PL-A was estimated 10 kD. Two extracts showed strong antitumor, immunomodulating and antioxidant activities, and were compared with commercialized glycopeptide anticancer drugs.

  17. Optimization of Smashing Tissue Extraction Technology of Schisandra chinensis Fruits by Orthogonal Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yun; LIU Yan-ze; HAN Ling; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2012-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extract technology of active lignins from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis.Methods The content of schizandrin,gomisin A,and deoxyschizandrin were selected as standards to evaluate the efficiency of smashing tissue extraction (STE).Solid-liquid ratio,extracting times,ethanol concentration,and extracting time were investigated through orthogonal test.Results The optimized conditions for STE were ten times amount of 80% EtOH,extracting for three times,and 2 min for each time.Conclusion STE could obtain relatively higher yield,simplicity of operation,and benefit for environment protection.It could be better choice for the extraction ofS.chinensis.

  18. Extraction and Characterization of Antioxidant Compositions From Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia(Noni)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-hong; XUE Ya-rong; YE Yong-hang; YUAN Feng-feng; LIU Jun-yan; SHUANG Jing-lei

    2007-01-01

    Extraction and characterization of antioxidative compositions from the extracts of fermented Xisha Noni(Morinda citrifolia L.)juice were studied.The antioxidative constituents of 184.6g freeze-dried extracts of naturally fermented Xisha Noni juice were isolated successfully by petroleum ether,EtOAc and n-BuOH solvents,and the antioxidative effects were measured according to scavenging activity against hydroxyl generated in Fenton reaction system and superoxide anion radicals in pyrogallol autoxidation system.The EtOAc extract exhibited most significantly higher(P<0.01)antioxidative activity than mannitol or vitamin C,while the petroleum ether and n-BuOH extracts showed lower activities compared to were isolated from the EtOAc extract by several chromatography techniques for the first time.The results suggest that several compounds,in particular,the phenolic compounds,contribute separately or synergistically to the antioxidative activity of fermented Noni fruit juice.

  19. Hepatoprotective and antidiabetic effects of Pistacia lentiscus leaf and fruit extracts

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    Chafiaâ Mehenni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus (Anacardiaceae is commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of extracts of P. lentiscus leaves (PL and fruits (PF against experimentally induced liver damage. Furthermore, characterization of extracts was attempted by a spectroscopic methodology (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection analysis. A hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol [165 mg/kg body weight (b.w.] toxicity was noticed in mice pretreated with the same dose of PL or PF extract (125 mg/kg b.w. or a combination of both (PL/PF 63/63 mg/kg b.w., as revealed by an analysis of biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and total bilirubin. These results were confirmed by histological examination of the liver, which revealed significant protection against paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis. Furthermore, PF extract exhibited a promising antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, similar to the reference drug glibenclamide (0.91 g/L, a result confirmed by in vitro inhibition of α-amylase. We demonstrated that the leaf crude extract showed the best effect in all tested methods, compared to its fruit counterpart, probably due to the presence of higher amounts of phenolic compounds, as determined by phytochemical and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection led to the identification of six compounds for each part of the plant. Gallic acid, a characteristic compound of Pistacia species, was most abundant in leaves and fruits, while luteolin was detected for the first time in fruits. Obtained activities of P. lentiscus extracts may well be due, at least in part, to the presence of the above compounds.

  20. Optimization of microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Song, Haiyan; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Hu, Haobin; Zhang, Yang

    2015-05-01

    A microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction (MAEE) method had been developed, which was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and orthogonal test design, to enhance the extraction of crude polysaccharides (CPS) from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill. The optimum conditions were as follows: microwave irradiation time of 10 min, extraction pH of 4.21, extraction temperature of 47.58°C, extraction time of 3h and enzyme concentration of 1.5% (wt% of S. chinensis powder) for cellulase, papain and pectinase, respectively. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of CPS was 7.38 ± 0.21%, which was well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods including heat-refluxing extraction (HRE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) for extracting CPS by RSM were further compared. Results indicated MAEE method had the highest extraction yields of CPS at lower temperature. It was indicated that the proposed approach in this study was a simple and efficient technique for extraction of CPS in S. chinensis Baill.

  1. Study on Inhibitory Effect of Green Banana Fruit Extract on the Anthracnose from Three Tropical Fruits%青香蕉提取物对三种热带水果炭疽病菌抑制效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    extract from dry sample, the water extract from pericarp had no obvious inhibiting effect on banana anthracnose, the heat water treatment could enhance the inhibition effects of cold or hot water extract from pericarp on mango and papaya anthracnose. The water extract from pulp only showed little inhibiting effect on three kinds of fruit anthracnose;however, the heat water treatment could enhance the inhibition effects of cold or hot water extract from pulp on the three kinds of fruit anthracnose, and the best suppression effect was found in banana anthracnose. After cold treatment to banana fruit, only hot water extract showed inhibiting effect on these anthracnose germination. The results of MIC test showed that, the MIC of hot water extract from green banana fresh sample on three kinds of anthracnose was 10%. These results were great help to make further understanding of the systematic resistance to disease for banana fruit and had the theoretical and practical significance to extend the theory of biological control of postharvest fruits and vegetables.

  2. Hypolipemic and antioxidant activities from Tamarindus indica L. pulp fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, F; Soares, S M; Franco, J J; Santos, A C; Sugohara, A; Garcia, S B; Curti, C; Uyemura, S A

    2006-06-01

    Dietary modifications may significantly reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including cholesterol and atherosclerosis. The present study addressed the effects of the crude extract from the pulp fruit of Tamarindus indica L. on lipid serum levels and early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic hamsters in vivo, and the extract's antioxidant action, in vitro. Animals were fed on either chow or atherogenic diet during 10 weeks and concomitantly received either water or T. indica L. extract for drinking. Treatment of hypercholesterolemic hamsters with the T. indica pulp fruit extract (5%) led to a decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (50%), non-HDL cholesterol (73%) and triglyceride (60%), and to an increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (61%). In vitro, the extract presented radical scavenging ability, as assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals assays, and led to decreased lipid peroxidation in serum, as assessed by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In vivo, the extract improved the efficiency of the antioxidant defense system, as assessed by the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Together these results indicate the potential of tamarind extracts in diminishing the risk of atherosclerosis development in humans.

  3. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-12-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management.

  4. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) polyphenol enhanced extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  5. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. polyphenol enhanced extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihai Wang

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated serum protein (GSP, and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of an Iridoid Rich Extract from Morinda citrifolia Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett J. West

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of iridoids in Morinda citrifolia (noni fruits. An iridoid rich extract from noni fruits was prepared and incubated with aliquots of twenty-four hour cultures of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at total iridoid concentrations of 0.096, 0.19, 0.45, 0.82 and 1.41 mg/mL. was monitored by Optical Density (OD at 600 nm. Iridoid concentration dependent decreases in cell growth were observed in all organisms. The results suggest that deacetylasperulosidic acid and asperulosidic acid, the major phytochemical constituents of noni fruit, possess antibacterial activity.

  7. NEUROTROPIC AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF THICK EXTRACT OF THE BLOOD-RED HAWTHORN’S FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kurkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-red hawthorn (Crataegi fructus are a popular cardiotonic herbal materials, which widely used in medical practice in our country and abroad. In order to prevent diseases of the cardiovascular system is appropriate to prescribe herbal medicines, because they combine the breadth and softness of therapeutic action, along with the absence of a significant number of side effects and contraindications.The purpose was to study diuretic and antidepressant activity of thick fruit extract of blood-red hawthorn.Material and methods. Under laboratory conditions we obtained a thick extract of blood-red hawthorn fruits. This phytopharmaceutical was studied by us for any diuretic and antidepressant activity. Investiga- tions were carried out on white rats of both sexes weighing 200–220 g. Each experimental group consist- ed of ten animals. Study drug was administered intragastrically by stomach tube. Control in both cases served as purified water. For determination of diuretic activity, we used a thick extract of hawthorn fruits in a dose of 20 mg/kg against the background of the water load in the amount of 3% of body weight of the animal. Reference preparation was chosen dichlorthiazid 20 mg/kg. It was administered once. After ad- ministration the animals were placed in metabolic cages for urine collection for 24 hours. The study de- termined diuresis, natriuresis, kaliuresis, and kreatininuresis for 4 h and 24 h of the experiment. On the day of the experiment the animals of the control group was administered water load of 3%, and experi- enced – intragastrically drug in an identical amount. Animals were placed in a metabolic cage for a day. Collected 4 h and 24-h urine sample. Determined by renal excretion of water was recorded concentration of sodium and potassium by flame photometry in the fiery liquid analyzer PAG-1, creatinine – colorimet- ric method for photocolorimeter CFC-3. For determining antidepressant activity we used a thick hawthorn

  8. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.

  9. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, P. S.; Kokila, T.; Geetha, D.

    2015-05-01

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15 nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial potential of Terminalia chebula fruit extracts against multidrug-resistant uropathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anwesa Bag; Subir Kumar Bhattacharyya; Nishith Kumar Pal; Rabi Ranjan Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Terminalia chebula Retz. (combretaceae) is called the “King of Medicine” in Tibet and is always listed at the top of the list of “Ayurvedic Materia Medica” because of its extraordinary power of healing. The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible in vitro antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of T. chebula fruit against multidrug-resistant uropathogens. Methods: A total of 52 multidrug-resistant uropathogenic bacteria were used in this study. Successive extractions of T. chebula fruits were performed with solvents of different polarities. Agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assay methods were used for antibacterial susceptibility testing. Kill-kinetics study was done to know the rate and extent of bacterial killing. Qualitative phytochemical screening was done to know the major phytoconstituents present in the plant material. Acute oral toxicity study in mice was performed to evaluate the toxic potential of the plant material, if any. Results:The ethanol extract of T. chebula fruits demonstrated a strong antimicrobial activity against all the test isolates and found to be most effective over others. Kill-kinetics study showed dose and time dependent antibacterial activity of ethanol extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of high concentration of phenolics and low concentration of flavonoids and terpenoids. In acute oral toxicity study, no gross behavioral changes were observed in mice at recommended dosage level and 24 h LD50 of ethanol extract was found to be >4 g/kg, p.o. in mice. Conclusions: The results provide justification for the use of Terminalia chebula fruit in folk medicine to treat various infectious diseases and could be useful for the development of alternative/ complementary medicine for multidrug-resistant uropathogens.

  11. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha Gnana Arasi, Michael Antony Samy; Gopal Rao, Manchineela; Bagyalakshmi, Janardanan

    2016-10-01

    This study deals with the optimization of microwave assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruit using Response surface methodology. To evaluate the effect of three independent variables, Water to plant material ratio, microwave power used for extraction and Irradiation time, central composite design has been employed. The yield is considered as dependent variable. The design model estimated the optimum yield of 6.81677% at 200W microwave power level, 3:1 water to plant material ratio and 20min of irradiation time. Three factors three levels Central composite design coupled with RSM was used to model the extraction process. ANOVA was performed to find the significance of the model. The polysaccharide extracted using microwave assisted extraction process was analyzed using FTIR Spectroscopy.

  12. Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Mild Steel in Acid Medium Using Musa Acuminata Fruit Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gunavathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition effect of unripe fruit peel extract of Musa acuminata (Cultivar variety – Nendran (MNP on corrosion of mild steel in 1 N HCl has been investigated by weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS with various concentrations of the extract. The effect of temperature on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in the temperature range of 30°C – 80°C was carried out. The results indicate that MNP extract act as an effective inhibitor in the acid environment and is of mixed type inhibitor having efficiency as high as 96% at 2% inhibitor concentration. The inhibition efficiency of MNP extract increases with the increase of concentration but decreases with the increase in temperature. The inhibitor achieves its inhibition by physical adsorption of nutrients of the peel extract on the surface of the mild steel. The experimental data revealed that the adsorption occurred according to the Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherm.

  13. Anticancer Effects of Extracts from the Fruit of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K; Pachauri, S D; Khandelwal, K; Ahmad, H; Arya, A; Biala, P; Agrawal, S; Pandey, R R; Srivastava, A; Srivastav, A; Saxena, J K; Dwivedi, A K

    2016-03-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (NONI) fruits have been used for thousands of years for the treatment of many health problems including cancer, cold, diabetes, flu, hypertension, and pain. Plant extracts have reported several therapeutic benefits, but extraction of individual compound from the extract often exhibits limited clinical utility as the synergistic effect of various natural ingredients gets lost. They generally constitute polyphenols and flavonoids. Studies have suggested that these phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, display high antioxidant properties, which help to reduce the risk of degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Several in-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown that Noni fruits have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-dementia, liver-protective, anticancer, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects. Till date about 7 in vitro cancer studies have been done, but a detailed in vitro study including cell cycle and caspase activation assay on breast cancer cell line has not been done. In the present study different Noni fruit fractions have tested on cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma) and one non-cancer cell line HEK-293 (Human embryonic kidney). Out of which ethylacetate extract showed a higher order of in vitro anticancer activity profile. The ethylacetate extract strongly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HEK-293 cell lines with IC50 values of 25, 35, 60 µg/ml respectively. The extract showed increase in apoptotic cells in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and arrested the cell cycle in the G1/S phase in MCF-7 and G0/G1 phase in MDA-MB-231 cells. Noni extract also decreases the intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential.

  14. Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gádor-Indra Hidalgo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic. As the amount of data available is overwhelming, only results referring to berries are included, leaving aside other plant parts such as roots, stems, or even buds and flowers. Several researchers have drawn attention to the efficacy of non-conventional extraction methods, accomplishing similar or even better results using these new techniques. Some pilot-scale trials have been performed, corroborating the applicability of green alternative methods to the industrial scale. Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L. emerge as the berries with the highest antioxidant content and capacity. However, several new up and coming berries are gaining attention due to global availability and elevated anthocyanin content.

  15. Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Gádor-Indra; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic. As the amount of data available is overwhelming, only results referring to berries are included, leaving aside other plant parts such as roots, stems, or even buds and flowers. Several researchers have drawn attention to the efficacy of non-conventional extraction methods, accomplishing similar or even better results using these new techniques. Some pilot-scale trials have been performed, corroborating the applicability of green alternative methods to the industrial scale. Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) emerge as the berries with the highest antioxidant content and capacity. However, several new up and coming berries are gaining attention due to global availability and elevated anthocyanin content. PMID:28106822

  16. Evaluation of fruit extracts of six Turkish Juniperus species for their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Mehmet; Tümen, İbrahim; Uğur, Aysel; Aydoğmuş-Öztürk, Fatma; Topçu, Gülaçtı

    2011-03-30

    Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species are mostly spread out in the Northern Hemisphere of the world, and some of them are used as folkloric medicines. The fruits of some species are eaten. Since oxidative stress is one of the reasons for neurodegeneration and is associated with the Alzheimer's disease (AD), the extracts prepared from the fruits of six Juniperus species were screened for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the extracts were also evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are chief enzymes in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, acetone extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. excelsa, and methanol extracts of J. phoenicea and J. sabina, effectively inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid. The hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. foetidissima and J. phoenicea showed remarkable inhibitory effect against AChE and BChE. Because of their high antioxidant activity, J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. phoenicia might be used in the food industry as preservative agents or extension of the shelf-life of raw and processed foods. Since the hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. foetidissima demonstrated significant anticholinesterase activity they should be considered as a potential source for anticholinesterase agents. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Phytochemical extraction, characterisation and comparative distribution across four mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Jean T; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Shaw, Paul N

    2014-04-15

    In this study we determined the qualitative composition and distribution of phytochemicals in peel and flesh of fruits from four different varieties of mango using mass spectrometry profiling following fractionation of methanol extracts by preparative HPLC. Gallic acid substituted compounds, of diverse core structure, were characteristic of the phytochemicals extracted using this approach. Other principal compounds identified were from the quercetin family, the hydrolysable tannins and fatty acids and their derivatives. This work provides additional information regarding mango fruit phytochemical composition and its potential contribution to human health and nutrition. Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Soldo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil. An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data. Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity.

  19. Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldo, Barbara; Šprung, Matilda; Mušac, Gloria; Pavela-Vrančić, Maja; Ljubenkov, Ivica

    2016-04-20

    In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil. An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data. Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity.

  20. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit : implications for cell wall adhesion and fruit softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, W.G.T.; Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Schols, H.A.; Seymour, G.B.; Knox, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic

  1. Antihyperglycemic Potential of Grewia asiatica Fruit Extract against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Rats: Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala A. H. Khattab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a serious chronic disease that carries a high risk for considerable complications. In folk medicine, the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. This study aimed to investigate the possible curative effect of G. asiatica fruit ethanolic extract against streptozotocin- (STZ- induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, mechanism of antihyperglycemic action is investigated. Hyperglycemic rats are either treated with 100 or 200 mg/kg/day G. asiatica fruits extract. Serum glucose, liver glycogen, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, interleukin- (IL- 1β, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α are measured. G. asiatica fruits extract reduces blood glucose and pancreatic MDA levels. It increases liver glycogen and pancreatic GSH contents and SOD enzyme activity. Furthermore, Grewia asiatica fruits extract decreases serum IL-1β and TNF-α. The treatment also protects against STZ-induced pathological changes in the pancreas. The results of this study indicated that G. asiatica fruit extract exerts antihyperglycemic activity against STZ-induced hyperglycemia. The improvement in the pancreatic β-cells and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of G. asiatica fruit extract may explain the antihyperglycemic effect.

  2. Antihyperglycemic Potential of Grewia asiatica Fruit Extract against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Rats: Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Hala A H; El-Shitany, Nagla A; Abdallah, Inas Z A; Yousef, Fatimah M; Alkreathy, Huda M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a serious chronic disease that carries a high risk for considerable complications. In folk medicine, the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. This study aimed to investigate the possible curative effect of G. asiatica fruit ethanolic extract against streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, mechanism of antihyperglycemic action is investigated. Hyperglycemic rats are either treated with 100 or 200 mg/kg/day G. asiatica fruits extract. Serum glucose, liver glycogen, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α are measured. G. asiatica fruits extract reduces blood glucose and pancreatic MDA levels. It increases liver glycogen and pancreatic GSH contents and SOD enzyme activity. Furthermore, Grewia asiatica fruits extract decreases serum IL-1β and TNF-α. The treatment also protects against STZ-induced pathological changes in the pancreas. The results of this study indicated that G. asiatica fruit extract exerts antihyperglycemic activity against STZ-induced hyperglycemia. The improvement in the pancreatic β-cells and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of G. asiatica fruit extract may explain the antihyperglycemic effect.

  3. In vivo efficacy of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit extract on experimental fluoride exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S; Swarup, D; Saxena, Anju; Dan, Ananya

    2011-12-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of hydro-methanolic (1:1) extract of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) fruit pulp in removing body fluoride burden. Thirty rats were divided into five groups. Keeping no fluoride group as the control, rats of no treatment, low dose, middle dose and high dose groups received sodium fluoride orally at the rate of 200mg per kg body weight daily for 14 weeks. Rats of low dose, middle dose and high dose group simultaneously received tamarind fruit pulp extract at three doses, viz. 25 (low), 50 (medium) and 100mg (high) per kg body weight orally, respectively. Fluoride concentration in blood, urine and long bone of experimental rats was monitored to assess the efficacy of the extract. Mean serum fluoride concentration in fluoride exposed rats was 0.145 ± 0.009 and 0.783 ± 0.042 μg/ml on days 0 and 98. In comparison, fluoride concentrations in tamarind treated rats were 0.179 ± 0.021 and 0.633 ± 0.015; 0.179 ± 0.021 and 0.502 ± 0.025 and 0.176 ± 0.021 and 0.498 ± 0.030 μg/ml in low, medium and high dose groups, respectively on day 0 and day 98 of the experiment. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.01) increase in urinary fluoride excretion from day 28 onwards. The mean fluoride concentration in long bones of treated rats was significantly lower than the values recorded in fluoride exposed rats. These findings suggest that concomitant use of tamarind fruit pulp extract can reduce fluoride concentration in blood and bone and enhanced urinary excretion, indicating the ameliorative potential of fruits of tamarind in fluoride toxicity.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadeghian; Ahmad Ghorbani; Ahmad Mohamadi-Nejad; Hassan Rakhshandeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Punica granatum, commonly known as pomegranate, has emerged as a medicinal plant with potential antimicrobial activity. The present study was planned to evaluate this activity against both Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria as well as against pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). Material and Methods: The aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin were prepared using a Soxhalet a...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadeghian; Ahmad Ghorbani; Ahmad Mohamadi-Nejad; Hassan Rakhshandeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Punica granatum, commonly known as pomegranate, has emerged as a medicinal plant with potential antimicrobial activity. The present study was planned to evaluate this activity against both Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria as well as against pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans).Material and Methods: The aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin were prepared using a Soxhalet appar...

  6. Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Averrhoa bilimbi Fruit Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal Isaac, R. S.; G Sakthivel; Ch. Murthy

    2013-01-01

    We report on rapid one-step green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using fruit extract of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of gold and silver nanoparticles. The characteristics of the obtained gold and silver nanoparticles were studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV/Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). UV/Vis spe...

  7. Oral infusion of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model

    OpenAIRE

    Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Siddiqui, Imtiaz Ahmad; Syed, Deeba N.; Lall, Rahul Kumar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    We earlier provided evidence that oral consumption of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth in nude mice. To ascertain convincing evidence of chemopreventive effects of PFE against PCa, its efficacy requires to be evaluated in animal models that closely emulate human disease. Here, we provide evidence of remarkable tumor growth inhibitory effects of PFE using the TRAMP model. Mice received 0.1 and 0.2% PFE, equivalent to 250 and 500 ml of pomegranate juice...

  8. Oral infusion of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model

    OpenAIRE

    Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Siddiqui, Imtiaz Ahmad; Syed, Deeba N.; Lall, Rahul Kumar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    We earlier provided evidence that oral consumption of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth in nude mice. To ascertain convincing evidence of chemopreventive effects of PFE against PCa, its efficacy requires to be evaluated in animal models that closely emulate human disease. Here, we provide evidence of remarkable tumor growth inhibitory effects of PFE using the TRAMP model. Mice received 0.1 and 0.2% PFE, equivalent to 250 and 500 ml of pomegranate juice...

  9. Optimisation of spray drying operating conditions of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extract using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A conventional solvent extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit was spray dried using adjuvant maltodextrin (5 wt.%). Spray drying was carried out according to the D-optimal design, and the independent variables selected were temperature and Mcore/Mwall. The spray drying process was optimised by using response surface methodology (RSM) for four different responses: moisture content (MC), DPPH scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid (TF). The effects of temperature...

  10. Study of the effect of surfactants on extraction and determination of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of fruits extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Hemmaty, Syavash

    2013-01-01

    Micelle/water mixed solutions of different surface active agents were studied for their effectiveness in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from various varieties of apples from west Azerbaijan province in Iran. The total content of polyphenolic compound in fruit extracts were determined using ferrous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu assays methods and chromatographic methods and compared with theme. High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most common and important methods in biochemical compound identification. The effect of pH, ionic strength, surfactant type, surfactant concentration, extraction time and common organic solvent in the apple polyphenolics extractions was studied using HPLC-DAD. Mixtures of surfactants, water and methanol at various ratios were examined and micellar-water solutions of Brij surfactant showed the highest polyphenol extraction efficiency. Optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple occurred at 7 mM Brij35, pH 3. Effect of ionic strength on extraction was determined and 2% (W/V) potassium Chloride was determined to be the optimum salt concentration. The procedure worked well with an ultrasound bath. Total antioxidant capacity also was determined in this study. The method can be safely scaled up for pharmaceutical applications.

  11. Study of the effect of surfactants on extraction and determination of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of fruits extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosseinzadeh

    Full Text Available Micelle/water mixed solutions of different surface active agents were studied for their effectiveness in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from various varieties of apples from west Azerbaijan province in Iran. The total content of polyphenolic compound in fruit extracts were determined using ferrous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu assays methods and chromatographic methods and compared with theme. High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most common and important methods in biochemical compound identification. The effect of pH, ionic strength, surfactant type, surfactant concentration, extraction time and common organic solvent in the apple polyphenolics extractions was studied using HPLC-DAD. Mixtures of surfactants, water and methanol at various ratios were examined and micellar-water solutions of Brij surfactant showed the highest polyphenol extraction efficiency. Optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple occurred at 7 mM Brij35, pH 3. Effect of ionic strength on extraction was determined and 2% (W/V potassium Chloride was determined to be the optimum salt concentration. The procedure worked well with an ultrasound bath. Total antioxidant capacity also was determined in this study. The method can be safely scaled up for pharmaceutical applications.

