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Sample records for fruit flour passiflora

  1. Physico-chemical properties, rheology and degree of esterification of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) peel flour.

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    Coelho, Emanuela M; de Azevêdo, Luciana C; Viana, Arão C; Ramos, Ingrid G; Gomes, Raquel G; Lima, Marcos Dos S; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo A

    2018-01-01

    The peel of yellow passion fruit is as an agro-industrial waste of great environmental impact, representing more than 50% of the total weight of the fruit. For this reason, and also considering its importance as a source of functional components such as pectin, this organic waste is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical composition and physical properties of this material, which may be of interest to the food industry. We obtained two samples of passion fruit peel flour applying different processes: flour without treatment (FWOT) and flour with treatment by maceration (FWT). It was found that the flour samples contain, respectively, 372.4 g kg -1 and 246.7 kg -1 of soluble fiber and, according to the FTIR analysis, this material corresponds to high and low methoxyl pectins, respectively. The flour obtained by maceration (FWT) offers greater benefits for industrial use, with 60% fewer tannins and greater thermal stability. In addition, this sample does not reabsorb moisture as easily, although FWOT also shows potential for use in dietary products. Considering the pseudoplastic properties of the flours, the application of both samples could be expanded to many industrial sectors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effects of bark flour of Passiflora edulis on food intake, body weight and behavioral response of rats

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    Dandara A.F. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Effects of treatment with the bark flour of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days (130 mg/kg, p.o. with the albedo flour, flavedo and full bark of P. edulis, corresponding to albedo associated with flavedo. Behavioral response observed after treatment with bark flour P. edulis showed sedative effects by the reduction of exploratory activity and increased duration of immobility in the open field test for the group of animals that received the albedo flour associated with the flavedo. Sedative effects were observed in the absence of motor incoordination or muscle relaxation. Food intake of experimental animals was not changed, but the weight gain was decreased both in animals that received only albedo flour, and in those who received the full bark flour. The full bark flour of Passiflora showed sedative effects, without anxiolytic effect detectable and muscle relaxation or motor incoordination, and reduces body weight gain.

  3. GENETIC AND MORPHOAGRONOMIC DIVERSITY OF Passiflora spp. BASED ON QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF FLOWERS AND FRUITS

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    JAMILE DA SILVA OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to characterize Passiflora spp. accessions and its genetic diversity based on quantitative morphological descriptors of flowers and fruits. The study was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina-DF. Fifteen Passiflora spp. accessions were characterized using 14 quantitative morphological descriptors. Genetic distances among accessions were estimated based on Mahalanobis’ generalized distance. Cluster analysis via dendrogram and graphic dispersion was analyzed. The relative contribution of characters for accession divergence was also calculated. The morphoagronomic characterization based on quantitative descriptors of flowers and fruits contributed to the differentiation of Passiflora spp. accessions, serving as an important tool for variability quantification. This information is useful to perform Passiflora spp. characterization and genetic diversity studies.

  4. Studies on floral biology of passion fruit (passiflora spp.)

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    Kishore, K.; Pathak, K.A.; Shukla, R.; Bharali, R.

    2010-01-01

    Floral biology of purple, yellow, giant and Passiflora foetida was studied at the ICAR Research Complex, Mizoram Centre, Kolasib, Mizoram, India during 2005-07. Purple, giant and P. foetida had major bloom during March-April, July-August and September-October. While major bloom in yellow was mainly during May-June and September-October. Purple, giant and P. foetida had the maximum duration of bloom of 42.4, 22.5 and 32.6 days, respectively during March-April with the maximum duration of effective bloom of 12.5 8.6 and 10.4 days in purple, giant and P. foetida, respectively. Yellow had the maximum duration of bloom for 28.4 days and effective bloom of 10.5 days during May-June. Most of the flowers of purple (54.5%) and giant (58.5%) opened between 6-7 hrs, while the maximum per cent of anthesis in yellow (70%) took place between 12-13 hrs. Pollen dehiscence and pollination in purple and giant mainly occurred between 7-8 hrs, while 13-14 hrs was the major period of pollen dehiscence and pollination in yellow. The earliest anthesis (5-6 hrs), anther dehiscence (6-7 hrs) and pollination (6-7 hrs) were recorded in P. foetida. The maximum stigma receptivity was recorded on the day of anthesis in all the passion fruits. Completely curved style was more common in all passion fruits that gave the maximum fruit set. The maximum number of bees observed between 7-8 hrs in purple and giant and between 13-14 hrs in yellow. The most common pollinating bee in purple, giant and yellow was Apis mellifera, while A. cerena was in P. foetida. (author)

  5. Microsatellite marker development by partial sequencing of the sour passion fruit genome (Passiflora edulis Sims).

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    Araya, Susan; Martins, Alexandre M; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Costa, Ana Maria; Faleiro, Fábio G; Ferreira, Márcio E

    2017-07-21

    The Passiflora genus comprises hundreds of wild and cultivated species of passion fruit used for food, industrial, ornamental and medicinal purposes. Efforts to develop genomic tools for genetic analysis of P. edulis, the most important commercial Passiflora species, are still incipient. In spite of many recognized applications of microsatellite markers in genetics and breeding, their availability for passion fruit research remains restricted. Microsatellite markers in P. edulis are usually limited in number, show reduced polymorphism, and are mostly based on compound or imperfect repeats. Furthermore, they are confined to only a few Passiflora species. We describe the use of NGS technology to partially assemble the P. edulis genome in order to develop hundreds of new microsatellite markers. A total of 14.11 Gbp of Illumina paired-end sequence reads were analyzed to detect simple sequence repeat sites in the sour passion fruit genome. A sample of 1300 contigs containing perfect repeat microsatellite sequences was selected for PCR primer development. Panels of di- and tri-nucleotide repeat markers were then tested in P. edulis germplasm accessions for validation. DNA polymorphism was detected in 74% of the markers (PIC = 0.16 to 0.77; number of alleles/locus = 2 to 7). A core panel of highly polymorphic markers (PIC = 0.46 to 0.77) was used to cross-amplify PCR products in 79 species of Passiflora (including P. edulis), belonging to four subgenera (Astrophea, Decaloba, Distephana and Passiflora). Approximately 71% of the marker/species combinations resulted in positive amplicons in all species tested. DNA polymorphism was detected in germplasm accessions of six closely related Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. alata, P. maliformis, P. nitida, P. quadrangularis and P. setacea) and the data used for accession discrimination and species assignment. A database of P. edulis DNA sequences obtained by NGS technology was examined to identify microsatellite repeats in

  6. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma sudamericanum' a novel taxon from diseased passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.)

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    Symptoms of abnormal proliferation of shoots resulting in formation of witches’ broom growths were observed in diseased plants of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) in Brazil. RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified in polymerase chain reactions containing template DNAs...

  7. Initial development of passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis and P. alata grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata

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    Valdir Zucareli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the initial growth and leaf mineral levels in passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., P. edulis f. edulis Sims. and P. alata Dryander grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata. To obtain seedlings, seeds were sown in plastic bags (500 mL and hypocotyl grafting was performed when seedlings reached the stage of two fully expanded leaves. Fifteen days after grafting, plants were transplanted to 10L pots filled with previously limed and fertilized soil. Each pot contained two plants and corresponded to one plot. For each commercial species studied as rootstock, experimental design was completely randomized, in 3x5 (plant type x time of harvest factorial arrangement, with four replicates of two plants per plot and five destructive harvests. Plant types were ungrafted P. cincinnata, ungrafted commercial passion fruit tree and commercial passion fruit tree grafted onto P. cincinnata. The first harvest was performed at 15 days after transplanting and the remaining ones at 14-day intervals (60, 74, 88, 102 and 116 DAS. At each harvest, the number of leaves per plant was counted, and leaf area, stem length, and stem, root, leaf and total dry matter were estimated. At the last harvest, the mineral composition (macro and micronutrients of plants was analyzed. In general, it was observed that grafting onto P. cincinnata did not interfere negatively with the initial development and mineral levels of commercial passion fruit trees, and this interference varied according to the used canopy.

  8. Yellow passion fruit seed oil (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa: physical and chemical characteristics

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    Cassia Roberta Malacrida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition -physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol compositions and total phenolic compounds -and evaluate the radical-scavenging activity of crude oil extracted from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa seeds, aiming to use the agro-industrial by-products. The oil seed extraction was performed by Soxhlet method and the oil yield from the seeds was 30.39%. The oil showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids (87.59%, including mainly linoleic (73.14% and oleic (13.83% acids, tocopherol (499.30 mg/kg and phenolic compounds (1,314.13 mg GAE/kg. The physico-chemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oil showed significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, the potential utilization of the passion fruit seed oil as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries could be favorable.

  9. Molecular identification of a new begomovirus infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in Colombia.

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    Vaca-Vaca, Juan Carlos; Carrasco-Lozano, Emerson Clovis; López-López, Karina

    2017-02-01

    The complete genome sequence of a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in the state of Valle del Cauca (Colombia) has been determined. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B components were determined to be 2600 and 2572 nt in length, respectively. The DNA-A showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (87.2 %) to bean dwarf mosaic virus (M88179), a begomovirus found in common bean crops in Colombia, and only 77.4 % identity to passion fruit severe leaf distortion virus (FJ972767), a begomovirus identified infecting passion fruit in Brazil. Based on its sequence identity to all other begomoviruses known to date and in accordance with the ICTV species demarcation criterion for the genus Begomovirus (≥91 % sequence identity for the complete DNA-A), the name passion fruit leaf distortion virus is proposed for this new begomovirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bipartite begomovirus affecting passion fruit in Colombia and the second report of a geminivirus affecting this crop worldwide.

  10. The protective effects of piceatannol from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

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    Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Kurita, Ikuko; Sugiyama, Kenkichi; Sai, Masahiko; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturally occurring botanicals with substantial antioxidant activity to prevent photoageing is receiving increasing attention. We have previously identified piceatannol and scirpusin B, which is a dimer of piceatannol, as strong antioxidants that are present in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds. In the present study, the effects of passion fruit seed extract, piceatannol, and scirpusin B on human keratinocytes were investigated. The passion fruit seed extract and piceatannol upregulated the glutathione (GSH) levels in keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that piceatannol is an active component of the passion fruit seed extract in keratinocytes. The pretreatment with piceatannol also suppressed the UVB-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the keratinocytes. In addition, the transfer of the medium from the UVB-irradiated keratinocytes to non-irradiated fibroblasts enhanced matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 activity, and this MMP-1 induction was reduced when the keratinocytes were pretreated with piceatannol. These results suggest that piceatannol attenuates the UVB-induced activity of MMP-1 along with a reduction of ROS generation in keratinocytes. Thus, piceatannol and passion fruit seed extract containing high amounts of piceatannol are potential anti-photoageing cosmetic ingredients.

  11. GENETIC DIVERGENCE AMONG Passiflora cristalina Vanderpl & Zappi. GENOTYPES BASED ON FLOWER AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS

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    GREICIELE FARIAS DA SILVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the genetic divergence among Passiflora cristalina genotypes and quantify the relative contribution of 30 flower and fruit characteristics, seeking to support the preservation and characterization of genetic resources of the species for preservation and use in future breeding programs. We evaluated 150 fruit and 150 flowers collected in 15 genotypes with naturally occurring in the municipality of Alta Floresta, MT. The characterization of genotypes was performed through 30 morphological characteristics of flowers and fruits, 21 of these for flower and 9 for fruit. Data were evaluated using the principal components and cluster methods obtained by UPGMA method from the similarity matrix (Euclidian mean distance, using the Genes software. By principal component analysis, it has been found that the first three components have absorbed 52.11% of the accumulated variation. The characteristics that most contributed to the discrimination of genotypes were fresh fruit weight, stigma length, length of corona filaments, fruit width, petal width and pulp weight, which are more responsive for the selection of P.cristalina genotypes. Smaller contributions to diversity were obtained from anther width, bract width and fruit length. The smallest contributions for diversity were obtained from the following characteristics: anther width, bract width and fruit length. Through UPGMA clustering method, it was found that there is a large genetic divergence among genotypes analyzed because all genotypes were grouped with over 50% of dissimilarity. This study identified genotypes 4, 5 and 9 as the most divergent and therefore the most suitable for breeding in future breeding programs and genetic conservation of the species.

  12. Extraction of pectin from passion fruit rind (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener) for edible coating

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    Inayati, Puspita, Rifka Intan; Fajrin, Vika Latifiana

    2018-02-01

    One of fruit preservation method is by applying the edible coating. Rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener), which is kind of waste, can be utilized as edible coating through pectin extraction process. The purposes of this work were to determine the suitable solvent for the pectin extraction and techniques for applying the produced edible coating on strawberry, to produce edible coating from the pectin, and the test the performance of the edible coating which was applied to strawberries. Pectin from passion fruit rind was collected through conventional extraction method using two types of solvent, i.e. acetic acid solution and hydrochloric acid solution with concentration of 0.01 N, 0.015 N, 0.02 N, 0.025 N, and 0.03 N. The results showed that chloric acid solution was more suitable for the pectin extraction from passion fruit. Maximum yield of 30.78% was obtained at hydrochloric acid concentration of 0.02 N. Obtained pectin from the extraction was then processed into the edible coating by adding plasticizers and calcium chloride dihydrate. Storability of the coated strawberry was observed to measure the performance of the edible coating

  13. Begin at the beginning: A BAC-end view of the passion fruit (Passiflora) genome.

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    Santos, Anselmo Azevedo; Penha, Helen Alves; Bellec, Arnaud; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; Bergès, Hélène; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2014-09-26

    The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a tropical crop of economic importance both for juice production and consumption as fresh fruit. The juice is also used in concentrate blends that are consumed worldwide. However, very little is known about the genome of the species. Therefore, improving our understanding of passion fruit genomics is essential and to some degree a pre-requisite if its genetic resources are to be used more efficiently. In this study, we have constructed a large-insert BAC library and provided the first view on the structure and content of the passion fruit genome, using BAC-end sequence (BES) data as a major resource. The library consisted of 82,944 clones and its levels of organellar DNA were very low. The library represents six haploid genome equivalents, and the average insert size was 108 kb. To check its utility for gene isolation, successful macroarray screening experiments were carried out with probes complementary to eight Passiflora gene sequences available in public databases. BACs harbouring those genes were used in fluorescent in situ hybridizations and unique signals were detected for four BACs in three chromosomes (n=9). Then, we explored 10,000 BES and we identified reads likely to contain repetitive mobile elements (19.6% of all BES), simple sequence repeats and putative proteins, and to estimate the GC content (~42%) of the reads. Around 9.6% of all BES were found to have high levels of similarity to plant genes and ontological terms were assigned to more than half of the sequences analysed (940). The vast majority of the top-hits made by our sequences were to Populus trichocarpa (24.8% of the total occurrences), Theobroma cacao (21.6%), Ricinus communis (14.3%), Vitis vinifera (6.5%) and Prunus persica (3.8%). We generated the first large-insert library for a member of Passifloraceae. This BAC library provides a new resource for genetic and genomic studies, as well as it represents a valuable tool for future whole genome

  14. Heterologous primer transferability and access to microsatellite loci polymorphism in ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree (Passiflora setacea DC

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    Douglas de Almeida Pereira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Primer pairs that access microsatellite loci, initially constructed through the genome of Passiflora edulis Sims flavicarpa and P. alata, were tested concerning their ability to access microsatellite loci in ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree (P. setacea individuals. Seven out of the thirty one primer pairs tested were able to access DNA polymorphism in the genome of this wild Passiflora species, by evaluating six natural populations, located in a transition area between the biomes Caatinga and Cerrado, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The number of alleles/loci was small, oscillating from 1 to 4. The average heterozygosity observed per locus in all populations ranged from 0.13 to 0.40. There was transference of heterologous microsatellite primer pairs from the Passiflora genus to ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree, constituting a new set of primers that access random co-dominant locus in this species, useful for conservationist purposes and pre-improvement of ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree.

  15. Preharvest factors related to sensory profile of Passiflora setacea nectars, a wild passion fruit from Brazilian savannah.

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    de Carvalho, Mariana Veras Oliveira; de Lacerda de Oliveira, Lívia; Melo, Lauro; Costa, Ana Maria

    2018-05-08

    Passiflora setacea D.C is a passion fruit species native from Brazilian savannah characterized by naturally sweet sensory characteristics. Sensory quality of the pulp can be affected by growing environment. The effect of training systems (trellis or espalier), seasons (the weather conditions in periods of drought and rain) and addition of seeds to the juice (25%) were evaluated, with emphasis on the sensory quality of Passiflora setacea nectars. Training systems of P. setacea plantation did not influence flavor or aroma of nectars. Season had an effect on texture attributes. Although training system and season had impact on pH, TSS, TA, polyphenolics and condensed tannins content, these environment factors had no influence on acceptance. Seeds addition had a negative effect on overall liking. Frequency of consumption of passion fruit and functional food did not influence nectar preference whereas being neophilic or having higher level of knowledge about functional foods favored greater acceptance of P. setacea nectars. Passiflora setacea nectar is a potential functional beverage, due its bioactive contents. Training system and season had no influence on acceptance as isolated factors. However, there was an interaction between these factors, which could be considered to market projection, as well as the addition of seeds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis: isoorientin quantification by HPTLC and evaluation of antioxidant (radical scavenging capacity

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    Maria Luiza Zeraik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of isoorientin in passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Degener was determined by HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography with densitometric analysis. The results revealed a higher amount of isoorientin in healthy rinds of P. edulis (92.275 ± 0.610 mg L-1 than in rinds with typical symptoms of PWV (Passion fruit Woodiness Virus infection (28.931 ± 0.346 mg L-1. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of radical scavenging activity, suggest the potential of P. edulis rinds as a natural source of flavonoids or as a possible functional food.

  17. Embryo sac development in yellow passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Passifloraceae

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    Margarete Magalhães de Souza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, is one of the most important Brazilian fruit crops. It is an allogamous, diploid, and self-incompatible species. It has hermaphrodite, solitary flowers, located in the leaf axils and protected by leaf bracts. The flower has an androgynophore, which is a straight stalk supporting its reproductive parts. There are usually five anthers, located at the tip of each of the five filaments. The ovary is borne just above the filaments, at the top of the androgynophore; there are three styles that are united at their base, and at the top there are three stigmas. The objective of this research was to observe embryo sac development in yellow passion flowers. Ovaries at different stages of development were fixed in FAA (formalin, acetic acid and alcohol solution, hydrated, stained with Mayer’s hemalum, and dehydrated. Ovules were cleared by using methyl salicylate, mounted on slides, and observed through a confocal scanning laser microscope. The yellow passion fruit ovule is bitegmic, crassinucellate, and anatropous, and its gametophyte development is of the Polygonum type. After meiosis, functional megaspores under go three successive mitotic divisions, resulting in an eight-nucleate megagametophyte: the egg apparatus at the micropylar end, two polar nuclei at the cell center, and three antipodals at the chalazal end. The egg apparatus is formed by an egg cell and two synergids, each with a filiform apparatus. The mature embryo sac has an egg cell, two synergids, two polar nuclei, and three antipodes, as has been described for most angiosperms.

  18. Effects of altitudinal variation on pollination in purple passion fruit crops (passiflora edulis f. edulis)

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    Medina Gutierrez, Julian; Ospina Torres, Rodulfo; Nates Parra, Guiomar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study in two crops of purple passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. edulis harvested at different altitudes (2225 m.a.s.l. and 1657 m.a.s.l.) in the municipality of Buenavista - Boyaca, located in the eastern Mountain range of Colombia, in order to familiarize with visitors and pollinators. This study reveals that in both crops there were differences found in composition, the number of visitors and pollinators. In the crop at 2225 m.a.s.l., 7 species were registered, while 18 species were recorded at the 1657 m.a.s.l. crop. In order to achieve this, collected material by the visitors and the floral structures with which they approach, were observed; at the same time four experiments took place: passive pollination, natural pollination, manual pollination and pollinator's efficiency. These experiments established that pollinator species are: in C1 Apis mellifera, and in C2 and Xylocopa frontalis, Xylocopa lachnea and Epicharis sp.

  19. Utilization of Passion fruit hulls (Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis Deg as component of complete feed for growing Kacang goats

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    Kiston Simanihuruk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Processing of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis Deg to produce passion fruit juice produce passion fruit hulls that is potential for feedstuff. Twenty male kacang goats (average initial body weight 17±1.24 kg were used in an experiment to study the effect of utilization of passion fruit hulls as feed component in the complete pellet ration on their growth. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design consisting of 4 diets and 5 replications. Animal were randomly allocated into 4 diets (0, 15, 30, 45% level of passion fruit hulls. Each diet contained 14% crude protein and 2550 Kcal kg-1 metabolism energy. The ration was offered at 3.8% of body weight based on dry matter. The result of the experiment showed that all variables observed were not affected by level of passion fruit hulls (P>0.05. Average daily gain and feed efficiency tended to decrease with the increase level of passion fruit hulls. The highest dry matter, organic matter and N intake (768,78 g h-1 d-1; 687,37 g h-1 d-1 and 17,22 g h-1 d-1 respectively were found from R1 treatment (15% level of passion fruit hulls. It was concluded that passion fruit hulls can be used till 45% level in the diet of Kacang goat.

  20. Maracujá-doce: o autor, a obra e a data da publicação de Passiflora alata (Passifloraceae Sweet-passion-fruit: the autor, data and publication of the scientific name of Passiflora alata (Passifloraceae

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    Luís Carlos Bernacci

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul, especialmente do Brasil, cujo cultivo tem se expandido em função do preço alcançado pelos frutos. Vários trabalhos de pesquisa foram realizados com esta espécie, quase todos com imprecisões na citação do nome científico. Com o objetivo de avaliar a extensão desses equívocos e identificar a forma cientificamente correta de citar a espécie, foram investigados o autor e a data de publicação do nome científico do maracujá-doce, em estudos taxonômicos. Concluiu-se que a espécie deve ser citada como Passiflora alata Curtis, conforme publicado originalmente em 1788, no periódico Botanical Magazine.The author, data and publication of the scientific name of the sweet passion-fruit had been investigated. A series of mistakes occurred in relation to the correct citation of the species. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the problems and identify the scientific correct form of Passiflora alata nomenclature. The species must be cited as Passiflora alata Curtis and was published originally in 1788, in the Botanical Magazine.

  1. Evaluation of the antihypertensive properties of yellow passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.) in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Konta, Eliziane Mieko; Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Darin, Joana Darc Castania; de Rosso, Veridiana V; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Bianchi, Maria Lourdes Pires

    2014-01-01

    Various species of the genus Passiflora have been extensively used in traditional medicine as sedatives, anxiolytics, diuretics and analgesics. In the present study, after the identification and quantification of phytochemical compounds from yellow passion fruit pulp by liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), its antihypertensive effect was investigated on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Additionally, the renal function, evaluated by kidney/body weight, serum creatinine, proteinuria, urinary flow, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and mutagenicity in bone marrow cells were assessed to evaluate the safety of passion fruit consumption. Yellow passion fruit pulp (5, 6 or 8 g/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage once a day for 5 consecutive days. HLPC-PDA-MS/MS analysis revealed that yellow passion fruit pulp contains phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and flavonoids. The highest dose of passion fruit pulp significantly reduced the systolic blood pressure, increased the GSH levels and decreased TBARS. There were no changes in renal function parameters or the frequency of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of yellow passion fruit pulp, at least in part, might be due to the enhancement of the antioxidant status. The exact mechanisms responsible by this effect need further investigation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Macromorphological and micromorphological studies of four selected passiflora species in peninsular malaysia

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    Veeramohan, R.; Haron, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic studies of four selected Passiflora species; Passiflora edulis Sims (Passion fruit), Passiflora coccinea Aubl. (Scarlet passion flower), Passiflora foetida L. (Stinking passion flower) and Passiflora incarnata L. (Fragrant passion flower) were carried out to distinguish their morphological characteristics. Macromorphological characters on the leaves, flowers and fruits of all four Passiflora species were observed under a binocular microscope and they varied characteristically in terms of colour, texture and shape of flowers, leaves and fruits. Jeol JSM-7500F Scanning Electron Microscope was used to observe the micromorphological characters such as stomata, trichomes, and leaf surface indumentum of each Passiflora species. Micromorphologically, each species varied in types and sizes of stomata, epidermal. (author)

  3. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

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    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  4. ANTAGONISMO IN VITRO DE Trichoderma harzianum Rifai SOBRE Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp passiflorae EN MARACUYÁ (Passiflora edulis Sims var. Flavicarpa DEL MUNICIPIO ZONA BANANERA COLOMBIANA ANTAGONISM IN VITRO OF Trichoderma harzianum Rifai AGAINST Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp passiflorae IN PASSION FRUIT (Passiflora edulis Sims var. Flavicarpa FROM COLOMBIAN BANANERA ZONE MUNICIPALITY

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    Reinel José Fernández Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp passiflorae causa la marchitez del maracuyá (Passiflora edulis Sims var. Flavicarpa, afectando su rendimiento. En la búsqueda de alternativas para su control se realizó la presente investigación con el objetivo de determinar la capacidad antagónica de 6 aislamientos de Trichoderma harzianum sobre dicho patógeno. Se evaluaron 3 aislamientos comerciales (TCC-001, TCC-005 y TCC-006 y 3 aislamientos nativos de suelo cultivado con palma de aceite en el Centro de Investigación Caribia de Corpoica (TCN-009, TCN-010, TCN-014. Se hizo la prueba in vitro empleando la técnica de cultivo dual en platos Petri con Agar Sabouraud. Se evaluó competencia por nutrientes y espacio, micoparasitismo y porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento radial (PICR, por 10 días a 28 ºC. Se estableció un diseño completamente aleatorio, con 13 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones. Todos los aislamientos de T. harzianum superaron en crecimiento a F. oxysporum con radios de de 7,42 cm en cultivo dual. Mientras que el patógeno mostró un radio de 1,99 cm. TCN-009 y TCC-006 expresaron los mejores radios al crecer 4 veces mas rápido que F. oxysporum y reducir 3 veces menos el RCP con respecto al testigo, sin diferencias significativas entre estos tratamientos (P=0,0001; además, produjeron el mayor PICR a los 10 días con valores de 64,61 y 65,91%, respectivamente. No hubo diferencias significativas al comparar los aislamientos comerciales y nativos; sin embargo, por la naturaleza autóctona TCN-009, resulta ser a nivel in vitro, el aislamiento mas promisorio en el biocontrol de F. oxysporum por hallarse en condiciones agroclimáticas similares en la Zona Bananera Colombiana.Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp passiflorae cause withering of the passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims var. Flavicarpa, affecting their performance. In the search of alternatives for its control was carried out the present investigation with the objective of

  5. Sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata Curtis germination: Phases and effect of plant growth regulator

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    Sheila Zambello de Pinho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize Passiflora alata germination phases and evaluate the effects of GA3 and GA4+7, associated with phenylmethylaminepurine, on P. alata seed germination. Two experiments were conducted. In the first, two treatments were carried out: seeds submerged in distilled water in a Becker and seeds conditioned in containers on filter paper soaked in distilled water; five replications of 25 seeds were used. The moisture level and the percentage of germination (%G were evaluated. In the second, six treatments and five replications of 25 seeds for each regulator were used. The seeds were imbibed in 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250mg.L-1 of GA3 and GA4+7, associated with to phenylmethylaminepurine, for 11 hours. The seeds were sown in black containers and deposited in to the germination chamber. The numbers of germinated and dormant seeds were evaluated daily. The percentage of germination, the percentage of dormant seeds, and the mean germination time (TMG were estimated. Significant differences in the germination phases between the methods were verified. The germination was affected by the regulators with an increase in the percentage of germination and a reduction in the mean germination time. The highest values were observed with 250mg.L-1 of GA4+7 plus phenylmethylaminepurine.

  6. Response of the banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima to different levels of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium

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    Miguel Ánge Lizarazo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the effects of N, K, and Mg on dry mass (DM allocation, canopy growth and nutritional deficiency symptom expression of the banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima, three levels of fertilization were evaluated: none (0, low (1 and high (2 of each element, and compared to complete fertilization (control, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Banana passion fruit plants were transplanted to plastic pots, containing a substrate of quartz sand, with irrigation twice a week and fertigation once a week. The evaluated variables were total dry weight (TDW, percentage of dry mass allocation, leaf area (LA, number of leaves (NL, specific leaf area (SLA and leaf area ratio (LAR. In addition, a photographic record was taken to recognize the symptomatology in the leaves. The absence of N, K and Mg affected the accumulation of DM, whereas the high nutrient level allowed for the greatest gain in DM only with N, while with K and Mg, it was reduced, indicating that these doses may be too excessive. The distribution pattern of DM with the N treatments corresponded to the model proposed by Thornley, accumulating more DM in the root. With the K and Mg levels, the distribution pattern was similar with the absence of these nutrients causing higher DM accumulation in the above-ground plant parts. The leaf variables NL and LA were reduced with all three elements at the zero nutrient level, whereas the high indices of SLA and LAR revealed a low gain of DM. Deprivation of each nutrient showed characteristic symptoms on the leaves, mainly chlorosis with different patterns, necrosis and reduced LA

  7. Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yuh Shan; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Khoo, Hock Eng; Ang, Yee Kwang; Chang, Sui Kiat; Chang, Sui Kiat; Yim, Hip Seng

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v), extraction times (60-300 min), and extraction temperatures (25-60°C) that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC) of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

  8. Produção de etileno e atividade da enzima ACCoxidase em frutos de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. Ethylene production and ACCoxidase activity in passion fruits (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.

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    Larissa Macedo Winkler

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. é uma das principais espécies cultivadas do gênero Passiflora. Seus frutos são ricos em minerais, vitaminas e apresentam aroma e sabor agradáveis. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos determinar a produção de etileno e atividade enzimática da ACCoxidase (ACCO em maracujá-amarelo colhido em diferentes estádios de maturação. A determinação do estádio de maturação foi realizada com o auxílio de um colorímetro, que, por meio da radiação ultravioleta, estabeleceu valores absolutos da cor dos frutos de cada um dos grupos (I, II e III. A produção de etileno e a atividade da ACCoxidase foram realizadas por cromatografia gasosa. Os frutos do grupo I são predominantemente verdes, de acordo com os valores absolutos da cor obtidos. Os frutos do grupo II são predominantemente, coloridos, ou seja, em um estádio de maturação intermediário, e os frutos do grupo III, totalmente coloridos, apresentando-se, portanto, em início da senescência. Os frutos do grupo I apresentaram atividade da ACCO predominantemente mais elevada do que os frutos do grupo III, ocorrendo também o mesmo comportamento com a produção de etileno, com um valor médio de 7,25 nL. g-1. h-1, bem acima do nível máximo estabelecido para espécies classificadas como fracamente produtoras de etileno (0,5 nL. g-1. h-1. Assim, o maracujá-amarelo difere quanto à produção de etileno e atividade da enzima ACCO, de acordo com o estádio de maturação. A espécie foi considerada, em comparação com outras espécies, como produtora intermediária de etileno. A atividade enzimática da ACCO é mais elevada em frutos predominantemente verdes, mas ela é limitada e necessita de co-fatores enzimáticos para sua atividade máxima.Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. is one of the main cultivated species of Passiflora genus. Its fruits are rich in mineral salts and vitamins and to present

  9. Elaboration, Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis of a Sweet Bread Made with Buckwheat and Fruit Flours

    OpenAIRE

    C.S. Möller; V.R. De Oliveira; T.P. Amorim; R.U. Thoen; A. de O. Rios

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of new gluten free sweet bread, as well as their physicochemical features and acceptance. As more and more people become aware of coeliac disease, it is important to increase the options in terms of gluten free bakery products. The adaptation of bakery product-sweet bread-to gluten free versions can be justified for its role in preventing coeliac problems. Wheat flour was substituted by common buckwheat flour mixed with fruit flours and thei...

  10. Molecular Genetic Variability of Commercial and Wild Accessions of Passion Fruit (Passiflora spp.) Targeting ex Situ Conservation and Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Santos, Elisa S. L.; Jesus, Onildo N.; Vieira, João G. P.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Corrêa, Ronan X.; Souza, Anete P.

    2014-01-01

    Passiflora species are distributed throughout Latin America, and Brazil and Colombia serve as the centers of diversity for this genus. We performed cross-species amplification to evaluate 109 microsatellite loci in 14 Passiflora species and estimated the diversity and genetic structure of Passiflora cincinnata, Passiflora setaceae and Passiflora edulis. A total of 127 accessions, including 85 accessions of P. edulis, a commercial species, and 42 accessions of 13 wild species, were examined. The cross-species amplification was effective for obtaining microsatellite loci (average cross-amplification of 70%). The average number of alleles per locus (five) was relatively low, and the average diversity ranged from 0.52 in P. cincinnata to 0.32 in P. setacea. The Bayesian analyses indicated that the P. cincinnata and P. setacea accessions were distributed into two groups, and the P. edulis accessions were distributed into five groups. Private alleles were identified, and suggestions for core collections are presented. Further collections are necessary, and the information generated may be useful for breeding and conservation. PMID:25514245

  11. Enxertia de maracujazeiro-azedo em estacas herbáceas enraizadas de espécies de passifloras nativas Grafting of passion fruit on rooted-herbaceous cuttings of wild passiflora species

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    Renata da Costa Chaves

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As doenças provocadas por patógenos do solo em maracujazeiro constituem-se em um dos principais problemas para essa cultura no Brasil. Uma das alternativas de controle dessas doenças seria a utilização de porta-enxertos resistentes. Várias espécies de passifloras nativas vêm apresentando resistência a essas doenças, mas a utilização destas como porta-enxertos oriundos de sementes tem sido dificultada pelas diferenças de diâmetro entre o porta-enxerto e o enxerto da espécie comercial, o que não aconteceria caso fossem utilizadas as estacas herbáceas como porta-enxerto. No presente experimento, utilizaram-se estacas herbáceas retiradas da parte mediana de ramos de plantas de Passiflora setacea (acesso EC-PS 1, P. nitida (acesso EC-PN 1, P. caerulea (acesso EC-PC 1, P. actinia (acesso EC-PA 1 e de um híbrido F1 entre P. setacea x P. edulis f. flavicarpa comercial e tratadas com ácido naftaleno acético (ANA a 500 mg/L e mantidas em câmaras de nebulização. As enxertias do tipo "garfagem lateral no topo" foram efetuadas aos 40; 55 e 70 dias após a coleta e plantio das estacas, utilizando garfos de uma única planta de maracujazeiro-azedo. As avaliações foram efetuadas aos 145 e 150 dias após o plantio das estacas, determinando-se a porcentagem de pegamento da enxertia e de enxertos brotados e o comprimento do broto do enxerto. A produção de mudas por enxertia em estacas herbáceas enraizadas de Passiflora nitida e do híbrido F1 (P. setacea x P. edulis f. flavicarpa foi tecnicamente viável.The soil born diseases cause expressive losses in passion fruit crops in Brazil. The use of resistant rootstocks is an alternative to control these diseases. Several wild species of Passifloraceae have presented resistance to soil born pathogens, but their utilization as rootstock from seeds has been limited mainly by differences of thickness between the rootstock and the graft of the commercial cultivars. These limitations could be

  12. Caracterização fenotípica de três seleções de maracujazeiro-roxo (Passiflora edulis Sims Phenotypic characterization in three selections of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims

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    Laura Maria Molina Meletti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pelo cultivo do maracujazeiro-roxo vem crescendo no centro-sul do País, visando à exportação. Observa-se um número significativo de formas selvagens, nativas, compatíveis entre si, propagadas por sementes de polinização aberta, ampliando a variabilidade natural da fruteira. Com o objetivo de identificar cruzamentos com características comerciais desejáveis e disponibilizar sementes de matrizes selecionadas aos produtores, foram realizados estudos de caracterização agronômica, morfológica e citogenética, envolvendo seleções do Banco de Germoplasma de Passifloras do IAC, denominadas 'Roxinho-Miúdo', 'Paulista' e 'Maracujá-Maçã'. Durante duas safras consecutivas, foram analisados cerca de 350 flores e 150 frutos de cada seleção. A maior amplitude de variação ocorreu na massa e no tamanho dos frutos (de 21 a 193 g por fruto, seguidos pelo teor de sólidos solúveis (de 15,2 a 21,4º Brix, produção por planta (11,5 a 30,8 kg e número de sementes por fruto (de 39 a 261 sementes. A viabilidade polínica variou de 77 a 94,5%, enquanto o teste de germinação do pólen em ágar apresentou índices de 65,5 a 86%, contribuindo para o diferencial em produtividade observado. Todas as seleções apresentaram características comerciais desejáveis. 'Roxinho-Miúdo' possui fruto redondo, pequeno, com 4 cm de diâmetro, doce e de coloração roxo-intensa, adequando-se à preferência internacional. A seleção 'Paulista' apresentou frutos ovais, destacando-se pela dupla finalidade, podendo atender também à agroindústria. O 'Maracujá-Maçã' distinguiu-se pelo maior tamanho, formato arredondado e casca rosada, apto para um segmento diferenciado de mercado, que comercializa frutas por unidade e privilegia a qualidade.The interest in purple passion-fruit production is becoming higher in southeast of Brazil, aiming exportation. There are some wild, different native types with high variability due open pollination that

  13. Acceptability of Canistel (Lacuma Nervosa A.DC Fruit Flour in Making Cookies

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    Delia A. Paragados

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This experimental research determined the acceptability in terms of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and general acceptability of canistel (Lacuma nervosa A. DC fruit flour in different proportions in making cookies. This study was conducted in December 2011 at West Visayas State University – Calinog Campus, Calinog, Iloilo. Five treatments were used in the study – four of them utilized canistel fruit flour at various proportions and one treatment was used as the control group which utilized all purpose flour. The respondents of the study were the 15 faculty and staff, 15 Food Technology and BSHRM students of WVSU - Calinog Campus, and 15 housewives at Brgy. Simsiman, Calinog, Iloilo who were selected through purposive sampling. The respondents evaluated the finished products using a modified sensory evaluation score sheet based on Five Point Hedonic Scale. There were five treatments replicated three times. The statistical tools used were the means, standard deviation, One – Way Analysis of Variance, and the LSD. The .01 alpha level was used as the criterion for acceptance or rejection of the null hypotheses. The study revealed that cookies prepared using all treatments were “liked very much” in terms of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and general acceptability. While cookies with 100% all - purpose flour were liked moderately by the evaluators. These results led to the conclusion that there is a significant difference that existed in the level of acceptability of canistel fruit flour in making cookies in terms of aroma, texture, flavor and general acceptability, therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. However, no significant difference in the level of acceptability of canistel fruit flour in making cookies in terms of appearance, therefore the null hypothesis is accepted.

  14. Pre and Postharvest Enzymatic Activity in Gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims Fruits from the Colombian Lower Montane Rain Forest / Actividad Enzimática Precosecha y Poscosecha en Frutos de Gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims, en Condiciones del Bosque Húmedo Mo

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    Germán Franco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available “High-Andean fruits” are deemed important because oftheir potential for domestic consumption and exportation. Among them, gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims is an exotic fruit of good acceptance in European markets. However, the technological support associated with the crop is incipient and its short shelf life leads to rapid deterioration of the product. This fact makes it necessary to investigate the physical, physiological and biochemical processes that characterize fruit ripening, in order to take actions to ensure that it arrives in its best possible condition to the consumer. In this context, the current study aimed at identifying enzymatic activity in gulupa fruits during pre and postharvest. Plant materialfrom the Colombian Gene Bank (administered by Corpoica was used. Fruits of known age were periodically harvested to determine the activity of the enzymes α-amylase, polygalacturonase (PG, pectinmethylesterase (PME and polyphenol oxidase (PPO through destructive samplings. It was found that α-amylase and PG are linked to the increase of soluble solids, which favors the sweet taste of the fruit. In turn, the low activity of PPO enables agroindustrial processing without severe fruit browning. / Los “frutales alto-andinos”, se consideran importantes por su potencial de consumo nacional y exportación. Entre ellos está la gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims, reconocida como un frutal exótico de buena aceptación en mercados europeos. Sin embargo, el respaldo tecnológico asociado al cultivo, es incipiente y su corta vida poscosecha conduce al rápido deterioro del producto. Esto hace necesario plantear estudios de los procesos físicos, fisiológicos y bioquímicos que caracterizan la maduración, con el fin de procurar que el fruto llegue en las mejores condiciones de calidad a los consumidores. El estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer la actividad enzimática en los frutos de gulupa en precosecha y en poscosecha, con el

  15. Development and chemical characterization of flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "pequizeiro" fruit

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    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a recommendation for the chemical peeling of pequi fruit and characterize the flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "Pequizeiro", pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.. The technology applied to obtain the external mesocarp pequi flour included the epicarp removal with NaOH solution. The Response Surface Method was used to optimize the chemical peeling process by applying the Central Composite Rotatable Design, with eleven trials including three replicates at the central point, varying the NaOH aqueous solution concentration and fruit immersion time. The mass loss was evaluated through the analysis of variance and using bi and three dimensional graphs. The chemical characteristics of the external mesocarp pequi flour evaluated were: moisture content, ashes, proteins, lipids, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and some minerals. The best combination for an efficient removal of the fruit peel with the lowest mass loss was reached with 7.05 minutes of immersion in a 5.08 g.L-1 NaOH aqueous solution. This study indicated that the external mesocarp pequi flour is a food source rich in dietary fiber, carbohydrates, ashes, magnesium, calcium, manganese, and copper, but it is poor in lipids, zinc, and iron.

  16. Anatomical, growth and development studies in Badea fruits (Passiflora cuadrangularis Estudio anatómico y de los procesos de crecimiento y desarrollo del fruto de la badea (Passiflora quadrangularis

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    Montenegro de Carrillo Nohora

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available This work had been done as a contribution to the study the processes of growth and development of Badea fruit
    (Passiflora quadrangularis L.. Fruit samples of different sizes were taken and treated by histological techniques and analyzed under microscope. Eight stage of development of
    diameter fruits were evaluated: 6; 10; 18; 22; 30; 40; 60 y 80 mm. Continues divisions in the external epidermis cells and parenchima on the three first stages were observed.
    Aditionally, the fruit originated from a triangular ovary, progresively pets a circular from. From the fourth stage, fruit ripenning initiates and the placenta starts to fill the locules and sarround the seed. At the eight stage the aril, which is originated from thickening of funiculus apical zone is observed. all the proeesses, which take place during
    the fruíts growth produce their final form and establish the organoleptic caracteristics.
    El presente trabajo se realizó para contribuir al estudio de los procesos de crecimiento y desarrollo del fruto de la Badea
    (Passif/ora quadrangularis L.. Para su realización se tomaron muestras de frutos de diferentes tamaños, los cuales fueron tratados mediante técnicas histológicas y analizados al microscopio. Se evaluaron ocho estadios de crecimiento correspondientes a frutos de los diámetros: 6; 10; 18; 22; 30; 40; 60 y 80 mm. En los tres primeros estadios de desarrollo del fruto, se observaron continuas divisiones
    en las células de la epidermis externa y del parénquima. Adicionalmente, el fruto que se ha originado de un ovario triangular, va tomando forma circular. A partir del cuarto
    estadio, se inicia la maduración del fruto y la placenta ernpiezaa llenar los lóculos y a rodear las semillas. En el estadio ocho, se observa el arilo cuyo origen proviene de un engrosamiento de la zona apical del funículo. Todos los procesos, que ocurren a lo largo del crecimiento del fruto, originan su forma final y

  17. [Use of flour of pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) in bread making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, M

    1987-03-01

    Trial were conducted in Costa Rica in 1984 and 1985, to determine the possibility of substituting pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) meal for wheat flour in bread. Utilization in three distinct mixtures was examined: 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 percentage of wheat flour to percentage of pejibaye meal, respectively. The breads were made, and dough analyses were conducted at "Molinos de Costa Rica, S.A.", the country's principal flour mill. Chemical analyses were carried out at the University of Costa Rica. Results indicate a marked inverse relationship between both initial dough development time and dough strength maintenance, and the content of pejibaye meal present in the flour mixture. Consequent problems with sufficient dough expansion preclude utilization of this fruit meal for bread-making in proportions significantly greater than 10% of the total composite flour. The above-mentioned findings reflect the high nutritional value of the pejibaye fruit. Although the protein content is inversely correlated with the amount of pejibaye meal in the mixture, vitamin A and fat contents are positively correlated. This fact demonstrates that the utilization of pejibaye meal in bread-making may well be in some ways considered as a form of nutritional enrichment. As a final conclusion drawn from the results of analyses of the trials and sensory observations, the 90% wheat flour with 10% pejibaye meal mixture apparently was the optimum substitution level of the breads examined. The potential macroeconomic ramifications on the Costa Rican economy of producing and utilizing pejibaye meal in bread-making, are highly favorable.

  18. Variación morfológica de tres especies de curubas (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima, P. tarminiana y P. mixta y sus híbridos en el Valle del Cauca (Colombia Morphological variation of three banana passion fruit species (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima, P. tarminiana and P. mixta and their hybrids in the Cauca Valley (Colombia

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    Sophie Primot

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variación morfológica entre ocho accesiones de las tres principales especies de curubas cultivadas y silvestres del Valle del Cauca, Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (curuba de Castilla, Passiflora tarminiana (curuba india y Passiflora mixta (curuba de monte y 11 de sus híbridos, usando el análisis de componentes principales y el método de clasificación del vecino más próximo en 105 caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos. Siete componentes principales explican 84% de la varianza total. Las clasificaciones sobre los caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos muestran una clara agrupación por especie. Dentro de P. mixta, se distinguen un tipo poco pubescente, representativo de las plantas silvestres más comunes, y un tipo muy pubescente, con caracteres de domesticación como frutos amarillentos de pulpa colorida, y con una mayor variación morfológica. La clasificación de estos últimos individuos sugiere una introgresión entre P. mixta y Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima. Los híbridos ocupan una posición intermedia entre las especies parentales, pero se diferencian claramente según la dirección del cruzamiento, revelando un efecto maternal sobre la herencia de los caracteres vegetativos y florales. Los primeros análisis del fruto muestran características intermedias en cuanto a forma, color y tolerancia a la antracnosis.Morphological variation was studied in eight accessions from the three most common cultivated and wild species of banana passion fruit in the Cauca Valley, Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (curuba de Castilla, P. tarminiana (curuba india and P. mixta (curuba de monte, and 11 of their hybrids, using the principal component analysis and neighbor joining cluster analysis on 105 qualitative and quantitative traits. The seven principal components explain 84% of the total variance. The principal component and cluster analyses clearly show the groups accessions by species. Two subgroups are

  19. Study of the stability of passion fruit powder (Passiflora edullis f. flavicarpa from organic farmingEstabilidade maracujá (Passiflora edullis f. flavicarpa em pó oriundo do cultivo orgânico

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    Juliana Nascimento da Costa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is a fruit originating in the American tropics, is cultivated in countries with tropical and subtropical climates and belongs to the Passifloraceae family and Passiflora gender. One of the methods of cultivation of passion fruit is the organic system, a practice increasingly common in order to combine quality of food products with environmental preservation. Considering the current trends for nutritious foods and fast preparation, the use of dehydrated passion fruit offers an interesting alternative to reduce losses, add value to the product and provide other ways to consume fruit. Based on this information, the objective was to evaluate the stability and the quality of the organic passion fruit powder, obtained by spray drying, during 360 days of storage under room temperature (25 ± 2°C. The passion fruit powder was evaluated every 30 days during the 360 days of storage, for the chemical, physic-chemical and microbiological parameters. The organic passion fruit powder remained stable during the 360 days of storage at room temperature, offering great potential for use due to present adequate retention of ascorbic acid (15.86 mg/100 g, desired hygroscopicity (22.48 g of absorbed water/100 g, low water activity (0.46, stable acid pH (4.1, high levels of ash (4.7%, total sugar (36.93%, total extractable polyphenols (196.18 mg GAE/100 g and satisfactory microbiological results with absence of coliforms at 35°C and 45°C, Salmonella sp/25 g, mesophilic and Staphylococcus coagulase positive values were less than 10 CFU/g. O maracujá é um fruto originário da América Tropical, sendo cultivado em países de climas tropical e subtropical, pertencente à família Passifloraceae, gênero Passiflora. Dentre os métodos de cultivo do maracujá, tem-se a produção pelo sistema orgânico, uma prática cada vez mais comum, visando aliar qualidade de produtos alimentícios com a preservação ambiental. Considerando as tendências atuais por

  20. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  1. Compostos voláteis dos frutos de maracujá (Passiflora edulis forma Flavicarpa e de cajá (Spondias mombin L. obtidos pela técnica de headspace dinâmico Volatile compounds in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis forma Flavicarpa and yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L. fruits obtained by dynamic headspace technique

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    Nerendra Narain

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre as inúmeras frutas tropicais e subtropicais produzidas no Brasil, duas que se destacam do ponto de vista do aroma da polpa são maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis forma Flavicarpa e cajá (Spondias mombin L.. Os voláteis da polpa destas frutas foram capturados pela técnica de headspace dinâmico e analisados no sistema de cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução e espectrometria de massa. Foram identificados 48 e 33 compostos voláteis na polpa de maracujá e cajá, respectivamente. Os compostos voláteis predominantes na polpa de maracujá pertenceram às classes de ésteres (59,24%, aldeídos (15,27%, cetonas (11,70% e álcoois (6,56%, enquanto na polpa de cajá as principais classes de compostos foram de ésteres (48,76%, álcoois (21,69%, aldeídos (11,61% e cetonas (4,19%. Outros compostos aromáticos característicos foram para maracujá: beta-ionona e linalol e para cajá: gama-octalactona e ácidos butírico e hexanóico.Among the numerous tropical and sub-tropical fruits produced in Brazil, two that attain relatively greater importance from the point of view of aroma of their pulp are yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis forma Flavicarpa and yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.. The volatile components in the pulp of these fruits were captured by dynamic headspace technique and were analyzed in a system of high-resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Forty-eight and thirty-one volatile compounds were identified in passion fruit and yellow mombin fruit pulp, respectively. The predominant volatile compounds in passion fruit pulp belonged to the classes of esters (59.24%, aldehydes (15.27%, ketones (11.70% and alcohols (6.56% while in the yellow mombin pulp, the principal classes of compounds were esters (48.76%, alcohols (21.69%. aldehydes (11.61% and ketones (4.19%. The other characteristic aroma compounds for passion fruit were beta-ionone and linalool and for yellow mombin were gamma-octalactone, butanoic and

  2. Physicochemical characterization of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Arecaceae fruit skin residue flour obtained by convective drying

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    Jader Martínez-Girón

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of flour from residues of peach -palm fruit skin has been a forgotten topic from the view point of its physicochemical properties, because studies reported in the literature have focused on mesocarp flour characterization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the peach palm fruit epicarp flour obtained by convective drying at 60±2 °C through a specific production and storage process. As a result, the flour was found to be a source of bioactive compounds, showing total phenol concentration (23.40±1.30 mg gallic acid/100 g, antioxidant activity (33.10%±3.20, total carotenoids (59.31±1.61 mg β-carotene/100 g, color a* (4.95±0.58, color b* (3.25±0.57, and luminosity (33.95±3.16. On the other hand, there was a high level of total carotenoids (85% and phenolic compounds (94% retention after six months. Additionally, color change showed no significant difference during storage. In conclusion, the flour obtained is a byproduct with properties that can be used as an alternative to agroalimentary substitutes, mainly due to its color and antioxidant activity attributes. It is noteworthy to mention that this is one of the first studies to physicochemically characterize peach palm fruit skin flour from Valle del Cauca (Colombia.

