Geohelminths are soil-transmitted parasitic nematodes which present a potential public health hazard in Nigeria. The present study examined soil samples for the incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena Community. Two hundred (200) soil samples were collected from five vegetable and fruits ...
Systematic field screening was conducted in 14 important papaya germplasm lines to observe the severity of bumpy fruit incidence. The disease severity, fruit yield and economic losses due to physiological disorders were observed. Pune Selection-3 was most sensitive (64.6%) for the disorder while Pusa Selection Red ...
Incidence and composition of fruit flies were studied at afromontane rainforests of southwestern Ethiopia: Yayu, Berhane-kontir and Bonga forest which are located in Illubabor, Benchi- Maji and Kefa zones, respectively. Based on ecological descriptions of forest coffee population, each forest locality was stratified into three ...
Malhotra, Savita; Kohli, Adarsh; Kapoor, Mehak; Pradhan, Basant
Background: Studies on incidence of childhood mental disorders are extremely rare globally and there are none from India. Incidence studies though more difficult and time consuming, provide invaluable information on the pattern and causes of occurrence of mental disorders allowing opportunity for early intervention and primary prevention. Aim: This study aimed at estimating the incidence of psychiatric disorders in school children. Materials and Methods: A representative sample of school chil...
Van Son, Gabrielle E.; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; Van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.
The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response
Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Furth, E.F. van; Hoek, H.W.
The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response
Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca; De Irala-Estévez, Jokin; Cano-Prous, Adrián; Gual-García, Pilar; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Cervera-Enguix, Salvador
To estimate the overall annual incidence and age group distribution of eating disorders in a representative sample of adolescent female residents of Navarra, Spain. We studied a representative sample of 2734 adolescent Navarran females between 13 and 22 years of age who were free of any eating disorder at the start of our study. Eighteen months into the study, we visited the established centers and the eating attitudes test (EAT-40) and eating disorder inventory (EDI) Questionnaires were administered to the entire study population. We obtained a final response of 92%. All adolescents whose EAT score was over 21 points and a randomized sample of those who scored 21 or below, were interviewed. Any person meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) was considered a case. We detected 90 new cases of eating disorders. Taking into consideration the randomly selected group whose EAT score was 21 points or below, we estimated the overall weighted incidence of eating disorders to be 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), after 18 months of observation, in which EDNOS predominated with an incidence of 4.2% (95% CI: 2.0-6.3). The incidence of AN was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5), while that of BN was also found to be 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5). The highest incidence was observed in the group of adolescents between 15 and 16 years of age. The overall incidence of ED in a cohort of 2509 adolescents after 18 months of follow-up was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), with EDNOS outweighing the other diagnoses. The majority of new cases of eating disorders were diagnosed between ages 15 and 16.
Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Furth, E.F. van; Hoek, H.W.
The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response relation with degree of urbanisation and was five times higher in cities than in rural areas. Remarkably, anorexia nervosa showed no association with urbanisation. We conclude that urbanlife is a potenti...
Vásquez-López, Alfonso; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Gerardo
We assessed the effect of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) on the incidence of rot on tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum , Galactomyces geotrichum , and Alternaria sp. at sites with lesions. The inoculated fruits were treated with NEW at 10, 30, and 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine, with copper oxychloride fungicide, and with sterile distilled water (control) for 3, 5, and 10 min. In the experiment with F. oxysporum , 50 to 80% of the control fruits and 50 to 60% of the fruits treated with the fungicide exhibited symptoms of rot at the inoculated sites. The lowest incidence recorded was 30% for fruits treated with NEW at 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine with an immersion time of 5 min. In the experiment with G. geotrichum , incidence of rot on control fruits was 70 to 90%, and for treatment with fungicide rot incidence was 50 to 90%. NEW at 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine significantly reduced incidence of symptomatic fruit: only 30% of the inoculated fruits washed for 5 min had damage from rot. In the experiment with Alternaria sp., 60 to 90% of the fruits in the control group and 60 to 70% of the fruits in the fungicide group were symptomatic. The lowest incidence was recorded for the treatment in which the fruits were submerged in NEW with 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine for 3 min. In this group, 40 to 50% of the fruits exhibited symptoms of rot. These results were obtained 8 days after inoculation. NEW, with 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine, significantly reduced incidence of rot symptoms on fruits inoculated with one of the experimental fungi relative to the control (P ≤ 0.05). NEW at 60 mg liter -1 is effective in the control of fungal rot in tomatoes.
Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs.We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd. For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined.Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD, to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20-24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration.These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to incidence magnitude and survival might
Singh, Rajbir; Sharma, R R; Kumar, Satyendra; Gupta, R K; Patil, R T
Studies were conducted to determine the effect of vermicompost on growth, physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of 'Chandler' strawberry. For this, 4 levels of vermicompost (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0tha(-1)) were supplemented with inorganic fertilizers to balance fertilizer requirement of strawberry under semi-arid region of northern India. The vermicompost was incorporated into top 10cm layer of soil, which was supplemented on the basis of chemical analysis, with amount of inorganic N, P, K fertilizer calculated to equalize the recommended dose of nutrients. Vermicompost application increased plant spread (10.7%), leaf area (23.1%) and dry matter (20.7%), and increased total fruit yield (32.7%). Substitution of vermicompost drastically reduced the incidence of physiological disorders like albinism (16.1-4.5%); fruit malformation (11.5-4.0%) and occurrence of grey mould (10.4-2.1%) in strawberry indicating that vermicompost had significant role in reducing nutrient-related disorders and disease like Botrytis rot, and thereby increasing the marketable fruit yield up to 58.6% with better quality parameters. Fruit harvested from plant receiving vermicompost were firmer, have higher TSS, ascorbic acid content and lower acidity, and have attractive colour. All these parameters appeared to be dose dependent and best results were achieved @ 7.5tha(-1), however, beyond this dose of vermicompost, there was not significant influence on these parameters.
Grantina-Ievina, L; Stanke, L
In the present study six plum orchards in Latvia were examined during 2014. One orchard was commercial with integrated pest management (IPM) practices, one was with organic management, two orchards were scientific collections and in two orchards plums were grown as a minor crop, using IPM practices. The shot-hole disease (Wilsonomyces carpophilus) and fruit rot were monitored in the field. Samples of twigs and leaves were taken for further examination if some other disease symptoms were observed. In total, 50 European plum (Prunus domestica) and six diploid plum cultivars were inspected. The fruit rot was assessed also in the laboratory to determine the latent infection with Monilinia spp. on immature fruits. Monilinia spp. isolates from all orchards were subjected to fungicide sensitivity tests. Incidence and severity of shot-hole disease was significantly different among various orchards when the same cultivar was compared, as well as between diploid and European plum cultivars. The average incidence of shot-hole disease was 41% in diploid plums and 80% in European plums, while the average severity was 9 and 15%, respectively. In the field, fruit rot caused only by Monilinia spp. was detected. The average incidence of brown rot on diploid plums was less than 1%, but on European plums it was 3.6%. The latent infection tests showed that plum fruits had higher incidence of brown rot than was observed in the field, up to 44% on particular cultivars. Additionally, from the fruits subjected to these tests, Botrytis cinerea, Diaporthe eres and Colletotrichum spp. were isolated. This means that in specific weather and management conditions the fruit rot incidence in the field could be several times higher. Examination of samples of twigs, leaves and fruits in the laboratory showed the presence of D. eres in samples from all orchards. In one of the scientific collections D. eres was isolated from twigs, leaves and fruits, and was more often found on the individuals
Bogren, Mats; Mattisson, Cecilia; Horstmann, Vibeke
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how first incidence of various mental disorders changed between the periods of 1947-1972 to 1972-1997 in the Lundby cohort. METHOD: First-incidence rates of mental disorders were calculated for two 25 year periods and ten 5 year periods. RESULTS: From 1947-1972 to 1972-1...
Smink, Frédérique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.
Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increas...
A physiological disorder known as spongy tissue involving damage of the mesocarp (flesh) affects 20 to 30 percent of mango fruits, particularly Alphonso, the leading commercial variety of India. Large sized fruits and those more advanced in maturity or harvested when ripe show increased incidence of spongy tissue. The mango processing industry is also facing quality control problems and economic loss as weevil-infested fruits can contaminate the processed pulp as well as the processing machinery with insect, fecal and feed remnants. Studies undertaken in the Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai with assistance from Radiation Standards Section, Radiological Unit, BARC Hospital and ECIL, Hyderabad, have shown that both spongy tissue affected and seed weevil infested mango fruits can be detected by x-ray transmittance. The resulting image can be used to detect affected fruits. An automated system for detecting and rejecting mangoes with spongy tissue or seed weevil infestation is under development in collaboration with the Electronic Systems Division, BARC. (author)
Full Text Available Plant diseases, especially grey mould (Botrytis cinerea, may cause severe losses in organic strawberry production. In a two-year period, 20012002, the effects of different biological sprays on grey mould, the fruit yield and fruit quality of organically grown strawberry Jonsok were studied in field trials at MTT Agrifood Research Finland in Ruukki and Mikkeli. In Experiment 1 the biological sprays were seaweed, garlic and compost extracts, silicon and Trichoderma spp. on both trial sites. In Experiment 2, compost extract, Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium catenulatum sprays were studied in Ruukki. The treatment time was chosen to control grey mould. The effect of different biological sprays on the incidence of grey mould and total and marketable yield was insignificant compared to the untreated control. In both years and in all trials the incidence of grey mould was low and rot occurred mainly in the latter part of the harvesting period, which may partly explain the small differences between treatments. Anyhow, despite of feasible biological control cultural control methods will be important to manage the fungus in organic strawberry production.;
Medici, Clara Reece; Videbech, Poul; Gustafsson, Lea Nørgreen
BACKGROUND: The world-wide interest in bipolar disorder is illustrated by an exponential increase in publications on the disorder registered in Pubmed since 1990. This inspired an investigation of the epidemiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. All first......-ever diagnoses of bipolar disorder (International Classification of Diseases-10: F31) were identified in the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register between 1995 and 2012. Causes of death were obtained from The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Age- and gender standardized incidence rates......, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated. RESULTS: We identified 15,334 incident cases of bipolar disorder. The incidence rate increased from 18.5/100,000 person-years (PY) in 1995 to 28.4/100,000 PY in 2012. The mean age at time of diagnosis decreased...
Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.
Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms
Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D
Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to
Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W
Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increase in the high risk-group of 15-19 year old girls. It is unclear whether this reflects earlier detection of anorexia nervosa cases or an earlier age at onset. The occurrence of bulimia nervosa might have decreased since the early nineties of the last century. All eating disorders have an elevated mortality risk; anorexia nervosa the most striking. Compared with the other eating disorders, binge eating disorder is more common among males and older individuals.
S. Kayalvizhi Money
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neurocutaneous disorders are genetically determined disorders showing both cutaneous and neurologic involvement. The definition includes both hereditary and non-hereditary phenotypes, but excludes acquired disorders. Either they follow the established Mendelian modes of inheritance or they represent lethal mutations surviving by mosaicism or they belong to the group of chromosomal disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted at the Department of Dermatology, Government KAPV Medical College, Trichy, for a period of 12 months from January 2016 to December 2016. Patients were selected among those attending the outpatient department with signs and symptoms pertaining to neurocutaneous syndromes. Preliminary information like age, sex, educational qualification, present and past illness, family history elicited. Dermatological examination consisted of thorough screening of patients to detect the cutaneous markers for neurocutaneous disorders. A detailed systemic examination was done, particularly central nervous system. RESULTS In this study, neurofibromatosis (68.8% topped the list followed by tuberous sclerosis complex (18.3% and other rarer disorders like xeroderma pigmentosum (2.7%, giant congenital melanocytic naevus (1.8%, Sturge-Weber syndrome (0.9%, Waardenburg syndrome (1.8%, epidermal naevus syndrome (1.8%, naevus comedonicus (0.9%, Elejalde syndrome (0.9%, oculocutaneous albinism (0.9% and Adams-Oliver syndrome (0.9%. CONCLUSION In this study of 109 cases of neurocutaneous syndromes, neurofibromatosis topped the list followed by tuberous sclerosis complex. Classical features of xeroderma pigmentosum was observed in 1 patient. Sturge-Weber syndrome with unilateral port wine stain with seizures was reported in our study. Two cases of Waardenburg syndrome, epidermal nevus syndrome and giant congenital melanocytic nevus were reported in my study. One case of unilateral nevus comedonicus, Elejalde syndrome, oculocutaneous
K. V. S. Hari Kumar
Full Text Available Background: The comprehensive epidemiology of endocrine disorders is lacking from our country. Most of the available data pertain to the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid disorders only. We studied the incidence of endocrine disorders in a cohort of service personnel followed for a long duration. Materials and Methods: The data for this descriptive epidemiologic study were derived from the electronic medical records of the male service personnel enrolled between 1990 and 2015. They were recruited between the ages of 17 and 20 years in good health, and their morbidity data were derived from the medical records. We calculated the incidence rates as per person-years (py using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Our analysis includes 51,217 participants (median: age 33 years, range: 17–54 with a mean follow-up of 12.5 years. Yearly evaluation of the data gave a cumulative follow-up duration of 613,925 py. The incidence of diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia was 0.41, 0.23, and 0.12 per 1000 py, respectively. The incidence of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and metabolic bone disorders was 3.9, 8.6, 1.6, 0.81, and 0.97 per 100,000 py, respectively. Conclusion: Our cohort had lower incidence rates of endocrine disorders when compared with the Western population. Long-term epidemiological studies are essential to identify the demographic trends of the endocrine disorders in India.
Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Thomsen, Birthe L; Loft, Steffen; Stripp, Connie; Overvad, Kim; Møller, Susanne; Olsen, Jørgen H
Despite intensive research, the evidence for a protective effect of fruits and vegetables on breast cancer risk remains inconclusive. Other risk factors for breast cancer seem to vary with the estrogen receptor status of the breast tumor, and it is thus possible that the inconsistent results regarding a preventive effect of fruits and vegetables are due to lack of controlling for estrogen receptor status. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fruit and vegetable intake on postmenopausal breast cancer and explore whether the estrogen receptor status of the tumor modifies this relation. Postmenopausal women (n = 23,798; aged 50-64 y) provided information about diet and established risk factors for breast cancer in the cohort "Diet, Cancer and Health." During follow-up, 425 cases were diagnosed with breast cancer. Associations between intake of fruits and vegetables and the breast cancer rate were analyzed using Cox's regression model. The association for all breast cancers was an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.98-1.06) per 100 g/d increment of total intake of fruits, vegetables and juice. For estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer, a borderline significant increase in the rate was seen, IRR: 1.05 (95% CI, 1.00-1.10), whereas a preventive effect was seen for estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) breast cancers, IRR: 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81-0.99). In conclusion, we did not find the overall breast cancer rate to be associated with the intake of fruits and vegetables, but there seemed to be different effects for ER(+) and ER(-) breast cancer.
Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N
of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long......-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. METHODS: We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar...... disorder from 1995 to 2013 (N=14 820) and 10 age- and gender-matched controls from the Danish population (N= 140 311). Average drinking water lithium exposure was estimated for all study individuals. RESULTS: The median of the average lithium exposure did not differ between cases with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar...
Angelo Pedro Jacomino
Full Text Available The occurrence of green skin and soft pulp in 'Golden' papaya fruit during certain seasons has been reported by farmers in the northern of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine the occurrence of this disorder, which was referred as "early softening disorder". Fruits were harvested weekly for 11 months (from September to July. The fruits were stored at 10°C, and then fruit flesh firmness and skin color were analyzed. The results of the firmness test were submitted to regression analysis assuming a linear trendline. The slope of the curve was called the 'softening index' (SI. Fruits with early softening are characterized by a loss of firmness in less than 10 days, even when stored under refrigeration. Although softened, the skin of the fruit remains partially green. Fruits with the disorder occurred more frequently from mid-summer to mid-autumn (February to May. It is not possible to distinguish early softening disorder fruits from those without the disorder by skin color and flesh firmness analysis at the time of the harvest.
Marcela Franklin Salvador de Mendonça
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. METHODS A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. RESULTS The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9–4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0–3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively, even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1–4.7 and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7–3.8. CONCLUSIONS Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential.
Beesdo, Katja; Pine, Daniel S; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
Controversy surrounds the diagnostic categorization of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). To examine the incidence, comorbidity, and risk patterns for anxiety and depressive disorders and to test whether developmental features of GAD more strongly support a view of this condition as a depressive as opposed to an anxiety disorder. Face-to-face, 10-year prospective longitudinal and family study with as many as 4 assessment waves. The DSM-IV Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered by clinically trained interviewers. Munich, Germany. A community sample of 3021 individuals aged 14 to 24 years at baseline and 21 to 34 years at last follow-up. Cumulative incidence of GAD, other anxiety disorders (specific phobias, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder), and depressive disorders (major depressive disorder, and dysthymia). Longitudinal associations between GAD and depressive disorders are not stronger than those between GAD and anxiety disorders or between other anxiety and depressive disorders. Survival analyses reveal that the factors associated with GAD overlap more strongly with those specific to anxiety disorders than those specific to depressive disorders. In addition, GAD differs from anxiety and depressive disorders with regard to family climate and personality profiles. Anxiety and depressive disorders appear to differ with regard to risk constellations and temporal longitudinal patterns, and GAD is a heterogeneous disorder that is, overall, more closely related to other anxiety disorders than to depressive disorders. More work is needed to elucidate the potentially unique aspects of pathways and mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of GAD. Grouping GAD with depressive disorders, as suggested by cross-sectional features and diagnostic comorbidity patterns, minimizes the importance of longitudinal data on risk factors and symptom trajectories.
Wu, L; Sun, D; He, Y
The role of dietary factors on chronic diseases seems essential in the potentially adverse or preventive effects. However, no evidence of dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies has verified the association between the intake of fruit and/or vegetables and the risk of developing hypertension. The PubMed and Embase were searched for prospective cohort studies. A generic inverse-variance method with random effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Generalized least squares trend estimation model was used to calculate the study-specific slopes for the dose-response analyses. Seven articles comprised nine cohorts involving 185 676 participants were assessed. The highest intake of fruit or vegetables separately, and total fruit and vegetables were inversely associated with the incident risk of hypertension compared with the lowest level, and the pooled RRs and 95% CIs were 0.87 (0.79, 0.95), 0.88 (0.79, 0.99) and 0.90 (0.84, 0.98), respectively. We also found an inverse dose-response relation between the risk of developing hypertension and fruit intake, and total fruit and vegetables consumption. The incident risk of hypertension was decreased by 1.9% for each serving per day of fruit consumption, and decreased by 1.2% for each serving per day of total fruit and vegetables consumption. Our results support the recommendation to increase the consumption of fruit and vegetables with respect to preventing the risk of developing hypertension. However, further large prospective studies and long-term high-quality randomized controlled trials are still needed to confirm the observed association.
Oude Griep, L.M.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Kromhout, D.; Ocké, M.C.; Geleijnse, J.M.
Background and Purpose—The color of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables reflects the presence of pigmented bioactive compounds, (eg, carotenoids, anthocyanidins, and flavonoids). Which fruit and vegetable color groups contribute most to the beneficial association of fruit and vegetables with
Oude Griep, L.M.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Kromhout, D.; Ocke, M.C.; Geleijnse, J.M.
The colours of the edible part of fruit and vegetables indicate the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. The extent to which fruit and vegetable colour groups contribute to CHD protection is unknown. We therefore examined the associations between fruit and vegetables of different
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)
Janaína Pereira dos Santos
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a incidência da podridão-branca (Botryosphaeria dothidea em frutos de dois genótipos de macieira submetidos à inoculação artificial, na ausência e na presença de ferimentos provocados pela mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus e por estilete. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de Entomologia da Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador, na safra 2005/2006. No estudo, foram utilizados frutos da cv. Catarina (grupo 'Fuji' e da seleção M-13/00 (grupo 'Gala'. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: (1 frutos feridos por mosca-das-frutas; (2 frutos feridos com estilete; (3 frutos sem ferimentos, e (4 frutos sem ferimentos pulverizados com água destilada (testemunha. Os tratamentos 1; 2 e 3 foram inoculados com B. dothidea. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, de quatro frutos por parcela. Na cv. Catarina, o número de lesões de podridão-branca foi maior em relação à M-13/00. Os ferimentos nos frutos favoreceram o estabelecimento e o desenvolvimento de lesões da doença.The relationship between damages of wounds, fruit fly and the incidence of white rot (Botryosphaeria dothidea, inoculated artificially in two apple genotypes was studied. The experiment was carried out at the laboratory of Entomology at Epagri/Caçador Experimental Station, during the 2005/2006 season. 'Catarina' (group 'Fuji' and the selection M-13/00 (group 'Gala' were tested with the following treatments: (1 fruit submitted to fruit fly; (2 fruit submitted to wounds by needle; (3 fruit without wounds; (4 fruit without wounds sprayed with distilled water (control. The treatments 1, 2 and 3 were inoculated with B. dothidea. The experiment was conducted under completely randomized design with four replications of four apple fruits each. The frequency of lesions of white rot was larger on cv. Catarina compared to M-13/00. Fruit wounds stimulate the establishment and the
Lum, Geoffrey B; Shelp, Barry J; DeEll, Jennifer R; Bozzo, Gale G
In combination with low temperature, controlled atmosphere storage and 1-methylcyclopropene (ethylene antagonist) application are used to delay senescence of many fruits and vegetables. Controlled atmosphere consists of low O2 and elevated CO2. When sub-optimal partial pressures are used, these practices represent multiple abiotic stresses that can promote the development of physiological disorders in pome fruit, including flesh browning and cavities, although there is some evidence for genetic differences in susceptibility. In the absence of surface disorders, fruit with flesh injuries are not easily distinguished from asymptomatic fruit until these are consumed. Oxidative stress metabolites tend to accumulate (e.g., γ-aminobutyrate) or rapidly decline (e.g., ascorbate and glutathione) in vegetative tissues exposed to hypoxic and/or elevated CO2 environments. Moreover, these phenomena can be associated with altered energy and redox status. Biochemical investigations of Arabidopsis and tomato plants with genetically-altered levels of enzymes associated with the γ-aminobutyrate shunt and the ascorbate-glutathione pathway indicate that these metabolic processes are functionally related and critical for dampening the oxidative burst in vegetative and fruit tissues, respectively. Here, we hypothesize that γ-aminobutyrate accumulation, as well energy and antioxidant depletion are associated with the development of physiological injury in pome fruit under multiple environmental stresses. An improved understanding of this relationship could assist in maintaining the quality of stored fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jerrell, Jeanette M; McIntyre, Roger S; Park, Yong-Moon Mark
The greater severity and chronicity of illness in youths with co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder deserve further investigation as to the risk imparted by comorbid conditions and the pharmacotherapies employed. A retrospective cohort design was employed, using South Carolina's Medicaid claims dataset covering outpatient and inpatient medical and psychiatric service claims with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnoses and medication prescriptions between January 1996 and December 2006 for patients ≤ 17 years of age. The cohort included 22,797 cases diagnosed with ADHD at a mean age of 7.8 years; 1,604 (7.0%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder at a mean age of 12.2 years. The bipolar disorder group developed conduct disorder (CD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorder, and a substance use disorder later than the ADHD-only group. The odds of a child with ADHD developing bipolar disorder were significantly and positively associated with a comorbid diagnosis of CD/ODD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.01), anxiety disorder (aOR = 2.39), or substance use disorder (aOR = 1.88); longer treatment with methylphenidate, mixed amphetamine salts, or atomoxetine (aOR = 1.01); not being African American (aOR = 1.61); and being treated with certain antidepressant medications, most notably fluoxetine (aOR = 2.00), sertraline (aOR = 2.29), bupropion (aOR = 2.22), trazodone (aOR = 2.15), or venlafaxine (aOR = 2.37) prior to the first diagnosis of mania. Controlling for pharmacotherapy differences, incident bipolar disorder was more likely in individuals clustering specific patterns of comorbid psychiatric disorders, suggesting that there are different pathways to bipolarity and providing a clinical impetus for prioritizing prevention and preemptive strategies to reduce their hazardous influence. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Wesselhoeft, R; Mortensen, P B; Mors, O
.24-2.43) for boys and 3.77% (95% CI 3.64-3.90) for girls. The pre-pubertal male preponderance was also significant for depressive disorders (F32-F33, p = 0.00144) and anxiety disorders (F40-F42, F93, p separately. CONCLUSIONS: Emotional disorders seem to display a male preponderance before the age of 12...... were incidence rates and cumulative incidences for unipolar depressive disorder (ICD-10: F32-F33), anxiety disorders (ICD-10: F40-F42), and emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood (ICD-10: F93). RESULTS: Pre-pubertal incidence rates for depressive and anxiety disorders were higher for boys......BACKGROUND: The post-pubertal association of female gender with emotional disorder is a robust finding. However, studies exploring the association of gender and emotional disorders before puberty are few and present diverging results. The aim of this study was to present gender-specific incidence...
Mendonça, Marcela Franklin Salvador de; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda
To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9-4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0-3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively), even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1-4.7) and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7-3.8). Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential. Investigar a associação da violência por parceiros íntimos relatada contra as mulheres nos últimos 12 meses e últimos sete anos com a incidência dos transtornos mentais comuns. Estudo de coorte prospectivo com 390 mulheres de 18 a 49 anos, cadastradas no Programa Saúde da Família da cidade do Recife, PE, entre julho de 2013 e dezembro de 2014. A saúde mental foi avaliada pelo Self Reporting
Anderson, T.W.; Baird, P.A.; Lowry, R.B.; Newcombe, H.B.