  12. Tannin extracts from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. promote cutaneous wound healing in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tannins extracted from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. are considered as effective components promoting the process of wound healing. The objective of this study is to explore the optimal extraction and purification technology (OEPT) of tannins, while studying the use of this drug in the treatment of a cutaneous wound of rat as well as its antibacterial effects. Methods The content of tannin extracts was measured by the casein method, and antibacterial ability was studied by the micro-dilution method in vitro. In wound healing experiment, animals in group Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ were treated with vaseline ointment, tannin extracts (tannin content: 81%) and erythromycin ointment, respectively (5 mg of ointment were applied on each wound). To evaluate the process of wound healing, selected pharmacological and biochemical parameters were applied. Results After optimal extraction and purification, content of tannin extracts was increased to 81%. Tannin extracts showed the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella Pneumonia in vitro. After excision of wounds, on days 7 and 10, the percent of wound contraction of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. After being hurt with wounds, on days 3, 7, and 10, the wound healing quality of group Ⅱ was found to be better than that of group Ⅰ in terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. After wound creation, on day 3, the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. Conclusion The results suggest that tannin extracts from dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. can promote cutaneous wound healing in rats, probably resulting from a powerful anti-bacterial and angiogenic activity of the extracts. PMID:21982053

  13. Tannin extracts from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. promote cutaneous wound healing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tannins extracted from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. are considered as effective components promoting the process of wound healing. The objective of this study is to explore the optimal extraction and purification technology (OEPT of tannins, while studying the use of this drug in the treatment of a cutaneous wound of rat as well as its antibacterial effects. Methods The content of tannin extracts was measured by the casein method, and antibacterial ability was studied by the micro-dilution method in vitro. In wound healing experiment, animals in group Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ were treated with vaseline ointment, tannin extracts (tannin content: 81% and erythromycin ointment, respectively (5 mg of ointment were applied on each wound. To evaluate the process of wound healing, selected pharmacological and biochemical parameters were applied. Results After optimal extraction and purification, content of tannin extracts was increased to 81%. Tannin extracts showed the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella Pneumonia in vitro. After excision of wounds, on days 7 and 10, the percent of wound contraction of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. After being hurt with wounds, on days 3, 7, and 10, the wound healing quality of group Ⅱ was found to be better than that of group Ⅰ in terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. After wound creation, on day 3, the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. Conclusion The results suggest that tannin extracts from dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. can promote cutaneous wound healing in rats, probably resulting from a powerful anti-bacterial and angiogenic activity of the extracts.

  14. Microencapsulation of Garcinia fruit extract by spray drying and its effect on bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhilarasi, Perumal Natarajan; Indrani, Dasappa; Jena, Bhabani Sankar; Anandharamakrishnan, Chinnaswamy

    2014-04-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is the major acid present in the fruit rinds of certain species of Garcinia. HCA has been reported to have several health benefits. As HCA is highly hygroscopic in nature and thermally sensitive, it is difficult to incorporate in foodstuffs. Hence, Garcinia cowa fruit extract was microencapsulated using three different wall materials such as whey protein isolate (WPI), maltodextrin (MD) and a combination of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin (WPI + MD) by spray drying. Further, these microencapsulated powders were evaluated for their impact on bread quality and HCA retention. Maltodextrin (MD) encapsulates had higher free (86%) and net HCA (90%) recovery. Microencapsulates incorporated breads had enhanced qualitative characteristics and higher HCA content than water extract incorporated bread due to efficient encapsulation during bread baking. Comparatively, bread with MD encapsulates showed softer crumb texture, desirable sensory attributes with considerable volume and higher HCA content. The higher HCA contents of encapsulate incorporated breads were sufficient to claim for functionality of HCA in bread. Comparatively, MD had efficiently encapsulated Garcinia fruit extract during spray drying and bread baking. Spray drying proved to be an excellent encapsulation technique for incorporation into the food system. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of methanol extracts of nony fruit on mice infected by RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik T Subekti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal infection of Type I Toxoplasma gondii on mice causes high mortality at a short time due to parasitic burden, immunosuppression, cell and tissue damage. The mice survival is increased after treated with drugs that reduce or destroy tachyzoite and modulate or recovered the immune system. Nony fruit (Morinda citrifolia is popular as immunomudulator and has antoxoplasma properties. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of nony fruit and Fansidar® (pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine to reduce tachyzoite and improve survival as well as immunomudulator on mice following toxoplasma infection. Mice was divided into six groups (10 mice respectively consist of infected-non treated groups, infected + Fansidar®, infected + ethanol extract of nony on several doses (100, 50, 25% and non infected-non treated groups. All mice on each groups were infected intraperitoneally by 5 x 106 and 2,5 x 103 RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite/mice respectively. The results have shown that Fansidar® was successfully to reduced tachyzoite and improved mice survival but the ethanol extract of nony fruit was failed.

  16. Antileishmanial Activity of Date (Phoenix dactylifera L) Fruit and Pit Extracts In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakhit, Sedighe; Khademvatan, Shahram; Doudi, Monir; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered as a major public health problem worldwide. Current drugs in treatment of leishmaniasis have some limitations; thus, the current study was aimed to assess the methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of Phoenix dactylifera against Leishmania major promastigotes. L major promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 and incubated at 25°C ± 1°C for 24, 48, and 72 hours. For obtaining the IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value, MTT assay was employed. Furthermore, promastigotes were examined in terms of morphology under light microscope. About 48 hours after treatment, IC50s were estimated 23 μg/mL and 500 mg/mL for methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of P dactylifera, respectively. Both extracts exhibited a dose and time-dependent antileishmanial activity against L major parasites. Also, some visible morphological changes were seen. This finding revealed both date fruit and pit, are effective against L major promastigotes. Further studies should be designed in future based on apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Protective Effect of Momordica charantia Fruit Extract on Hyperglycaemia-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razif Abas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6 into control group (Ctrl, control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC, diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl, diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC, and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met. Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione contents (GSH, and catalase (CAT was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.

  18. Protective effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Razif; Othman, Faizah; Thent, Zar Chi

    2014-01-01

    In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6) into control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC), and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met). Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight) in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione contents (GSH), and catalase (CAT) was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.

  19. Immunostimulatory activity of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) cultivar Pondoh Hitam extract on the activation of macrophages in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijanarti, Sri; Putra, Agus Budiawan Naro; Nishi, Kosuke; Harmayani, Eni; Sugahara, Takuya

    2017-05-01

    Snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) cultivar Pondoh Hitam is a tropical fruit produced in Indonesia. It is consumed freshly or processed and believed as the most delicious snake fruit cultivar. Snake fruit flesh contains high polisaccharides such as pectin and dietary fiber. Therefore, snake fruit is a potential immunostimulator candidates but the immunological effect of snake fruit flesh has not been reported. In the present study, immunostimulatory activity of snake fruit flesh extract (SFFE) on macrophages activation was evaluated. SFFE was prepared by extracting from snake fruit flesh with water, methanol 70%, and ethanol 70% for 15 h at 4°C. Then obtained SFFE was used to stimulated cytokine production in vitro using J774.1 cell line. The extract giving strongest stimulation was sellected for in vivo assay to stimulate cytokines production and gene expression using peritoneal macrophage (P-mac) of BALB/c mice. The results showed that SFFE exhibited immunostimulatory activities. Immunostimulatory activity could be indicated by macrophages activation characteristics such as cytokines production. Water extract of SFFE gave strongest stimulation on cytokines production in vitro and sellected for in vivo assay. In vivo assay showed that SFFE stimulated cytokines production as well as their gene expression levels. The optimum stimulation was demonstrated by SFFE 16.7 mg/g. Overall findings suggest that SFFE has a potent beneficial effects to promote the body health through activating macrophages.

  20. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  1. Screening of natural polysaccharides extracted from the fruits of Pithecellobium dulce as a pharmaceutical adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Preethi; A, Mary Saral

    2016-11-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from the dried fruiting bodies of Pithecellobium dulce with 20% ethanol by microwave-assisted extraction. The polysaccharides were isolated by ion exchange chromatography and afford three water-soluble polysaccharides PDP-1, PDP-2, and PDP-3. These isolated compounds were subjected to acid hydrolysis, methylation, IR and GC-MS for its compositional analysis and revealed that all the three fractions are heteropolysaccharides. PDP-1 was found to be composed of xylose, mannose, galactose and Rhamnose. PDP-2 and PDP-3 composed of xylose, Rhamnose, glucose, ribose, galactose, and mannose. The micromeretic properties of the extracted polysaccharides possessed a bulk density of 0.69g/ml, 0.65g/ml and 0.71g/ml for PDP-1, PDP-2, and PDP-3 respectively. The Hausner's ratio and Carr's index confirm the good flow property and compressibility of the polysaccharides. The polysaccharides extracted from Pithecellobium dulce fruits were tested for its application as a pharmaceutical adjuvant. The in vitro drug release study suggests that the extracted polysaccharides are potential candidates as a pharmaceutical adjuvant. Furthermore, the three isolated polysaccharides were subjected to its radical scavenging activity using DPPH, phospho molybdenum assay and reducing power assay. The results exhibited that the polysaccharides can be explored as a novel natural antioxidant and can be recommended as a functional food.

  2. Biotransformation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic compounds by vegetable and fruit cell extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo XIE; Jun YANG; Qing YANG

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from various vegetables and fruits were investigated for their abilities to reduce nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs).The extracts from grape and onion exhibited an interesting selectivity,yielding corresponding hydroxylamines or amines as major products under mild conditions of 30 ℃ and pH 7.0.Grape extracts reduced the 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride with the highest conversion rate (>99%) and the highest ratio of hydroxylamine to amine (95:5).In contrast,the onion extracts reduced 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride with a conversion rate of 94% and a ratio of hydroxylamine to amine of 8:92.The thiol-reducing agent,β-mercaptoethanol,and metal cations,Ca2+ and Mg2+,greatly increased the reductive efficiency.This work provides an alternative strategy for biotransformation of nitro-polycyclic compounds.

  3. In vitro Antibacterial activity of Pimpinella anisum fruit extracts against some pathogenic bacteria

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    A.Akhtar

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the aqueous, 50% (v/v methanol,acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Pimpinella anisum (L fruits were studied. The extracts of Pimpinella anisum were tested in vitro against 4 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96, Streptococcus pyogenes (MTCC 442, Escherchia coli (MTCC 723 and Klebsiella Pneumoniae (MTCC 109 were used in this investigation. Only aqueous and 50% (v/v methanol extract exhibited fair antibacterial activity against all the test bacteria whereas acetone and petroleum ether extract were not observed to inhibit the growth of any of the test bacteria under study. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(9.000: 272-274

  4. Mucilage extraction and substrates in the seedling development of yellow passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sfeir Aguiar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to evaluate different methods of mucilage extraction and substrates on passion fruit seedling emergence and development , in a mist chamber. Five methods of mucilage extraction were used: water, water + sand, water + virgin whitewash; blender with protected blades and fermentation in water, and three different types of substrates: rice hull, vermiculite and coconut fiber. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five replications in a factorial 5 x 3 scheme (5 extraction methods of seed mucilage and 3 substrates being each parcel composed of 25 seeds. The parameters evaluated were: seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, leaf number, stem length, longest root length, weight of dry matter of roots and shoots. Water and fermentation in water are the best method for mucilage extraction and rice hull and coconut fiber are the best substrate for passionfruit seedling emergence and development.

  5. Tannins and extracts of fruit byproducts: antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widsten, Petri; Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C; Pajak, Marta A; McGhie, Tony K

    2014-11-19

    The shelf life of fresh fish and meat transported over long distances could be extended by using plant-based extracts to control spoilage bacteria. The goals of the present study were to identify plant-based extracts that effectively suppress the main spoilage bacteria of chilled fish and lamb and to assess their antioxidant capacity. The phenolic compounds in wood-based tannins and extracts isolated from byproducts of the fruit processing industry were identified and/or quantified. The total phenol content, but not the flavonoid to total phenol ratio, was strongly associated with higher antibacterial activity against several fish and lamb spoilage bacteria in zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration assays as well as greater antioxidant capacity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay. The most promising compounds in both cases, and thus good candidates for antibacterial packaging or antioxidant dietary supplements, were mango seed extract and tannic acid containing mostly polygalloyl glucose type phenols.

  6. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

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    Khatib N.A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose shows significant (P<0.001 anti inflammatory activity in (Carrageenan induced paw odema acute inflammation. The extracts treatment also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in the levels of serum enzymes ACP & ALP. Similar results were obtained from aspirin (200mg/kg treated group. The result obtained from the present study indicates both aqueous and ethanolic extracts possessing anti inflammatory activity and further study required to establish its mechanism of action.

  7. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-11-20

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Delignification of EFB facilitated the hydrolysis of EFB-xylan by a pure endo-β-1,4-xylanase. Up to 91% (w/w) of the non-extracted xylan in the delignified EFB was hydrolysed compared to less than 4% (w/w) of that in untreated EFB. Alkaline extraction of EFB, without prior delignification, yielded only 50% of the xylan. The xylan obtained was hydrolysed only for 40% by the endo-xylanase used. Hence, delignification alone outperformed alkaline extraction as pretreatment for enzymatic fingerprinting of EFB xylans. From the analysis of the oligosaccharide-fingerprint of the delignified endo-xylanase hydrolysed EFB xylan, the structure was proposed as acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoarabinoxylan.

  8. Effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract (Bottle gourd on hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs in albino rats

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    Satyajeet K. Funde

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria fruit possesses significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity in antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 728-734

  9. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  10. A search for hepatoprotective activity of fruit extract of Mangifera indica L. against oxidative stress cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmad, Jalal; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Shakibaei, Rashin; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and their components are commonly used in folk medicine for many curative effects. The protective effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. fruit (Mango Extract) (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) and also gallic acid (100 microM) as a pure compound in the extract were examined against oxidative stress toxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in isolated rat hepatocytes. The extracts and gallic acid (100 microM) protected the hepatocyte against all oxidative stress markers including cell lysis, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, lysosomal membrane oxidative damage and cellular proteolysis. Mango Extracts (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) were more effective than gallic acid (100 microM) in protecting hepatocytes against CHP induced lipid peroxidation. On the other hand gallic acid (100 microM) acted more effective than Mango Extracts (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) at preventing lysosomal membrane damage. In addition H(2)O(2) scavenging effect of all extracts were determined in hepatocytes and compared with gallic acid (100 microM). There were no significance differences (PMango Extract against liver injury associated with oxidative stress.

  11. Antimicrobial, antimycobacterial and antibiofilm properties of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. fruit extract

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    Al-Dhabi Naif Abdullah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (Lecythidaceae is commonly called Ayahuma and the Cannonball tree. It is distributed in the tropical regions of northern South America and Southern Caribbean. It has several medicinal properties. It is used to treat hypertension, tumours, pain, inflammatory processes, cold, stomach ache, skin diseases, malaria, wounds and toothache. Methods The fruits of Couroupita guianensis were extracted with chloroform. Antimicrobial, antimycobacterial and antibiofilm forming activities of the chloroform extract were investigated. Quantitative estimation of Indirubin, one of the major constituent, was identified by HPLC. Results Chloroform extract showed good antimicrobial and antibiofilm forming activities; however it showed low antimycobacterial activity. The zones of inhibition by chloroform extract ranged from 0 to 26 mm. Chloroform extract showed effective antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa starting from 2 mg/mL BIC, with 52% inhibition of biofilm formation. When the chloroform extract was subjected to HPLC-DAD analysis, along with Indirubin standard, in the same chromatographic conditions, it was found that Indirubin was one of the major compounds in this plant (0.0918% dry weight basis. Conclusions The chloroform extract showed good antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. Chloroform extract can be evaluated further in drug development programmes.

  12. THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF THERMAL INACTIVATION OF PEROXIDASE FROM MANGOSTEEN (GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. PERICARP

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    MAHSA ZIABAKHSH DEYLAMI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp is an abundant source of phytochemicals. Blanching prior to further process stabilizes these valuable compounds. In this research, crude peroxidase (POD was extracted from mangosteen peel using Triton X-100. Kinetics of POD inactivation was studied over temperature range of 60- 100°C. The inactivation kinetics followed a monophasic first-order model with k values between 1.93×10-2- 8.14×10-2 min-1. The decreasing trend of k values with increasing temperature indicates a faster inactivation of peroxidase from mangosteen pericarp at higher temperatures. The activation energy (Ea of 35.06 kJ/mol was calculated from the slope of Arrhenius plot. Thermodynamic parameters (∆H, ∆G, ∆S for inactivation of peroxidase at different temperatures (60-100°C were studied in detail. The results of this research will help to design pre-processing conditions of mangosteen pericarp as a source of antioxidants.

  13. Selective isolation of β-glucan from corn pericarp hemicelluloses by affinity chromatography on cellulose column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoki; Honda, Yoichi; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Uyama, Hiroshi; Azuma, Jun-ichi

    2014-10-13

    A combination of anion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography on a cellulose column was found to be effective for the isolation of β-(1,3;1,4)-glucan (BG) from corn pericarp hemicelluloses (CPHs). CPHs containing 6.6% BG were extracted from corn pericarp with 6M urea-2 wt% NaOH solution and initially fractionated into neutral and acidic parts by anion exchange chromatography to remove acidic arabinoxylan consisting of arabinose (35.6%) and xylose (50.9%). The neutral fraction (yield; 10.1% on the basis of CPHs) consisting of 1.0% arabinose, 10.1% xylose and 80.3% glucose containing 28.4% BG was then applied to a cellulose column of Whatman CF-11. BG could be recovered from the adsorbed fraction on the cellulose column by elution with 2% NaOH in a yield of 2.6% on the basis of CPHs with a purity of 84.7%. The chemical structure of the isolated corn pericarp BG was confirmed by (13)C NMR spectroscopic, methylation and lichenase treatment analyses. The results indicate that the ratios of (1,4)/(1,3) linkage and cellotriosyl/cellotetraosyl segments of the BG were 2.60 and 2.5, respectively.

  14. Microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus lanatus fruit rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

    2014-01-30

    In this present study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was applied to extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus Lanatus fruit rinds. Extraction parameters which are employed in this study are microwave power (160-480 W), irradiation time (60-180s), pH (1-2) and solid-liquid ratio (1:10-1: 30 g/ml) and they were optimized using a four factor three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) coupled with desirability function methodology. The results showed that, all the process variables have significant effect on the extraction yield of pectin. Optimum MAE conditions for the highest pectin yield from waste C. Lanatus fruit rinds (25.79%) were obtained with microwave power of 477 W, irradiation time of 128 s, pH of 1.52, solid-liquid ratio of 1:20.3g/ml respectively. Validation experiment results were well agreed with predicted value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fruit extract of the medicinal plant Crataegus oxyacantha exerts genotoxic and mutagenic effects in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ana Paula Oliveira; Mazzeo, Dania Elisa Christofoletti; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Perazzo, Fábio Ferreira; Rosa, Paulo Cesar Pires; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2017-01-01

    Crataegus oxyacantha, a plant of the Rosaceae family also known "English hawthorn, haw, maybush, or whitethorn," has long been used for medicinal purposes such as digestive disorders, hyperlipidemia, dyspnea, inducing diuresis, and preventing kidney stones. However, the predominant use of this plant has been to treat cardiovascular disorders. Due to a lack of studies on the genotoxicity of C. oxyacantha, this investigation was undertaken to determine whether its fruit extract exerts cytotoxic, genotoxic, or clastogenic/aneugenic effects in leukocytes and HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma) cultured human cells, or mutagenic effects in TA100 and TA98 strains of Salmonella typhimurium bacterium. Genotoxicity analysis showed that the extract produced no marked genotoxic effects at concentrations of 2.5 or 5 µg/ml in either cell type; however, at concentrations of 10 µg/ml or higher significant DNA damage was detected. The micronucleus test also demonstrated that concentrations of 10 µg/ml or higher produced clastogenic/aneugenic responses. In the Ames test, the extract induced mutagenic effects in TA98 strain of S. typhimurium with metabolic activation at all tested concentrations (2.5 to 500 µg/ml). Data indicate that, under certain experimental conditions, the fruit extract of C. oxyacantha exerts genotoxic and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in cultured human cells, and with metabolism mutagenicity occurs in bacteria cells.

  16. Report: Antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity of strawberry fruit extracts against alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2016-01-01

    The strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) of Rosaceae family are an accomplished source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid and diverse range of polyphenols including anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols, ellagitannins etc. These phenolic compounds classify strawberry as an important health promoting food. Strawberries are proved to have potent antioxidant capacity in various in vitro assay systems. The in vivo beneficial effects are getting explored against various ailments including cancer, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. The present research study was designed to analyze the effect of strawberry fruit extracts (water and methanol) against alloxan induced hyperglycemia in albino rats of Wister strain. Upon alloxan (150mg/kg body weight) induction, the diabetic animals showed marked increase in the values of plasma glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and concomitant decrease in body weight and plasma insulin level. The oral administration of strawberry extracts for 45 days in diabetic animals reversed the biochemical changes significantly (P0.05) to near normal. Furthermore, the restoration of body weight loss was also observed. The results suggest that the strawberry extract has effective hypoglycemic activity against alloxan diabetes. The poly phenolic antioxidant contents of the strawberry fruit extracts are responsible for the observed biological effect.

  17. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

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    Dong Wook Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit, also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI and spared nerve injury (SNI pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV. The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo.

  18. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit) Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-01-01

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit), also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI) and spared nerve injury (SNI) pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV). The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo. PMID:27898027

  19. Acute toxicity effects of Prunus avium fruit extract and selection of optimum dose against radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Sharma, K; Singh, Smita

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of different doses of the methanolic extract of the fruit pulp of Prunus avium (family Rosaceae), which is used ethno-medicinally for the treatment of various diseases, and to find out the optimal dose of Prunus avium extract against 10 Gy gamma-radiation exposure. To test acute toxicity in mice, different doses of PAE (Prunus avium fruit extract) were given orally for 15 consecutive days, after which the animals were observed for another 15 days; the LD50/15 of the methanolic extract was calculated to be 4.947 gm/kg body weight (b.wt). In optimum dose selection against radiation exposure, oral administration of 450 mg/kg b.wt/d of PAE for 15 consecutive days before exposure to 10 Gy of gamma-radiation was found to afford maximum protection in terms of body weight and survivability of the mice in comparison to other doses.

  20. Dyeing of Silk with Anthocyanins Dyes Extract from Liriope platyphylla Fruits

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    Huayin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new source of natural anthocyanins dyes, from Liriope platyphylla fruit, is proposed. This paper analyzes the dye extracts, the primary color components of the extracts, the color features of the extracts under different pH conditions, and their application in silk dyeing. The research shows that, nine anthocyanins are found in  L. platyphylla fruits by analyzing the results of the HPLC/DAD, MS, and MS/MS spectra. The five major anthocyanins related to delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives take up 91.72% of total anthocyanin contents. The color of the solution is red under acidic condition (pH < 3.0 and stays in yellow under alkaline condition with pH values above 7.0. The dye extracts applied to silk fabric with mordant free dyeing show different color under different pH conditions, changing between purple, blue, green, and yellow. However, the dyed colors is light and the dyeing rate is low. Metal mordant such as Sn in chelation enhances the dye depth and improves the fastness of the dyed silk fabrics, especially in silk fabrics dyed by premordanting and metamordanting.

  1. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit) Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-11-26

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit), also known as "Amla" is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI) and spared nerve injury (SNI) pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV). The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22-27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo.

  2. Mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hoang, Van L T; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 μg mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 μg mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruit peel as a potential source of nutraceuticals.