  3. Comparação da eficiência de métodos de inoculação na avaliação da patogenicidade de isolados de colletotrichum gloeosporioides em frutos de maracujá (Passiflora Edulis Comparison of inoculation methods efficiency for evaluation of colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates pathogenicity on passion fruits (Passiflora Edulis

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    José de Ribamar de Sousa Rocha

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight inoculation methods were studied to evaluate the pathogenicity among six isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agent of anthracnose on passion fruits (Passiflora edulis. The isolates were selected by micelial growth and sporulation. The inoculations were made through suspension (1x10(6 conidia/ml and micelial-agar discs (4mm in diameter. After 6 days of inoculation, the diameter of necrotic area was measure on the fruit epiderm. The most efficient inoculation method was the micelial-agar disc on the fruit wounded epiderm. All isolates caused necrosis by this method, but it showed low efficiency using intact epiderm, where only one isolate was active. One isolate from stem showed greater pathogenicity than the others, and the necrosis in the area was ten times larger than the less pathogenic isolates. The results showed that more than two inoculation methods must be used for the isolate evaluation.

  4. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci developed for Passiflora edulis Sims. in related Passiflora Species

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    Gilmara Alvarenga Fachardo Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected 41 SSR markers developed for yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims. for their transferability to 11 different Passiflora species. Twenty-one SSR were successfully amplified in 10 wild species of passion fruit producing 101 bands. All the markers were amplifiable for at least one species. The mean transferability was 68,8%, ranging from 15,4% (primer PE11 to 100 % (PE13, PE18, PE37, PE41 and PE88. Transferability was higher for the species from the Passiflora subgenus than for those from the Decaloba and Dysosmia subgenus. The results indicated a high level of nucleotide sequence conservation of the primer regions in the species evaluated, and consequently, they could potentially be used for the establishment of molecular strategies for use in passion fruit breeding and genetics.

  5. Characterization of the seed oils from kiwi (Actinidia chinensis, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and guava (Psidium guajava

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    Piombo Georges

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Oils extracted from three exotic fruits, guava, kiwi and passion fruit were analyzed to evaluate the possible commercial interest for these waste materials from fruit juices industry. Results showed interesting fatty acids compositions with high amounts of essential fatty acids such as 62.3% alpha linolenic acid for kiwi seed oil, and respectively 73.4% and 77.0% for omega 6 linoleic acid in passion fruit and guava seed oils. Fatty acids regiodistribution, sterols and tocopherols contents were also analyzed to try to establish the potential nutritional interest of such oils.

  6. Effect of adding flours from marolo fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart and jerivá fruit (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm on the physicals and sensory characteristics of food bars

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    Edson Pablo da SILVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. and jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm fruits grow in the Cerrado biome, and have important sensory and nutritional characteristics. These fruits are eaten fresh or processed and embedded in ice cream, candy, juices, and liquors. However, their use is very limited and is localized exclusively to their native region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these fruits in food consumer products to improve the nutritional patterns of consumers and extend knowledge thereof. To do this, different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of flour derived from the marolo and jerivá fruits were incorporated into food bars, which were then characterized in terms of their physical of the texture (TPA, porosity, color and sensorial properties. The food bars enriched with marolo and jerivá flours had an intense yellow color and increased hardness relative to the control bars; the porosity of the bars progressively decreased as the amount of flour added increased. The sensorial analysis in the snack bars developed added with the fruits flour no was influence by incorporation this component, showed good averages for the scores evaluated.

  7. Markisa fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) as a fixation material of natural colour of mangrove waste on batik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzah, S. N.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The process of natural colouring of batik using mangrove waste with the markisa fruit as a fixation material has been reported. In this experiment, the fixation material of markisa fruit has been compared with the commonly used fixation materials, such as CaCO3, AlK(SO4)2, and FeSO4 as material controls. Both grey scale and staining scale have been used as standard evaluations. Based on the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) it can be shown that batik with markisa fruit as a fixation material has a colour fastness value against average washing at good-excellent level (4-5) and colour fastness value to sunshine is moderate-excellent level (3-5). Thus, we conclude that Markisa fruit can be used as a fixation material in the colouring process of natural colour batik from mangrove waste.

  8. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks.

  9. Effect of storage temperature on physico-chemical and sensory attributes of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Kundan; Pathak, K A; Shukla, Rohit; Bharali, Rinku

    2011-08-01

    Physico-chemical and sensory quality of juice from purple passion fruit under different storage temperature and time were assessed. The maximum loss in fruit weight was recorded under room temperature (25 ± 1°C) followed by at 11 ± 1°C. There was an increase in juice percentage up to 9 and 13 days under room temperature and storage at 11 ± 1°C respectively. The optimum flavour in juice was up to 5 days at 25 ± 1°C and up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. A significant reduction in sourness was recorded on 5th day under all treatments and the scores for sourness became almost constant after 17 days. The maximum increase in the mean scores of sweetness on 5th day was observed at 25 ± 1°C followed by at 11 ± 1°C. The optimum level of juice sweetness was maintained up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. Total soluble solids content increased in initial stage followed by reduction. There was a reduction in the titrable acidity up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. A decreasing trend in the reducing and non-reducing sugar of passion fruit was observed under all the treatments. Fruits stored at 25 ± 1°C, developed off-flavour in juice after 5 days, while storage at 8 ± 1°C produced no off-flavor even up to 21 days. Fruits can be stored for 5 days only at 25 ± 1°C as the overall sensory quality of juice reduced significantly afterwards, while juice maintained the optimum overall quality up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C.

  10. Stability of functional compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and pasteurized orange passion fruit (Passiflora caerulea) during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; Facco, Elizete Maria Pesamosca; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to evaluate differences in the stability of physicochemical and color parameters, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids and antioxidant capacity in fresh and pasteurized juice of orange passion fruit, respectively cold stored (8 °C) during 0-4 or during 0-15 days. The results showed that in the physicochemical analysis, no significant differences were observed comparing pasteurized and fresh juice during storage. The pasteurized juice showed higher concentrations of color parameters, phenolic compounds (15% more of retention for days 0 and 4), epigallocatechin gallate (40% in day 0 and 27% in day 4), lycopene (142% for day 0 and 39% for day 4), total carotenoids (114% in day 0 and 8% in day 4) and antioxidant capacity (12% in day 0 and 7% in day 4).; already fresh juice retained more values of quercetin (79% in day 0 and 245% in day 4), α-carotene (57% in day 4), β-carotene and provitamin A (80% of retention in day 4). Therefore, the pasteurization processing was positive in orange passion fruit juice and improved the accessibility of most bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soil carabids and ants in two farming areas of yellow passion fruit (passiflora edulis) at Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Anderson; Armbrecht, Inge; Chacon, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The fauna of beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and ants that survive in the soil of a passion fruit crop under conventional management in Roldanillo-Valle del Cauca was examined, in March and May (rainy season) and in June and July (dry season), 2012. We carried out four samplings of monthly intensity in two plots with plants of different ages, and registered the species found. We found 149 individuals of Carabidae, distributed into ten species and 2447 ants, distributed in 19 morphospecies. The most abundant species of ants was Solenopsis geminata, while Megacephala (Tetracha) sobrina was the most abundant species of Carabidae. It was also found that the abundance and richness of carabid beetles tend to be higher in the rainy season, while some ant species showed a preference for specific seasonal periods. We conclude that a rich fauna of ground carabids and ants survives in the study area, which could contribute in the control of phytophagous insects populations associated with the crops of passion fruit.

  12. Genetic Breeding and Diversity of the Genus Passiflora: Progress and Perspectives in Molecular and Genetic Studies

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    Carlos Bernard M. Cerqueira-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological and economic importance of passion fruit (Passiflora spp., molecular markers have only recently been utilized in genetic studies of this genus. In addition, both basic genetic researches related to population studies and pre-breeding programs of passion fruit remain scarce for most Passiflora species. Considering the number of Passiflora species and the increasing use of these species as a resource for ornamental, medicinal, and food purposes, the aims of this review are the following: (i to present the current condition of the passion fruit crop; (ii to quantify the applications and effects of using molecular markers in studies of Passiflora; (iii to present the contributions of genetic engineering for passion fruit culture; and (iv to discuss the progress and perspectives of this research. Thus, the present review aims to summarize and discuss the relationship between historical and current progress on the culture, breeding, and molecular genetics of passion fruit.

  13. Activity of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and guava (Psidium guajava pulps on Lactobacillus acidophilus in refrigerated mousses Atividade das polpas de maracujá (Passiflora edulis e goiaba (Psidium guajava sobre Lactobacillus acidophilus em musses refrigeradas

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    Flávia C. A. Buriti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Five pilot-scale mousse-making trials were produced and supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 probiotic culture: M1 with passion fruit concentrated juice (PJ; M2 with PJ and prebiotic fibre inulin; M3 with frozen passion fruit pulp (PP; M4 with frozen guava pulp (GP; M5 with GP and lactic acid. The products were stored refrigerated (4ºC and M2 and M5 were also stored frozen (-18ºC. Viability of L. acidophilus decreased up to 4.7 log cfu.g-1 in the 21st day for refrigerated mousses containing passion fruit (M1, M2 and M3, whereas the probiotic population remained above 6 log cfu.g-1 in the mousses containing guava (M4 and M5. Inhibition due to acidity was discharged. The addition of fruits to probiotic products should be carefully planned because inhibition of probiotic strains might occur.Cinco musses foram produzidas em escala piloto e suplementadas com a cultura probiótica de Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5: M1 - com suco concentrado de maracujá (SM; M2 - com SM e fibra prebiótica inulina; M3 - com polpa congelada de maracujá (PM; M4 - com polpa congelada de goiaba (PG; M5 - com PG e ácido lático. Os produtos foram armazenados refrigerados (4ºC e M2 e M5 também congelados (-18ºC. A viabilidade de Lactobacillus acidophilus diminuiu em até 4,7 log ufc.g-1 ao 21º dia nas musses contendo maracujá (M1, M3 e M2, enquanto a população do probiótico permaneceu acima de 6 log ufc.g-1 naquelas contendo goiaba (M4 e M5. A inibição devido à acidez foi descartada. A adição de frutas aos produtos probióticos deve ser cuidadosamente planejada, uma vez que pode haver inibição das cepas probióticas.

  14. PROXIMAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACT OF PASSION FRUIT SEEDS (Passiflora edulis IN SOYBEAN OIL COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL E ATIVIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE DO EXTRATO DE SEMENTES DE MARACUJÁ (Passiflora edulis EM ÓLEO DE SOJA

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    Priscila Milene Angelo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of passion fruit seeds extract in soybean oil. Dried seeds were ground and submitted to extraction with ethanol:water (95:5, for two hours, at room temperature. The resulting extract was centrifuged and the supernatant evaporated for dry extract yield calculation. The extract of passion fruit seeds was suspended again in ethanol:water (95:5 and applied to soybean oil in two concentrations (500 mg kg-1 and 1,000 mg kg-1, being submitted to oven accelerated test at 60oC, for 20 days. Oil samples were taken every 5 days and analyzed for peroxide value. As a parameter of comparison, it was used butyl hydroxytoluene (BHT as well as refined soybean oil without antioxidants (control. In the extract, the antioxidant activity was measured by the DPPH radical method and total phenols by using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The yield of dry extract was 1.26%, the IC50 value was 113.41 µg mL-1, and the concentration of total phenolic compounds was 42.93 mg of gallic acid per gram of extract. At the final heating time, peroxide values were significantly different and the antioxidant activity order was: BHT > passion fruit 500 mg kg-1 > passion fruit 1,000 mg kg-1 > control.

    KEY-WORDS: Antioxidants; passion fruit seeds; peroxide value; proximal

  15. Variabilidade genética de acessos silvestres e comerciais de Passiflora edulis Sims. com base em marcadores RAPD Genetic variability of wild and commercial passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. accessions using RAPD markers

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    Graciele Bellon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available No Cerrado brasileiro, há uma grande diversidade de cores, tamanhos e aromas de frutos em acessos silvestres de P. edulis. Estes acessos também são importantes fontes de resistência a doenças, podendo ser incorporados em programas de melhoramento genético do maracujazeiro azedo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estimar a variabilidade genética existente em acessos silvestres e comerciais de P. edulis utilizando-se de marcadores RAPD. O DNA genômico de cada acesso foi extraído e amplificado com treze iniciadores decâmeros (OPD-04, OPD-07, OPD-08, OPD-16, OPE-18, OPE-20, OPF-01, OPF-14, OPG-05, OPG-08, OPH-04, OPH-12 e OPH-16 para a obtenção dos marcadores RAPD. Os marcadores obtidos foram convertidos em uma matriz de dados binários, a partir da qual foram estimadas as distâncias genéticas entre os acessos e realizadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica. Um total de 187 marcadores foi gerado, sendo que apenas 28 (14,97% deles foram monomórficos. As distâncias genéticas entre os 15 acessos de maracujazeiro variaram de 0,091 a 0,496. Os marcadores moleculares demonstraram a alta variabilidade genética dos acessos de P. edulis, sendo que os acessos de frutos amarelos apresentaram maior distanciamento em relação aos de frutos roxos. Menores distâncias genéticas foram verificadas entre os acessos de mesma origem geográfica.There are a great diversity of colors, sizes and aromas of fruits in wild accessions of P. edulis in Brazilian Savannah. These accessions are also important resistance sources against illness which can be incorpored in passionfruit breeding programs. In this work, the objetive was to evaluate the genetic variability in wild and commercial P. edulis accessions using RAPD markers. The genomic DNA of each accession was extracted and amplified using thirteen decamer primers (OPD-04, OPD-07, OPD-08, OPD-16, OPE-18, OPE-20, OPF-01, OPF-14, OPG-05, OPG-08, OPH-04, OPH-12 and OPH-16 to obtain RAPD markers

  16. Avaliação da vida de prateleira do suco de maracujá (Passiflora edullis f. flavicarpa desidratado Shelf life evaluation of dehydrated passion fruit juice (Passiflora Edullis f. flavicarpa

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    Érika Endo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Suco de maracujá desidratado por spray-drying, natural e adicionado de açúcar, foi embalado em embalagens laminadas e armazenado em ambientes de 30 e 40 °C e 84% de umidade relativa. Os sucos embalados tiveram sua vida útil avaliada por determinações físicas e microbiológicas. A adição de açúcar aumentou a solubilidade, a molhabilidade, o tamanho da partícula e os valores de L* luminosidade do produto, e diminuiu os parâmetros de cor a* (intensidade da cor vermelha e b* (intensidade da cor amarela do produto. Durante o armazenamento, os produtos se mantiveram microbiologicamente estáveis, mas fisicamente foram alterados em relação aos parâmetros de cor e tamanho da partícula, tornando-se escuros e aglomerados, notadamente aqueles adicionados de açúcar e expostos a 40 °C, não sendo recomendada esta adição. Do ponto de vista físico, o período seguro para armazenamento de suco de maracujá natural desidratado foi de 120 dias a 30 °C e 60 dias a 40 °C.Passion fruit juice dehydrated by spray-drying, with and without commercial sugar addition, was wrapped in laminated packing. The packaged juice powder was stored and the shelf life was analyzed by physical and microbiology determinations, at room temperature of 30 and 40 °C and 84% of relative humidity. Adding sugar increased the solubility, wetability, particle size and luminosity L* value and decreased a* (red colour intensity and b* (yellow colour intensity colour parameters. During storage the dehydrated juice was microbiologically stable but, physically it was altered in relation to the colour and particle size of the parameters, becoming dark and agglomerated, especially for the added sugar exposed to 40 °C. Therefore this added sugar was not recommended. From the physical standpoint, the safe dehydrated natural passion fruit juice shelf life was estimated at 120 days at 30 °C, and 60 days at 40 °C.

  17. Avaliação do desenvolvimento de maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander propagado por estaquia e por semente em condições de pomar comercial Evaluation and development of passion fruit (Passiflora alata Dryander propagated by cutting and seed in conditions of commercial orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado na Área de Propagação de Fruteiras do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP, e em área de produtor, no município de Araguari-MG, com o objetivo de verificar o potencial de crescimento vegetativo (diâmetro do caule, altura de plantas e número de folhas de plantas de maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander, obtidas por estaquia e por semente, comparando o desenvolvimento inicial de plantas no campo. O experimento foi conduzido no período de janeiro de 2002 a fevereiro de 2003. A formação de mudas por semente foi realizada em casa de vegetação e, por estaca, em câmara de nebulização intermitente, sob condições de telado. As estacas e sementes foram coletadas de plantas adultas, oriundas do Banco de Germoplasma Ativo (BAG do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP. Para as estacas, utilizou-se a parte intermediária de ramos em estádio de crescimento vegetativo. As sementes, para a obtenção das plântulas, foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas. Efetuou-se o transplantio de estacas e de plântulas, para sacos de polietileno, mantido sob telado e irrigado diariamente por aspersão, para aclimatação e plantio no campo, após 60 dias. O diâmetro do caule, a altura e o número de folhas de plantas obtidas por estaca foram maiores do que nas obtidas por semente, em Jaboticabal-SP. Já em Araguari-MG, o diâmetro do caule foi maior naquelas oriundas de semente, enquanto a altura e o número de folhas foram maiores nas plantas propagadas por estacas.The present work was conducted in a fruit tree propagation area of the Plant Production Department of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP in Jaboticabal, SP, and also in a commercial orchard in Araguari, MG, with the objective to verify the potential of vegetative growth (stem diameter

  18. Crescimento de mudas de maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis associadas a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (Glomeromycota Growth of seedlings of sweet-passion fruit (Passiflora alata Curtis associated to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota

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    Maryluce Albuquerque da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sobre o crescimento de mudas de maracujazeiro-doce foi conduzido, em casa de vegetação, experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado usando cinco tratamentos de inoculação (200 esporos/planta de Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd., Scutellospora heterogama (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker & Sanders e controle não inoculado, com sete repetições. A cada 20 dias foram avaliados altura e número de folhas e ao final do experimento (90 dias: diâmetro do caule, biomassa, área foliar, colonização micorrízica e densidade de esporos de FMA na rizosfera. A partir de 70 dias foram evidenciadas diferenças no número de folhas; aos 90 dias as plantas inoculadas com G. albida apresentaram maior altura que as demais, que não diferiram significativamente entre si. Plantas associadas com esse fungo apresentaram, em relação ao controle, incrementos de 2.138% e 1.430% nas biomassas fresca e seca da parte aérea, 1.937% na biomassa fresca da raiz e 2.671% na área foliar. Apesar de não existir especificidade de hospedeiro na associação micorrízica arbuscular, apenas G. albida promoveu respostas significativas no maracujazeiro-doce, indicando a existência de maior compatibilidade funcional entre esses simbiontes.In order to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on growth of seedlings of sweet-yellow passion fruit, a greenhouse experiment was performed, using 200 AMF spores/plant in a randomized design with five treatments of inoculation (Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd., Scutellospora heterogama (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker & Sanders, and a non inoculated control with seven replicates. Every 20 days height and leaf number and after 90 days shoot diameter, biomass, leaf area, root colonization and density of AMF spores in the

  19. Optimization of in vitro organogenesis in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Otimização da organogênese in vitro de maracujazeiro (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa

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    Flavio Trevisan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of passion fruit was studied by the induction of adventitious buds from leaf discs in culture media supplemented with benzyladenine (BAP or thidiazuron (TDZ. To minimize adverse effects of ethylene accumulation on shoot development, silver nitrate (AgNO3 was added to the induction media. Both BAP (0; 2.2; 4.4; 6.6 µmol L-1 and TDZ (0; 1.1; 2.2; 3.4 µmol L-1 were effective in promoting shoot development. Although no significant differences were detected using AgNO3 (23.5 µmol L-1, buds grown in AgNO3-supplemented media were more vigorous. The number of explants with buds obtained using TDZ and AgNO3-supplemented media (5.6 were higher than those obtained using BAP and AgNO3 (3.0. MSM + giberrellic acid (GA3, MSM + coconut water, and ½ MSM culture media were tested for shoot bud elongation, incubated in flasks covered with either non-vented or vented lids. Best results were obtained by culturing buds in MSM + coconut water media in flasks covered with vented lids. Plantlets transferred to MSM + indol butyric acid (IBA media rooted in a 30-day period. Passion fruit organogenesis was enhanced by using TDZ and AgNO3 for bud induction. Transferring the buds to MSM + coconut water media and incubating in flasks with vented lids favored shoot elongation and plantlet development.A organogênese in vitro de maracujá foi estudada pela indução de gemas adventícias em discos de folha cultivados em meio de cultura suplementado com benziladenina (BAP ou thidiazuron (TDZ. Nitrato de prata (AgNO3 foi adicionado ao meio de cultura de indução de gemas adventícias para minimizar o efeito do acúmulo de etileno no desenvolvimento dos brotos. Tanto BAP (0; 2,2; 4,4; 6,6 µmol L-1 como TDZ (0; 1,1; 2,2; 3,4 µmol L-1 foram eficientes em promover o desenvolvimento de brotos. Embora diferenças significativas no uso de AgNO3 (23,5 µmol L-1 não tenham sido detectadas, gemas adventícias desenvolvidas em meio de cultura suplementado com

  20. Stomatal behavior in fruits and leaves of the purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims and fruits and cladodes of the yellow pitaya [Hylocereus megalanthus (K. Schum. ex Vaupel Ralf Bauer

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    Camilo Sánchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants as C3 and CAM react photosynthetically different but both can grow in the same agroecological zone in the tropics. Therefore we studied the behavior of stomatal opening in fruits and leaves of the purple passion fruit and fruits and cladodes of the yellow pitaya was studied under natural growing conditions in Granada and Fusagasuga, Cundinamarca (Colombia. Imprints were made on the surface of leaves, fruits and cladodes using cosmetic enamel impressions. Three cycles were carried out, each cycle took 72 hours, obtaining three different samples every 3 hours; then the impressions were observed by microscope and the opened and closed stomata were counted in each species. In each sampling, data of solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity (RH were measured. The purple passion fruit had the typical behavior of a C3 plant in the leaves as well as the fruits, and a positive correlation between the stomatal aperture and radiation and temperature was found, along with a negative correlation between stomatal aperture and RH. The pitaya showed the typical behavior of a CAM plant with a negative correlation between the stomatal opening and radiation and temperature, as well as a positive correlation between stomatal opening and RH. Radiation, temperature and RH affected the stomatal opening in the fruits and cladodes. Stomatal densities differed greatly between the species and plant organs. In the purple passion fruit, 106.53 stomata per mm² leaf surface were found, but only 12.64 stomata per mm² fruit surface; whereas in the pitaya, 11.28 and 1.43 stomata per mm² were found on the cladodes and fruits, respectively

  1. Enraizamento de estacas de espécies de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. no inverno e no verão Cutting rooting of passion fruit plant species (Passiflora spp. in the winter and in the summer

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    Givanildo Roncatto

    2008-12-01

    ão se diferenciou significativamente entre os tratamentos.The passion fruit plant is among the leading fruit grown in the country, but it has limitations on the cultivation causing a low productivity, which can be overcome through the use of cutting, cloning the best matrices of high productivity. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the potential for rooting of cuttings in the winter and in the summer, using the commercial species (P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener and P. alata Dryander and rootstocks (P. giberti N. E. Brown, P. nitida H.B.K. and P. setacea D.C.. This experiment was carried out from July 2001 to March 2002 in intermittent mist, under screenhouse conditions (50% of shading. The cuttings were collected from adult plants from the Bank of Active Germplasm (BAG of the Department of Plant Production of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences of the Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal-SP (FCAV / UNESP and from commercial orchards on July 2001 and January 2002. The herbaceous cuttings were prepared with the intermediate part of branches collected in the growth stage in the winter and in the summer. The cuttings were approximately 15cm long, with three nodes and two half leaves. The cuttings were treated with indolebutyric acid (IBA at concentrations of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000mg.L-1, for five seconds and planted in plastic trays (40x30x10cm with vermiculite of medium texture, where they remained for 60 days. There was influence both from IBA and the season on the rooting, varying according to the species. Therefore, P. giberti obtained the best performance in relation to other species, with 73% of rooting in the summer, while the percentage of rooting was best for the P. alata (58% and for the P. nitida (40% in the winter and without IBA. P. edulis f. flavicarpa rooted only 23% in the winter, and P. setacea did not root. Number and length of roots were higher in the winter. The survival of plants did not differ significantly among

  2. Cyanohydrin glycosides of Passiflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin S; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2002-01-01

    this glycoside co-occurs with simple beta-D-glucopyranosides: tetraphyllin A, deidaclin, tetraphyllin B, volkenin, epivolkenin and taraktophyllin. P. citrina contains passicapsin, a rare glycoside with the 2,6-dideoxy-beta-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl moiety, while P. herbertiana contains tetraphyllin A, deidaclin...... Passiflora species. These alpha-hydroxyamides, presumably formed during processing of the plant material, behave as cyanogenic compounds when treated with commercial Helix pomatia crude enzyme preparation. Thus, the enzyme preparation appears to contain an amide dehydratase, which converts alpha......-hydroxyamides to cyanohydrins that liberate cyanide; this finding is of interest in connection with analysis of plant tissues and extracts using Helix pomatia enzymes....

  3. Desenvolvimento de mudas de maracujazeiro (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento = The effect of shading levels on the development of yellow passion fruit seedlings (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.

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    Maria Laura Souza Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito de níveis de sombreamento sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de maracujazeiro, no período de 12/05 a 29/06 de 2004, na Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, em Vitória da Conquista, Estado da Bahia. Mudas com 45 dias após aemergência foram transplantadas e submetidas a diferentes níveis de redução da radiação solar, quais sejam: 0% (pleno sol, 30%, 50% e 70%. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições e seis plantas úteis por parcela. Foram avaliadas as características: massa seca de raízes, caules e folhas, razão parte aérea/raiz, área foliar, área foliar específica, razão de área foliar, razão de massa foliar e teor de nitrogênio total. Foi observada tendência ao acúmulo de massa secanas mudas menos sombreadas, sendo que houve aumento da razão parte aérea/raiz nas mudas sob maiores níveis de sombreamento. A área foliar, área foliar específica e razão de área foliar foram maiores nas plantas mais sombreadas, refletindo uma adaptação destas paramaximizar a absorção de luz. A razão de massa foliar não diferiu entre os tratamentos. O teor de nitrogênio total por unidade de massa foi maior nas plantas mais sombreadas, enquanto por unidade de área, decresceu.The effect of shading levels on the development of yellow passion fruit seedlings was studied, from May 12 to June 29 (2004, at theUniversidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Seedlings aged 45 days after the emergency, were cultivated and submitted to different levels of solar radiation reduction: 0%, 30%, 50% and 70%. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four treatments, five replications and six plants for plot. The evaluation parameters were: dry mass of roots, stems and leaves, shoot/root ratio, leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio, leaf mass ratio and nitrogen content. A trend to the

  4. Effect of different extracting solvents on antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of a fruit and vegetable residue flour

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    Mônica C. P. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify antioxidant capacity in food products, several methods have been proposed over the years. Among them, DPPH radical is widely used to determine the antioxidant capacity of different substrates. However, it is known that different types of extractants, providing different responses, can extract a variety of bioactive compounds. Besides, storage time seems to interfere in the stability of these substances. Integral use of fruits and vegetables has been proposed along the years as a means of reducing environmental pollution and give a better destination to by-products from food industries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of a fruit and vegetables residue flour (FVR with sequential and non-sequential extraction, in order to evaluate its antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds. And these compounds stability during storage of 180 days. It was observed that in non-sequential extraction, water was able to reduce by 74% the radical; however, at sequential extraction process, using six different extractors, each one was able to reduce at least 40% of DPPH. The total soluble phenolic contents in sequential extraction were 22.49 ± 1.59 mg GAE/g FVR on the first day and 5.35 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g FVR after 180 days.

  5. The Effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

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    Yu-Jie Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that fruits have different effects on alcohol metabolism and alcohol-induced liver injury. The present work selected three fruits and aimed at studying the effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were treated daily with alcohol and fruit juices for fifteen days. Chronic treatment with alcohol increased the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, total bilirubin (TBIL, triglyceride (TG, malondialdehyde (MDA, and decreased total protein (TP. Histopathological evaluation also showed that ethanol induced extensive fat droplets in hepatocyte cytoplasm. Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis normalized various biochemical parameters. Solanum muricatum increased the level of ALT and induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver. These results strongly suggest that treatment with Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis could protect liver from the injury of alcohol, while Solanum muricatum could aggravate the damage.

  6. Métodos para atrair e repelir a abelha Apis mellifera (L. em cultura de maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036 Methods to attract and repel Africanize honey bees Apis mellifera, L., to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036

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    Marta Maria Rossi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido no Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Campus Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, e teve como objetivos observar a eficiência dos extratos de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. e falsa melissa (Lippia alba, como atrativos, e citronela (C. nardus, extratos de orégano, pimenta-do-reino, canela e cravo, como repelentes, que foram comparados a outros atrativos (eugenol e linalol e repelentes (n.octyl.acetato, 2.heptanona e citronellal, obtidos comercialmente, para a A. mellifera. Foram estudados, ainda, os insetos visitantes nas flores do maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., além de testar plantas-iscas para essas abelhas. Os produtos testados in vitro e, posteriormente, testados tanto pulverizados quanto em tubos, não foram eficientes para atrair ou repelir a abelha Apis mellifera. Os produtos n.octyl.acetato e citronellal repeliram completamente tanto as abelhas africanizadas quanto as Xylocopa, não devendo ser utilizado em cultivos comerciais. O girassol (Hellianthus annuus e o cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus podem ser utilizados como alternativas para afastar a abelha A. mellifera das flores do maracujá.This experiment was carried out at Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, to study Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. attractives and repellents in vitro, in tubes and on passion fruit flowers (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg.. Visiting insects were studied in flowers and also, bait-plants to Africanized honey bees were tested. The products were not effective in attracting and repelling the honey bee in vitro and in tube tests. The chemicals n.octyl.acetato and citronellal were repellent to honey bees and Xylocopa bees on passion fruit flowers. Sunflower (Hellianthus annuus and cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus flowers can be used to remove Africanized honey bees from passion fruit crops.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters and on the phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranha, Jessica Bomtorin; Negri, Talita Costa; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2017-01-01

    Agroindustrial residues have high levels of nutrients, but are little exploited for consumption because they require prior treatment to ensure microbiological safety. Irradiation is an effective process for the reduction of microbial counts with maintenance of the product characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the microbiological quality, physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage. The flour was obtained from dehydrated residues of pineapple, melon, papaya and apple, which were submitted to irradiation doses of (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy). The microbiological (coliforms, moulds, yeast and Salmonella sp. counts) and physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, water activity, colour parameters L⁎, a⁎ and b⁎ and phenolic compounds) parameters were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. All the irradiation treatments reduced the microbial count, and the presence of Salmonella sp was not detected in any of the samples. The acidity and pH showed changes during storage. The soluble solids and water activity showed no significant differences between the doses during storage. The phenolic compounds were preserved by the application of irradiation. The colour of the flour samples darkened slightly with irradiation. It was concluded that the most effective doses for the maintenance of the microbiological quality and physicochemical characteristics of the flour were 2 and 3 kGy. (author)

  8. The effect of flour from the rind of the yellow passion fruit on glycemic control of people with diabetes mellitus type 2: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Veras, Vivian Saraiva; de Freitas, Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire; de Paula, Maria do Livramento; de Araújo, Thiago Moura; Uchôa, Lilian Raquel Alexandre; Gaspar, Maria Wendiane Gueiros; Cunha, Maria da Conceição do Santos Oliveira; Serra, Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira; Carvalho, Carolina Maria de Lima; Costa, Edmara Chaves; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The single or combined use of herbal and dietary products with medications has shown benefits in the metabolic modulation of carbohydrates, in the restoring of the function of pancreatic beta cells, and in insulin resistance. To analyze the effect of the use of flour made from the rind of the yellow passion fruit on the glycemic control of people with diabetes mellitus type 2. An open, prospective, randomized clinical trial was undertaken with 54 participants over an eight-week period. The participants from the case group were advised to ingest 12 g of the flour, three times daily; before breakfast, lunch and dinner. After eight weeks of use of the flour made from the rind of the yellow passion fruit, we did not identify significant statistical differences in the values for capillary blood glucose ( p  = 0.562), fasting blood glucose ( p  = 0.268) or glycated hemoglobin ( p  = 0.229) between the study groups. In the case group, we identified an increase (29.6%-37%) of the people with normal HbA1 c ; however, this did not have statistical relevance ( p  = 0.274). Based in our findings, we believe it is important to extend the time of exposure to the intervention and increase the rigor in the monitoring of adherence in future studies on this topic. Only in this way will we be able to make confident inferences in relation to the use of flour made from the rind of theyellow passion fruit as a therapeutic tool for glycemic and/or metabolic control in persons with DM 2. In the sample in question, the use of the flour made from the rind of the yellow passion fruit, over an eight-week period, did not improve the glycemic control of people with type 2 diabetes. Trial registration: U1111.1187.3616. Registered 6 September, retrospectively registered, in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry.

  9. Composição químico-bromatológica e degradabilidade In Situ da matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro da casca do fruto de três variedades de maracujá (Passiflora spp Chemical composition and In situ degradability of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber of three varieties passion fruit (Passiflora spp shelves

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    Cláudio Villela Vieira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica e as degradabilidades potenciais e efetivas da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do resíduo (casca das variedades de maracujá amarela (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa Degener, roxa (Passiflora edulis Sims e doce (Passiflora alata e da mistura das variedades amarela e roxa. Calcularam-se, também, o consumo de MS e as concentrações de amônia, ácidos graxos voláteis e pH no líquido ruminal e a taxa de passagem das fases líquida e sólida da digesta no rúmen de bovinos. Os resíduos (casca in natura apresentaram grande quantidade de água, enquanto a variedade roxa apresentou o maior teor de matéria seca (17,01% e o amarelo, o menor (10,78%. O teor de proteína bruta variou de 9,82% na MS, para a variedade amarela, a 7,53%, para a doce. O teor de fósforo foi 0,13% na MS para a variedade doce, chegando a 0,09, para a roxo, e 0,08%, para a amarelo. Os teores de cálcio, FDN e FDA não diferiram entre as variedades. Às 48 horas de incubação no rúmen, a degradabilidade atingiu ponto máximo para o teor de MS, PB e FDN. Houve interação de tempo e variedade na degradabilidade de MS, PB e FDN. As degradabilidades de PB e FDN foram influenciadas pelas variedades. A DE da FDN foi maior para a mistura (45,85% e menor para a doce (34,61%. O consumo médio de MS foi de 16,90 kg/animal, equivalente a 3,27% do peso vivo ou 156,11 g/kg0,75, quando se utilizou farelo de casca (resíduo com 90% de MS. As concentrações de ácidos graxos voláteis mantiveram-se na faixa de 7,76 a 10,87 mmoles/100 mL. O pH do líquido ruminal variou de 6,03 a 6,75 e o N-amoniacal, de 4,93 a 9,86 mg/100 mL.Chemical composition and the potential and effective degradabilities of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of passion fruit residue (shelves were studied in the varieties yellow (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa Degener

  10. Quality characteristics of pork burger added with albedo-fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vargas, Jairo H; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work determined the technological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers, added with different concentrations (2.5 and 5%) of passion fruit albedo (PFA) co-product, obtained from passion fruit juice processing. The addition of PFA on pork burgers improves their nutritional value (higher fiber content). In raw and cooked burger, all textural parameters, except springiness and cohesiveness, were affected by the incorporation of PFA. PFA addition was found to be effective improving the cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention. The raw and cooked pork burgers added with PFA had lower TBA values and lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and enterobacteria than the control samples. No Escherichia coli and molds were found in the samples. The overall acceptability scores showed that the most appreciated sample was the one containing 2.5% PFA. According to the results obtained, 2.5 and 5% of PFA addition can be recommended in pork burger production as a new dietary fiber source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pigments and antioxidant activity of optimized Ready-to-Drink (RTD Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. - passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa juice blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nadanasabapathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A central composite rotatable design (CCRD was employed to optimize the beetroot-passion fruit blended juice. The independent variables were beetroot juice (30-70 ml, passion fruit juice (10-30 ml and sucrose (9.00-10.50g. The combined effect of these independent variables on pH, °Brix and overall acceptability were investigated. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between the independent variables and the responses. The optimized blended juice was prepared in bulk, thermally pasteurized and studied the effects on pigments, antioxidant activity, CIE Color (L*, a*, b*, E*, Browning Index*, native microflora and other physicochemical quality parameters were also evaluated during the storage at 27-30 ± 2 °C. The processing and storage had a significant effect on (p < 0.05 degradation in the pigments, antioxidant activity during storage. The decrease in antioxidant activity was correlated (r = 0.9895 with a decrease in betalain pigment. The product was safe from microflora after thermal pasteurization and during 180 days of storage with good sensory acceptability.

  12. New Microsatellite Markers for Wild and Commercial Species of Passiflora (Passifloraceae and Cross-Amplification

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    Carlos B. M. Cerqueira-Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We developed the first microsatellites for Passiflora setacea and characterized new sets of markers for P. edulis and P. cincinnata, enabling further genetic diversity studies to support the conservation and breeding of passion fruit species. Methods and Results: We developed 69 microsatellite markers and, in conjunction with assessments of cross-amplification using primers available from the literature, present 43 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for three species of Passiflora. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.1, and the mean values of the expected and observed levels of heterozygosity were 0.406 and 0.322, respectively. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers will be valuable tools for investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and commercial species of passion fruit (Passiflora spp. and may be useful for developing conservation and improvement strategies by contributing to the understanding of the mating system and hybridization within the genus.

  13. Identifikasi Penyebab Penyakit Layu pada Tanaman Markisa (Passiflora edulis Sims.) di Kecamatan Tiga Panah Kabupaten Karo

    OpenAIRE

    Karosekali, Relly

    2012-01-01

    Identification Caused of Wilt Disease on Passion Fruit (Passiflora edutis simm) in some Main area at Karo regency. Fusarium wilt disease is a main constraint in passion fruit productivity that spread in Indonesia, especially in some main area at Karo Regency, Nort Sumatera. Attacking of wilt disease caused plant died. Therefore, the interest of farmer to study about plantation of passion fruit is be lessen. The objectives of this research were : (1) to find out some fusarium species that caus...

  14. Notas sobre Passiflora ischnoclada Harms (Passifloraceae Notes on Passiflora ischnoclada Harms (Passifloraceae

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    Luís Carlos Bernacci

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora ischnoclada foi descrita com base em apenas uma coleta. O único exemplar conhecido estava depositado no herbário de Berlin-Dahlem (B, mas foi destruído. A sinonimização da espécie em P. jilekii Wawra havia sido proposta, com base apenas em sua descrição original, mas, outro exemplar da coleção-tipo foi localizado no herbário do Instituto de Botânica (SP e P. ischnoclada foi recoletada na mesma área, quase um século depois. Foi possível comprovar a validade da espécie e seu posicionamento na série Laurifoliae e complementar sua descrição, acrescentando caracteres das flores e do fruto imaturo.The description of Passiflora ischnoclada was based on the type collection. The only mentioned material was deposited in the Berlin-Dahlem herbarium (B and was destroyed. The synonimization of P. ischnoclada under P. jilekii was proposed according to that description. Recently another material from the type collection was found in the SP herbarium and the species was collected again in the type locality. In this work the reestablishment of P. ischnoclada is proposed as well as the position of the species in the series Laurifoliae is discussed, and the description of the species is complemented, with adding characters of the flowers and the immature fruit.

  15. Evaluation of the in vitro glycemic index of a fiber-rich extruded breakfast cereal produced with organic passion fruit fiber and corn flour

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    Maria Gabriela Vernaza Leoro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of process parameters and Passion Fruit Fiber (PFF addition on the Glycemic Index (GI of an extruded breakfast cereal. A 2³ Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD was used, with the following independent variables: raw material moisture content (18-28%, 2nd and 3rd barrel zone temperatures (120-160 ºC, and PFF (0-30%. Raw materials (organic corn flour and organic PFF were characterized as to their proximate composition, particle size, and in vitro GI. The extrudates were characterized as to their in vitro GI. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to analyze the results. Corn flour and PFF presented 8.55 and 7.63% protein, 2.61 and 0.60% fat, 0.52 and 6.17% ash, 78.77 and 78.86% carbohydrates (3 and 64% total dietary fiber, respectively. The corn flour particle size distribution was homogeneous, while PFF presented a heterogeneous particle size distribution. Corn flour and PFF presented values of GI of 48 and 45, respectively. When using RSM, no effect of the variables was observed in the GI of the extrudates (average value of 48.41, but PCA showed that the GI tended to be lower when processing at lower temperatures (158 ºC. When compared to white bread, the extrudates showed a reduction of the GI of up to 50%, and could be considered an interesting alternative in weight and glycemia control diets.

  16. Conservação de sementes de maracujá-amarelo: interferências do teor de água das sementes e da temperatura de armazenamento Conservation of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edults Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. seeds: interference of water content and storage temperature

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    Samara Camargo Lopes Fonseca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Buscando embasamento para a definição de alternativas tecnológicas voltadas a desacelerar a deterioração durante o armazenamento, a pesquisa objetivou estudar, através de variações no teor de água das sementes e na temperatura do ambiente de armazenamento, o comportamento fisiológico de sementes de maracujazeiro. O experimento, realizado entre julho de 2002 e agosto de 2003 no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes localizado na Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (USP, foi realizado com sementes de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. produzidas em Mogi Mirim/ SP a partir de polinização aberta entre híbridos da Série IAC 270. Após a retirada da mucilagem das sementes, foi determinado o grau de umidade inicial do lote e, paralelamente, obtida a amostra representante do tratamento com o maior teor de água estudado (31%. As sementes remanescentes foram submetidas à secagem, em estufa com circulação de ar a 30ºC ± 3ºC, para a obtenção dos demais tratamentos referentes aos teores de água desejados (27%, 21%, 17%, 11% e 7%. Posteriormente, os tratamentos, correspondentes aos diferentes graus de umidade, foram armazenados em câmaras com temperaturas controladas de 10ºC, 15ºC e 20ºC. Antes do armazenamento, e após 35, 70, 105, 140, 175, 210, 245, 280, 315 e 350 dias, as sementes foram submetidas às avaliações da qualidade. De acordo com os resultados, a combinação do grau de umidade de 7% com a temperatura de 10ºC supera as demais no favorecimento à manutenção do potencial fisiológico das sementes de Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.In order to define technological alternatives foward delaying deterioration of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. seeds during storage, physiological studies were performed through varied seed water content and environmental temperature. The experiments were conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Escola Superior

  17. Caracterización de Daños de Moscas del Género Dasiops (Diptera: Lonchaeidae en Passiflora spp. (Passifloraceae Cultivadas en Colombia / Characterization of Damage of the Genus Dasiops Flies (Diptera: Lonchaeidae from Cultivated Passiflora (Passiflor

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    Maikol Yohanny Santamaría Galindo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Las moscas del género Dasiops Rondani constituyen la plaga más limitante en cultivos de pasifloras en Colombia, por lo que el reconocimiento de especies es importante para la toma de decisiones de vigilancia y control. Se caracterizaron los síntomas y daños producidos por moscas Dasiops spp.. en botones florales y frutos de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims, gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims, granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss y curuba (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima Nielsen y Jorgensen. En botones florales de maracuyá, gulupa y granadilla con longitud mayor a 1 cm, la infestación se manifestó con amarillamiento y arrugamiento general. En frutos de gulupa y granadilla, la infestación se evidenció por arrugamiento del epicarpio en frutos inmaduros. En curuba, la infestación en frutos se caracterizó por un estrechamiento en la parte basal, apical o media del fruto. La infestación en botones florales estuvo entre 0,0 y 9,9% en tanto que en frutos presentó un rango entre 0,3 y 28,5%. No obstante, en maracuyá y gulupa se registraron botones florales infestados pero sin los síntomas descritos; en tanto que en gulupa y granadilla se observó el mismo fenómeno en frutos. Este estudio provee a agricultores y técnicos herramientas para el reconocimiento de infestación por moscas Dasiops spp. en cultivos de pasifloras como elemento fundamental para la toma decisiones para la vigilancia y control fitosanitario. / Abstract. The flies of the gender Dasiops Rondani are the most limiting plague in pasifloras crops in Colombia, thus species identification is important for decision making for monitoring and control. The symptoms and damage caused by Dasiops spp. flies in flower buds and fruits of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims, purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims, sweet passion fruit (Passiflora ligularis Juss and banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita

  18. Cycloartane triterpenoid saponins from water soluble of Passiflora edulis Sims and their antidepressant-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Xu, Feng-Qing; Shang, Jian-Hua; Xiao, Huai; Fan, Wei-Wei; Dong, Fa-Wu; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhou, Jun

    2013-07-30

    Various species of genus Passiflora have been used as traditional folk medicines owing to their sedative and anti-hypertensive properties. Passiflora edulis Sims most widely grown in the warm temperate for their fragrant fruits and their twigs and leaves are used as a folk medicine for treating both anxiety and nervousness in American countries. The present study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect and the active components of this plant. The alcohol extracts of the stems (PES, 10 and 2 g/kg of the plant materials) and leaves (PEL, 10 and 2 g/kg of the plant materials) of Passiflora edulis Sims were orally administered to mice for 7 day. The animals were tested in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). After behavioral assay of ethanol extract, phytochemical research of the stems and leaves (5.7 kg) of Passiflora edulis Sims were developed and further bioactive verification of monomeric compounds were conducted. There are mainly cycloartane triterpenoids and their saponins isolated from this plant, including two new cycloartane triterpenoid saponins named cyclopassifloside ХII (1) and ХIII (2), together with six known cycloartane triterpenoids, cyclopassifloic acids B and E, cyclopassiflosides II, VI, IX and XI. The ethanol extract of Passiflora edulis Sims together with isolated compounds cyclopassiflosides IX and XI may possess antidepressant-like effect. Cycloartane triterpenoid was one of the main compositions of Passiflora edulis Sims and possess antidepressant-like activity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (AG3) en la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima) Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (AG3) en la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima)

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Gutiérrez Rito Hernán

    1988-01-01

    The trials made on banana passion fruit seeds germination (Passiflora mollisima(HBK) Bailey, under laboratory specifications show that the testa delays the water absortion and it is the critic factor on the germination. AG3 increases the germination remarkably and strengthens the effects of the scarification considerably.