Current estimates of the genetic risks from exposure to ionizing radiation are based on two kinds of data: a) incidence rates in humans for the genetic diseases that are believed to be present in the population due to mutations of natural origin, and b) radiation induced mutation rates. One necessary prerequisite before any possible increase in genetic load from mutagens can be estimated is baseline information on the magnitude of genetically-caused ill health already present in the population. The present study utilizes the data base of an ongoing population-based Registry with multiple sources of ascertainment to estimate the present population load from genetic disease. It was found that 4.9% of liveborn individuals below 25 can be expected to have genetic or partly genetic diseases. This was composed of single-gene disorders (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked recessive), chromosomal anomalies and multifactorial disorders (including those present at birth and those later in onset). Since previous studies have usually considered all congenital anomalies (ICD 740-759) as part of the genetic load, data are also presented separately for this category to facilitate comparison with earlier studies. These new data should represent a better estimate of the genetic load in the population than previous studies
Holma, K Mikael; Haukka, Jari; Suominen, Kirsi; Valtonen, Hanna M; Mantere, Outi; Melartin, Tarja K; Sokero, T Petteri; Oquendo, Maria A; Isometsä, Erkki T
Whether risk of suicide attempts (SAs) differs between patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is unclear. We investigated whether cumulative risk differences are due to dissimilarities in time spent in high-risk states, incidence per unit time in high-risk states, or both. Incidence rates for SAs during various illness phases, based on prospective life charts, were compared between patients from the Jorvi Bipolar Study (n = 176; 18 months) and the Vantaa Depression Study (n = 249; five years). Risk factors and their interactions with diagnosis were investigated with Cox proportional hazards models. By 18 months, 19.9% of patients with BD versus 9.5% of patients with MDD had attempted suicide. However, patients with BD spent 4.6% of the time in mixed episodes, and more time in major depressive episodes (MDEs) (35% versus 21%, respectively) and in subthreshold depression (39% versus 31%, respectively) than those with MDD. Compared with full remission, the combined incidence rates of SAs were 5-, 25-, and 65-fold in subthreshold depression, MDEs, and BD mixed states, respectively. Between cohorts, incidence of attempts was not different during comparable symptom states. In Cox models, hazard was elevated during MDEs and subthreshold depression, and among patients with preceding SAs, female patients, those with poor social support, and those aged < 40 years, but was unrelated to BD diagnosis. The observed higher cumulative incidence of SAs among patients with BD than among those with MDD is mostly due to patients with BD spending more time in high-risk illness phases, not to differences in incidence during these phases, or to bipolarity itself. BD mixed phases contribute to differences involving very high incidence, but short duration. Diminishing the time spent in high-risk phases is crucial for prevention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Choi, Yuni; Lee, Jung Eun; Bae, Jong-Myon; Li, Zhong-Min; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Moo-Song; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Shin, Myung-Hee
Few prospective studies have examined the preventive role of fruit and vegetable intakes against cancer in Asian populations. This prospective study evaluated the associations between total fruit intake, total vegetable intake, and total fruit and vegetable intake and total cancer incidence and mortality. This prospective cohort study included 14,198 men 40-59 y of age enrolled in the Seoul Male Cohort Study from 1991 to 1993. Fruit and vegetable intakes were assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to compute RR ratios and 95% CIs. During the follow-up period from 1993 to 2008, 1343 men were diagnosed with cancer, and 507 died of cancer. Total vegetable intake was linearly associated with cancer incidence but was nonlinearly associated with cancer mortality; by comparing ≥ 500 g/d with Korean men. However, total fruit intake is not associated with total cancer incidence or mortality. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Pasic, Zejneba; Smajlovic, Dzevdet; Dostovic, Zikrija; Kojic, Biljana; Selmanovic, Senada
Sleep disorders (SD) after stroke (stroke) are common occurrences, and most often in sleep apnea, insomnia and daytime sleepiness. GOALS. Research goals were to determine the types of SD and their frequency in patients with stroke in relation to the type of stroke and side of lesion. The study analyzed 200 patients with acute stroke hospitalized in the Clinic of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla in the period from 1st August 2007 to 1st June 2008. All patients have confirmed the existence of stroke by computerized tomography. SD was verified according to the General Curriculum of sleep, the Berlin questionnaire and Epvort scale. Stroke, by type, were divided into hemorrhagic and ischemic, and the localization of the stroke to right and left cerebral hemispheres. Of the total number of respondents, 78% had SD. Very serious level of SD had 42% of respondents, 20% moderate, and 16% of medium-severe degree. There was no statistically significant differences in the frequency of SD among patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (76.8%: 82.5%, p = 0.58). In relation to the side of lesion there was more patient with SD and stroke in the right cerebral hemisphere, but there were no statistically significant differences (39.5%: 33%, p = 0.1). According Epvort scale sleep apnea and snoring was present in 86%, daytime sleepiness in 49.5% and narcolepsy 0.5%. Sleep disturbance as a neuropsychological disorder has a significant incidence in the acute phase of stroke. SD is slightly more common in hemorrhagic stroke and stroke in the right hemisphere. Sleep Apnea and snoring are the most common types of SD in patients with stroke.
Bencko, V.; Šíma, Petr
Roč. 2, 6 March (2017), č. článku 1244. ISSN 2474-1663 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : allergy disorders * atopic disorders * hygiene hypothesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology
Efeito do ensacamento na qualidade dos frutos e na incidência da broca-dos-frutos da atemoieira e da pinheira Bagging effect upon either quality of the fruits and incidence of the fruit borer in atemoya and sweetsop
Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira
Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o uso de diferentes invólucros nos frutos de atemoieira e pinheira na qualidade físico-química dos frutos e na incidência da broca-dos-frutos, Cerconota anonella. Os experimentos foram instalados em dois pomares comerciais: um de atemoieira no município de Matias Cardoso e outro de pinheira no município de Verdelândia, Norte de Minas Gerais. Os tratamentos para a atemoieira consistiram em: 1 Testemunha (sem ensacamento; 2 Saco plástico leitoso; 3 Saco de TNT (tecido-não-tecido branco sem fundo e 4 Saco de TNT branco com fundo. Para a pinheira foi modificado apenas o tratamento 2 para saco de papel pardo. Avaliaram-se número de dias da polinização à colheita, número de dias da colheita ao amadurecimento, ocorrência de injúrias e brocas e características físico-químicas dos frutos. Observam-se maior número de dias entre a colheita e o amadurecimento e mais firmeza nos frutos de pinheira não-ensacados. O uso do plástico leitoso controlou a broca em frutos de atemoieira. As características físico-químicas: massa, comprimento, diâmetro dos frutos e teor de sólidos solúveis totais da polpa não foram influenciados pelo uso dos invólucros.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect from using different involucres for fruits of the atemoya and sweetsop upon either physiochemical quality of the fruits and incidence of the fruit borer Cerconota anonella. The experiments were set up in two commercial orchards: one with atemoya at Matias Cardoso county and the other one with sweetsop at Verdelândia on northern Minas Gerais state. The treatments for atemoya consisted of: 1 Control (without bagging; 2 Milky plastic bag; 3 White, bottomless, tissue-non-tissue (TNT bag; and (4 With bottom TNT bag. For the sweetsop, only treatment 2 was modified to brown paper bag. The following evaluation were performed: the number of days from pollination to harvest, number of days from harvest to ripening
Tanaka, Shiro; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Horikawa, Chika; Okumura, Ryota; Ito, Hideki; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Sone, Hirohito
OBJECTIVE Foods rich in fiber, such as vegetables and fruits, prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) among healthy adults, but such data in patients with diabetes are sparse. We investigated this association in a cohort with type 2 diabetes aged 40–70 years whose HbA1c values were ≥ 6.5% in Japan Diabetes Society values. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this cohort study, 1,414 patients were analyzed after exclusion of patients with history of CVDs and nonresponders to a dietary survey. Primary outcomes were times to stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Hazard ratios (HRs) of dietary intake were estimated by Cox regression adjusted for systolic blood pressure, lipids, energy intake, and other confounders. RESULTS Mean daily dietary fiber in quartiles ranged from 8.7 to 21.8 g, and mean energy intake ranged from 1,442.3 to 2,058.9 kcal. Mean daily intake of vegetables and fruits in quartiles ranged from 228.7 to 721.4 g. During the follow-up of a median of 8.1 years, 68 strokes and 96 CHDs were observed. HRs for stroke in the fourth quartile vs. the first quartile were 0.39 (95% CI 0.12–1.29, P = 0.12) for dietary fiber and 0.35 (0.13–0.96, P = 0.04) for vegetables and fruits. There were no significant associations with CHD. The HR per 1-g increase was smaller for soluble dietary fiber (0.48 [95% CI 0.30–0.79], P dietary fiber. CONCLUSIONS Increased dietary fiber, particularly soluble fiber, and vegetables and fruits were associated with lower incident stroke but not CHD in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24170762
Tanaka, Shiro; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Horikawa, Chika; Okumura, Ryota; Ito, Hideki; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Sone, Hirohito
Foods rich in fiber, such as vegetables and fruits, prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) among healthy adults, but such data in patients with diabetes are sparse. We investigated this association in a cohort with type 2 diabetes aged 40-70 years whose HbA1c values were ≥ 6.5% in Japan Diabetes Society values. In this cohort study, 1,414 patients were analyzed after exclusion of patients with history of CVDs and nonresponders to a dietary survey. Primary outcomes were times to stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Hazard ratios (HRs) of dietary intake were estimated by Cox regression adjusted for systolic blood pressure, lipids, energy intake, and other confounders. Mean daily dietary fiber in quartiles ranged from 8.7 to 21.8 g, and mean energy intake ranged from 1,442.3 to 2,058.9 kcal. Mean daily intake of vegetables and fruits in quartiles ranged from 228.7 to 721.4 g. During the follow-up of a median of 8.1 years, 68 strokes and 96 CHDs were observed. HRs for stroke in the fourth quartile vs. the first quartile were 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.29, P = 0.12) for dietary fiber and 0.35 (0.13-0.96, P = 0.04) for vegetables and fruits. There were no significant associations with CHD. The HR per 1-g increase was smaller for soluble dietary fiber (0.48 [95% CI 0.30-0.79], P < 0.01) than for total (0.82 [0.73-0.93], P < 0.01) and insoluble (0.79 [0.68-0.93], P < 0.01) dietary fiber. Increased dietary fiber, particularly soluble fiber, and vegetables and fruits were associated with lower incident stroke but not CHD in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Norredam, Marie; Nellums, Laura; Nielsen, Runa Schmidt
One in four asylum applicants in Europe are children, and 23% of whom are unaccompanied and may be at increased risk of mental illness. This study contributes to the limited evidence base by comparing the incidence of psychiatric disorders among unaccompanied and accompanied refugee children. We...... linked a cohort of refugee children who obtained right of residency in Denmark between 01 January 1993 and 31 December 2010 to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and calculated incidence rates per 100,000 person years and incidence rate ratios of overall psychiatric disorder, psychotic disorders...
Markkula, Niina; Lehti, Venla; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana
Migrants appear to have a higher risk of mental disorders, but findings vary across country settings and migrant groups. We aimed to assess incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and Finnish-born controls in a register-based cohort study. A register-based cohort study of 184.806 immigrants and 185.184 Finnish-born controls (1.412.117 person-years) was conducted. Information on mental disorders according to ICD-10 was retrieved from the Hospital Discharge Register, which covers all public health care use. The incidence of any mental disorder was lower among male (adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87) and female (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) immigrants, being lowest among Asian and highest among North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. The incidence of bipolar, depressive and alcohol use disorders was lower among immigrants. Incidence of psychotic disorders was lower among female and not higher among male immigrants, compared with native Finns. Incidence of PTSD was higher among male immigrants (aHR 4.88, 95% CI 3.38-7.05). The risk of mental disorders varies significantly across migrant groups and disorders and is generally lower among immigrants than native Finns.
Wittchen, H.U.; Becker, E.S.; Lieb, R.; Krause, P.
Background. Despite an abundance of clinical research on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. few epidemiological data provide estimates of the prevalence, incidence, co-morbidity, stability and correlates of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in the community. Aims. To describe the prevalence,
Marrie, R A; Walld, R; Bolton, J M; Sareen, J; Walker, J R; Patten, S B; Singer, A; Lix, L M; Hitchon, C A; El-Gabalawy, R; Katz, A; Fisk, J D; Bernstein, C N
After the diagnosis of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the incidence of psychiatric comorbidity is increased relative to the general population. We aimed to determine whether the incidence of psychiatric disorders is increased in the 5 years before the diagnosis of IMID as compared with the general population. Using population-based administrative health data from the Canadian province of Manitoba, we identified all persons with incident IBD, MS and RA between 1989 and 2012, and cohorts from the general population matched 5 : 1 on year of birth, sex and region to each disease cohort. We identified members of these groups with at least 5 years of residency before and after the IMID diagnosis date. We applied validated algorithms for depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and any psychiatric disorder to determine the annual incidence of these conditions in the 5-year periods before and after the diagnosis year. We identified 12 141 incident cases of IMID (3766 IBD, 2190 MS, 6350 RA) and 65 424 matched individuals. As early as 5 years before diagnosis, the incidence of depression [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.54; 95% CI 1.30-1.84) and anxiety disorders (IRR 1.30; 95% CI 1.12-1.51) were elevated in the IMID cohort as compared with the matched cohort. Similar results were obtained for each of the IBD, MS and RA cohorts. The incidence of bipolar disorder was elevated beginning 3 years before IMID diagnosis (IRR 1.63; 95% CI 1.10-2.40). The incidence of psychiatric comorbidity is elevated in the IMID population as compared with a matched population as early as 5 years before diagnosis. Future studies should elucidate whether this reflects shared risk factors for psychiatric disorders and IMID, a shared final common inflammatory pathway or other aetiology.
Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Mustelin, Linda
Eating disorders - anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder - affect numerous Europeans. This narrative review summarizes European studies on their prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, course, consequences, and risk factors published in 2015 and the first half of 2016. Anorexia nervosa is reported by eating disorder eating disorders by 2-3% of women in Europe. Of men, 0.3-0.7% report eating disorders. Incidences of anorexia appear stable, whereas bulimia may be declining. Although the numbers of individuals receiving treatment have increased, only about one-third is detected by healthcare. Over 70% of individuals with eating disorders report comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (>50%), mood disorders (>40%), self-harm (>20%), and substance use (>10%) are common. The long-term course of anorexia nervosa is favorable for most, but a substantial minority of eating disorder patients experience longstanding symptoms and somatic problems. The risk of suicide is elevated. Parental psychiatric disorders, prenatal maternal stress, various family factors, childhood overweight, and body dissatisfaction in adolescence increase the risk of eating disorders. Eating disorders are relatively common disorders that are often overlooked, although they are associated with high comorbidity and serious health consequences.
Sukirno; Carter, G.