  3. Anti-Oxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ziziphus mucronata Fruit Extract Against Dimethoate-Induced Toxicity

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    Kwape Tebogo Elvis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Ziziphus mucronata (ZM fruit extract. Methods: The different types of fruit extract were prepared by soaking the dry powdered fruit in different solvents followed by rotary evaporation. Each extract was tested for its phenol content and antioxidant activities. An in vivo study was performed in Sprague- Dawley (SD rats. Thirty adult male SD rats (aged 21 weeks were divided into six groups of five rats each and treated as follows: The normal control (NC received distilled water while the dimethoate control (DC received 6 mg/kg.bw.day-1 dimethoate dissolved in distilled water. The experimental groups E1, E2, E3, and E0 received dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (100 mg/kg.bw-1, dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (200 mg/kg.bw-1, dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1, and ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1 only. Both the normal control and the dimethoate control groups were used to compare the results. After 90 days, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected for biochemical assays, and livers were harvested for histological study. Results: High phenol content was estimated, and 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH spectrophotometric, thin layer chromatography (TLC and 2, 2-Azobis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assays showed a high antioxidant activity among the extracts. The preventive effects observed in the E1, E2 and E3 groups proved that the extract could prevent dimethoate toxicity by maintaining normal reduced glutathione (GSH, vitamin C and E, superoxide dismutase, catalase, cholineasterase and lipid profiles. The preventive effect was observed to be dose dependent. The EO group showed no extractinduced toxicity. Histological observations agreed with the results obtained in the biochemical studies. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that ZM methanol fruit extract is capable of attenuating dimethoate-induced toxicity because of its

  4. One pot phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Genipa americana fruit extract and its biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Brajesh, E-mail: krmbraj@gmail.com [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Av. Gral. Rumiñahui s/n, Sangolqui, P.O. BOX 171-5-231B (Ecuador); Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Av. Gral. Rumiñahui s/n, Sangolqui, P.O. BOX 171-5-231B (Ecuador); Camacho, Javier [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Av. Gral. Rumiñahui s/n, Sangolqui, P.O. BOX 171-5-231B (Ecuador); Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Departamento de Farmacología, C.P. 07360 Mexico City (Mexico); Hernández-Gallegos, Elisabeth; Guadalupe Chávez-López, María de [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Departamento de Farmacología, C.P. 07360 Mexico City (Mexico); Grijalva, Marcelo; Andrade, Kleber [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Av. Gral. Rumiñahui s/n, Sangolqui, P.O. BOX 171-5-231B (Ecuador)

    2016-05-01

    In this article, rapid one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using an eco-friendly extract of Genipa americana L. fruit is described. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies demonstrated that small molecules such as genipin, genipaol, geniposide and ranolazine can act as reducer as well as stabilizers. The monodispersed, spherical GNPs were further characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy at λ{sub max} = 535 nm, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. This synthetic approach offers a greener and alternate route to the preparation of GNPs free from toxic chemical components and stable for 6–7 months under room temperature. The green synthesized GNPs showed weak antioxidant efficacy against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and no cytotoxicity against A-549 and HeLa human cancer cell lines, from lung and cervix. This study opens a new industrial scope of G. americana fruit in nanoscience and as surface modified GNPs can be developed into a successful drug carrier for future pharmaceutical products. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles can be synthesized by Genipa americana fruit extract. • TEM-DLS analysis confirmed that the average particle size is 30.4 ± 14.9 nm. • Nanoparticles showed weak antioxidant and no cytotoxicity activity.

  5. Pericarp ontogenesis with emphasis on the dispersal apparatus of three weed species of Faboideae (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Trzeciak-Limeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the efficient dispersal is one among other features that amplify the invasion potential of a plant. Knowledge of the ontogeny, morphology and fruit dispersal of species is indispensable for weed control in crops. To identify the pericarp structures involved in the fragmentation and dehiscence processes and other features related to dispersal, we studied the pericarp development of Aeschynomene evenia Wright, Desmodium incanum (Sw. DC. and Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth. (Fabaceae-Faboideae, all of which are considered weeds in certain situations. For light and scanning electron microscopy studies, we fixed and processed buds, flowers and fruits, according to usual methods, at different stages of development. We observed that the sclerenchymatous endocarp is essential for dehiscence in legumes, as well as for fragmentation in loments. We also found that the presence of hook-shaped trichomes, sclereid nests in the mesocarp, septum, hypodermis and the formation of false septa are essential to the diaspore dispersal of the species studied.

  6. Antimicrobial Efficacy Studies on Rhizome and Fruit pulp Extracts of a Steno Endemic species – Jatropha maheshwarii Subr. & Nayar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Ben

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome, fruits and seeds of plants constitute a major role in traditional medicine by encompassing therapeutically valuable phytochemicals. Here, the medicinal importance and bioefficacy status of rhizome and fruit pulp extracts of Jatropha maheshwarii Subr. & Nayar against selected human pathogenic microbes were examined. Ethyl alcohol, benzene, chloroform, hexane, acetone and distilled water extracts of the rhizome and fruit pulp samples were screened against selected bacterial strains viz. Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherischia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes as well as fungal strains viz. Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using agar well diffusion method.

  7. Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of silver-extract nanoparticles synthesized from Momordica charantia fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Md Mamun Or; Akhter, Kazi Nahid; Chowdhury, Jakir Ahmed; Hossen, Foysal; Hussain, Md Saddam; Hossain, Md Tanvir

    2017-06-26

    Our present study was conducted to characterize the phytoconstituents present in the aqueous extract of Momordica charantia and evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of silver-extract nanoparticles (Ag-Extract-NPs). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by reducing AgNO3; and NaBH4 served as reducing agent. After screening of phytochemicals; AgNPs and aqueous extract were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. These NPs were characterized by using Visual inspection, UV spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM and TEM techniques. Antimicrobial activities were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aqueous extract of M. charantia fruits contain alkaloid, phenol, saponin etc. UV-Vis spectrum showed strong absorption peak around 408 nm. The presence of -CH, -NH, -COOH etc. stretching in FTIR spectrum of Ag-Extract-NPs endorsed that AgNPs were successfully capped by bio-compounds. SEM and TEM result revealed that synthesized NPs had particle size 78.5-220 nm. Ag-Extract-NPs showed 34.6 ± 0.8 mm zone of inhibition against E. coli compared to 25.6 ± 0.5 mm for ciprofloxacin. Maximum zone of inhibition for Ag-Extract-NPs were 24.8 ± 0.7 mm, 26.4 ± 0.4 mm, 7.4 ± 0.4 mm for S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi. We found that Ag-Extract-NPs have much better antibacterial efficacy than AgNPs and M. charantia extract has individually. It is also noticed that gram negative bacteria (except S. typhi) are more susceptible to Ag-Extract-NPs than gram positive bacteria. Ag-Extract-NPs showed strong antibacterial activity. In order to make a reliable stand for mankind, further study is needed to consider determining the actual biochemical pathway by which AgNPs-extracts exert their antimicrobial effect.

  8. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia Induced by High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, Ramakrishnan; Deori, Meetali; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF) and seed extract (GS) were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 4.01 μg/ml), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 0.82 μg/ml), NBT (IC50 = 0.07 μg/ml) and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.26 μg/ml). Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%), serum total cholesterol (33%), triglycerides (32%), low-density lipoprotein (38%) and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat. PMID:27642282

  9. Plant extracts for controlling the post-harvest anthracnose of banana fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.S. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In banana, fruit rot is incited by Colletotrichum musae which has been the most serious post-harvest disease of immature and mature fruit. The usual control by fungicides prohibited in many countries reduces their commercial value. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alternative products to the synthetic fungicides. First, berries naturally infected by anthracnose were immersed into Azadirachta indica and citric extracts at 2 and 4% (v/v for 3 minutes and stored for 11 days under environmental conditions. Next, other berries were immersed into essential oil emulsions of Allium sativum, Copaifera langsdorfii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Eugenia caryophyllata at 5% for 3 minutes but stored for 11 days. Berries immersed into distilled water were used as control-treatments. The percentage of disease incidence observed in the control-treatment was similar to the ones observed in the extract of A. indica at 2%. The control-treatment showed disease severity of 75.13% and the percentage of disease control was 20.85%. Fruit immersed into distilled water presented less effectiveness than the ones immersed into citric extracts, which promoted the highest effectiveness. Citric extract at 4% was the most efficient treatment because the disease incidence was 19.44%, the disease severity was 9.34% and the disease control was 90.16%. Less severity and, consequently, more disease control were achieved by immersing the berries into the emulsion of essential oil of A. sativum, followed by treatments with C. langsdorfii, E. caryophyllata and C. zeylanicum.

  10. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia induced by High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  11. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Total Xanthones from Mangosteen(Garcinia mangostana L.) Pericarp by Central Composite Design Coupled with Response Surface Analysis%中心组合设计-响应面分析法优化莽吉柿果皮中总氧杂蒽酮的超声提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岩; 蔡恩博; 唐强; 李哲; 张燕娣; 张连学

    2012-01-01

    采用中心组合设计方法优化莽吉柿果皮中总氧杂蒽酮的提取工艺,研究乙醇体积分数、超声时间、液固比及其交互作用对总氧杂蒽酮提取率的影响。应用SAS软件和响应面分析相结合的方法,模拟得到回归方程的预测模型和可信度,并通过岭脊分析得到最佳的提取条件为乙醇体积分数90.9%、超声时间73.8min、液固比17.1:1(mL/g)。该条件下提取率为7.73%。%A central composite design(CCD) was used to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total xanthones from mangosteen pericarp.The effects of ethanol concentration,ultrasonication time and solvent-to-solid ratio as well as their interactions on the extraction rate of total xanthones were investigated.A predictive regression model was developed using the SAS software by response surface analysis and its reliability was validated.The optimal extraction conditions were 90.9% of ethanol concentration,17.1:1(mL/g) of solvent-to-solid ratio and 73.8 min of ultrasonication time as determined by ridge analysis,resulting in an average actual yield of total xanthones of 7.73%(n = 3).

  12. Chemical analysis and toxicity of seaweed extracts with inhibitory activity against tropical fruit anthracnose fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Levi Pompermayer; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Jamal, Claudia Masrouah; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Colepicolo Neto, Pio; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Yokoya, Nair S

    2014-07-01

    Banana and papaya are among the most important crops in the tropics, with a value amounting to millions of dollars per year. However, these fruits suffer significant losses due to anthracnose, a fungal disease. It is well known that certain seaweed extracts possess antifungal activity, but no published data appear to exist on the practical application of this property. In the present study, five organic Brazilian seaweed extracts were screened for their activity against banana and papaya anthracnose fungi. Furthermore, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of the extracts were evaluated by the brine shrimp lethality assay and the Allium cepa root-tip mutagenicity test respectively, while their major components were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Strong fungus-inhibitory effects of Ochtodes secundiramea and Laurencia dendroidea extracts were observed on both papaya (100 and 98% respectively) and banana (89 and 78% respectively). This impressive activity could be associated with halogenated terpenes, the major components of both extracts. Only Hypnea musciformis extract showed cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. The results of this study suggest the potential use of seaweed extracts as a source of antifungal agents with low toxicity to control anthracnose in papaya and banana during storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of different solvents on extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ÇOKLAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of bio compounds from plant materials is one of the most important step of the processes such as dietary supplement production and recovery of the compounds from the industrial wastes. It is highly affected from the factors such as solvent type, particle size, extraction time and temperature. To determine the total phenolics, individual phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of Hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis fruit extracted with different solvents and to specify the best solvent for extraction of phenolics were aimed in this research. Fruits, picked from wild growing trees in Beyşehir, were extracted with water, methanol and methanol:water (1:1 mixture. Highest total phenolics and antioxidant activity were observed in methanol:water extract. While gallic acid was extracted effectively in water, methanol:water mixture was the best solvent for extraction of procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, (-- epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and rutin.

  14. Isolation of a new flavanone from Daidai fruit and hypolipidemic activity of total flavonoids extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Jun; Chen, Dan; Huang, Qing-De; Huang, Qun; Lian, Yun-Fang; Cai, Wei-Wei; Zeng, Hua-Ping; Lin, Yi-Li

    2015-01-01

    In order to further discover the medicinal value of Daidai fruit, an exploration on the hypolipidemic activity of total flavonoids extracts of Daidai fruit (TFEODF) was conducted in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipemia rats. Results indicated that TFEODF exhibited significant hypolipidemic activity which resulted in the decline of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, arteriosclerosis index and rise of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in hyperlipemia rats. For the purpose of expounding the chemical constituents of TFEODF, a phytochemical investigation of TFEODF was carried out for the first time. Research resulted in the isolation of a new compound together with 17 known compounds. This study lay a foundation for the development of a new hypolipidemic agent of traditional Chinese medicine whose chemical constituents were clarified.

  15. Chemical composition and functional properties of starch extracted from the pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasepaes Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the chemical composition and functional properties of the starch extracted from the pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasepaes Kunth.. The chemical characterization was evaluated from the determination of starch, amylose, amylopectin, total lipid, protein, ash, moisture and water activity. The water absorption index and the water solubility index were calculated for temperatures between 25 and 90ºC. Low contents of ash and protein were found. The studied starch has 14% moisture, according to the established by law. The water activity value was 0.55, which ensures its microbiological stability. A range of gelatinization between 65 to 70ºC was observed, close to the one of commercial starches. The solubility rate in water was 0.6119% and the absorption rate in water was 1.8252%. These results demonstrated that the starch from the pejibaye fruit has important characteristics for use in the food industry.

  16. Determination of Lutein from Fruit and Vegetables Through an Alkaline Hydrolysis Extraction Method and HPLC Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Mignogna, Rossella; Niro, Serena; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of lutein content, successfully used for cereal matrices, was evaluated in fruit and vegetables. The method involved the determination of lutein after an alkaline hydrolysis of the sample matrix, followed by extraction with solvents and analysis by normal phase HPLC. The optimized method was simple, precise, and accurate and it was characterized by few steps that could prevent loss of lutein and its degradation. The optimized method was used to evaluate the lutein amounts in several fruit and vegetables. Rich sources of lutein were confirmed to be green vegetables such as parsley, spinach, chicory, chard, broccoli, courgette, and peas, even if in a range of variability. Taking into account the suggested reference values these vegetables can be stated as good sources of lutein. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel P Naegele

    Full Text Available Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height to 0.98 (pericarp thickness. When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation.

  18. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, Rachel P.; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation. PMID:27415818

  19. Antihyperglycemic effect of water extract of dry fruits ofTerminalia chebula in experimental diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Y K; Chandra, Ramesh; Murthy, P S

    2004-07-01

    Water extract of dry fruits ofTerminalia chebula (Hindi-Harda, Telugu-Karakkaya) at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight improved the glucose tolerance as indicated by 44% of reduction in the peak blood glucose at 2(nd) hour in glucose tolerance test in diabetic (streptozotocin induced) rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with an initial fasting blood glucose of 253±9.4 mg/dl daily once with the water extract (200 mg/kg) for two weeks brought down the fasting blood glucose to 123±8.4 mg/dl which is only slightly above the normal value. These results indicate that water extract of Terminalia chebula improves glucose tolerance and brings down fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats.

  20. Effects of solvents and extraction methods on the content and antiradical activity of polyphenols from fruits Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens and Schisandra chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliszka, Barbara; Huszcza-Ciołkowska, Grażyna; Wierzbicka, Elwira

    2016-01-01

    In line with the current tendency towards the production of the so-called safe foods, the use of environmentally-friendly methods for the extraction of polyphenols from fruits has been sought. Citric acid is a good solvent in the preparation of phenolic compounds for the food and pharmaceutical industries because it is a natural antioxidant and is non-toxic for the environment. Furthermore, new sources of polyphenols from fruit of orchard plants that are less known in Poland have been looked for. The aim of this study was  to assess the content and antiradical activity of polyphenolic compounds in fruit extracts, depending on the extraction method employed. In addition, the yield of extraction processes was assessed. The experimental materials were fruits of the following plants: Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens, Schisandra chinensis. For the extraction, aqueous solutions of citric acid (CAE) and methanol (ME) were used. The following were determined in fruit extracts: the content of total phenols (TP) and anthocyanins (A), and antiradical activity (DPPH and ABTS). In general, the C. monogyna fruit extracts were distinguished by the highest TP and A content. The TP and A content was significantly higher in fruit extracts obtained with the CAE method than in the ones produced with the ME method. The highest mean A/TP ratio was determined for S. chinensis fruit extracts. The antiradical activity (DPPH and ABTS) in fruit extracts did not depend on an extraction method, but on fruit species. Overall, a higher yield of extraction processes was achieved for the CAE method than for the ME method. The present study indicates that the selected extraction methods are able to obtain polyphenolic extracts from fruits with a high antiradical activity and high yield. The use of citric acid in order to extract polyphenols from fruits may be an alternative to the conventional extraction method, while being eco-friendly and more effective than the latter.

  1. Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Fiber Mats as Carriers for Crude Extracts From Phyllanthus Emblica Linn. Fruits

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    Thitiwongsawet Patcharaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn (PE was extracted with methanol and then partitioned into diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. The diethyl ether fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity against two pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923. The PE extract from diethyl ether fraction was then loaded into 17%w/v cellulose acetate (CA solution prepared in 2:1 v/v acetone/N, N-dimethylacetamide at concentrations of 1, 3, and 5% w/w (based on the weight of CA. The PE extract-loaded electrospun CA fiber mats were fabricated by electrospinning. The morphological appearance of both the neat and the PE extract-loaded electrospun CA fibers were smooth with the average diameters in a range of 335-694 nm. The amounts of water retention and release characteristics of PE extract from fiber mats in an acetate buffer (pH 5.5 were studied and compared with the corresponding cast-films fabricated by the solvent casting method. The amount of water retention of the PE extract-loaded fiber mats was about 112-205% which was higher than that of the cast films (i.e. 25-35%. The study of release characteristics of PE extract from fiber mats and films was carried out by total immersion method in an acetate buffer at 32°C for 72 h. The PE extract-loaded fiber mats exhibited greater amount of extract released than those of the cast films. The maximum amounts of PE extract released from fiber mats and films were about 40-80% and 18-23%, respectively.

  2. Attenuation of Cyclosporine-Induced Sperm Impairment and Embryotoxicity by Crataegus monogyna Fruit Aqueous Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Armand; Gholamreza, Najafi; Farokhi, Farah; Shalizar Jalali, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Cyclosporine (Cs), a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immuno suppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity. In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days by oral gavage. In addition, one of the two groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after Cs administration. The remaining two groups consisted of a vehicle treated control (Cont) group and a Crataegus monogyna control (Cr) group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the SPSS software package for Windows. Cs treatment caused a signiifcant decrease in sperm count and viability with an increase in DNA damage and protamine deifciency of the sperm cells. We observed signiifcant decreases in fertilization rate and embryonic development, in addition to an increased rate of embryo arrest in Cs-treated rats. Crataegus monogyna co-administration attenuated all Cs-induced negative changes in the above-mentioned parameters. Supplementation with Crataegus monogyna a queous fruit extract could be useful against reproductive toxicity during Cs treatment in a rat model.

  3. Production of alcohol and edible yeast with extract of carob fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beundia, M.; Arroyo, V.; Inigo, B.; Garrido, J.M.

    1961-01-01

    Media based on extraction from carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua) have been used successfully in laboratory production of edible yeast and of alcohol. The fruit is a pod, 25 to 40 g, with sweet meaty flesh containing 34% sugar (dry weight), half sucrose and half invert sugar. Because of butyric acid and tannin, no antimicrobial need be added to the pulp prepared by adding H/sub 2/O (3 times weight) and autoclaving 1 hour in flowing stream. Of 3 yeast spp., Candida pulcherrima, Hansenula anomala, and Rhodotorula rubra, the latter (notable for carotenoid content) produced the most dry material in 48 hours at 32/sup 0/ on a reciprocating shaker with medium containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 2.52 and extraction contributing 20 g reducing sugar/1. Alcohol fermentation, heretofore effected by natural microflora, was attempted with pure cultures of 4 yeast spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae (4 strains), S. oviformis (2 strains), S. beticus, and S. chevalieri. All were suitable except one strain of S. oviformis. The carob extraction had enough nitrogenous and growth substances so that no other medium ingredient was needed. With reducing sugar level t 23 g/100 mil, alcohol yield was close to the theoretical unitage (13.5) after 17-days growth. The range for the 7 isolates was 10.2 to 12.4. One strain of S. cereviseae reached its maximum, 11.8 in only 7 days.

  4. Stereological investigation of the effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit hydroalcoholic extract on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dabbaghmanesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by increased fracture risk. However, each approved treatment has specific side effects. Therefore, foods with plant origins have increasingly attracted attention as an alternative treatment. Studies have shown that Elaeagnus angustifolia (EA has antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of EA hydroalcoholic extract on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats using stereological methods.  Material and Methods: 55 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control, sham operated (normal saline, ovariectomized (OVX, OVX + EA fruit extract (600 mg/kg BW/day, and OVX + estradiol benzoate (3 mg/kg BW for 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP plasma levels. Then, specimens from tibia and fifth lumbar vertebra (L5 bones were prepared and stereological analysis was done. Results: Ovariectomy significantly decreased the calcium level and increased the ALP level in the OVX group. In spite of improvement in calcium hemostasis in groups treated with estrogen and EA fruit extract (p

  5. Protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es Haghi, M; Dehghan, G; Banihabib, N; Zare, S; Mikaili, P; Panahi, F

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4.

  6. Characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin from fruit of different maturities and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarti, Oni; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K T; Mawson, John; Williams, Martin A K; Brennan, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Studies on gold kiwifruit pectins are limited. In this work, the characterization of pectin isolated from two different stages of maturity of gold kiwifruit, namely early harvested fruit (EHF) and main harvested fruit (MHF) isolated by three methods (acid, water, enzymatic) was carried out. Pectins isolated from MHF were higher in galacturonic acid content (52-59% w/w) and weight-average molecular weights (Mw, 1.7-3.8 × 10(6)g/mol) compared with EHF pectins (29-49% w/w and 0.2-1.7 × 10(6)g/mol respectively). Enzymatic treatment gave the highest yield but lowest in Mw, viscosity and mechanical spectra for both maturities. The pectin of both maturities was classified as high-methoxyl pectin with the degree of esterification ranged from 82% to 90%. Water-extracted MHF pectin molecules had the highest RMS radius (182.7 nm) and Mw (3.75 × 10(6)g/mol). The water extraction method appeared to retain the native state of pectin molecules compared with acid and enzymatic extraction methods based on the Mw and viscosity data.

  7. Attenuation of Cyclosporine-Induced Sperm Impairment and Embryotoxicity by Crataegus monogyna Fruit Aqueous Extract

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    Zahra Armand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cyclosporine (Cs, a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immunosuppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days by oral gavage. In addition, one of the two groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after Cs administration. The remaining two groups consisted of a vehicle treated control (Cont group and a Crataegus monogyna control (Cr group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using the SPSS software package for Windows.Results: Cs treatment caused a significant decrease in sperm count and viability with an increase in DNA damage and protamine deficiency of the sperm cells. We observed significant decreases in fertilization rate and embryonic development, in addition to an increased rate of embryo arrest in Cs-treated rats. Crataegus monogyna co-administration attenuated all Cs-induced negative changes in the above-mentioned parameters.Conclusion: Supplementation with Crataegus monogyna a queous fruit extract could be useful against reproductive toxicity during Cs treatment in a rat model.

  8. Isolation and Standardization of Various Phytochemical Constituents from Methanolic Extracts of Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishal Jain; Murugananthan G; Deepak M; GL Viswanatha; D Manohar

    2011-01-01

    AIM:The present study was undertaken to isolate and standardize the various active phytochemical constituents present in the fruit rinds of Punica granatum.METHODS:Fruit rinds of Punica granatum were dried and extracted with methanol in a static extractor; the percentage yield of the methanolic extract (MEPG) was found to be 26%; the methanolic extract was partitioned using n-butanol,ethyl acetate and water; the percentage yield of the fractions were found to be 17.16%,26.88% and 47.72% respectively.HPLC was carried out for all the fractions and the markers corresponding to the major peaks in HPLC were isolated using column chromatography.The isolated markers were characterized using UV,IR,Mass and NMR spectroscopy.RESULTS & CONCLUSION:Totally four compounds were isolated and identified as punicalin,punicalagin,gallic acid and ellagic acid based on UV,IR,Mass and NMR data,they were standardized by HPLC.