    Los ensayos de la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima (HBK) Bailey en condiciones de ...

  20. In Vitro Culture and Phytochemical Analysis of Passiflora tenuifila Killip and Passiflora setacea DC (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozo, Jenny Sumara; Cruz, Daniel Cuzziol; Pavei, Ana Flavia; Pereira, Isadora Medeiros da Costa; Wolfart, Marcia; Ramlov, Fernanda; Fiuza Montagner, Daiane; Maraschin, Marcelo; Viana, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    We have developed reproducible micropropagation, callus culture, phytochemical, and antioxidant analysis protocols for the wild passion fruit species P. tenuifila, and P. setacea, native to the Brazilian endangered biomes Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, and Caatinga, by using seeds and explants from seedlings and adult plants. Genotype and explant origin-linked differences are visible amongst the Passiflora species concerning callus production, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity. The protocols developed for screening phytochemicals and antioxidants in P. tenuifila and P. setacea callus extracts have shown their potential for phenolic production and antioxidant activity. The high level of phenolic compounds seems to account for the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of P. tenuifila derived from 45-day-old immature seed callus. The methanolic extracts of callus derived from P. setacea seedling leaf node and cotyledonary node explants have shown the highest antioxidant activity despite their lower content of phenolics, as compared to cotyledon callus extracts. The optimized micropropagation and callus culture protocols have great potential to use cell culture techniques for further vegetative propagation, in vitro germplasm conservation, and secondary metabolite production using biotic and abiotic elicitors.

  1. In vitro culture from mature seeds of Passiflora species Regeneração e cultura in vitro de espécies de Passiflora

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    Flavia Guzzo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora comprises hundred species, mainly native of the South American tropics and rainforests, which are grouped into 21 subgenera. Some species are widely studied for their economic importance and are chiefly cultivated for production of fruit juice. To obtain a continuous source of material for a screening of secondary metabolites, zygotic embryo culture was attempted for 62 Passiflora species, starting from seeds mainly collected in the wild. Twenty nine of these species produced calli, which had very different growth rates. Plants were successfully regenerated from calli of 13 different species. For 25 of the responsive species this is the first report of in vitro culture.O gênero Passiflora compõe centenas de espécies, a maioria de origem dos trópicos e das florestas da América do Sul, as quais são agrupadas em 21 subgêneros. Algumas espécies foram intensamente estudadas por sua importância econômica e são cultivadas principalmente para a produção de suco de fruta. Cultura de 29 espécies de Passiflora foram obtidos a partir de embriões zigóticos e de culturas de endosperma. Foram obtidos diferentes tipos de calos de crescimento, de tal forma que plantas foram regeneradas a partir de calos de 13 espécies diferentes. Não haviam sido ainda relatadas culturas in vitro para 25 das espécies trabalhadas.

  2. Expression patterns of Passiflora edulis APETALA1/FRUITFULL homologues shed light onto tendril and corona identities

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    Livia C. T. Scorza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passiflora (passionflowers makes an excellent model for studying plant evolutionary development. They are mostly perennial climbers that display axillary tendrils, which are believed to be modifications of the inflorescence. Passionflowers are also recognized by their unique flower features, such as the extra whorls of floral organs composed of corona filaments and membranes enclosing the nectary. Although some work on Passiflora organ ontogeny has been done, the developmental identity of both Passiflora tendrils and the corona is still controversial. Here, we combined ultrastructural analysis and expression patterns of the flower meristem and floral organ identity genes of the MADS-box AP1/FUL clade to reveal a possible role for these genes in the generation of evolutionary novelties in Passiflora. Results We followed the development of structures arising from the axillary meristem from juvenile to adult phase in P. edulis. We further assessed the expression pattern of P. edulis AP1/FUL homologues (PeAP1 and PeFUL, by RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization in several tissues, correlating it with the developmental stages of P. edulis. PeAP1 is expressed only in the reproductive stage, and it is highly expressed in tendrils and in flower meristems from the onset of their development. PeAP1 is also expressed in sepals, petals and in corona filaments, suggesting a novel role for PeAP1 in floral organ diversification. PeFUL presented a broad expression pattern in both vegetative and reproductive tissues, and it is also expressed in fruits. Conclusions Our results provide new molecular insights into the morphological diversity in the genus Passiflora. Here, we bring new evidence that tendrils are part of the Passiflora inflorescence. This points to the convergence of similar developmental processes involving the recruitment of genes related to flower identity in the origin of tendrils in different plant families. The data obtained also

  3. MICROSPOROGÉNESIS DE TRES ESPECIES DEL SUBGÉNERO PASSIFLORA (PASSIFLORA, PASSIFLORACEAE DE PARAGUAY

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    Claudia Pereira Sühsner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo por objeto caracterizar cariológicamente las especies del género Passiflora L., subgénero Passiflora, del Distrito Félix Pérez Cardozo, Guairá, Paraguay. Por primera vez, se da a conocer el número cromosómico en meiosis 2n = 9II para P. alata Curtis y P. caerulea L. También, se confirma el número cromosómico de 2n = 9II para P. edulis Sims. El comportamiento meiótico en todas las especies estudiadas fue normal, con segregación regular de los cromosomas. La asociación cromosómica frecuentemente encontrada en diacinesis y metafase I fue de bivalentes. Las pocas irregularidades meióticas observadas consistieron en cromosomas rezagados en anafase I y fases asincrónicas en meiosis II, sin embargo, la viabilidad de polen es alta, entre 78,83% y 98,6%. Los resultados confirman x = 9 como número básico para el subgénero Passiflora. Este estudio es una importante contribución al conocimiento sobre la citogenética de las especies de Passiflora subg Passiflora de Paraguay.

  4. Caracterização e extração de compostos voláteis de resíduos do processamento de maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa degener Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa degener processing waste

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    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou extrair e identificar compostos voláteis presentes nos resíduos de processo de maracujá. Obtiveram-se destilados a partir de resíduos de maracujá através das técnicas de hidrodestilação simples e hidrodestilação com arraste de gás nitrogênio. Os compostos voláteis presentes nos destilados foram capturados por microextração em fase sólida, empregando-se fibra Carboxen/DVB/DMS, e identificados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada com espectrômetro de massa, usando a coluna capilar de sílica fundida CP WAX 52. Foram identificados trinta e um compostos voláteis no extrato obtido pela técnica de hidrodestilação simples, sendo os principais compostos: neral (26,19%, cinamato de metila (18,52%, linalol (16,82%, 1-undecanol (5,60%, cis-óxido de linalol (4,41%, benzaldeído (3,92% e 1-hexanol (3,48%. Para a hidrodestilação com arraste de gás nitrogênio, trinta compostos foram identificados, sendo que, em maior porcentagem de área, destacaram-se: cinamato de metila (30,41%, neral (24,46%, β-ionona (13,81%, linalol (4,0% e acido butanoico (2,19%. O presente estudo revelou que os resíduos de maracujá apresentam compostos voláteis que podem ser extraídos na forma de aromas, apresentando potencial para gerar essências naturais com valor agregado.The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from passion fruit residues generated during processing. Distillates of passion fruit residues were obtained from the techniques of simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by solid phase microextraction with Carboxen/DVB/DMS fiber. The volatile compounds were indentified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry using a fused sillica capillary column with a CP WAX 52 stationary phase. Thirty one compounds were indentified by simple hydrodistillation technique. The main compounds were: neral (26

  5. Visitantes florais do maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. Passifloraceae em áreas de cultivo com diferentes proximidades a fragmentos florestais na região Norte Fluminense, RJ Yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. Passifloraceae floral visitors in cultivated areas within different distances from forest remnants in north Rio de Janeiro state

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    Cristine Rodrigues Benevides

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a biologia floral e identificar os principais polinizadores do maracujá-amarelo em áreas de cultivo com diferentes proximidades a fragmentos florestais no norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A floração do maracujá-amarelo teve duração de nove meses, no período de setembro a maio. As flores iniciavam a antese às 12:00 h e abriam-se ao longo do dia até às 16:30 h. O processo de curvatura dos estiletes ocorreu ao longo da antese e 72,4% das flores curvaram seus estiletes. A produção de néctar deu-se continuamente, atingindo 18μl/flor/hora e a concentração de solutos totais variou entre 38 e 42%. Xylocopa frontalis e Xylocopa ordinaria foram os principais polinizadores do maracujá-amarelo pela freqüência de visitas, comportamento intrafloral e porte corporal. Estas espécies de abelhas, além de Apis mellifera, estiveram presentes em todas as áreas de cultivo. A maior riqueza de visitantes polinizadores do maracujá-amarelo foi observada em áreas de cultivo próximas a fragmentos florestais, fato relacionado à presença de certos grupos de abelhas nativas, como Centridini e Euglossina (Apidae que dependem de áreas florestais para nidificação e alimentação. A proximidade a fragmentos florestais também é importante para o fornecimento de recursos alimentares e de nidificação ao longo do ano para a manutenção de populações de Xylocopa.This work aimed to identify the main pollinators and study the floral biology of the yellow passion fruit cultivated in areas within different distances from forest remnants in north Rio de Janeiro state. The yellow passion fruit flowering lasted nine months, from September to March. Anthesis started at 12:00 h and the opening process lasted until 16:30 h. The styles bent down during the anthesis and 72.4% of the flowers had its styles curved. Nectar was produced continuously, reaching 18μl/flower/hour, and the total solute concentration varied

  6. Correlações entre características físico-químicas e sensoriais em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa durante o armazenamento Correlation between physico-chemical and sensory characteristcs of yellow passin fruit juice over storaging time

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    Delcio Sandi

    2003-12-01

    correlations were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa submitted to thermal processing treatment, during 120 days of storage under two different temperatures. The color characteristics, Hunter 'L', 'a'and 'b'values, reducing sugars and non reducing sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose, volatile compounds (ethyl butyrate, hexyl butyrate, ethyl caproate and hexyl caproate and furfural were correlated with sensory characteristics (juice homogeneity of color, orange color, characteristic aroma, floral aroma, sweet aroma, characteristic flavor, off flavor, oxidized flavor, cooked flavor, sweet taste and bitter taste by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The color parameters and sensory characteristic correlations such as juice homogeneity of color and orange color, and a-value was proportional, instead ofL and b-values. Important correlations were observed between volatile compounds and characteristics flavor and aroma, sweet and floral aroma; furfural and oxidized, cooked and off flavor. The sucrose levels were statistically correlationated with sweet and floral aroma, characteristic flavor and sweet taste, while the reducing sugars were correlated with off flavor and bitter taste. From the results it can be concluded that the instrumental methods can be indicated, such as the browning color where colorimetric parameters like a-value is the best one.

  7. Una nueva especie de Passiflora, subgénero Passiflora (Passifloraceae del oeste de Colombia

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    Gerlach Gϋnter

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Passiflora from Colombia is here described: Passiflora chocoensis. It is closely related to P. menispermifolia, but differs by its sparsely spreading hairs, the finer texture of the leaves, its larger and cordate bracts, the number of petiolar glands and the lack of glands on the stipules and bracts.Se describe una nueva especie de Passiflora de Colombia: P. chocoensis, la cual tiene un parentesco cercano con P. menispermifolia, diferenciándose de ésta por su indumento ligero de pocos pelos dispersos, la textura de las hojas más fina, el mayor tamaño de sus brácteas en forma de corazón, la cantidad de glándulas en los pecíolos, al igual que por la ausencia de las glándulas en las brácteas y estípulas.

  8. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  9. Ecologia da polinização do maracujá-amarelo, na região do vale do submédio São Francisco Ecology of pollination of the yellow passion fruit (passiflora edulis sims f. flavicarpa deg., in the region of São Francisco valley

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    Kátia Maria Medeiros de Siqueira

    2009-03-01

    Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Passifloraceae, including foraging patterns of the floral visitors in the region of São Francisco Valley. The study was carried out in irrigated orchards in the Maniçoba Project, in Juazeiro-BA, during 2005 and 2006. The floral anthesis occurred between midday and 1 pm. Flower closing started at 6 pm and finished around 1 am. The time for style deflexion was 71,4 ± 12,4 min, about 5% of the flowers remained with the style undefexed. The stigmas were receptive during the entire anthesis and the pollen grains presented 94% viability. The nectar volume was in average 100 µL, with 48% of sugar concentration . The average number of pollen grains/flower was 140,595 ± 34,175 and 426 ± 77 of ovules/ovary. The highest rates were obtained after manual crossed pollination (74%, confirming the existence of a system of self-incompatibility. We registered 10% of flowers with four stigmas, which when manually pollinated, produced bigger fruits with a higher number of seeds (477,7 ± 76,8. We found a positive correlation between the number of seeds and the weight of the fruits. The flower visitors were Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes, Xylocopa grisescens, X. frontalis and X. cearensis. A. mellifera and T. spinipes being pollen and nectar robbers, respectively. Bees of the genus Xylocopa were more frequent during the dry season and A. mellifera during the wet season. The effective pollinators were X. grisescens and X. frontalis. We found that they were limited in number in the studied areas. However they were found to be more frequent in other plant species during the rainy season which indicates that these plant species compete with the passion fruit for pollination service.

  10. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.

  11. Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (AG3 en la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rito Hernán Cardozo Gutiérrez

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The trials made on banana passion fruit seeds germination (Passiflora mollisima(HBK Bailey, under laboratory specifications show that the testa delays the water absortion and it is the critic factor on the germination. AG3 increases the germination remarkably and strengthens the effects of the scarification considerably.

  12. Caracterização genética de espécies de Passiflora por marcadores moleculares análogos a genes de resistência Genetic characterization of Passiflora species via resistance genes analog markers

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    Mariana da Silva Paula

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo comercial do maracujá é afetado por diversos problemas fitossanitários, os quais contribuem para quebras de produção e significativa redução da vida útil dos plantios. Em algumas situações, a incidência de doenças pode inviabilizar o cultivo do maracujá. Fontes de resistência a distintas doenças têm sido identificadas em acessos de espécies de Passiflora. Neste trabalho, buscou-se avaliar a diversidade genética de acessos de oito espécies silvestres (P. setacea, P. nitida, P. serratodigitata, P. caerulea, P. gibertii, P. odontophyla, P. edulis e P. coccinea e de um híbrido interespecífico (P. setacea x P. coccinea, utilizando marcadores moleculares análogos a genes de resistência (RGAs. Verificou-se uma grande diversidade no perfil eletroforético de RGAs nos acessos de Passiflora, permitindo a anotação de 96 amplicons polimórficos entre, pelo menos, um par de acessos. Os níveis de dissimilaridade genética (calculados exclusivamente com os marcadores RGAs variaram entre 0,40 e 0,89 nos acessos das espécies de Passiflora avaliadas. A análise de sequência de um subgrupo destes amplicons obtidos com primers RGAs indicou que estas bandas correspondem a regiões genômicas que contêm segmentos (motivos com identidade aos encontrados em genes de resistência previamente caracterizados em outras espécies vegetais. Desta forma, os dados indicam a existência de um repertório variado de marcadores do tipo RGA em Passiflora que podem ser potencialmente úteis em sistemas de caracterização molecular de germoplasma e em programas de melhoramento genético visando à resistência a doenças nesta cultura.The commercial cultivation of passion fruit can be affected by many diseases, which might induce sever fruit yield losses and significant life cycle reduction of the crop. In some situations disease incidence can make the passion fruit production not economically viable. Sources of resistance against several

  13. Effect of a medicinal plant (Passiflora incarnata L on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fructuoso Ayala Guerrero

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extracts of the plant Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae were administered intraperitoneally in order to test its effects on sleep. METHOD: Experiments were carried out on chronically implanted male adult wistar rats to obtain cerebral (EEG, ocular (EOG and muscular (EMG activities throughout their states of vigilance. Polygraphic recordings were taken during 9 continuous hours before and after the extract administration (500 mg/kg. RESULTS: Passiflora incarnata induced a significant increment in the total sleep time (p<0.05. This increment was due to an increase in the time spent by animals in slow wave sleep (SWS. Concomitantly, a significant decrement in wakefulness (W was observed (p<0.05. In contrast, time spent in rapid eye movement (REM sleep showed a decreasing tendency, since both its frequency and mean duration were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts obtained from Passiflora incarnata can be considered as appropriated sleep inducers.

  14. Effect of a medicinal plant (Passiflora incarnata L) on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Fructuoso Ayala; Medina, Graciela Mexicano

    2017-01-01

    Extracts of the plant Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) were administered intraperitoneally in order to test its effects on sleep. Experiments were carried out on chronically implanted male adult wistar rats to obtain cerebral (EEG), ocular (EOG) and muscular (EMG) activities throughout their states of vigilance. Polygraphic recordings were taken during 9 continuous hours before and after the extract administration (500 mg/kg). Passiflora incarnata induced a significant increment in the total sleep time ( p sleep (SWS). Concomitantly, a significant decrement in wakefulness (W) was observed ( p sleep showed a decreasing tendency, since both its frequency and mean duration were reduced. The extracts obtained from Passiflora incarnata can be considered as appropriated sleep inducers.

  15. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  16. Composição centesimal do fruto, extrato concentrado e da farinha da uva-do-japão Chemical composition of fruit, concentrated extract and flour from "Japanese grape"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Bampi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A Hovenia dulcis, mais conhecida como uva-do-japão, pertence à família Rhamnaceae, é natural da China, Japão e Coréia, sendo largamente difundida no sul do Brasil. Rica em açúcares e bem aceita para consumo humano, pode ser consumida in natura ou processada. Não há na literatura relatos de seu aproveitamento em produtos alimentícios. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a composição centesimal do fruto, do extrato concentrado e da farinha. Foram obtidos teores em torno de 54,08, 52,44 e 19,08g 100g-1 para umidade; 2,16, 4,09 e 4,48g 100g-1 para cinzas; 3,74, 2,77 e 5,73g 100g-1 para proteína bruta; 1,42, 0,37 e 1,82g 100g-1 para extrato etéreo; 12,56, 3,33 e 25,62g 100g-1 para fibra alimentar; 19,46, 37,34 e 42,53g 100g-1 para açúcares totais, além do valor calórico de 105,56, 165,14 e 216,09kcal 100g-1, respectivamente, em fruto, extrato concentrado e farinha. A quantificação por cromatografia líquida confirmou o conteúdo dos açúcares redutores (frutose, 6,15g 100g-1 e glicose, 6,57g 100g-1 superior ao teor de açúcares não redutores no fruto (sacarose, 3,56g 100g-1. A farinha é rica em açúcares e possui elevado teor de fibra alimentar, podendo ser utilizada como um ingrediente alternativo em produtos de panificação. Em termos sensoriais, o extrato concentrado obteve um índice de aceitabilidade de 82% entre os julgadores, apresentando bom potencial para elaboração de geleias.Hovenia dulcis, whose popular name is Japanese grape, belongs to the family Rhamnaceae, native of China, Japan and Korea, is widely distributed in southern Brazil. Rich in sugar and with good acceptance for human consumption it can be consumed fresh or processed. There are no literature reports of its use in food products. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the Japanese grape fruit, concentrated extract and flour. The contents for moisture (54.08, 52.44 e 19.08g 100g-1, ash (2.16, 4.09 e 4.48g

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters and on the phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage; Efeito da radiação gama nos parâmetros microbiológicos, físico-químicos e compostos fenólicos de farinha de resíduos de frutas durante armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranha, Jessica Bomtorin; Negri, Talita Costa; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet, E-mail: jessica.aranha@usp.br [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindústria, Alimentos e Nutrição

    2017-07-01

    Agroindustrial residues have high levels of nutrients, but are little exploited for consumption because they require prior treatment to ensure microbiological safety. Irradiation is an effective process for the reduction of microbial counts with maintenance of the product characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the microbiological quality, physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage. The flour was obtained from dehydrated residues of pineapple, melon, papaya and apple, which were submitted to irradiation doses of (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy). The microbiological (coliforms, moulds, yeast and Salmonella sp. counts) and physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, water activity, colour parameters L⁎, a⁎ and b⁎ and phenolic compounds) parameters were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. All the irradiation treatments reduced the microbial count, and the presence of Salmonella sp was not detected in any of the samples. The acidity and pH showed changes during storage. The soluble solids and water activity showed no significant differences between the doses during storage. The phenolic compounds were preserved by the application of irradiation. The colour of the flour samples darkened slightly with irradiation. It was concluded that the most effective doses for the maintenance of the microbiological quality and physicochemical characteristics of the flour were 2 and 3 kGy. (author)

  18. Effect of a medicinal plant (Passiflora incarnata L) on sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Fructuoso Ayala; Medina, Graciela Mexicano

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Extracts of the plant Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) were administered intraperitoneally in order to test its effects on sleep. METHOD: Experiments were carried out on chronically implanted male adult wistar rats to obtain cerebral (EEG), ocular (EOG) and muscular (EMG) activities throughout their states of vigilance. Polygraphic recordings were taken during 9 continuous hours before and after t...

  19. PASSIOMA: Exploring Expressed Sequence Tags during Flower Development in Passiflora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cutri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora provides a remarkable example of floral complexity and diversity. The extreme variation of Passiflora flower morphologies allowed a wide range of interactions with pollinators to evolve. We used the analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs as an approach for the characterization of genes expressed during Passiflora reproductive development. Analyzing the Passiflora floral EST database (named PASSIOMA, we found sequences showing significant sequence similarity to genes known to be involved in reproductive development such as MADS-box genes. Some of these sequences were studied using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirming their expression during Passiflora flower development. The detection of these novel sequences can contribute to the development of EST-based markers for important agronomic traits as well as to the establishment of genomic tools to study the naturally occurring floral diversity among Passiflora species.

  20. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of "Sweetheart" Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, John B; Blades, Barbara L; Satyan, Shashirekha; Spohr, Lorraine J; Harris, Anne; Jessup, Andrew J; Archer, John R; Davies, Justin B; Banos, Connie

    2015-08-26

    Passionfruit ( Passiflora edulis , Sims, cultivar "Sweetheart") were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to "Sweetheart" purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  1. Morfoanatomia de folhas e caules de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josseara Beraldo

    Full Text Available Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie vegetal empregada na medicina popular e amplamente cultivada no território nacional, tem suas folhas e seus caules, muitas vezes utilizados como adulterante de amostras comerciais da droga vegetal oficializada no país também conhecida como maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis. Caracteres morfoanatômicos de folhas e de caules de P. edulis, foram descritos e documentados. Dentre os caracteres auxiliares na distinção entre a droga oficial e os órgãos aéreos de P. edulis podem-se destacar o contorno da lâmina foliar, a forma da nervura mediana em secção transversal, o número e a localização de nectários extraflorais e, o indumento

  2. Efficiency of ITS Sequences for DNA Barcoding in Passiflora (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Câmara Giudicelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a technique for discriminating and identifying species using short, variable, and standardized DNA regions. Here, we tested for the first time the performance of plastid and nuclear regions as DNA barcodes in Passiflora. This genus is a largely variable, with more than 900 species of high ecological, commercial, and ornamental importance. We analyzed 1034 accessions of 222 species representing the four subgenera of Passiflora and evaluated the effectiveness of five plastid regions and three nuclear datasets currently employed as DNA barcodes in plants using barcoding gap, applied similarity-, and tree-based methods. The plastid regions were able to identify less than 45% of species, whereas the nuclear datasets were efficient for more than 50% using “best match” and “best close match” methods of TaxonDNA software. All subgenera presented higher interspecific pairwise distances and did not fully overlap with the intraspecific distance, and similarity-based methods showed better results than tree-based methods. The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 region presented a higher discrimination power than the other datasets and also showed other desirable characteristics as a DNA barcode for this genus. Therefore, we suggest that this region should be used as a starting point to identify Passiflora species.

  3. Radium concentration factors in passionfruit (Passiflora foetida) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David; Martin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil into the edible fruit of the wild passionfruit species Passiflora foetida was investigated, using selective extraction from the soil samples. A wide range of environmental exposure conditions were represented by the locations that were sampled, including both natural soils, and soils influenced by past and present uranium mining activities. The bioavailable 226 Ra fraction in soils was found to be a better predictor of 226 Ra fruit activity concentrations than the total soil activity concentration, or any of the other fractions studied. Concentration Factors (CFs) derived using the bioavailable fraction varied by only a factor of 7 between different locations, whereas CFs derived using other fractions and total soil varied by up to two orders of magnitude. CFs were highest for those soils containing the lowest concentrations of Mg, Ca and Ba, and approached a saturation value at higher soil concentrations. This finding suggests that group II elements influence radium uptake, most likely the result of increased pressure on the plant to take up essential nutrient group II elements from soil with the lower concentrations, with Ra being taken up as an analogue element. It is also possible that at higher concentrations of bioavailable Ca and Mg in the soil, these ions will outcompete Ra for adsorption sites in the soil and/or on the root surfaces. The study also shows that 228 Ra can potentially be a significant contributor to ingestion doses and should also be considered when assessing committed effective doses from the ingestion of fruits. -- Highlights: • Fruit and soil samples were taken from wild growing native passionfruit plants. • The sampling locations were on natural and U mining impacted sites. • Sequential extraction of the soil was undertaken. • Radium-226, radium-228 and other key elements were measured. • Concentration factors show the lowest variability in the bioavailable fraction

  4. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  5. Quinoa flour in baked products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K; Coulter, L

    1991-07-01

    The performance of quinoa-wheat flour blends (5/95, 10/90, 20/80, 30/70) were evaluated in breads, cakes and cookies. Breads baked with 5% and 10% quinoa flour were of good quality. Loaf volume decreased, crumb grain became more open and the texture slightly harsh at higher usage levels of quinoa flour. A bitter after taste was noted at the 30% level. Cake quality was acceptable with 5% and 10% of quinoa flour. Cake grain became more open and the texture less silky as the level of quinoa substitution increased. Cake taste improved with either 5% or 10% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and top grain scores decreased with increasing levels of quinoa flour blended with high-spread cookie flour. Flavor improved up to 20% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and cookie appearance was improved with a quinoa/low-spread flour blend by using 2% lecithin.

  6. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing in Passiflora edulis Sims to Identify Genes and Signaling Pathways Involved in Cold Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims, also known as the purple granadilla, is widely cultivated as the new darling of the fruit market throughout southern China. This exotic and perennial climber is adapted to warm and humid climates, and thus is generally intolerant of cold. There is limited information about gene regulation and signaling pathways related to the cold stress response in this species. In this study, two transcriptome libraries (KEDU_AP vs. GX_AP were constructed from the aerial parts of cold-tolerant and cold-susceptible varieties of P. edulis, respectively. Overall, 126,284,018 clean reads were obtained, and 86,880 unigenes with a mean size of 1449 bp were assembled. Of these, there were 64,067 (73.74% unigenes with significant similarity to publicly available plant protein sequences. Expression profiles were generated, and 3045 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between the KEDU_AP and GX_AP libraries, including 1075 (35.3% up-regulated and 1970 (64.7% down-regulated. These included 36 genes in enriched pathways of plant hormone signal transduction, and 56 genes encoding putative transcription factors. Six genes involved in the ICE1–CBF–COR pathway were induced in the cold-tolerant variety, and their expression levels were further verified using quantitative real-time PCR. This report is the first to identify genes and signaling pathways involved in cold tolerance using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing in P. edulis. These findings may provide useful insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating cold tolerance and genetic breeding in Passiflora spp.

  7. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour

    OpenAIRE

    Villela,Paula; Batista,Ângela Giovana; Dessimoni-Pinto,Nísia Andrade Villela

    2013-01-01

    Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with...

  8. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  9. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Villela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with 10 and 20% Annona crassiflora pulp. The results showed that the drying of Annona crassiflora pulp enriched its nutritional value. The Annona crassiflora pulp showed important chemical components, as insoluble fibers (pulp and flour, minerals (potassium, calcium, manganese and others and antioxidant compounds. The formulations were well-accepted in a sensory point of view and proved to be a good alternative to the exploitation of the fruit.

  10. Produção de néctar e visitas por abelhas em duas espécies cultivadas de Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae Nectar production and bee visits in two cultivated species of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Galarda Varassin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A atividade dos polinizadores é afetada pela disponibilidade de recursos. Flores que produzem mais néctar podem ser mais visitadas e assim apresentar maior produção de frutos. O efeito da produção de néctar na atividade dos polinizadores foi testado em duas espécies cultivadas de maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis e Passiflora edulis Sims, em Morretes, Paraná. Botões foram ensacados e o néctar acumulado das flores foi coletado em intervalos de 1 h. Em P. alata o volume e a concentração de solutos no néctar aumentaram durante o período de antese, associados com o aumento da temperatura. Em P. edulis, o volume aumentou durante o período diurno da antese, e decresceu após as 18 horas. A concentração de solutos no néctar permaneceu constante. A taxa média de visitação de Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier em P. alata foi de 1,7 visitas/100flores/hora e em P. edulis foi de 6,6 visitas/100flores/hora, sendo constante durante a antese. A taxa média de visitação de Bombus morio (Swederus em P. alata foi de 5,8 visitas/100flores/hora, sendo mais alta no início da antese. A constância das visitas de X. frontalis deve estar associada à produção contínua de néctar em ambas as espécies de maracujazeiros. Como as espécies são xenogâmicas, a manutenção das visitas é importante para propiciar o fluxo de pólen entre indivíduos e assim garantir boa produção de frutos.Pollinator activity is affected by resource availability. Flowers that produce more nectar are visited more, which results in a greater fruit set. The effect of nectar production on pollinator activity was tested in two cultivated species of passion fruit, Passiflora alata Curtis and Passiflora edulis Sims, in Morretes, Paraná. Flower buds were bagged and the accumulated nectar of flowers was collected hourly. The volume and concentration of nectar of P. alata increased during anthesis, which was associated with rising temperatures. The volume of nectar of P

  11. The arms race between heliconiine butterflies and Passiflora plants - new insights on an ancient subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro de Castro, Érika Cristina; Zagrobelny, Mika; Cardoso, Márcio Z.

    2018-01-01

    , are morphological defences reported in this plant genus. Moreover, Passiflora plants are well protected chemically, not only by cyanogenic glucosides, but also by other compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenolics. Heliconiines can synthesize cyanogenic glucosides themselves...

  12. Biologia reprodutiva de Passiflora capsularis L. e P. pohlii Mast. (Decaloba, Passifloraceae Reproductive biology of Passiflora capsularis L. e P. pohlii Mast. (Decaloba, Passifloracae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Santos Faria

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O subgênero Decaloba, ao qual pertencem as espécies de Passiflora L. com flores pequenas, é pouco estudado do ponto de vista reprodutivo, o qual pode contribuir para esclarecimento das relações filogenéticas no gênero Passiflora. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia reprodutiva e a polinização de populações de duas espécies desse subgênero, P. capsularis e P. pohlii, ocorrentes no estado de Minas Gerais. Determinou-se a receptividade do estigma, viabilidade dos grãos de pólen e a concentração do néctar. Foram realizadas polinizações controladas para verificar o sistema reprodutivo. Foram registrados os visitantes florais e a carga polínica. As flores de ambas as espécies abrem à noite; em P. pohlii a antese iniciou-se por volta das 3 h e a senescência ocorreu por volta das 11 h, já em P. capsularis, a abertura se deu no mesmo horário, mas a senescência ocorreu por volta das 14h. A concentração do néctar e viabilidade do pólen foram, respectivamente, 34,88 ± 7,66% e 80 ± 0,15% em P. pohlii e 22,33 ± 5,82% e 92 ± 0,06% em P. capsularis. Passiflora pohlii é alógama e autoincompatível, enquanto que P. capsularis é autógama e autocompatível. Passiflora pohlii teve como polinizadores três espécies de abelhas do gênero Ptiloglossa (Colletidae, enquanto que em P. capsularis os visitantes florais observados foram considerados pilhadores de pólen e néctar. A antese noturna encontrada nas espécies de Passiflora estudadas sugere haver uma relação evolutiva entre espécies de Passiflora subg. Decaloba e himenópteros com hábito noturno, especialmente abelhas do gênero Ptiloglossa.The subgenus Decaloba (Passifloraceae is poorly studied on reproductive aspects, which may help our understanding on phylogenetic relationships in the genus. The purpose of this work was to study the reproductive biology and pollination of Passiflora pohlii and P. capsularis, two species belonging to this subgenus with

  13. Quantification of phytoprostanes - bioactive oxylipins - and phenolic compounds of Passiflora edulis Sims shell using UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS and LC-IT-DAD-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Sonia; Collado-González, Jacinta; Ferreres, Federico; Londoño-Londoño, Julián; Jiménez-Cartagena, Claudio; Guy, Alexandre; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2017-08-15

    The genus Passiflora, comprising about 500 species, is the largest in the Passion flower family. Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis (gulupa) is one of the most important fruits cultivated in Colombia. In recent years and due to its organoleptic and bioactive properties, its exports have significantly increased. In this work, six new bioactive oxylipins -phytoprostanes - were detected in gulupa shell by a UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method: F 1t -phytoprostanes and D 1t -phytoprostanes were the predominant and minor classes, respectively. Moreover, the polyphenol profile of the shell was investigated and we were able to detect and quantify phenolic compounds that have not been described previously, like luteolin-8-C-(2-O-rhamnosyl)hexoside and quercetin-3-O-(6″-acetyl)glucosyl-2″-sinapic acid. Consequently, this study provides new insights into the importance of gulupa shell as a valuable option in the design of new beverages rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, as part of a well-balanced diet, and in the process and quality control of such products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of Nutritious Flour from Residue Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L. for the Development of New Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Thiago Caldeira Souza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the fruit processing industry generates a high volume of waste in fruits that have not reached a quality standard for consumption or by-products generated throughout the production process. To reduce this waste, mitigating measures, such as reuse in food formulations, have been proposed. In this work the custard apple bagasse flour (Annona squamosa L. (CAB was produced and incorporated into cookie formulations in different proportions (5 to 50% evaluating its acceptability. The CAB flour was characterized by physicochemical analysis, proximate composition, mineral analysis, determination of the phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity. The results of the physicochemical and proximate characterizations show that the processed flour presents values and specifications suitable for food formulations. The mineral composition of the CAB flour responds to more than 20% of the daily intake of nutrients, highlighting the Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Mg. The composition of phenolic compounds for CAB flour and cookies formulations presented values ranging from 200 to 658 mg GAE/100 g, similar to flour and formulations prepared of residues tropical fruit, while DPPH• inhibition showed a variation of 9.68–10.75%. Cookies made from the CAB flour showed high acceptability making the flour promising in the nutritional incorporation in food formulations.

  15. The arms race between heliconiine butterflies and Passiflora plants - new insights on an ancient subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Érika C P; Zagrobelny, Mika; Cardoso, Márcio Z; Bak, Søren

    2018-02-01

    Heliconiines are called passion vine butterflies because they feed exclusively on Passiflora plants during the larval stage. Many features of Passiflora and heliconiines indicate that they have radiated and speciated in association with each other, and therefore this model system was one of the first examples used to exemplify coevolution theory. Three major adaptations of Passiflora plants supported arguments in favour of their coevolution with heliconiines: unusual variation of leaf shape within the genus; the occurrence of yellow structures mimicking heliconiine eggs; and their extensive diversity of defence compounds called cyanogenic glucosides. However, the protection systems of Passiflora plants go beyond these three features. Trichomes, mimicry of pathogen infection through variegation, and production of extrafloral nectar to attract ants and other predators of their herbivores, are morphological defences reported in this plant genus. Moreover, Passiflora plants are well protected chemically, not only by cyanogenic glucosides, but also by other compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenolics. Heliconiines can synthesize cyanogenic glucosides themselves, and their ability to handle these compounds was probably one of the most crucial adaptations that allowed the ancestor of these butterflies to feed on Passiflora plants. Indeed, it has been shown that Heliconius larvae can sequester cyanogenic glucosides and alkaloids from their host plants and utilize them for their own benefit. Recently, it was discovered that Heliconius adults have highly accurate visual and chemosensory systems, and the expansion of brain structures that can process such information allows them to memorize shapes and display elaborate pre-oviposition behaviour in order to defeat visual barriers evolved by Passiflora species. Even though the heliconiine-Passiflora model system has been intensively studied, the forces driving host-plant preference in these

  16. Effect of drying temperatures on starch-related functional and thermal properties of acorn flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, P R; Beirão-da-Costa, M L

    2011-03-01

    The application of starchy flours from different origins in food systems depends greatly on information about the chemical and functional properties of such food materials. Acorns are important forestry resources in the central and southern regions of Portugal. To preserve these fruits and to optimize their use, techniques like drying are needed. The effects of different drying temperatures on starch-related functional properties of acorn flours obtained from dried fruits of Quercus rotundifolia (QR) and Quercus suber (QS) were evaluated. Flours were characterized for amylose and resistant starch (RS) contents, swelling ability, and gelatinization properties. Drying temperature mainly affected amylose content and viscoamylographic properties. Amylograms of flours from fruits dried at 60 °C displayed higher consistency (2102 B.U. and 1560 B.U., respectively, for QR and QS). The transition temperatures and enthalpy were less affected by drying temperature, suggesting few modifications in starch structure during drying. QR flours presented different functional properties to those obtained from QS acorn flours. The effect of drying temperatures were more evident in QR.

  17. Avaliação preliminar in vivo do efeito hipocolesterolêmico do polvilho da fruta-de-lobo (Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil. Preliminary evaluation of in vivo hypocholesterolemic effect of the flour of fruit-of-wolf (Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A Rocha

    2012-01-01

    discreta vacuolização no citoplasma dos hepatócitos. Concluiu-se, que o polvilho da fruta-de-lobo não influenciou o colesterol sérico dos animais, entretanto, reduziu os níveis de colesterol hepático.The fruit-of-wolf flour is a product extracted from the pulp of green fruit-of-wolf (Solanum lycocarpum A. St .- Hil. and is commonly used. Little is known about this flour, but several therapeutic effects, including cholesterol reduction, are attributed to it. This study aimed to verify the action of the administration of fruit-of-wolf flour to hypercholesterolemic animals. We used 24 female Wistar rats allocated in randomized design to three groups containing 8 animals each. These groups were defined as normal control (CN, hypocholesterolemic control (CH and hypocholesterolemic treated rats (HT. The CN group received a commercial diet, while the CH and the HT group received the commercial diet enriched with cholesterol and cholic acid; the HT group also received 100 mg of fruit-of-wolf flour, daily, by orogastric tube. The experiment lasted for six weeks and the following characteristics were evaluated: weekly total serum cholesterol, weekly weight of animals and daily food intake. At the end of the experiment, we assessed the following parameters: serum cholesterol fractions HDL, LDL + VLDL, liver weight, liver total cholesterol, liver total lipids and microscopic slides were prepared for the evaluation of hepatocytes. There was no significant difference in body weight of animals, diet consumption and analysis of serum total cholesterol among the studied groups. Assessing the relationship VLDL + LDL / HDL, the levels found for the HT group were significantly lower than those for the CH group. As regards liver cholesterol, the HT group showed lower cholesterol levels than the CH group. For liver lipids there was no significant difference between the CH and the HT group, and for liver weight there was no significant difference among the studied groups. As to microscopy

  18. Quality assessment of dry noodles made from blend of mocaf flour, rice flour and corn flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifah, N.; Ratnawati, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mocaf flour, rice flour, and corn flour in different concentrations were used to produce dry noodles. The aims of this study were to investigate physicochemical properties of the flours and the quality characteristics of dry noodles made from these flours. Dry noodles were prepared by gelatinization of blending flours followed by feeding the dough to extruder and drying overnight in room temperature. Flours were analyzed for chemical and pasting properties and noodle samples were evaluated for chemical, cooking, and texture properties. The results showed there were significant differences in protein content and elongation between noodles made from blending mocaf and rice flour with that of blending mocaf, rice, and corn flour. The moisture, ash, and protein content of noodle samples ranged from 10.98 to 14.18%, 1.23 to 1.39%, and 4.09 to 5.58%, respectively. Values of noodle cooking quality were ranging from 12.0 - 13.8 minutes, 10.6 to 14.3%, and 204 to 248%, respectively for cooking time, cooking loss, and cooking weight. The elongation, hardness, and adhesiveness of noodles ranged from 276 to 374%, 3,523 to 10,478 gf, and -81.99 to -52.49 g.sec.

  19. The studies on the preparation of instant noodles from wheat flour supplementing withs weet potato flour

    OpenAIRE

    Taneya, M.L.J.; Biswas, M.M.H.; Shams-Ud-Din, M.

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on the effect of composite flours consisting of wheat and sweet potato flour on the physicochemical and sensory properties of instant noodles. Sweet potato flour was incorporated into wheat flour at flour replacement levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. The levels of sweet potato flours increased in the formulations of instant noodle that increased ash, starch, crude fiber and total carbohydrate contents but decreased level of protein. The instant noodles with 20% sweet potato flour...

  20. Genetic Diversity in Passiflora Species Assessed by Morphological and ITS Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiamala Devi Ramaiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used morphological characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA to investigate the phylogeny of Passiflora species. The samples were collected from various regions of East Malaysia, and discriminant function analysis based on linear combinations of morphological variables was used to classify the Passiflora species. The biplots generated five distinct groups discriminated by morphological variables. The group consisted of cultivars of P. edulis with high levels of genetic similarity; in contrast, P. foetida was highly divergent from other species in the morphological biplots. The final dataset of aligned sequences from nine studied Passiflora accessions and 30 other individuals obtained from GenBank database (NCBI yielded one most parsimonious tree with two strongly supported clades. Maximum parsimony (MP tree showed the phylogenetic relationships within this subgenus Passiflora support the classification at the series level. The constructed phylogenic tree also confirmed the divergence of P. foetida from all other species and the closeness of wild and cultivated species. The phylogenetic relationships were consistent with results of morphological assessments. The results of this study indicate that ITS region analysis represents a useful tool for evaluating genetic diversity in Passiflora at the species level.

  1. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, J.; Rosell, C. M.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  2. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Álvarez, J; García-Hernández, M J; Chávez, J A; Turó, A; Salazar, J; Rosell, C M

    2012-01-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  3. Search for alkaloids on callus culture of Passiflora alata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Wesz Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary work on Passiflora alata leaves failed to detect harmane alkaloids using LC. The aim of this work was to investigate the production of harmane alkaloids through the cell culture of P. alata, inducing its precursor (L-tryptophan. The leaf explants presented satisfactory results after disinfection, and the callus formation was initiated in MS media with adequate quantities of phytohormones. Sixty days after inoculation, calli were inoculated in the optimized semi-solid MS media, with and without the addition of L-tryptophan (50, 100, 200 mg/L and kept in standard conditions for 90 days. Calli were collected on days 6, 16, 26, 36, and 90, followed by acid-base extraction, and analysed by LC. The results showed an absence of harmane, harmin, harmol, harmalol, and harmaline. With L-tryptophan feeding, two peaks were detected, collected and analysed through positive mode electrospray [ESI(+-MS] and sequential analysis in tandem ESI(+-MS/MS. The spectra obtained were very similar, with a repetition of the more intense ions, and consecutive loss of 68 Da units, attributed to the heterocycle pyrazole. It appeared that this transformation was not related to any enzymatic pathway previously described for the plant from L-tryptophan, and the biosynthesis of β-carboline alkaloids in callus culture of P. alata were not observed in this work.As folhas de varias espécies de Passiflora são utilizadas como ansioliticas e sedativas. Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae consta em três edições da farmacopéia brasileira, porem não há muitos estudos sobre sua composição química. No passado, enfatizava-se a ação conjunta de alcalóides e flavonóides. Em trabalho anterior, não foi detectada a presença de alcalóides harmanicos através de CLAE. Assim, decidiu-se investigar a produção dos mesmos através de cultivo celular, introduzindo seu precursor metabólico L-triptofano. Os explantes foliares apresentaram resultados satisfatorios

  4. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and phosphated...

  5. Nectar production and bee visits in two cultivated species of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Ximenes, Brunna Maria Setti; Moreira, Priscila Ambrósio; Zanon, Mireille Maria Franco; Elbl, Paula; Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; Melo, Gabriel Augusto Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    A atividade dos polinizadores é afetada pela disponibilidade de recursos. Flores que produzem mais néctar podem ser mais visitadas e assim apresentar maior produção de frutos. O efeito da produção de néctar na atividade dos polinizadores foi testado em duas espécies cultivadas de maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis e Passiflora edulis Sims, em Morretes, Paraná. Botões foram ensacados e o néctar acumulado das flores foi coletado em intervalos de 1 h. Em P. alata o volume e a concentração de solu...

  6. Silver nano fabrication using leaf disc of Passiflora foetida Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Bipin D.; Patil, Anita S.

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of the experiment is to develop a greener low cost SNP fabrication steps using factories of secondary metabolites from Passiflora leaf extract. Here, the leaf extraction process is omitted, and instead a leaf disc was used for stable SNP fabricated by optimizing parameters such as a circular leaf disc of 2 cm (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) instead of leaf extract and grade of pH (7, 8, 9, 11). The SNP synthesis reaction is tried under room temperature, sun, UV and dark condition. The leaf disc preparation steps are also discussed in details. The SNP obtained using (1 mM: 100 ml AgNO3+ singular leaf disc: pH 9, 11) is applied against featured room temperature and sun condition. The UV spectroscopic analysis confirms that sun rays synthesized SNP yields stable nano particles. The FTIR analysis confirms a large number of functional groups such as alkanes, alkyne, amines, aliphatic amine, carboxylic acid; nitro-compound, alcohol, saturated aldehyde and phenols involved in reduction of silver salt to zero valent ions. The leaf disc mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles, minimizes leaf extract preparation step and eligible for stable SNP synthesis. The methods sun and room temperature based nano particles synthesized within 10 min would be use certainly for antimicrobial activity.

  7. Dissolution test of herbal medicines containing Passiflora sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane R. T. Costa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicines in the solid dosage form for oral use. This work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of three herbal medicines in the form of capsules and tablet containing Passiflora, produced with powder or dried extract. Assay of total flavonoids and dissolution methods were validated and obtained results allowed the quantification of flavonoids with precision, accuracy and selectivity. The percentage of total flavonoids found was 2% for capsule A (containing only powder, 0.97% for capsule B (containing only dried extract and 5.5% for tablet. Although the content was lower, the release of flavonoids present in the capsule containing dried extract was 12% higher over 30 min, with dissolved percentage values of 87 and 75, for the capsules containing extract and powder, respectively. The tablet containing dried extract presented dissolution of 76%, despite the higher content of flavonoids, which may be due to pharmacotechnical problems. Obtained data demonstrated the need to implement these tests in the quality control of herbal medicines, confirming the release of the active ingredients that underlie the pharmacological action of these medicines.