Cl and Ar ions have been implanted, at 30 keV and at various incidence angles, into Si substrates maintained at room temperature during implantation. Implantation induced Si disorder was measured using Rutherford backscattering channelling. The effects upon disorder of various incidence angles were studied over a fluence range of 10 12 -6·10 15 ions·cm -2 . The results show that, at low fluences Cl and Ar ion implantations generate a bimodal disorder-depth profile, whilst at higher fluences measurements of amorphised layer thickness as a function of ion incidence angle allow values of the standard deviation of the disorder profile parallel and transverse to the ion beam direction for each ion to be obtained in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The disorder-fluence behaviour under these conditions is ion species independent. (author)
Hoek, Hans Wijbrand
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the recent literature on the incidence and prevalence of and mortality associated with eating disorders. Recent findings General-practice studies shove that the overall incidence rates of anorexia nervosa remained stable during the 1990s,
Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Ohtani, Yasuyo; Ornitz, Edward; Kuriya, Norikazu; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Seiichi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Yamashita, Fumio
Analysis of the incidence of autistic disorder (AD) among 5,271 children in a neonatal intensive care unit in Japan found that 18 children were later diagnosed with AD, an incidence more than twice as high as previously reported. Children with AD had a significantly higher history of the meconium aspiration syndrome than the controls. (Author/DB)
Morrow, J L; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A; Riegler, M
Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that infect 40-65% of arthropod species. They are primarily maternally inherited with occasional horizontal transmission for which limited direct ecological evidence exists. We detected Wolbachia in 8 out of 24 Australian tephritid species. Here, we have used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to further characterize these Wolbachia strains, plus a novel quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for allele assignment in multiple infections. Based on five MLST loci and the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp), five Bactrocera and one Dacus species harboured two identical strains as double infections; furthermore, Bactrocera neohumeralis harboured both of these as single or double infections, and sibling species B. tryoni harboured one. Two Bactrocera species contained Wolbachia pseudogenes, potentially within the fruit fly genomes. A fruit fly parasitoid, Fopius arisanus shared identical alleles with two Wolbachia strains detected in one B. frauenfeldi individual. We report an unprecedented high incidence of four shared Wolbachia strains in eight host species from two trophic levels. This suggests frequent exposure to Wolbachia in this tropical tephritid community that shares host plant and parasitoid species, and also includes species that hybridize. Such insect communities may act as horizontal transmission platforms that contribute to the ubiquity of the otherwise maternally inherited Wolbachia. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that comorbid neurologic disorders are more common than expected in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of comorbid seizure disorders and sleep disorders in persons with MS and to evaluate the quality of studies...... was 3.09% (95% CI: 2.01-4.16%). For sleep disorders we evaluated 18 studies; none were population-based. The prevalence ranged from 0-1.6% for narcolepsy, 14.4-57.5% for restless legs syndrome, 2.22-3.2% for REM behavior disorder, and 7.14-58.1% for obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSION: This review...... suggests that seizure disorders and sleep disorders are common in MS, but highlights gaps in the epidemiological knowledge of these conditions in MS worldwide. Other than central-western Europe and North America, most regions are understudied....
Sukirno; Carter, G.
Ne, Ar, Sb, and Xe ions have been implanted, at 30 keV or 80 keV and at various incidence angles, into Si substrates maintained at room temperature during implantation. Implantation-induced Si disorder was measured using Rutherford backscattering channelling. The effects upon disorder of various incidence angles were studied over a fluence range of 10 12 -10 16 ions·cm -2 . The results show that, at low fluences the lighter (Ne) and slightly heavier (Ar) ion implantations generate a bimodal disorder-depth profile, whilst at higher fluences measurements of amorphised layer thickness as a function of ion incidence angle allow values of the standard deviation of the disorder profile parallel and transverse to the ion beam direction for each ion to be obtained with good agreement to theoretical predictions. (author)
van Laar, Margriet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Monshouwer, Karin; de Graaf, Ron
To investigate whether cannabis use predicted the first incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in adults during a 3-year follow-up period. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), a prospective study in the adult population of 18-64 years. The analysis was carried out on 3881 people who had no life-time mood disorders and on 3854 people who had no life-time anxiety disorders at baseline. Life-time cannabis use and DSM-III-R mood and anxiety disorders, assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). After adjustment for strong confounders, any use of cannabis at baseline predicted a modest increase in the risk of a first major depression (odds ratio 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.48) and a stronger increase in the risk of a first bipolar disorder (odds ratio 4.98; 95% confidence interval 1.80-13.81). The risk of 'any mood disorder' was elevated for weekly and almost daily users but not for less frequent use patterns. However, dose-response relationships were less clear for major depression and bipolar disorder separately. None of the associations between cannabis use and anxiety disorders remained significant after adjustment for confounders. The associations between cannabis use and the first incidence of depression and bipolar disorder, which remained significant after adjustment for strong confounders, warrant research into the underlying mechanisms.
van Ditzhuijzen, Jenneke; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; Lugtig, Peter; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Research in the field of mental health consequences of abortion is characterized by methodological limitations. We used exact matching on carefully selected confounders in a prospective cohort study of 325 women who had an abortion of an unwanted pregnancy and compared them 1-to-1 to controls who did not have this experience. Outcome measures were incidence and recurrence of common DSM-IV mental disorders (mood, anxiety, substance use disorders, and the aggregate measure 'any mental disorder') as measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) version 3.0, in the 2.5-3 years after the abortion. Although non-matched data suggested otherwise, women in the abortion group did not show significantly higher odds for incidence of 'any mental disorder', or mood, anxiety and substance use disorders, compared to matched controls who were similar in background variables but did not have an this experience. Having an abortion did not increase the odds for recurrence of the three disorder categories, but for any mental disorder the higher odds in the abortion group remained significant after matching. It is unlikely that termination of an unwanted pregnancy increases the risk on incidence of common mental disorders in women without a psychiatric history. However, it might increase the risk of recurrence among women with a history of mental disorders. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... of effective pregnancy detection system and thus pregnant animals are not spared in the slaughtering process. In Tanzania, limited data are available on the level of foetal wastage in small ruminants slaughtered daily. This study was carried out to establish the level of foetal wastage and prevalence of ovarian disorders in ...
Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reingold, Stephen; Cohen, Jeffrey
disorders in MS and evaluate the quality of included studies. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, PsychInfo, SCOPUS, and Web of Knowledge databases and reference lists of retrieved articles. Abstracts were screened for relevance by two independent reviewers, followed by full-text review. Data were abstracted...
Holland, Nély; Menezes, Hilary C; Lafuente, María T
The aim of this research was to understand the involvement of the carbohydrate metabolism in physiological disorders occurring during the postharvest storage of citrus fruit. These disorders, manifested in the rind, depreciate fruit quality and often originate important losses. There has been increasing interest in the use of nonharmful treatments, such as high-temperature conditioning, to avoid citrus peel damage during fruit storage at low temperature in chilling-sensitive cultivars, but their influence in postharvest disorders occurring at nonchilling temperatures and the mechanisms related to them are poorly understood. The data obtained showed that heat conditioning (3 days/37 degrees C) increases the chilling tolerance of cv. Navelate fruit and favored sucrose, but not hexoses, accumulation and its maintenance after the fruit was transferred to low temperature. This effect was related to heat-induced increase in the activities of the sucrose-synthesizing enzymes sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS). Furthermore, sucrose levels and the activities of both enzymes were higher in cv. Pinalate oranges, a chilling-tolerant spontaneous abscisic acid deficient mutant of Navelate. In contrast, carbohydrates appeared not to be involved in the susceptibility of oranges to rind staining, a physiological disorder different from chilling injury, which mainly occurred at a nonchilling temperature (12 degrees C) and was not reduced by heat conditioning. The effect of low temperature in SS and SPS activities was less than that of high temperature, which might be related to the lower changes occurring in sucrose during fruit storage at 2 degrees C.
Gammelmark, Carina; Jensen, Signe O W; Plessen, Kerstin J; Skadhede, Søren; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
Is an increased focus on eating disorders during the past few decades reflected by increasing occurrence in the psychiatric health service system. All first-time diagnoses of eating disorders identified in the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register 1970-2008 constitute the present research database. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated and autoregressive models were fitted for males and females separately as well as for in- and outpatients. The incidence of eating disorders diagnosed in Danish psychiatric secondary healthcare has increased considerably during a nearly 40-year period of observation both within the general category of eating disorders and also specifically for anorexia nervosa. The steepest increase is seen within females aged 15-19 years, where the highest incidences are also found. Anorexia nervosa constitutes the vast majority of all eating disorders. Throughout the time interval investigated, the number of males, however, is negligible compared to females. Most patients are seen in outpatient services, increasing towards recent years. However, the number of patients being treated as inpatients has increased linearly through the entire four decenniums investigated. Changes in registration principles, public awareness and higher acceptance of mental disorders in the public is the most obvious explanation for the incidence increase of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. This study does not answer whether there has been an increase in true incidence in the population. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Silverstein, B; Welp, E; Nelson, N; Kalat, J
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the claim incidence rate, cost, and industry distribution of work-related upper extremity disorders in Washington. METHODS: Washington State Fund workers' compensation claims from 1987 to 1995 were abstracted and categorized into general and specific disorders of gradual or sudden onset. RESULTS: Accepted claims included 100,449 for hand/wrist disorders (incidence rate: 98.2/10,000 full-time equivalents; carpal tunnel syndrome rate: 27.3), 30,468 for elbow disorders (incidence rate: 29.7; epicondylitis rate: 11.7), and 55,315 for shoulder disorders (incidence rate: 54.0; rotator cuff syndrome rate: 19.9). Average direct workers' compensation claims costs (medical treatment and indemnity) were $15,790 (median: $6774) for rotator cuff syndrome, $12,794 for carpal tunnel syndrome (median: $4190), and $6593 for epicondylitis (median: $534). Construction and food processing were among the industries with the highest rate ratios for all disorders (> 4.0). CONCLUSIONS: Upper extremity disorders represent a large and costly problem in Washington State industry. Industries characterized by manual handling and repetitive work have high rate ratios. The contingent workforce appears to be at high risk. PMID:9842381
High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic Citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus
Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive pre-harvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit ...
Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Thornton, Laura M; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Bulik, Cynthia M
Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark between 1989 and 2006 were included (N = 966,141, 51.3% male). Eating disorders diagnoses (AN, broad AN, BN, EDNOS) were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (PCRR) and Danish National Patient Register (NPR). Suicide attempts and deaths were captured in the NPR, the PCRR, and the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS). In females, AN had a peak hazard at approximately age 15 years, BN at 22 years, and EDNOS had an extended peak that spanned 18 years-22 years. Eating disorder diagnoses predicted a significantly higher hazard for death and suicide attempt compared with the referent of individuals with no eating disorders. In males, peak hazard for diagnosis was earlier than in females. The present study represents one of the largest and longest studies of eating disorder incidence and suicide attempts and death in both females and males. Eating disorders are accompanied by increased hazard of suicide attempts and death even in young adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zerwas, Stephanie; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Petersen, Liselotte
Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark...... between 1989 and 2006 were included (N = 966,141, 51.3% male). Eating disorders diagnoses (AN, broad AN, BN, EDNOS) were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (PCRR) and Danish National Patient Register (NPR). Suicide attempts and deaths were captured in the NPR, the PCRR......, and the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS). In females, AN had a peak hazard at approximately age 15 years, BN at 22 years, and EDNOS had an extended peak that spanned 18 years–22 years. Eating disorder diagnoses predicted a significantly higher hazard for death and suicide attempt compared with the referent...
Gammelmark, Carina; Jensen, Signe Ow; Plessen, Kerstin J
OBJECTIVE: Is an increased focus on eating disorders during the past few decades reflected by increasing occurrence in the psychiatric health service system. METHOD: All first-time diagnoses of eating disorders identified in the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register 1970-2008 constitute...... the present research database. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated and autoregressive models were fitted for males and females separately as well as for in- and outpatients. RESULTS: The incidence of eating disorders diagnosed in Danish psychiatric secondary healthcare has increased...... considerably during a nearly 40-year period of observation both within the general category of eating disorders and also specifically for anorexia nervosa. The steepest increase is seen within females aged 15-19 years, where the highest incidences are also found. Anorexia nervosa constitutes the vast majority...
Ioana Mihaela Tomulescu
Full Text Available This study is about the incidence of hearing-speaking disorders in a population with mental deficiency. We studied 596 children interned in Neurology and Psychiatry Clinical Hospital of Oradea during the 1999 - 2001 period. In 596 children, 393 presented different types of mental deficiency. The most frequent disorders observed are hearing loss or deafness, deaf-mutism, mutism and speaking retardation. Also, we related an increased frequency in rural area and in group of children with severe mental deficiency.
Marrie, Ruth Ann; Walld, Randy; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Walker, John R; Patten, Scott B; Singer, Alexander; Lix, Lisa M; Hitchon, Carol A; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Katz, Alan; Fisk, John D; Bernstein, Charles N
Although psychiatric comorbidity is known to be more prevalent in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) than in the general population, the incidence of psychiatric comorbidity in IMID is less understood, yet incidence is more relevant for understanding etiology. Using population-based administrative (health) data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study over the period 1989-2012 in Manitoba, Canada. We identified 19,572 incident cases of IMID including 6119 persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 3514 persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), 10,206 persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 97,727 age-, sex- and geographically-matched controls. After applying validated case definitions, we estimated the incidence of depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in each of the study cohorts. Using negative binomial regression models, we tested whether the incidence rate of psychiatric comorbidity was elevated in the individual and combined IMID cohorts versus the matched cohorts, adjusting for sex, age, region of residence, socioeconomic status and year. The relative incidence of depression (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.71; 95%CI: 1.64-1.79), anxiety (IRR 1.34; 95%CI: 1.29-1.40), bipolar disorder (IRR 1.68; 95%CI: 1.52-1.85) and schizophrenia (IRR 1.32; 95%CI: 1.03-1.69) were elevated in the IMID cohort. Depression and anxiety affected the MS population more often than the IBD and RA populations. Individuals with IMID, including IBD, MS and RA are at increased risk of psychiatric comorbidity. This increased risk appears non-specific as it is seen for all three IMIDs and for all psychiatric disorders studied, implying a common underlying biology for psychiatric comorbidity in those with IMID. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boschloo, L.; van den Brink, W.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Wall, M. M.; Hasin, D. S.