  9. Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts

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    Hafizah Y. Chenia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has stimulated the search for novel anti-virulence compounds. Although many phytochemicals show promising antimicrobial activity, their power lies in their anti-virulence properties. Thus the quorum sensing (QS inhibitory activity of four crude Kigelia africana fruit extracts was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using the Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor systems. Inhibition of QS-controlled violacein production in C. violaceum was assayed using the qualitative agar diffusion assay as well as by quantifying violacein inhibition using K. africana extracts ranging from 0.31–8.2 mg/mL. Qualitative modulation of QS activity was investigated using the agar diffusion double ring assay. All four extracts showed varying levels of anti-QS activity with zones of violacein inhibition ranging from 9–10 mm. The effect on violacein inhibition was significant in the following order: hexane > dichloromethane > ethyl acetate > methanol. Inhibition was concentration-dependent, with the ≥90% inhibition being obtained with ≥1.3 mg/mL of the hexane extract. Both LuxI and LuxR activity were affected by crude extracts suggesting that the phytochemicals target both QS signal and receptor. K. africana extracts with their anti-QS activity, have the potential to be novel therapeutic agents, which might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of drug-resistant bacteria in vivo.

  10. Optimal Binary Solvent Extraction System for Phenolic Antioxidants from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Fruit

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    Chin Ping Tan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  11. Optimal binary solvent extraction system for phenolic antioxidants from mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoo, Yin Yin; Ho, Swee Kheng; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi Ming; Ho, Chun Wai; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-06-14

    Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  12. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  13. Wound-healing potential of the fruit extract of Phaleria macrocarpa

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    Walaa Najm Abood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wound-healing potential of Phaleria macrocarpa was evaluated by monitoring the levels of inflammatory mediators, collagen, and antioxidant enzymes. Experimentally, two-centimeter-wide full-thickness-deep skin excision wounds were created on the posterior neck area of the rats. The wounds were topically treated with gum acacia as a vehicle in the control group, intrasite gel in the reference group, and 100 and 200 mg/mL P. macrocarpa ‎fruit extract in the treatment group. Granulation tissues were excised on the 15th day and were further processed for histological and biochemical analyzes. Wound healing was evaluated by measuring the contractions and protein contents of the wounds. Cellular redistribution and collagen deposition were assessed morphologically using Masson’s trichrome stain. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities, along with malondialdehyde (MDA level were determined in skin tissue homogenates of the dermal wounds. Serum levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α were evaluated in all the animals. A significant decrease in wound area was caused by a significant increase in TGF-β1 level in the treated groups. Decrease in TNF-α level and increase in the collagen formation were also observed in the treated groups. Topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract increased the SOD and CAT activities in the healing wounds, thereby significantly increasing MDA level. The topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract showed significant healing effect on excision wounds and demonstrated an important role in the inflammation process by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, thereby accelerating the wound healing process and reducing tissue injury.

  14. Wound-healing potential of the fruit extract of Phaleria macrocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Walaa Najm; Al-Henhena, Nawal Ahmed; Najim Abood, Ammar; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Ismail, Salmah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Al Bartan, Rami

    2015-01-01

    The wound-healing potential of Phaleria macrocarpa was evaluated by monitoring the levels of inflammatory mediators, collagen, and antioxidant enzymes. Experimentally, two-centimeter-wide full-thickness-deep skin excision wounds were created on the posterior neck area of the rats. The wounds were topically treated with gum acacia as a vehicle in the control group, intrasite gel in the reference group, and 100 and 200 mg/mL P. macrocarpa ‎fruit extract in the treatment group. Granulation tissues were excised on the 15th day and were further processed for histological and biochemical analyzes. Wound healing was evaluated by measuring the contractions and protein contents of the wounds. Cellular redistribution and collagen deposition were assessed morphologically using Masson's trichrome stain. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, along with malondialdehyde (MDA) level were determined in skin tissue homogenates of the dermal wounds. Serum levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated in all the animals. A significant decrease in wound area was caused by a significant increase in TGF-β1 level in the treated groups. Decrease in TNF-α level and increase in the collagen formation were also observed in the treated groups. Topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract increased the SOD and CAT activities in the healing wounds, thereby significantly increasing MDA level. The topical treatment with P. macrocarpa fruit extract showed significant healing effect on excision wounds and demonstrated an important role in the inflammation process by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, thereby accelerating the wound healing process and reducing tissue injury.

  15. Effects of fruit ellagitannin extracts, ellagic acid, and their colonic metabolite, urolithin A, on Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites, which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis, and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. This study investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET-rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin-Ciocalteu method) and to EA content (by high-performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry = 20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry = 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate = 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET extracts (IC(50) = 28.0-30.0 microg/mL), EA (IC(50) = 19.0 microg/mL; 63 microM), and UA (IC(50) = 9.0 microg/mL; 39 microM) inhibited Wnt signaling, suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon.

  16. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10-12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (P<0.0001) for response to stress, signal transduction, and extracellular and transport functions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size.

  17. Inhibition of hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia aruguta) ripening by 1-methylcyclopropene during cold storage and anticancer properties of the fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sooyeon; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jeongyun; Lee, Han Jun; Lee, Jeong Gu; Lee, Eun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Hardy kiwifruits (Actinidia arguta) were treated with 20 μl/l 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 16 h at 10 °C and subsequently stored at 1 ± 0.5 °C. Anticancer properties of the fruit extracts were tested against five different human cancer cells. The hardy kiwifruits, without 1-MCP treatment, showed increases in both respiration and ethylene production rates during fruit storage. The 1-MCP treatment remarkably inhibited fruit ripening by reducing respiration and ethylene production. Fruits with the 1-MCP treatment could be stored for up to 5 weeks by maintaining higher fruit firmness, ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents compared to the control. The hardy kiwifruit extracts showed anti-proliferative effects to Hep3B and HeLa cells but not to HT29, HepG2 and LoVo cells. These results suggest that the application of 1-MCP at harvest effectively delayed the ripening process of the fruits, and the fruit extract had beneficial effects for the prevention of human cancer growth.

  18. Larvicide and oviposition deterrent effects of fruit and leaf extracts from Melia azedarach L. on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, C; Almiron, W; Valladares, G; Carpinella, C; Ludueña, F; Defago, M; Palacios, S

    2008-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main urban vector of dengue, has developed resistance to various insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. We explored the effects of Argentine Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) fruit and senescent leaf extracts on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival, by rearing cohorts of first instar mosquitoes in water with different extract concentrations. We also analysed oviposition deterrent activity in choice tests with extract-treated ovitraps. The leaf extract showed a strong larvicide activity, with all larvae dying before pupation, and significantly delayed development time. It strongly inhibited oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. The fruit extract showed much weaker effects. This first report of highly effective larvicidal, growth regulating and oviposition deterrent activity of a senescent leaf extract of M. azedarach against Ae. aegypti, suggests that such extract could represent a promising tool in the management of this mosquito pest.

  19. Subcritical water extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from XiLan olive fruit dreg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Ping; Zhong, Qiu-Ping; Li, Meng-Ying; Ma, Han-Ruo

    2015-08-01

    Olive fruit dreg (OFD), waste from olive softdrink processing, has caused disposal problems. Nevertheless, OFD is a good source of functional ingredients, such as phenolic compounds. This study investigated the extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from OFD by using subcritical water (SCW) extraction method, antioxidant activity of SCW extracts, and components of phenolic compounds by LC-MS. SCW extraction experiments were performed in a batch stainless steel reactor at temperatures ranging from 100 to 180 °C at residence time of 5 to 60 min, and at solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:20 to 1:60. Higher recoveries of phenolic compounds [37.52 ± 0.87 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, dry weight (DW)] were obtained at 160 °C, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50, and extract time of 30 min than at 2 h extraction with methanol (1.21 ± 0.16 mg GAE/g DW), ethanol (0.24 ± 0.07 mg GAE/g DW), and acetone (0.34 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities of the SCW extracts were significantly stronger than those in methanol extracts at the same concentration of total phenolic contents. LC-MS analysis results indicated that SCW extracts contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, homovanillic acid, gallic acid, hydroxytyrosol, quercetin, and syringic acid. SCW at 160 °C, 30 min, and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50 may be a good substitute of organic solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, and acetone to recover phenolic compounds from OFD.

  20. Activation of cell-mediated immunity by Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Futamura-Masudaa, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, is a traditional natural medicine in French Polynesia and Hawaii. Functional foods derived from M. citrifolia fruit have been marketed to help prevent diseases and promote good health. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of M. citrifolia fruit on cell-mediated immunity. In the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis test, M. citrifolia fruit extract (Noni-ext) inhibited the suppression of cell-mediated immunity by immunosuppressive substances isolated from freeze-dried ascites of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice (EC-sup). In addition, Noni-ext inhibited reduction of IL-2 production in EC-sup-treated mice and activated natural killer cells in normal mice. These results suggest that Noni-ext has multiple effects on the recovery of cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, we investigated the active principles of Noni-ext and identified an iridoid glycoside, deacetylasperulosidic acid. Oral administration of deacetylasperulosidic acid inhibited the reduction of ear swelling, and also cancelled the suppression of IL-2 production along with the activation of natural killer cells in the same manner as that of Noni-ext.

  1. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Extracts Improve Colon Microflora and Exert Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Chou, Ming-Chih; Ko, Chien-Hui; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microflora and inflammation are associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) has various bioactivities, but its effect on colon health remains unknown. This study focused on the effects of fermented noni fruit extracts on colon microflora and inflammation of colon epithelial cells. The anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts on Caco-2 cells were evaluated including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was promoted by ethanol extract. Ethyl acetate extract decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and significantly suppressed COX-2, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 production and neutrophil chemotaxis by suppressing the translocation of the p65 subunit. Quercetin was the main contributor to the anti-inflammatory activity. The fermented noni fruit promoted probiotic growths and downregulated the intracellular oxidation and inflammation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that fermented noni fruit might protect against inflammatory diseases of the colon.

  2. Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-Ah; Su, Bao-Ning; Keller, William J; Mehta, Rajendra G; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2006-03-22

    As part of ongoing research on cancer chemopreventive agents from botanical dietary supplements, Garcinia mangostana L. (commonly known as mangosteen) was selected for detailed study. Repeated chromatography of a CH2Cl2-soluble extract of the pericarp led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated prenylated xanthones, 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G (1) and mangostingone [7-methoxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-3-butenyl)-1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone, 2], together with 12 known xanthones, cudraxanthone G (3), 8-deoxygartanin (4), garcimangosone B (5), garcinone D (6), garcinone E (7), gartanin (8), 1-isomangostin (9), alpha-mangostin (10), gamma-mangostin (11), mangostinone (12), smeathxanthone A (13), and tovophyllin A (14). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. Except for compound 2, which was isolated as a minor component, the antioxidant activities of all isolates were determined using authentic and morpholinosydnonimine-derived peroxynitrite methods, and compounds 1, 8, 10, 11, and 13 were the most active. Alpha-mangostin (10) inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene-induced preneoplastic lesions in a mouse mammary organ culture assay with an IC50 of 1.0 microg/mL (2.44 microM).

  3. In vitro evaluation of genotoxicity of avocado (Persea americana) fruit and leaf extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Paresh; Paul, Rajkumar; Ganesh, N

    2010-07-01

    Persea americana is much sought after both for the nutritional value of its fruit and the medicinal values of its various plant parts. A chromosomal aberration assay was undertaken to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of crude extracts from avocado fruits and leaves. Chromosomal aberrations were observed in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes exposed to separately increasing concentrations of 50% methanolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves. The groups exposed to leaf and fruit extracts, respectively, showed a concentration-dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations as compared to that in a control group. The mean percentage total aberrant metaphases at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg concentrations of leaf extract were found respectively to be 58 ± 7.05, 72 ± 6.41, and 78 ± 5.98, which were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 each) than that in the control group (6 ± 3.39). The mean percentage total aberrant metaphases at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg concentrations of fruit extract were found to be 18 ± 5.49, 40 ± 10.00, and 52 ± 10.20, respectively, which were significantly higher (p = 0.033, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001, respectively) than that for control (6 ± 3.39). Acrocentric associations and premature centromeric separation were the two most common abnormalities observed in both the exposed groups. The group exposed to leaf extracts also showed a significant number of a variety of other structural aberrations, including breaks, fragments, dicentrics, terminal deletion, minutes, and Robertsonian translocations. The group exposed to leaf extract showed higher frequency of all types of aberrations at equal concentrations as compared to the group exposed to fruit extract.

  4. Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni fruit, leaves and root extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandukhail Saf-ur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F, leaves (Mc.Cr.L and roots (Mc.Cr.R. Results Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in triton-induced dyslipidemia. In high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia all these extracts caused significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, atherogenic index and TC/HDL ratio. Mc.Cr.R extract also caused increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. The Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R reduced gain in body weight with a reduction in daily diet consumption but Mc.Cr.F had no effect on body weight and daily diet consumption. Conclusions These data indicate that the antidyslipidemic effect of the plant extracts was meditated through the inhibition of biosynthesis, absorption and secretion of lipids. This may be possibly due partly to the presence of antioxidant constituents in this plant. Therefore, this study rationalizes the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in dyslipidemia.

  5. Microwave assisted extraction process of betalain from dragon fruit and its antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thirugnanasambandham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the operating parameters in microwave assisted extraction process (MIE such as temperature, mass of the sample, extraction time on the betalain content from dragon fruit peel using response surface methodology (RSM. Three factors three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD was used for optimization and mathematical model development. Significant quadratic polynomial model was obtained (R2 = 0.9892 for betalain content with high coefficient determination value and numerical optimization was employed to achieve optimum conditions which was found to be; temperature of 35 °C, mass of the sample of 20 g, and treatment time of 8 min. Under these conditions, 9 mg/L of betalain content was obtained and it was validated using experimental values.

  6. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acid in fruit juices using hydrophilic magnetic imprinted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the novel hydrophilic magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were developed for selective separation and determination of chlorogenic acid in aqueous fruit juices. The polymers were prepared by using amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as carriers, branched polyethyleneimine as functional monomer, and chlorogenic acid as template molecule. Branched polyethyleneimine with abundant active amino groups could react with template sufficiently, and its unique dendritic structure may amplify the number of the imprinted cavities. Meanwhile, it would improve the hydrophilicity of imprinted materials for attaining high extraction efficiency. The resulted polymers exhibit fast kinetics, high adsorption capacity, and favorable selectivity. In addition, the obtained nanoparticles were used as solid-phase extraction sorbents for selective isolation and determination of chlorogenic acid in peach, apple, and grape juices (0.92, 4.21, and 0.75 μg mL(-1), respectively).

  7. Extraction, partial characterization and bioactivity of polysaccharides from boat-fruited sterculia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lianzhong; Wu, Jinhong; Che, Na; Wu, Yan; Cui, Steve W

    2012-12-01

    Three polysaccharides (water-soluble (WSP), alkali-soluble (ASP) and insoluble (IMP)) from boat-fruited sterculia seeds were obtained using different extraction methods. Moisture, ash, protein and total carbohydrate content of WSP, ASP and IMP were analyzed. WSP was rich in glucose, rhamnose, arabinose and galactose while small amount of xylose was also detected. The monosaccharide composition as well its relative content for WSP and ASP were similar. The intrinsic viscosity results demonstrated that ASP had much lower intrinsic viscosity than WSP, indicating partial polysaccharides were degraded into low molecular weight polymers during alkaline extraction. The acute anti-inflammatory bioactive results of polysaccharides indicated that WSP demonstrated an inhibitive effect toward acute inflammation.

  8. Acute and chronic oral toxicity of standardized water extract from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

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    K Jaijoy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae is an herbal plant commonly used in Asian traditional medicine systems for treatment of many disorders. In the present study, we investigated for the first time acute and chronic toxicity of the standardized water extract of P. emblica fruit. The water extract of P. emblica was prepared according to the Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia and standardized to 20% gallic acid. For studying acute toxicity study, single oral dose of 5000 mg water extract /kg body weight was administered to Sprague Dawley rats (five females, five males. The results showed no toxicity in terms of general behavior change, mortality, or change in gross appearance of internal organs (LD50 > 5,000 mg/kg. Chronic toxicity was studied by daily oral dose (ten females, ten males of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg for 270 days. The results showed slightly significant differences in the body and organ weights between the control and treatment groups. In addition, the rats were analyzed for final body and organ weights, necropsy, and hematological, blood chemical and histopathological parameters. Hematological analysis and clinical blood chemistry revealed slightly changes, but were within the normal limits. No gross or histopathology findings were observed in the treatment groups. Altogether, the standardized water extract from the fruit of P. emblica did not produce acute and chronic toxicity in its traditional uses. Industrial relevance: Traditional medicine is still stronghold of more than 50% of the world population, especially in developing countries. Nowadays, a number of medicinal plants (such as Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are commercially available on local markets as a tonic, food and/or dietary supplement product commonly used for clinical management of several conditions. Despite the widespread use of this plant, there is still little literature on the scientific evaluation of their toxicity. Results of the current study provide

  9. Comparison between ethanol and hexane for oil extraction from Quercus suber L. fruits

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    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to (i evaluate the feasibility of replacing n-hexane with ethanol for the extraction of oil from Quercus suber fruits and (ii optimize, at lab scale, sample preparation and extraction time for both solvents used (n-hexane vs. anhydrous ethanol. For both solvents, the effect of the conditioning process on extraction yield was evaluated. Therefore, a full factorial design was used as a function of four variables: dehulling (with vs. without husks, and thermal treatment of the crushed material (40ºC vs. 75ºC, at different times (5 min vs. 120 min and pressures (10 kPa vs. 100 kPa. Higher oil yields were obtained with n-hexane when dehulled fruits were conditioned under atmospheric pressure. Better yields were obtained with n-hexane, when dehulled material was treated at 75ºC for 90 min. Ethanol was not adequate for oil extraction from Quercus fruits, since other materials rather than oil were also extracted.El objetivo de este estudio fue (i evaluar la posibilidad de reemplazar el n-hexano por el etanol para la extracción del aceite de los frutos de Quercus suber y (ii optimizar, a escala de laboratorio, la preparación de la muestra y el tiempo de extracción para ambos solventes (n-hexano vs. etanol anhidro. Para ambos solventes, se ha evaluado el efecto del proceso de acondicionamiento en el rendimiento de la extracción. Para ello, se ha empleado un diseño factorial completo como función de cuatro variables: descascarillado (con vs sin cascarilla, y tratamiento térmico del material triturado (40ºC vs. 75ºC, a diferentes tiempos (5 min vs. 120 min y presiones (10 kPa vs. 100 kPa. Los rendimientos más elevados de extracción de aceite se obtuvieron con n-hexano cuando los frutos descascarillados se acondicionaron a presión atmosférica. Cuando el material descascarillado fue tratado a 75ºC por 90 min, se obtuvieron mejores rendimientos con n-hexano. El etanol demostró no ser adecuado para la

  10. Appraisal of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Various Extracts from the Fruiting Bodies of Pleurotus florida

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    Kyung Hoan Im

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus florida has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the fruiting bodies of P. florida extracted with acetone, methanol, and hot water. The antioxidant activities of the acetone and methanol extracts of P. florida showed stronger inhibition of β-carotene-linoleic acid compared to that of the hot water extract. The acetone extract (8 mg/mL showed a high reducing power of 1.86. The acetone and methanol extracts showed more effective DPPH radical scavenging activities than the hot water extract. The chelating effect of the extracts at lower concentrations was significantly effective compared to that of the positive control. Thirteen phenolic compounds were detected from acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid solvent extracts. Nitric oxide (NO production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in lipolysaccahride (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line, were inhibited significantly by the mushroom extracts in a concentration dependent manner. The anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced edema in the rat hind-paw reduced significantly by the mushroom extracts. Therefore, we have demonstrated that P. florida fruiting bodies possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activites related to their inhibitory activities on NO production, iNOS protein expression, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The results suggest that the fruiting bodies of P. florida are a good source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.

  11. Green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles using Tamarind fruit extract for the antibacterial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, N; Vijaya, J Judith; Kaviyarasu, K; Kombaiah, K; Kennedy, L John; Ramalingam, R Jothi; Munusamy, Murugan A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, first time we report the microwave-assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Tamarindus indica natural fruit extract. The plant extract plays a dual role of reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of AgNPs. The formation of spherical shape AgNPs is confirmed by XRD, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The presence of face-centered cubic (FCC) silver is confirmed by XRD studies and the average crystallite size of AgNPs is calculated to be around 6-8nm. The average particle diameter is found to be around 10nm, which is identified from HR-TEM images. The purity of AgNPs is confirmed by EDX analysis. The presence of sigmoid curve in UV-Visible absorption spectra suggests that the reaction has complicated kinetic features. To investigate the functional groups of the extract and their involvement in the reduction of AgNO3 to form AgNPs, FT-IR studies are carried out. The redox peaks are observed in cyclic voltammetry in the potential range of -1.2 to +1.2V, due to the redox active components of the T. indica fruit extract. In photoluminescence spectroscopy, the excited and emission peaks were obtained at 432nm and 487nm, respectively. The as-prepared AgNPs showed good results towards antibacterial activities. Hence, the present approach is a facile, cost- effective, reproducible, eco-friendly, and green method. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Analysis of factors that affect the potential of star fruit (Averhoa Bilimbi) and cactus (Gymnocalycium Hossei) extracts as alternative battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Sitti; Agnesstacia

    2014-03-01

    This research analyzes the factors that affect the work of the battery from the star fruit extract and the cactus extract. The value voltage and current generated are measure the work of the battery. Voltage measurement based on the electrode distance function, and electrode surface area. Voltage as a surface area electrode function and electrode distance function determined the current density and the voltage generated. From the experimental results obtained that the battery voltage is large enough, it is about 1.8 V for the extract of star fruit, and 1.7 V for the extract of cactus, which means that the juice extract from star fruit and the juice extract of cactus can become an alternative as battery replacement. The measurements with different electrode surface area on the star fruit and cactus extract which has the depth of the electrode 0.5 cm to 4 cm causes a decrease in the electric current generated from 12.5 mA to 1.0 mA, but obtained the same voltage.

  13. Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Averrhoa bilimbi Fruit Extract

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    R. S. Rimal Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on rapid one-step green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using fruit extract of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of gold and silver nanoparticles. The characteristics of the obtained gold and silver nanoparticles were studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV/Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX. UV/Vis spectrum showed Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR for both gold and silver nanoparticles at 540 and 420 nm. The EDX spectrum of the solution containing gold and silver nanoparticles confirmed the presence of elemental gold and silver signals. The average diameter of the prepared nanoparticles in solution was about 50–150 nm. Synthesized particles were either hexagonal or rhomboidal in shape. This synthesis approach of gold and silver nanoparticles is cost effective and can be widely used in biological systems. The effect of fruit extract and metal ion concentration was also studied.

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

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    Heibatollah Sadeghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4, R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p. were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine amino transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin (ALB, total protein (TP and malondialdehyde (MDA. Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining of liver section.Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p

  15. Silymarin BIO-C, an extract from Silybum marianum fruits, induces hyperprolactinemia in intact female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Capasso, Francesco; Savino, Francesco; Izzo, Angelo A; Lembo, Francesca; Borrelli, Francesca

    2009-09-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged to have important health benefits for infants and mothers. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum fruits) has been recently proposed to be used by nursing mothers for stimulating milk production; however, the mode of action of this herbal drug is still unknown. In this paper, we have evaluated the effect of a micronized standardized extract of S. marianum (Silymarin BIO-C=Piùlatte) on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C (25-200mg/kg, given orally) increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels. Moreover, after a 66-day discontinuation of Silymarin BIO-C treatment, prolactin levels were still significantly elevated although we observed a trend to decrease that was counteracted by a further 7-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C. Bromocriptine, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, (1-10mg/kg, os) significantly and in a dose dependent manner, reduced the serum prolactin levels; bromocriptine, at the dose of 1mg/kg, significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silymarin BIO-C. In conclusion, we have shown that an extract from S. marianum fruits significantly increases circulating prolactin levels in female rats; this effect seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D(2) receptors.

  16. Effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on vascular complication in type 1 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Razif; Othman, Faizah; Thent, Zar Chi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factors in the development of vascular complications. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus are the dominant exaggerating factors. Mormodica charantia (MC) was proven to be useful in improving diabetes mellitus and its complications. In the present study, a total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes was induced by a single dose (50 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ), intramuscularly. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the animals were equally divided into five groups (n = 8); Control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC) and diabetic group treated with metformin 150 g/kg (DM-Met). Oral administration of the MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg) was continued for 28 days. DM-MC group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to the DM-Ctrl group. Aortic tissue NO level was significantly increased and malondialdehyde level was decreased in the DM-MC group. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in eNOS expression in the endothelial lining of the DM-MC group. Similarly, morphological deterioration of the aortic tissues was reverted to normal. In summary, treatment with the MC fruit extract exerted the significant vasculoprotective effect in the type 1 diabetic rat model.