  8. Efeito da sacarose e sorbitol na conservação in vitro de Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown Sucrose and sorbitol effect in the in vitro conservation of Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Amorim Faria

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito da sacarose e do sorbitol na conservação in vitro de um acesso de Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em que foi comparado o tratamento-testemunha (MS padrão com o meio MS suplementado com três concentrações de sacarose (0; 15 e 30 g L-1 em combinação com três concentrações de sorbitol (10; 20 e 40 g L-1. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 30; 60; 90 e 120 dias de incubação, observando-se o comprimento das brotações (cm, número de raízes, número e coloração das folhas. Os resultados mostram ser possível conservar sob crescimento lento, por quatro meses, microplantas de maracujazeiro em meio de cultura MS suplementado com 10 ou 20 g L-1 de sorbitol, na ausência de sacarose, e mantidas sob condições de fotoperíodo de 16 h (22 µE m-2s-1 e temperatura de 27 ± 1 ºC. A sacarose promoveu maior desenvolvimento de microplantas. A rizogênese é afetada pelo sorbitol na concentração de 40 g L-1 e pela ausência de sacarose no meio de cultura.This work objectified the study of sucrose and sorbitol effect in the in vitro conservation for Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown, access. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design to compare control treatment (standard MS to MS medium supplemented with three sucrose concentrations (0, 15 and 30 g L-1 combined with three sorbitol concentrations (10, 20 and 40 g L-1, in a total of 10 treatments with 20 replicas. The experiment evaluation was carried out at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of incubation, whereas the height of shoots (cm, number of roots, number and color of leaves were observed. The results showed the possibility to maintain passion-fruit microplants for a four months period under slow growth in MS medium supplemented with 10 or 20 g L-1 of sorbitol, without sucrose, and kept under 16 hours photoperiod (22 µ E m-2 s-1 and

  9. Effect of Soaking Time in Sodium Metabisulfite Solution on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Durian Seed Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumoro Andri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to its high carbohydrate and gum contents, durian seed flour has been used as a substitute to wheat flour in butter cake and cookies manufactures. Unfortunately, processing of fruit seeds into flour may be hampered by discoloration, which may affect the nutrition and sensory quality of the food products. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of soaking time on the physicochemical and functional properties of durian seed flour. Durian seed chips were soaked in 0.6% w/v sodium metabisulfite solution as anti-browning agent at 30°C for desired periods (40, 60, 80, 100, 120 minutes, followed by drying at 50°C for 17 hours, milling and sieving to obtain flour. The flour was analyzed for its moisture, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrate contents, sulfite residue, yield, gelatinization temperature, and water and oil absorption capacities (WAC and OAC. The results showed that longer soaking time reduced the moisture and ash content of durian seed flour, but increased most of the other studied parameters. The WAC, OAC and fat content were less affected by soaking time. It can be concluded that soaking of durian seed chips in sodium metabisulfite solution can improve the nutrition and functional properties of flour. Based on the residual sulfite content, durian seed flour obtained in this work is safe for consumption.

  10. Estudos anatômicos e ultraestruturais de sistemas de regeneração in vitro de Passiflora cincinnata Masters e Passiflora edulis Sims (Passifloraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Diego Ismael

    2011-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever, através de análises anatômicas e ultraestruturais, o processo de regeneração in vitro de Passiflora cincinnata Masters, via embriogênese somática, a partir de embriões zigóticos e de Passiflora edulis Sims, via organogênese, a partir de explantes radiculares. Embriões zigóticos maduros de P. cincinnata foram colocados em meio de indução MS suplementado com 18,1 μM de 2,4-D e 4,4 μM de BAP. Embriões somáticos originaram-se a partir de z...

  11. Method of Converting Wheat Flour Quantity into Rice Flour Quantity in Cookies (Part-1)

    OpenAIRE

    村田,美穂子; 髙橋,由加

    2016-01-01

    A method of converting the wheat flour quantity of a recipe of wheat-flour cookies into the rice flour quantity of a recipe of rice-flour cookies used domestically for wheat-allergic children was studied. The proportion of the water content with respect to the flour content (the wheat or rice flour content) in cut cookies prepared according to a commercially available recipe was obtained. Next, four types of rice-flour cookies were prepared according to a recipe for wheat-flour cookies using ...

  12. BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL APPROACH ON PASSIFLORA SPP. – NEW NUTRACEUTICAL CROP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Eugenia SESAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been performed a complex investigation – morpho-anatomical, physiological, taxonomical and phytochemical one – of Passiflora nutraceutical plants from Hofigal S.A., in the frame of project PN-II-PCCA-2013-4-0995, contract 160 (MAIA/2014. Anatomic analysis of leaf lamina, petiole and stem, provided data with taxonomical importance, leading to the conclusion that plant material belongs to Passiflora caerulea L., in concordance with world monographers of Passiflora genus: VANDERPLANK (2000 and ULMAN & MacDOUGAL (2004. Physiological investigation referred to the following parameters: coefficient k, leaf area index (LAI, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance and yield of green plant biomass. Phytochemical investigation consisted in analyzing active principles (polyphenols, flavonoids content, in correlation with their antioxidant activity and determination of cytotoxicity of Passiflora extracts in NCTC cell line. At 10-150 µg/ml concentrations, it was recorded a normal cell morphology. At concentrations over 250 µg/ml, the plant extract become cytotoxic, altering the cell membrane structure, cells viability and proliferation.

  13. Landscape Distance and Connectivity Effects on Pollination of Passiflora incarnata L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, A.F.

    2000-05-05

    To test the effect of landscape distance and habitat corridors on pollen-mediated gene flow between fragmentary plant populations, principle investigator used fluorescent dye as a pollen analog, unique tags on pollinators and known allozyme markers using experimental and wildtype Passiflora incarnata at Savannah River Site. Results indicate no significant effect of a corridor on pollen-mediated gene flow.

  14. Biología floral de Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Amela García

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento reproductivo muestra que Passiflora foetida es autocompatible. Observaciones de las características florales y de los visitantes durante la antesis, más el análisis del polen transportado, permitieron identificar el síndrome floral (melitofilia y las funciones de cada visitante. La antesis ocurre desde las 6 hasta las 11 hs. Se identificaron 3 fases florales: 1 estigmas por encima de las anteras, 2 estigmas a la altura de las anteras, 3 estigmas por encima de las anteras; los radii, los pétalos y los sépalos se incurvan. Los estigmas están receptivos durante toda la antesis. La concentración de azúcares del néctar es 34 %. El color predominante en el espectro visible es el blanco. En el espectro UV, los estambres y el gineceo contrastan con el limen y el androginóforo; pueden ser una guía de néctar. Tres especies de himenópteros fueron los visitantes más frecuentes y constantes: Ptiloglossa tarsata (Colletidae siempre contactan las anteras y los estigmas cuando liban, transportan un alto porcentaje de polen de P. foetida y visitan flores en fase 1 y 2; pueden ser considerados los principales polinizadores. Pseudaugochloropsis sp. (Halictidae raramente contactan las anteras o los estigmas cuando perforan el limen para acceder al néctar y visitan flores en fase 2 y 3; son ladrones de néctar que raramente polinizan. Augochlorella sp. (Halictidae recolectan polen sin tocar los estigmas y visitan flores en fase 2 y 3; son hurtadores de polen.A reproductive experiment shows that Passiflora foetida is autocompatible. Observations of floral characteristics and visitors during anthesis, plus the analysis of pollen allowed identification of floral syndrome (melittophily and functions for each visitor. Anthesis occurs from 6 to 11 AM. Three floral phases were identified: 1 stigmas above anthers, 2 stigmas at anther level, 3 stigmas above anthers; radii, petals and sepals become incurved. The stigmas are receptive during the

  15. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Passiflora suberosa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani Prabodha Sudasinghe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Passiflora suberosa L. (Family: Passifloraceae; common name: wild passion fruit, devil’s pumpkin are used in Sri Lankan traditional medicine for treating diabetes. The present study investigated the in vivo ability of P. suberosa leaves to manage blood sugar status and associated cholesterol levels. Mechanisms of action and toxicity were also determined. Phytochemical screening of aqueous extracts of P. suberosa leaves and carbohydrate content of the leaves were determined according to previously published methods. In two group of male mice (n = 9, effects on fasting and random blood glucose levels (BGLs of different acute doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous leaf extract (ALE were evaluated at 1, 3, and 5 h post-treatment. In another set of mice, the fasting BGL was evaluated following treatment of 0 or 50 mg/kg ALE (dose prescribed in traditional medicine for 30 consecutive days. The lipid profile, some mechanism of ALE action (diaphragm glucose uptake, glycogen content in the liver and skeletal muscles and its toxicity (behavioural observation, food and water intake, hepatoxicity were also assessed following 30-day treatment. However, sucrose and glucose tolerance tests and intestinal glucose uptake were conducted to determine portion of mechanisms of action following single dose of 50 mg/kg ALE. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins. Carbohydrate content of the leaves was 12.97%. The maximum hypoglycemic effect was observed after 4 h of 50 and 100 mg/kg ALE administration. The extract decreased fasting BGL (18% following an oral sucrose challenge and inhibited (79% glucose absorption from the intestine. Correspondingly, the levels of glycogen in the liver (61% and in the skeletal muscles (57% were found be higher than that of the control group. The levels of total cholesterol (17% and tri

  16. Evaluation of processed green and ripe mango peel and pulp flours (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant compounds and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Wong, Lee Min; Bhat, Rajeev; Cheng, Lai Hoong

    2012-02-01

    Mango is a highly perishable seasonal fruit and large quantities are wasted during the peak season as a result of poor postharvest handling procedures. Processing surplus mango fruits into flour to be used as a functional ingredient appears to be a good preservation method to ensure its extended consumption. In the present study, the chemical composition, bioactive/antioxidant compounds and functional properties of green and ripe mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) peel and pulp flours were evaluated. Compared to commercial wheat flour, mango flours were significantly low in moisture and protein, but were high in crude fiber, fat and ash content. Mango flour showed a balance between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber proportions, with total dietary fiber content ranging from 3.2 to 5.94 g kg⁻¹. Mango flours exhibited high values for bioactive/antioxidant compounds compared to wheat flour. The water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity of mango flours ranged from 0.36 to 0.87 g kg⁻¹ and from 0.18 to 0.22 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Results of this study showed mango peel flour to be a rich source of dietary fiber with good antioxidant and functional properties, which could be a useful ingredient for new functional food formulations. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat flour. 137.200 Section 137.200 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.200 Whole wheat flour. (a) Whole wheat flour, graham flour, entire wheat flour is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned wheat, other than durum wheat and red durum...

  18. Assaying total carotenoids in flours of corn and sweet potato flours by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kijak, K.; Grbesa, D.; Martinez, E.; Spruijt, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for quantification of total carotenoids (TC) in corn flours and sweetpotato flours. Overall, thirty-three different corn flours and nine sweetpotato flours were investigated. All PAS measurements were performed at

  19. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2018-02-11

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  20. Cultivation and fruit body production of Lentinus squarrosulus Mont ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mycelia growth of Lentinus squarrosulus culture on the leaves and bark of common fruit trees were investigated. The effect of supplementing these fruit trees with 25% each of rice bran, horse dung, poultry droppings, cow dung, fresh cassava flour and oil palm waste fiber on the mycelia growth of this fungus was also ...

  1. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties of Tamarind Fruit Pulp and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both seed dhal and flour treated with tamarind fruit pulp had lower mean TBA values ranging from 2.80 to 4.12 ppm Malonaldehyde as against 4.55 to 4.91 ppm for untreated samples. Tamarind fruit can thus be further studied for possible exploitation as a natural antioxidant for use in food, drug and cosmetic products.

  2. The Effect of Piceatannol from Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis Seeds on Metabolic Health in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munehiro Kitada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies have shown the beneficial effects of piceatannol on metabolic health; however, there is a lack of human studies designed to examine these effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of piceatannol on metabolic health in humans. This randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 39 subjects, including 10 overweight men and 9 overweight women (BMI ≥ 25, as well as 10 non-overweight men and 10 non-overweight women (BMI < 25. Subjects received piceatannol (20 mg/day or placebo capsules for eight weeks in a random order. The primary outcome was the effect of piceatannol on glucose-metabolism, including insulin sensitivity. The secondary outcomes were the effects on other parameters, including blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1 and phospho-AMP-activated kinase (p-AMPK expression in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs. Supplementation with piceatannol in overweight men reduced serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, BP and HR. Other groups, including non-overweight men, as well as overweight and non-overweight women, showed no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, BP and HR. Furthermore, piceatannol is not associated with other data, including body weight (BW, body composition, endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1/p-AMPK expression in PBMNCs. In conclusion, supplementation with piceatannol can improve metabolic health, including insulin sensitivity, BP and HR, in overweight men.

  3. Número floral, clima, densidad poblacional de Xylocopa spp. (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae y polinización del maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    airon M Da Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available La influencia del número de flores en la antesis del maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. y de los factores climáticos sobre la actividad polinizadora y densidad poblacional de las abejas del género Xylocopa fue estudiada en condiciones de campo. El menor porcentaje de formación de frutos (14.3% se observó cuando había menos de 0.8 flores en la antesis/m linear de "soporte". Entre 0.8 y 1.2 flores en antesis/m linear de "soporte" se observó aumento en el porcentaje de frutos formados y en el número de visitas por parte de la abeja. Con más de 1.2 flores en la antesis/m linear de "soporte", hubo menor porcentaje de frutos formados en función del número de visitas de la abeja. La mayor densidad de Xylocopa spp. (49 abejas/ha/hora se observó entre las 14: 00 y 15: 00 hr cuando los factores climáticos como la temperatura, la humedad relativa del aire y la insolación obtuvieron valores en torno de 26 °C, 55% y 0.56, respectivamente. Temperatura y humedad relativa del aire arriba de esos valores redujeron la densidad de Xylocopa spp., mientras que con mayor insolación fue verificado aumento en la misma.The relationship of weather conditions, passion fruit vines (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa flower number, density of carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp., Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae and effective pollinization was studied in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Low levels of viable fruits (14.3% were observed when there were less flowers/ row (< 0.8 flowers in anthesis/ linear meter. When densities of flowers in anthesis were between 0.8 and 1.2, there was a higher proportion of viable flowers and more visits by Xylocopa spp. (maximum: seven visits/ flower. Above 1.2 flowers in anthesis/ linear meter there was a linear increase in the proportion of viable fruits and visits by Xylocopa spp. However; numbers were lower than in days with 0.8-1.2 flowers in anthesis/ linear meter. The highest bee density (ca. 49 bees/ ha/ hr was between 2

  4. Chemical constituents and technological functional properties of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. waste flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rezende Marques

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acerola is a fruit that can be consumed in the form of juice and pulp. However, during its processing, a large amount of waste is generated (seed and bagasse. Adding value to these by-products is of great interest, since their use can enrich foods with nutrients and fiber. In this study, we performed phytochemical screening, determined the proximate and mineral composition, bioactive compounds and the technological functional properties of acerola seed flour and acerola bagasse flour. Seeds were dried in a ventilated oven at ± 45 °C and the bagasse was lyophilized. Samples were ground, stored in flasks protected from light. Phytochemical screening revealed metabolites of nutritional and pharmacological interest and no potentially toxic substances in the flours. Seed flour and bagasse flour showed high levels (g 100 g- 1 of dry matter - DM of soluble fiber: 4.76 and 8.74; insoluble fiber: 75.76 and 28.58, and phenolic compounds: 4.73 and 10.82, respectively. The flours also showed high absorption of water, oil and emulsion stability, presenting potential for inclusion in meat products and bakery products.

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of composite flour from canna flour (Canna edulis) and lima bean flour (Phaseolus lunatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, Danar; Tryas, Anisha Ayuning; Affandi, Dian Rachmawanti; Atmaka, Windi; Ariyantoro, Achmad Ridwan; Minardi, Slamet

    2018-02-01

    The diversity of Indonesian local food sources has potential to be developed for supporting food security based development of local food diversification. Canna tubers (Canna edulis) and lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) are two local commodities in Indonesia which under is utilization and has limited assessment to its characteristics. This study aimed at determining the best formula of composite flour based on physical and chemical properties of composite flour produced. There were three formulas, F1 for 85% of canna flour and 15%of lima beans flour, F2 for 70% of canna flour and 30% of lima beans flour and F3 for 55% of canna flour and 45% of lima beans flour. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted and completely randomized design was used. De Garmo analysis was then used to determine the highest effectiveness index from the three formulas developed in this study and F3 demonstrated the highest effectiveness index (0.545) among three formulas evaluated. Thus, formula (F3) was selected as the best composite of the flour developed from canna flour and lima beans flour.

  6. Clonación y micropropagación de curuba (Passiflora mollissima Bailey a partir de embriones somáticos provenientes de hojas | Cloning and micropropagation of banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima Bailey from leaf somatic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Pilar Acosta-Zambrano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima Bailey is a fruit from the Andean region and is used as raw material for the preparation of various food products. Tests were carried out for its in vitro multiplication using somatic embryos obtained from its leaves. A disinfection using sodium hypochlorite for 5 minutes and Murashige and Skoog (MS growth medium protocols with 1 mg/L of gibberellins was designed in order to induce germination. Vitro explants were selected for the multiplication in the MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of benzyl aminopurine and 1 mg/L of naphthenic acid. The stronger leaves were selected and inoculated in the MS medium and Woody Plant (WPM. The formation of embryos was observed since the third week. The formed plants were inoculated in a WPM medium with 1 mg/L of benzyl aminopurine. A 2-ip WPM 1 mg/L medium was used for the rooting period. Finally, they were acclimatized in peat with earth or pearlite, and then planted in pots with earth for further studies. Seed disinfection using sodium hypochlorite presented 20% contamination and 80% of plants germination, proving to be the best disinfectant (p < 0.05. From this last procedure, somatic embryos of leaves in a 2-ip WPM with 1 mg/L were obtained. The ideal acclimatization occurred in the medium with peat and earth, in which case the survival level obtained was 100% by comparison with earth and pearlite, in which no plant growth was observed. Micropropagation represents an economic and effective technique in the breeding of pathogen-free plants.

  7. Biological activities and phytochemical profile of Passiflora mucronata from the Brazilian restinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon H. de Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In general, Passiflora species have been reported for their folk medicinal use as sedative and anti-inflammatory. However, P. caerulea has already been reported to treat pulmonary diseases. Severe pulmonary tuberculosis, generally caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to multiple drugs, can lead to deleterious inflammation and high mortality, encouraging new approaches in drug discovery. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the Passiflora mucronata Lam., Passifloraceae, potential for tuberculosis treatment. Specifically, related to antimycobacterial activity and anti-inflammatory related effects (based on inhibition of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and antioxidant potential, as well as the chemical profile of P. mucronata. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array ultraviolet and mass spectrometer analyses of crude hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed the presence of flavonoids. Ethyl acetate fraction showed to be as antioxidant as Ginkgo biloba standard extract with EC50 of 14.61 ± 1.25 µg/ml. One major flavonoid isolated from ethyl acetate fraction was characterized as isoorientin. The hexane fraction and its main isolated compound, the triterpene β-amyrin, exhibited significant growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG (MIC50 1.61 ± 1.43 and 3.93 ± 1.05 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, Passiflora mucronata samples, specially hexane and dichloromethane fractions, as well as pure β-amyrin, showed a dose-related inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide production. In conclusion, Passiflora mucronata presented relevant biological potential and should be considered for further studies using in vivo pulmonary tuberculosis model.

  8. Organoleptic characteristics and nutritive value estimation of baked food products from Manonjaya variety salacca flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarto; Aprianty, D.; Bachtiar, R. A.; Kristiana, L.

    2018-01-01

    Manonjaya salacca (snake fruit) is one of the original varieties of Indonesia which is currently declining due to the quality of taste less favoured than the snake fruit on the market. This variety in the future is feared to be lost, so it is necessary to revitalize the utilization of this snake fruit by diversifying processed products, one of them is baked food products from Manonjaya salacca flour. The purpose of this research was to know the acceptance level of baked food products from Manonjaya salacca flour organoleptically and the nutritional value estimation. This research method was observational with a descriptive explanation. Panellists in this study were consumers with a total of 61 people. Organoleptically, respondents tend to value cake, muffin, cookies, and flakes in every color, flavor, taste, and texture parameters. Nutritional value per 100 g of baked food products from Salacca flour (cake, muffin, cookies, flakes) were energy 287.5-479.0 kcal, water 0.8-3.8 g, protein 6.0-6.7 g, fat 0.8-31.0 g, carbohydrates 45.0-98.8 g, and fiber 1.1-4.6 g. Panellists were accepted the organoleptic characteristics and the estimated nutritional values on baked food products from Manonjaya variety salacca flour were varied.

  9. Chemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts from five species of the Passiflora genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marna E Sakalem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversified genus Passiflora is well distributed all over Brazil, and many species have been long used as medicinal plants, mainly against anxiety disturbances. This effect has been attributed to its rich flavonoid composition. Flavonoids’ main class, flavonoid glycosides, has presented central action, particularly as sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic and analgesic. The objective of the present study was to make a phytochemical screening of five little studied Passiflora species, in order to evaluate their phenolic composition. For this aim, HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS was used. After the preparation of the hydroalcoholic extracts, each species was evaluated by direct injection electrospray ionization (ESI and tandem mass spectrometry. Although belonging to the same genus, the composition of each species presented particularities; this justifies the importance of studies aiming for the phenolic composition of different Passiflora species. Flavones C-glycosides were detected in all extracts, and are found as the main constituents in P. vitifolia, P. coccinea, P. bahiensis and P. sidifolia. In this last one, flavone-6,8-di-C-glycoside, apigenin-6-C-rhamnosyl-8-C-arabinoside are present in high content. Cyclopassiflosides were found in high content together with cyanogenic glycosides in P. quadrangularis, while in P. coccinea, besides flavones-C-glycosides were also found procyanidins.

  10. Chemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts from five species of the Passiflora genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marna E Sakalem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversified genus Passiflora is well distributed all over Brazil, and many species have been long used as medicinal plants, mainly against anxiety disturbances. This effect has been attributed to its rich flavonoid composition. Flavonoids’ main class, flavonoid glycosides, has presented central action, particularly as sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic and analgesic. The objective of the present study was to make a phytochemical screening of five little studied Passiflora species, in order to evaluate their phenolic composition. For this aim, HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS was used. After the preparation of the hydroalcoholic extracts, each species was evaluated by direct injection electrospray ionization (ESI and tandem mass spectrometry. Although belonging to the same genus, the composition of each species presented particularities; this justifies the importance of studies aiming for the phenolic composition of different Passiflora species. Flavones C-glycosides were detected in all extracts, and are found as the main constituents in P. vitifolia, P. coccinea, P. bahiensis and P. sidifolia. In this last one, flavone-6,8-di-C-glycoside, apigenin-6-C-rhamnosyl-8-C-arabinoside are present in high content. Cyclopassiflosides were found in high content together with cyanogenic glycosides in P. quadrangularis, while in P. coccinea, besides flavones-C-glycosides were also found procyanidins.

  11. The rediscovery of Passiflora kwangtungensis Merr. (subgenus Decaloba supersection Disemma: a critically endangered Chinese endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Krosnick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora kwangtungensis is a critically endangered Chinese species known from Guangxi, Guangdong, and Jiangxi Provinces. The species belongs to Passiflora subgenus Decaloba, supersection Disemma, section Octandranthus. Field observations decreased rapidly during the 1970s to 1980s, and it was suspected that this species might have been extirpated due to repeated deforestation events throughout southern China. In recent years, however, small isolated populations of this species have been rediscovered in Hunan Province, representing new locality records for P. kwangtungensis. New herbarium collections, color photographs, and silica gel collections have provided an unexpected opportunity to examine the evolutionary significance of this species. The current study presents a revised morphological description of P. kwangtungensis based on fresh material, along with an updated distribution map. Using nrITS sequence data, preliminary insights into the phylogenetic position of P. kwangtungensis are presented. Molecular data support the placement of P. kwangtungensis within supersection Disemma section Octandranthus. However, the exact placement of P. kwangtungensis within this lineage is unclear. The nrITS data suggest that P. kwangtungensis may be sister to a clade containing Passiflora from China, Nepal, India, and Southeast Asia. Morphologically, P. kwangtungensis displays the most similarity P. geminiflora (Nepal, India and P. henryi (China. Lastly, conservation status and recommendations are made for P. kwangtungensis following the IUCN Red List Criteria, where this species is classified as CR C1+C2a(i; D.

  12. Apoptosis caused by triterpenes and phytosterols and antioxidant activity of an enriched flavonoid extract and from Passiflora mucronata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Isabel Cristina Vieira; Kaluderovic, Goran; de Oliveira, Pollyana Felix; Guimaraes, Denise Oliveira; Quaresma, Carla Holandino; Porzel, Andrea; Muzitano, Michelle Frazao; Wessjohann, Ludger A; Leal, Ivana Correa Ramos

    2018-03-14

    The genus Passiflora is knew for food consumption mainly and it extracts present a variety of methabolites, including flavones, alkaloids and triterpenes usually correlated with their antioxidant and antitumoral activities. P. mucronata (Pm) is from Brazil South America and is characterized as "Maracujá de Restinga", being used in the folk medicine for treating insomnia and soothing. The present study evaluated in the first time, the antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the hydroalcoholic leaves extract and fractions from Pm. Their cytotoxic effects were against human prostate cancer (PC3) and mouse malignant melanoma (B16F10) cell lines, by the MTT and CV assays. β-Amyrin, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were isolated as the main components of the most active hexane fraction. These substances were tested individually against the tumor cell lines, whereby β-sitosterol and stigmasterol showed the most relevant activity to PC3 in CV assay and, oleanolic acid to B16F10 by the MTT assay. In addition, these compounds were analysed to cell cycle arrest, and stigmasterol decreased the number of cells in B16F10 line in the G1/G0 phase and subsequently, increased the cell number in sub-G1 phase, presumably indicating apoptosis as possible mode of cell death.The antioxidant activity by the DPPH method showed that the hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves presented higher antioxidant activity (EC50= 133.3 µg/mL) compared to the flowers (EC50= 152.3 µg/mL) and fruits (EC50=207.9 µg/mL) extracts. By the HPLC-MS it was possible to identify the main flavones present in the leaf extract (isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isovitexin, vitexin, isoorientin, orientin). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Characteristics of Analog Rice From Potato Flour (Solanum Tuberosom L.) Corn Flour (Zea Mays L.) and Sago Flour (Arenga Microcarpa Beccari)

    OpenAIRE

    Korompis, Olga S; Mamuaja, Christine F; Mandey, Lucia C

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), corn (Zea mays L.) and sago (Arenga microcarpa Beccari) are crops containing high carbohydrate, as source of calory food, and those can be made into rice analog. This study aimed: (1) to determine the formulations by organoleptic test in manufacture analog rice from potato flour, corn flour and sago flour, and (2) to analyze the physical properties, chemical properties of rice analog from potato flour with the addition of corn flour and sago flour. The research ...

  14. Screening of Passiflora species for reaction to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus reveals an immune wild species Seleção de espécies de Passiflora inoculadas com o vírus do mosaico do caupi revela a imunidade de uma espécie selvagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheila da Conceição Maciel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV is a potyvirus that causes the most serious virus disease of passion fruit crops in Brazil. It is transmitted by several species of aphids in a non-persistent, non-circulative manner. The reaction of 16 species of Passiflora to infection by mechanical inoculation with four Brazilian isolates of CABMV was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Only P. suberosa, a wild species, was resistant to infection by all virus isolates, in two independent assays. P. suberosa grafted onto infected P. edulis f. flavicarpa did not develop symptoms; neither was the virus detected by RT-PCR in the upper leaves, suggesting that this species is immune to CABMV.O vírus do mosaico do caupi (Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus - CABMV é um potyvirus que causa uma das mais importantes doenças do maracujazeiro no Brasil. O vírus é transmitido por diversas espécies de afídeos de maneira não persistente, não circulativa. A reação de 16 espécies de Passiflora à infecção com quatro isolados brasileiros do CABMV, por meio de inoculação mecânica foi avaliada em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Somente a espécie selvagem P. suberosa foi resistente à infecção com todos os isolados do CABMV, em dois ensaios independentes. Plantas de P. suberosa enxertadas em plantas de P. edulis f. flavicarpa infectadas com o CABMV também não desenvolveram sintomas da doença. O vírus também não foi detectado por RT-PCR nas folhas superiores das plantas, sugerindo que essa espécie é imune ao CABMV.

  15. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  16. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is added...

  17. Correlation of concentration of modified cassava flour for banana fritter flour using simple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminiati, A.; Rahman, T.; Turmala, E.; Fitriany, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of different concentrations of modified cassava flour that was processed for banana fritter flour. The research method consists of two stages: (1) to determine the different types of flour: cassava flour, modified cassava flour-A (using the method of the lactid acid bacteria), and modified cassava flour-B (using the method of the autoclaving cooling cycle), then conducted on organoleptic test and physicochemical analysis; (2) to determine the correlation of concentration of modified cassava flour for banana fritter flour, by design was used simple linear regression. The factors were used different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B (y1) 40%, (y2) 50%, and (y3) 60%. The response in the study includes physical analysis (whiteness of flour, water holding capacity-WHC, oil holding capacity-OHC), chemical analysis (moisture content, ash content, crude fiber content, starch content), and organoleptic (color, aroma, taste, texture). The results showed that the type of flour selected from the organoleptic test was modified cassava flour-B. Analysis results of modified cassava flour-B component containing whiteness of flour 60.42%; WHC 41.17%; OHC 21.15%; moisture content 4.4%; ash content 1.75%; crude fiber content 1.86%; starch content 67.31%. The different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B with the results of the analysis provides correlation to the whiteness of flour, WHC, OHC, moisture content, ash content, crude fiber content, and starch content. The different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B does not affect the color, aroma, taste, and texture.

  18. Report on the development of putative functional SSR and SNP markers in passion fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Zirlane Portugal; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2017-09-06

    Passionflowers Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata are diploid, outcrossing and understudied fruit bearing species. In Brazil, passion fruit cultivation began relatively recently and has earned the country an outstanding position as the world's top producer of passion fruit. The fruit's main economic value lies in the production of juice, an essential exotic ingredient in juice blends. Currently, crop improvement strategies, including those for underexploited tropical species, tend to incorporate molecular genetic approaches. In this study, we examined a set of P. edulis transcripts expressed in response to infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis, (the passion fruit's main bacterial pathogen that attacks the vines), aiming at the development of putative functional markers, i.e. SSRs (simple sequence repeats) and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). A total of 210 microsatellites were found in 998 sequences, and trinucleotide repeats were found to be the most frequent (31.4%). Of the sequences selected for designing primers, 80.9% could be used to develop SSR markers, and 60.6% SNP markers for P. alata. SNPs were all biallelic and found within 15 gene fragments of P. alata. Overall, gene fragments generated 10,003 bp. SNP frequency was estimated as one SNP every 294 bp. Polymorphism rates revealed by SSR and SNP loci were 29.4 and 53.6%, respectively. Passiflora edulis transcripts were useful for the development of putative functional markers for P. alata, suggesting a certain level of sequence conservation between these cultivated species. The markers developed herein could be used for genetic mapping purposes and also in diversity studies.

  19. Superação de dormência de maracujá-do-mato (Passiflora cincinnata Mast. Overcoming dormancy seeds of passion fruit (Passiflora cincinnata mast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Xavier de Oliveira Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar métodos de superação de dormência em sementes de maracujá-do-mato (P. cincinnata Mast., foi conduzido o experimento em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste do Estado da Bahia - UESB, Câmpus de Vitória da Conquista - BA, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e três repetições, sendo 50 sementes por parcela: T1= sementes secas à sombra (Testemunha; T2= sementes secas ao sol (35 ±1ºC; T3= sementes secas à sombra com escarificação em lixa; T4= sementes secas à sombra tratadas com captana (0,2%; T5= sementes secas ao sol (35 ±1ºC com escarificação em lixa; T6= sementes secas à sombra aquecidas em banho-maria por 5 minutos, a 50ºC; T7= sementes secas à sombra aquecidas em banho-maria por 5 minutos, a 80ºC. As características avaliadas foram: porcentagem de germinação; porcentagem de emergência; índice de velocidade de emergência; altura das plântulas; diâmetro do caule; número de folhas; comprimento da raiz pivotante; massa da matéria seca total. Os resultados obtidos e analisados permitiram concluir que os melhores tratamentos para superação de dormência são o T3 (sementes secas à sombra com escarificação em lixa e T6 (sementes secas à sombra aquecidas em banho-maria por 5 minutos, a 50ºC.With the objective of evaluating the effect of different methods of dormancy break down on P.cincinnata Mast. seeds, a research was carried out in greenhouse at Bahia State University, Campus of Vitória da Conquista county, Bahia State, Brazil. The experimental design was a interely randomized blocks, composed of seven treatments and three replications, (T1-seeds dried in shade; T2-seeds dried in the sun; T3-seeds dried in shade followed by scarification; T4-seeds dried in shade and treated with captana (0,2%; T5-seeds dried in the sun followed by scarification; T6-seeds dried in shade and treated with hot water at 50ºC; T7-seeds dried in shade and treated with hot water at 80ºC. The obtained results showed that for overcoming seeds dormancy of P. cincinnata Mast. treatments T3 (seeds dried in shade followed by scarification and T6 (seeds dried in shade and treated with hot water at 50ºC presented the best results.

  20. Formulation and physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of biscuit-type cookies supplemented with fruit powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoa, Ana Maria Athayde; Correia da Costa, José Maria; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Meira, Tatyane Ribeiro; Sousa, Paulo Henrrique Machado; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2009-06-01

    Cashew apple and guava residues from fruit juice industry were prepared as dehydrated fruit powders and used at different levels of wheat flour substitution for cookies formulations. The effects of guava and cashew apple fruit powders supplementation on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the cookies were evaluated. The pH, fibre and protein content were significantly affected. Biscuits with 15 g and 20 g/100g cashew apple and guava fruit powders showed the highest scores for sensorial attributes, respectively. The supplementation seems to be suited for wheat flour substitution and it is possible to obtain cookies with value-added food ingredient within the standards.

  1. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.

  2. Características físico-químicas e produtividade de acessos de Passiflora nitida Kunth procedentes do Centro-Norte do Brasil Physical and chemical characteristics and yield of Passiflora nitida Kunth accessions from North and Central regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-suspiro (Passiflora nitida Kunth é uma espécie silvestre amplamente distribuída no território nacional. Tem alto potencial para o melhoramento visando à resistência a diversas doenças que provocam perdas expressivas em cultivos comerciais de maracujá-azedo (Passiflora edulis Sims. Seus frutos são comestíveis e têm elevado valor comercial como fruta fresca. Dessa forma, esse estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características físicas e químicas dos frutos e determinar, em condições de campo, o rendimento de dez acessos de P. nitida procedentes de estados e/ou de diferentes tipos fitofisionômicos das regiões Centro - Norte do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, localizada em Planaltina, Distrito Federal. Os acessos avaliados foram coletados em Manaus-AM, de capoeira; no Núcleo Rural São José - DF, de chapada e de vereda; no Vale do Amanhecer - DF, de vereda; Jardim Botânico-DF, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Silvânia-GO, de mata ciliar e de chapada; em Itiquira - MT, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Alto Paraíso-GO, de chapada, e em Natividade-TO, de chapada. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e três plantas úteis por repetição. As plantas foram propagadas por estacas enraizadas de cada acesso e conduzidas em espaldeiras verticais de 1,80 metro de altura, com irrigação por gotejamento. As avaliações foram feitas durante as colheitas de 2006 e 2007. O acesso do Vale do Amanhecer apresentou o melhor rendimento de frutos. Este acesso pode ser usado no programa de melhoramento visando à inserção de P. nitida no mercado. Também foi possível observar que as fontes provenientes do Cerrado têm características físicas mais desejáveis, produzindo frutos maiores e com melhor rendimento em polpa. Por outro lado, o acesso do Amazonas teve a menor espessura da casca, característica desejável para o mercado de frutas naturais.The passion fruit

  3. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  4. Expressão do gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) em explantes radiculares de Passiflora edulis Sims e organogênese in vitro em Passiflora setacea D.C. (Passifloraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Lorena Melo

    2011-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivos caracterizar a expressão do gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1), via hibridização in situ, durante a regeneração in vitro de segmentos radiculares de Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie comercialmente cultivada, e estabelecer um protocolo reproduzível via organogênese in vitro em Passiflora setacea, espécie silvestre. Explantes radiculares de P. edulis foram cultivados em meio MS, para indução de organogênese de ramos, suplementado com 2,35 μM de BA. Para dete...

  5. Influence of mango mesocarp flour supplement to micronutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of mango mesocarp flour supplement to micronutrient, physical and organoleptic qualities of wheat-based bread. ... Mango mesocarp flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 15, 20 and 30% levels to ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  6. Development beer technology with amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Danina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, the urgent problem is the development of product range of beer and the reduction of production costs. We used amaranth flour: "protein" and "carbohydrate", is designed and experimentally obtained from seeds of amaranth and made available for research "Agros" company (Kaliningrad region. The article discusses the effects of different concentrations of flour on the process of mashing, fermentation and the quality of beer. Prepared in the ratio of light barley malt:amaranth flour 90:10 and 80:20, respectively. Experimental were chosen of mashing barley malt with the addition of flour. The mashing process started with a temperature of 40 or 500C. Cytolytic pause was 30 min, protein-25 min, malt pause was increased up to 30 min. Using 20% of flour in the total grain charge leads to the increase of first wort extract content to 12.2%. By increasing the amount of flour in the grist of grain products increases the saccharification of the mash. The time of saccharification when you make 20% of the "protein" flour and the initial temperature of mashing 500C is 26 minutes, and "carbohydrate" flour -18min., therefore, when developing technology of new beer, from the point of view of reducing the cost of production, it is advisable to use "carbohydrate" amaranth flour in the amount of 20% in the total grain products. We estimated the impact of concentrations used flour on organoleptic indicators of finished beer on a 25 point scale. The aroma of the beer was felt citrus and malt undertones. Total score of beer with 10% amaranth flour is 18 points, and 20% amaranth flour is 20 points.

  7. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.

  8. Physicochemical Properties of Dietary Fibers from Artocarpus camansi Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, V.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Rumingtyas, Y. S.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the dietary fiber (DF) contents of Artocorpus camansi (breadnut) fruit and examine their physicochemical properties, such as water-holding capacity (WAC), oil-holding capacity (OHC) and water absorption capacity (WAC). This fruit flour contained of both water soluble fibers (SDF), such as pectin (1.95%) and gum (0.4%), and water insoluble fibers (IDF) (89.25%). The IDF content of this fruit was significantly high in respect to other DF sources. The WHC, OHC and WAC of IDF were 4.10, 2.60 and 4.0%, respectively. Moreover, the WHC, OHC and WHC of total dietary fibers (TDF) were 4.2, 4.3 and 4.6%, respectively. The results showed that the DF of fruit flour had good physicochemical properties. The findings suggested that there is a potential application of A. camansi of fruit as functional ingredients in the food industry.

  9. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C.; Lourencao, Andre L.; Piedade, Sonia M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  10. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica]. E-mail: esnunes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; mlcvieir@esalq.usp.br; Brown, Judith K. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences]. E-mail: jbrown@Ag.arizona.edu; Moreira, Adriana G.; Rezende, Jorge A.M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mails: agmoreir@esalq.usp.br; amrezen@esalq.usp.br; Watson, Gillian [California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: gwatson@cdfa.ca.gov; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br; Piedade, Sonia M.S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: jsoniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2008-11-15

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  11. Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fideles Braga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. serrato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp. Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitata was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.. Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

  12. Chromosome stickiness during meiotic behavior analysis of Passiflora serrato-digitata L. (PassifloraCEAE Aderência cromossômica durante a análise do comportamento meiótico de Passiflora serrato-digitata L (PassifloraCEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Peres Kiihl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost 90% of species of the genus Passiflora are native to the American continent, with high commercial value due to the fact that some species are used for human food while others have ornamental and medical qualities. Passiflora serrato-digitata is one of the species that integrates the Paraná Agronomic Institute germoplasm bank at its experimental base in Londrina, PR, Brazil. Collected flower buds were fixed in ethanol/acetic acid (3:1 v/v for 24h, transferred to 70% alcohol and stored under refrigeration. Slides were prepared by the squashing technique and stained with 1.0% propionic carmine; they were analyzed under an optic microscope. Irregularities in the chromosome segregation process of P. serrato-digitata have been verified by meiotic behavior analysis. These comprised precocious migration to poles in metaphase I and II, non-oriented chromosomes in metaphase plate in metaphase I and II, laggard chromosomes in anaphase I and II towards the formation of micronucleus in telophase I and II, and microspores in tetrads. Chromosome stickiness was another irregularity reported in the Passiflora genus for the first time. These irregularities which also contributed to the formation of monads, dyads and triads, resulted in normal imbalanced 2n and 4n microspores. According to the observed Meiotic Index of 71.83%, this species is not meiotically stable.Cerca de 90% das espécies do gênero Passiflora são nativas das Américas, sendo que aproximadamente 200 espécies são nativas do Brasil. Possuem grande importância comercial, pois algumas espécies são utilizadas na alimentação humana, outras apresentam propriedades medicinais e ornamentais. A espécie Passiflora serrato-digitata faz parte do banco de germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná - IAPAR, estação experimental de Londrina, PR. Botões florais colhidos foram fixados em etanol/ácido acético (3:1 v/v por 24 horas, transferidos para álcool a 70% e acondicionado sob

  13. RELACIÓN ENTRE LOS USOS POPULARES DE LA GRANADILLA (Passiflora ligularis Juss Y SU COMPOSICIÓN FITOQUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Carvajal De Pabón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the common uses of the Passiflora ligularis juss among the farm workers in the department of Huila and the preliminary results of its phytochemical composition. In the first phase of this investigation, an ethnobotany survey distributed among 42 families was consulted to create an inventory of the agricultural uses of the different parts of the plant. This information served as a starting point to select the basic qualitative analysis which allows the identification of biological activity of this species such as the phytochemical analysis, the bromatological analysis, and the mineral analysis. Twenty six common uses were discovered especially for medical and nutritional purposes. Some medicinal uses may be related to the qualitative presence of compositions found in the phytochemical analysis. The use of the grenade’s outer shell for animal nutrition was found to be justified based on the calories and fiber. This study highlights the finding that the pulp of the fruit is a source of magnesium for children younger than a year. Significant differences were found in the composition of the grenade’s pulp of three different areas due to agroecological conditions and the mineral nutrition that the plants receive.

  14. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  15. CARACTERÍSTICAS NUTRICIONALES Y ANTIOXIDANTES DE LA FRUTA CURUBA LARGA (Passiflora mollisima Bailey)

    OpenAIRE

    CHAPARRO R, DIANA CAROLINA; MALDONADO C, MARIA ELENA; FRANCO L, MARÍA CAMILA; URANGO M, LUZ AMPARO

    2015-01-01

    La presente revisión muestra el valor nutricional y el impacto para la salud humana del consumo de la fruta curuba larga (Passiflora mollisima Bailey), con base a las características nutricionales y antioxidantes. Pertenece a la familia de las pasifloráceas, es originaria de la zona andina del continente americano y en Colombia se cultiva principalmente en las cordilleras oriental y occidental. Esta fruta es fuente de vitaminas A, C y riboflavina; contiene potasio, fósforo, magnesio, sodio, c...

  16. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  17. WHIPPED FLOUR CONFECTIONERY BASED UPON WHOLE GRAIN GROUND FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Flour confectionery products for the Russian market are the traditional products and their sales occupy the 1st place among all types of confectionery. Therefore, it is especially important to conduct research aimed at developing biscuits with increased food and biological value, meeting the existing in the human body requirements in nutrients. The use of flour from whole grain rye, wheat and amaranth allows to receive a quality product with a fine pore structure, pleasant taste and aroma and of high nutritional value. Using a mechanical method for dough loosening reduces operating costs, significantly intensifies the whole technological process, greatly reduces production area of enterprise, the duration of the entire technological process of biscuit production is reduced by 40%. In the developed biscuits protein content increases in 1,5 times; fiber in 6 times, potassium in 10.8 times, calcium in 11 times, phosphorus in 3 times, iron in 3.3 times, vitamin the B6 in4.1 times; B12 in 2.4 times, B9 in 12.4 times.

  18. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth.

  19. Characteristics of bread prepared from wheat flours blended with various kinds of newly developed rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Suzuki, K; Ohtsubo, K

    2009-04-01

    Characteristics of the bread prepared from wheat flour blended with the flour of various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars were investigated. Qualities of the bread made from wheat flour blended with rice flour have been reported to be inferior to those from 100% wheat flour bread. To improve its qualities, we searched for the new-characteristic rice flours among the various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars to blend with the wheat flour for the bread preparation. The most suitable new characteristic rices are combination of purple waxy rice, high-amylose rice, and sugary rice. Specific volume of the bread from the combination of wheat and these 3 kinds of rice flours showed higher specific volume (3.93) compared with the traditional wheat/rice bread (3.58). We adopted the novel method, continuous progressive compression test, to measure the physical properties of the dough and the bread in addition to the sensory evaluation. As a result of the selection of the most suitable rice cultivars and blending ratio with the wheat flour, we could develop the novel wheat/rice bread, of which loaf volume, physical properties, and tastes are acceptable and resistant to firming on even 4 d after the bread preparation. To increase the ratio of rice to wheat, we tried to add a part of rice as cooked rice grains. The specific volume and qualities of the bread were maintained well although the rice content of total flour increased from 30% to 40%.

  20. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  1. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  2. Composite Flours for Baked Products and Possible Challenges – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It contains some suggestions on how to reduce the high import bills of wheat by using composite flours or blends of wheatless flours in place of wheat flour for making leavened and unleavened products. Some studies on the quality characteristics of leavened and unleavened products made from composite flours or blends ...

  3. Application to Food of Lentinus edodes Flour with Extrusion Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    岡村, 徳光; 上杉, 誓子; 星野, 由紀子; 奥田, 展子; 大杉, 匡弘; Tokumitsu, Okamura; Seiko, Uesugi; Yukiko, Hoshino; Nobuko, Okuda; Masahiro, Ohsugi

    1997-01-01

    We report the application to food using Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) flour, which is a good vegetable for health, rich in protein, fiber and vitamins (B_1, B_2, niacin). The wheat flour contained Lentinus edodes flour was expansed and textured by a twin screw extruder. The snack contained 1% Lentinus edodes flour was most prefered in the points of taste, flavor, color and appearance.

  4. Caracterización molecular de materiales cultivados de gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Hernán Moreno-Osorio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization of cultivated materials of gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis. Objective. To evaluate through RAM(Random Amplified Microsatellites molecular markers the genetic diversity of cultivated materials of gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis,collected in the departments of Boyacá, Cundinamarca and Huila. Materials and methods. Young and healthy leaves were collected fromcrop fields of gulupa for DNA extraction and characterization through RAM molecular markers, according to Hantula’s protocol (1996.Binary data of the type presence/absence were collected from the electrophoretic profiles. Data were analyzed with NTSYS- pc- 2.0statistical package, obtaining a similarity matrix using the Dice coefficient. Results. RAM markers were efficient in detecting polymorphismin this species. Four universal primers were used that produced 88.8% of polymorphism. In general terms, with the RAM molecularmarkers a high genetic diversity was detected in the areas where gulupa is cultivated in Colombia. In the present study no geographicalrelatedness was found with the accessions evaluated for department or locality. Conclusions. The materials of gulupa evaluated in thisstudy showed a high genetic diversity (0.291-1, probably due to the propagation method, its diverse provenances and the short time ofestablishment of the culture in Colombia.

  5. Morphophysiology, Phenotypic and Molecular Diversity of Auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Juliany M; Venial, Lucimara R; Costa, Eloá B; Schmildt, Edilson R; Schmildt, Omar; Bernardes, Paula M; Tatagiba, Sandro D; Lopes, José C; Ferreira, Marcia F S; Alexandre, Rodrigo S

    2018-01-01

    Genetic diversity allows identification of potential intraspecific genotypes in the genus Passiflora. The objective of this study was to examine the morphological and genetic diversity of auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata. The experiments were arranged in a complete randomized block design, with a 9 x 2 factorial arrangement (nine genotypes x presence and absence of auxin, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)), with four replicates of 16 cuttings. The rooting and vegetative growth responses were variable. Genotype 5 was more responsive in the absence of IBA and genotypes 3, 8 and 9 were more responsive in the presence of IBA. Auxin increased rooting rate and percentage, reducing the average time of root protrusion in eight days. IBA also contributed to increase photosynthesis and dry root and shoot mass in 55.55 and 44.44% of the genotypes, respectively. The highest relative contribution to phenotypic diversity in the absence of auxin was rate (38.75%) and percentage (20.27%) of rooting, whereas in the presence of auxin was stomatal conductance (23.19%) and root dry mass (20.91%). Similarity was found for phenotypic and molecular divergence in the presence of IBA, in which genotypes 1 and 6; genotypes 5, 8 and 9; and genotype 3 were clustered in distinct groups.