Background. Previous studies suggest that alcohol-use disorder severity, defined by the number of criteria met, provides a more informative phenotype than dichotomized DSM-IV diagnostic measures of alcohol use disorders. Therefore, this study examined whether alcohol-use disorder severity predicted
Boschloo, L.; van den Brink, W.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Wall, M.M.; Hasin, D.S.
Background Previous studies suggest that alcohol-use disorder severity, defined by the number of criteria met, provides a more informative phenotype than dichotomized DSM-IV diagnostic measures of alcohol use disorders. Therefore, this study examined whether alcohol-use disorder severity predicted
Berntson, Jessica; Patel, Jay S; Stewart, Jesse C
We investigated whether number of recent stressful life events is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether this relationship is stronger in adults with a history of clinical depression. Prospective data from 28,583 U.S. adults (mean age=45years) initially free of CVD who participated in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Number of past-year stressful life events (Wave 1), lifetime depressive disorder (Wave 1), and incident CVD (Wave 2) were determined by structured interviews. There were 1069 cases of incident CVD. Each additional stressful life event was associated with a 15% increased odds of incident CVD [Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.11, 1.19]. As hypothesized, a stressful life events by lifetime depressive disorder interaction was detected (P=0.003). Stratified analyses indicated that stressful life events had a stronger association with incident CVD among adults with (OR=1.18, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.27, n=4908) versus without (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.14, n=23,675) a lifetime depressive disorder. Our findings suggest that a greater number of recent stressful life events elevate the risk of new-onset CVD and that this risk is potentiated in adults with a history of clinical depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tully, Phillip J; Wittert, Gary A; Turnbull, Deborah A; Beltrame, John F; Horowitz, John D; Cosh, Suzanne; Baumeister, Harald
The clinical presentation of panic disorder and panic attack overlaps many symptoms typically experienced in coronary heart disease (CHD). Etiological links between panic disorder and CHD are controversial and remain largely tenuous. This systematic review aims to pool together data regarding panic disorder with respect to incident CHD or myocardial infarction. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and SCOPUS) will be searched using a search strategy exploding the topics for CHD and panic disorder. Authors and reference lists of included studies will also be contacted to identify additional published and unpublished studies. Eligibility criteria are as follows: persons without CHD who meet criteria for panic disorder, panic attack, anxiety neurosis or elevated panic disorder symptoms; Comparison: persons without CHD who do not meet criteria for panic disorder, panic attack, anxiety neurosis or elevated panic disorder symptoms; verified fatal and non-fatal CHD at follow-up; including coronary revascularization procedure, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction. Studies adopting self-report CHD will be ineligible. Screening will be undertaken by two independent reviewers with disagreements resolved through discussion. Data extraction will include original data specified as hazard ratios, risk ratios, and original cell data if available. Risk of bias assessment will be undertaken by two independent reviewers. Meta-analytic methods will be used to synthesize the data collected relating to the CHD outcomes with Cochrane Review Manager 5.3. This systematic review aims to clarify whether panic disorder is associated with elevated risk for subsequent CHD. An evaluation of the etiological links between panic disorder with incident CHD might inform evidence-based clinical practice and policy concerning triaging chest pain patients, diagnostic assessment, and psychiatric intervention with panic disorder patients. PROSPERO CRD42014014891 .
Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.
In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…
Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna
Objective: To assess the population prevalence and incidence of binge eating disorder (BED) among young women. Method: In a nationwide longitudinal study of Finnish twins born 1975-1979, the women participated in five surveys from age 16 until their mid-thirties. At Wave 4 (mean age 24 years), the
van Son, Gabrielle E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.
Objective: This Dutch epidemiological study used primary care-based data to examine changes in the incidence of eating disorders in the 1990s compared to the 1980s. Method: A nationwide network of general practitioners, serving a representative sample of the total Dutch population, recorded newly
Jongsma, Hannah E; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Lasalvia, Antonio; Quattrone, Diego; Mulè, Alice; Szöke, Andrei; Selten, Jean-Paul; Turner, Caitlin; Arango, Celso; Tarricone, Ilaria; Berardi, Domenico; Tortelli, Andrea; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bobes, Julio; Bernardo, Miguel; Sanjuán, Julio; Santos, José Luis; Arrojo, Manuel; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Velthorst, Eva; Murray, Robin M; Rutten, Bart P; Jones, Peter B; van Os, Jim; Morgan, Craig; Kirkbride, James B
Psychotic disorders contribute significantly to the global disease burden, yet the latest international incidence study of psychotic disorders was conducted in the 1980s. To estimate the incidence of psychotic disorders using comparable methods across 17 catchment areas in 6 countries and to examine the variance between catchment areas by putative environmental risk factors. An international multisite incidence study (the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions) was conducted from May 1, 2010, to April 1, 2015, among 2774 individuals from England (2 catchment areas), France (3 catchment areas), Italy (3 catchment areas), the Netherlands (2 catchment areas), Spain (6 catchment areas), and Brazil (1 catchment area) with a first episode of nonorganic psychotic disorders (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] codes F20-F33) confirmed by the Operational Criteria Checklist. Denominator populations were estimated using official national statistics. Age, sex, and racial/ethnic minority status were treated as a priori confounders. Latitude, population density, percentage unemployment, owner-occupied housing, and single-person households were treated as catchment area-level exposures. Incidence of nonorganic psychotic disorders (ICD-10 codes F20-F33), nonaffective psychoses (ICD-10 codes F20-F29), and affective psychoses (ICD-10 codes F30-F33) confirmed by the Operational Criteria Checklist. A total of 2774 patients (1196 women and 1578 men; median age, 30.5 years [interquartile range, 23.0-41.0 years]) with incident cases of psychotic disorders were identified during 12.9 million person-years at risk (crude incidence, 21.4 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI, 19.4-23.4 per 100 000 person-years). A total of 2183 patients (78.7%) had nonaffective psychotic disorders. After direct standardization for age, sex, and racial/ethnic minority status, an 8-fold
Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna
To assess the population prevalence and incidence of binge eating disorder (BED) among young women. In a nationwide longitudinal study of Finnish twins born 1975-1979, the women participated in five surveys from age 16 until their mid-thirties. At Wave 4 (mean age 24 years), the women (N = 2,825) underwent a 2-stage screening for eating disorders. We assessed the lifetime prevalence, incidence, and clinical characteristics of DSM-5 BED. We detected 16 women who met DSM-5 criteria for BED, yielding a lifetime prevalence of 0.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4-1.2%). The incidence of BED among women between 10 and 24 years of age was 35 (95% CI 20-60) per 100,000 person-years. The mean age of onset of BED was 19 years (range 13-27 years). Of the cases, 13/16 (81%) were currently ill. Duration of illness at the time of assessment ranged from less than a year to 13 years (median 6 years). Of women with BED, only two had a history of other eating disorders, but six had lifetime major depressive disorder. Two-thirds of the women with BED belonged to the highest weight quartile at age 16, and their mean BMI at age 22-27 year was 26.2 kg/m(2) (range 22.1-32.5 kg/m(2)). Incident BED as defined by DSM-5 was relatively rare among younger women and was often preceded by relative overweight. BED often occurred without a history of other eating disorders, but comorbidity with major depressive disorder was common. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Smink, F. R. E.; van Hoeken, D.; Donker, G. A.; Susser, E. S.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Hoek, H. W.
Background Whether the incidence of eating disorders in Western, industrialized countries has changed over time has been the subject of much debate. The purpose of this primary-care study was to examine changes in the incidence of eating disorders in The Netherlands during the 1980s, 1990s and
Zandi, T.; Havenaar, J. M.; Smits, M.; Limburg-Okken, A. G.; van Es, H.; Cahn, W.; Algra, A.; Kahn, R. S.; van den Brink, W.
Background: Several studies have reported increased incidence rates of psychotic disorders among immigrant groups. Surprisingly, the cross-cultural validity of the diagnostic instruments that were used was never tested. Aims: To examine whether the incidence rates of psychotic disorders including
Smink, F.R.E.; Hoeken, D. van; Donker, G.A.; Susser, E.S.; Oldehinkel, A.L.; Hoek, H.W.
Background: Whether the incidence of eating disorders in Western, industrialized countries has changed over time has been the subject of much debate. The purpose of this primary-care study was to examine changes in the incidence of eating disorders in The Netherlands during the 1980s, 1990s and
Chen, Long; Liu, Aizhong
This study analyzes the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among flood victims, between different flood intensities, and between different time points after a flood. A search of several electronic literature databases was conducted to collect data on the incidence of PTSD after a flood. Loney criteria for research quality were used to evaluate the quality of selected search results. The combined incidence of PTSD was estimated using the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation method. Subgroup analyses were conducted on different trauma intensities and different time points after a flood. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of research quality. Fourteen articles were included in this meta-analysis, including a total of 40 600 flood victims; 3862 victims were diagnosed with PTSD. The combined incidence of PTSD was 15.74%. The subgroup analyses showed that the incidence of PTSD in victims who experienced severe and moderate flood intensity was higher than that in victims who experienced mild flood intensity. The incidence of PTSD was lower at 6 or more months after a flood (11.45%) than within 6 months (16.01%) of a flood. In conclusion, the incidence of PTSD among floods of different trauma intensities was statistically significant.
Rosenya Michely Cintra Filgueiras
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fruit bagging is an efficient mechanical control technique used in fruit growing. However, to date, few studies have evaluated the efficacy of bagging in the cultivation of vegetables, including tomato crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of bagging of tomato flowers and/or fruits using a non-woven fabric (NWF for the control of Helicoverpa spp., Neoleucinodes elegantalis, and Tuta absoluta, to evaluate the effect of this technique on the final yield, and determine the optimal period for bagging. Tests were conducted in a commercial crop of staked ‘Valerin’ tomato plants located in the municipality of Ubajara, Ceará State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with a 2x4 factorial design (sprayed versus unsprayed plants, and both plant groups were bagged with NWF bags at different growth stages [flowers bagging, bagging of bunches of fruits with a diameter of 1.5cm, bagging of bunches of fruits with a diameter of 3.0cm, and unbagged bunches (control], with five repetitions. We evaluated the number of fruits per bunch, number of bunches per plant, weight of each fruit, longitudinal and transverse diameter, percentage of bored fruits, yield loss caused by insect infestation, and final yield. Bagging of ‘Valerin’ tomato bunches with NWF bags was effective for the control of N. elegantalis, and productivity increased by 21.5% when bagging was done in bunches of fruits with a diameter of 1.5cm compared with unbagged fruits; therefore, this growth period was the most suitable for bagging.
Full Text Available Background: Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient′s condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R score. Results: Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%, history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%, and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility in patients (40% were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001. Conclusions: More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25 in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.
Maghsoodloo, Safa; Ghodousi, Arash; Karimzadeh, Taghi
Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient's condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R) score. Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%), history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%), and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility) in patients (40%) were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25) in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.
Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Stuve, Olaf
was assessed. For population-based studies we quantitatively assessed studies using the I² statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Study designs were heterogeneous with respect to populations, case definitions, and methods of ascertainment. Incidence of the studied comorbidities......BACKGROUND: As new disease-modifying therapies emerge a better knowledge of the risk of comorbid disease in multiple sclerosis (MS) is needed. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of comorbid gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, ocular, pulmonary, and renal disorders in MS. METHODS: We...
Sorensen, Mathew D; Hsi, Ryan S; Chi, Thomas; Shara, Nawar; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Kahn, Arnold J; Wang, Hong; Hou, Lifang; Stoller, Marshall L
We evaluated the relationship between dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of kidney stone formation. Overall 83,922 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative observational study were included in the analysis and followed prospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between total dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of incident kidney stone formation, adjusting for nephrolithiasis risk factors (age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, diabetes mellitus, calcium supplementation, hormone therapy use, body mass index and calibrated caloric intake; and dietary water, sodium, animal protein and calcium intake). Women with a history of kidney stones (3,471) were analyzed separately. Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p vegetable intake (9% to 22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney stone formation in separate adjusted models. In women with a history of stones there were no significant protective effects of fiber, fruit or vegetable intake on the risk of kidney stone recurrence. Greater dietary intake of fiber, fruits and vegetables was associated with a reduced risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women. The protective effects were independent of other known risk factors for kidney stones. In contrast, there was no reduction in risk in women with a history of stones. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sorensen, Mathew D.; Hsi, Ryan S.; Chi, Thomas; Shara, Nawar; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Kahn, Arnold J.; Wang, Hong; Hou, Lifang; Stoller, Marshall L.
Purpose We evaluated the relationship between dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetable intake, and the risk of kidney stone formation. Methods Overall, 83,922 postmenopausal women from the WHI Observational Study were included and followed prospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses evaluated the associations between total dietary fiber, fruits, and vegetable intake, and the risk of incident kidney stone formation adjusting for nephrolithiasis risk factors (age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, diabetes mellitus, calcium supplementation, hormone therapy use, body mass index, calibrated caloric intake, and dietary water, sodium, animal protein, and calcium intake). Women with a prior history of kidney stones (3,471 women) were analyzed separately. Results Mean age was 64±7 years, 85% of women were Caucasian and 2,937 women (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone occurrence in 8 years median follow-up. In women with no history of kidney stones, higher total dietary fiber (6-26% decreased risk, pvegetable intake (9-22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney stone formation in separate adjusted models. In women with a history of stones, there were no significant protective effects of fiber, fruits, or vegetable intake on the risk of kidney stone recurrence. Conclusions Greater dietary intake of fiber, fruits and vegetables were each associated with a reduced risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women. The protective effects were independent of other known risk factors for kidney stones. In contrast, there was no reduction in risk in women with a history of stones. PMID:24859445
Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Thornton, Laura M.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark between 1989 and 2006 were included (N=966,141, 51.3% male). Eating disorders diagnoses (AN, Broad AN, BN, EDNOS) were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (PCRR) and Danish Nationa...
Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mikkelsen, Pernille; Andersen, Tina Veje
AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the cancer morbidity in a large cohort of patients with alcohol use disorders in the general Danish population. METHODS: We included 15,258 men and 3552 women free of cancer when attending the Copenhagen Outpatient Clinic for Alcoholics in the period from......, but not of breast cancer and colorectal cancer, in patients with alcohol use disorders....... incidence of colon, rectal or urinary bladder cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study confirms the well-established association between high alcohol intake and cancer of the upper digestive tract and liver. In addition, the results indicate a significantly elevated occurrence of renal cancer...
Kinyanda, Eugene; Weiss, Helen A; Levin, Jonathan; Nakasujja, Noeline; Birabwa, Harriet; Nakku, Juliet; Mpango, Richard; Grosskurth, Heiner; Seedat, Soraya; Araya, Ricardo; Patel, Vikram
Data on the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) among people living with HIV (PLWH) are needed to inform refinement of screening and interventions for MDD. This paper describes the incidence and persistence rate of MDD in PLWH in Uganda. 1099 ART-naïve PLWH attending HIV clinics in Uganda were followed up for 12 months. MDD was assessed using the DSM IV based Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview with a prevalence for MDD at baseline of 14.0 % (95 % CI 11.7-16.3 %) reported. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of incident and persistent MDD. Cumulative incidence of MDD was 6.1 per 100 person-years (95 % CI 4.6-7.8) with significant independent predictors of study site, higher baseline depression scores and increased stress. Persistence of MDD was 24.6 % (95 % CI 17.9-32.5 %) with independent significant predictors of study site, higher baseline depression scores, and increased weight. Risks of incident and persistent MDD observed in this study were high. Potentially modifiable factors of elevated baseline depressive scores and stress (only for incident MDD) were important predictors of incident and persistent MDD.
Songserm, Nopparat; Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by opisthorchiasis is a specific public health problem in the Greater Mekong subregional countries. The Northeast Thailand is considered a world's prime area of CCA. Many epidemiological studies found the association between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA, but their results were inconclusive. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA prevention in the Northeast Thailand. The authors conducted a comprehensive search of scholarships on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS published during 1990 and 2015. Selected studies about fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA were analyzed. The fixed-effect model was used to estimate pool odds ratios for the consumption vs. nonconsumption. Based on a meta-analysis, consumption of mixed fruit [odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.96], mixed vegetables (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.50-0.75), and combined fruit and vegetables (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.57-0.80) was associated with the reduction of CCA risk statistically. These findings support that fruit and vegetables consumption is associated with CCA risk reduction. If implemented in a larger geographical area, the study will shed light on possibilities to future reduction of CCA. Educators can replicate the study to solve CCA or other types of cancer and discover the best practice.
Anderson, Kelly K; Cheng, Joyce; Susser, Ezra; McKenzie, Kwame J; Kurdyak, Paul
Evidence suggests that migrant groups have an increased risk of psychotic disorders and that the level of risk varies by country of origin and host country. Canadian evidence is lacking on the incidence of psychotic disorders among migrants. We sought to examine the incidence of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders in first-generation immigrants and refugees in the province of Ontario, relative to the general population. We constructed a retrospective cohort that included people aged 14-40 years residing in Ontario as of Apr. 1, 1999. Population-based administrative data from physician billings and hospital admissions were linked to data from Citizenship and Immigration Canada. We used Poisson regression models to calculate age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for immigrant and refugee groups over a 10-year period. In our cohort (n = 4,284,694), we found higher rates of psychotic disorders among immigrants from the Caribbean and Bermuda (IRR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29-1.98). Lower rates were found among immigrants from northern Europe (IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.91), southern Europe (IRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.90) and East Asia (IRR 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.78). Refugee status was an independent predictor of risk among all migrants (IRR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.56), and higher rates were found specifically for refugees from East Africa (IRR 1.95, 95% CI 1.44-2.65) and South Asia (IRR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.12). The differential pattern of risk across ethnic subgroups in Ontario suggests that psychosocial and cultural factors associated with migration may contribute to the risk of psychotic disorders. Some groups may be more at risk, whereas others are protected. © 2015 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Full Text Available The incidence and etiology of postharvest diseases affecting fresh date fruit in the palm grove of Elx (Spain were determined under local environmental conditions. Latent and wound pathogens were assessed for two consecutive seasons on fruit from two important commercial cultivars, ‘Boufeggous’ and ‘Medjool’, grown in different orchards. Healthy dates were either surface-disinfested or artificially wounded in the rind and placed in humid chambers at 20ºC for up to 7 weeks. Irrespective of cultivar, season, orchard, and type of infection, the most important causal agents of disease were Penicillium expansum, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and a black aspergillus species belonging to the Aspergillus niger clade. These fungi were identified by macroscopic and microscopic morphology and/or DNA amplification and sequencing. Their pathogenicity was demonstrated by fulfilling Koch’s postulates. Disease development at 20 and 5ºC was characterized on artificially inoculated dates.
Simon L. Bacon
Full Text Available Background. Studies assessing the association between psychological factors and hypertension have been equivocal, which may reflect limitations in the assessment of psychological factors. Purpose. To assess the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders, measured using a psychiatric interview, and 1-year incident hypertension. Methods. 197 nonhypertensive individuals undergoing exercise stress testing at baseline provided follow-up data at 1 year. Baseline assessments included a structure psychiatric interview (PRIME-MD, physician diagnosis of hypertension, and measured blood pressure. At follow-up, hypertension status was assessed via self-reported physician diagnosis. Results. Having an anxiety disorder was associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of developing hypertension (adjusted OR = 4.14, 95% CIs = 1.18–14.56. In contrast, having a mood disorder was not associated with incident hypertension (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CIs = 0.24–5.86. Conclusions. There are potential mechanisms which could explain our differential mood and anxiety findings. The impact of screening and treatment of anxiety disorders on hypertension needs to be explored.
Burg, Matthew M; Brandt, Cynthia; Buta, Eugenia; Schwartz, Joseph; Bathulapalli, Harini; Dziura, James; Edmondson, Donald E; Haskell, Sally
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality risk. Neither the prospective relationship of PTSD to incident hypertension risk nor the effect of PTSD treatment on hypertension risk has been established. Data from a nationally representative sample of 194,319 veterans were drawn from the Veterans Administration (VA) roster of United States service men and women. This included veterans whose end of last deployment was from September 2001 to July 2010 and whose first VA medical visit was from October 1, 2001 to January 1, 2009. Incident hypertension was modeled as 3 events: (1) a new diagnosis of hypertension and/or (2) a new prescription for antihypertensive medication, and/or (3) a clinic blood pressure reading in the hypertensive range (≥140/90 mm Hg, systolic/diastolic). Posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis was the main predictor. Posttraumatic stress disorder treatment was defined as (1) at least 8 individual psychotherapy sessions of 50 minutes or longer during any consecutive 6 months and/or (2) a prescription for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication. Over a median 2.4-year follow-up, the incident hypertension risk independently associated with PTSD ranged from hazard ratio (HR), 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.17; p < .0001) to HR, 1.30 (95% CI, 1.26-1.34; p < .0001). The interaction of PTSD and treatment revealed that treatment reduced the PTSD-associated hypertension risk (e.g., from HR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.38-1.50; p < .0001] for those untreated, to HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.15-1.25; p < .0001] for those treated). These results indicate that reducing the long-term health impact of PTSD and the associated costs may require very early surveillance and treatment.
Polanka, Brittanny M; Vrany, Elizabeth A; Patel, Jay; Stewart, Jesse C
We compared the relative importance of atypical major depressive disorder (MDD), nonatypical MDD, and dysthymic disorder in predicting 3-year obesity incidence and change in body mass index and determined whether race/ethnicity moderated these relationships. We examined data from 17,787 initially nonobese adults in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) who were representative of the US population. Lifetime subtypes of depressive disorders were determined using a structured interview, and obesity outcomes were computed from self-reported height and weight. Atypical MDD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43, 1.97; P obesity than were nonatypical MDD (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.22; P = 0.027) and no history of depressive disorder. Atypical MDD (B = 0.41 (standard error, 0.15); P = 0.007) was a stronger predictor of increases in body mass index than were dysthymic disorder (B = -0.31 (standard error, 0.21); P = 0.142), nonatypical MDD (B = 0.007 (standard error, 0.06); P = 0.911), and no history of depressive disorder. Race/ethnicity was a moderator; atypical MDD was a stronger predictor of incident obesity in Hispanics/Latinos (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.73, 2.24; P adults with atypical MDD are at particularly high risk of weight gain and obesity, and Hispanics/Latinos may be especially vulnerable to the obesogenic consequences of depressions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Background: Organic brain pathology usually may be followed by mental disorders. This research was aimed at constructing a predictive model and investigating the risk factors in the incidence of mental disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty eight patients (195 males and 43 females were entered the study in a descriptive-longitudinal design by non-probable and consecutive sampling method. They were undergone neurosurgical examinations and psychological evaluations. After a 4-month follow-up, 65.1% of the patients (N=155 referred to a psychiatrist in order to determine the nature of mental disorder following TBI, using a structured clinical interview based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Results: 75.48% (117 cases of patients had a form of mental disorder secondary to TBI. The Results of binary logistic regression analyses for calculating odds ratio (OR model with 95% confidence interval (CI indicating the severity of TBI (OR=3.497, 95% CI =1.259-9.712, presence of subcranial injury (OR=2.834, 95% CI =1.022-7.857 and falling level of general compatibility, as measured by modified version of GHQ-28 (OR=1.072, 95% CI =1.035-1.111 indicated an increasing risk in the incidence of mental disorder. Conclusion: Findings revealed that in the development of post-TBI mental disorders, first there was a close relationship with organic brain pathology (TBI severity and subcranial injury, although the role of effective psychological factors such as level of general compatibility after trauma should not be neglected. Also in order to predict the people at risk of mental disorders after TBI, the proposed predictive model in this study can be used.
Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann
was to investigate the impact of disruption of 14 candidate genes for human attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on fly behavior. By obtaining a range of correlated measures describing the space of variables for behavioral activity we show, that some mutants display similar phenotypic responses...... in fruit flies. Results provide additional support for the investigated genes being risk candidate genes for ADHD in humans....
Sorensen, MD; Hsi, RS; Chi, T; Shara, N; Wactawski-Wende, J; Kahn, AJ; Wang, H; Hou, L; Stoller, ML
© 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Results Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p < 0.001), greater fruit intake (12% to 25% decreased risk, p < 0.001) and greater vegetable intake (9% to 22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney...
Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya. PMID:25542021
Jonna van Eck van der Sluijs
Full Text Available Clinical studies have shown that Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS are related to common mental disorders. It is unknown how often common mental disorders occur in subjects who have explained physical symptoms (PHY, MUS or both, in the general population, what the incidence rates are, and whether there is a difference between PHY and MUS in this respect.To study the prevalence and incidence rates of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders in groups with PHY, MUS and combined MUS and PHY compared to a no-symptoms reference group in the general population.Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2, a nationally representative face-to-face survey of the general population aged 18-64 years. We selected subjects with explained physical symptoms only (n=1952, with MUS only (n=177, with both MUS and PHY (n=209, and a reference group with no physical symptoms (n=4168. The assessment of common mental disorders was through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between group membership and the prevalence and first-incidence rates of comorbid mental disorders, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics.MUS were associated with the highest prevalence rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and combined MUS and PHY with the highest prevalence rates of substance disorder. Combined MUS and PHY were associated with a higher incidence rate of mood disorder only (OR 2.9 (95%CI:1.27,6.74.In the general population, PHY, MUS and the combination of both are related to mood and anxiety disorder, but odds are highest for combined MUS and PHY in relation to substance use disorder. Combined MUS and PHY are related to a greater incidence of mood disorder. These findings warrant further research into possibilities to improve recognition and early intervention in subjects with combined MUS and PHY.