  17. Antihyperglycemic Potential of Grewia asiatica Fruit Extract against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Rats: Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a serious chronic disease that carries a high risk for considerable complications. In folk medicine, the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. This study aimed to investigate the possible curative effect of G. asiatica fruit ethanolic extract against streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, mechanism of antihyperglycemic action is investigated. Hyperglycemic rats are either treated with 100 or 20...

  18. Isolation, Identification and Cytotoxic Activity of Triterpenes and Flavonoids from Green Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Pericarps

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimia Tsasi; Pinelopi Samara; Ourania Tsitsilonis; Guido Jürgenliemk; Ηelen Skaltsa

    2016-01-01

    Three a -amyrine type triterpenes (1-3) in addition to oleanolic acid (4) and six known flavonoids, namely apigenin (5) and its 7-O- b -D-glucuronide (9), 5,6,4 ¢ -trihydroxy-7,3 ¢ -dimethoxy-flavone (6), cirsilineol (7) , sudachitin (8) and cilicione-b (10) were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the pericarps of Juglans regia . The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRESIMS and 1D & 2D NMR). Compounds 2, 3 and 6-10 were iso...

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum emodi extracts: In vitro and in vivo studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Ibrahim; Mohammed Nane Khaja; Anjum Aara; Aleem Ahmed Khan; Mohammed Aejaz Habeeb; Yalavarthy Prameela Devi; Mangamoori Lakshmi Narasu; Chitoor Mohammed Habibullah

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the hepatoprotective capacity of Sapindus mukorossi (S.mukorossi) and Rheum emodi (R.emodi)extracts in CCI1 treated male rats.METHODS: The dried powder of S.mukorossi and R.emodi was extracted successively with petroleum ether,benzene, chloroform, and ethanol and concentrated in vacuum.Primary rat hepatocyte monolayer cultures were used for in vitro studies.In vivo, the hepatoprotective capacity of the extract of the fruit pericarp of S.mukorossi and the rhizomes of R.emodi was analyzed in liver injured CCI4-treated male rats.RESULTS: In vitro: primary hepatocytes monolayer cultures were treated with CCI4 and extracts of S.mukorossi & R.emodi A protective activity could be demonstrated in the CCI4 damaged primary monolayer culture.In vivo: extracts of the fruit pericarp of S.mukorossi (2.5 mg/mL) and rhizomes of R.emodi (3.0 mg/mL) were found to have protective properties in rats with CCI4 induced liver damage as judged from serum marker enzyme activities.CONCLUSION: The extracts of S.mukorossi and R.emodi do have a protective capacity both in vitro on primary hepatocytes cultures and in in vivo in a rat model of CCI4 mediated liver injury.

  20. A microarray approach to identify genes involved in seed-pericarp cross-talk and development in peach

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    Zaffalon Valerio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field observations and a few physiological studies have demonstrated that peach embryogenesis and fruit development are tightly coupled. In fact, attempts to stimulate parthenocarpic fruit development by means of external tools have failed. Moreover, physiological disturbances during early embryo development lead to seed abortion and fruitlet abscission. Later in embryo development, the interactions between seed and fruit development become less strict. As there is limited genetic and molecular information about seed-pericarp cross-talk and development in peach, a massive gene approach based on the use of the μPEACH 1.0 array platform and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR was used to study this process. Results A comparative analysis of the transcription profiles conducted in seed and mesocarp (cv Fantasia throughout different developmental stages (S1, S2, S3 and S4 evidenced that 455 genes are differentially expressed in seed and fruit. Among differentially expressed genes some were validated as markers in two subsequent years and in three different genotypes. Seed markers were a LTP1 (lipid transfer protein, a PR (pathogenesis-related protein, a prunin and LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant protein, for S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively. Mesocarp markers were a RD22-like protein, a serin-carboxypeptidase, a senescence related protein and an Aux/IAA, for S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively. The microarray data, analyzed by using the HORMONOMETER platform, allowed the identification of hormone-responsive genes, some of them putatively involved in seed-pericarp crosstalk. Results indicated that auxin, cytokinins, and gibberellins are good candidates, acting either directly (auxin or indirectly as signals during early development, when the cross-talk is more active and vital for fruit set, whereas abscisic acid and ethylene may be involved later on. Conclusions In this research, genes were identified marking different phases of

  1. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE EXTRACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS FROM MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT – PROCESS PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION

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    PRAVEEN KUMAR

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A modified version of high hydrostatic pressure extraction has been performed for extraction of antioxidants from M. citrifolia fruit at 5, 15, 25 bar and temperature 30° to 70°C for time duration 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by di-phenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The process parameters were optimized for antioxidant activity by central composite design method of response surface methodology using the statistical package, design expert. The results are expressed as 3D surface graphs. The optimum antioxidant activity was achieved at 58°C and 5 hours for 25bar. The optimal result achieved was within the region of response surface methodology. The statistical results were compared with the experimental result at 25bar, 2hour and 30° to 70°C and were found to be in proximate. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were found to increase with increase in pressure. It was also found that the response surface methodology works effectively for shorter range of parameters considered.

  2. Comparative analysis of polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of tunisian pome fruit pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattouch, S; Caboni, P; Coroneo, V; Tuberoso, C; Angioni, A; Dessi, S; Marzouki, N; Cabras, P

    2008-02-13

    Pome trees, apple, pear, and quince, are classified into the subfamily Pomoideae, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Their autumnal fruits are consumed worldwide in different forms, that is, fresh or transformed into jams, jelly, juices, etc. Their well-established beneficial properties to human health were found mainly related to their phenolic content. Pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts obtained from Tunisian fruits at commercial maturity were comparatively evaluated for their phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials. The phenolic compounds present in the extracts were identified and quantified using RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS techniques. Significant differences in the chromatographic profiles among these fruits, as well as between pulp and peel extracts of each fruit, were observed. Quince, followed by 'Red Delicious', peel extracts showed the highest phenolic content (160.33 and 110.90 mg/100 g of fresh weight). The stronger inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals corresponded to those obtained from peel materials. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial potential against a range of microorganism strains was also carried out. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus were the most sensitive to the active extracts. Among the examined phenolic extracts, 'Red Delicious' and quince peels showed the highest effects for inhibiting bacteria growth. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(4) microg of polyphenol/mL. Red skin apple and quince peels could be of great interest as important antioxidant and antimicrobial polyphenol sources.

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fruit Rind Extract of Garcinia dulcis (Roxburgh) Kurz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Nabajyoti; Gogoi, Ankur; Neog, Bijoy; Baruah, Dibyojyoti; Singh, Khumanthem Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Background: Garcinia spp. belongs to the family Clusiaceae has been traditionally used for the treatment of many ailments including the liver damage. Garcinia dulcis found in North Eastern region of Assam; India can be a potential candidature to combat different ailments. Objective: The present work has been designed in such a way to appraisal the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of fruit rind extract of this plant. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was investigated through the various in vitro models, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, nitrite oxide. Phytochemical investigation for total phenolic and flavonoids contents were carried out by standard protocol. For the evaluation of hepatoprotective activity, albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups, five animals per group and activity was determined by measuring the contents of liver function marker enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and biochemical parameter, that is, Bilirubin and total protein. Histopathology observation of liver sections was conducted. Results: Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of both phenolic and flavonoid groups in the extract in a significant amount. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was observed in all models and percentage of inhibition was dose-dependent. Intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride, elevated the liver function enzymes, bilirubin, and suppressed the production of total protein. Pretreatment with the extract decreased the SGOT, SGPT, ALP, and bilirubin level significantly and increased the production level of total protein in a dose-dependent manner. The histopathological observation supported the hepatoprotective potentiality of the extract. Conclusion: The results indicate that fruit rind part of G. dulcis is nontoxic and the plant can utilize as an

  4. Protective Effect of Cornus mas Fruits Extract on Serum Biomarkers in CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Banihabib, Nafiseh; Es Haghi, Masoud; Panahi, Farid

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays attention to use herbs such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is increasing, which contains high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. Cornus mas fruits have been used for gastrointestinal and excretory disorders for many years in traditional medicine, also may improve liver and kidney functions, and have protective effects such as anti-allergic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antihistamine and antimalarial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate protective effects of Cornus mas fruits extract on serum biomarkers in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (1 mL/kg i.p.) in 1:1 dilution with olive oil. To evaluate the effect of Cornus mas fruits extract on disease progression, serum marker enzymes, serum total protein and albumin and liver lipid peroxidation were determined in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of Cornus mas fruits extract to rats for 14 days provided a significant (P mas fruit extract effect may be due to including some antioxidant components, which caused membrane stabilizing and normalization of fluctuated biochemical profiles induced by CCl4 exposure. Our results validated the traditional use of Cornus mas in the treatment of liver disorders.

  5. Effect of salinity and calcium on tomato fruit proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaa, Arafet; Faurobert, Mireille; Valot, Benoît; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Grasselly, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde; Ahmed, Hela Ben

    2013-06-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects plant growth and productivity. The physiology of the tomato in salty and nonsalty conditions has been extensively studied, providing an invaluable base to understand the responses of the plants to cultural practices. However few data are yet available at the proteomic level looking for the physiological basis of fruit development, under salt stress. Here, we report the effects of salinity and calcium on fruit proteome variations of two tomato genotypes (Cervil and Levovil). Tomato plants were irrigated with a control solution (3 dSm(-1)) or with saline solutions (Na or Ca+Na at 7.6 dSm(-1)). Tomato fruits were harvested at two ripening stages: green (14 days post-anthesis) and red ripe. Total proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Among the 600 protein spots reproducibly detected, 53 spots exhibited significant abundance variations between samples and were submitted to mass spectrometry for identification. Most of the identified proteins were involved in carbon and energy metabolism, salt stress, oxidative stress, and proteins associated with ripening process. Overall, there was a large variation on proteins abundance between the two genotypes that can be correlated to salt treatment or/and fruit ripening stage. The results showed a protective effect of calcium that limited the impact of salinization on metabolism, ripening process, and induced plant salt tolerance. Collectively, this work has improved our knowledge about salt and calcium effect on tomato fruit proteome.

  6. Ameliorating effects of Tamarindus indica fruit extract on anti-tubercular drugs induced liver toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Mohd; Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Ahmad, Sayeed; Akhtar, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica fruit against combination of two antitubercular drugs viz. Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of T. indica by DPPH-HPLC method was found to be 81.48%. Treatment with aqueous extract of T. indica significantly reduced the elevated levels of biochemical markers such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin, TBARS and increased the albumin level as well antioxidant activities of SOD, CAT and GSH in intoxicated rats. The biochemical changes were supported by histological observations. Results of this study clearly demonstrate that aqueous extract of T. indica fruit protects against anti tuberculosis induced oxidative liver damage in rats and thus possess significant hepatoprotective activity. Further, it could be suggested that supplementation with this food extract might prove beneficial in the individuals on anti-TB drugs.

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control.

  8. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibal, Paula Cristina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Foglio, Mary Ann; Höfling, José Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Ethanolic crude extracts prepared from the arils and seeds, pericarp, peels and from the whole fruit of Punica granatum, known as pomegranate, had their antifungal activity tested against Candida spp. The ethanolic crude extracts were analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and yielded many compounds such as punicalagin and galladydilacton. The extracts from the pericarp and peel showed activity against Candida spp., with MICs of 125 μg/mL. The effect of pericarp and peel extracts upon the morphological and structure of C. albicans and C. krusei were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with the visualization of an irregular membrane and hyphae, formation of vacuoles and thickening of the cell wall. The data obtained revealed potential antimicrobial activity against yeasts cells of the Candida genus, and the bioactive compounds could be responsible for changes in cell morphology and structure. The data obtained open new perspectives for future research in continuation to this study, where information such as determination of the site of action of the compounds could contribute to an alternative therapy against these organisms.

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant, total phenol and flavonoid content and antimicrobial activities of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) of underutilized tropical fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Tara Kamal; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam; Momand, Lailuma; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Nor Omar, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan

    2015-04-01

    Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.

  10. Spectrophotometric Screening of Potent Bactericidal Property of Thevetia Peruviana Schum. Leaf and Fruit Rind Extracts on Clinical and Plant Pathogens

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    Nazneen Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of multi drug resistance in human and plant pathogens, reconsidering the traditional medicines as antibacterial source and presence of promising phytochemicals in leaf and fruit rind of T. peruviana (S (Nazneen et al., 2014 prompted the authors to take up the antibacterial evaluation of different extracts. Antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of various extracts of T. peruviana (S were measured using methods of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC spectrophotometric determination of active extracts has found that the MICs of all the active extracts lies between the range of 250 μg to 1250 μg and bactericidal concentration in a range of 500 to 1250 μg. The percentage of inhibition was analysed, where in among all the extracts tested against B. subtilis and E. coli, fruit upper liquid (FUL exhibited highest inhibition percentage of 33.75% and 30.31 % at 500 μg/ml respectively. Similarly, fruit hexane (FH extract has the highest inhibition of 15.60% against B. cereus at 750 μg/ml. The Xanthomonas sp. was susceptible to leaf chloroform (LC with 32.29% of inhibition at 1000 μg/ ml. The activity index and total antimicrobial activity indicates the antibacterial action of extracts. The present investigations have revealed that among the extracts, the fruit rind extracts have most prominent inhibition abilities against tested bacteria, which are validating the use of this plant in traditional system of medicine and this is the first report of exploration of above extracts for their antibacterial activities against B. subtilis, B. cereus, E. coli and Xanthomonas sp.

  11. Antiadhesive Properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Immature Fruit Extract against Helicobacter pylori Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Anna; Glocker, Erik; Borén, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus) as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. Methodology A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE) from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori J99, 2 clinical isolates, AGS cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Bacterial adhesins affected by FE were pinpointed using a dot-blot overlay assay with immobilized Lewisb, sialyl-Lewisa, H-1, laminin, and fibronectin. 125I-radiolabeled Okra FE polymer served for binding studies to different H. pylori strains and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. Iron nanoparticles with different coatings were used to investigate the influence of the charge-dependence of an interaction on the H. pylori surface. Principal findings Okra FE dose-dependently (0.2 to 2 mg/mL) inhibited H. pylori binding to AGS cells. FE inhibited the adhesive binding of membrane proteins BabA, SabA, and HpA to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled compounds from FE bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori, as well as to BabA/SabA deficient mutants, indicating an interaction with a still-unknown membrane structure in the vicinity of the adhesins. The binding depended on the charge of the inhibitors. Okra FE did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. Conclusion Non-specific interactions between high molecular compounds from okra fruits and the H. pylori surface lead to strong antiadhesive effects. PMID:24416297

  12. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of ethanol extract of Cassia fistula fruit in hyperlipidemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Rizwana; Mahmood, Riaz; Santosh Kumar, Hulikal Shivashankara

    2016-12-01

    The plant Cassia fistula L. (Caesalpiniaceae) fruit was widely used by traditional practitioners to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in India. Hyperlipidemia is a lipid metabolism disorder and the major risk factor for the development of CVDs. Although most of the current hypolipidemic drugs are expensive and have potential side effects, the research focusing on natural alternative medicines is relevant. To investigate the hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of ethanol extract of C. fistula fruit (CFE) in high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in mice. Oral administration of CFE at 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight on HFD induced hyperlipidemia mice for 30 days. The standard drug atorvastatin (20 mg/kg) was used to compare the efficacy of CFE. Hypolipidemic effect was evidenced by the measurement of serum lipid profile and further confirmed by Oil Red O staining of adipose tissue. The hepatic and cardiac melondialdehyde (MDA) level and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with CFE at different doses has significantly restored the levels of serum lipid, MDA and enzymes activities in the liver and heart of hyperlipidemia mice. Oil Red O staining of visceral adipose tissue has shown marked reduction of lipid accumulation in adipocytes; whereas, administration of CFE at 500 mg/kg showed remarkable (p < 0.001) hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in HFD fed mice. C. fistula fruit demonstrated hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties in vivo and the results corroborate the use of this plant in traditional medicine for cardiac ailments.

  13. Mulberry Fruit Extract Affords Protection against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

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    Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl carbamate (EC is a food and environmental toxicant and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Several studies indicated that EC-induced toxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Mulberry fruits are reported to have a wide range of bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities. The present study was therefore aimed to investigate the protective property of mulberry fruit extract (MFE on EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Chemical composition analysis showed that total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in MFE were 502.43 ± 5.10 and 219.12 ± 4.45 mg QE/100 g FW. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were the major anthocyanins in MFE. In vitro antioxidant studies (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays jointly exhibited the potent antioxidant capacity of MFE. Further study indicated that MFE protected human liver HepG2 cells from EC-induced cytotoxicity by scavenging overproduced cellular ROS. EC treatment promoted intracellular glutathione (GSH depletion and caused mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP collapse, as well as mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation, whereas MFE pretreatment significantly inhibited GSH depletion and restored the mitochondrial membrane function. Overall, our study suggested that polyphenolic-rich MFE could afford a potent protection against EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  14. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products

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    Seoungwoo Shin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation.

  15. Antioxidant activity of yellow dock (Rumex crispus L., Polygonaceae) fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimović, Zoran; Kovacević, Nada; Lakusić, Branislava; Cebović, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    The methanol extract of ripe Rumex crispus L. fruits was evaluated for its antioxidant potential by assays for ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH-free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and the influence on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LP). Considerable activity was observed in all test systems (FRAP: 9.9 mmol Fe(2+) /g; DPPH IC(50) : 3.7 μg/mL; LP IC(50) : 4.9 μg/mL), comparable to that of BHT (FRAP: 8.0 μg/mL; DPPH IC(50) : 19.4 μg/mL; LP IC(50) : 3.5 μg/mL), but lower than the activity of ascorbic acid, rutin and quercetin, used as positive control substances. The in vivo effects were evaluated in several hepatic antioxidant systems (activities of LPx, GSH-Px, Px, CAT and XOD, as well as GSH content), after treatment with the studied yellow dock extract in different doses, or in combination with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ). Pretreatment with the R. crispus extract inhibited CCl(4) -induced oxidative stress by decreasing LPx and increasing GSH content in a dose dependent manner, bringing the levels of antioxidant enzymes to near control values. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-11-12

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow's feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation.

  17. Gastroprotective Value of Berries: Evidences from Methanolic Extracts of Morus nigra and Rubus niveus Fruits

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    Luciane Angela Nottar Nesello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the gastroprotective value of the methanol extracts from fruits of Morus nigra L. (black mulberry (MEMN and Rubus niveus Thunb (raspberry (MERN. The total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were measured, as well as the in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenger activity. The gastroprotective effects of the extracts against 60% ethanol/0.3 M HCl were evaluated in mice. After that, the lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels at ulcerated tissue were determined. The effects of extracts on H+/K+-ATPase activity were also verified. The extracts exhibited high contents of polyphenols; however, MERN presented 1.5-fold higher levels. The presence of flavonoids also was confirmed. In addition, MEMN (IC50 = 13.74 μg/mL and MERN (IC50 = 14.97 μg/mL scavenged DPPH radical. The MEMN reduced the ulcer area only at 300 mg/kg (p.o. by 64.06%. Interestingly, MERN decreased the ulcer area in a superior potency (ED50 = 20.88 mg/kg, reducing the ulcer area by 81.86% at 300 mg/kg, and increased the gastric mucin levels. The antioxidant effects of extracts were evidenced by reduced lipoperoxides and increased reduction of glutathione amount in the gastric mucosa. However, MEMN or MERN did not change the H+/K+-ATPase activity. These results confirm that M. nigra and R. niveus are berries with a gastroprotective value by strengthening of gastric protective factors.

  18. Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (ω3) and omega-6 (ω6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ω3 (linolenic acid) and ω6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and α-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes.

  19. Evaluation of Some Plant Fruit Extracts for the Control of West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Evren, Ozay Hasan; Cetin, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The extracts of different parts of plants were found very effective against various pests. The aim of this research was to determine the insecticidal activity of fruit methanol extracts obtained from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae), Phoenix theophrasti (Arecaceae), Styphnolobium japonicum (Fabaceae) and Pyracantha coccinea (Rosaceae) against the larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The fruits of test plants were collected from the Campus of Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey in 2013. A series of concentrations of the extracts ranging from 62.5–1000 ppm were tested against second instar larvae. Results: Only the extracts of Me. azedarach and Ph. theoprasti showed significant larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens and the LC50 values of these extracts were found to be 169.48 and 220.60 ppm, respectively. This is the first research investigating the insecticidal or larvicidal activity of Ph. theophrasti, St. japonicum and Py. coccinea extracts on mosquitoes. Conclusion: The methanol extract of fruits of Me. azedarach and Ph. theophrasti showed significantly higher larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens. PMID:28032112

  20. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Exotic Gordonia axillaris Fruit: Optimization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Lin, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-09-06

    Our previous study reported that the fruit of Gordonia axillaris , an edible wild fruit, possessed strong antioxidant activity. In this study, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was established to extract antioxidants from the fruit of Gordonia axillaris . The influence of five parameters, including ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and microwave power, was investigated by single-factor experiments. Three factors, namely ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, were found to exert a major influence on extraction efficacy, and were further studied by response surface methodology to investigate their interactions. Ethanol concentration of 36.89%, solvent/material ratio of 29.56 mL/g, extraction time of 71.04 min, temperature of 40 °C, and microwave power of 400 W were found to be the optimal condition. The TEAC value was 198.16 ± 5.47 µmol Trolox/g DW under the optimal conditions, which was in conformity to the predicted value (200.28 µmol Trolox/g DW). In addition, the MAE method was compared with two conventional methods (Soxhlet extraction and maceration extraction). Results showed that the antioxidant capacity of the extract obtained by MAE method was stronger than that obtained by maceration (168.67 ± 3.88 µmol Trolox/g DW) or Soxhlet extraction (114.09 ± 2.01 µmol Trolox/g DW). Finally, several phenolic compounds in the extract were identified and quantified by UPLC-MS/MS, which were rutin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, 2-hydrocinnamic acid, p -coumaric acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid.

  1. Identification and characterization of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors in Schisandra fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Hiratsuka, Akira; Watabe, Tadashi

    2004-12-01

    Schisandra fruit, a Schisandraceae family herb, is used as a component in Kampo medicines (developed from Chinese medicines, but established in Japan). It can act as a sedative and antitussive, improve hepatic function, and give a general tonic effect. An extract of Schisandra fruit has been shown with a potent inhibitory effect on human liver microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The present study was conducted to identify Schisandra fruit components having inhibitory effects on CYP3A4 by surveying the effect on human liver microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity. Known components of Schisandra fruit, gomisins B, C, G, and N and gamma-shizandrin, showed inhibitory effects on N-demethylation activity. Among these components, gomisin C displayed the most potent and competitive inhibitory effect, with a Ki value of 0.049 microM. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of gomisin C was stronger than that of ketoconazole (Ki = 0.070 microM), a known potent CYP3A4 inhibitor. Gomisin C, however, inhibited CYP1A2-, CYP2C9-, CYP2C19-, and CYP2D6-dependent activities only to a limited extent (IC50 values >10 microM). Moreover, gomisin C inactivated human liver microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The inactivation kinetic parameters k(inact) and K(I) were 0.092 min(-1) and 0.399 microM, respectively. The human liver microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity inactivated by gomisin C did not recover on dialysis of the microsomes. Spectral scanning of CYP3A4 with gomisin C yielded an absorbance at 455 nm, suggesting that gomisin C inactivated the cytochrome P450 via the formation of a metabolite intermediate complex. This pattern is consistent with the metabolism of the methylenedioxy substituent in gomisin C. These results indicate that gomisin C is a mechanism-based inhibitor that not only competitively inhibits but irreversibly inactivates CYP3A4.