  6. Caracterização de preparações extrativas obtidas de Passiflora alata Curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREAS S. L. MENDEZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer uma análise comparativa da qualidade de preparações extrativas obtidas de Passiflora alata Curtis, além de descrever esse processo. O extrato líquido foi obtido por refluxo utilizando água como solvente em proporção 1:10. A preparação líquida foi submetida à secagem em spray dryer utilizando aerosil® e fosfato de cálcio como adjuvantes tecnológicos. A eficiência de extração foi avaliada através da determinação do resíduo seco e do teor de flavonoides totais por técnica de espectrofotometria no UV. O extrato seco foi avaliado quanto à viabilidade tecnológica a partir da determinação das características de granulometria e da estabilidade em ambientes de umidade relativa controlada. O teor de flavonoides totais para o extrato seco apresentou redução quando comparado à solução extrativa, indicando possível influência do processo de secagem na composição do material. Os resultados de caracterização tecnológica demonstraram que o processo de secagem utilizado garante uma uniformidade de tamanho particular, embora seja observada uma tendência de higroscopicidade do material em ambientes de elevada umidade relativa. As técnicas empregadas se mostraram viáveis para uso em ensaios quali-quantitativos aplicados à determinação da qualidade dos extratos desenvolvidos. Palavras-chave: Passiflora alata Curtis; Preparações extrativas; Spray-drying; Flavonoides totais; Caracterização tecnológica. ABSTRACT Characterization of extracts prepared from Passiflora alata Curtis This paper describes a process to prepare liquid and dried aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Passiflora alata Curtis (sweet passionfruit and reports a comparative analysis of the extractive preparations obtained. The extractive solution was obtained by refluxing the plant material with water in the proportion 1:10 (w/v. The aqueous extract was dried in a spray-dryer, with Aerosil® and calcium

  7. Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E; Rafi, M

    2017-01-01

    Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. (paper)

  8. Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E.; Rafi, M.

    2017-05-01

    Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour.

  9. Comparative metabolite profiling and fingerprinting of genus Passiflora leaves using a multiplex approach of UPLC-MS and NMR analyzed by chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Otify, Asmaa; Porzel, Andrea; Michel, Camilia George; Elsayed, Aly; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2016-05-01

    Passiflora incarnata as well as some other Passiflora species are reported to possess anxiolytic and sedative activity and to treat various CNS disorders. The medicinal use of only a few Passiflora species has been scientifically verified. There are over 400 species in the Passiflora genus worldwide, most of which have been little characterized in terms of phytochemical or pharmacological properties. Herein, large-scale multi-targeted metabolic profiling and fingerprinting techniques were utilized to help gain a broader insight into Passiflora species leaves' chemical composition. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) spectra of extracted components derived from 17 Passiflora accessions and from different geographical origins were analyzed using multivariate data analyses. A total of 78 metabolites were tentatively identified, that is, 20 C-flavonoids, 8 O-flavonoids, 21 C, O-flavonoids, 2 cyanogenic glycosides, and 23 fatty acid conjugates, of which several flavonoid conjugates are for the first time to be reported in Passiflora spp. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the most complete map for secondary metabolite distribution within that genus. Major signals in (1)H-NMR and MS spectra contributing to species discrimination were assigned to those of C-flavonoids including isovitexin-2″-O-xyloside, luteolin-C-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside, schaftoside, isovitexin, and isoorientin. P. incarnata was found most enriched in C-flavonoids, justifying its use as an official drug within that genus. Compared to NMR, LC-MS was found more effective in sample classification based on genetic and/ or geographical origin as revealed from derived multivariate data analyses. Novel insight on metabolite candidates to mediate for Passiflora CNS sedative effects is also presented.

  10. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae. PMID:26974840

  11. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83% and lipid (40.45%, with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%, antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  12. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  13. Effects of milling on functional properties of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, R S; Bryant, R J; Miller, J A

    2008-05-01

    A commercial long-grain rice flour (CRF) and the flours made by using a pin mill and the Udy mill from the same batch of broken second-head white long-grain rice were evaluated for their particle size and functional properties. The purpose of this study was to compare the commercial rice flour milling method to the pin and Udy milling methods used in our laboratory and pilot plant. The results showed that pin milled flour had more uniform particle size than the other 2 milled flours. The chalky kernels found in broken white milled rice were pulverized more into fines in both Udy milled flour and CRF than in the pin milled flour. The excessive amount of fines in flours affected their functional properties, for example, WSI and their potential usage in the novel foods such as rice breads (RB). The RB made from CRF collapsed more than loaves made from pin milled Cypress long-grain flours.

  14. Glycemic Index Biscuits Formulation of Pedada Flour (Sonneratia caseolaris) with Tubers Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyah; Susiloningsih, E. K. B.; Nilasari, K.

    2018-01-01

    The glycemic index of food is the level of food according to its effect on blood glucose levels. Foods with low glycemic index have been shown to improve glucose and fat levels in people with diabetes mellitus and improve insulin resistance. Pedada Fruits (Sonneratia caseolaris) is the one of mangrove fruits has a high fiber content, so it can be used as a raw material in biscuits production. The aim of this research to evaluate the glycemic index on the formula biscuit from the pedada flour and starch from white sweet potato, arrowroot, taro, potato and cassava mixed. This research used completely randomized design in factorial patern with one factor and five levels on formulation biscuit of pedada flour with tubers starch (20% : 80%). The biscuits product were measured of the proximate, crude fiber, glycemic index and glycemic load on wistar rats. The best treatment was 20% of pedada flour with 80% of taro starch which produced biscuit with 76.24% of yield, 2.58% of protein, 15.55% of fat, 2.72% of crude fiber, 48.83 of glycemic index and 7.39 of glycemic load.

  15. Antiulcerogenic Potential Activity of Free and Nanoencapsulated Passiflora serratodigitata L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Strasser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence that the leaves and stem of Passiflora serratodigitata L. dry crude extract (DCE, ethylacetate fraction (EAF, and residual water fraction show potential antiulcerogenic activity. Interestingly, the polymeric nanocapsule loaded with EAF had 10-fold more activity than the free EAF. Furthermore, the polymer nanoparticles provided homogeneous colloidal drug delivery systems and allowed overcoming challenges such as poor aqueous solubility as well as the physical-chemical instability of the organic extract, which presented 90% (w/w of the flavonoid content. The entrapment efficiency of the total flavonoid was 90.6 ± 2.5% (w/v for the DCE and 79.9 ± 2.7% (w/v for the EAF. This study shows that nanoencapsulation improves both the physicochemical properties and the efficacy of the herbal formulations. Therefore, free and encapsulated extracts have the potential to be suitable drug design candidates for the therapeutic management of ulcer.

  16. CARACTERÍSTICAS NUTRICIONALES Y ANTIOXIDANTES DE LA FRUTA CURUBA LARGA (Passiflora mollisima Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA CAROLINA CHAPARRO R

    Full Text Available La presente revisión muestra el valor nutricional y el impacto para la salud humana del consumo de la fruta curuba larga (Passiflora mollisima Bailey, con base a las características nutricionales y antioxidantes. Pertenece a la familia de las pasifloráceas, es originaria de la zona andina del continente americano y en Colombia se cultiva principalmente en las cordilleras oriental y occidental. Esta fruta es fuente de vitaminas A, C y riboflavina; contiene potasio, fósforo, magnesio, sodio, cloro, hierro; aporta cantidades moderadas de carbohidratos y calóricas. El contenido de fenoles, flavonoides y carotenoides confiere la capacidad de captar radicales libres causantes del estrés oxidativo, éste relacionado con el origen y desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares, neurodegenerativas y el cáncer.

  17. Análise da recuperação do genitor recorrente em maracujazeiro-azedo por meio de marcadores RAPD Recovery analysis of recurrent genitor in sour passion fruit through RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Gracielle da Fonseca

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de maracujá, entretanto tem-se observado redução na produtividade do maracujazeiro nos últimos anos, devido, principalmente, a fatores fitossanitários. Na Embrapa Cerrados, a transferência de genes de resistência de espécies silvestres para as comerciais de maracujazeiro tem sido feita por meio de hibridações interespecíficas seguidas de um programa de retrocruzamentos auxiliados por marcadores moleculares. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a recuperação do genoma recorrente nas plantas RC4 e RC5 [(Passiflora edulis x Passiflora setacea x Passiflora edulis ] com base em marcadores RAPD. O estudo foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Genética e Biologia Molecular da Embrapa Cerrados. Amostras de DNA de cada material genético (17 plantas RC4, 16 plantas RC5, Passiflora edulis e Passiflora setacea foram amplificadas para obtenção de marcadores RAPD. Foram utilizados 12 primers decâmeros para as plantas RC4 e 14 primers decâmeros para as plantas RC5. Os marcadores RAPD gerados foram convertidos em matriz de dados binários. Verificou-se alta porcentagem de marcadores polimórficos em consequência do cruzamento-base interespecífico. A menor similaridade genética foi observada entre as espécies P. edulis e P. setacea, evidenciando a grande distância genética dessas espécies.Brazil is the largest world producer of passion fruit, however, it has been observed a reduction in the productivity in recent years due, mainly, to phytosanitary factors. At Embrapa Cerrados, the transfer of resistance genes from wild to commercial species of passion fruit has been made through interspecific hybridations, followed by a backcrossing molecular marker-assisted program. The objective this work was to verify the recovery of recurrent genome at the plants RC4 and RC5 [(Passiflora edulis x Passiflora setacea x Passiflora edulis] based on RAPD markers. The study was developed at Embrapa Cerrados

  18. EFFECTS OF STORAGE PERIODS AND METHODS OF OVERCOMING DORMANCY IN SEEDS OF PASSIFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Miranda dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of storage period and treatement with hot water at 50ºC or scarification on dormancy break down on Passiflora mucronata seeds. The storage periods were 0, 1, 4 and 12 months. The seeds were sown onto Germitest paper roll and incubated in a germination chamber under 20ºC/8h-30ºC/16h alternate temperature, at 16-h photoperiod (fluorescent light at 32 mol m-2 s-1 irradiance. The percent germination was evaluated, and the seeds germinated on moistened Germitest paper rolls in distilled water at a ratio of two and a half times the paper weight. The seeds were transferred to a germination chamber with alternating temperatures of 20-30º C and photoperiod of 16 h until the end of the experiment at 31 days. The experiment was analyzed as completely randomized designed with four replications, in which each plot was constituted by 50 seeds. The storage periods had significant effect on the variable studied, where the higher germination was obtained at freshly harvested seeds. At the first month of evaluation the germination decreased. After 4 and 12 months of storage, no germination was detected. The treatment with hot water at 50º or scarification favored the germination of the Passiflora seeds stored by one and four months, however even with the stimulus of the treatments, the values of final germination were low. The treatments were not efficient to stimulate the seed germination stored by 12 months.

  19. Effect of Iron Fortified Wheat Flour on the Biology and Physiology of Red Flour Beetle, (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload in the fortified flour can influence the life stages and physiology of the insects. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of commercially available premix iron fortified flour as well as effect of different concentrations of post-mix iron fortified flour (30–5 ppm on biology of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Hebrst.. Larval and pupal duration, total developmental time, fecundity and larval weights in two consecutive generations of beetle were compared with control treatment. Amylase and protease activities of gut of the beetle were also measured in premix and postmix flours. Results showed that larval mortality increased in two sources of premix iron flour when compared with control. Larval weight was reduced in first generation only. The larval mortality was significantly higher in 30 ppm postmix iron fortified flour than in other postmix concentrations and control treatment. The larvae of T. castaneum fed on two sources of premix and in various concentrations of postmix iron fortified flour revealed an increase in amylases and decrease in protease activities.

  20. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  1. Development and Characterization of Edible Films Based on Fruit and Vegetable Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roberta M S; Ferreira, Mariana S L; Gonçalves, Édira C B A

    2016-02-01

    Edible films were developed from the solid residue of the processing of whole fruits and vegetables. The solid residue, processed into flour (FVR flour) was chemically and structurally characterized by microstructure, elemental composition, structural links, and moisture sorption isotherm. Films were prepared by casting using aqueous extracts of 8% and 10% of flour (w/w) and characterized in terms of thickness, water solubility, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The analysis of microstructure and elemental composition, performed on flour (mean particle size 350 μm), showed an essentially granular aspect, with the presence of fibrous particles having potassium as one of the most abundant elements. FTIR results showed similarity between the characteristic bands of other raw materials used in edible films. The sorption isotherm of FVR flour showed a typical profile of foods rich in soluble components, such as sugars. Dried films presented an average thickness of 0.263 ± 0.003 mm, a homogenous aspect, bright yellow color, pronounced fruit flavor, and high water solubility. The FTIR spectra of the edible films revealed that addition of potato skin flour did not change the molecular conformation. Moreover, the films presented low tensile strength at break when compared with fruit starch-based films. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Anatomia comparada da antera de espécies de Passiflora L.(Passifloraceae) do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Greta Aline Dettke

    2009-01-01

    Passiflora L. é o maior dos gêneros de Passifloraceae, com cerca de 530 espécies, e ocorre predominantemente no continente americano. Compreende trepadeiras herbáceas ou lenhosas com gavinhas, raramente ervas, arbustos ou pequenas árvores. A sistemática de Passiflora, assim como de Passifloraceae, não está ainda bem resolvida, pois são frágeis os limites de circunscrição de vários subgêneros, seções e séries e a última revisão sistemática dos gêneros americanos data do século passado. Esta cl...

  3. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  4. Utilization of Durian Seed Flour as Filler Ingredient of Meatball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Malini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Durian seed flour contains starch consisted of amylose and amylopectin like tapioca flour, so it can be utilized as a filler in meatball production. The purposes of this research were to evaluate the nutrient content and quality of durian seed flour, the best level of durian seed flour addition to the meatball production, and the quality of beef meatball during storage in room temperature and refrigerator. Complete randomized design (CRD was used with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments used different filler ingredients consisted of: 1 100% tapioca, 2 50% tapioca + 50% durian seed flour, and 3 100% durian seed flour utilization. The results showed that durian seed flour could affect the protein levels and hardness of beef meatballs. In the organoleptic test, the addition of durian seed flour had no effect on the appearance of the color, flavor, aroma, and texture. The meatballs with 100% durian seed flour had the lowest hardness. The protein content of the meatballs with 100% durian seed flour was the highest. The used of 50% durian seed flour gave the best effect to beef meatball during storage. Meatball could be stored up to 8 h in room temperature while refrigerator could keep it longer up to 12 d. It was concluded that the addition 50% durian seed flour may substitute tapioca flour as filler ingredient of beef meatball.

  5. No time for candy: passionfruit (Passiflora edulis) plants down-regulate damage-induced extra floral nectar production in response to light signals of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Miriam M; Mazza, Carlos A; Astigueta, María S; Ciarla, Ana M; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-09-01

    Plant fitness is often defined by the combined effects of herbivory and competition, and plants must strike a delicate balance between their ability to capture limiting resources and defend against herbivore attack. Many plants use indirect defenses, such as volatile compounds and extra floral nectaries (EFN), to attract canopy arthropods that are natural enemies of herbivorous organisms. While recent evidence suggests that upon perception of low red to far-red (R:FR) ratios, which signal the proximity of competitors, plants down-regulate resource allocation to direct chemical defenses, it is unknown if a similar phytochrome-mediated response occurs for indirect defenses. We evaluated the interactive effects of R:FR ratio and simulated herbivory on nectar production by EFNs of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa). The activity of petiolar EFNs dramatically increased in response to simulated herbivory and hormonal treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Low R:FR ratios, which induced a classic "shade-avoidance" repertoire of increased stem elongation in P. edulis, strongly suppressed the EFN response triggered by simulated herbivory or MeJA application. Strikingly, the EFN response to wounding and light quality was localized to the branches that received the treatments. In vines like P. edulis, a local response would allow the plants to precisely adjust their light harvesting and defense phenotypes to the local conditions encountered by individual branches when foraging for resources in patchy canopies. Consistent with the emerging paradigm that phytochrome regulation of jasmonate signaling is a central modulator of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, our results demonstrate that light quality is a strong regulator of indirect defenses.

  6. Studies on Production of Arabic Bread From Irradiated and Stored Potato Flour as Partial Substitute of Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Arabic bread produced from potato flour and wheat flour. Potato flour was prepared from Diamont cultivar of potato tubers after irradiation with 50 and 150 Gy. The ratios of potato flour were 5, 10 and 15% and the flour was stored for six months and taken for analysis every three months. Amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, baking and staling tests were applied to study the effect of adding potato flour extracts from tubers of non-irradiated and irradiated potato to wheat flour in Arabic bread making. Amino acids in potato and wheat were studied. The flour of wheat was found to be poor in lysine while potato flour contained about twice of these amino acids. Protein content was decreased with increasing the ratios of potato flour. The addition of potato flour to the Arabic bread increased the percentage of essential amino acids. Moreover, the addition of potato flour during storage periods had an improving effect on the quality of Arabic bread. Water retention capacity (the staling rate) was increased progressively with increasing the percentage as potato flour in the bread which was effective in keeping bread fresh and organoleptic properties

  7. Utilization of Durian Seed Flour as Filler Ingredient of Meatball

    OpenAIRE

    D. R. Malini; I. I. Arief; H. Nuraini

    2016-01-01

    Durian seed flour contains starch consisted of amylose and amylopectin like tapioca flour, so it can be utilized as a filler in meatball production. The purposes of this research were to evaluate the nutrient content and quality of durian seed flour, the best level of durian seed flour addition to the meatball production, and the quality of beef meatball during storage in room temperature and refrigerator. Complete randomized design (CRD) was used with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The tre...

  8. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmad Z. Abidin; Cinantya Devi; Adeline

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is one of Indonesia's original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing c...

  9. Effect of quinoa and potato flours on the thermomechanical and breadmaking properties ofwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodriguez-Sandoval

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanical properties of dough and the physical characteristics of bread from quinoa-wheat and potato-wheat composite flours at 10 and 20% substitution level were evaluated. The functional properties of flours were measured by the water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and swelling power (SP. The thermomechanical properties of wheat and composite flours were assessed using a Mixolab and the baking quality characteristics of breads were weight, height, width, and specific volume. The results showed that the higher values of WAI (4.48, WSI (7.45%, and SP (4.84 were for potato flour. The quinoa-wheat composite flour presented lower setback and cooking stability data, which are a good indicator of shelf life of bread. On the other hand, the potato-wheat composite flour showed lower stability, minimum torque and peak torque, and higher water absorption. Weight, height, width, and specific volume of wheat bread were most similar to samples of potato-wheat composite flour at 10% substitution level.

  10. Tempeh flour as a substitute for soybean flour in coconut cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare roasted and lyophilized tempeh flour with soybean cultivar BRS 267 to apply them in the formulation of coconut biscuits. The cookies produced with whole soy flour and mixed flour of soybean and tempeh were evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and isoflavone aglycones in order to verify the effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus and those of the drying processes of roasting and lyophilization on the chemical characteristics of the final product. Sensory acceptance and purchase intention of the formulated products were also evaluated. The results indicate the maintenance of linolenic acid, which is important in the prevention of coronary diseases, and an increase in the aglycones levels when the tempeh flour was used. Lipids and proteins showed differences, and the sensory analyses demonstrated similarity between the cookies with satisfactory scores for aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability for both samples. when compared to the control. Purchase intent was also positive for the lyophilized and toasted tempeh flours, thus enabling the use of the roasting process as a simple drying method, for processing tempeh and obtaining a flour rich in proteins and aglycones that can be used as a partial substitute for soy flour in cookies and other bakery products.

  11. Quality characteristics of wheat flour dough and bread containing grape pomace flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šporin, Monika; Avbelj, Martina; Kovač, Boris; Možina, Sonja Smole

    2018-04-01

    Wheat bread was enriched with 6%, 10% and 15% dried and milled grape pomace flour from two grape cultivars: 'Merlot' and 'Zelen'. Rheological, textural, sensory and antioxidant properties of the enriched dough and bread were evaluated, and compared to control samples. Grape cultivar had significant impact on the rheological characteristics of the dough, and on the sensory and antioxidant properties of the final bread. Development time and dough stability were longer when 'Merlot' grape pomace flour was added compared to 'Zelen' grape pomace flour and the control. Grape pomace flour addition affected bread volume, firmness, crumb and crust colour, and odour and taste intensity. Moreover, grape pomace flour addition resulted in a stickier and less springy crumb texture, and some negative sensorial properties, such as increased intensity of aftertaste and sand feeling in the mouth. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bread were positively correlated with grape pomace flour addition ( r = 0.987, p = 0.01 and r = 0.941, p = 0.01 between phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power and phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, respectively). The highest total phenolic contents were 5.92 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dw for 'Merlot' and 3.65 mg gallic acid equivalents /g dw for 'Zelen', which were seen for the bread prepared with the highest grape pomace flour addition (15%). The highest antioxidant activity determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were seen for the bread prepared with the highest 'Merlot' grape pomace flour addition (15%). Dough characteristic and sensory profile are strongly influenced by cultivar of grape pomace flour. Based on results of sensory profiling, the variety 'Zelen' is suggested for use.

  12. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... which may be added include flours of other cereals, fat, malt flour, soya flour, ... but its protein is of lower nutritional quality than milk, soy, pea and lupin proteins as its ... improvers from local raw materials. It is thought that the.

  13. Effects on respiratory system due to exposure to wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mohammed Said

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Exposure to wheat flour increases the risk of developing respiratory symptoms; it also causes reduction in the pulmonary function parameters, as regards spirometry and DLCOSB. Exposure to wheat flour causes interstitial lung disease as detected by HRCT chest. Smoking augments the wheat flour induced lung disease.

  14. Effect of Cassava Flour Processing Methods and Substitution Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption of bread is globally increasing. However, due to increased costs associated with production of bread from 100% wheat flour especially in developing countries, other cereal based flours are now being blended with wheat flour to produce bread. This study was carried out to assess the effect of using two ...

  15. Effect od Soybean/Cassava Flour Blend in the Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers were also peeled, chopped, dried and milled in a similar fashion. Eventually, the soybean and cassava flour samples were blended individually with the quality protein maize flour in three different proportions: 5:95, 10:90 and 15:85, respectively. Normal maize flour was used as a control for the quality ...

  16. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del

    2009-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  17. Quality evaluation of irradiated wheat flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.M.; Mastro, N.L. del; Rigoni, V.H.

    1995-01-01

    Co-60 irradiated wheat flour samples in the range of 0.2-30 kGy have been analysed by the ESR technique. (Electron Spin Resonance). Tests of color, stability and Falling Number were also performed. The observed ESR signals showed complex but similar behavior for all samples. The intensity of the ESR signal showed a linear dependence with dose up to 30 kGy. Tests of color, stability and Falling Number showed that up to the dose recommended to destroy plagues (1 kGy), the intrinsic properties of flours are preserved being the product in perfect conditions to be commercialized. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  18. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  19. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND THE ENERGETIC VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR SUBSTITUTED BY DIFFERENT SHARES OF WHITE AND BROWN RICE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat flour, where it was 58.8%. In the dough made from rice flour, a gluten network had thinner filaments, about 2 and 1 μm in width for white and brown rice flour, respectively, compared to those in the dough from wheat flour only, where it was about 7 μm. The dough from rice flour had almost twice higher gelatinization maximum than the gelatinization maximum of the wheat flour only. The energetic values of the dough from rice flour were smaller than the energetic value of the wheat flour, for only 1.32%. Based on Cluster analysis, the white or brown rice flour share of 20% was pointed out.

  20. Study of mechanical and thermal properties of soy flour elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kendra Alicia

    Bio-based plastics are becoming viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics because they decrease dependence on petroleum derivatives and are more environmentally friendly. Raw materials such as soy flour are widely available, low cost, lightweight, stiffness and have high strength characteristics, but weak interfacial adhesion between the soy flour and the polymer poses a challenge. In this study, soy flour was utilized as a filler in thermoplastic elastomer composites. A surface modification called acetylation was investigated at soy flour concentrations of 10 wt%, 15 wt% and 20 wt%. The mechanical properties of the composites were then compared to that of elastomers without a filler. Chemical characterization of the acetylated soy flour was attempted in order to understand what occurs during the reaction and after completion. In the range of tests, soy flour loadings were observed to be inversely proportional to tensile strength for both the untreated and treated soy flour. However, the acetylated soy flour at 10 wt% concentration performed comparable to that of the neat rubber and resulted in an increase in tensile strength. Unexpectedly, the acetylation reaction increased elongation, which reduced stress within the composite and is believed to increase the adhesion of the soy flour to that of the elastomer. In the nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR), the intensity for the treated soy flour was larger than that of the untreated soy flour for the acetyl groups that were attached to the soy flour, particularly, the carbonyl function group next to the deprotonated oxygen and the methyl group next to the carbonyl. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the acetylated soy flour is slightly more thermally stable than the untreated soy flour. The treated soy flour also increased the decomposition temperature of the composite.

  1. Growth of seedlings of sweet-passion fruit (Passiflora alata Curtis) associated to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maryluce Albuquerque da; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze Tibúrcio; Silva, Fábio Sérgio Barbosa da; Soares, Sueli Aparecida Gomes; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2004-01-01

    Para determinar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sobre o crescimento de mudas de maracujazeiro-doce foi conduzido, em casa de vegetação, experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado usando cinco tratamentos de inoculação (200 esporos/planta de Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd., Scutellospora heterogama (Nicol. & Gerd.) Walker & Sanders e controle não inoculado), com sete repetições. A cada 20 dias foram...

  2. Ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis Sims leaves inhibits protein glycation and restores the oxidative burst in diabetic rat macrophages after Candida albicans exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes Ribas Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis leaves on blood glucose, protein glycation, NADPH oxidase activity and macrophage phagocytic capacity after Candida albicans exposure in diabetic rats. The Passiflora edulis Sims leaves were dried to 40°C, powdered, extracted by maceration in 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and lyophilised. The biochemical tests performed were total phenolic content (TP as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, trapping potential DPPH assay and total iron-reducing potential. Diabetes was induced by alloxan injection. Protein glycation was determined by AGE and fructosamine serum concentrations. Extract-treated diabetic animals demonstrated lower fructosamine concentrations compared with the diabetic group. Our results suggest that ethanolic Passiflora edulis Sims leaf extraction may have beneficial effects on diabetes and may improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats.

  3. Waxes and plastic film in relation to the shelf life of yellow passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Wagner Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa reduces its postharvest conservation and availability, mainly for in natura consumption. These losses of quality and commercial value occur due to the high respiration and loss of water. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of a modified atmosphere - wax emulsions and plastic film - on the shelf life of the yellow passion fruit. Plastic film (Cryovac D-955, 15 mum thickness reduced fresh weight loss and fruit wilting, kept higher fruit and rind weight and higher pulp osmotic potential over the storage period. However, it was not efficient in the control of rottenness. Sparcitrus wax (22-23% polyethylene/maleyc resin caused injury to the fruit, high fruit weight losses and wilting and resulted in lower pulp osmotic potential; this wax lead to a higher concentration of acid and a lower relation of soluble solids/acidity. Among the tested waxes, Fruit Wax (18-21% carnauba wax was the best, promoting reduced weight loss, wilting and rottenness.

  4. Pumpkin Fruit Influence on Calves’ Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SHIMKUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin provides a valuable source of carotenoids and ascorbic acid which have major roles in nutrition as provitamin A and as an antioxidant respectively. Carotenoids are a source of vitamin A, and β-carotene present in pumpkin is converted to vitamin A in the body. Pumpkins’ biomass is distinguished for having antioxidant and phytobiotic characteristics.The aim of our research is to analyse pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita maxima D. flours’ influence upon calves growth, intestinal microflora, digestibility of rations’ nutrients and health. In pursuance of this aim two groups of 1-month-old Lithuanian Black and White breeds’ heifers were constituted, 10 animals per group: control and experimental. The heifers were fed by the same feeding plan and grown in equal conditions. Except for experimental groups’ animals, each of them was additionally given 120g of pumpkin fruits’ flour with their days’ ration.The results of this research showed that calves which were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour had grown more rapidly. After six months of the research the weight of experimental groups‘ heifers was 9,2 kg or 5,34 pct. bigger than the weight of control groups‘ heifers. Pumpkin fruits‘ flour distinguished for phytobiotic activity in calves‘ intestine, it stimulated the increase of lacto- and bifidobacteria. After four months of the research there were 63,6 pct. (P<0,001 more lactobacteria and 19,3 pct. (P<0,01 more bifidobacteria in the faeces of heifers that were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour comparing to heifers that were not given it. After 6 months of the research respectively there were 10,7 pct. and 34,0 pct. more of lacto- and bifidobacteria. Besides that, pumpkin fruits‘ flour improved digestibility of rations‘ nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter increased by 1,9 pct., organic matter – 2,3 pct., fat – 1,6 pct., proteins – 3,07 pct. (P>0,05. Morphological blood indexes of both calves groups

  5. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  6. Technological characteristics of bread containing integral irradiated flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is normally used to make bread, pasta, and noodles, because among the cereal flours, only wheat flour has the ability to form cohesive dough upon hydration. For that reason, only partial substitution of wheat flour can be recommended. In this work, pan breads were prepared with 30% content of irradiated whole wheat, whole rye and coarse cornmeal and the influence of blending on bread making capabilities investigated through some technological characteristics. All-brand wheat, rye and cornmeal flours were irradiated with 0, 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a 60 Co and the deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with those blends were then determined. Breads prepared with irradiated whole wheat flour showed an increase in the deformation force with the increase of radiation dose. The bread height presented also an increase for the doses of 1 and 3 kGy. Breads prepared with refined wheat flour blended with irradiated whole rye flour showed an increased deformation force for radiation doses of 1 and 3 kGy and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 1 kGy. Coarse cornmeal blended flour showed a great increase of the deformation force upon irradiation, and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 3 kGy. The results indicate that the addition of irradiated integral flour, whole wheat, whole rye flour and cornmeal to wheat flour may confer changes in physical properties beside an increment in nutritional value. (author)

  7. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Z. Abidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of Indonesia’s original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing cassava flour-based wet noodles. The best result was then examined for its nutritional value, economical value, and market response, and also a comparison was made between the prepared wet noodles and the standard noodles made from wheat flour. The analysis was based on five characteristics: taste, texture, chewiness, aroma, and appearance. Relations between these characteristics with composition, materials used, and methods applied are discussed. The developed cassava flour-based wet noodle meets physical, nutritional, and economical standards. Raw materials of the noodle were cassava flour and a wheat flour composite with a 5:1 ratio, egg, gluten, soda-ash, water, and vegetable oil, while the process was completed in multiple stages. Market response showed that the cassava flour-based wet noodles were 80% similar to wheat-flour noodles.

  8. Improvement of Tagliatelle Quality by Addition of Red Quinoa Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to diversification of tagliatelle pasta and increasing segment of consumers it was intended to improvement of tagliatelle pasta quality by addition of red quinoa flour. The products obtained at Bakery Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of original recipe. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, white flour and red quinoa flour is used in different proportions: Variant 1 – plain tagliatelle pasta (control sample who used white flour WF in 100%, Variant 2 consisting of 15% red quinoa flour (15 QF, Variant 3 consisting of 30 % red quinoa flour (30 QF and Variant 4 consisting of 50 % red quinoa flour (50 RQF. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: moisture content, protein content and acidity. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Present study indicated that the variant 3 were most accepted by consumers.

  9. Impact of Quince Flour on Gluten-free Muffins Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PAUCEAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain gluten free muffins, with increased nutritional and sensorial value by adding quince flour into a composite flour. To optimize the recipe, four experimental variants using rice, soy, quince flours and starch in different proportions have been proposed. Quince is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, polyphenolic compounds and fibres. The quince flour addition led to muffins with increased content in minerals and very good sensorial properties in terms of taste, flavour, texture and general acceptance. It could be concluded that quince flour is a suitable source for obtaining gluten free muffins. Quince flour addition in aglutenic muffin composite flour up to 10% did not affect negatively their phisico-chemical and sensorial  properties.

  10. Fungi species and red flour beetle in stored wheat flour under Jazan region conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosly, Hanan AbuAlQasem; Kawanna, Maha Adel

    2014-05-01

    Infection of stored wheat flour with insects and toxic fungi can be an extremely serious problem. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungal species and insects in different stages, which infested and contaminated the stored flour under Jazan region conditions and changed its color and flavor. The obtained results revealed that the isolated insect was the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Live adult, larvae and cast skin were isolated. Four Aspergillus species were isolated from stored wheat flour; the isolated species prevalence being A. flavus > A. niveus > A. terreus > A. niger by rate 44.5%, 37.8%, 10.9% and 6.7%, respectively. The same fungal species isolated from flour were also isolated from different insect stages. A. flavus was the most common fungus and A. niger was isolated with a lower rate. The results about the isolated fungi either from the suspension of adult insects, larvae or cast skins may confirm the role of T. castaneum to carry and distribute fungi in different parts of the stored flour.

  11. Evaluation of replacing wheat flour with chia flour (Salvia hispanica L. in pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.

  12. Study of the Thermal Polymerization of Linseed and Passion Fruit Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R. V. V.; Loureiro, N. P. D.; Fonseca, P. S.; Macedo, J. L.; Santos, M. L.; Sales, M. J.

    2008-08-01

    Researches involving ecofriendliness materials are growing up, as well as, a current interest in developing materials from inexpensive and renewable resources. Vegetable oils show a number of excellent properties, which could be utilized to produce valuable polymeric materials. In this work is described the synthesis of polymeric materials from linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) and passion fruit oil (Passiflora edulis) and their characterization by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy. The TG curve shows that those polymeric materials present two stages of decomposition. DSC plots of the vegetable oils showed some endothermic and exothermic transitions which are not present in the DSC curves corresponding to oil-based polymers. The Raman spectra of the polymers indicate declining of absorbance in the region of C = C stretching (˜1600 cm-1). This absorption was used to estimate the degree of polymerization (79% and 67.5% for linseed and passion fruit oils, respectively)

  13. Lipid peroxidation and seed emergency in progenies of the yellow passion fruit plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Bestete de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the percentage of emergency plantlets and lipid peroxidation in seeds of 29 half-sib progenies of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. after 24 months under storage. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications of 50 seeds each, from which the treatments were the progenies (1-29. The evaluation of the percent plantlet emergency was accomplished at 14 and 28 days after sowing. The lipid peroxidation of the seeds was expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA content that was determined by the TBARS method. Approximately 21% of those half-sib progenies maintained the viability of their seeds for twenty-four months under storage. The results point out a remarkable genetic variability for vigor and emergency of the yellow passion fruit plantlets, with occurrence of individuals with high and other ones with low capacity to maintaining the physiologic quality of their seeds after storage.

  14. Evaluación de la resistencia genética de especies de Passiflora spp A Fusarium spp, agente causal de la “Secadera”

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Aramburo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    El maracuyá amarillo Passiflora edulis Sims var flavicarpa Degener, representa un renglón importante en la fruticultura colombiana, por su aceptación en el mercado nacional y por su potencial de exportación. El departamento del Valle del Cauca es considerado como el de mayor participación en la producción nacional de esta fruta, a pesar que los cultivos presentan alta incidencia de una enfermedad vascular conocida como secadera, causado por el hongo Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. passiflorae.

  15. Produção de néctar e visitas por abelhas em duas espécies cultivadas de Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Varassin,Isabela Galarda; Ximenes,Brunna Maria Setti; Moreira,Priscila Ambrósio; Zanon,Mireille Maria Franco; Elbl,Paula; Löwenberg-Neto,Peter; Melo,Gabriel Augusto Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    A atividade dos polinizadores é afetada pela disponibilidade de recursos. Flores que produzem mais néctar podem ser mais visitadas e assim apresentar maior produção de frutos. O efeito da produção de néctar na atividade dos polinizadores foi testado em duas espécies cultivadas de maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis e Passiflora edulis Sims, em Morretes, Paraná. Botões foram ensacados e o néctar acumulado das flores foi coletado em intervalos de 1 h. Em P. alata o volume e a concentração de solu...

  16. INSECT AND MYCOFLORA INTERACTIONS IN MAIZE FLOUR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium moniliforme had the highest occurrence of 36.7%, 28.1% and 33.3% while Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus had a frequency of 3.2%, 3.1% and 3% on primary isolation media of czapek dox agar (CDA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) respectively, in maize flour without T. castaneum.

  17. Multigrain bread processing with extruded flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa Balestra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect in bread quality of a new bread making process and two replacement levels (20%, 36% of refined wheat flour by extrusion precooked prepared based on combination of oats, soybeans and wheat bran was studied. Composite flour was characterized according to its functional properties (water absorption index, grain size and nutritional properties (protein, total fiber, soluble fiber, ash, fat. The volume, whiteness index, rheological measurements (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness of the bread were monitored. No significant changes were recorded in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread according to the level of substitution of composite flour; bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume bread with 20% substitution. The process conditions caused greatest impact on the quality of bread. The new process resulted in a 37% increase in volume, 6% elasticity, 15% of cohesiveness and 44% decrease in hardness and 34% in chewiness, compared to the traditional process. This trend continued in the four days following the date of processing. The substitution level of composite flour did not cause significant changes in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread, but changes were observed in cohesiveness and volume. Bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume than the 20% substitution.

  18. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... riboflavin, 24 milligrams of niacin, 0.7 milligrams of folic acid, and 20 milligrams of iron. (b) It may...

  19. Comportamento de maracujazeiros (Passiflora spp. quanto à morte prematura Behavior of passionfruit (Passiflora spp.in relation to premature death of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Universidade Estadual Paulista, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, estudou-se o comportamento de Passifloráceas quanto à morte prematura de plantas, cultivadas em local com histórico da doença. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de diversos "acessos" de populações e espécies de maracujazeiros em relação a esta doença, sendo que as plantas resistentes deverão ser utilizadas como porta-enxertos de formas comerciais de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa e em programas de melhoramento genético. As espécies utilizadas foram P. edulis Sims, P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, P. nitida H.B.K., P. cincinnata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. morifolia, P. foetida e P. capsularis. Em local com histórico da doença, plantaram-se mudas em número variável e em épocas distintas. A condução das plantas e os tratos culturais foram os recomendados para o maracujá-amarelo. A morte prematura das plantas ocorreu entre dois meses e dois anos da cultura no campo. P. giberti e P. nitida mostraram-se resistente à doença, independentemente do local de origem. Entre os demais "acessos", não se encontraram fontes promissoras de resistência. Entretanto, novos "acessos" e novas espécies deverão ser estudadas na busca da resistência.The behavior of passionfruit, cultivated in sites with disease history, as to premature death, was researched at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus of Jaboticabal, SP. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the behavior of acesses and passionfruit species related to this disease, whereas resistant plants are to be used as yellow passionfruit rootstocks, as well as in breeding programs. The species P. edulis Sims, P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, P. nitida H.B.K., P. cincinnata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. morifolia, P. foetida, P. capsularis were used. In a site with a known record of the disease, the plants were planted in a variable number and at distinct times. Plant

  20. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Passiflora (Passifloraceae é utilizado principalmente para tratar doenças do SNC e cardiovasculares. A espécie Passiflora nitida Kunth é comumente conhecida como “maracujá-do-mato". A literatura relata o consumo in natura dos frutos desta espécie pela população local para distúrbios gastrointestinais. Considerando o potencial farmacológico do gênero, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar estudo de caracterização fitoquímica desta espécie e estudar os efeitos dos extratos aquoso (EA, etanólico (EE e hexânico (EH de suas folhas sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária. Para a caracterização fitoquímica foram realizados testes de cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear. O efeito dos extratos sobre a coagulação foi avaliado pelos testes de tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa. O efeito sobre a agregação plaquetária foi avaliado em plasma rico em plaquetas por método espectrofotométrico, usando adenosina difosfato (ADP e adrenalina (ADR como indutores da agregação. Os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram atividade coagulante pelo teste do TP e o EE apresentou atividade anticoagulante para o TTPa. Quando induzidos por ADP, os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram valores de concentração inibitória 50% (CI50, µg/mL de 450,5 ± 50,7; 511,2 ± 35,5 e 394,4 ± 8,9, respectivamente, e quando induzidos por ADR apresentaram valores de 438,7 ± 5,2; 21,0 ± 1,9 e 546,9 ± 49,9, respectivamente. O EE apresentou atividade inibitória sobre a agregação. A caracterização fitoquímica foi sugestiva da presença de flavonóides e cumarinas, aos quais podem ser atribuídos, em parte, os efeitos biológicos estudados.The Passiflora genus (Passifloraceae is mainly used to treat CNS and cardiovascular diseases. The Passiflora nitida Kunth species is commonly known as “maracujá-do-mato". The literature reports the in natura consumption of

  1. Using Goat's Milk, Barley Flour, Honey, and Probiotic to Manufacture of Functional Dairy Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Magdy Mohamed; Hamad, Mohamed Farid; Elraghy, Esraa Mohamed

    2017-08-23

    Stirred yogurt manufactured using probiotic culture which usually called Rayeb milk in the Middle East region is one of the most important functional fermented milk products. To increase the health and functionality properties to this product, some ingredients like fruits, cereal, and whey protein are used in production. This study was carried out to prepare functional Rayeb milk from goat's milk, barley flour (15%) and honey (4%) mixtures using ABT culture. Also, vanilla and cocoa powder were used as flavorings. Adding barley flour and honey to goat's milk increased curd tension and water-holding capacity and decreased coagulation time and susceptibility to syneresis. The values of carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity were higher in Rayeb milk supplemented with barley flour and honey than control. The viabilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Chr. Hansen's Lab A/S) increased in fortified Rayeb milk. The recommended level of 10 7  cfu g -1 of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for these samples. Addition of vanilla (0.1%) or cocoa powder (0.5%) improved the sensory properties of fortified Rayeb milk.

  2. Passiflora incarnata L. Improves Spatial Memory, Reduces Stress, and Affects Neurotransmission in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawna-Zboińska, Katarzyna; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Wawer, Adriana; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Passiflora incarnata L. has been used as a medicinal plant in South America and Europe since the 16th century. Previous pharmacological studies focused mainly on the plant's sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects on the central nervous system and its supporting role in the treatment of addiction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical effects of long-term oral administration of P. incarnata. The passionflower extract (30, 100, or 300 mg/kg body weight/day) was given to 4-week-old male Wistar rats via their drinking water. Tests were conducted after 7 weeks of treatment. Spatial memory was assessed in a water maze, and the levels of amino acids, monoamines, and their metabolites were evaluated in select brain regions by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We observed reduced anxiety and dose-dependent improvement of memory in rats given passionflower compared to the control group. In addition, hippocampal glutamic acid and cortical serotonin content were depleted, with increased levels of metabolites and increased turnover. Thus, our results partially confirmed the proposed mechanism of action of P. incarnata involving GABAA receptors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Developmental exposure to Passiflora incarnata induces behavioural alterations in the male progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, André D; Ponte, Bianca; Vieira, Milene L; de Paula, Jaqueline C C; Mesquita, Suzana F P; Gerardin, Daniela C C; Moreira, Estefânia G

    2013-01-01

    Passiflora incarnata is marketed in many countries as a phytomedicine and is prescribed mainly as a sedative and anxiolytic. Even though the directions of most marketed phytomedicines recommend them to be used under medical supervision, reproductive and developmental studies are sparse and not mandatory for regulatory purposes. To evaluate the reproductive and developmental toxicity of P. incarnata, Wistar female rats were gavaged with 30 or 300 mg kg(-1) of this herb from gestational Day (GD) 0 to postnatal Day (PND) 21. P. incarnata treatment did not influence dams' bodyweight or food intake or their reproductive performance (post-implantation loss, litter size, litter weight). There was also no influence on the physical development of pups (bodyweight gain, day of vaginal opening or preputial separation) or their behaviour in the open-field at PND 22, 35 and 75. Sexual behaviour was disrupted in adult male pups exposed to 300 mg kg(-1) of P. incarnata; in this group, only 3 out of 11 pups were sexually competent. This behavioural disruption was not accompanied by alterations in plasma testosterone levels, reproductive-related organs and glands weights or sperm count. It is hypothesised that aromatase inhibition may be involved in the observed effect.

  4. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  5. Morfología de Passiflora: una guía para la descripción de sus especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macgayver Bonilla Morales

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Las pasifloras son un grupo de plantas que tienen uso desde periodos precolombinos por el sabor de sus frutos, sin embargo, en los últimos siglosse han encontrado compuestos de importancia farmacéutica para la salud humana. Desde esta perspectiva, conocer las especies mediante sus caracteres morfológicos permitirá explorar la variabilidadexistente a nivel intra e inter especifico, y también definir a futuro su importancia económicapor su uso potencial. Por tal motivo, el objetivo de esta investigación fue definir e ilustrar los caracteres morfológicos más utilizados en Passiflora L. para estudios de diversidad, caracterización y taxonomía en Colombia. De esta manera, se establecieron los ítems de hábito, raíz, tallo, estípula,hoja, flor, inflorescencia, fruto y semilla con sus respectivas descripciones que relacionan la taxonomía actual de Passiflora. Adicional, se añadióun componente de polinización que determinó las principales relaciones florísticas y polinizadores como insectos, aves y mamíferos. Se concluyeque el entendimiento de las estructuras morfológicas en Passiflora servirá de guía para trabajos de caracterización de germoplasma y revisionestaxonómicas como eje para describir nuevas especies. 

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da; Balian, Simone C.

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  7. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Balian, Simone C., E-mail: balian@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  8. Food supplementation for workers: flour enriched with omega -3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Nery de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was preparing a product (omega-3 flour to increase the nutritional value of the food for workers concerning the content of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA. The omega-3 flour was prepared using waste (head sardines and leaves of carrot, flaxseed flour, manioc flour and spices. The fatty acids (FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 28 FA were identified in the omega-3 flour. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were 329.23mg EPA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour and 545.35 mg DHA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour. To meet the minimum requirements of omega -3, it is necessary the intake 2.5 to 3 tablespoons (soup of omega-3 flour day-1.There were analyzed two meals (A and B generally consumed by workers without and with the addition of the omega-3 flour (1 and 2 tablespoons to verify if there was an increase of n-3 FA. It was concluded that there was a significant increase of these FA in both meals. It was found that the omega-3 flour is constituted of a good nutritional value, especially the n-3 FA, so the product can be used as a supplement in the feeding of the workers as well as in other segments.

  9. MORFOANATOMÍA DE LAS GLÁNDULAS EN CUATRO ESPECIES DE PASSIFLORA L. (PASSIFLORACEAE) DE VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    JÁUREGUI DAMELIS; GARCÍA MARINA; PÉREZ DELIS

    2002-01-01

    Se estudió la morfoanatomía de las glándulas secretoras presentes en cuatro especiesde Passiflora: P. foetida var. moritziana, P. oerstedii, P. suberosa y P. tuberosacon el fin de aportar información de valor diagnóstico como apoyo a la sistemáticadel género. Las muestras foliares se procesaron siguiendo técnicas convencionalesusadas tanto para microscopía óptica como para microscopía electrónica de barrido.Los resultados revelan diferencias notorias entre las cuatro especies, en lo referente...

  10. Formulation and characterization of bread using coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour composite with addition of xanthan-gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erminawati; Sidik, W.; Listanti, R.; Zulfakar, H.

    2018-01-01

    Coconut-pulp flour is coconut flour made from by-product of coconut-milk based food products. The flour contains no gluten and high fibre, which can be considered as functional potential food. Bread made from composite-flour of coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour was studied for its physic-chemical and sensory characteristics. Addition of hydrocolloid, like xanthan-gum, was aimed to provide viscoelasticity for the dough which is essential for baked product. Composite-flour proportion used in this study was; 10CPF/90WF, 15CPF/85WF and 20CPF/80WF; and xanthan gum to total flour of 0,1% and 0,4%. Variable observed were; crumb-texture, crumb-colour, taste of coconut, preference and flavour; moisture, ash, fiber and soluble-protein contents. The research showed that addition of coconut-pulp flour in the composite-flour decreased specific volume value and increased the bread texture produced. It also increased the bread moisture-content, ash-content, fibre-content and soluble protein-content. Moreover, the xanthan-gum addition resulted in decreased specific-volume value and increased texture and fiber-content of the bread produced. Overall, the sensory characteristic of crumb colour, flavour and panellist preference revealed better than control bread made from wheat flour, however its crumb texture harder compare to control bread made from wheat flour. This study showed that coconut-pulp flour potential to be developed for production of functional food.