Soydan, Sidika Sinem; Deniz, Kagan; Uckan, Sina; Unal, Aslı Dogruk; Tutuncu, Neslihan Bascıl
The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders is higher among women than men (ratio 3:1 -9:1). Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women, which is characterised by chronic low-grade inflammation and excess of androgenic hormones that lead to metabolic aberrations and ovarian dysfunction. Increased activities of various matrix metalloproteinases (particularly MMP-2 and 9) in the serum of these patients has been reported, and it has been hypothesised that high activities of MMP may contribute to loss of matrix and chronic inflammation of the fibrocartilage in temporomandibular disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the incidence of temopormandibular dysfunction in women with PCOS compared with an age-matched, disease-free, control group. We studied 50 patients with previously diagnosed PCOS and 50 volunteers who had normal menstrual cycles. We made a comprehensive clinical examination of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and muscles of mastication in both groups and recorded the Visual Analogue Scores (VAS) for pain. There were significant differences (ptemporomandibular disorders (n=43 (86%) in the PCOS group compared with n=12 24% in the control group), muscle tenderness(n=32 (64%) in the PCOS group compared with n=14 (28%) in the control group) and pain in the TMJ (mean (SD) VAS 2.9 (2.61) compared with 0.3 (1.56). We confirm the higher incidence and severity of disorders of the TMJ in patients with PCOS and suspect that chronic low-grade inflammation may play a part in the aetiology of the disease. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amor, David J; Cameron, Carolyn
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was originally developed for couples whose potential offspring were at risk of severe Mendelian disorders, but has since been extended to other indications. One possible use of PGD is to perform gender selection for couples whose offspring are at increased risk of disorders that do not follow Mendelian inheritance, but which are substantially more common in one sex than another (unequal sex incidence). Here, we examine the clinical and ethical issues to be considered prior to offering PGD gender selection to reduce the risk of a child being affected by a non-Mendelian condition with unequal sex incidence. Factors to be considered include: the risk that a child of either sex will be affected by the condition; the overall reduction in risk provided by gender selection and the potential harms of the procedure. Consideration should also be given to the interests of the family and the child to be born, the seriousness of the condition and the couple's procreative autonomy. To illustrate these issues we use the example of autism, a non-Mendelian disorder that is considerably more common in males than in females.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders cause pain, disability and loss of employment for many workers, including musicians. Although performing arts medicine is a growing field, the health problems of musicians remain under-recognized and under-researched. Therefore, the author undertook a systematic review of published information on the incidence and prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) in classical musicians. Seven databases were searched for the period 1980 to 1996. The main textbook and performing arts medicine journals were searched manually, as were reference lists of all relevant papers. The author also contacted individuals familiar with the literature of performing arts medicine. Studies were included for review if they reported PRMD incidence or prevalence in classical musicians. Of the 24 studies identified, 18 cross-sectional surveys and cohort studies were reviewed. The author subjectively assessed the studies using criteria modified from an existing evaluation scale and used 4 criteria for data combination. On the basis of prevalence values from the eligible studies, chi 2 tests for heterogeneity were performed. Only one study estimated PRMD incidence. Ten of the 17 prevalence studies were ineligible for data combination, because of low response rates and other methodological problems. In the 7 eligible studies, PRMD point prevalence ranged from 39% to 87% in adult musicians and from 34% to 62% in secondary school music students. The best estimates of PRMD prevalence were derived from the 3 studies that excluded mild complaints; these studies indicated that PRMD prevalence was 39% and 47% in adults and 17% in secondary school music students respectively. Statistical combination of data across studies within each demographic category was not possible. Available data indicate that the prevalence of PRMD in adult classical musicians is comparable to the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders reported for other
van Eck van der Sluis, J.F.; Ten Have, M.; Rijnders, C.A.Th.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; de Graaf, R.; Cornelis, Christina
Background Clinical studies have shown that Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are related to common mental disorders. It is unknown how often common mental disorders occur in subjects who have explained physical symptoms (PHY), MUS or both, in the general population, what the incidence rates are,
van der Sluijs, J.V.; ten Have, M.; Rijnders, C.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; de Graaf, R.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.
Background Clinical studies have shown that Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are related to common mental disorders. It is unknown how often common mental disorders occur in subjects who have explained physical symptoms (PHY), MUS or both, in the general population, what the incidence rates are,
Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Hoedeman, R.; Bultmann, U.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.
Background: Mental disorders are an important public health problem because of their prevalence and the probability of long-term work disability. The incidence of sickness absence with mental disorders has increased between 1985 and 2000, but little is known about trends in recent years. This study
Micali, Nadia; Hagberg, Katrina W; Petersen, Irene; Treasure, Janet L
Few studies have investigated the incidence of eating disorders (EDs). Important questions about changes in the incidence of diagnosed disorders in recent years, disorder and gender-specific onset and case detection remain unanswered. Understanding changes in incidence is important for public health, clinical practice and service provision. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual (age-specific, gender-specific and subtype-specific) incidence of diagnosed ED: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in primary care over a 10-year period in the UK (2000-2009); to examine the changes within the study period; and to describe peak age at diagnosis. Register-based study. Primary care. Data were obtained from a primary care register, the General Practice Research Database, which contains anonymised records representing about 5% of the UK population. All patients with a first-time diagnosis of AN, BN and EDNOS were identified. Annual crude and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated. A total of 9072 patients with a first-time diagnosis of an ED were identified. The age-standardised annual incidence rate of all diagnosed ED for ages 10-49 increased from 32.3 (95% CI 31.7 to 32.9) to 37.2 (95% CI 36.6 to 37.9) per 100 000 between 2000 and 2009. The incidence of AN and BN was stable; however, the incidence of EDNOS increased. The incidence of the diagnosed ED was highest for girls aged 15-19 and for boys aged 10-14. The age-standardised incidence of ED increased in primary care between 2000 and 2009. New diagnoses of EDNOS increased, and EDNOS is the most common ED in primary care.
Micali, Nadia; Hagberg, Katrina W; Petersen, Irene; Treasure, Janet L
Objectives Few studies have investigated the incidence of eating disorders (EDs). Important questions about changes in the incidence of diagnosed disorders in recent years, disorder and gender-specific onset and case detection remain unanswered. Understanding changes in incidence is important for public health, clinical practice and service provision. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual (age-specific, gender-specific and subtype-specific) incidence of diagnosed ED: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in primary care over a 10-year period in the UK (2000–2009); to examine the changes within the study period; and to describe peak age at diagnosis. Design Register-based study. Setting Primary care. Data were obtained from a primary care register, the General Practice Research Database, which contains anonymised records representing about 5% of the UK population. Participants All patients with a first-time diagnosis of AN, BN and EDNOS were identified. Primary outcome Annual crude and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated. Results A total of 9072 patients with a first-time diagnosis of an ED were identified. The age-standardised annual incidence rate of all diagnosed ED for ages 10–49 increased from 32.3 (95% CI 31.7 to 32.9) to 37.2 (95% CI 36.6 to 37.9) per 100 000 between 2000 and 2009. The incidence of AN and BN was stable; however, the incidence of EDNOS increased. The incidence of the diagnosed ED was highest for girls aged 15–19 and for boys aged 10–14. Conclusions The age-standardised incidence of ED increased in primary care between 2000 and 2009. New diagnoses of EDNOS increased, and EDNOS is the most common ED in primary care. PMID:23793681
Tanaka, Shiro; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Horikawa, Chika; Okumura, Ryota; Ito, Hideki; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Sone, Hirohito
OBJECTIVE Foods rich in fiber, such as vegetables and fruits, prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) among healthy adults, but such data in patients with diabetes are sparse. We investigated this association in a cohort with type 2 diabetes aged 40–70 years whose HbA1c values were ≥ 6.5% in Japan Diabetes Society values. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this cohort study, 1,414 patients were analyzed after exclusion of patients with history of CVDs and nonresponders to a dietary survey. Primary o...
Hagberg, Mats; Thiringer, Gunnar; Brandström, Lars
The aim was to determine the incidence of tinnitus, impaired hearing and musculoskeletal disorders among musicians and the relation to the number of practicing hours and/or the instrument type before the onset of symptoms. The study base consisted of students enrolled in the School of Music and Music Education at Göteborg University between the years 1980 and 1995. There were 407 of the 602 original students that answered a questionnaire (response rate of 68%). The questionnaire concerned exposure before and after the enrollment in the Music Academy, as well as onset of symptoms. The highest incidence of symptoms was found for reported tinnitus with a rate of 10.6 per 1000 years of instrumental practice. There was a relationship between exposure to the number of hours of instrumental practice and incidence of impaired hearing. Among the musculoskeletal symptoms the highest incidences per 1000 years of instrumental practice were pain in the neck and in the left shoulder with a rate of 4.4 and 4.6 disorders per 1000 years of instrumental practice, respectively. There was 2.4 times higher incidence for musculoskeletal disorders in the right hand/wrist and a 2.2 times higher incidence in the left elbow/forearm for musicians who practiced for 20 h or more per week before the onset of disorders compared to those who practiced fewer than 20 h per week when controlling for age and gender. Musicians with a violin or a viola as the main instrument had four times the incidence for right elbow/forearm disorder and twice the incidence of neck pain, pain in the right shoulder and the left elbow/forearm compared to those who had piano as the main instrument.
Saha, Sukanta; Whiteford, Harvey; McGrath, John
The aim of this study was to model estimates related to (a) the incidence of psychotic disorders and (b) the mortality associated with these disorders based on a large, population-based prevalence study. Data were drawn from the second national survey of adults with psychotic disorders conducted in seven Australian catchment areas during March to December 2010. To generate incidence rate estimates, we identified recent onset cases recruited as part of the prevalence study and then imputed population-based incidence rates using a set of conservative assumptions. Similarly, for mortality rates, we identified individuals who had died after being identified as 'screen-positive' for psychosis, but prior to full clinical assessment. Using a set of conservative assumptions, we then used these estimates to infer population-based mortality rates. Based on our models, we estimated that the incidence rate for psychotic disorders was 28 cases per 100,000 population. The rate estimates were significantly higher in males than females, with an overall male:female ratio of 1.57:1. Incidence rate estimates peaked in the youngest age group (18-24 years). The adjusted mortality rate estimated during the whole period of observation was 12.5 per 1000 persons, with a standardised mortality ratio of 5.5. Using treated prevalence data and observed deaths with appropriate algorithms, we were able to impute incidence and mortality rates for psychotic disorders consistent with the published literature. While the second national survey of psychotic disorders was not designed to identify mortality, our estimates provide a stark reminder of the increased mortality associated with these disorders.
Leivonen, Susanna; Voutilainen, Arja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Chudal, Roshan; Gissler, Mika; Huttunen, Jukka; Sourander, Andre
The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and incidence rates of diagnosed tic disorders in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, including changing incidence rates between 1991 and 2010. We also aimed to validate the diagnoses of Tourette's syndrome recorded in the register. Children born between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2010, who were diagnosed with tic disorders, were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (n = 3003). We studied the validity of the Tourette's syndrome diagnoses by reviewing the medical charts of 88 children born since 1997 and carrying out telephone interviews with 55 of their guardians. The incidence rates of all diagnosed tic disorders increased during the study period. A comorbid diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder diagnosis was recorded in 28.2% of the children with Tourette's syndrome, and the validity of the register-based Tourette's syndrome diagnosis was approximately 95%. This is the first nationwide study to demonstrate the increasing incidence of all register-based tic disorder diagnoses. The validity of the Tourette's syndrome diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was good, and the data provided are suitable for use in further register-based studies of tic disorders. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Berglund, Agnethe; Johannsen, Trine H; Stochholm, Kirstine
, prevalence, age at diagnosis, and clinical presentation at diagnosis in 46,XY females. DESIGN AND SETTING: A nationwide study covering all known females with a 46,XY karyotype in Denmark since 1960. The diagnosis of 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) was determined by medical record evaluation, data......CONTEXT: The prevalence of phenotypic females with a 46,XY karyotype is low, thus current knowledge about age and clinical presentation at diagnosis is sparse even for the most frequent conditions, androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), and gonadal dysgenesis. OBJECTIVE: To estimate incidence.......0-13.5; range, 0-34 y) in AIS and 17.0 years (95% confidence interval, 15.5-19.0; range, 0-28 y) in gonadal dysgenesis (P = .001). Clinical presentation was dependent on cause of DSD. CONCLUSIONS: The first estimate on prevalence of 46,XY females is 6.4 per 100 000 live born females. The presentation of AIS...
Kraemmer, Julia; Smith, Kara; Weintraub, Daniel; Guillemot, Vincent; Nalls, Mike A; Cormier-Dequaire, Florence; Moszer, Ivan; Brice, Alexis; Singleton, Andrew B; Corvol, Jean-Christophe
Objectives Impulse control disorders (ICD) are commonly associated with dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Our aims were to estimate ICD heritability and to predict ICD by a candidate genetic multivariable panel in patients with PD. Methods Data from de novo patients with PD, drug-naïve and free of ICD behaviour at baseline, were obtained from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative cohort. Incident ICD behaviour was defined as positive score on the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in PD. ICD heritability was estimated by restricted maximum likelihood analysis on whole exome sequencing data. 13 candidate variants were selected from the DRD2, DRD3, DAT1, COMT, DDC, GRIN2B, ADRA2C, SERT, TPH2, HTR2A, OPRK1 and OPRM1 genes. ICD prediction was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Among 276 patients with PD included in the analysis, 86% started DRT, 40% were on dopamine agonists (DA), 19% reported incident ICD behaviour during follow-up. We found heritability of this symptom to be 57%. Adding genotypes from the 13 candidate variants significantly increased ICD predictability (AUC=76%, 95% CI (70% to 83%)) compared to prediction based on clinical variables only (AUC=65%, 95% CI (58% to 73%), p=0.002). The clinical-genetic prediction model reached highest accuracy in patients initiating DA therapy (AUC=87%, 95% CI (80% to 93%)). OPRK1, HTR2A and DDC genotypes were the strongest genetic predictive factors. Conclusions Our results show that adding a candidate genetic panel increases ICD predictability, suggesting potential for developing clinical-genetic models to identify patients with PD at increased risk of ICD development and guide DRT management. PMID:27076492
Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Thornton, Laura M.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark between 1989 and 2006 were included (N=966,141, 51.3% male). Eating disorders diagnoses (AN, Broad AN, BN, EDNOS) were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (PCRR) and Danish National Patient Register (NPR). Suicide attempts and deaths were captured in the NPR, the PCRR, and the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS). In females, AN had a peak hazard at approximately age 15 years, BN at 22 years, and EDNOS had an extended peak that spanned 18 years to 22 years. Eating disorder diagnoses predicted a significantly higher hazard for death and suicide attempt compared with the referent of individuals with no eating disorders. In males, peak hazard for diagnosis was earlier than in females. The present study represents one of the largest and longest studies of eating disorder incidence and suicide attempts and death in both females and males. Eating disorders are accompanied by increased hazard of suicide attempts and death even in young adults. PMID:25958083
Suneel, Venkatesh B; Kotian, Santhosh; Jujare, Ravikanth H; Shetty, Adarsh K; Nidhi, Sneh; Grover, Shehkar
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the common prevalent conditions present worldwide. The process of abnormal habits related to clenching and grinding of teeth is referred to as bruxism and is characterized under the heading of parafunctional activity of the masticatory system. Osseointegrated dental implants represent advancements in the field of odontology. Despite its high success rate, failure and complications are often associated with dental implant treatment due to a number of factors. Hence, we aimed for the present study to assess the incidence of prosthetic complications in patients rehabilitated with implant-borne prosthesis in a sleep disorder unit. The present study included the assessment of all the patients who underwent prosthetic rehabilitation by dental implants. An experienced registered prosthodontist was given duty for examination of all the cases from the record file data. Prosthetic complications in the patients were identified using photographs, radiographs, and all other relevant data of the patients obtained from the record files. All types of complications and other factors were recorded separately and analyzed. While correlating the prosthetic complications in OSA patients grouped based on number of dental implants, nonsignificant results were obtained. Significant correlation was observed while comparing the prosthetic complications divided based on type of prosthesis. Fracture of the porcelain was observed in four and eight cases respectively, of screwed and cemented dental implant cases. Some amount of significant correlation existed between the incidences of prosthetic complications and OSA. Proper history of the patients undergoing dental implant procedures should be taken to avoid failure.