  2. Biosynthesis, accumulation and degradation of theobromine in developing Theobroma cacao fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Koyama, Yoko; Nagai, Chifumi; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    We have studied the purine alkaloid content and purine metabolism in Theobroma cacao fruits at differing growth stages: Stage A (young small fruit, fresh weight, ca. 2 g); stage B (medium size fruit, fresh weight, ca. 100 g) and stage C (large size, fresh weight, ca. 500 g). The major purine alkaloid in stage A fruits (mainly pericarp) was theobromine (0.7 micromol g(-1) fresh weight), followed by caffeine (0.09 micromol g(-1) fresh weight). The theobromine content of the pericarp decreased sharply with tissue age, and the caffeine content decreased gradually. A large amount of theobromine (22 micromol g(-1) fresh weight) had accumulated in seeds (mainly cotyledons) of stage C fruits. Theobromine was found also in the seed coat and placenta. Tracer experiments with [8-(14)C]adenine show that the major sites of theobromine synthesis are the young pericarp and cotyledons of T. cacao fruits. Limited amounts of purine alkaloids may be transported from the pericarp to seed tissue, but most purine alkaloids that accumulated in seeds appeared to be synthesised in cotyledons. Degradation of [8-(14)C]theobromine and [8-(14)C]caffeine to CO2 via 3-methylxanthine and ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid) was detected only in the pericarp of stage C fruits.

  3. The anti-inflammatory effects of flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract in rat hepatocytes.

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    Ryota Yamanishi

    Full Text Available Flavanol (flavan-3-ol-rich lychee fruit extract (FRLFE is a mixture of oligomerized polyphenols primarily derived from lychee fruit and is rich in flavanol monomers, dimers, and trimers. Supplementation with this functional food has been shown to suppress inflammation and tissue damage caused by high-intensity exercise training. However, it is unclear whether FRLFE has in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, such as suppressing the production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and the proinflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO, which is synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Here, we analyzed the effects of FRLFE and its constituents on the expression of inflammatory genes in interleukin 1β (IL-1β-treated rat hepatocytes. FRLFE decreased the mRNA and protein expression of the iNOS gene, leading to the suppression of IL-1β-induced NO production. FRLFE also decreased the levels of the iNOS antisense transcript, which stabilizes iNOS mRNA. By contrast, unprocessed lychee fruit extract, which is rich in flavanol polymers, and flavanol monomers had little effect on NO production. When a construct harboring the iNOS promoter fused to the firefly luciferase gene was used, FRLFE decreased the luciferase activity in the presence of IL-1β, suggesting that FRLFE suppresses the promoter activity of the iNOS gene at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that FRLFE reduced the nuclear transport of a key regulator, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. Furthermore, FRLFE inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor α (IκB-α. FRLFE also reduced the mRNA levels of NF-κB target genes encoding cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α. Therefore, FRLFE inhibited NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation to suppress the expression of these inflammatory genes. Our results suggest that flavanols may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of FRLFE and may be

  4. Hypoglycemic Activity of Methanolic Fruit Pulp Extract of Adansonia digitata on Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammad Yalwa Gwarzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the hypoglycemic properties of the methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp on blood glucose. Forty eight of the rats were randomly distributed into six. Group one served as the normal control and Group two rats were administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg intraperitoneally and served as the diabetic control. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were intraperitoneally administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg and orally administered with methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg once daily for 4weeks. Group six rats were intraperitoneally administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg and orally administered with chlorpropamide (84 mg/kg once daily for 4 weeks. The serum concentration of glucose of all the rats in each group was determined after the 14th and 28th dose of treatment. There was significant (p<0.001 reduction of serum glucose in the three groups of rats administered with methanolic extract of fruit pulp at second and fourth week of the treatment. The group of animal treated with chlorpropamide (84 mg/kg also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction of serum glucose compared to most effective dose of the methanolic extract (300 mg/kg during the second and fourth week of the treatment. The result of qualitative phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp indicated the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids. This result suggests that the methanolic fruit pulp extract of Adansonia digitata possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  5. Study on biosynthesis and spectral property of gold nanoparticles in the extracts of mangosteen(garcinia mangostana L) pericarp%山竹果壳提取液中金纳米粒子的生物合成及光谱性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽萍

    2014-01-01

    在山竹果壳提取液中,以山竹多酚既作还原剂又作保护剂,制备了具有高度稳定性、单分散性的亲水性金纳米粒子。利用紫外可见分光光度法、透射电子显微镜和X射线衍射等手段对制备的金纳米粒子进行了表征和分析。结果表明:金纳米粒子的尺寸大小在9~23nm范围,升高温度其还原反应速率加快,所得金纳米粒子的尺寸减小、单分散性提高。山竹多酚保护金的金纳米颗粒具有pH值调控的分散可逆性。降低山竹提取液的浓度可得到包括单晶纳米片在内的多形态金纳米颗粒。%The mangosteen polyphone-protected gold nanoparticles are fabricated by the extracts of mangosteen pericarp reducing HAuCl4 . The as-prepared gold particles are characterized and analyzed by UV-vis,TEM and XRD. The results shows that the rise of the temperature makes the reaction speed up,reduces the size of the particles,and increases the monodispersion of particles. The mangosteen polyphone-capped gold particles possess the obvious feature of the reversible change between aggregation and dispersity in the aqueous solution through adjusting pH value. The decrease of the concentration of mangosteen extract is helpful to the forma-tion of gold nanoparticles with various morphologies including the single crystal gold nanoflake.

  6. Carissa carandas Linn. fruit extract ameliorates gentamicin–induced nephrotoxicity in rats via attenuation of oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jayesh B. Dhodi; Deepavali R. Thanekar; Snehal N. Mestry; Archana R Juvekar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mechanism of action of methanolic extract of Carissa carandas fruits (MCCF) in attenuation of diabetic nephropathy using gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity model. Methods: Extract was daily administered to Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 days along with intramuscular injection of gentamicin (80 mg/kg). After completion of the study, serum was analyzed for blood urea nitrogen, albumin and creatinine; urine (24 h) was analyzed for album...

  7. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-09-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs.

  8. Dietary polysaccharide extracts of Agaricus brasiliensis fruiting bodies: chemical characterization and bioactivities at different levels of purifiaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Jakovljevic, D.; Todorovic, N.; Niksic, M.; Vrvic, M.M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides of the European strain of A. brasiliensis were obtained by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation (HWPE I) of fruiting bodies, and further purified by dialysis (HWPE II) and pronase incubation (PPE). These polysaccharides consisted mainly of (1 ¿ 6)-ß-D-glucans. PPE was free

  9. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  10. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit extracts in an oil model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Augusto-Obara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g-1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg-1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg-1 oil in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil.

  11. Effect of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" fruit extract in Mus musculus var. swis with induced hyperlipidemi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Campos Florián

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the hypolipidemic activity of the fruit of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by triton. Mus musculus var. swis males as experimental animals. We worked with four groups of mice, the white group received distilled water orally and saline intraperitoneally, the control group received distilled water orally and intraperitoneally triton, the problem group 1 received orally 0.05g/100g Physalis peruviana extract intraperitoneally and triton and the problem group 2 received orally 0.2g/100g extract of Physalis peruviana and triton intraperitoneally. After 24 hours of administering the treatments were performed measurements of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Mean levels of cholesterol (mg/dL were: 58.87 ± 11.54 (white, 121.71 ± 15.00 (control, 58.08 ± 9.21 (Problem 1 and 66 78 ± 16.77 (Problem 2. Average levels of triglycerides (g /L were: 0.48 ± 0.07 (white, 1.84 ± 0.18 (control, 0.34 ± 0.10 (Problem 1 and 0.94 ± 0.25 (Problem 2. We found significant reductions (p <0.000 concentrations of both cholesterol and triglycerides in relation to those obtained in the group treated only with Triton.

  12. Optimisation of spray drying operating conditions of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extract using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduku Krishnaiah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A conventional solvent extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit was spray dried using adjuvant maltodextrin (5 wt.%. Spray drying was carried out according to the D-optimal design, and the independent variables selected were temperature and Mcore/Mwall. The spray drying process was optimised by using response surface methodology (RSM for four different responses: moisture content (MC, DPPH scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC, and total flavonoid (TF. The effects of temperature and of the core to wall material ratio were found to be significant for all responses. The optimal spray drying condition for maltodextrin as binding material was found to be 1:1.5 (Mcore/Mwall, volume ratio of M. citrifolia L. extract to additive solution at 95 °C. The experimental values of the response variables correspond well to the predicted values. The microparticles obtained in this study represent an interesting food additive for incorporation into functional foods due to the presence of antioxidants.

  13. Protective Effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala Fruit Extract against Oxidative Renal Damage Caused by Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Poontawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium nephrotoxicity is a serious environmental health problem as it will eventually end up with end stage renal disease. The pathobiochemical mechanism of this toxic heavy metal is related to oxidative stress. This study investigated whether Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala fruit extract (CNFE could protect the kidney against oxidative injury caused by cadmium. Initial analysis of the extract revealed antioxidant abilities and high levels of polyphenols, particularly catechin. Its potential renal benefits was further explored in rats treated with vehicle, CNFE, cadmium (2 mg/kg, and cadmium plus CNFE (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg for four weeks. Oxidative renal injury was developed after cadmium exposure as evidenced by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine retention, glomerular filtration reduction, renal structural damage, together with increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, but decreased antioxidant thiols, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in renal tissues. Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity was diminished in rats supplemented with CNFE, particularly at the doses of 1 and 2 g/kg. It is concluded that CNFE is able to protect against the progression of cadmium nephrotoxicity, mostly via its antioxidant power. The results also point towards a promising role for this naturally-occurring antioxidant to combat other human disorders elicited by disruption of redox homeostasis.

  14. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  15. Fruit extracts of Momordica charantia potentiate glucose uptake and up-regulate Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramadhar; Balaji, S; Uma, T S; Sehgal, P K

    2009-12-10

    Momordica charantia fruit is a widely used traditional medicinal herb as, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-leukemic, anti-microbial, and anti-tumor. The present study is undertaken to investigate the possible mode of action of fruit extracts derived from Momordica charantia (MC) and study its pharmacological effects for controlling diabetic mellitus. Effects of aqueous and chloroform extracts of Momordica charantia fruit on glucose uptake and up-regulation of glucose transporter (Glut-4), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), were investigated to show its efficacy as a hypoglycaemic agent. Dose dependent glucose uptake assay was performed on L6 myotubes using 2-deoxy-D-[1-(3)H] glucose. Up-regulatory effects of the extracts on the mRNA expression level of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K have been studied. The association of Momordica charantia with the aqueous and chloroform extracts of Momordica charantia fruit at 6 microg/ml has shown significant up-regulatory effect, respectively, by 3.6-, 2.8- and 3.8-fold on the battery of targets Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K involved in glucose transport. The up-regulation of glucose uptake was comparable with insulin and rosiglitazone which was approximately 2-fold over the control. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the cyclohexamide on Momordica charantia fruit extract mediated glucose uptake suggested the requirement of new protein synthesis for the enhanced glucose uptake. This study demonstrated the significance of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K up-regulation by Momordica charantia in augmenting the glucose uptake and homeostasis.

  16. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawole Olaniyi A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA, ferrous ion chelating (FIC and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine and diphenolase (DOPA, with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC, gallotannin content (GTC and total anthocyanin content (TAC were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 μg/ml, radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%, Ganesh (83.56%, and Ruby (83.34% cultivars (P50% against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 μg/ml and 15.88 μg/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche, respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant

  17. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. II. Polyamine metabolism and synthesis in relation to enhanced putrescine content and storage life of alc tomato fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele alc) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (Alc) at the ripe stage. Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-alc-a near isogenic line possessing the allele alc, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in alc pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and alc fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal labeled-{sup 3}H)spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-alc fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in alc fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in alc fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase.

  18. Potential of Moringa oleifera root and Citrus sinensis fruit rind extracts in the treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholap, Prashant A; Nirmal, Sunil A; Pattan, Shashikant R; Pal, Subodh C; Mandal, Subhash C

    2012-10-01

    The plant Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae), commonly known as the drumstick tree, is an indigenous species in India. This species has been of interest to researchers because traditionally its roots are reported in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Traditionally it is reported that Citrus sinensis Linn (Rutaceae) fruit rind when combined with M. oleifera will increase the efficacy of the plant in the treatment of UC. The present work was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of M. oleifera root alone and in combination with C. sinensis fruit rind in the treatment of UC. Ethanol and aqueous extracts of M. oleifera roots (100 and 200 mg/kg, body weight) were screened alone and in equal combination with ethanol extract of C. sinensis fruit rind, i.e., 50 mg/kg each of C. sinensis and M. oleifera for their activity on acetic acid-induced UC in mice. Treatment with combination of extracts of M. oleifera root and C. sinensis fruit rind (50 mg/kg, each) showed less ulceration and hyperemia than individual extract (200 mg/kg) in histopathological observation. Acetic acid increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) level in blood and colon tissue to 342 U/mL and 384 U/mg, respectively. Combination of ethanol extract of M. oleifera root with C. sinensis fruit rind extract significantly (p<0.05) decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 278 U/mL and 291 U/mg, respectively. MPO in blood and tissue in control group was 85 ± 1.2 U/mL and 96 ± 1.3 U/mg, respectively. Similarly this combination significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level in blood and tissue to 7.11 nmol/mL and 8.19 nmol/mg, from 11.20 nmol/mL and 13.20 nmol/mg, respectively. MDA in blood and tissue in control group was 2.76 ± 1.2 nmol/mL and 3.76 ± 1.2 nmol/mg, respectively. Results show that a combination of M. oleifera root extracts with C. sinensis fruit rind extract is effective in the treatment of UC and results are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone.

  19. Effects of solvents and extraction methods on the content and antiradical activity of polyphenols from fruits Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens and Schisandra chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pliszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In line with the current tendency towards the production of the so-called safe foods, the use of environmentally-friendly methods for the extraction of polyphenols from fruits has been sought. Citric acid is a good solvent in the preparation of phenolic compounds for the food and pharmaceutical industries because it is a natural antioxidant and is non-toxic for the environment. Furthermore, new sources of polyphenols from fruit of orchard plants that are less known in Poland have been looked for. The aim of this study was  to assess the content and antiradical activity of polyphenolic compounds in fruit extracts, depending on the extraction method employed. In addition, the yield of extraction processes was assessed. Material and methods. The experimental materials were fruits of the following plants: Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens, Schisandra chinensis. For the extraction, aqueous solutions of citric acid (CAE and methanol (ME were used. The following were determined in fruit extracts: the con- tent of total phenols (TP and anthocyanins (A, and antiradical activity (DPPH and ABTS. Results. In general, the C. monogyna fruit extracts were distinguished by the highest TP and A content. The TP and A content was significantly higher in fruit extracts obtained with the CAE method than in the ones produced with the ME method. The highest mean A/TP ratio was determined for S. chinensis fruit extracts. The antiradi- cal activity (DPPH and ABTS in fruit extracts did not depend on an extraction method, but on fruit species. Overall, a higher yield of extraction processes was achieved for the CAE method than for the ME method. Conclusions. The present study indicates that the selected extraction methods are able to obtain polyphenolic extracts from fruits with a high antiradical activity and high yield. The use of citric acid in order to extract polyphenols from fruits may be an alternative to the conventional

  20. Assessing the effect of pomegranate fruit seed extract mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Kiany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Utilizing natural products in the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases has been increased recently and could be of benefit to low-socioeconomic level communities. Mouthwashes are very useful in the reduction of microbial plaque and gingival inflammation. Pomegranate (Punica granatum is an essential medicinal plant with various pharmacological properties. In this study, the efficacy of a mouthwash prepared from the extract of pomegranate fresh fruit, was evaluated in the reduction of dental plaque and gingival bleeding. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four participants diagnosed as mild to moderate gingivitis participated in this double-blind clinical trial. Two weeks after thorough scaling and root planing, the participants were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group 1 - Persica, Group 2 - Matrica, Group 3 - pomegranate mouthwashes, and Group 4 - placebo. The participants were instructed to use the prescribed mouthwashes, twice daily, for 1 month. Pomegranate mouthwash was prepared from seeds of fresh pomegranate fruit. Periodontal parameters including plaque and bleeding indices were assessed at baseline (2 weeks after Phase I of treatment and 1 month after using mouthwashes. Results: Comparison of the plaque index showed a significant reduction from baseline to 1 month in all groups (P < 0.05. However, there was no significant difference in reduction of plaque when comparing four groups. Assessment of the bleeding on probing revealed a significant decrease from baseline to 1 month in all groups (P < 0.05. The three herbal mouthwashes reduced the bleeding index significantly more than the placebo (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Pomegranate mouthwash was beneficial in improving gingival status, including reducing plaque and bleeding indices. Its effect was comparable to two routinely used herbal mouthwashes.

  1. Analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract and its saponin-containing fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia Osama; Kassem, Iman; Melek, Farouk Rasmy

    2016-01-01

    Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Leguminosae) pods are used in folk medicine for pain relief as anodyne and narcotic. The objective of this study is to evaluate analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract (MEGT) and its saponin-containing fraction (SFGT). Peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice at doses of 140, 280, and 560 mg/kg and formalin test in rats at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses. Central analgesic activity was evaluated using the hotplate method in rats (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). In the writhing test, six mice groups treated with MEGT and SFGT found ED50 values 268.2 and 161.2 mg/kg, respectively, displayed a significant decrease in writhing count compared with the group treated with standard drug indomethacin (14 mg/kg). SFGT (280 and 560 mg/kg) showed 64.94 and 70.78% protection, respectively, which are more than double % protection caused by indomethacin (31.82%). In the formalin test, MEGT and SFGT (ED50 values 287.6 and 283.4 mg/kg for phase I as well as 295.1 and 290.4 mg/kg for phase II, respectively) at 400 mg/kg showed significant % inhibition in both phase I (18.86 and 52.57%) and phase II (39.36 and 44.29%) with reference to 10 mg/kg indomethacin (56.0 and 32.29%). MEGT and SFGT caused significant delay in responses in hotplate model (ED50 values 155.4 and 200.6 mg/kg, respectively) compared with that of 10 mg/kg indomethacin at 30, 60, and 120 min. Central and peripheral analgesic activities induced by Gleditsia triacanthos fruits might account for its uses in folk medicine.

  2. Structural identification and antioxidant properties of major anthocyanin extracted from Omija (Schizandra chinensis) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-H; Joo, M H; Yoo, S-H

    2009-03-01

    Omija (Schizandra chinensis) is used as an ingredient in traditional medicine in East Asia. It is consumed as tea and wine and display pinkish-red color and beneficial physiological activity. However, the origin of Omija's unique color and bioactivity has not been studied extensively and its application is very limited. Thus, it was required to determine the chemical structure of major phenolic compounds of Omija fruit and evaluate their antioxidant activity. The colorants extracted from a domestic Omija cultivar were concentrated by a Sep-pak(R) Plus C(18) cartridge. A major high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peak of anthocyan represented 94.1% of total absorbable compounds at 520 nm, which was further identified by LC-ESI-MS. The mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of the major anthocyan was determined to be 727. Highly pure anthocyan fraction with a semipreparative HPLC was acid-hydrolyzed, and the sugar moieties linked to anthocyan (cyanidin) were characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) analyses. The linkage patterns of sugars and core cyanidin structure were determined by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analyses. Antioxidant activity of the extract and the purified anthocyanin was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) methods. As a result, the structure of the purified colorant was identified as Cya-3-O-xylrut. At the same molar level of the samples tested, the purified Cya-3-O-xylrut (31.2% and 39.2%) had substantially greater antioxidant activity than l-ascorbic acid (17.1% and 10.1%) from DPPH and ABTS methods, respectively. In this study, Omija colorant mostly consisted of Cya-3-O-xylrut explained 86% (DPPH) and 98% (ABTS) of total antioxidant activity derived from water extract from Omija.

  3. Two new diarylheptanoids from the pericarps of Juglans regia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two new cyclic diarylheptanoids juglanin A (1) and juglanin B (2) were isolated from the pericarps of Juglans regia L. Their structures were elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY) and HR-ESIMS.

  4. Antiadhesion and anti-inflammation effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit extracts on AGS cells during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Ko, Chien-Hui; Yan, Yeong-Yu; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2014-03-19

    Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen that adheres to host cells and injects cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is found to possess antibacteria, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation activities, but its effect on H. pylori infection is still unknown. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of noni fruit were used in this study. The inhibitory effect on CagA and H. pylori-induced IL-8, iNOS, and COX-2 were determined. The coculture medium was collected for measuring neutrophil chemotaxis. Both extracts of noni fruit showed weak inhibition on H. pylori. Both ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts provided antiadhesion of H. pylori to AGS cells and down-regulation on the CagA, IL-8, COX-2, and iNOS expressions. Results also indicated both extracts relieved neutrophil chemotaxis. Noni fruit extracts down-regulated inflammatory responses during H. pylori infection, and the phenolic compounds play key role in antiadhesion.

  5. Protective effects of Rosa canina L fruit extracts on renal disturbances induced by reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Najafi, Houshang; Jalalvandi, Sepeideh; Hosseinei, Fatemeh

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Rosa canina L fruit extracts on histological damages, oxidative stress, and functional disturbances induced by bilateral renal ischemia and reperfusion. Ischemia and reperfusion were induced on the kidneys of anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats in the reperfusion and Rosa canina groups were administered extract solvent and Rosa canina extract, respectively. In addition, in the sham group, surgery was done without ischemia. In the last 6 hours of the reperfusion period, urine sample were collected using metabolic cage and at the end of this period, blood samples were taken from the descending aorta. The kidney tissues were collected and subjected to microscopic study for histological damages, while oxidative stress was measured by determining malondialdehyde and ferric reducing/antioxidant power levels. The comparison between the reperfusion and sham groups indicated reductions in creatinine clearance, absolute excretion of potassium, urine osmilarity, and increase in absolute excretion of sodium in the reperfusion group. These changes were less pronounced with Rosa canina fruit extract. In addition, blood creatinine and urea concentrations which increased in the reperfusion group, were significantly lower in the Rosa canina group. In this group, the degree of histological damages and the level of malondialdehyde were lower than the reperfusion group, while ferric reducing/antioxidant power level was significantly higher. The findings of this study showed that Rosa canina fruit extract possesses protective effects against kidney function disturbances, oxidative stress, and histological damages.

  6. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

    2014-02-26

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.

  7. Effect of Butanol Extract of Maturated Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa Fruit on Liver Tissue of Mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIF SOEKSMANTO

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa [Scheff.] Boerl. is a poisonous plant, but almost all parts of the plants can be used as a traditional medicine. Consuming the plant directly can cause swollen, sprue, numb at tongue, fever, even unconscious. Although the plant can conquere various diseases, from diabetes mellitus, hemorrhoid, impotency to cancer, but research on the plant is still limited. A research was conducted to find out effect of subchronic dosage of butanol extract of maturated mahkota dewa fruit. Observation was carried out on liver tissue which is main organ detoxifying poison in the body. Dosage of butanol extract of 0; 42,5; 85 and 170 mg/kg body weight was administered intra peritoneally to mice. The result showed that butanol extract of maturated mahkota dewa fruit did not affect liver tissue, although at dosage 170 mg/kg body weight, a vacuolization on liver's tissue, was occurred.

  8. Bioactivity of mango flesh and peel extracts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ [PPARγ] activation and MCF-7 cell proliferation: fraction and fruit variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ashley S; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Shaw, P Nicholas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Mangos are a source of bioactive compounds with potential health promoting activity. Biological activities associated with mango fractions were assessed in cell-based assays to develop effective extraction and fractionation methodologies and to define sources of variability. Two techniques were developed for extraction and fractionation of mango fruit peel and flesh. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to assess compositional differences between mango fractions in flesh extracts. Many of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. All fractions showed bioactivity in PPAR activation assays, but quantitative responses showed marked fruit-to-fruit variability, highlighting the need to bulk fruit prior to extraction for activity-guided fractionation of bioactive components. This study also suggests that combinations of diverse molecular components may be responsible for cell-level bioactivities from mango fractions, and that purification and activity profiling of individual components may be difficult to relate to whole fruit effects. Practical Application: Although the health benefits of fruits are strongly indicated from studies of diet and disease, it is not known what role individual fruit types can play, particularly for tropical fruits. This study shows that there is a diversity of potentially beneficial bioactivities within the flesh and peel of mango fruit, although fruit-to-fruit variation can be large. The results add to the evidence that the food approach of eating all components of fruits is likely to be more beneficial to health than consuming refined extracts, as the purification process would inevitably remove components with beneficial bioactivities.