  11. Influence of doum (Hyphaene thebaica L.) flour addition on dough mixing properties, bread quality and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshora, Waleed; Lianfu, Zhang; Dahir, Mohammed; Qingran, Meng; Musa, Abubakr; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Omar, Khamis Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this covenant of functional foods, the world seeks for new healthier food products with appropriate proportions of bioactive constituents such as fiber, mineral elements, phenols and flavonoids. The doum fruit has good nutritional and pharmaceutical properties; therefore, its incorporation in breads could be beneficial in improving human health. In the current study, partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with doum fruit flour (DFF) at levels of 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % were carried out to investigate the dough viscoelastic properties, baking performance, proximate compositions and antioxidant properties of the breads. Partial substitution of WF with DFF increased the water absorption and developing time of dough (P ≤ 0.05), while, the dough extensibility, resistance to extension and the deformation energy were reduced. Bread supplemented with DFF resulted in a reduction in quality in terms of specific loaf volume, conferred softness, hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess to the bread crumbs. DFF up to 15 % could partially replace WF in bread; increase its nutritional value in terms of fiber content and minerals, with only a small depreciation in the bread quality. Sensory evaluation showed that breads supplemented up to 15 % DFF were acceptable to the panelists and there was no significant difference in terms of taste, texture and overall acceptability compared to the control. The incorporation of DFF increased the total phenolic contents, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant properties compared to the control (for both flour and bread).

  12. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  13. Identifying irradiated flour by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The photo-stimulated luminescence technique is recommended by European Committee for standardization for the detection food irradiation (EN 13751:2009). This study shows on luminescence technique to identify gamma irradiated five types of flour (corn flour, tapioca flour, wheat flour, glutinos rice flour and rice flour) at three difference dose levels in the range 0.2 - 1 kGy. The signal level is compare with two thresholds (700 and 5000). The majority of irradiated samples produce a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/ 60 s). All the control samples gave negative screening result while the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/ 60s) suggest that the sample has not been irradiated. A few samples show the signal levels between the two thresholds (intermediate signals) suggest that further investigation. Reported procedure was also tested over 60 days, confirming the applicability and feasibility of proposed methods. (author)

  14. Vegetative propagation of Passiflora actinia by semihardwood cuttings/ Propagação vegetativa de Passiflora actinia por meio de estacas semilenhosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Possamai

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship between of bovine mastitis and the nutrients concentration in milk. Seventy-two Holstein cows were divided into 2 groups: G1 - clinically healthy cows (n = 36 and G2 - subclinical mastitis cows (n = 36. Both groups of animals were subjected to the California Mastitis Test – CMT, the somatic cell counting, and the microbiological examination. The concentrations of fat, matter protein, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in the milk sample were determined. The recorded data were statistically analyzed and presented the following means and standard-deviations, according to groups 1 and 2: fat (% 1.251 ± 0.676 and 1.662 ± 1.166 (p > 0.05; protein (% 3.373 ± 0.428 and 3.411 ± 0.348 (p > 0.05; somatic cell counting (after logarithmic basis 1.694 ± 0.632 and 2.909 ± 0.424 (p 0.05; iron (ppm 0.159 ± 0.047 and 0.191 ± 0.063 (p 0.05 and zinc (ppm 3.938 ± 1.221 and 3.658 ± 1.212 (p > 0.05. It was concluded that there were significant differences in the levels of SCC and iron between the two groups of animals.Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para verificar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de AIB (ácido indolbutírico e de etanol na propagação vegetativa de Passiflora actinia. Foram usadas estacas semilenhosas possuindo 4 nós e 2 folhas. No experimento com AIB foram testadas as seguintes concentrações: 0, 250, 500 e 1000 mg.L-1. No experimento com etanol os tratamentos foram os seguintes: testemunha, água, etanol 10%, etanol 30%, etanol 50% e etanol 70%. Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados por imersão da base das estacas (2cm durante 1 minuto. Em ambos experimentos o delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso com 5 repetições e 20 estacas por parcela. A estaquia foi realizada em câmara de nebulização, em tubetes de polietileno, contendo o substrato comercial Plantmax®. A avaliação foi feita 7 semanas após a instalação do experimento. Não foram observadas diferen

  15. Evaluation of some properties of wheat-brewers' spent cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brewers' spent cassava flour blends and that it has a lot of potential in the food industry especially its use as thickener and binding agent in the food systems. Keywords: Brewers' spent cassava flour, wheat flour, proximate, functional properties.

  16. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwen Niu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC, 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC, 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC, 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC, NaCl SRC (SCSRC, CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC, FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC, sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC, NaOH (pH 10 SRC (SHSRC, Na2CO3 (pH 10 SRC (SCABSRC and SDS (pH 10 SRC (SDSSRC values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl to acidic (5% lactic acid or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3, and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3 increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**, CCSRC (0.82**, SCHSRC (0.80** and FCSRC (0.78*. SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64* but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

  17. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  18. NARINGENIN ENHANCED EFFICIENCY OF GUS ACTIVITY IN Passiflora mollissima (H.B.K. Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Cancino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid naringenin has been investigated as a possible vir gene inducer in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Passiflora mollissima, P. giberti and Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi. The transformation efficiency percentage of explants showing blue GUS expression and the extent of staining following inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains EHA 105 and 1065, carrying gus and nptII genes was enhanced with the supplementation of the co-cultivation medium with naringenin. Supplementation of medium with 100µM (strain EHA 105 and 300 µM (strain 1065 naringenin was most effective at enhancing mean (±s.e.m., n=3 GUS activity in leaf explants (20.3 ± 2.4%, strain EHA; 105; 6.0 ± 0.57%, strain 1065 and nodal segments (16.7 ± 2.4% strain EHA 105; 8.3 ± 0.57% strain 1065 of P. mollissima. In P. giberti and N. tabacum maximum GUS activity was obtained in leaf and root explants with 100µM naringenin for both strains analysed. Additionally, when naringenin was added to Luria Bertani (LB medium, both bacterial growth via optical density and colony forming units were higher when compared to control. This is the first report of the use of naringenin to enhance gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants. These findings suggest that naringenin can be used as an alternative to acetosyringone for vir gene induction in Agrobacterium. This approach may be especially useful in plants that are generally recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediatedtransformation.

  19. Estimating fruitpulp carotenoid content from shell color in gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Franco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims es un fruto aceptado en mercados europeos; pero, su corta vida en poscosecha limita la comercialización. Por lo tanto, es necesario, caracterizar algunos atributos de la maduración, para que el fruto mantenga las mejores condiciones de calidad. La investigación tuvo como objetivo estimar, a partir de los cambios de color del fruto y de su edad, la evolución de los carotenoides, mediante el uso de modelos que predijeran esta relación. Se utilizaron frutos con edad conocida para determinar el color con base en el espacio CIE L*, a* y b*. La colorimetría confirmó que hay evolución apreciable a partir de los 84 días después de floración (DDF, con color morado oscuro hacia los 98 DDF y púrpura muy oscuro a los 105 DDF. En frutos madurados en la planta, se apreció disminución en la luminosidad (L*, mientras que en las coordenadas a* el valor aumentó y el b* disminuyó, cambios que definen el color del fruto. Se observó una tendencia similar en frutos cosechados a partir de los 91 DDF. Tanto en los frutos madurados en la planta como en los cosechados, el contenido de carotenoides se incrementó a medida que la senescencia del fruto avanzaba. Modelos de regresión permitieron estimar el contenido de carotenoides: uno múltiple, con las coordenadas de color como predictoras y el otro polinomial, basado en la edad del fruto.

  20. Phytochemical analysis of Passiflora loefgrenii Vitta, a rich source of luteolin-derived flavonoids with antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentieri, Maria Pia; Levi, Marisa; Guzzo, Flavia; Avato, Pinarosa

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the flavonoid composition of the aerial parts (young leaves, YL; adult leaves, AL; stems, ST) of Passiflora loefgrenii Vitta, a rare species native to Brazil, where it is traditionally used as food. Antioxidant potential has also been evaluated. To the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical and biological study on this species has been reported previously. Compositional data have been acquired combining HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and Electrospary ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses. Antioxidant activity has been evaluated by the 2,2'-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. Glycosylated flavones, with luteolin as the main aglycone, can be regarded as biomarkers for this drug. Qualitative composition of the extracts from YL, AL and ST was similar. The bulk of the constituents was made up by 8-C-ß-glucosyl luteolin (orientin), 7-O-α-rhamnosyl-6-C-ß-glucosyl luteolin and 6-C-α-rhamnosyl luteolin, which totally amounted to 16.57 (73%), 10.77 (74%) and 5.07 (77%) μg/mg in YL, AL and ST, respectively. P. loefgrenii showed a good antioxidant activity (IC50 of 350 μg/ml), higher than generally reported for other passifloras. P. loefgrenii, rich in luteolin glycosides, can be regarded as a good candidate to be explored for therapeutic properties other than the sedative one since it represents a rich source of valuable flavonoids with antioxidant potential. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  2. Physical and biochemical properties of green banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntharalingam, S; Ravindran, G

    1993-01-01

    Banana flour prepared from two cooking banana varieties, namely 'Alukehel' and 'Monthan', were evaluated for their physical and biochemical characteristics. The yields of flour averaged 31.3% for 'Alukehel' and 25.5% for 'Monthan'. The pH of the flour ranged from 5.4 to 5.7. The bulk density and particle size distribution were also measured. The average chemical composition (% dry matter) of the flours were as follows: crude protein, 3.2; crude fat, 1.3; ash, 3.7; neutral detergent fiber, 8.9; acid detergent fiber, 3.8; cellulose, 3.1; lignin, 1.0 and hemicellulose, 5.0. Carbohydrate composition indicated the flour to contain 2.8% soluble sugars, 70.0% starch and 12.0% non-starch polysaccharides. Potassium is the predominant mineral in banana flour. Fresh green banana is a good source of vitamin C, but almost 65% is lost during the preparation of flour. Oxalate content (1.1-1.6%) of banana flour is probably nutritionally insignificant. The overall results are suggestive of the potential of green bananas as a source of flour.

  3. Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max used as botanical insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sorghum grains.

  4. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker?s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to...

  5. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.

  6. The viscoelastic properties of the protein-rich materials from the fermented hard wheat, soft wheat and barley flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The linear and non-linear rheological properties of the suspensions for the hard red spring wheat (HRS) flour, soft wheat (Pastry) flour, barley flour, as well as the remain residues of HRS flour, Pastry flour, and barley flour after fermentation were investigated. The linear and non-linear rheologi...

  7. Partial replacement of wheat flour by pumpkin seed flour in the production of cupcakes filled with carob

    OpenAIRE

    BATISTA, Jaqueline Eduarda Rodrigues; BRAGA, Lucas Pereira; OLIVEIRA, Renata Corrêa de; SILVA, Edson Pablo; DAMIANI, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Pumpkin seeds are considered waste and its composition has high protein content, being feasible for human consumption, also reducing costs in waste treatment. In this work we provided an alternative to reuse the wastes of pumpkin seed applied in cupcakes formulation as a complementary source to wheat flour. Four formulations with different proportions of pumpkin seed flour were investigated. The effects of partial wheat flour substitution were evaluated using the parameters texture, ...

  8. Neosartorya glabra polygalacturonase produced from fruit peels as inducers has the potential for application in passion fruit and apple juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Elisa Pinheiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Polygalacturonases are enzymes with the biotechnological potential for use in fruit juice clarification and for the enhancement of filtration efficiency. The aim of this work was to assess the production of polygalacturonase by the fungus Neosartorya glabra by means of solid-state and submerged fermentation using fruit peel residues as the carbon source, and also apply the enzyme in the clarification and decrease in viscosity of passion fruit and apple juices. The highest polygalacturonase (4.52 U/g/h production was obtained by means of submerged fermentation in Vogel´s medium (1964 containing orange peel – Bahia variety (Citrus sinensis, at a concentration of 1.5% (w/v, dried mass at 30-35°C for 72 h. The polygalacturonase of the crude extract presented optimal activity at 60°C and pH 5.5. The enzyme retained around 90% of the initial activity after 180 minutes at 40°C, and 50% of the initial activity after 150 minutes at 50°C. The enzyme was shown to be stable at acid pH values (3.0-6.5 after 120 minutes at 25oC. All these favourable enzymatic properties make the polygalacturonase attractive for potential uses in the industry of pectin-rich fruit juices, since the application of the crude extract to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis juice caused an 80% reduction in viscosity and 75% decrease in light absorbance. In the processing of apple pulp juice (Malus domestica, there was a 50% reduction in viscosity and 78% decrease in light absorbance.

  9. Effect of Substituting Purple Rice Flour for Wheat Flour on Physicochemical Characteristics, In Vitro Digestibility, and Sensory Evaluation of Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warinporn Klunklin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple rice flour contains high levels of a number of antioxidant compounds; however, it has seldom been used as an ingredient in bakery products. The aim was to increase the nutritional value of biscuits by adding purple rice flour to a basic wheat flour biscuit. The substitution of purple rice flour in place of wheat flour modified the characteristics of the biscuits in terms of increasing the nutritional values. They contained high fiber, antioxidants, and antioxidant activities, while slightly changing the physical properties such as hardness and spread ratio. The study showed that the protein digestibility increased as the content of the purple rice flour was increased in the biscuit mix. The 100% purple rice flour biscuits had the lowest predicted glycemic index (pGI of all the biscuits. Sensory analysis showed that the overall acceptability of the blended flour biscuits at 25 and 50% substitution levels was slightly less than that of the control biscuits with only 9%; however, the scores were above 5 which means the panelists still liked the biscuits a lot. Overall, the inclusion of purple rice flour in biscuits mix increased crude protein content, protein digestibility, and bioactive compounds with acceptable sensory scores from consumers up to 50% substitution of purple rice.

  10. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P antioxidant activity. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Formulation and characterization of a nutritional pumpkin-based whey beverages, enriched with oatmeal and passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Valencia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect on the addition of oatmeal (Avena sativa and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis in the content of fiber, calcium, iron, phosphorus and A vitamin in beverage formulation based on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, milk and whey, was determined. The beverages undergone significant changes during the storage time, the pH decreased as the acidity showed a slight increase. The coordinates of CIELAB (L *, a * and b * were located in quadrant 1 indicating a clear tendency to yellow caused by the presence of carotenoids from the pumpkin and passion fruit. Based on the sensory analysis it was selected best treatment who was higher in 3 of the 4 parameters evaluated. This sample also presented a pseudoplastic behavior with a consistency index of 3.57 Pa.s0.24 and a shelf life of 9 days

  12. Genetic variability of Passiflora spp. from commercial fields in the Federal District, Brazil Variabilidade genética de Passiflora spp. em plantios comerciais do Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gomes de Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the genetic variability in commercial accessions of passion fruit from the Federal District, Brazil, by RAPD markers. Genetic analyses were done with leaf samples of 30 accessions. DNA samples were amplified by RAPD technique, and respective markers converted into a binary matrix, from which the genetic distances between the accessions were estimated. Clustering analyis based on genetic distances allowed to detect a wide range of genetic variabillity among the accessions of sour passion fruit, and to separate them from the two sweet passion fruit. The graphical positioning of 'BRS Ouro Vermelho' confirms its potential to improve the genetic variability of commercial varieties of sour passion fruit. Dispersal of genetic distances among commercial accessions of sour passion fruit supports evidence for different genetic origins of the materials planted in the Federal District. The verified genetic variability indicates the potential success of future breeding programs for this region.Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a variabilidade genética de acessos de maracujá comerciais no Distrito Federal por meio de marcadores RAPD. Análises genéticas foram feitas com amostras foliares de 30 acessos. As amostras de DNA foram amplificadas pela técnica de RAPD e os respectivos marcadores convertidos em uma matriz binária, a partir da qual as distâncias genéticas entre os acessos foram estimadas. Análises de agrupamento baseadas em distâncias genéticas permitiram detectar uma ampla gama de variabilidade genética entre os acessos de maracujazeiro-azedo, bem como para separá-los dos dois de maracujazeiro-doce. O posicionamento gráfico de 'BRS Ouro Vermelho' confirma a sua importante contribuição para aumentar a variabilidade genética das atuais variedades comerciais de maracujazeiro-azedo. A dispersão das distâncias genéticas entre os acessos comerciais de maracujazeiro-azedo suportam as evid

  13. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  14. Sensitization to lupine flour: is it clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; Gerth van Wijk, R.

    2010-01-01

    Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. The aim of our study was to

  15. Sensitization to lupine flour : is it clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; van Wijk, R. Gerth

    2010-01-01

    Background Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. Objective The aim of our

  16. Functional properties of processed pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination increased water absorption capacity, bulk density, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion activity, nitrogen solubility and decreased gelatin and wetability of the pigeon pea flour. Germinated pigeon pea flour has great potentials in food prperations that require hydration to improve ...

  17. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  18. Rheological and qualitative characteristics of pea flour incorporated cracker biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of pea flour for cracker biscuits production was investigated in this study. Pea flour was characterised by high protein (21.46 % and ash (3.11 % content and exhibited relatively high emulsifying (37.50 ml/100 ml and foaming (53.50 ml/100 ml capacity. The effect of pea flour incorporation to wheat dough (substitution levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 % on the rheological properties, physical characteristics and sensory parameters of cracker biscuits were also evaluated. Farinographic measurements showed that pea flour addition resulted in increasing of water absorption (from 58.90 to 61.80 % and dough development time (from 3.55 to 4.50 min, whereas dough stability was decreased (from 6.69 to 3.50 min. It was also found that incorporation of pea flour to cracker biscuits modified physical properties of final products by different ways (decreasing of volume index, width and spread ratio, increasing of thickness. From the sensory evaluation revealed that cracker biscuits prepared from blend flour contained 10 % pea flour showed no significant differences from wheat cracker biscuits. Higher levels of pea flour in the products adversely affected the odour, taste, firmness, colour and overall acceptance of final products.

  19. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended.

  20. Production and evaluation of noodles from flour blends of cocoyam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flour blends were prepared from two cultivars of cocoyam ( and . ), African breadfruit ( ) and wheat ( ) at different proportions and extruded into noodles with a locally fabricated and manually operated singlescrew extruder. Proximate composition and the functional properties of the different flour blends were evaluated. The

  1. "Fufu" flour processing in Ghana: Costs, returns and institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of "fufu" flour is an innovative business venture that young entrepreneurs should explore. However, the level of costs and returns as well as institutional support to sustain the industry is not well understood. This study was conducted to determine the profitability of "fufu" flour and the strength of the ...

  2. optimizing soybean flour., whey powder. and colostrum ratios for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l4 days. If preserved colostrum could be supplemented with reconstituted soybean flour and whey powder, the period of colostrum feeding could be extended to 4 weeks. Various researchers reported the successful inclusion of soybean flour and/or soybean protein concentrate in milk replacers (Schmutz, Cravens, Soldner ...

  3. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  4. Bread Making Potential of Composite Flour of Wheat-Acha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread-making potentials of composite flours containing 90% wheat and 10% acha enriched with 0-15% cowpea flour were investigated. Proximate composition and functional properties of the blends were studied using AOAC standard methods. Bread loaves were prepared from the blends using the straight dough method ...

  5. TESTING FOR RISK PREMIUMS IN THE WHEAT-FLOUR SUBSECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Salih, Hachim M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper specifies a model of wholesale flour price determination that incorporates risk measures for input prices (wheat) and a joint output price (millfeed). Tests using daily price data for a Buffalo flour miller indicate that risk premiums do exist. Moreover, these premiums persist in a model that incorporates hedging.

  6. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  7. KAJIAN FORMULASI BISKUIT JAGUNG DALAM RANGKA SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU [Study on Corn Biscuit Formulation to Subtitute of wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gracia C.L1*

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the formulation of substitute by corn flour. The flour used roasted corn flour and unroasted corn flour. Results showed that biscuit’s made of 80 gr corn flour and 20 gr wheat flour were accepted by panelist’s and the best formulation was 80 gr corn flour, 20 gr wheat flour, 50 gr margarine, 50 gr sugar and 10 gr yellow egg both of two corn flour. Roasting treatment of corn flour significantly affected fat content, carbohydrate content and digestibility of protein of the biskuit.

  8. Morphological and anatomical analyses of the seed coats of sweet granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Hernández Julián

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The study of histology and morphology of seeds of genus Passiflora has been of high utility for the classification of species. In seeds of sweet granadilla, the histological characteristics and methodologies for their study are unknown. This study was aimed to know the tissue and morphological characteristics of the seed coats of seeds of sweet granadilla and to be able to determine its value in the differentiation of accessions. Five accessions collected in producing zones of the Province of Huila, Colombia, were analyzed. In morphological analysis, all accessions presented falsifoveate ornamentation and entire margin. The seeds presented high change in weight and size for every accession; there stood out the seeds of the accession PmN for presenting major size (7.42 mm long, weight (35.62 mg, homogeneity in these variables and a typical orange color. For the histological analysis, a protocol was adapted to realize sections of seed coats in parafin, by means of which one managed to obtain sections (7 μ that in the optical microscope show clearly three well differentiated layers, belonging, possibly, to exotegmen (internal layer, mesotesta (medium layer and exotesta (external layer. Every layer presented differences in the form of the cells, color and thickness, between the sections of the basal and medium parts of the seeds, but the differences between the analyzed accessions

  9. Caracterização de Passiflora mucronata Lam.: nova alternativa de maracujá ornamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Molina Meletti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a família Passifloraceae possui ampla diversidade genética devido ao elevado número de espécies nativas, entretanto, o valor ornamental da família ainda é praticamente inexplorado. Passiflora mucronata Lam. é uma das espécies nativas que integram o Banco de Germoplasma de Maracujazeiros do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, que estão sendo caracterizadas para fins ornamentais, em condições de campo, objetivando sua utilização comercial. Foram avaliados desenvolvimento vegetativo, época de florescimento, período de antese, compatibilidade, viabilidade polínica, produção de frutos, comportamento germinativo e longevidade das sementes. As flores de P. mucronata são brancas, fosforescentes e têm antese noturna, atraindo mariposas e morcegos. A viabilidade polínica permaneceu elevada (75,8%, desde a antese (18h00min h até a manhã seguinte. A espécie mostrou-se autoincompatível. A polinização cruzada resultou em frutos ovoides, com 14,82g de peso médio, 4,59cm de diâmetro longitudinal por 2,73cm de diâmetro equatorial. A casca do fruto é delgada, amarelo-canária quando totalmente maduro. A polpa apresentou pouca suculência, sem aroma característico, mas sabor agradável. As sementes são achatadas, de coloração marrom-enegrecida, com dormência quando recém-colhidas, o que pode ser superado efetivamente com armazenamento em câmara fria e seca mais choque térmico, associados. A longevidade das sementes foi de cerca de um ano. Os acessos avaliados de P. mucronata evidenciaram se tratar de uma planta de vigor vegetativo intermediário, tolerante ao frio, com intenso florescimento, que se estende por um longo período do ano. Em função destas vantagens adicionais, pode ser utilizada como planta ornamental, uma alternativa dentro do grupo das trepadeiras indicadas para cercas vivas ou caramanchões.

  10. Passiflora incarnata attenuation of neuropathic allodynia and vulvodynia apropos GABA-ergic and opioidergic antinociceptive and behavioural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Urooj; Subhan, Fazal; Shahid, Muhammad; Akbar, Shehla; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Gowhar; Fawad, Khwaja; Sewell, Robert D E

    2016-02-24

    Passiflora incarnata is widely used as an anxiolytic and sedative due to its putative GABAergic properties. Passiflora incarnata L. methanolic extract (PI-ME) was evaluated in an animal model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic allodynia and vulvodynia in rats along with antinociceptive, anxiolytic and sedative activities in mice in order to examine possible underlying mechanisms. PI-ME was tested preliminary for qualitative phytochemical analysis and then quantitatively by proximate and GC-MS analysis. The antinociceptive property was evaluated using the abdominal constriction assay and hot plate test. The anxiolytic activity was performed in a stair case model and sedative activity in an open field test. The antagonistic activities were evaluated using naloxone and/or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). PI-ME was evaluated for prospective anti-allodynic and anti-vulvodynic properties in a rat model of streptozotocin induced neuropathic pain using the static and dynamic testing paradigms of mechanical allodynia and vulvodynia. GC-MS analysis revealed that PI-ME contained predominant quantities of oleamide (9-octadecenamide), palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid) and 3-hydroxy-dodecanoic acid, among other active constituents. In the abdominal constriction assay and hot plate test, PI-ME produced dose dependant, naloxone and pentylenetetrazole reversible antinociception suggesting an involvement of opioidergic and GABAergic mechanisms. In the stair case test, PI-ME at 200 mg/kg increased the number of steps climbed while at 600 mg/kg a significant decrease was observed. The rearing incidence was diminished by PI-ME at all tested doses and in the open field test, PI-ME decreased locomotor activity to an extent that was analagous to diazepam. The effects of PI-ME were antagonized by PTZ in both the staircase and open field tests implicating GABAergic mechanisms in its anxiolytic and sedative activities. In the streptozotocin-induced neuropathic nociceptive model, PI

  11. Rheology of Potato flour Mixes and Wheat to Make Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón-Vera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the rheological properties of flour mixes Ipomoea batata and Triticum vulgare for the preparation of bread dough, was the goal of this research for it a completely randomized design, as treatments sweet potato flour was used varieties are used: Toquecita, Guayaco Purple, Purple Ecuador, Brazil and Ina Purple in a 30/70 ratio (sweet potato flour / wheat flour respectively. The rheological variables: water absorption, development time, weakening of the dough stability, water absorption index (C1, mixing rate (C2, gluten strength index (C3, gel viscosity (C4, resistance index amylase (C5 and starch retro gradation index (C6 were evaluated with Mixolab equipment. The results showed that the variety Purple Brazil showed better characteristics of flours recommended premixes for the baking process in response to these indices

  12. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  13. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  14. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  15. Relações entre os caracteres de maracujazeiro-azedo Relations between variables in passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal'Col Lúcio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi identificar os caracteres que mais merecem atenção em experimentos com a cultura do maracujá-azedo (Passiflora edulis Sims e verificar suas relações com o caractere dependente principal produção total de frutos. A partir dos dados de quatro experimentos com a cultura do maracujá calculou-se a matriz de correlações entre todos os caracteres e realizou-se o diagnóstico de multicolinearidade. Em seguida foi aplicada a análise de trilha entre os caracteres restantes. Para identificar os caracteres com maior contribuição na variabilidade total existente foi realizada uma análise de componentes principais. Os caracteres peso médio de polpa e número de frutos são os de maior correlação com o peso total de frutos de maracujá. O teor de sólidos solúveis total, o peso médio de frutos, o comprimento e o diâmetro do fruto, a espessura da casca e a percentagem de polpa tem baixa correlação com o peso total de frutos de maracujá.The aim of this research was to indentify the variables which deserve more attention in experiments with passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims and verify their relations with the principal dependent variable: total fruit yield. From data of four experiments with passion fruit culture it was calculated the correlation matrix between the variables and performed the diagnosis of multicollinearity, then applied the path analysis between the variables left. To identify the variables with more contribution in the total variability it was performed analysis of main components. The pulp weight and the fruit number have higher correlation with the fruits total weight. The total soluble solids rate, the average weight of fruits, length and fruit diameter, peel thickness and the pulp percentage has lower correlation with the fruit total weight of passion fruit.

  16. Substitution of wheat flour with “acha” ( Digitaria exilis ) for bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of wheat flour (WF) substitution with 'Acha' flour (AF) on the quality attributes in bread making was investigated using the following composite blends ratios 85:15, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, 100:0 (AF) with 100% wheat flour as control. Proximate analysis on both composite flours and their bread products, as well as sensory ...

  17. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four

  18. Effect of partial substitution of dried plantain flour on the sensory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial substitution of dried plantain flour on the sensory and functional properties of maize flour based snack ( Kokoro ) ... It is concluded that plantain flour can be successfully blended with maize flour for the production of good kokoro product. Recommendation is made for the large scale production of fortified ...

  19. Physico-chemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20 and 40%, of sweet potato flour. The apparent viscosity of the pancake batter increased with increased sweet potato flour replacement. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such as, har...

  20. Temperatura letal de diferentes plantas frutíferas tropicais Freezing points of various tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Sentelhas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer melhor o efeito das baixas temperaturas sobre as frutíferas de clima tropical e possibilitar o desenvolvimento de novas variedades, mais tolerantes, simularam-se geadas em câmaras frigoríficas para a determinação da temperatura letal de diferentes plantas frutíferas tropicais. Os resultados permitiram classificar as espécies em três grupos: Grupo I - moderada tolerância (-4°C: condessa (Annona reticulata; goiaba (Psidium guajava; acerola (Malpighia glabra e abacate (Persea americana var. Geada; Grupo II - média tolerância (-5°C: conde (A. squamosa; araticum-mirim (Rollinea spp.; anona-do-brejo (A. glabra; falsa-gravioleira (A. montana; araticum-de-folha-miúda (R. ermaginata e maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Grupo III - acentuada tolerância (-6°C: cherimóia (A. cherimola.The effect of low temperature on tropical fruits was studied in order to guide future developments of frost resistant varieties. Simulations of frost were done in a freezing chamber to determine the freezing points of various fruit plants. On the basis of the results the studied species can be classified into three groups according to their tolerance to low temperatures: Group I - little tolerance (-4°C: Annona reticulata; Psidium guajava; Malpighia glabra and Persea americana (var. Geada; Group II - medium tolerance (-5°C: A. squamosa; Rollinea spp.; A. glabra; A. montana; R. ermaginata and Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Group III - high tolerance (-6°C: A. cherimola.

  1. Studies on the Preparation of Aglutenic Foam Type of Pastry Product Using Different Flour Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to obtain a mechanically loose gluten free pastry (leaf roulade by using gluten-free flour: corn flour and rice flour and cornstarch. The samples obtained were compared with a control sample of only wheat flour. To optimize the recipe were made ​​four experimental variants, flour and starch is used in different proportions. Version 1 (control sample who used wheat flour WF in 100%, Version 2 consisting of 20% maize flour (MF, 16 % rice flour (RF, 64% corn starch (CS; Version 3 consisting of: 10% of maize flour (MF, 10% of rice flour (RF, 80% corn starch (CS. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: length, width, thickness, specific gravity, moisture and carbohydrates. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by a group of un-trained panellists, using a 9-point Hedonic scale.

  2. Effects of dehydration methods on quality characteristics of yellow passion fruit co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neiton C; Duarte, Claudio R; Barrozo, Marcos As

    2017-11-01

    The production and processing of fruits generate a large amount of residues, which are usually disposed of or under-used, representing losses of raw material and energy. The present paper investigates the effect of four dehydration techniques (convective, infrared, microwave and freeze-drying) on yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) co-products and the influence of the main variables on moisture removal and bioactive compounds. The compounds analyzed were total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid and pectin. The content of phenolics and flavonoids increased after dehydration in all techniques investigated and the process temperatures directly affected the ascorbic acid content. Microwave dehydration showed the best results for most bioactive compounds analyzed, if performed in suitable process conditions. However, the highest levels of pectin content were obtained by freeze-drying and convective dehydration. This study reinforces the importance of the adequate use of passion fruit co-products due to the high levels of bioactive compounds in this material. Microwave dehydration presented the best results, which indicates the potential use of this technique for a better exploitation of fruit co-products. Larger quantities of pectin were extracted from samples dehydrated through methodologies with long-time process and low temperatures, such as convective drying and freeze-drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S

    1993-07-01

    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts.

  4. Classification of whole wheat flour using a dimensionless number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehn, Georgia Ane Raquel; Steel, Caroline Joy

    2017-11-01

    The rheological standards currently used for classifying refined wheat flour for technological quality of bread are also used for whole wheat flours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological and technological behavior of different whole wheat flours, as well as pre-mixes of refined wheat flour with different replacement levels of wheat bran, to develop a dimensionless number that assigns a numerical scale using results of rheological parameters to solve this problem. Through farinograph and extensograph results, most whole wheat flours evaluated presented parameters recommended for bread making, according to the current classification. However, the specific volume of breads elaborated with these flours was not suitable, that is, the rheological analyses were not able to predict the specific volume of pan bread. The development of the Sehn-Steel dimensionless number allowed establishing a classification of whole wheat flours as "suitable" (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number between 62 and 200) or "unsuitable" for the production of pan bread (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number lower than 62). Moreover, an equation that can predict the specific volume of whole pan bread through this dimensionless number was developed.

  5. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  6. Path analysis for physiological traits that influence seed germination of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erneida Coelho de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of yellow passion fruit seed is determined by fruit storage and the duration of this period. Two orthree harvest dates can thereby be defined to obtain maximum quality. This study aimed to obtain estimates of phenotype,genotype and residual correlation coefficients and evaluate the direct and indirect effects (path analysis of genotype correlationsin seed extracted from fruits stored for 7, 14 and 21 days at cooled (8 ºC and at environment temperature (25 ºC. Thevariables accelerated aging and moisture content explained the higher germination percentage in the refrigerated environment.However, in natural conditions, the variables dry matter and electric conductivity influenced seed germination percentagestrongly, evidencing that the indirect effects of accelerated aging, electric conductivity and weight reduction had the greatestinfluence on dry matter.

  7. Vitamin C and total phenols quantification in calli of native passion fruit induced by combinations of Picloram and Kinetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida Artioli-Coelho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the center of origin of passion fruit and has an important natural variability of the genus Passiflora. Several wild species of this genus are resistant to some pests and diseases and many are considered as medicinal. The aim of this research was to induce callus from in vitro Passiflora gibertii leaf explants for quantification of vitamin C and total phenols. Once the appropriate auxin/cytokine balance promotes callus formation and may optimize the production of secondary compounds and vitamins, calli were induced using a half-strength MS medium with a combination of the auxin Picloran (PIC and the cytokine Kinetin (KIN. The vitamin C and total phenols were quantified by colorimetric methods from calli after different culture periods. The calli induction was strongly dependent of the combination PIC/KIN. It was observed high vitamin C content (94.8mg 100g-1 during the calli induction period in MS+4.14µM PIC+ 0.207µM KIN. Higher PIC/KIN concentrations promoted an increase in the vitamin C content after three subcultures. The higher PIC (8.28µM/KIN (0.828µM concentration was the higher was the total phenols production (66mg tannic acid 100g-1 of fresh callus during the calli induction period.

  8. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L.d.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it. - Highlights: ► We study the influence of gamma radiation on wheat flour and properties of breads. ► Falling number decreased with radiation remaining almost constant up to one month. ► Ionizing radiation may confer an increase in texture parameters, weight and height on the bread.

  9. Soybean flour asthma: detection of allergens by immunoblotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.K.; Schroeckenstein, D.; Meier-Davis, S.; Balmes, J.; Rempel, D.

    1988-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman developed asthma 6 years after beginning work in a food-processing plant in which soybean flour was used as a protein extender. Symptoms of sneezing, coughing, and wheezing would begin within minutes of exposure to soybean flour and resolve 2 hours after exposure ceased. Skin tests were positive to a soy extract prepared from the flour. Airway hyperreactivity was confirmed by a positive bronchial challenge to methacholine. Bronchial challenge with soybean flour produced an immediate increase in specific airway resistance from 5.0 to 22.7 L. cm of H2O/L/sec. There was no response to challenge with lactose. The patient's allergic response to soy-flour extract was further characterized by several immunologic methods. IgE binding to soy-flour protein by direct RAST was 5.98 times that of a normal control serum. The soy-flour extract was separated by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four protein bands were detected in the crude soy-flour extract. After immunoblotting and subsequent autoradiography, nine proteins with molecular weights ranging from 54,500 to 14,875 were found. Cross-reactivity studies with other legumes demonstrated apparent immunologic identity between a component in green pea extract and a soybean protein with a molecular weight of 17,000. The clinical significance of this cross-reactivity is not known. We conclude that in this case of occupational asthma to soybean flour, multiple allergens were involved. Immunoblotting may be useful in identifying the allergens involved in occupational asthma

  10. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  11. [Determination of aluminium in flour foods with photometric method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Dajin

    2012-05-01

    To establish a determination method for aluminium in flour foods with photometric method. After samples being treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion, aluminium in staple flour foods was determined by photometric method. There was a good linearity of the result in the range of 0.25 - 5.0 microg/ml aluminium, r = 0.9998; limit of detection (LOD) : 2.3 ng/ml; limit of quantitation (LOQ) : 7 ng/ml. This method of determining aluminium in flour foods is simple, rapid and reliable.

  12. Predatory Aptness of Ants Against Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum Herbst (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) in Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, F.A.; Parveen, S.; Qadir, G.

    2016-01-01

    The red flour beetle (RFB), Tribolium castaneum is one of the most destructive pests of stored grains and other food products including wheat flour. Due to its severe infestation, the flour gets mouldy, turns yellowish, gets pungent odour and becomes unhealthy for human consumption. The infested samples of wheat flour by T. castaneum were collected from different localities and its culture was maintained in laboratory. Three ant species namely, Dorylus labiatus, Camponotus rufipes and Monomorium minimum were collected from forest and non-forest habitats and compared for their predation against different life stages of RFB. Results showed D. labiatus of forest habitat as an efficient pupal predator that consumed 91.66% pupae of RFB. It was significantly different from non-forest ant population and control with 73.33% and 11.66% pupal predation, respectively. C. rufipes from forest habitat showed maximum adult predation (25%), which was significantly higher than non-forest ant population and control jar with 15% and 3.33% adult predation, respectively. The forest population of M. minimum exhibited 56.66% larval predation that was significantly different from non-forest population with 41.66% larval consumption. Pupal stage was the highest vulnerable stage to the ant predation and was extremely predated by D. labiatus collected from forest habitats. The lowest predation was observed at larval stage by forest population of M. minimum (1.66%) that was significantly different from all the susceptible stages of RFB. These results indicate that ants could be used as biological control agents against RFB. (author)

  13. Analysis on The Substitution Ability of Mocaf Flour Toward Wheat Flour, its Business Feasibility, and its Industry Multiple Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riza Firdaus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of mocaf flour in MSME scale in South Kalimantan area was not feasible considered from its business feasibility hence the multiple effect was unmeasured based on its industry existence. Mocaf flour production derived from cassava, which is a plant that not only match on dry land but also in the wetlands of South Kalimantan, can not be oriented consumer as a substitute for wheat flour for common food products in the society. Therefore, further research refers to aspects mocaf flour premium for health. This objective of this research was to increase the society consumption of mocaf flour for the healthy reason related to the trend on negative effect from high level of gluten in wheat flour. The laboratory test showed the result that supports mocaf product for health. With this consideration then mocaf processed product have potentials to bedeveloped though serious marketing effort is required due to infamiliarity of the mocaf flour especially in South Kalimantan area. Difference test result showed that prospects, indeed, haveintention to purchase mocaf-based processed products for healthy reason.

  14. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme; however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All formulations made from whole grain wheat flour and added with xylanase also had specific volumes significantly higher than those of the control sample, and the highest value was found for the 8 g xylanase.100 kg-1 flour formulation. With respect to moisture content, the formulations with different enzyme concentrations showed small significant differences when compared to the control samples. In general, breads made with the addition of 8 g enzyme.100 kg-1 flour had the lowest firmness values, thus presenting the best technological characteristics.

  15. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Litwinek; Halina Gambuś; Gabriela Zięć; Renata Sabat; Anna Wywrocka-Gurgul; Wiktor Berski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation) to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb tex...

  16. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  17. The production of Pleurotus sajor-caju in peach palm leaves (Bactris gasipaes and evaluation of its use to enrich wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernanda Bomfim Oliveira Cogorni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate of Pleurotus sajor-caju production in peach palm leaves and the addition of different fractions of mushroom powder to wheat flour to increase its nutritional value without changing its characteristics. The best yield (48.4%, biologic efficiency (4.5%, and Pr (0.36 g/day values were obtained using 20% inoculum fraction and 10% rice bran fraction. The Pleurotus sajor-caju fruiting body cultivated under these conditions had the following composition in 100 g: 29.91 g (carbohydrates, 42.92 g (proteins, 1.24 g (lipids, 15.93 g (fibers, 7.42 g (ashes, 1.6 g (phosphorus, 2.7 g (potassium, 8.73 mg (iron, 23.75 mg (sodium, 0.34 mg (thiamine, and 0.57 mg (riboflavin. The wheat flour with mushroom powder had reduced sugar content, but it did not have increased fat content. The fiber, protein, phosphorus, potassium, iron, and riboflavin contents were increased mainly when 10% mushroom powder was added to the wheat flour. Furthermore, this flour does not undergo drastic alterations in its physicochemical characteristics such as in moisture, wet gluten, color, and falling number.

  18. effect of cassava flour processing methods and substitution level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASAMBA

    the diet. Incorporation of different proportions of flours from cereals and legumes in baked ... desirability of the sensory attributes under consideration. 2193 ... Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) for windows version 12.0 and index to volume.

  19. The effect of apricot kernel flour incorporation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... 2Department of Food Engineering, Erciyes University 38039, Kayseri, Turkey. Accepted 27 ... Key words: Noodle; apricot kernel, flour, cooking, sensory properties. ... their simple preparation requirement, desirable sensory.

  20. The performance of cassava flour as a water reducing admixture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINYERE

    were then ground to a fine texture in a mill and the flour obtained sieved ... Figure 1: Effect of Water/cement Ratio Upon Slump and Compacting Factor. Saturated Density ... attributed to the bleeding and segregation observed in these mixes.

  1. Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home ...

  2. THE USE OF Orbignya speciosa FLOUR IN PLYWOOD ADHESIVE MIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Coelho Almeida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813340The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of babaçu flour on urea-formaldehyde adhesive properties and compare it to the adhesives produced with wheat flour, which is the extender usually used for plywood production. An amount of 0, 10, 20 and 30 parts of extender per weight of the adhesive were added. Ammonium sulfate was used as catalyst, in the proportion of 1.5% on dry weight of solid content. The following properties of the adhesive were determined: viscosity, nonvolatile content, gel time, working life and pH. The babaçu flour presented similar properties to wheat flour. Both, in general, although contributed to the increase of the adhesives viscosity, reduced its reactivity, as increased pH value, gel time and working life.

  3. INFLUENCE OF FOUR CEREAL FLOURS ON THE GROWTH OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Department of Biology, Food Storage Technology Programme, Federal University of ... Host preference (choice and no-choice) studies revealed millet flour as the most preferred food ... cadavers thus reducing the palatability, rheological.

  4. Molecular genetic analysis of grain protein content and flour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Tai'an Academy of Agricultural Science, Tai'an 271000, People's Republic of China ... (GPC) and flour whiteness degree (FWD) are important qualitative traits in common wheat. ... The objectives of present study were to identify QTLs con-.

  5. Toxic effects of chlorinated cake flour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, H M; Lawrence, G A; Tryphonas, L

    1977-05-01

    Four experiments were conducted using weanling Wistar rats to determine whether chlorinated cake flour or its constituents were toxic. Levels of 0.2 and 1.0% chlorine added to unbleached cake flour significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced growth rate by 20.7 and 85.2% and increased liver weight relative to body weight by 16.7 and 25.3%, respectively. Lipids extracted from flour chlorinated at the same levels had similar effects. Rat chow diets containing 0.2 and 0.6% chlorine in the form of chlorinated wheat gluten reduced growth rate and increased liver weight as a percentage of body weight. A rat chow diet containing 0.2% chlorine as chlorinated flour lipids increased absolute liver weight by 40%, kidney by 20%, and heart by 10% compared to pair-fed controls.

  6. Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of

  7. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  8. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  9. Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera lam. seeds flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour was studied under various conditions of pH (2-10), time (5-60 minutes), salts (NaCl and CaCl ), salt concentrations (0-2 M) and solvent to flour ratio (10:1-30:1). 2 Results showed that protein extractability was dependent on pH, type of salt, salt concentrations and ...

  10. Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadi, Mohammed; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Sulieman, Abdellatif A; Mahdi, Amer Ali; Mohammed, Khalid; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads. Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparing Soy Flour Wood Adhesives to Purified Soy Protein Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    While economics dictate that soy-based wood adhesives be made with soy flour, much of the recent literature on soy-based wood adhesives has involved using soy protein isolate. The obvious assumption is that the additional carbohydrates in the flour but not in the isolate only serve as inert diluents. Our studies have shown that the isolate can provide 10 times the wet...

  12. Asymmetric Price Transmission in Indonesia's Wheat Flour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Gonzalo J.; Taniguchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Data indicate that its domestic price in Indonesia has been increasing regardless of movements in the international price of wheat. A test for asymmetric price transmission from international wheat to domestic wheat flour markets is conducted using an error correction model and find the presence of asymmetric price transmission. The upward adjustment in the domestic price of wheat flour is much faster than its adjustment downward when it deviates from long-run equilibrium. Our results are rob...

  13. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  15. Flour pads: devices to improve CHESS fat suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Susumu; Miki, Yukio; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    We compared the suppression of lingering fat signals in chemical shift selective (CHESS) images by pads filled with flour and pads filled with rice in a phantom and human subjects. First, we prepared a phantom by creating an empty space in a mass of lard and filling the space with air, rice, or flour. Then, we obtained MR images of the phantoms in the center of the magnetic field and at a position 8 cm to the left (off-center) to compare lingering fat signals. MR images of the knee were obtained in 10 healthy volunteers using CHESS after placing a polyurethane sponge pillow, rice pad, or flour pad in the popliteal space under the flexed knee. We visually assessed the number of areas with lingering fat signals and the statistical differences among the groups were assessed using Tukey's test. Similarly to rice, flour clearly decreased lingering fat signals in the phantom study. A similar effect was obtained in the off-center images. In the volunteer study, the mean number of areas with lingering fat signals was 2.5 with a sponge pillow, 0.5 with the rice pad, and 0.3 with the flour pad. Those numbers were significantly different using flour pad and rice pad compared with sponge pillow (P CHESS images.

  16. Mycopopulations of grain and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.

  17. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. BIOFILMS BASED ON CANIHUA FLOUR (Chenopodium Pallidicaule: DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady M. Salas-Valero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to (1 produce and characterize the flour obtained from two varieties of canihua, cupi and illpa-inia, and (2 evaluate the ability of these flours to form biofilms. The flours produced contain proteins, starches, lipids, organic substances containing phenol groups, and high percentages of unsaturated fatty acids. Films produced from the illpa variety presented lower water vapor permeability and larger Young’s modulus values than the films formed from the cupi variety. Both films were yellowish and displayed a high light blocking ability (as compared with polyethylene films, which can be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, they showed lesser solubility and water permeability than other polysaccharide films, which may be the result of the higher protein (12%–13.8% and lipid (11% contents in canihua flours, as well as the formation of a larger number of S–S bonds. On the other hand, these films presented a single vitreous transition temperature at low temperatures (< 0 °C, crystallization of the A and Vh types, and an additional diffraction peak at 2 = 7.5º, ascribed to the presence of essential fatty acids in canihua flour. Canihua flour can form films with adequate properties and shows promise for potential applications in food packaging, because it acts as a good barrier to incident ultraviolet light.

  19. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Litwinek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. Organoleptic assesment was performed by 15 skilled pearson‘s panel. Moreover both in flours and breads protein, lipids, mineral compounds, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble fraction and β-glucans content were analyzed by AOAC methods.

  20. Physical and Nutritional Characteristics of Pequi Fruit and Comparison of Different Methods for Extraction of their Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MPR Torres

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to analyze the nutritional composition of the pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliensis and compare the performance of two extraction processes of lipids. The fruits were collected in two localities in Sinop - MT, in the maturation stage, before falling of the tree. Then were weighed whole, then fragmented to be dried and crushed. Then, we obtained the almond and a flour from the inner mesocarp with the thorny endocarp, which were analyzed for moisture, ash, fat, protein and total carbohydrates and hot and cold extraction of the lipids. Whole fruits and pyrenes had higher weight than site 1. The pequi presented a rich nutrition profile, especially for the high concentration of lipids (Almond: 45.42% in site to 01, 43.32% in site 02; flour: 34.73% in site 01, 38, 88% in site 02, a considerable quantity of protein (almond: 20.64% in site 01, 20.3% in site 02; flour: 3.67% in site, 4.03% in site 02. The almond proved richer in lipids, protein and minerals in comparison with the flour. The chemical composition of site 01 and site 02 differed in moisture and protein flour, and the moisture content of the almond. The hot method showed a yield higher than the cold method. The hot method extracted from sites 1 and 2, respectively, 73.4% and 73.5% more lipids from almond and 30.3% and 78.9% more from the flour.Keywords: Extraction, nutritional value, oil, pequi.