  9. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Tunisian Zizyphus lotus fruits using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammi, Khaoula Mkadmini; Jdey, Ahmed; Abdelly, Chedly; Majdoub, Hatem; Ksouri, Riadh

    2015-10-01

    The optimization of antioxidant extraction conditions from a ripe edible fruits of Zizyphus lotus (L.) with an ultrasound-assisted system was achieved by response surface methodology. The central composite rotatable design was employed for optimization of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and phosphomolybdenum assay. The optimum operating conditions for extraction were as follows: ethanol concentration, 50%; extraction time, 25 min; extraction temperature, 63°C and ratio of solvent to solid, 67 mL/g. Under these conditions, the obtained extract exhibited a high content of phenolic compounds (40.782 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry matter) with significant antioxidant properties (the total antioxidant activity was 75.981 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry matter and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was 0.289 mg/mL).

  10. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nizam Uddin; Md. Rakib Hasan; Md. Monir Hossain; Arjyabrata Sarker; A.H.M. Nazmul Hasan; A.F.M. Mahmudul Islam; Mohd. Motaher H. Chowdhury; Md. Sohel Rana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit in α-amylase inhibitory activity (in vitro) and hypoglycemic activity in normal and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (in vivo). Methods: Fruits of Citrus macroptera without rind was extracted with pure methanol following cold extraction and tested for presence of phytochemical constituents, α-amylase inhibitory activity, and hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats.Results:showed that fruit extract had moderate α-amylase inhibitory activity [IC50 value=(3.638±0.190) mg/mL] as compared to acarbose. Moreover at 500 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg doses fruit extract significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) reduced fasting blood glucose level in normal rats as compared to glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). In oral glucose tolerance test, 500 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level (P<0.05) at 2 h but 1000 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level at 2 h and 3 h (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) whereas glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced glucose level at every hour after administration. Overall time effect is also considered extremely significant with F value=23.83 and P value=0.0001 in oral glucose tolerance test.Conclusion:These findings suggest that the plant may be a potential source for the development Presence of saponin, steroid and terpenoid were identified in the extract. The results of new oral hypoglycemic agent.

  11. 荔枝壳多糖特性研究%Characterization of Litchi Pericarp Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝; 赵谋明; 刘洋; 李宝珍

    2005-01-01

    多糖是荔枝壳的重要活性成分,本研究采用阴离子交换柱和凝胶过滤柱对荔枝壳多糖进行分离纯化.凝胶渗透色谱测定其分子量为14000 Dal.通过气相色谱测定其单糖组成为甘露糖、半乳糖和少量的阿拉伯糖,分子链由1,2键、1,3键和1,6键组成,不含1,4键.红外光谱分析表明甘露糖以β-D-甘露糖形式存在,不含羧基基团.%Polysaccharide was an important functional composition in litchi pericarp. Anion exchange column and gel filtration column were used to isolate and purify the major polysaccharide extracted from litchi pericarp. The profile of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed its molecular weight as 14000 Dal. Monose composition of the major polysaccharide was determined by using gas chromatography (GC).It mainly comprised mannose and galactose,and arabinose. Its structure was further identified by using infrared (IR) spectra.

  12. The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the fruits of Balanites aegypticea in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Abdella Emam Abdella Baragob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balanites aegypticea is used medically for many purposes e.g. anti-spasmodic, stomach pain, malaria, and yellow fever. The extract of the fruit is also used to reduce the blood glucose levels. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of the aqueous extract of the fruits of the Balanites aegypticea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five adult male Vistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly collected and divided into 5 groups (5 rats in each group. The untreated rats (negative control group received basal diet and tap water only for 15 days. The experimental rats became diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight. The fruit of Balanites aegypticea was powdered, extracted, and dried using organic solvents. The diabetic rats received aqueous extract 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg, respectively, for 2 weeks. Plasma glucose levels were measured by using Glucose GOD-PAP method through spectrophotometer. Results: The results showed that 800 mg/kg aqueous extract decrease significantly the plasma glucose level (P ≤ 0.05 in diabetic rats, and there is a considerable gain in body weight (P ≤ 0.05 compared to the diabetic control group. Four-hundred mg/kg aqueous extract has a mild effect on body weights and plasma glucose levels, while 200 mg/kg aqueous extract has no significant effect on plasma glucose level and a little effect on body weight. Conclusions: The results of the presented study revealed that the aqueous extract of Balanites aegypticea has hypoglycemic properties. It can decrease the plasma glucose level and can improve weight in diabetic experimental animals.

  13. Sperm Quality and Testicular Histomorphometry of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Extract and Fractions of Fruit of Tribulus terrestris L.

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    Nelma Neylanne Pinho Muniz Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the sperm quality and testicular histomorphometry of Wistar rats supplemented with extract and fractions of fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The ethanolic extract was obtained by dynamic maceration of spray-dried fruit. This extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition, using increasing polarity solvents. Twenty male rats were separated in four groups, with five rats in each group. The control was supplemented with distilled water, while the others were daily given the ethanolic extract, hexanic or aqueous fraction soluble in methanol in a dose of 42 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 70 days. Sperm was obtained from the right epididymal tail for the analysis of motility, count, morphology and viability. The testicular weight of groups supplemented with ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction soluble in methanol was higher when compared to the control. The gonadosomatic index increased in the group supplemented with ethanolic extract. The nuclear, cytoplasmic and individual volume of Leydig cells increased in supplementation with hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol. It was concluded that the extract influenced the spermatogenesis, while hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol promoted the changes in the intertubular compartment. Therefore, Tribulus terrestris did not improve the sperm quality of the rats.

  14. Variability In Yield Oxidative Status And Appearance Of Palm Elaeis Guineensis Jacq Oils As Affected By Fruit Type And Extraction Equipment

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    Agbotse Paul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the variability in yield oxidative status and appearance of palm oils as affected by fruit type and extraction equipment in the small scale industry. A 23 factorial experimental design with palm fruit types Dura and Tenera and extraction equipment digester screw hand spindle and hydraulic presses were studied. Quality indices of oils i.e. free fatty acid ffa peroxide value moisture content impurities colour and yield were accessed using standard methods. The ffa values obtained for oils produced from both Dura and Tenera fruit types and the extraction equipment ranged 5.25 - 5.71 were above the CODEX standard of 5.0 . Furthermore significant differences were also recorded in both moisture contents and impurities from the same oils produced. The oil yield from Tenera fruit types were two folds higher than the Dura fruit types. The redness colour of palm oils for Dura fruit types was a little above the Tenera fruit types. However the yellowness and lightness of colour of palm oils for Tenera were higher than oils from Dura fruit types. Therefore the study concludes that the oil processors in the small scale industry preferred the digester screw press machine because it gave low level of impurities and moisture content than other presses. Tenera fruit type is the best choice for palm oil processing because of its higher oil yield content. However in terms of oil colour Dura fruit type is preferred.

  15. Evaluating the effect of four extracts of avocado fruit on esophageal squamous carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines in comparison with peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi Larijani, Laleh; Ghasemi, Maryam; AbedianKenari, Saeid; Naghshvar, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with gastrointestinal cancers refer to the health centers at advanced stages of the disease and conventional treatments are not significantly effective for these patients. Therefore, using modern therapeutic approaches with lower toxicity bring higher chance for successful treatment and reduced adverse effects in such patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of avocado fruit extracts on inhibition of the growth of cancer cells in comparison with normal cells. In an experimental study, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and petroleum extracts of avocado (Persea americana) fruit were prepared. Then, the effects if the extracts on the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated in comparison with the control group using the MTT test in the cell culture medium. Effects of the four extracts of avocado fruit on three cells lines of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma were tested. The results showed that avocado fruit extract is effective in inhibition of cancer cell growth in comparison with normal cells (PAvocado fruit is rich in phytochemicals, which play an important role in inhibition of growth of cancer cells. The current study for the first time demonstrates the anti-cancer effect of avocado fruit extracts on two cancers common in Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that the fruit extracts can be considered as appropriate complementary treatments in treatment of esophageal and colon cancers.

  16. Evaluating the effect of four extracts of avocado fruit on esophageal squamous carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines in comparison with peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Vahedi Larijani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with gastrointestinal cancers refer to the health centers at advanced stages of the disease and conventional treatments are not significantly effective for these patients. Therefore, using modern therapeutic approaches with lower toxicity bring higher chance for successful treatment and reduced adverse effects in such patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of avocado fruit extracts on inhibition of the growth of cancer cells in comparison with normal cells. In an experimental study, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and petroleum extracts of avocado (Persea americana fruit were prepared. Then, the effects if the extracts on the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated in comparison with the control group using the MTT test in the cell culture medium. Effects of the four extracts of avocado fruit on three cells lines of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma were tested. The results showed that avocado fruit extract is effective in inhibition of cancer cell growth in comparison with normal cells (P<0.05. Avocado fruit is rich in phytochemicals, which play an important role in inhibition of growth of cancer cells. The current study for the first time demonstrates the anti-cancer effect of avocado fruit extracts on two cancers common in Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that the fruit extracts can be considered as appropriate complementary treatments in treatment of esophageal and colon cancers.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Ethyl Acetate the Extract of Noni Fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) Against Bacterial Spoilage in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, E. R.; Adriani, G. R.; Munawaroh, H.

    2017-04-01

    Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) contains compounds that have potential as antibacterial agent. Antibacterial compounds produced noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) can inhibit bacterial growth. This study was conducted to test the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) against spoilage bacterial in fish. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Enterobacter aerogenes isolates and examine antibacterial phytochemical profile. Extraction of noni compounds was done by maceration, followed by partition with ethyl acetate to obtain the soluble and insoluble ethyl acetate fraction. Previews result show that the ethyl acetate extract had very strong activity. Extraction process continued by separation and isolation used preparative thin layer chromatography method, so that obtained five isolates and mark them as A, B, C, D and E. Antibacterial activity assay performed on isolates A, B, C, D, and E with 20 and 30% concentration. The test results showed that isolates A could not be inhibit the growth of bacteria, isolates B, C, D, and E has antibacterial activity with weak to strong inhibition. Isolate B had the greatest inhibition activity against the B. cereus, whereas isolates E had the greatest inhibition activity against P. aeroginosa. MIC (Minimum Inhibitor Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) test result showed that MIC and MBC values could not be determined. Analysis of compounds by TLC showed that isolate B suspected contains coumarin or flavonoids compounds that have antibacterial activity.

  18. Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Fruit and Leave Extracts from Virus Infected and Healthy Cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanian, Zahra; Behbahani, Mandana; Shanehsaz, Mehrnaz; Hessami, Mohammad Javad; Nejatian, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Grape virus diseases are a serious problem in Iran. Leaves and fruits of grape have been used for different purposes like cooking in Iran. The present investigation was carried out to study on the cytotoxic-activities of extracts of fruits and leaves of Vitis vinifera from both virus-free and virus-infected grape cultivars against breast cancer cell line (MDAMB- 231) and human embryonic kidney normal cell line (HEK 293). IN THIS EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, THE CONSIDERED GRAPE CULTIVARS WERE AS FOLLOWS: Rish Baba Sefid, Shahani Ghasre Shirin, Rotabi Zarghan, Asgari Najaf Abad, Fars, Kaj Angor Bojnord, Sarkesh Shiraz and Siahe Zarqan. A real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (real-time Multiplex PCR) assay was applied to detect virus infected cultivars. The cytotoxic effect of the methanol extracts of different Vitis vinifera varieties on cultured cells was monitored using (3- (4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000 μg mL(-1)). Among these cultivars, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) along with related symptoms was detected in Siahe Zarqan and Fars. Methanolic extracts of leaves and fruits of Vitis vinifera from both virus free and virus infected cultivars showed a range of limited to moderate cytotoxic activity. However, methanol extract of leaves belonged to virus infected cultivars was found to have strong cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-231 at different concentrations. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) can potentially increase the cytotoxicity of grape cultivars.

  19. [Rapid determination of six preservative residues in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography using dispersive solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haidan; Zou, Zhifei; Qin, Yan; Xie, Shouxin; Chen, Yufang; Xu, Juan; Wang, Lan; Chen, Chuying

    2013-02-01

    A dispersive solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 2,4-D, thiabendazole, 2-naphthol, o-phenyl phenol, diphenyl ether and biphenyl in the fruits and vegetables. The samples were vortexed for extraction with acetonitrile containing sodium chloride and anhydrous magnesium sulfate. The acetonitrile extraction was purified by acidic alumina dispersed solid phase extraction. The analysis was performed on an Agilent TC C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) and an ultraviolet detector at 235 nm with a mobile phase of methanol-0.02 mol/L (pH 6) potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with gradient elution. Good linearities were observed in the range of 0.5-20 mg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The average recoveries of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables were in the range of 84.2% -99. 1% at three spiked levels of 1, 2 and 10 mg/kg (n = 6) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.67%-10.3%. The limits of quantification were 1 mg/kg. This method is simple, accurate and suitable for the determination of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables.

  20. Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extract from Cultivated Fruit-bodies of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhan; Cai-Hong Dong; Yi-Jian Yao

    2006-01-01

    Biological antioxidants extracted from plants and fungi have potential abilities to scavenge free radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation, playing important roles in preventing diseases, for example, cancer, and aging induced by reactive oxygen species, which may cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and other macromolecules. The antioxidant potency of cultivated fruit-bodies of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link was investigated in this study. Five established in vitro systems were employed, including the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical eliminating, iron chelating, inhibition of linoleic acid lipid peroxidation and reducing power. The aqueous extract from cultivated fruit-bodies was subjected to the test of amino acid, polysaccharide and mannitol. Ascorbic acid (Vc), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used as positive controls for comparisons. Among the assays, the aqueous extract of C. militaris fruit-bodies shows a significant scavenging effect on DPPH,eliminating the capability on hydroxyl radicals and the chelating effect on ferrous iron. The extract also shows positive results of inhibiting linoleic acid lipid peroxidation and reducing power.

  1. A matured fruit extract of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stimulates the cellular immune system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Koji; Uzuhashi, Yuji; Hirota, Mitsuru; Otani, Hajime

    2011-10-26

    The immunomodulatory effects of a hot water extract from matured fruit of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were investigated in comparison to those of prune and fig fruit in mice. The number of spleen IFN-γ(+)CD4(+), IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells was highest in mice given the date extract-added diet. Polyphenols identified in the date extract, such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, pelargonin and ferulic acid, stimulated IFN-γ mRNA expression significantly in mouse Peyer's patch cell cultures. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid also increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) cells significantly, while some polyphenols increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly. On the other hand, a 70% ethanol-insoluble date extract treated with trypsin increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly. These results indicate that some polyphenols and polysaccharides present in date fruit stimulate the cellular immune system in mice.

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Extracts from Leaves and Fruits of Schinusterebinthifolius Raddi from Tunisia

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    Alessandra Piras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oils composition from leaves and ripe fruits of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi growing in Tunisia were investigated using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Volatile oil extraction was achieved by hydrodistillation (HD using a Clevenger apparatus and by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using carbon dioxide. All plant organs, gave SFE extracts chiefly composed by a -pinene, a -phellandrene, b -phellandrene, germacrene D and bicyclogermacrene. In the case of the fruits, both extraction techniques gave volatile oils of similar composition; whereas the comparison between the HD and SFE leave oils revealed important differences in the content of a -pinene (6.1 % vs traces, a -phellandrene (22.7 % vs 0.8 % and b -phellandrene (14.6 % vs 1.2 %. All volatile samples were evaluated against yeasts and dermatophyte strains, being more active against Cryptococcus neoformans, particularly the volatile oil from the fruits, with MIC values of (0.32-0.64 mg/mL.Moreover, this oil revealed an inhibitory effect on germ tube formation in C. albicans at sub-inhibitory concentration. At the concentration of MIC/8 the inhibition of filamentation was more than 70 %.

  3. In vivo biochemical and gene expression analyses of the antioxidant activities and hypocholesterolaemic properties of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract.

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    Chor Yin Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tamarindus indica (T. indica is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9 ± 10.1 mg GAE/extract and flavonoid (93.9 ± 2.6 mg RE/g extract content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia.

  4. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikau, Michael; Noah, Naumih M; Andala, Dickson M; Masika, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The wide-scale application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in areas such as chemical sensing, nanomedicine, and electronics has led to their increased demand. Current methods of AgNPs synthesis involve the use of hazardous reagents and toxic solvents. There is a need for the development of new methods of synthesizing AgNPs that use environmentally safe reagents and solvents. This work reports a green method where silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using silver nitrate and the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit rind as the reductant and the capping agent. The optimized conditions for the AgNPs synthesis were a temperature of 80°C, pH 10, 0.001 M AgNO3, 250 g/L watermelon rind extract (WMRE), and a reactant ratio of 4 : 5 (AgNO3 to WMRE). The AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy exhibiting a λmax at 404 nm which was consistent with the spectra of spherical AgNPs within the wavelength range of 380-450 nm, and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results showed a distinct oxidation peak at +291 mV while the standard reference AgNPs (20 nm diameter) oxidation peak occurred at +290 mV, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed spherical shaped AgNPs. The AgNPs were found to have an average diameter of 17.96 ± 0.16 nm.

  5. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikau, Michael; Andala, Dickson M.; Masika, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The wide-scale application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in areas such as chemical sensing, nanomedicine, and electronics has led to their increased demand. Current methods of AgNPs synthesis involve the use of hazardous reagents and toxic solvents. There is a need for the development of new methods of synthesizing AgNPs that use environmentally safe reagents and solvents. This work reports a green method where silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using silver nitrate and the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit rind as the reductant and the capping agent. The optimized conditions for the AgNPs synthesis were a temperature of 80°C, pH 10, 0.001 M AgNO3, 250 g/L watermelon rind extract (WMRE), and a reactant ratio of 4 : 5 (AgNO3 to WMRE). The AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy exhibiting a λmax at 404 nm which was consistent with the spectra of spherical AgNPs within the wavelength range of 380–450 nm, and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results showed a distinct oxidation peak at +291 mV while the standard reference AgNPs (20 nm diameter) oxidation peak occurred at +290 mV, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed spherical shaped AgNPs. The AgNPs were found to have an average diameter of 17.96 ± 0.16 nm.

  6. INFLUENCE OF CONCENTRATION OF RIND EXTRACT OF RED DRAGON FRUIT (HYLOCEREUS COSTARICENSIS AGAINST THE DSSC EFFECIENCY

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    A. Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on utilization of rind extracts of red dragon fruit (hylocereus costaricensis as sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC has been conducted by reviewing influence of the concentration against the DSSC efficiency. Characterization on optical absorption at various concentrations and identification of functional groups, each using an UV-Vis spectrometer and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR, have done to the dye in the form of the extracts. The dye characterization result on optical absorption at various concentration shows that the optical absorption at range of wavelength 320-760 nm has the peak of absorbance tend to increase with increasing the concentration. Therefore the dye is capable to role as a sunlight absorber. Meanwhile, infra red absorption spectrum obtained from FTIR results indicate the presence of functional groups O-H, C=O, C=C, C-O, and C-H aromatic. Results of current-voltage characterization of DSSC show an increase in maximum power and efficiency with increasing concentration.Penelitian mengenai pemanfaatan ekstrak kulit buah naga merah (hylocereus costaricensis sebagai penyensitif pada dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC telah dilakukan dengan meninjau pengaruh konsentrasi ekstrak terhadap efisiensi DSSC. Terhadap dye berupa ekstrak kulit H. Costaricencis dilakukan pengujian serapan optik pada berbagai konsentrasi dan identifikasi gugus fungsi, masing-masing menggunakan spektrometer UV-Vis dan fourier transform infra red (FTIR. Hasil pengujian dye pada konsentrasi 100 %, 50 %, 33,33 %, 25%, dan 20% menunjukan serapan optik yang terjadi pada panjang gelombang 320-760 nm, memiliki puncak yang cenderung semakin tinggi seiring dengan peningkatan konsentrasi. Dye yang berasal dari ekstrak kulit H. Costaricensis ini mampu berperan sebagai sunlight absorber. Sementara itu, spektrum serapan infra red yang diperoleh dari hasil FTIR mengindikasikan adanya gugus fungsi O-H, C=O, C=C, C-O, dan C-H aromatik. Hasil karakterisasi

  7. Studies on the Antifatigue Activities of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body Extract in Mouse Model

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    Jingjing Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris has been used extensively as a crude drug and a folk tonic food in East Asia due to its various pharmacological activities. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract (CM on antifatigue in mouse model. Two week CM administration significantly delayed fatigue phenomenon which is confirmed via rotating rod test, forced swimming test and forced running test. Compared to nontreated mouse, CM administration increased ATP levels and antioxidative enzymes activity and reduced the levels of lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species. Further data suggests that CM-induced fatigue recovery is mainly through activating 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and protein kinase B (AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways and regulating serum hormone level. Moreover, CM-enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK contributes to its antioxidant effect. Our data provides experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of CM as an effective agent against fatigue.

  8. Beneficial effects of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior following 56Fe irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.; Jenkins, D.; Rabin, B. M.

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge HZE particles enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2 blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties This study evaluated the efficacy of these diets on irradiation-induced deficits in these parameters by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1 5 Gy of 1 GeV n high-energy 56 Fe particles Irradiation impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information a hippocampally-mediated behavior compared to controls The blueberry diet on the other hand seemed to improve reversal learning a behavior more dependent on intact striatal function These data suggest that 56 Fe particle irradiation causes deficits in behavior and signaling in rats which were ameliorated by an antioxidant diet and that the polyphenols in these fruits might be acting in different brain regions

  9. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit extract improves physical fatigue and exercise performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Yi; Huang, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Chung; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ho, Chin-Shan; Huang, Wen-Pei; Hou, Chia-Chung; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2012-10-09

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME) on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test) were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen) and release (as blood glucose), and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  10. Studies on the Antifatigue Activities of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body Extract in Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Teng, Meiyu; Cai, Guangsheng; Xu, Hongkai; Guo, Hanxiao; Liu, Yang; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been used extensively as a crude drug and a folk tonic food in East Asia due to its various pharmacological activities. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract (CM) on antifatigue in mouse model. Two week CM administration significantly delayed fatigue phenomenon which is confirmed via rotating rod test, forced swimming test and forced running test. Compared to nontreated mouse, CM administration increased ATP levels and antioxidative enzymes activity and reduced the levels of lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species. Further data suggests that CM-induced fatigue recovery is mainly through activating 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways and regulating serum hormone level. Moreover, CM-enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK contributes to its antioxidant effect. Our data provides experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of CM as an effective agent against fatigue. PMID:26351509

  11. Effect of aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus Linn. fruit in ulcerative colitis in laboratory animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mithun Vishwanath K Patil; Amit D Kandhare; Sucheta D Bhise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of fruit of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) (CS) in acetic acid induced colitis in wistar rats. Methods: The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and C. sativus was administered at a dose of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, hematological parameters, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 d. Results: Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO and hematological parameters. Pretreatment with C. sativus for 7 d exhibited significant effect in lowering of ulcer area, ulcer index as well as neutrophil infiltration at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusion: The present investigation demonstrates C. sativus is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the inflammatory mediator.

  12. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.. Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.

  13. ACUTE ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA FRUIT PULP IN RATS

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    Chandrashekar R

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a general term for several disorders that cause nervousness, fear, apprehension and worry. These disorders affect how we feel and behave and they can even manifest as real physical symptoms. Mild anxiety is vague and unsettling, while severe anxiety can be extremely debilitating, having a serious impact on daily life.When anxiety becomes excessive, it may fall under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Most of the times, benzodiazepines (BZDs remains the major class of compounds used in anxiety. Although BZDs are safe in short term treatment for anxiety, on long term therapy they cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula Fruit Pulp (AETCFP by using Elevated Plus Maze model in rats. The rats weighing 150–200gm were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals for each dose and were housed for 10 days prior to experiment. For acute study, the control (1% Gum acacia, test drug AETCFP (9, 18 and 36mg/ kg and standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg were administered orally one hour before behavioral experiment using Elevated Plus Maze. The results suggest that, behavioral disinhibitory effects of AETCFP exhibited anxiolytic activity at the dose of 18mg/kg comparable to diazepam.