  1. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG PORANG PADA PEMBUATAN MI DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG MOCAF (Modified cassava FLOUR [Addition of Porang Flour in Noodle as Mocaf Substitution (Modified cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Faridah*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noodle is one of the staple foods that are widely consumed and preferred by the Asian. However, wet noodles with modified cassava flour (mocaf substitution resulted in lower quality compared to 100% wheat noodle. Addition of a certain amount of konjac glucomannan (Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour to wet noodle is strongly recommended due to the fact that the food additive has a health benefit. Porang or konjac flour, which was used in the research, has soluble fiber properties, low calorie content, and highly viscous. It forms a heat stable gel with a mild alkali, interacts with starch, and has a synergistic interaction with kappa carrageenan. In this research, konjac flour was added to study the optimum combination between konjac and water. As much as 2, 4 and 6% (w/w of konjac flour were combined with 35, 40, 45% (v/w of water. The results showed that treatments with combinations of konjac flour and water were significantly contributing to characteristics of cooking time, cooking loss, color brightness index, tensile strength, swelling volume and water absorption. The best treatment was at a combination of 4% konjac (w/w and 35% water (v/w. The best porang noodles have the characteristics of cooking time at 2.13 minutes, cooking loss of 35%, tensile strength of 0.14 N, water absorption of 201.58%, color brightness index of 51.41, swelling volume of 103.63%, moisture content of 31.77%, protein content of 5.87%, fat content of 2.13%, ash content of 0.85% and crude dietary fiber of 4.58%.

  2. Study on the Formulation of Squid (Loligosp) Nugget Added with Yellow Pumpkin (Curcubitamoschata) Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Nurharyati, Lisa; ', Suparmi; Sari, N Ira

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the squid nugget formulation with the addition of pumpkin flour. It was evaluated for the organoleptic value and the proximate composition. The method used was an experimental method and designed as non-factorial completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were addition of pumpkin flour into the mix, consisting of four levels, namely: N0 (without the addition of pumpkin flour), N1 (pumpkin flour 50 g), N2 (pumpkin flour 75 g) and N3 (pumpkin flour 100 g).B...

  3. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  4. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Ritika B.; Yadav, Baljeet S.; Dhull, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144....

  5. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mesías

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  6. Use of Gamma Irradiation for the Control of the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in Bread Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbashi, E.E.B.M.; Ahmed, E.G.H.; Aljack, S.A.; Hamad, S.A.A.; Ahmed, M.E.; Elmamoun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Three doses of gamma irradiation (viz. 2, 2.5 and 3 KGy) were tested against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in bread flour in Khartoum, Sudan. Corresponding control exhibited two groups of infested and uninfested flours. The results obtained showed that all the doses used reduced the infestation in a range 46-100 % during a six month storage period. The 2 KGy mortality range, of the test insect, was 46 - 100%, whereas the corresponding readings for 2.5 KGy and 3 KGy were 90 - 100% and total kill (100%), respectively. However, a natural infestation occurred in all the treated flours and in the infested and uninfested controls as well. This may refer to the resistant eggs of this insect whose a smaller size than the major bulk flour particles and therefore not affected by the milling process and the irradiation doses used too.The treatment mortality in this test was corrected by the Abbott's formula. Moreover, the flour analyses results implied that all the chemical parameters (moisture %, ash % and protein %) and the quality parameters (wet gluten and falling number) are within the recommended levels of the Codex Alimentarius.It was also found that these doses used had no harmful effect on dough rheological properties.

  7. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J

    2017-02-16

    Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  8. Determinação espectrométrica dos flavonóides das folhas de Maytenus (Celastraceae e de Passiflora (Passifloraceae e comparação com método CLAE-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina de A. O. Chabariberi

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma modificação dos procedimentos descritos nas Farmacopéias Francesa e Européia para a análise de flavonoides de Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae, por espectrometria UV-Visível e propõe a sua aplicação na determinação dos flavonoides totais das folhas da espinheira-santa (Maytenus aquifolium Mart. e Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae e do maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims. e Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae. Os resultados obtidos por espectrometria no UV-Visível foram comparados aos obtidos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-UV, encontrando-se resultados estatisticamente similares entre os métodos espectrométrico modificado da Farmacopéia Francesa e CLAE-UV.

  9. STUDY ON THE VALORIFICATION OF LYCIUM BARBARUM FRUIT (GOJI IN PASTRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research refers to the development of new recipes of fabricating tow different muffins and spritz cookies, using Goji whole fruits rehydrated and Goji ground powder type fruits, in different proportions and after, by sensory analysis proving the consumer preferences in relation to Goji fruit intake in the products. Also has been studied the total carotenoid content by spectrophotometric measurements from finished products comparing with whole goji berry fruit. The products are obtained by baking dough made ​​from flour, sugar, eggs, vegetable fat, milk, goji berries, friable chemical. The raw material and auxiliary material (white flour and Goji berries and the pastry products obtain with addition of goji was submitted to the physio-chemical exam, following: moisture content, ash content, gluten content, acidity content, vitamin C content, carotenoids content in accordance with applicable standards. Therefore we obtained 3 types of muffins (simple muffins, muffins with addition of 10% whole goji fruit, muffins with addition of 10% fruit goji powder ground type and 4 types of spritz cookies (simple cookies, cookies with addition of 3 %, 5 %, 10 % of goji powder.

  10. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  11. Hydrophobicity of stored (15, 35 °C), or dry-heated (120 °C) rice flour and deteriorated breadmaking properties baked with these treated rice flour/fresh gluten flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Mariko; Tabara, Aya; Ushijima, Yuki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2016-05-01

    Rice flour was stored at 15 °C/9 months, at 35 °C/14 days, or dry-heated at 120 °C/20 min. The breadmaking properties baked with this rice flour/fresh gluten flour deteriorated. In addition, the rice flour was mixed with oil in water vigorously, and oil-binding ability was measured. Every rice flour subjected to storage or dry-heated at 120 °C showed higher hydrophobicity, owing to changes in proteins. Then, proteins in the stored rice flour were excluded with NaOH solution, and bread baked with the deproteinized rice flour showed the same breadmaking properties as unstored rice flour/fresh gluten flour. The viscoelasticity of wheat glutenin fraction decreased after the addition of dry-heated rice flour in a mixograph profile. DDD staining increased Lab in color meter, which suggested an increase in SH groups in rice protein. The increase in SH groups caused a reduction in wheat gluten protein resulting in a deterioration of rice bread quality. .

  12. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn FLOUR

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    Tesleem Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

  13. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk ( Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis ), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  14. Maracuyá, Passiflora edulis sims, un cultivo promisorio en la costa de Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjona Díaz Harvey

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de estudiar la factibilidad de producir maracuyá morado en la zona de la costa del Estado de Mississippi, la cual goza de un clima que se acerca a las condiciones semitropicales, plantas de esta especiese transplantaron en la Estaci6n Experimental de Frutales Menores del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de América, en Poplarville, Mississippi, en los meses de Octubre de 1988 y Mayo de 1989. Las plantas transplantadas en octubre de 1988 toleraron bien las bajas temperaturas del invierno bajo una cubierta de ritidoma pero finalmente murieron como consecuencia de las heladas tardías que se presentaron en el mes de abril de 1989. Las plantas transplantadasen mayo de 1989 se desarrollaron normalmente y dos de ellas produjeron frutos comerciales los cuales mantuvieron un color verde durante el tiempo que estuvieron adheridos a la planta. Una vez se desprendieron de la misma los frutos adquirieron el colormorado característico.
    In order to study the feasibility of producing purple passion fruit on the coastal area of Mississippi, purple passion fruit vines were transplanted at the USDA Small Fruit Research Station, Poplarville, Mississipi, during october 1988 and May 1989. Plants transplanted in october 1988 withstood the low winter temperatures protected by a bark mulch but finally they died as a consequence of the late frosts that ocurred in april 1989. Plants transplanted in may 1989 developednormally and two of them beared commercial fruits which remained green in color as long as they were attached to the vine. Once fuits absiced from the vine they acquired the characteristic purple color.

  15. MISTURAS VITAMÍNICAS NA REGENERAÇÃO DO MARACUJAZEIRO AMARELO (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas Alessandra Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotilédones obtidos a partir de sementes germinadas in vitro foram usados como explantes com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de dois complexos vitamínicos e de duas concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP na organogênese direta do maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.. Empregou-se o meio Murashige & Skoog (1962 suplementado com as vitaminas MS ou B5 (vitaminas de GAMBORG et al., 1968 e 1 ou 2 mg. -1 de BAP. Foram testados quatro tratamentos, sendo cada um constituído de 60 explantes. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições. Os dados, analisados pelo teste de Tukey, demonstraram que os meios de cultura suplementados com o complexo vitamínico B5 induziram gemas em mais de 70% dos explantes, obtendo-se até 8 brotos por explante, com um enraizamento superior a 90%. A análise de ploidia das plantas regeneradas indicou um número aparentemente normal de cromossomos típicos dessa espécie (2n=18

  16. An Improved Micropropagation Protocol by Ex Vitro Rooting of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. through Nodal Segment Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Mahipal S; Manokari, M; Ravindran, C P

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for rapid clonal propagation of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. (Passifloraceae) has been developed in this study. Nodal explants were sterilized with 0.1% HgCl2 and inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. The addition of 2.0 mgL(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to MS medium caused an extensive proliferation of multiple shoots (8.21 ± 1.13) primordial from the nodal meristems. Subculturing of these multiple shoots on the MS medium augmented with 1.0 mgL(-1) of each BAP and Kinetin (Kin) was successful for the multiplication of the shoots in vitro with maximum numbers of shoots (25.73 ± 0.06) within four weeks of incubation. Shoots were rooted best (7.13 ± 0.56 roots/shoots) on half strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgL(-1) indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). All in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted by ex vitro method, and this has achieved 6-7 roots per shoot by pulsing of cut ends of the shoots using 200 as well as 300 mgL(-1) IBA. The plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse for 4-5 weeks. The hardened plantlets were shifted to manure containing nursery polybags after five weeks and then transferred to a sand bed for another four weeks for acclimatization before field planting with 88% survival rate.

  17. Involvement of GABAergic pathway in the sedative activity of apigenin, the main flavonoid from Passiflora quadrangularis pericarp

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    Andressa C. Gazola

    Full Text Available Abstract In the current study we showed that oral administration of an aqueous extract of Passiflora quadrangularis L., Passifloraceae, pericarp results in a significant prolongation of the sleep duration in mice evaluated in the ethyl ether-induced hypnosis test which indicates sedative effects. Apigenin, the main flavonoid of the extract, induced a similar sedative response when applied alone, at a dose equivalent to that found in the extract, suggesting that apigenin is mediating the sedative effects of P. quadrangularis extract. In addition, the sedative effect of apigenin was blocked by pretreatment with the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (1 mg/kg, suggesting an interaction of apigenin with gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA receptors. However, apigenin at concentrations 0.1–50 µM failed to enhance GABA-induced currents through GABAA receptors (α1β2γ2S expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Nevertheless, based on our results, we suggest that the in vivo sedative effect of the P. quadrangularis extract and its main flavonoid apigenin maybe be due to an enhancement of the GABAergic system.

  18. Composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa in natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Sandra Regina da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo in natura (Passiflora edulis comercializado em Campinas, Brasil, foi avaliada utilizando-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Em todas as amostras foram encontrados os seguintes carotenóides: beta-criptoxantina, prolicopeno, cis-zeta-caroteno, zeta-caroteno, beta-caroteno e 13-cis-beta-caroteno, além de neurosporeno e gama-caroteno em alguns lotes. Em geral, os teores de carotenóides nos diversos lotes foram significativamente diferentes. Em dois dos cinco lotes analisados, o z-caroteno foi o carotenóide principal, contribuindo com 41 e 62% do total de carotenóides, enquanto que em outros dois lotes, o beta-caroteno foi o majoritário, com 55 e 74% do total e em um dos lotes o cis-zeta-caroteno esteve presente em maior concentração, com 29%. Este tipo de inversão entre os carotenóides majoritários não é comumente encontrado em frutas e vegetais.

  19. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Passiflora incarnata in animal models of depression in male mice

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    Jafarpoor Nima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Passiflora incarnata (PI is one of the commonest herbal anti-anxiety and sedative agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of PI in forced swim test (FST and tail suspension test (TST in male mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male mice were randomly divided into 6 groups of 8: Negative and positive control groups received normal saline (10 ml/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (30 mg/kg, respectively and treatment groups received extracts of PI (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Immobility, swimming and climbing behaviors were recorded during 6-min. Results: All doses of PI extract compared to control group significantly reduced the duration of immobility time in both of two tests (p<0.001. Also, these extracts increased swimming time (p<0.001 without significant change of climbing time. Conclusion: PI has considerable antidepressant-like effect in animal models of depression. However, further studies are needed to determine its exact mechanism of action.

  20. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z.

    2008-01-01

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  1. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  2. Quality characteristics of bread produced from wheat, rice and maize flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit; Minhas, K S

    2012-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) flour and maize (Zea mays) meal substitution in wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour, from 0 to 100% each, for the production of bread was investigated. The proximate analysis, pasting properties, bread making qualities of raw materials and sensory evaluation of the bread samples were determined. The pasting temperature increased with increased percentage of rice flour and maize meal. But the other pasting characters decreased with the higher proportion of rice flour. The baking absorption was observed to increase with higher level of maize meal but it decreased when level of rice flour was increased. Loaf weight (g) decreased with progressive increase in the proportion of maize meal but increased when rice flour incorporation was increased. Loaf volume, loaf height and specific volume decreased for progressively higher level of maize meal and rice flour. The sensory evaluation revealed that 25% replacement of wheat flour was found to be more acceptable than control sample.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  4. Characterization of pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a pre-gelatinized flour using a mixture of broken rice and split beans by thermoplastic extrusion, and to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological quality of the final product. The extrusion parameters were maintained using three heating zones with temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, and 70 ºC; screw speed of 177 rpm; feed rate of 257 g/m, and circular matrix of 3.85 mm. The following characterization analyses were performed: physicochemical, nutritional, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI, and paste viscosity. The pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour had an intermediate value of WAI, 7.51 g/g, and high WSI value, 24.61%. Regarding proteins, it was verified an average content of 12.9% in the final product. The amino acid contents found in the pre-gelatinized flour indicate that the mixture has the essential amino acids. It was also found that the pre-gelatinized flour supplies more than 60% of the essential amino acids recommended for children aged one to three years old. The gelatinized flour composed of broken rice and split beans is an alternative to the use of these by-products of the manufacture process of rice and beans to obtain a product with viable technological characteristics and high nutritional value.

  5. Effect of wheat flour characteristics on sponge cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiraghi, Malena; de la Hera, Esther; Pérez, Gabriela T; Gómez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To select the flour parameters that relate strongly to cake-making performance, in this study the relationship between sponge cake quality, solvent retention capacity (SRC) profile and flour physicochemical characteristics was investigated using 38 soft wheat samples of different origins. Particle size average, protein, damaged starch, water-soluble pentosans, total pentosans, SRC and pasting properties were analysed. Sponge cake volume and crumb texture were measured to evaluate cake quality. Cluster analysis was applied to assess differences in flour quality parameters among wheat lines based on the SRC profile. Cluster 1 showed significantly higher sponge cake volume and crumb softness, finer particle size and lower SRC sucrose, SRC carbonate, SRC water, damaged starch and protein content. Particle size, damaged starch, protein, thickening capacity and SRC parameters correlated negatively with sponge cake volume, while total pentosans and pasting temperature showed the opposite effect. The negative correlations between cake volume and SRC parameters along with the cluster analysis results indicated that flours with smaller particle size, lower absorption capacity and higher pasting temperature had better cake-making performance. Some simple analyses, such as SRC, particle size distribution and pasting properties, may help to choose flours suitable for cake making. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  7. Evaluation of rice flour for use in vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, T L; Olabi, A; Pettingell, A G; Tong, P S; Walker, J H

    2007-10-01

    The effects of varying concentrations (2, 4, and 6%) of 2 types of rice flours (RF 1 and RF 2) on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of vanilla ice cream samples were assessed at different fat levels (0, 4, and 10%) and storage conditions (control vs. heat-shocked). Fat and total solids were measured as well as hardness, viscosity, and melting rate. Eight trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0 and 7 wk. The 2% rice flour level and to a certain extent the 4% usage level generally improved texture while affecting to a lesser extent the flavor characteristics of the samples compared with the control. The RF 2 generally had a more significant effect than RF 1, especially on the texture attributes. Although the rice flour reduced the negative impact of temperature abuse on textural properties, the samples still deteriorated in textural properties (more icy) under temperature abuse conditions. In addition, rice starch does lower perceived sweetness and can have a "flour flavor" at high usage levels. The use of rice flour appears to be most advantageous for low fat ice cream samples.

  8. Physical Characteristics of White Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), Rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Tapioca (Manihot esculenta) Flours - Based Seasoning Composite Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, NNA; Ishartani, D.; Anam, C.; Praseptiangga, D.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of seasoning composite flour that made from white sweet potato, rice, and tapioca flours, and determined the best formula of seasoning composite flour. A completely randomized design (CRD) with formula as the single factor was used. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA method and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance 5% if there was a significant difference. The best formula of seasoning composite flour was 30% tapioca flour, 30% rice flour, and 40% white sweet potato flour. The physical characteristics of the best formula were 5.689 ml/g of swelling power, 2.681 g/g of water absorption capacity, 0.887 ml/g of oil absorption capacity, and 22.03% cooking loss. Physical characteristics of the best seasoning composite flour were significantly different from the commercial seasoning flour and showed a better cooking loss, oil absorption capacity, and swelling power than commercial seasoning flour.

  9. Influence of grain activation conditions on functional characteristics of brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit

    2017-09-01

    Grain activation is a natural processing technique that can be used to produce modified flours without chemical modification. Functional characteristics of brown rice flour as influenced by grain activation time and temperatures were investigated. Germination temperatures at 25 ℃, 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ and time for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h significantly influenced the functional properties of flour with modification of starch, protein and high enzymatic activity. Significant decrease in the bulk density, water absorption and swelling power of brown rice flour was observed in comparison to non-germinated flour. Gel consistency and oil absorption capacity of brown rice flour increased as the grain activation time and temperature were increased. Native flour had lowest emulsion and foaming properties, while increase in grain activation time and temperature enhanced the emulsifying and foaming properties of flour. Paste clarity of native flour was 54% which was reduced to 25.17%; however, increase in germination time and temperature increased the % synersis values of germinated flour. Native flour had least gelation concentration of 12% which increased to 25% after 48 h of germination at 35 ℃. Overall, germination can be used as a natural way to modify the functional properties of brown rice flours for their utilization in variety food products.

  10. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  11. Biological resistance of polyethylene composites made with chemically modified fiber or flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2002-01-01

    The role of moisture in the biological decay of wood-plastic composites was investigated. Southern pine wood fiber and ponderosa pine wood flour were chemically modified using either acetic anhydride (AA), butylene oxide (BO), or propylene oxide (PO). A 50:50 mixture of high density polyethylene and either chemically modified fiber or flour, or untreated fiber or flour...

  12. Quality evaluation of cassava-pigeon pea composite flour and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava flour (CF) and pigeon pea flours (PF) were respectively produced and blended in the ratios of 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20. The flour blends were subjected to proximate, functional and anti-nutrient analysis after which they were used to produce cookies. The sensory and physical characteristics were ...

  13. Physicochemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20 and 40%, of sweet potato flour. Textural properties of the cooked pancakes, such as hardness and chewiness generally increased with time after cooking, whereas they decreased with increased sw...

  14. Effect of Hydrothermal Treatment on the Physicochemical, Rheological, and Oil-Resistant Properties of Rice Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice flour was thermo-mechanically modified by steam jet-cooking and the physico-chemical and rheological properties of the resulting product were characterized. Then, its performance in frying batters was evaluated as an oil barrier. Compared to native rice flour, the steam jet-cooked rice flour ...

  15. Milked flours in Spain (I: 1865-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Boatella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an historical review of the origin of milked flours, and their introduction in Spain. Commercial products are described and a list of main factories producing and distributing them (until 1965 is included. Product composition shows a high level of variability, mainly due to the quick evolution in the use of different ingredients (increase of soluble carbohydrates and blended flours, fortification with minerals and vitamins, etc.. Ingredients and composition were changing along the years according to the increasing knowledge in nutrition sciences and food technology. Regarding the factories producing milked flours, we can observe a concentration trend during 20’s and 30’s. In contrast, in further decades new producers appeared in the market and some of them are still actives at this moment.

  16. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  17. Rheological and microbiological study of flour treated by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laabidi, Othmen

    2007-01-01

    the aim this work is to study the effectiveness of radio treatment and its effect on the conservation of flour and their various parameters (physico-chemical and rheological). The flour has been treated with different doses (0, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 kGy), physico-chemical, rheological, microbiological and sensory analyses were made.The results show that the irradiation as a treatment for decontamination gave a highly effective. Indeed, a dose of 1.5 kGy allows a total destruction of yeasts and molds. Thus, from the point of view physico-chemical, increasing the dose of radiation causes a change in physical and chemical properties and rheological of flour. for the characteristics of bread, increasing the dose of radiation affects the quality of bread. (Author). 38 refs

  18. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  19. Analysis of radicals induced in irradiated cereal flour using ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Shoei; Kishita, Keigo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed radicals induced in cereal flour irradiated with gamma-ray or electron beam. Sample was wheat and rice. We detected a broad singlet signal at g = 2.0. It consists of a singlet signal and a triplet signal. It suggested that the singlet signal is originated from organic free radicals and the triplet signal is from 14 N. There were no differences of ESR spectra between irradiated wheat flour and rice flour. The signal intensity of radiation induced radical was tend to increase following with the increase of radiation dose level. After radiation treatment, relaxation time of radiation induced radical was changed during storage. T 1 was decreased and T 2 was increased. In this study, the relaxation time is calculated using the parameters obtained from the ESR signal. It is necessary to analyze the relaxation time directly with pulsed ESR spectroscopy in future. (author)

  20. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  1. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  2. Passion Fruit Chlorotic Mottle Virus: Molecular Characterization of a New Divergent Geminivirus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenele, Rafaela S; Abreu, Rayane A; Lamas, Natalia S; Alves-Freitas, Dione M T; Vidal, Andreza H; Poppiel, Raul R; Melo, Fernando L; Lacorte, Cristiano; Martin, Darren P; Campos, Magnolia A; Varsani, Arvind; Ribeiro, Simone G

    2018-04-02

    Brazil is one of the major passion fruit producers worldwide. Viral diseases are among the most important constraints for passion fruit production. Here we identify and characterize a new passion fruit infecting-virus belonging to the family Geminiviridae : passion fruit chlorotic mottle virus (PCMoV). PCMoV is a divergent geminivirus unlike previously characterized passion fruit-infecting geminiviruses that belonged to the genus Begomovirus . Among the presently known geminiviruses, it is most closely related to, and shares ~62% genome-wide identity with citrus chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CCDaV) and camelia chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CaCDaV). The 3743 nt PCMoV genome encodes a capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) that respectively share 56 and 60% amino acid identity with those encoded by CaCDaV. The CPs of PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV cluster with those of begomovirus whereas their Reps with those of becurtoviruses. Hence, these viruses likely represent a lineage of recombinant begomo-like and becurto-like ancestral viruses. Furthermore, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV genomes are ~12-30% larger than monopartite geminiviruses and this is primarily due to the encoded movement protein (MP; 891-921 nt) and this MP is most closely related to that encoded by the DNA-B component of bipartite begomoviruses. Hence, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV lineage of viruses may represent molecules in an intermediary step in the evolution of bipartite begomoviruses (~5.3 kb) from monopartite geminiviruses (~2.7-3 kb). An infectious clone of PCMoV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamina , Arabidopsis thaliana , and Passiflora edulis .

  3. Phenolics and essential mineral profile of organic acid pretreated unripe banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyasi, Tonna A; Jideani, Afam I O; Mchau, Godwin R A

    2018-02-01

    Banana fruit (Musa spp) though rich in essential minerals, has also been implicated for the presence of phytochemicals which nonetheless beneficial, can also act as mineral inhibitors when in forms such as phenolic compounds, phytates and tannins. This study assayed the essential macro and trace minerals as well as phenolic compounds present in unripe banana flour (UBF) obtained from the pulp of four different cultivars. Unripe banana flour was processed by oven drying in a forced air oven dryer at 70°C upon pretreatment with ascorbic, citric and lactic acid. Organic acid pretreatment was done separately on each unripe banana cultivar at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20g/L. Phenolic compounds were profiled using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry electrospray ion (LC-MS-ESI) while essential minerals were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) respectively. Results of LC-MS-ESI assay of phenolics revealed the presence of flavonoids: epicatechin and myricetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-glucoside in varying concentrations in UBF. Essential mineral profile indicated that Zinc had the least occurrence of 3.55mg/kg (ppotassium was the most abundant mineral at 14746.73mg/kg in UBF of all four banana cultivars. Correlation between phenolic compounds and essential minerals using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient test revealed weak and inverse association between flavonoids and most macro and trace minerals present in UBF samples. Organic acid pretreatment thus exhibited little effect on phenolics and essential minerals of UBF samples, though, inhibitory influence of phenolic compounds was recorded on essential minerals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  5. Caracterização dos frutos de maracujá amarelo irrigados com água salina Characterization of fruits of yellow passion fruit irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R.M. Costa

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se caracterizar frutos de maracujazeiro amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg irrigados com água salina, desenvolveu-se um experimento em Santa Cruz, RN, zona semi-árida do Brasil, cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, correspondente ao sem revestimento (R0 e com revestimento das faces (R1; R2; R3; R4; respectivamente uma, duas, três e quatro faces irrigadas diariamente com volumes de 5 e 10 L de água. A salinidade da água, superior a 3,0 dS m-1, não interferiu sobre a qualidade externa nem interna dos frutos. O aumento do volume de água resultou em maior massa média dos frutos. A proteção das covas não influenciou o comprimento, diâmetro e número de sementes por fruto nem a espessura da casca, rendimento em polpa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e teores de vitamina C total.With the purpose of characterizing fruits of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg in plants irrigated with saline water, an experiment was conducted at Santa Cruz, RN, in the semi-arid zone of Brazil. The treatments were distribuited in randomized blocks, with four repetitions, using factorial design 5 x 2 corresponding the planting pits without coating (R0 and with side coatings (R1; R2; R3; R4; respectively one, two, three and four lateral sides, irrigated daily with volumes of 5 and 10 L of water. The water salinity higher then 3.0 dS m-1 did not show effect on the external and internal quality of the fruits. The increase of the volume of water resulted in larger mean weight of the fruits. The protection of the planting pits did not influence the length, diameter or number of seeds for fruit and neither the peel thickness, pulp percentage, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity or total vitamin C contents.

  6. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  7. Physical and structural changes induced by high pressure on corn starch, rice flour and waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Carola; Lucisano, Mara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Mariotti, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    The impact of high pressure (HP) processing on corn starch, rice flour and waxy rice flour was investigated as a function of pressure level (400MPa; 600MPa), pressure holding time (5min; 10min), and temperature (20°C; 40°C). Samples were pre-conditioned (final moisture level: 40g/100g) before HP treatments. Both the HP treated and the untreated raw materials were evaluated for pasting properties and solvent retention capacity, and investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Different pasting behaviors and solvent retention capacities were evidenced according to the applied pressure. Corn starch presented a slower gelatinization trend when treated at 600MPa. Corn starch and rice flour treated at 600MPa showed a higher retention capacity of carbonate and lactic acid solvents, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry and environmental scanning electron microscopy investigations highlighted that HP affected the starch structure of rice flour and corn starch. Few variations were evidenced in waxy rice flour. These results can assist in advancing the HP processing knowledge, as the possibility to successfully process raw samples in a very high sample-to-water concentration level was evidenced. This work investigates the effect of high pressure as a potential technique to modify the processing characteristics of starchy materials without using high temperature. In this case the starches were processed in the powder form - and not as a slurry as in previously reported studies - showing the flexibility of the HP treatment. The relevance for industrial application is the possibility to change the structure of flour starches, and thus modifying the processability of the mentioned products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bambara-wheat composite flour: rheological behavior of dough and functionality in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Okafor, Jane N C; Ogunji, Akinyele; Ukazu, Happiness; Okafor, Ebele N; Eboagwu, Ijeoma L

    2016-11-01

    The rheological behavior and functional properties of doughs from bambara-wheat composite flour was investigated. Bambara-wheat composite flour was prepared by substituting wheat with 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of bambara flour. The rheological behavior of their dough was analyzed with Mixolab. Breads produced from the flour were analyzed for physical characteristics. Organoleptic analysis was carried out by 20 panelists. Mixolab analysis revealed, except for stability time, depreciating values for dough consistency (C1), protein weakening (C2), starch gelatinization (C3), amylase activity (C4), and retrogradation (C5) as the inclusion of bambara flour increased. Physical characteristics of the loaves revealed significant ( P  baking characteristics.

  9. Production and quality evaluation of extruded snack from blends of bambara groundnut flour, cassava starch, and corn bran flour

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunmuyiwa, O. H.; Adebowale, A. A.; Sobukola, O. P.; Onabanjo, O. O.; Obadina, A. O.; Adegunwa, M. O.; Kajihausa, O. E.; Sanni, L. O.; Tomlins, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Protein dense, fiber-rich extruded snacks were produced from blend of bambara groundnut flour, cassava starch, and corn bran flour using a single screw cooking extruder. The snacks were analyzed for their physical properties and proximate composition using standard laboratory procedures. The expansion ratio, specific volume, breaking force, and breaking strength index (BSI) of the snacks ranged from 0.85 to 1.22, 0.75 to 1.30 g/cm3, 3.95 to 36.45 N, and 0.99 to 9.11 N/mm, respectively. The br...

  10. Avaliação do potencial alelopático de folhas de Passiflora cincinnata Mast. (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oliveria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia é um fenômeno pouco estudado no Cerrado. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o potencial alelopático de extratos foliares de Passiflora cincinnata sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de espécies modelos. Para isso, o extrato etanólico bruto e frações hexânica, acetato de etila e metanólica, em diferentes concentrações (0, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 e 4000mgL-1 foram utilizadas em bioensaios de germinação e crescimento de alface (Lactuca sativa var. Grand rapids e milho (Zea mays var. Havaí.. Diariamente, avaliou-se o percentual de germinação e o Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG. O crescimento da radícula/raiz primária e do hipocótilo/coleóptilo foram medidos três dias após a protusão radicular. O experimento foi em fatorial (4x6, utilizando delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a germinação e IVG de alface, enquanto que o extrato etanólico bruto inibiu o comprimento do hipocótilo de alface, em 16,5%, comparado à frações hexânica e, em 16,8%, em relação às frações acetato de etila e metanólica. Não verificou-se efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre milho. Assim, conclui-se que folhas de P. cincinnata apresentam atividade alelopática sobre o comprimento de alface, não promovendo efeito sobre milho.

  11. Improving properties of sweet potato composite flour: Influence of lactic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Neti; Nurdjanah, Siti; Setyani, Sri; Novianti, Dini

    2017-06-01

    The use of locally grown crops such as sweet potato as raw material for composite flour is considered advantageous as it reduces the importation of wheat flour. However the use of native sweetpotato flour has drawback properties when applied in the food. This study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour through six methods of lactic fermentation (spontaneous, pickle brine, Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides, a mixed of Lb plantarum and Lc mesentereoides, and mixed of Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides and yeast) to increase its properties in composite flour. Composite flours were obtained after fermentation of sweet potato slices for 48h in the proportion of 50% sweet potatoes flour and 50% wheat flour. pH, moisture content, swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that the composite fermented flours had better properties than those of non fermented flour. Fermentation increased swelling power, moisture content, meanwhile, solubility, and pH, deacresed. Amylose leaching, however, was not significantly affected by the fermentation process.

  12. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  13. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A.; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Zhong, Qixin; González-Soto, Rosalía A.

    2013-01-01

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films

  14. Effect of wood flour content on the optical color, surface chemistry, mechanical and morphological properties of wood flour/recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chan Kok; Amin, Khairul Anuar Mat; Kee, Kwa Bee; Hassan, Mohd Faiz; Ali, E. Ghapur E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, effect of wood flour content on the color, surface chemistry, mechanical properties and surface morphology of wood-plastic composite (WPC) on different mixture ratios of recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and wood flour were investigated in detail. The presence of wood flour in the composite indicates a significant total color change and a decrease of lightness. Functional groups of wood flour in WPC can be seen clearer from the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra as the wood flour content increases. The mechanical tensile testing shows that the tensile strength of Young's modulus is improved, whereas the strain and elongation at break were reduced by the addition of wood flour. The gap between the wood flour microvoid fibre and rHDPE matrix becomes closer when the wood flour content is increased as observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) image. This finding implies a significant improvement on the interaction of interfacial adhesion between the rHDPE matrix and wood flour filler in the present WPC.

  15. The effect of moisture content on physicochemical properties of extruded waxy and non-waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsutjarittam, Ornpicha; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2014-12-19

    The properties of waxy rice flour (WRF) and non-waxy rice flour (RF) were modified using an extrusion process with different feeding material moisture contents. WRF was more affected by the thermomechanical stress from extrusion; consequently, it had a lower glass transition temperature but higher water solubility index (WSI) indicating higher molecular degradation than extruded RF. The lower moisture content of the feeding flour caused more severe flour damage (coarser surface of the extruded flour) and lowered relative crystallinity compared to higher moisture content processing. Moreover, low moisture content processing led to complete gelatinization, whereas, partial gelatinization occurred in the higher moisture content extrusion. Consequently, the extruded flours had a lower peak viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy but a higher water absorption index and WSI than native flour. In conclusion, the rice flour type and the moisture content of the extrusion feeding flour affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded flour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the suitability of cassava and sweetpotato flours for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that water binding capacity, solubility and swelling power affect the overall quality of pasta. Pasta made from sweetpotato composite flour was too brittle and crumbled easily when pressed between the fingers. Pasta made from 50% cassava (Abasafita)/50% hard wheat performed better and showed no ...

  17. 8474 APPLICATION OF THE FLOUR OF FOUR LEGUMINOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... However, due to poor post-harvest technologies, more than 35% of annual crop yield is often lost ... seed flours is evaluated 50 days after application. ..... (Harris) and induced effects on the structure of midgut epithelial cells. J.

  18. CD 121 - cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    OpenAIRE

    Marchioro, Volmir Sergio; Franco, Francisco de Assis; Dalla Nora, Tatiane; Schuster, Ivan; Evangelista, Adriel; Lima, Fábio Junior Alcântara de; Polo, Mateus

    2013-01-01

    CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR, SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yield of 3.622 kg ha-1.

  19. CD 121 - Cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR,SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yieldof 3.622 kg ha-1.

  20. Utilization of sweetpotato starches and flours as composites with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hussein

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... Also, blends of wheat and sweet potato starch were developed in the ratios 80:20 ... Functional properties of wheat: sweet potato composite flour ..... 32: 115-119. Ulm SG (1988) The effect of Storage Condition on Selected.

  1. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure.

  2. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, V.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and 137 Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of 228 Th and 40 K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg -1 for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for 137 Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg -1 . The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y -1 for 228 Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y -1 , to the public exposure. (authors)

  3. Molecular genetic analysis of grain protein content and flour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Grain protein content (GPC) and flour whiteness degree (FWD) are important qualitative traits in common wheat. Quantitativetrait locus (QTL) mapping for GPC and FWD was conducted using a set of 131 recombinant-inbred lines derived fromthe cross 'Chuan 35050. ×Shannong 483' in six environmental conditions. A total ...

  4. Quality Attributes of Tapioca Meal Fortified With Defatted Soy Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be processed to a variety of products such as soy flour, soy milk, soy yoghurt, soy .... Values are means of triplicate determinations on fresh weight basis; means ... of the sensory analysis is shown in Table 2 and it is based on the perception of.

  5. Adoption and impact of high quality bambara flour (HQBF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption and impact of high quality bambara flour (HQBF) technology in the ... consumer acceptability/quality of products, credit, availability of raw materials, and ... as a result of 12.5 per cent increase in demand for bambara-based products.

  6. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory ...

  7. Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations. Veronica Freitas Pires Araujo1, Wellingthon da Silva Guimaraes Junnyor1, Marco Antonio. Pereira da Silva1* ..... Revista Brasileira de Saúde e. Produção Animal.

  8. Effect of pigeon pea flour addition on the chemical, antinunutrional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gurundi is a popular snack among the school-age children in Oyo town and it is produced by mixing wheat flour with coconut water, grated coconut and sugar. However, gurundi is a carbohydrate food which will be more beneficial to the consumers if its protein content is improved with locally available and ...

  9. Instrumental methods for analysis of some elements in flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrodzki, P.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Malec, P.; Krosniak, M.; Knap, W.

    1993-10-01

    For ten various brands of flour contents of chosen (heavy) elements were determined by means of ICP, GF-AAS, PIXE and ASV/CSV methods. General performance of participating laboratories as well as pros and cons of different analytical methods were compared and discussed. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs

  10. Quality of fermented cassava flour processed into placali | Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented cassava flour was obtained from Yace variety. Cassava roots were washed, peeled and ground. After adding cassava inoculums at 8% (m/m), the pulp was allowed to ferment for 72 hours at ambient temperature. The fermented dough was removed, squeezed and oven-dried for 48 hours at 55 °C. The dried ...

  11. Comparative central effects of the aqueous leaf extract of two populations of Passiflora edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S.F.S.J. Ayres

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPassiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, has been used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. P. edulis is commonly known for its economic interests in Brazil. This species exhibits significant variability in the fruit rind color, then two subpopulations has been described (P. edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg. (PEF; P. edulis fo. edulis (PEE. This study compared phytochemical profile and biological actions of aqueous leaf extract of PEE and PEF. HPLC analysis showed marked distinct chromatograms to the P. edulisvarieties. However, in both extracts the major compounds observed were flavonoids C-glycosides. Behavioral studies showed that PEE (300 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. reduced anxiety in the elevated plus maze test. PEE (300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (1000 mg/kg, p.o. also induced antidepressant-like actions in the forced swimming test. PEE 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced distance moved, thus suggesting sedation. No alterations in sleeping time were observed with PEE and PEF extracts. In conclusion, despite the similarities between the biological actions observed for both P. edulis varieties, quite different phytochemical profile was herein reported. These data suggest that the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions are not due to a specific phytochemical component.

  12. Fungal contamination of produced wheat flour in West Azerbaijan, northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Asadzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination. Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination.

  13. Effect of processing techniques on nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed flour

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Hemlata; Awasthi, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    Fenugreek (Pusa Early Bunching) seeds were processed by using different processing methods viz. soaking, germination and roasting. Raw and processed fenugreek seed flours were analyzed for nutritional composition, anti- nutritional, and antioxidant activity. Raw fenugreek seed flour contained higher amount of dietary fiber (45.4 %) followed by 41.7 % in soaked seed flour, 40.9 % in roasted fenugreek seed flour and 31.3 % in germinated fenugreek seed flour. Processing of fenugreek seeds improv...

  14. Preparation of dietary fibre-enriched materials from preharvest dropped apples and their utilisation as a high-fibre flour substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujeong; Kim, Yongwook; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Suyong

    2013-06-01

    Preharvest dropped apples from a weather disaster are generally discarded or used in animal feed due to reduced market value. In this study, they were utilised to produce dietary fibre-enriched materials (DFEMs) and their baking performance in a food system was then evaluated as a high-fibre and low-calorie flour substitute. Hydrothermal treatment and fractionation of preharvest dropped apple powder produced fibre-rich fractions (856.2 g kg(-1)). The use of DFEMs increased the pasting properties of wheat flour and improved dough mixing stability. When DFEMs were incorporated in the cookie formulation (2, 4 and 6 g dietary fibre per serving), the cookie dough exhibited increased elongational viscosity and solid-like behaviour which became more pronounced with increasing levels of DEFMs. After baking, reduced spread was observed in DFEM cookies which could be readily attributed to their rheological characteristics. However, greater moisture retention by DFEMs produced cookie samples with softer texture. DFEMs prepared from preharvest dropped apples could be successfully evaluated in a cookie model system as a high-fibre and low-calorie substitute for wheat flour. This study suggests a new value-added application of preharvest dropped fruits, positively extending their use for better healthful diets. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. An Outbreak of Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Western Afghanistan Associated with Exposure to Wheat Flour Contaminated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizullah Kakar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alakloids (PAs are known to cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD. Outbreaks have occurred in Western Afghanistan since 1974, the latest in February 2008. We conducted an outbreak investigation using a case-control design. Sixty-seven cases of VOD were compared with 199 community controls. Consumption of bread was strongly associated with disease (adjusted odds ratio: 35.8 [95%CI: 7.6–168.2]. Toxic doses of PA were found in plant extracts and in samples of wheat flour taken from the study area. Compared to wheat flour there was 1000 times less PA in milk and whey and in water samples the PA content was zero. Although direct analysis was not possible, contaminated wheat flour used to make bread was the likely source of PA causing the outbreak. Eating a more varied diet including meat and fruit may be protective. Prevention and control measures will rely on community awareness and agricultural interventions to ensure safety of the food supply.

  16. An Outbreak of Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Western Afghanistan Associated with Exposure to Wheat Flour Contaminated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Faizullah; Akbarian, Zarif; Leslie, Toby; Mustafa, Mir Lais; Watson, John; van Egmond, Hans P.; Omar, Mohammad Fahim; Mofleh, Jawad

    2010-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alakloids (PAs) are known to cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Outbreaks have occurred in Western Afghanistan since 1974, the latest in February 2008. We conducted an outbreak investigation using a case-control design. Sixty-seven cases of VOD were compared with 199 community controls. Consumption of bread was strongly associated with disease (adjusted odds ratio: 35.8 [95%CI: 7.6–168.2]). Toxic doses of PA were found in plant extracts and in samples of wheat flour taken from the study area. Compared to wheat flour there was 1000 times less PA in milk and whey and in water samples the PA content was zero. Although direct analysis was not possible, contaminated wheat flour used to make bread was the likely source of PA causing the outbreak. Eating a more varied diet including meat and fruit may be protective. Prevention and control measures will rely on community awareness and agricultural interventions to ensure safety of the food supply. PMID:20652038

  17. An Outbreak of Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Western Afghanistan Associated with Exposure to Wheat Flour Contaminated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, F.; Akbarian, Z.; Mustafa, M.L.; Omar, M.F.; Mofleh, J.; Toby Leslie, T.; Watson, J.; Egmond, H.P.V.

    2010-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are known to cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Outbreaks have occurred in Western Afghanistan since 1974, the latest in February 2008. We conducted an outbreak investigation using a case-control design. Sixty-seven cases of VOD were compared with 199 community controls. Consumption of bread was strongly associated with disease (adjusted odds ratio: 35.8 [95%CI: 7.6 168.2]). Toxic doses of PA were found in plant extracts and in samples of wheat flour taken from the study area. Compared to wheat flour there was 1000 times less PA in milk and whey and in water samples the PA content was zero. Although direct analysis was not possible, contaminated wheat flour used to make bread was the likely source of PA causing the outbreak. Eating a more varied diet including meat and fruit may be protective. Prevention and control measures will rely on community awareness and agricultural interventions to ensure safety of the food supply.

  18. Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared by supplementing different proportions of cassava flour (CF and water chestnut flour (WCF blends (0–100% to wheat flour (WF were studied. Seven formulations of cookies were prepared from (a Control (100% WF, (b 30% WF, 35% WCF and 35% CF, (c 27% WF, 37.5% WCF and 37.5% CF, (d 20% WF, 40% WCF and 40% CF, (e 15% WF, 42.5% WCF and 42.5% CF, (f 10% WF, 45% WCF and 45% CF, and (g 0% WF, 50% WCF and 50% CF. Cookies were subjected to physical analysis (cookie diameter, cookie thickness, spread ratio, bulk volume, bulk density, breaking strength, and color analysis and evaluated for consumer acceptance by descriptive sensory analysis. Cookies prepared from water chestnut and cassava flour had low moisture content (5.63%, low fat (24.87%, higher spread ratio (8.148, decreased L, a and b values (dark color, and low breaking strength than control ones. Sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared from 50% WCF and 50% CF were more acceptable than cookies prepared from other formulations.

  19. Evaluation of the protective effect of guava fruits and leaves on oxidative stress - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.19839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Freire

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacity of action. Thus, research, alternative to mitigate the damaging effects of oxidative stress, improving the body´s antioxidant capacity, prevented the disease and its complicatons. The leaves and fruits of guava are rich in the antioxidants. This work aimed to study the effect of flour and ethanolic/acetone extracts leaves and fruits of guava on lipid oxidation in rats with hypercholesterolemic. The flour and extracts decreased leves of triglycerides and non – HDL cholesterol and increased in the HDL. Cholesterol levels decreased only leaves and fruits. The activity of GPx decreased in samples serum in all treatments  and the SOD only the extracts were effective. There was no difference in levels the MDA in relation hypercholesterolemic control. For the samples of liver, there was no difference in activity SOD. In relation of activity GPx, only the flour was effective. There were differences in levels the MDA of the hypercholesterolemic animals treated with flour and extracts with the animals of the hypercholesterolemic control.

  20. Development of functional cookies with wheat flour, banana flour (Musa paradisiaca, sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Loza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional cookies were developed using banana flour (BF and sesame seeds (SS. Protein, moisture and ash w ere determined , and farinographic analyzes of flours were performed. The attributes odor, color, flavor, crunch and the IC 50 value of the cookies were determined. The results were evaluated with the C omplete R andomized D esign and the Tukey and Kruskall Wallis test. The flour mixture presented higher protein (10.2%, humidity (14.40 % than BF, but lower than wheat flour. C ookies with 10 % , 15 % and 20% BF and 8% sesame seeds were selected. Flours with 10 % , 15 % and 20% BF had similar values of water absorption (≤ 60% and different values statistically (p ≤ 0.05 for development time, mass stability and degree of softening. Cook ies with 20% BF and 8% SS (SC had IC 50 = 17.52 ± 0.25 mg / mL, with moisture, protein, fat, crude fiber, ash and carbohydrates of 1.88 % , 10.65 % , 22.01 % , 1.01 % , 1.54 % and 62.91%, respectively. SC did not present sensorial statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05 the first two months, the third month decreased the acceptability of the crunch and flavor. In ninety days of storage the IC50 value (29.07 ± 0.92 mg / mL, reducing sugars (1.20 ± 0.02 and pH (5.24 ± 0.01 decreased and humidity (3.83 ± 0.03 increased.

  1. Elaboration of gluten free cupcakes from xanthosoma flours, taro, rice, cassava and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiros Alpizar, Silvia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The effect of taro flour, xanthosoma, cassava and rice, their possible mixtures and two different percentages of egg protein in cupcakes with total substitution of wheat flour are studied. Flours of xanthosoma and taro were elaborated and have utilized flours of cassava and rice existing in market. The moisture was evaluated and found that taro flour presents a lower water content compared to rice flour, xanthosoma and cassava in all flours. 22 formulations of cupcakes were elaborated using the flours (100% substitutions), flour mixture (substitution 50:50 of each flour) and wheat as control, also the egg content (standard content to egg and lower content to egg), to analyze their sensory characteristics and consumer preferences. The study data was carried out with two independents groups of people, a trained panel that has conducted the descriptive analysis and a consumer group that has made the study of acceptance. An analysis of variance was applied to data, test Fisher LSD and external preference mapping, an analysis of ''cluster '' for proof of acceptance, with witch were identified the three consumer groups, composed by 19, 51, 35 people. All three groups have preferred the control samples with wheat in groups 2 and 3 cupcakes with rice-cassava with content standard and less content of egg, and cassava with less egg, have showed without significant differences in preference (p [es

  2. Heat-treated hull flour does not affect iron bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Carvalho, Ariela Werneck de; Silva, Cassiano Oliveira da; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Natal, Dorina Isabel Gomes; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Costa, Neuza Maria Brunoro

    2011-06-01

    In this study the chemical composition and iron bioavailability of hull and hull-less soybean flour from the new cultivar UFVTN 105AP was evaluated. The hemoglobin depletion-repletion method was used in Wistar rats. Soybean hull flour presented 37% more total dietary fiber and higher content of iron than hull-less soybean flour. The phytate:iron molar ratio, however, was 2-fold lower in the soybean hull flour in compared to the hull-less soybean flour. Animals fed soybean hull flour presented hemoglobin gains similar to those of the control diet group (p > 0.05). The Relative Biological Values of hull and hull-less soybean flour were 68.5% and 67.1%, respectively, compared to the control group. Heat-treated soybean hull flour (150 degrees C/30 minutes) showed high content of iron and low phytate, which favors the iron bioavailability. Thus, the soybean hull flour is a better source of dietary fiber and iron than hull-less soybean flour at comparable bioavailabilities.

  3. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  5. Evaluation of dry heat treatment of soft wheat flour for the production of high ratio cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, S; Bakalis, S; Leadley, C E; Sahi, S S; Fryer, P J

    2018-05-01

    An accurate method to heat treat flour samples has been used to quantify the effects of heat treatment on flour functionality. A variety of analytical methods has been used such as oscillatory rheology, rheomixer, solvent retention capacity tests, and Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) in water and in aqueous solutions of sucrose, lactic acid, and sodium carbonate. This work supports the hypothesis that heat treatment facilitates the swelling of starch granules at elevated temperature. Results furthermore indicated improved swelling ability and increased interactions of flour polymers (in particular arabinoxylans) of heat treated flour at ambient conditions. The significant denaturation of the proteins was indicated by a lack of gluten network formation after severe heat treatments as shown by rheomixer traces. Results of these analyses were used to develop a possible cake flour specification. A method was developed using response surfaces of heat treated flour samples in the RVA using i) water and ii) 50% sucrose solution. This can uniquely characterise the heat treatment a flour sample has received and to establish a cake flour specification. This approach might be useful for the characterisation of processed samples, rather than by baking cakes. Hence, it may no longer be needed to bake a cake after flour heat treatment to assess the suitability of the flour for high ratio cake production, but 2 types of RVA tests suffice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Doolotkeldieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like B1, C1 and C4.

  7. Changes in protein and starch digestibility in sorghum flour during heat-moisture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thanh-Hien; Bean, Scott; Hsieh, Chao-Feng; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) has been used to modify properties of sorghum starches. However, information is limited on the effects of HMT on the digestibility of starch and the concurrent changes in protein in sorghum flour. The objectives of this research were to identify heat-moisture conditions to increase the resistant starch (RS) content of sorghum flour and investigate changes in sorghum proteins and starch structure. Sorghum flours with different moisture contents (0, 125, 200, and 300 g kg -1 w.b.) were heated at three temperatures (100, 120 and 140 °C) and times (1, 2 and 4 h). HMT of sorghum flour increased its RS level. The flour treated at 200 g kg -1 moisture and 100 °C for 4 h had a high RS content (221 g kg -1 vs. 56 g kg -1 for the untreated flour). Starch was not gelatinized when sorghum flours heated at moisture content of 200 g kg -1 or below. Sorghum protein digestibility and solubility decreased during HMT. The increase in RS of sorghum flour upon HMT was attributed to enhanced amylose-lipid complexes and heat induced structural changes in its protein fraction. HMT can be used to increase RS content in sorghum flour without gelatinizing its starch, thereby providing sorghum flour with unique food applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effects of incorporating germinated brown rice on the antioxidant properties of wheat flour chapatti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujral, H Singh; Sharma, P; Bajaj, R; Solah, V

    2012-02-01

    Brown rice after germinating for 24 and 48 h was milled into flour and incorporated in whole wheat flour at a level of 10% to prepare chapattis. The objective was to use chapatti as a delivery vehicle for germinated brown rice. The flour blends and chapattis made from the flour blends were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. Incorporating germinated brown rice flour increased the total phenolic content of the flour blend from 1897 to 2144 µg FAE/g. The total flavonoids content increased significantly from 632.3 to1770.9 µg CAE/g and metal chelating activity significantly increased by 71.62%. Antioxidant activity increased significantly by the addition of brown rice flour and addition of 24- and 48-h germinated brown rice flour further increased the antioxidant activity significantly. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content decrease significantly in all the blends after baking the flour into chapatti. A decrease of 3% to 29% was observed in the total phenolic content and a decrease of 25% to 42% was observed in the total flavonoids content. However, baking of the flour blends into chapatti increased the reducing power, metal chelating activity by three folds and antioxidant activity from 64% to 104%.

  9. Technological and nutritional aspect of different hemp types addition: Comparison of flour and wholemeal effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of non-traditional raw-materials and flours into wheat flour follows contemporary trend of manufacturing nutritionally healthier fermented bakery products. Aim of the study follows this tendency, evaluating nutritional improvement of composite flour and baking potential of prepared wheat-hemp flour composites. Hemp products addition significantly increased both protein and dietary fibre contents. Between five types of hemp flour, differences were observed according to incorporated amount (wheat flour substitution from 5% to 20%. In composites containing 20% of hemp flour and dehulled hemp wholemeal, protein content increased to 14.9% and to 15.7%, respectively (compared to 12.5% proteins in control wheat flour. Dietary fibre content change was governed unequivocally by addition level for both hemp flour and hemp wholemeal. Hemp wholemeal affected the solvent retention capacity (SRC profile of the wheat flour used in a broader extent than hemp flour done, interacting moreover with addition level applied. Significant diminishing was measured for the sucrose and the lactic acid SRC, which describe physicochemical stage of starch and proteins in prepared composites. Addition of 5% and 20% of dehulled hemp wholemeal decreased the formed SRC from 112.0% to 102.3% and to 64.1%, and the latter SRC from 182.6% to 108.0 and to 78.3%, respectively. Smaller bread volume and worse shape were evaluated as the amount of hemp flour gradually increased; wholemeal form had more or less a positive effect. Correspondingly to that, crumb firmness measured by penetration test was found approximately half for hemp flour composite bread than for the hemp wholemeal ones.

  10. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  11. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H Park; O K Chung; P A Seib

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein contents, starch damage,swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particle size distribution; dough properties determined by a mixograph; and breadmaking properties for pup loaves (100g flour). Only two parameters, the protein content of wheat and the granulation of flour, showed significant correlations with bread crumb grain scores. Protein content of wheat ranging 12.9%~ 14.5% determined by an NIR method showed a weak inverse relationship (r =-0.61, p < 0.05) with bread crumb grain score. Flour particle size distribution measured by both Alpine Air Jet Sieve and NIR methods revealed that the weight wt % of particles less than 38μ m in size and representing 9.6%~ 19.3% of the flour weights was correlated positively (r =0.78, p < 0.01) with crumb grain score, whereas wt % of flour particles larger than 125μm had an inverse relationship (r =-0.60, p<0.05) with crumb grain score.

  12. White Whole-Wheat Flour Can Be Partially Substituted for Refined-Wheat Flour in Pizza Crust in School Meals without Affecting Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hing Wan; Burgess Champoux, Teri; Reicks, Marla; Vickers, Zata; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily. This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Methods: Subjects included first to…

  13. Protein interactions during flour mixing using wheat flour with altered starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Appels, Rudi; Zhang, Xiaoke; Diepeveen, Dean; Torok, Kitti; Tomoskozi, Sandor; Bekes, Ferenc; Ma, Wujun; Sharp, Peter; Islam, Shahidul

    2017-09-15

    Wheat grain proteins responses to mixing and thermal treatment were investigated using Mixolab-dough analysis systems with flour from two cultivars, Ventura-26 (normal amylose content) and Ventura-19 (reduced amylose content). Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) analysis revealed that, stress associated and metabolic proteins largely interacted with dough matrix of Ventura-26 after 26min (56°C); gliadins, avenin-like b proteins, LMW-GSs, and partial globulins showed stronger interactions within the dough matrix of Ventura-26 at 32min/C3 (80°C), thereafter, however, stronger protein interactions were observed within the dough matrix of Ventura-19 at 38min/C4 (85°C) and 43min (80°C). Thirty-seven proteins associated with changes in dough matrix due to reduced amylose content were identified by mass spectrometry and mainly annotated to the chromosome group 1, 4, and 6. The findings provide new entry points for modifying final product attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  15. Solid state NMR study of cumbaru flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose S.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide obtained by seed of Dipteryx alata Vog, has been characterised by 13 C solid state, using the basic routine techniques, like MAS and CPMAS and by the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame parameter (T 1 H ρ). Knowing that the chemical structure and molecular dynamic are extremely necessary route to obtain information on the polysaccharides, this work contributes to the classification of the seed containing in the cumbaru fruit to get response on its application. To obtain the initial responses for our purposes some solid state NMR techniques were chosen. The CPMAS 13 C NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide was investigated to know if it has some crystallinity. The MAS 13 C NMR spectrum showed the presence of domains with distinct molecular mobility, because these domains will differ basically in the distribution size and chain packing. The variable contact time experiment was used to analyse the distribution form of 13 C decays, which give us more information about sample heterogeneity. The T 1 H ρHr values were obtained from the variable contact time and by delayed contact time experiment, because these parameter indicate the order of polysaccharides. From the values of this parameter, we found that this polysaccharide is completely non-ordered. (author)

  16. A BIODEGRADABLE FILM FROM JACKFRUIT (ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS AND DURIAN (DURIO ZIBETHINUS SEED FLOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah S. Retnowati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus and durian (Durio zibethinus seeds contain high portion of amylose, which makes them potential materials for biodegradable films. The objective of this study is to develop biodegradable films composed of jackfruit and durian seed flours and glycerol as plasticizer. The films were prepared by dispersing flours in water, adding glycerol, heating the mixture, casting the solution on an acrylic plate, and drying the films at 50 ºC for 20 hours. Glycerol contributes to the flexibility of the film, while reduces the strength of the film. The Young’s modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break increase as the ratio of jackfruit to durian seed flour increases. The films made from jackfruit and durian seed flours in this work are stronger than the film made from rice flour obtained by other researcher. Therefore, jackfruit and durian seed flours are potential raw material for biodegradable films.

  17. Relationship of the moisture content of Finnish wheat flour and relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yen Linko

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the moisture content of Finnish commercial wheat flour stored at variable relative humidities, representing the conditions typical of flour storage in Finland, were investigated. It could be shown that flour of 15 % moisture at the time of packing tends to dry considerably during normal storage conditions. Owing to the hysteresis effect, the moisture content of once dried flour is not likely to reach detrimental levels during normal storage, even if the relative humidity would exceed the critical level of 75—80 % for short periods. Minimum warehouse relative humidity was observed during Januay, at which time flour moisture had decreased to 6.7 %. The equilibrium humidity for flour of 15 % original moisture content was found to be about 70 %.

  18. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  19. Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

    1998-01-01

    A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products.

  20. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  1. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  2. Baking properties and biochemical composition of wheat flour with bran and shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprelyants, Leonid; Fedosov, Sergey; Zhygunov, Dmytro

    2013-11-01

    Bran, being a by-product of grain grinding, is characterised by a high biological value and is thus widely used in food production. In this study, different streams of bran and shorts from the wheat graded milling process were incorporated into wheat flour at levels of 5, 11, 17 and 23% (w/w) to investigate their influence on the nutritional and baking properties of flour. Bran and shorts streams improved the baking properties of flour blends. The best result in the case of graded flour blends with different bran products was obtained at the 95:5 ratio. The products containing peripheral parts of grain had higher proteolytic enzyme and superoxide dismutase activities and lower trypsin inhibitor content and β-amylase activity compared with graded flour. Streams of wheat milled fractions including peripheral parts of grain increase the content of bioactive substances and dietary fibre in blends with wheat graded flour. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T

    2013-09-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P flours showed slight increase in water absorption capacity, swelling capacity and bulk density. The peroxide value of crude oil increased significantly with dose increases for the period of storage. The sensory evaluation of moinmoin samples prepared from irradiated pigeon pea flour showed no significant difference from the moinmoin sample prepared from nonirradiated flour. It can be concluded that gamma irradiation can extend the shelf life of pigeon pea flour.

  5. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effect of Composite Rice Flour in Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhigang; Gao, Hongmei; Du, Chuanlai; Zheng, Yimei; Guo, Yuanxin; Pan, Dongmei

    2016-03-01

    To study the hypoglycemic effect of composite rice flour, the diabetic mouse model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan saline (twice, 200 mg/kg bw). The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: negative control, positive control, metformin medication group, and composite rice flour feed group. After 21 days, the fasting blood glucose levels were determined by glucose oxidase method and followed with a glucose tolerance test. The results show that the body weight growth rate of mice in the rice flour group was significantly higher than that of the medication group (P rice flour group were significantly lower, and the glucose tolerance was significantly increased in rice flour group (P rice flour has obvious hypoglycemic and protective effect for diabetic mouse model.

  6. Characterization of Gamma-Irradiated Egyptian Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, H.H.; Attia, A. A.; Elsayed, A.A.; Ali, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Physical, rheological and baking properties of bread Shamy, prepared from gamma-irradiated Egyptian wheat flour up to 25 KGy as one of common types of bread in Egypt, were studied and the acceptability of bread was evaluated by sensory tests. All amylo-, farino-, and extensograph characteristics and also sample ph showed significant decrease as irradiation dose increased. Such results could be explained in terms of loss of unique elastic and cohesive properties of wheat gluten and starch damage upon increment of radiation dose. The improvement in properties of bread, baked from flour irradiated up to 7.5 KGy, could be explained on the basis of a simulation in gas production during dough fermentation due to increase in starch degradation products. However, bread, prepared from wheat samples irradiated above 7.5 KGy, exhibited significantly lower values of acceptance because of physico-chemical changes in both starch and gluten

  7. Comparative studies of different varieties of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Alizai, M.N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the nutritional quality of different samples of wheat flour, collected form various flour mills. These were analyzed physically for colour, flavour, taste, texture, microbiologically for total bacterial count, coliform bacteria, yeast, mould and chemically for moisture content, total protein, gluten, acidity, crude fiber and ash content. Effect of storage time on the gluten content was also studied. Out of 24 samples 13 samples were contaminated with mould. Deterioration of food constituents like protein and gluten was recorded in all the samples which were infected with mould. Moisture content of 12 samples out these 13 infected samples were also higher than the required standard. While the rate of 11 samples have moisture content within the specified range (less than 12%). In these samples there were no losses of protein, gluten and were also free from yeast and mould. (author)

  8. Examination of the safety of gamma-irradiated soya flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Katsareva, Ts.

    1988-01-01

    Fat-free soya flour was used as model food for demonstrating the safety of food additives decontaminated with ionizing radiation. The food was irradiated with 10 kGy and included in the daily food of line C 57 BL mice in amount of 35%. Important medical-biological tests were performed for evaluating the potential toxicity of irradiated food products. Results are reported on a study of three generations of mice, which had persistently consumed 35% irradiated soya flour. The parameters studied were: body mass, mass of internal organs, number of newborn animals and their body mass after weaning, reproductive capacity in F 1a and hematological parameters. The results were summarized in five tables

  9. Qualitative analysis of hexane flour extract of spelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Đura N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for performing a qualitative analysis of the hexane flour extract of three samples of spelt. All the three samples were first treated with hexane and the obtained extracts were used for the analysis of the fatty acid lipid components. The transesterification reaction was performed using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide, 0.2M in methanol, and the fatty acids were esterified from acylglycerol to methyl-esters. In all analyzed extracts, the predominant component was methyl linoleate, followed by methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. The subsequent tests, performed by cluster analysis, were used to compare the hexane flour extracts of different types of spelt. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46005 i br. TR 31066

  10. Rheological properties of the wheat flour supplemented with different additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA STOENESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One characteristic of the Romanian wheat flour in the recent years consists of high values of the falling number. The aim of the present study was to explore the Mixolab device to characterize the thermo-mechanical behaviour of flour supplemented with different additives that contain α-amylase. Mixolab parameters C4 and C5 were found to be lower in samples with high doses of additives containing α-amylases. The increase of the α-amylase dose reduces the dough stability. The samples that contain higher doses of additives presented low values of the β slope, which gives indications about starch gelatinization. The samples with reduced α-amylases activity showed high values of the γ slope.

  11. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  12. Mycological and mycotoxicological quality of wheat and flour fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Tatjana V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed infection is a result of complex factors influence: weather conditions, health conditions of used seed, quantity of infective potentila in soil, etc. By visual evaluation, initial wheat sample has been divided in four fractions: healthy, dark germed, slightly and very fusarious. Three varietes from two localities 1 and 2 have been included in analyses. Beside the wheat, the mycotoxicological contamination of flour produced by grounding of given samples was monitored, too. The representatives of genera Fusarium were dominating, and the most frequent was F. oxysporum. The wheat and flour samples have also been analysed on presence of aflatoxin B1 "AB1" and G1 "AG1", ochratoxin A "OA" and zearalenone "F-2" toxin. AG1 had the lowest representation (2,3 g/kg and the highest representation was of F-2 toxin (even 500 g/kg.

  13. Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of flour made from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blanching had a significant effect on the nutrients as protein in control (4.61%) differed significantly (p<0.05) from treated fingers. Cold-water treatment (73.29%) and fingers blanched at 100oC for 10 min (73.15%) had a significant (p<0.05) effect on the starch content of new Musa flour. Cold-water treatment also had ...

  14. Occupational allergic multiorgan disease induced by wheat flour

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Torrijos, Elisa; Rodríguez Sanchez, Joaquín; Diaz Perales, Araceli; García, R.; Feo-Brito, F.; García, C.; Pineda, Fernando; Quirce, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Bakers are repeatedly exposed to wheat flour (WF) and may develop sensitization and occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma to WF allergens.1 Several wheat proteins have been identified as causative allergens of occupational respiratory allergy in bakery workers.1 Testing of IgE reactivity in patients with different clinical profiles of wheat allergy (food allergy, wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and baker's asthma) to salt-soluble and salt-insoluble protein fractions fro...

  15. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  16. Brave new fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, N.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma rays are being used for artificially inducing mutations in deciduous fruits, so that improvements in characteristics and quality can be developed and new fruit cultivars sent out to compete on international markets. Progress in this field of research at Stellenbosch is described

  17. Prunus fruit juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  18. Improvement of Nutritional Value of Instant Noodles by Fortifying with Catfish (Pangasius Hypophthalmus) Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Gusriadi, Depri; Sukmiwati, Mery; ', Dahlia

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the nutritional value of instant noodlesfortified with catfish flour. Instant noodles were prepared from a mixture of wheatflour (50%), sweat potato flour (10%), egg (15%), salt (0,7%), water (23%),cooking oil (0,3%) and Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (1%). The noodles wereprepared by fortifying the mixture with catfish flour at a level of 0%, 5%, 10%,and 15 % respectively. Instant noodles was evaluated for sensory quality andproximate composition (moisture, prot...

  19. Studies on the effect of brown rice and maize flour on the quality of bread

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M.Z; Shams, M.

    2011-01-01

    Breads were prepared with various combinations of maize, brown rice and wheat flours in the basic formulation of bread. The baking properties and chemical composition of bread were evaluated and analysed, respectively. The bread volume decreased, where as bread weight and moisture content increased with the increasing level of maize and brown rice flour. The crumb and crust colour of breads were improved with addition of 8% maize and 8% brown rice flour in bread formulation. The protein conte...

  20. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Chesterton, AKS; Wilson, David Ian; Sadd, PI; Moggridge, Geoffrey Dillwyn

    2014-01-01

    A lab-scale method for replicating the time–temperature history experienced by cake flours undergoing heat treatment was developed based on a packed bed configuration. The performance of heat-treated flours was compared with untreated and commercially heat-treated flour by test baking a high ratio cake formulation. Both cake volume and AACC shape measures were optimal after 15 min treatment at 130 °C, though their values varied between harvests. Separate oscillatory rheometry tests of cake ba...

  1. Effect of inulin on dough and biscuit quality produced from different flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Blanco Canalis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of improving the nutritional profile of baked-goods is the incorporation of dietary fibre (DF to the formulation. However, DF retains more water than wheat flour, which affects dough rheological properties and thus the final product quality. Flour is the main ingredient in biscuits and contributes to the baked texture and shape of biscuits. There are large differences in quality among the flours from wheat cultivars and among non-wheat flours used for biscuit production. In previous works, different dietary fibres were tested and inulin was found to have a positive quality  effect on biscuits made from an all-purpose wheat flour without the need of introducing significant changes in dough properties. To know whether these results are extended to different types of flours that can be used for biscuit production, this paper aimed to analyse the effects of different levels of inulin incorporation on dough and biscuits quality made from three different wheat flours and one triticale flour. Chemical and physic-chemical characterization of the flour samples was performed and compared (moisture, ashes, gluten, solvent retention capacity (SRC and protein content. Inulin was incorporated to biscuits formulation in two levels: 6 and 12% (wheat replacement. Dough and biscuits quality was measured by spread rate during baking and biscuit factor, texture and surface colour. Inulin incorporation increased dough spreading and biscuit factor and decreased biscuit hardness. The enhancing effect of inulin was observed in all flour. The results confirmed the effect of inulin on biscuits obtained with all flour assayed, despite the differences in flour quality that was tested.

  2. Exposure-response relations of alpha-amylase sensitisation in British bakeries and flour mills

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Heederik, D.; Doekes, G.; Venables, K. M.; Newman, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the levels of exposure to fungal alpha-amylase in British bakeries and flour mills, and to describe the relation between exposure to alpha-amylase and sensitisation to fungal alpha- amylase. METHODS: 495 personal flour dust samples were taken in seven British bakeries and flour mills and analysed for alpha-amylase with an immunoassay. Workers at the sites were asked to fill out questionnaires on work related symptoms, smoking history, and work history, and they w...

  3. Detection of Irradiated Korean Wheat Flour by Viscosity and Pulsed Photostimulated Luminescence (PPSL) Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, S.D.; Chang, K.S.; Oh, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish methods for irradiation detection of irradiation in Korean wheat flour by pulsed photostimulated luminescence (PPSL) and viscometric methods. The photon counts of the irradiated Korean wheat flour measured by PPSL immediately after irradiation increased with increasing irradiation dose. The photon counts in the irradiated Korean wheat flour almost disappeared with lapse of time after storage in normal room conditions, but irradiation detection was still possible after 6 months in darkroom conditions

  4. Soy Flour Adhesive Strength Compared with That of Purified Soy Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Lorenz; Michael Birkeland; Chera Daurio; Charles R. Frihart

    2015-01-01

    Except for the substitution of soy flour in phenolic resins (Frihart et al. 2013) and the use of soy flour at high pHs (Lambuth 2003), the literature on soy protein properties for adhesives has mainly focused on soy protein isolate and specific protein fractions (Sun 2005b). The assumption is that proteins are the main portion of soy flour giving bond strength and the...

  5. Effect of Flour Concentration and Retrogradation Treatment on Physical Properties of Instant Sinlek Brown Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Supat Chaiyakul; Direk Sukkasem; Patnachapa Natthapanpaisith

    2016-01-01

    Sinlek rice flour beverage or instant product is a dietary supplement for dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. It is also consumed by individuals who need to consume supplements to maintain their calorific needs. This product provides protein, fat, iron, and a high concentration of carbohydrate from rice flour. However, the application of native flour is limited due to its high viscosity. Starch modification by controlling starch retrogradation was used in this study. The research studies the...

  6. Effect of Rice bran on the Quality of Rice Flour Breads (Gluten-free)

    OpenAIRE

    仲上, 晴世; 矢部, えん; Haruyo, Nakagami; En, Yabe

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years progress has been made in the development of substitute foods for allergy patients. One such is rice flour bread. However, typically rice flour bread uses polysaccharide thickener in substitution for the gluten in wheat. Most polysaccharide thickeners are of dietary fiber origin, and the nutritive value is poor. Therefore, in this study, I made rice flour bread adding rice bran in place of polysaccharide thickener. Various nutrients are included in rice bran, including vitam...

  7. Iron fortification of flour with a complex ferric orthophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Rossander-Hulthen, L.; Gramatkovski, E.

    1989-01-01

    The unexpectedly low bioavailability in humans of elemental iron powder prompted us to search for other Fe compounds suitable for Fe fortification of flour that fulfill the two requirements of insolubility in water (due to high water content of flour) and good bioavailability in humans. Systematic studies of compatibility, solubility, and bioavailability led to this study of a microcrystalline complex ferric orthophosphate (CFOP), Fe 3 H 8 (NH 4 )-(PO 4 )6.6H 2 O, a well-defined compound. This compound was labeled with 59 Fe, and the native Fe in meals was labeled with 55 FeCl3. The ratio of absorbed 59 Fe to absorbed 55 Fe is a direct measure of the fraction of CFOP that joins the nonheme Fe pool and that is made potentially available for absorption. The relative bioavailability of CFOP varied from 30% to 60% when labeled wheat rolls were served with different meals. The CFOP meets practical requirements of an Fe fortificant for flour well, with regard to both compatibility and bioavailability in humans

  8. HARMFUL ENTOMOPHAUNA IMPACTS ON QUALITY OF MERCANTILE WHEAT AND FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Milošević

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Presence of harmful insects and mites is almost inevitable in mercantile wheat stored in warehouses. They cause significant damages and therefore it is necessary to perform pest control and chemical treatment. Study of harmful and destructive entomophauna impacts on quality of mercantile wheat and flour has been presented. Mercantile wheat stored in silos has been used in the study. Testing of quality of rheological properties and presence of harmful entomophauna were done in the labs within the silos «Žitoprerada d.o.o. Valpovo « and Department of Plant Protection on Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek. Presence of harmful entomophauna, quality of mercantile wheat stored in a warehouse and rheological flour properties were determined. The following harmful entomophauna were found: mites (Acarinae, primary pests of order Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, secondary pests of order Coleoptera and other insects found belong to Coleoptera, Psocoptera and useful insects of Hymenoptera orders. Influence of harmful entomophauna on quality of mercantile wheat is manifested by reduced quality of stored wheat due to decrease of water content and hectoliter mass. Lower quality of flour obtained by milling of infected wheat is manifested by change in rheological properties: dough stability, water absorption, growth, resistance, energy, extensibility, maximum resistance, start of puffing up, and viscosity.

  9. Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Aringoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5-7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1 and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3 or per gram of sample (CFU g-1, respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively.

  10. Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aringoli, E.E.; Cambiagno, D.E.; Chiericatti, C.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Basilico, M.L.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5–7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively. PMID:24031975

  11. Effects of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebello, B.M.; Moreno, S.R.F.; Godinho, C.R.; Neves, R.F.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Medeiros, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa (P. flavicarpa) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99m Tc, on the morphology of red blood cells, and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (sodium 99m Tc). Male Wistar rats were treated with either P. flavicarpa extract or 0.9% NaCl. After that, radiolabeling of blood constituents, morphological analysis of red blood cells and biodistribution of sodium 99m Tc was evaluated. Radiolabeling of blood constituents and shape of red blood cells were not modified, but a significant (p 99m Tc was observed after treatment with P. flavicarpa extract. Although our results were obtained with animals, they could contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine

  12. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  13. EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND ZINC ON THE GROWTH OF YELLOW PASSION FRUIT SEEDLINGS FÓSFORO E ZINCO NO CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE MARACUJAZEIRO-AMARELO

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    Rogério Antônio de Freitas Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of simultaneous application of triple superphosphate and zinc sulphate on growth of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa seedlings. A nursery experiment for seedling formation was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Production of the Mato Grosso do Sul State University, Cassilândia Unit (UEMS/UUC, Brazil. Four doses of phosphorus (0 mg dm-3, 150 mg dm-3, 300 mg dm-3 and 450 mg dm-3 and three doses of zinc (0 mg dm-3, 5 mg dm-3 and 10 mg dm-3 were tested. The phosphorus was used as triple superphosphate, and the zinc as zinc sulphate. A randomized block design was used, in a 4 x 3 factorial scheme with four replications and five plants per plot. The following traits were evaluated 92 days after sowing: height, root length, number of leaves per plant, dry matter of shoots and roots, and total dry matter. The application of triple superphosphate affected significantly height of plants, leaf number, shoots dry matter, and total dry matter. The zinc sulphate favored the variables height, shoot dry matter, and total dry matter. It was concluded that the use of triple superphosphate and zinc sulphate provided a better quality in the production of the yellow passion fruit seedlings.

    KEY WORDS: Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa; passion fruit; propagation; seedling.

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido para avaliar os efeitos da aplicação simultânea de superfosfato triplo e sulfato de zinco na formação de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa. Para isso, foi conduzido um experimento em viveiro de formação de mudas, no setor de produção agrícola da Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS, Unidade Universitária de Cassilândia (UUC. Foram testadas quatro

  14. Effect of flour particle size and damaged starch on the quality of cookies

    OpenAIRE

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak; Khatkar, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Two wheat varieties ‘C 306’ and ‘WH 542’ were milled to obtain flour fractions of different particle sizes. Various physicochemical parameters such as wet and dry gluten, falling number, solvent retention capacity (SRC), alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) and damaged starch content of the flour fractions were analyzed. The damaged starch values ranged from 5.14% to 14.79% for different flour fractions and increased significantly with decrease in particle size. AWRC and SRC of the flour ...

  15. Nutritional Profile and Chemical Stability of Pasta Fortified with Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Soares, Manoel S; Magalhães, Amanda O; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Alvares, Thiago S; Conte, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%), pasta with 6% (PTF6%), 12% (PTF12%), 17% (PTF17%), and 23% (PTF23%) of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), pH, water activity (aw), and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p pasta with tilapia flour decreased (p pasta containing 12%, 17%, and 23% of tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p pasta with 6% of tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C.

  16. The effect of baking temperature and buckwheat flour addition on the selected properties of wheat bread

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    A. Selimović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat flour was used to substitute 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wheat flour to make buckwheat enriched wheat bread. Proximate composition, sensory evaluation, total phenols content and antioxidant activity of buckwheat enriched wheat breads were analysed and compared with wheat bread. Wholegrain buckwheat flour contained higher total phenols than wheat flour. The incorporation of buckwheat flour from 15 % to 40 % in bread samples increased the total phenols content from 0.25 (mg GA/g d.m. sample to 0.65 (mg GA/g d.m. sample, and antioxidant activity from 208.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract to 354.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract. Total phenols content decreased during the baking process, while the antioxidant activity increased. Bread samples with 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wholegrain buckwheat flour showed lower lightness (L and whiteness index (WI values of crust and crumb colour compared to the wheat bread. Addition of buckwheat flour increased redness (a and yellowness (b colour values for crumb. Sensory results indicating that three breads with buckwheat flour were moderately acceptable. No differences were found in overall sensory attributes between buckwheat flour enriched bread samples with 15 % and wheat bread (control sample.

  17. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa acuminata x balbisiana Colla cv. Awak) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinda, W H; Cheng, L H; Chong, L C; Noor Aziah, A A

    2009-01-01

    Flour was prepared from peeled and unpeeled banana Awak ABB. Samples prepared were subjected to analysis for determination of chemical composition, mineral, dietary fibre, starch and total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and pasting properties. In general, flour prepared from unpeeled banana was found to show enhanced nutrition values with higher contents of mineral, dietary fibre and total phenolics. Hence, flour fortified with peel showed relatively higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, better pasting properties were shown when banana flour was blended with peel. It was found that a relatively lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback were evident in a sample blended with peel.

  18. Microbiological and technological characterization of sourdoughs destined for bread-making with barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Emanuele; Garofalo, Cristiana; Aquilanti, Lucia; Santarelli, Sara; Silvestri, Gloria; Clementi, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the microbiological and technological characterization of laboratory- made sourdoughs for use in barley-flour-based bread-making. A defined multi-strain starter culture consisting of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts from wheat sourdoughs was inoculated into three flour-water mixtures, composed of: (i) 100% wheat flour (ii) 50% wheat flour and 50% hull-less barley flour (composite flour); (iii) 100% hull-less barley flour. After two months of continuous propagation, the chemical characteristics of the three sourdoughs were investigated by measuring: pH, total titratable acidity and concentrations of various microbial metabolites by HPLC (i.e. lactic, acetic, phenyllactic and butyric acids and diacetyl). The microbial traits were studied through viable counts, isolation and typing of LAB and yeasts and PCR-DGGE analyses. Only Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum were detectable in the sourdoughs together with other lactobacilli species which were different depending on the type of flour blend used. The molecular typing of the isolates highlighted that only a few strains among those initially inoculated prevailed. The volume increases of the three types of sourdough were also investigated and a correlation was seen between an increase in the barley flour content and a reduction in the dough volume.

  19. Degree of roasting of carob flour affecting the properties of gluten-free cakes and cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; González, Ana; Espina, Teresa; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Carob flour is a product rich in fibre obtained from by-products of the locust bean gum extraction processing. The flour is commercialised with different degrees of roasting in order to improve its organoleptic characteristics. In this study, carob flour with three different roasting degrees was used to replace rice flour (15%) in gluten-free cakes and cookies. The influence of this replacement was studied on the psychochemical characteristics and acceptability of the final products. The incorporation of carob flour increased the viscosity of cake batters and increased the solid elastic-like behaviour of the cookie doughs, indicating a stronger interaction among the formula ingredients. The inclusion of carob flour, with a low time of roasting, did not lead to any significant differences in the specific volume and hardness of the cakes, but reduced cake staling and the thickness and width of the cookies. Darker colours were obtained when carob flour was incorporated into the product. The acceptability of cakes was only reduced with the addition of highly roasted carob flour, while in the case of cookies there was a decline in the acceptability of all carob flour cookies, which was mostly perceived with the highest roasting degree, something mainly attributed to the bitter taste of the products.

  20. Milling of rice grains: effects of starch/flour structures on gelatinization and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Li, Enpeng; Dhital, Sushil

    2013-01-30

    Starch gelatinization and flour pasting properties were determined and correlated with four different levels of starch structures in rice flour, i.e. flour particle size, degree of damaged starch granules, whole molecular size, and molecular branching structure. Onset starch-gelatinization temperatures were not significantly different among all flour samples, but peak and conclusion starch-gelatinization temperatures were significantly different and were strongly correlated with the flour particle size, indicating that rice flour with larger particle size has a greater barrier for heat transfer. There were slight differences in the enthalpy of starch gelatinization, which are likely associated with the disruption of crystalline structure in starch granules by the milling processes. Flours with volume-median diameter ≥56 μm did not show a defined peak viscosity in the RVA viscogram, possibly due to the presence of native protein and/or cell-wall structure stabilizing the swollen starch granules against the rupture caused by shear during heating. Furthermore, RVA final viscosity of flour was strongly correlated with the degree of damage to starch granules, suggesting the contribution of granular structure, possibly in swollen form. The results from this study allow the improvement in the manufacture and the selection criteria of rice flour with desirable gelatinization and pasting properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fenologia do florescimento e características do perfume das flores de Passiflora quadrangularis l. (maracujá-melão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antonio Villamil Montero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora quadrangularis L. é uma espécie originária do neotrópico, conhecida no Brasil como maracujá-melão devido ao tamanho e formato dos seus frutos. Tem sido amplamente disseminada nas regiões tropicais do mundo onde é produzida em pequena escala para comercialização dos frutos, o que ocorre bem próximo às regiões de cultivo, em função da dificuldade de conservação pós-colheita. As plantas são trepadeiras bastante vigorosas, com flores abundantes, grandes e perfumadas, o que amplia o seu valor e a torna particularmente interessante para caramanchões e cercas-vivas. O uso efetivo de passifloras no mercado de plantas ornamentais depende de estudos da fenologia floral. Neste trabalho foram estudadas algumas características da fenologia floral e o perfume das flores de P. quadrangularis, sob cultivo protegido. São apresentados os dados relativos ao período de floração, picos de florescimento e intensidade relativa das flores, bem como algumas características do perfume floral. Conclui-se que a espécie representa uma nova alternativa de cultivo para fins ornamentais, por apresentar múltiplas flores em antese simultânea, abundantes, grandes, fragrantes e coloridas, com longo período de floração no ano, além de frutos comestíveis, folhas exuberantes e medicinais que oferecem amplo sombreamento para áreas externas de lazer e/ou outras plantas cultivadas.

  2. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA E QUANTIDADE DE NUTRIENTES EM FRUTOS DE MARACUJÁ DOCE PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTITY OF NUTRIENTS IN SWEET PASSION FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO ANTONIO DA SILVA VASCONCELLOS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar algumas características físicas e a distribuição dos nutrientes nos frutos de maracujá doce (Passiflora alata Dryand., segundo sua classificação. Os frutos classificados como tipo 8 foram maiores e mais pesados que os dos tipos 9 e 12, apresentando maior peso de casca e de polpa. Independentemente da classificação dos frutos, o N, P, B, Cu, Fe e Zn estão distribuídos em maior quantidade na polpa do que na casca dos frutos. O K, Ca, S e o Mn estão distribuídos em maior quantidade na casca do que na polpa dos frutos. O magnésio apresenta uma distribuição na casca levemente superior à da polpa. Na média dos três tipos de frutos, os valores obtidos por fruto (casca+polpa foram: 578,6 mg de N; 81,9 mg de P; 740,6 mg de K; 56,8 mg de Ca; 64,6 mg de Mg; 98,3 mg de S; 452,3 mg de B; 302,5 mg de Cu; 1471 mg de Fe; 167,5 mg de Mn, e 644,1 mg de Zn.The present work was conducted in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, in order to evaluate some physical characteristics and the nutrient distribution in sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata Dryand., by type. The fruit classified as type 8 were larger than those classified as type 9 and 12, have larger weight of peel and pulp. Independently of fruit classification, N, P, B, Cu, Fe, and Zn were found in larger quantities throughout the pulp than in the peel. K, Ca, S, and Mn were present in greater quantity in the peel than in the pulp. Mg showed slightly larger presence in the peel. The fruits of sweet passion fruit presented, in average: 578.6 mg of N; 81.9 mg of P; 740.6 mg of K; 56.8 mg of Ca; 64.6 mg of Mg; 98.3 mg of S; 452.3 mg of B; 302.5 mg of Cu; 1471 mg of Fe; 167.5 mg of Mn; and 644.1 mg of Zn.

  3. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit. PMID:24031465

  4. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz. Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Duarte Anaruma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection, CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg, as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P < 0.05 from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit.

  5. Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (ag3) en la germinación de semilla de curuba (passiflora mollisima)

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Gutiérrez, Rito Hernán

    2011-01-01

    Los ensayos de la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima (HBK) Bailey en condiciones de laboratorio, muestran que la testa retarda la absorción del agua y es el principal factor de control de la germinación. El ácido giberélico aplicado incrementa la germinación y refuerza considerablemente los efectos de la escarificación.

  6. Physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocloo, Fidelis C.K.; Okyere, Abenaa A.; Asare, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) has been recognised as one of the best nutritional crops that can be used to augment the Ghanaian diet. The application of gamma irradiation as means of preserving tiger nut could modify the characteristics of resultant flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut. The yellow and black types of tiger nut were sorted, washed and dried in an air-oven at 60 o C for 24 h. The dried tiger nut samples were irradiated at 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy and then flours produced from them. Moisture, ash, pH, titratable acidity, water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power, solubility, bulk density and pasting properties of the flours were determined using appropriate analytical methods. Results showed that irradiation did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. Gamma irradiation significantly (P≤0.05) increased titratable acidity with concomitant decrease in pH of the flours. No significant differences were observed for water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power as well as bulk density. Solubility significantly (P≤0.05) increased generally with irradiation dose. Peak viscosity, viscosities at 92 °C and 55 °C, breakdown and setback viscosities decreased significantly with irradiation dose. Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a potential in complementary food formulations due to its low viscosity and increased solubility values. - Highlights: • Physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut were studied. • Irradiation did not affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. • Titratable acidity increased with decrease in pH of the flours from the irradiated tiger nut. • Solubility increased whereas peak viscosity decreased with irradiation dose. • Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a

  7. An inventory of recent innovations in fruit and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zajac, J.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to make an inventory of recent and ongoing fruit and fruit product innovations, to assess what novelty or improvement they offer, and whether consumers could identify and/or recognise them. Researchers from 11 European countries submitted 386 examples of fruit and fruit

  8. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of gluten-free kibbeh formulated with millet flour (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcherena Amorim Brasil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet flour was utilized in kibbeh formulations instead of whole-wheat flour. Physicochemical properties, oxidation stability and sensorial characteristics of control kibbeh made with whole-wheat flour (CT were compared with kibbehs prepared with millet flour (roasted or wet and stored for 90 days (–18 °C. Kibbeh prepared with millet flour presented good oxidation stability (TBARS concentration. Baked kibbehs (with roasted millet flour presented good acceptability and kibbeh samples did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 from the whole-wheat flour sample, when global appearance, texture and flavor were evaluated. Millet flour could be a suitable ingredient for kibbeh formulations, maintaining their nutritional value and sensorial quality in addition to being a gluten-free product.

  9. Flour mixture of rice flour, corn and cassava starch in the production of gluten-free white bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ballesteros López

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of rice flour corn and cassava starch was evaluated in several formulations aiming to find a flour mixture to replace wheat flour in the production of free-gluten white bread. Production parameters were evaluated through sensory analysis. The resulting breads were evaluated taking into account physical parameters (crumb appearance, specific volume and moisture and sensorial parameters (flavor, appearance, crumb texture, crust color and satisfaction. Regarding flavor and moisture, breads prepared with the three different ingredients were not statistically different at 5% probability by the Tuckey test. However, they differed significantly regarding the specific volume, crumb texture, crust color, degree of satisfaction and external appearance. Rice flour bread presented the best parameters, being preferred by the sensory evaluation panel, followed by corn starch bread and cassava starch bread. Breads prepared with rice flour resulted in a softer product, presenting a better consistency with small alveoli homogeneously distributed. As far as crumb texture was concerned, corn starch bread presented larger alveoli, while cassava starch resulted in bread with expandable and gummy crumb, with granulation without alveoli, and undesirable sensorial characteristics. Production parameters were established based on these results and a mixture of flours, composed by 45% rice flour, 35% corn starch and 20% cassava starch presented good results originating bread with crumb formed by uniform and well distributed cells, and pleasant flavor and appearance.Para desenvolver um sucedâneo para o pão de forma, isento de glúten, foram testadas as influências dos amidos de milho, de mandioca e da farinha de arroz, bem como das etapas de mistura, fermentação e assamento na qualidade do mesmo. Os parâmetros de fabricação foram determinados por meio de análises sensoriais durante a produção. As características sensoriais dos pães foram comparadas por

  10. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  11. (Forssk) Fiori Fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This fruit-producing deciduous shrub or small tree is prevalent in African and Southeast. Asian countries, with ... Gezira State, Sudan and then placed in plastic bags and ..... Eastern Africa. Rome: FAO ... International. Washington, DC, USA 1995.

  12. Hydroalcohol Fruit Peel Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L) fruit peel using 80 % ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Methods: Male ... Conclusion: The study shows indicates the antiulcer properties of the methanol extracts of north white ... experimentation, Cimetidine was obtained from.

  13. Dispersion, efficacy, and persistence of dichlorvos aerosol against two flour beetle life stages in a mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution, efficacy, and residual activity of dichlorvos applied as an aerosol to each of five floors of the Kansas State University pilot flour mill (9,968.8 m3 total volume) were evaluated based on responses of adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val), and ...

  14. Physical, chemical, technological and sensory characteristics of Frankfurter type sausage containing okara flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The addition of okara flour to an emulsified meat product (Frankfurter type sausage was evaluated based on the physical, chemical, technological, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Okara, residue from soymilk production, was provided by two soymilk producing companies whose production systems were based on the hot disintegration of the decorticated (company B or undecorticated (company A soybeans. The okara was dehydrated using a flash dryer and then ground into flour (>420 µm. However, The okara flours A and B showed approximately the same amount of protein (35 and 40 g.100 g-1 dwb. However, the okara flour A presented higher values (p < 0.05 for all technological functional properties studied (emulsification capacity, emulsion stability, protein solubility, and water hold capacity than those of okara flour B. The A and B okara flours were used in a frankfurter sausage formulation as substitution of 1.5% and 4% of meat. The results showed that the sausages containing okara flours A and B, as well as the control sausage, were accepted by the sensory panel. Moreover, there were no significant differences (p < 0.05 in the physical (color, objective texture, and emulsion stability and chemical (pH and proximate composition measurements of the sausages with and without the okara flour.

  15. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and products, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatu, Nobuyuki; Ohinata, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Hideyuki; Oike, Terutake; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of irradiation at 3.0-7.0 kGy with 2 MeV electron beams were investigated on the number of microorganisms and quality of buckwheat flour. Electron beams and gamma-rays were compared in terms of the effects on the quality of buckwheat flour. The results were as follows. (1) Electron beams at 3 kGy reduced the number of microorganisms almost to the same level as gamma-rays. Oxygen content in buckwheat flour had no effect on inactivation of microorganisms by irradiation with electron beams and gamma-rays. (2) Peroxide-value (POV) of lipid in buckwheat flour increased with absorbed dose of gamma-rays and electron beams. The increase of POV was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber. The color change of buckwheat flour was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber as well. Acid-value (AV) of lipid in buckwheat flour was not changed by irradiation at high dose with gamma-rays or electron beams. (3) Maximum torque in Farinograph test of dough prepared from irradiated buckwheat flour decreased with increase of absorbed dose of electron beams. However, oxygen absorber suppressed the change of these properties induced by irradiation. (4) The usage of oxygen absorber resulted in a high sensory score of noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour with small changes of color, flavor and texture. (author)

  16. Evaluation of maize-soybean flour blends for sour maize bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Properties examined included amylose content, bulk density, dispersibility, swelling power, water absorption capacity and viscoelastic properties. The effect of the different flour/meal samples on the properties of sour maize bread were evaluated by baking bread samples with the different flours/meals using a mixed starter ...

  17. Technological parameters and oxidative stability of irradiated wheat and corn flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Roberta Claro da

    2003-01-01

    Cereals are susceptible to the attack of insects and microorganisms development during storage. Researches have demonstrated the viability of the use of the irradiation technology for the preservation and reduction of these losses. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different irradiation doses (0; 3; 4,5 and 6 kGy) on wheat and corn flour oxidative stability and technological quality. Physicochemical and sensory analyses were performed on the flours. The technological parameters evaluated on the wheat flour were farinogram, alveogram, falling number, and a baking experiment. The packed samples were irradiated in a commercial irradiator and stored under ambient conditions. The oxidative quality of both flours was not affected in any of the treatments, within the commercial shelf life period guaranteed by the manufacturers for non irradiated products. However, flours acid value was the analytical parameter that reflected the irradiation effect. The higher flour initial acid values were the larger the increments with storage. The 4.5 and 6 kGy treatments ha a negative effect on the technological quality of the wheat flour. The irradiated flours had their viscoelastic properties affected the higher the irradiation dose, the stronger the effect. None of the treatments affected the sensorial quality of the samples, although a metallic odor was perceived by some tasters. (author)

  18. Cake Flour Is Not Just Any Old White Powder: A Fun Take-Home Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Kevin; Rasmus, C.; Virtue, Melinda; Slik, Kate; Wrigley, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Baking cakes with different recipes can provide an exercise in the application of the scientific method, illustrating the need to vary only one ingredient at a time for correct derivation of conclusions. This experiment, most likely to be performed at home, compares a cake flour with flours from durum wheat, rice and cornflour (gluten-free…

  19. Evaluation of colour in white and yellow trifoliate yam flours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colour is one of the important sensory properties that determine the acceptability of food products. Therefore, this work determines the colour in white and yellow trifoliate yam flours in relation to harvesting periods and pre-processing methods. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were prepared into flour using four ...

  20. Investigation of the Usability of Retrograded Flour in Meatball Production as A Structure Enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçer, Elif Aykin; Büyükkurt, Özlem Kiliç; Candal, Cihadiye; Bilgiç, Büşra Fatma; Erbaş, Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to research the possibilities of using retrograded flour produced in the laboratory environment in meatballs and the characteristics of these meatballs. In the use of retrograded flour to produce meatballs, it was ensured that the meatball properties, with respect to chemical, physical and sensorial aspects, were comparable to those of meatballs produced with bread (traditional) and rusk flour (commercial). The cooking loss of meatballs produced with using retrograded flour was similar to that of commercial meatballs. Doses of retrograded flour from 5% to 20% led to a significant decrease in cooking loss, from 21.95% to 6.19%, and in the diameter of meatballs, from 18.60% to 12.74%, but to an increase in the thickness of meatballs, from 28.82% to 41.39% compared to the control. The increase of a * and b * values was shown in that the meatballs were browned on cooking with increasing retrograded flour doses because of non-enzymatic reactions. The springiness of the traditional meatballs was significantly higher than that of the other meatballs. This might have been due to the bread crumbs having a naturally springy structure. Moreover, the addition of retrograded flour in the meatballs significantly ( p meatballs with respect to textural properties. Accordingly, it is considered that the use of 10% retrograded flour is ideal to improve the sensorial values of meatballs and the properties of their structure.