  14. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Fruit Extract Improves Physical Fatigue and Exercise Performance in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chung Hou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen and release (as blood glucose, and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  15. Effects of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on blood fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    The enhancement of blood fluidity may lead to improvements in skin problems resulting from unsmooth circulation or blood stagnation. Since a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits may be a useful ingredient in skin-whitening cosmetics, the present study was designed to examine the effect of CH-ext on blood fluidity. CH-ext concentration-dependently inhibited in vitro collagen-induced rabbit platelet aggregation and in vitro polybrene-induced rat erythrocyte aggregation. The CH-ext showed in vitro fibrinolysis activity in fibrin plate assay. Activity-guided fractionation of the CH-ext using antiplatelet activity, inhibitory activity of erythrocyte aggregation, and fibrinolysis activity revealed that these activities of CH-ext were attributable to naringenin-7-glycoside (prunin). Successive oral administration of CH-ext to rats inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decrease of blood platelets and fibrinogen, and LPS-induced increase of fibrin degradation products (FDP) in LPS-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) model rats. Effects of CH-ext on blood fluidity were analyzed by a micro channel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN). Preventive oral administration of CH-ext to rats showed dose-dependent reduction of the passage time of whole blood flow of the DIC model rats in comparison with that of the vehicle control rats. These results imply that CH-ext may have effects which improve effects on blood fluidity.

  16. Comparation of Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit in High-Fat Emulsion-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Gu, Lifei; Chen, Huijuan; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Huilian; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a Chinese medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Recently, studies indicated free radical scavenging was one of the major pathways to alleviate hyperlipidemia. Moreover, hawthorn fruit is a rich source of phenols, which quench free radical and attenuate hyperlipidemia. However, the phenols vary with processing methods, especially solvent type. Our aim was to compare hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of hawthorn fruit in hyperlipidemia rats. After a 4-week treatment of high-fat emulsion, lipid profile levels and antioxidant levels of two extracts were determined using commercial analysis. Total phenols content in the extract of hawthorn fruit was determined colorimetrically by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn fruit possessed hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Simultaneously, stronger activities were observed in ethanol extract. Besides, total phenols content in ethanol extract from the same quality of hawthorn fruit was 3.9 times more than that in aqueous extract. The obvious difference of hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects between ethanol extract and aqueous extract of hawthorn fruit was probably due to the presence of total phenols content, under the influence of extraction solvent. Ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit exhibited more favorable hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects than aqueous extract. The higher effects could be due to the higher content of total phenols that varies with extraction solvent. Abbreviations used: TC: Total cholesterol, TG: Triglyceride, LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, CAT: Catalase, NO: Nitric oxide, NOS: Nitric oxide synthase, SR-BI: Scavenger receptor Class B Type I.

  17. Thin-layer chromatography-densitometric analysis of alpha-mangostin content in Garcinia mangostana fruit rind extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2008-01-01

    The fruit rinds of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) have long been used as traditional medicines for treatment of skin infections, wounds, and diarrhea. A simple thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of alpha-mangostin in the extracts from unripe and ripe fruit rinds of G. mangostana. It was found in the ranges of 10.48 +/- 0.83 and 16.65 +/- 0.38% (w/w) in the dried unripe and ripe fruit rinds, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The linearity was found over the range of 100-500 ng/spot with regression coefficient 0.999. Intraday and interday precision studies showed the relative standard deviation was <2%. Accuracy of the method was determined by a recovery study conducted at 3 different levels, and the average recovery was 99.49%. The LOD and LOQ were 40 and 100 ng, respectively. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate. This method can be used for routine quality control of raw material of G. mangostana fruit rind, extract, and its products. It also can be applied in quantifying this marker compound in other drugs.

  18. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Cucumis melo fruit peel extracts in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidkar, Jayant S; Ghanwat, Dhanaji Dadaso; Bhujbal, Madhuri D; Dama, Ganesh Y

    2012-09-24

    Abstract Cucumis melo Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits have been used, traditionally in Indian traditional system of medicine, for the treatment of various disorders such as liver tonic, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, antiobesity, etc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Cucumis melo fruit peel (CMFP) methanolic and aqueous extract in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Treatment with CMFP methanolic and aqueous extract showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in gain in body weight, serum lipid profile like total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, atherogenic index and increased the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in 28 days treatment when compared to the hyperlipidemic control group. The fecal excretion of bile acids and sterols was further increased upon treatment with CMFP methanolic and aqueous extract and standard drug. Administration of methanolic extract of CMFP at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed higher antihyperlipidemic activity as compared to other extract treated groups. The results concluded that CMFP methanolic extract (500 mg/kg) have potent antihyperlipidemic activity in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia model and which is equipotent activity when compared with atorvastatin treated group.

  19. Effect of different extracting solvents on antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of a fruit and vegetable residue flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica C. P. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify antioxidant capacity in food products, several methods have been proposed over the years. Among them, DPPH radical is widely used to determine the antioxidant capacity of different substrates. However, it is known that different types of extractants, providing different responses, can extract a variety of bioactive compounds. Besides, storage time seems to interfere in the stability of these substances. Integral use of fruits and vegetables has been proposed along the years as a means of reducing environmental pollution and give a better destination to by-products from food industries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of a fruit and vegetables residue flour (FVR with sequential and non-sequential extraction, in order to evaluate its antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds. And these compounds stability during storage of 180 days. It was observed that in non-sequential extraction, water was able to reduce by 74% the radical; however, at sequential extraction process, using six different extractors, each one was able to reduce at least 40% of DPPH. The total soluble phenolic contents in sequential extraction were 22.49 ± 1.59 mg GAE/g FVR on the first day and 5.35 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g FVR after 180 days.

  20. Anti-acne inducing bacteria activity and -mangostin content of Garcinia mangostana fruit rind extracts from different provenience

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    Werayut Pothitirat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit rind of Garcinia mangostana Linn. has been traditionally used for treatment of skin infection, wounds, dysentery, and diarrhea. -Mangostin, a major constituent of the fruit rind, was reported to possess a strong inhibitory effect against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is involved in acne development. This study was conducted to quantitative analyze the content of -mangostin in the fruit rind of this plant collected from 13 locations in the South and East of Thailand by validated TLC-densitometric method. Antibacterial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis of the extracts was also determined. -Mangostin contents in the fruit rinds and in the 95 % ethanolic extracts were found in the ranges of 3.39-5.68 and 11.83-23.11 % dry weight, respectively. The samples from the South showed higher contents of -mangostin (average 17.64 % w/w in the extract and 4.85 % w/w in the dried powder than the eastern samples. The MIC values of all extracts against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were in the range of 7.81-15.63 and 15.63-31.25 g/mL, respectively,while the MBC values were in the range of 15.63-31.25 and 62.50-125.00 g/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activityand mangostin content of the samples from different locations were significantly different (p<0.05. The average MIC and MBC values indicate that the samples from the South of Thailand (MIC = 13.02 g/mL, MBC = 15.63 g/mL for P. acne and MIC = 23.44 g/mL, MBC = 83.33 g/mL for S. epidermidis promoted stronger antibacterial effect than the samples from the East. The results suggest that the -mangostin content in the extract of G. mangostana fruit rind correlates with the antiacne inducing bacteria activity. The fruit rinds of G. mangostana cultivated in the South seemed to be the appropriate source in terms of higher -mangostin content and better anti-acne property.

  1. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

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    Koutsaftakis, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphenols content was noticed during their elaboration that reached to the half amount compared with that of classical type. During oven test the control sample of olive oil obtained from the separation phase of centrifugal system was oxidized easier than that of classic one. The variation of polyphenol content as well as of the main olive oil quality characteristics with the temperature and the mixing time was also studied for a period of time.En el presente estudio se ha investigado la distribución de la fracción fenólica de aceitunas a través de las fases de extracción del aceite de oliva mediante los sistemas clásico y por centrifugación. Se han utilizado dos variedades de aceitunas cuya procedencia es la isla de Creta. Por otra parte, se han estudiado los aceites obtenidos en las diferentes etapas con y sin sus polifenoles, conservadolos durante un mes a 64 ºC y evaluándoles durante este tiempo el índice de peróxidos. En los aceites de oliva extraídos mediante centrífuga se ha observado una gran reducción en el contenido de polifenoles, reducción que alcanzó el 50 % comparado con el sistema clásico. Durante las pruebas en horno los aceites obtenidos mediante el sistema de centrifugación se oxidaron mas fácilmente que los obtenidos mediante el sistema clásico. La variación en el contenido de polifenoles así como los principales parámetros de calidad han sido estudiados en función de la temperatura y del tiempo.

  2. Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Sridharan; Manickam, Shanti; RajaMohammed, Meher Ali

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni) fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxiety was assessed by 'Isolation-induced aggression' model, sedation by 'Spontaneous locomotor activity using actophotometer' and hypnotic activity by 'Prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time'. Six male mice were used for each of the groups and postdose, all the six that received diazepam had shown an inhibition of aggression, whereas in the test group, five of six mice and none in the control group had shown an inhibition of aggression (P = 0.0007). Similarly, for the sedative activity, the total number of spontaneous locomotor activity at 30 min following drug administration was found to be 364.67 ± 10.74, 123.16 ± 8.33, and 196.67 ± 3.7, while at 60 min it was found to be 209 ± 12.98, 49 ± 5.78, and 92 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD) for the control, standard, and test groups of mice respectively (P < 0.001). Hypnotic activity was measured by prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time wherein the onset and duration of loss of righting reflex were compared among each group of mice. The time in minutes for the onset in control, standard, and test groups was 4.01 ± 0.22, 1.23 ± 0.05, and 2.23 ± 0.07, respectively. The duration of loss of righting reflex was 44.23 ± 0.59, 56.03 ± 1.34, and 50.57 ± 0.36, respectively. Both these were statistically significant (P < 0.001). However, more clinical studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of the extract in humans.

  3. Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridharan Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxiety was assessed by ′Isolation-induced aggression′ model, sedation by ′Spontaneous locomotor activity using actophotometer′ and hypnotic activity by ′Prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time′. Six male mice were used for each of the groups and postdose, all the six that received diazepam had shown an inhibition of aggression, whereas in the test group, five of six mice and none in the control group had shown an inhibition of aggression (P = 0.0007. Similarly, for the sedative activity, the total number of spontaneous locomotor activity at 30 min following drug administration was found to be 364.67 + 10.74, 123.16 + 8.33, and 196.67 + 3.7, while at 60 min it was found to be 209 + 12.98, 49 + 5.78, and 92 + 2.5 (mean + SD for the control, standard, and test groups of mice respectively (P < 0.001. Hypnotic activity was measured by prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time wherein the onset and duration of loss of righting reflex were compared among each group of mice. The time in minutes for the onset in control, standard, and test groups was 4.01 + 0.22, 1.23 + 0.05, and 2.23 + 0.07, respectively. The duration of loss of righting reflex was 44.23 + 0.59, 56.03 + 1.34, and 50.57 + 0.36, respectively. Both these were statistically significant (P < 0.001. However, more clinical studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of the extract in humans.

  4. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

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    Naik Suresh R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a s.c., subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg in acetate buffer (pH 4.5. MCE and glibenclamide were administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg & 600 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg respectively for 30 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 30th days. On the 31st day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for various biochemical estimations including glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglcerides, protein and glycogen content of liver. The hemidiaphragms and livers were also isolated, carefully excised and placed immediately in ice cooled perfusion solution and processed to study the glucose uptake/transfer processes. Hypolipidemic activity in old obese rats was evaluated by treating two groups with MCE (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg orally for 30 days and determining total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-CH, LDL-CH and VLDL-CH levels from serum samples. Results Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also

  5. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nafisa PC; Lagishetty, Chakradhar V; Panda, Vandana S; Naik, Suresh R

    2007-01-01

    Background The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a s.c., subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg) in acetate buffer (pH 4.5). MCE and glibenclamide were administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg & 600 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg respectively for 30 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 30th days. On the 31st day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for various biochemical estimations including glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglcerides, protein and glycogen content of liver. The hemidiaphragms and livers were also isolated, carefully excised and placed immediately in ice cooled perfusion solution and processed to study the glucose uptake/transfer processes. Hypolipidemic activity in old obese rats was evaluated by treating two groups with MCE (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg) orally for 30 days and determining total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-CH, LDL-CH and VLDL-CH levels from serum samples. Results Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also observed. Conclusion Our

  6. Lemon Pepper Fruit Extract (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.) Suppresses the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Macrophages In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Yanti; Theodorus E. Pramudito; Nerissa Nuriasari; Katarina Juliana

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Lemon pepper fruits (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.; Rutaceae) have been used as a traditional source against stomach ache by Batak people in North Sumatera province, Indonesia. However, its scientific evidence for treatment of inflammatory disorders particularly gastritis has not been reported. Approach: Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of Lemon Pepper Fruit Extract (LPFE) against inflammatory biomarkers by conducting cell culture experiments in vitro. The fruit...

  7. An Extract of Pomegranate Fruit and Galangal Rhizome Increases the Numbers of Motile Sperm: A Prospective, Randomised, Controlled, Double-Blinded Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fedder, Maja D. K.; Jakobsen, Henrik B.; Ina Giversen; Christensen, Lars P.; Parner, Erik T; Jens Fedder

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of grea...

  8. Effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract (Bottle gourd) on hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Satyajeet K. Funde; Jugalkishore B. Jaju; Shrikant C. Dharmadhikari; Ganesh R. Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anti TB drug induced hepatotoxicity has higher incidence in Indian population [11.5%] than western population [4.5%]. Antitubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity is mediated through oxidative and free radical damage to hepatocytes. Lagenaria siceraria [Bottle Gourd] is reported to have antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity. Hence in the present study we tested hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of fruit extract of L. Siceraria in anti tubercular drug induced hepatotoxici...

  9. Evaluation of different pulverisation methods for RNA extraction in squash fruit: lyophilisation, cryogenic mill and mortar grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Belén; González-Verdejo, Clara I; Peña, Francisco; Nadal, Salvador; Gómez, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Quality and integrity of RNA are critical for transcription studies in plant molecular biology. In squash fruit and other high water content crops, the grinding of tissue with mortar and pestle in liquid nitrogen fails to produce a homogeneous and fine powered sample desirable to ensure a good penetration of the extraction reagent. To develop an improved pulverisation method to facilitate the homogenisation process of squash fruit tissue prior to RNA extraction without reducing quality and yield of the extracted RNA. Three methods of pulverisation, each followed by the same extraction protocol, were compared. The first approach consisted of the lyophilisation of the sample in order to remove the excess of water before grinding, the second one used a cryogenic mill and the control one a mortar grinding of frozen tissue. The quality of the isolated RNA was tested by carrying out a quantitative real time downstream amplification. In the three situations considered, mean values for A(260) /A(280) indicated minimal interference by proteins and RNA quality indicator (RQI) values were considered appropriate for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) amplification. Successful qRT-PCR amplifications were obtained with cDNA isolated with the three protocols. Both apparatus can improve and facilitate the grinding step in the RNA extraction process in zucchini, resulting in isolated RNA of high quality and integrity as revealed by qRT-PCR downstream application. This is apparently the first time that a cryogenic mill has been used to prepare fruit samples for RNA extraction, thereby improving the sampling strategy because the fine powder obtained represents a homogeneous mix of the organ tissue. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardized mangosteen fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Pierce, Dana R; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    The increased proliferation of cancer cells is directly dependent on the increased activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) machinery which is responsible for protein folding, assembly, and transport. In fact, it is so critical that perturbations in the endoplasmic reticulum can lead to apoptosis. This carefully regulated organelle represents a unique target of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In this study, a standardized mangosteen fruit extract (MFE) was evaluated for modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with MFE. Flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU and Western blot were used to evaluate cell apoptosis, viability, proliferation and ER stress. Next, we evaluated MFE for microsomal stability and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. MFE induced apoptosis, decreased viability and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MFE increased the expression of ER stress proteins. Interestingly, MFE selectively promotes ER stress in prostate cancer cells while sparing PrECs. MFE suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Mangosteen fruit extract selectively promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in cancer cells while sparing non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting mangosteen fruit extract significantly reduces xenograft tumor formation.

  11. Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardized mangosteen fruit extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo Li

    Full Text Available The increased proliferation of cancer cells is directly dependent on the increased activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER machinery which is responsible for protein folding, assembly, and transport. In fact, it is so critical that perturbations in the endoplasmic reticulum can lead to apoptosis. This carefully regulated organelle represents a unique target of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In this study, a standardized mangosteen fruit extract (MFE was evaluated for modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells (PrECs procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with MFE. Flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU and Western blot were used to evaluate cell apoptosis, viability, proliferation and ER stress. Next, we evaluated MFE for microsomal stability and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. MFE induced apoptosis, decreased viability and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MFE increased the expression of ER stress proteins. Interestingly, MFE selectively promotes ER stress in prostate cancer cells while sparing PrECs. MFE suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Mangosteen fruit extract selectively promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in cancer cells while sparing non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting mangosteen fruit extract significantly reduces xenograft tumor formation.

  12. Antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic and fractionated extracts of Punica granatum Linn. fruit peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverton Silva Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is clear the need to develop new antimicrobial seeking to solve problems such as antibiotic resistance, in this context medicinal plants has been using a prominent place, and knowledge of popular medicine shows itself to be a promising search tool. Peel of Punica granatum fruits are popularly used for the treatment of diarrhea, eye and upper airway inflammation, and in the external treatment of infectious sores. Thus, this study had the objective to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of the crude ethanol extract of peels of P. granatum, three organic fractions and also fractions obtained by column chromatography, on reference microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disk diffusion method. The obtained results evidenced that the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions facing S. aureus and E. coli showed significant antimicrobial activity, close to the antimicrobial gentamicin and penicillin, respectively. In its turn the crude ethanolic extract of P. granatum and aqueous fraction showed inhibitory effect similar to the antimicrobial tetracycline facing P. aeruginosa. It was observed an increase in the inhibition of the microorganisms with increasing extract volume (from 10 to 30 μL, being S. aureus and P. aeruginosa the most susceptible microorganisms. Differences in activity between the extracts and fractions can be partly explained by qualitative and quantitative variations in the secondary metabolites present in the extracts and fractions.Keywords: Pomegranade. Medicinal plants. Antimicrobial action. RESUMO Atualmente está clara a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos antimicrobianos buscando resolver problemas como a resistência a antibióticos, neste contexto, as plantas medicinais vem utilizando um lugar de destaque, e os conhecimentos da medicina popular mostram-se uma ferramenta de busca promissora. Cascas dos frutos de Punica granatum s

  13. Rosa canina L. Fruit Hydro-Alcoholic Extract Effects on Some Immunological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats

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    Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This research investigates the possible potential of Rosa canina (RC as an immunomodulator in rats and its effects on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this experiment, 45 male Wistar rats were obtained and divided into three groups (n = 15. These groups received normal saline (10 mg/kg, RC fruit extract (250 mg/kg and RC fruit extract (500 mg/kg as oral gavages every day for a period of four weeks, respectively. After obtaining blood samples (at the end of each week, differential white blood cell (WBC counts, phagocyte activity (number, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphates (ALP albumin and globulins levels of samples were obtained. The malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels in the serum were determined only in day 28 of study. The radical scavenger activity (RSA of the RC extract was measured spectrophotometrically. Results: the gamma globulin level, neutrophil and monocyte counts and phagocyte activity increased significantly in comparison with the normal saline group. ALT, AST and ALP had not significantly differences in compared to control group. RC extract significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and also decreased GSH levels in comparing to control group in day 28. Conclusion: the data suggest that the RC extract has been used in traditional medicine might have immunomodulatory effects.

  14. Investigating Potential Modes of Actions of Mimusops kummel Fruit Extract and Solvent Fractions for Their Antidiarrheal Activities in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Mulugeta; Gemeda, Negero; Abay, Solomon M

    2017-01-01

    Fruits of Mimusops kummel A. DC. (Sapotaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea. The present study aimed at investigating modes of actions of this fruits for antidiarrheal action to guide future drug development process. Fractions of chloroform, n-butanol, and water were obtained from 80% methanol extract, which was prepared by maceration. Antidiarrheal activities and the modes of actions were investigated in mice. In castor oil induced diarrheal model, the extract delayed onset of diarrhea and reduced number and weight of feces at all tested doses significantly. In this model all fractions significantly delayed onset of diarrhea at all tested doses. Charcoal meal test showed that the extract and all the fractions produced a significant antimotility effect at all tested doses. Enteropooling test showed that the extract as well as n-butanol and aqueous fractions at all tested doses produced a significant decline in volume and weight of intestinal contents, whereas chloroform fraction had substantial effect only at high dose. This study demonstrated that the extract and solvent fractions produced antidiarrheal activities due to dual inhibitory effect, intestinal motility, and fluid secretion, with the aqueous fraction being the most active among fractions in three models.

  15. Investigating Potential Modes of Actions of Mimusops kummel Fruit Extract and Solvent Fractions for Their Antidiarrheal Activities in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Molla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fruits of Mimusops kummel A. DC. (Sapotaceae are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea. The present study aimed at investigating modes of actions of this fruits for antidiarrheal action to guide future drug development process. Methods. Fractions of chloroform, n-butanol, and water were obtained from 80% methanol extract, which was prepared by maceration. Antidiarrheal activities and the modes of actions were investigated in mice. Results. In castor oil induced diarrheal model, the extract delayed onset of diarrhea and reduced number and weight of feces at all tested doses significantly. In this model all fractions significantly delayed onset of diarrhea at all tested doses. Charcoal meal test showed that the extract and all the fractions produced a significant antimotility effect at all tested doses. Enteropooling test showed that the extract as well as n-butanol and aqueous fractions at all tested doses produced a significant decline in volume and weight of intestinal contents, whereas chloroform fraction had substantial effect only at high dose. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the extract and solvent fractions produced antidiarrheal activities due to dual inhibitory effect, intestinal motility, and fluid secretion, with the aqueous fraction being the most active among fractions in three models.

  16. Assessment of the potential genotoxic risk of medicinal Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract using in vivo assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F M V; Leite, M F; Spadaro, A C C; Uyemura, S A; Maistro, E L

    2009-09-01

    Tamarindus indica has been used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic, a digestive aid, and a carminative, among other uses. Currently, there is no information in the toxicology literature concerning the safety of T. indica extract. We evaluated the clastogenic and/or genotoxic potential of fruit pulp extract of this plant in vivo in peripheral blood and liver cells of Wistar rats, using the comet assay, and in bone marrow cells of Swiss mice, using the micronucleus test. The extract was administered by gavage at doses of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Peripheral blood and liver cells from Wistar rats were collected 24 h after treatment, for the comet assay. The micronucleus test was carried out in bone marrow cells from Swiss mice collected 24 h after treatment. The extract made with T. indica was devoid of clastogenic and genotoxic activities in the cells of the rodents, when administered orally at these three acute doses.

  17. Carissa carandas Linn. fruit extract ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats via attenuation of oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayesh B. Dhodi; Deepavali R. Thanekar; Snehal N. Mestry; Archana R. Juvekar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mechanism of action of methanolic extract of Carissa carandas fruits (MCCF) in attenuation of diabetic nephropathy using gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity model.Methods:Extract was daily administered to Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 days along with intramuscular injection of gentamicin (80 mg/kg). After completion of the study, serum was analyzed for blood urea nitrogen, albumin and creatinine; urine (24 h) was analyzed for albumin and creatinine. Kidney was evaluated for its biochemical and morphological changes. Results: Extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly normalized the nephrotoxic biomarkers in serum and urine and increased the kidney antioxidant activities which were altered due to gentamicin toxicity. The histological findings reveal that MCCF was capable of protecting the kidney against gentamicin toxicity. Conclusions: Extract ameliorated oxidative stress generated by gentamicin administration, which is one of the mechanisms for its preventive action against diabetic nephropathy.

  18. Diospyros lotus L. fruit extract protects G6PD-deficient erythrocytes from hemolytic injury in vitro and in vivo: prevention of favism disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, M; Hosseinimehr, S J; Shokrzadeh, M; Habibi, E; Ahmadi, A

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Diospyros lotus L. fruit extract against the hemolytic damage induced by Vicia faba beans extract in both G6PD enzyme-deficient human and rat erythrocyte in vitro and in vivo. In the former model, venous blood samples were obtained from five subjects with known G6PD deficiency and erythrocyte hemolysis induced by Vicia faba L. bean extract was asessed spectrophotometrically in the presence and absence of Diospyros lotus L. fruits extract. In the in vivo model, G6PD-deficient rats (induced by intraperitoneal injection of dehydroepiandrosterone for 35 days) pre-treated with different doses of Diospyros lotus L. (500, 750, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg, p.o for 7 days) were challenged with Vicia faba beans extract and the protective effect of the fruit extract against hemolysis was evaluated as above. The results have shown that Diospyros lotus L. fruits extract