Lee, Yvonne C; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Malspeis, Susan; Keyes, Katherine; Costenbader, Karen; Kubzansky, Laura D; Roberts, Andrea L; Koenen, Karestan C; Karlson, Elizabeth W
To examine the association between symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk in a prospective cohort and to characterize the role of smoking in this relationship. A subset (n = 54,224) of the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort of female nurses, completed the Brief Trauma Questionnaire and a screen for PTSD symptoms. Participants were categorized based on trauma exposure and number of PTSD symptoms. Incident RA cases (n = 239) from 1989 to 2011 were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) between PTSD symptoms and incident RA. To identify the impact of smoking, secondary and subgroup analyses were performed. In all analyses, PTSD and smoking were lagged 2 years before the development of RA. Compared to no history of trauma/PTSD symptoms, the HR for ≥4 PTSD symptoms and incident RA was 1.76 (95% CI 1.16-2.67) in models adjusted for age, race, and socioeconomic status. The risk for RA increased with an increasing number of PTSD symptoms (P = 0.01). When smoking was added to the model, the HR for RA remained elevated (HR 1.60 [95% CI 1.05-2.43]). In a subgroup analysis, excluding women who smoked before PTSD onset, results were unchanged (HR 1.68 [95% CI 1.04-2.70]). This study suggests that women with high PTSD symptomatology have an elevated risk for RA, independent of smoking, adding to emerging evidence that stress is an important determinant of physical health. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Jan 22, 2014 ... It is cultivated in the world in an area of 3.83 lakh ha with a production of. 8.05 million tones. ... normal and bumpy fruits as rupees per hectare during study years. An economic loss was estimated by ..... Recent Advances and Future Strategies in Seed Science and. Technology, June 9-11, 1992, Nauni, ...
Sheppard, David P.; Woods, Steven Paul; Bondi, Mark W.; Gilbert, Paul E.; Massman, Paul J.; Doyle, Katie L.
Objective This study aimed to determine the combined effects of age and HIV infection on the risk of incident neurocognitive disorders. Method A total of 146 neurocognitively normal participants were enrolled at baseline into one of four groups based on age (≤ 40 years and ≥ 50 years) and HIV serostatus resulting in 24 younger HIV−, 27 younger HIV+, 39 older HIV−, and 56 older HIV+ individuals. All participants were administered a standardized clinical neuropsychological battery at baseline and 14.3 ±0.2 months later. Results A logistic regression predicting incident neurocognitive disorders from HIV, age group, and their interaction was significant (χ2 = 13.56, p = .009), with a significant main effect of HIV serostatus (χ2 = 5.01, p = .025), but no main effect of age or age by HIV interaction (ps > .10). Specifically, 15.7 percent of the HIV+ individuals had an incident neurocognitive disorder as compared to 3.2 percent of the HIV− group (odds ratio = 4.8 [1.2, 32.6]). Among older HIV+ adults, lower baseline cognitive reserve, prospective memory, and verbal fluency each predicted incident neurocognitive disorders at follow-up. Conclusions Independent of age, HIV infection confers a nearly 5-fold risk for developing a neurocognitive disorder over approximately one year. Individuals with lower cognitive reserve and mild weaknesses in higher-order neurocognitive functions may be targeted for closer clinical monitoring and preventative measures. PMID:26367342
Bajuk, Vid; Zaletel, Katja; Pirnat, Edvard; Hojker, Sergej; Gaberšček, Simona
This study aimed to establish the changes in the incidence and characteristics of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (II-Hyper) and iodine-induced hypothyroidism (II-Hypo) in the two-year period before and the 10-year period after the increase in mandatory salt iodization from the previous 10 mg/kg of potassium iodide to 25 mg/kg in 1999. Furthermore, the aim was to determine the duration of treatment in II-Hyper patients, since no data regarding severity and treatment of II-Hyper with respect to iodine supply are available. This retrospective study reviewed medical records of 885 Slovenian patients first diagnosed with II-Hyper or II-Hypo between 1998 and 2009 at the Thyroid Department of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana. II-Hyper and II-Hypo were diagnosed by one out of 10 senior internal medicine specialists. The diagnosis was based on an adequate patient history, and laboratory measurements of thyrotropin, thyroid hormones, and thyroid antibodies. In most cases, thyroid ultrasound and thyroid scintigraphy were performed. Demographic characteristics and the type and the duration of treatment were also reviewed. The incidence of II-Hypo was significantly higher after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p hyperthyroidism decreased, predominantly due to the increased proportion of patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (p = 0.007 and p = 0.015, respectively). The duration of treatment with antithyroid drugs and perchlorate was significantly shorter after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). A significantly positive correlation between the year of the occurrence of excessive iodine intake (EII)-induced thyroid disease and the duration of treatment with amiodarone was found (R = 0.132; p = 0.048), suggesting that the longer the patients had an adequate iodine supply, the longer they could take amiodarone before EII-induced thyroid disorder developed. After the
Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N; Jørgensen, Lisbeth F; Kristiansen, Søren M; Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Andersen, Per K; Ersbøll, Annette K
Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from 1995 to 2013 (N=14 820) and 10 age- and gender-matched controls from the Danish population (N= 140 311). Average drinking water lithium exposure was estimated for all study individuals. The median of the average lithium exposure did not differ between cases with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder (12.7 μg/L; interquartile range [IQR]: 7.9-15.5 μg/L) and controls (12.5 μg/L; IQR: 7.6-15.7 μg/L; P=.2). Further, the incidence rate ratio of mania/bipolar disorder did not decrease with higher long-term lithium exposure, overall, or within age categories (0-40, 41-60 and 61-100 years of age). Higher long-term lithium exposure from drinking water was not associated with a lower incidence of bipolar disorder. The association should be investigated in areas with higher lithium levels than in Denmark. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Atlantis, Evan; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Cashman, Kara; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.
Background: Few prospective cohort studies describe the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the 2-year diabetes incidence and pattern of explanatory factors associated with depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Methods: A
Conclusion: Almost all Japanese cases of ADHD in the past 10 years were collected. Congenital HG and CIIP showed relatively high incidence, whereas acquired HG and IASA were extremely rare in Japan. The criteria of each disorder were also collected and summarized. Prognosis was poor in congenital HG, MMIHS, and CIIP.
Kroon, Jojanneke S.; Wohlfarth, Tamar D.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Sutterland, Arjen L.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Denys, Damiaan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Sturkenboom, Mirjam C. J. M.
To estimate the incidence rates (IRs) of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders in the general population according to sociodemographic population characteristics. A cohort study (during the years 1996-2007) was conducted in a general practitioners research database with a longitudinal electronic record
Heckmann, J G; Duran, J C; Galeoto, J
The Chiquitano tribe lives in the southern Amazonas region in Bolivia, remote from larger towns. Data on the epidemiology of neurological disorders are completely lacking. A combined prospective-retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence and annual incidence of major neurological diseases. In an one-year prospective study 1514 individuals (total population 5652) who consulted the general practitioner were interviewed and examined for neurological disturbances. These histories were analysed retrospectively by a neurologist and classified according the diagnosis key of the DGN. During a one-year period (April 1995-March 1996), 139 patients suffering from neurological diseases were seen (one-year incidence and prevalence 2.45%). Cervical and lumbosacral pain syndromes were the most common neurological problems; these were caused by sleeping in hammocks, and by hard agricultural labour. Tropical myositis (12.9%) was very frequent and the most frequent muscle disease. Epilepsy was found in 11 patients and extrapyramidal syndromes in 2 patients. Regarding epilepsy, a high dark rate is assumed because of social and cultural traditions. Strokes are rare, since many risk factors are not present. All cases of meningitis were lethal and clearly demonstrated infrastructural problems. Patients with social diseases (AIDS, drug- and alcohol addiction, injuries caused by violence) were rarely seen. In a shrinking world, and with the development of "Tropical Neurology" as a specialised discipline neuroepidemiological data are increasingly important for two reasons. First of all, they sensitise neurologists to this topic, and secondly, they can be used to estimate the need for neurologists serving the Third World's minority populations.
Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van den Brink, Wim; Smit, Johannes H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Introduction: Depressive and anxiety disorders may predict first incidence of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. This study aims to identify those persons who are at an increased risk of developing alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence by considering the heterogeneity of depressive and anxiety
Boschloo, L.; Vogelzangs, N.; van den Brink, W.; Smit, J.H.; Veltman, D.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.
Introduction: Depressive and anxiety disorders may predict first incidence of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. This study aims to identify those persons who are at an increased risk of developing alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence by considering the heterogeneity of depressive and anxiety
Huang, Shih-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Yang, Te-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung
Nonapnea sleep disorders (NASDs) are associated with an increased risk of stroke, diabetes, and hypertension. No longitudinal study has yet examined the association between NASD and chronic kidney disease (CKD) by using epidemiologic study methods. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of NASD on the incidence of CKD in a large population-based retrospective cohort study. Based on a retrospective cohort study of a general population sample of 128 to 436 patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2001, 42 to 812 NASD patients were followed up for 10.2 ± 3.12 years, and additional 85 to 624 individuals had no NASD at baseline. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification was used to identify the diagnosis of disease. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the association between NASD and subsequent CKD risk. The incidence rate of CKD was significantly higher in the NASD cohort than in the comparison cohort (2.68 vs 1.88 per 1000 person-years, respectively). After we adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risk of developing CKD was significant for patients with NASD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.22; P types of NASDs, patients with sleep disturbance associated disorders had a 14% increased risk of developing CKD (95% CI = 1.03-1.26; P < 0.01), whereas patients with insomnia had a 13% increased risk of subsequent CKD (95% CI = 1.02-1.25; P < 0.05) compared with the non-NASD cohort. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the CKD-free rate was 1% lower in the NASD cohort than in the comparison cohort (log-rank test, P < 0.0001). Our study provides evidence that patients with NASD have an increased risk of developing subsequent CKD compared with patients without NASD; men, elderly people, and patients with concomitant comorbidities are at the greatest
Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined...... for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental...... the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks...
Full Text Available Translucent flesh of mangosteen normally occurs during fruit ripening. Rainfall, after water stress, enhanced on-tree mature green fruit to develop translucent flesh disorder more frequently. Thus, this research pursued the effect of applied water on translucent flesh disorder development. The on-tree mature green stage fruits were selected and wrapped with 3 layers of fabric sheet. After that, water was continuously dropped (flow rate of 0.6 ml/min on the wrapped sheet for 0, 1, and 2 days before picking. The results showed that duration time of water applying enhanced the increasing of water absorption significantly in peel. All of water-treated fruits ripened within 2-3 days after harvest and obviously had high lignin in secondary cell wall. It was hypothesized that lignification played an important role in hypoxia defense mechanism since the Na2CO3-SP fractionation extracted from alcohol insoluble residue (AIR of translucent flesh aril was higher than those of normal aril. This Na2CO3-SP reinforced the strength of cell wall complexity as well as displaying the translucency character. Hence, we concluded that the capillary water (took place in intercellular air space of fruit pericarp induced hypoxia tolerance mechanism that triggered translucent flesh disorder in mangosteen aril.
Pinhas, Leora; Morris, Anne; Crosby, Ross D; Katzman, Debra K
To document and describe the incidence and age-specific presentation of early-onset restrictive eating disorders in children across Canada. Surveillance study. Cases were ascertained through the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program by surveying approximately 2453 Canadian pediatricians (a 95% participation rate) monthly during a 2-year period. Canadian pediatric practices. Pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists. A description of clinical presentations and characteristics of eating disorders in this population and the incidence of restrictive eating disorders in children. The incidence of early-onset restrictive eating disorders in children aged 5 to 12 years seen by pediatricians was 2.6 cases per 100 000 person-years. The ratio of girls to boys was 6:1, and 47.1% of girls and 54.5% of boys showed signs of growth delay. Forty-six percent of children were below the 10th percentile for body mass index, 34.2% were initially seen with unstable vital signs, and 47.2% required hospital admission. Only 62.1% of children met criteria for anorexia nervosa. Although children with anorexia nervosa were more likely to be medically compromised, some children who did not meet criteria for anorexia nervosa were equally medically unstable. Young children are seen with clinically significant restrictive eating disorders, with the incidence exceeding that of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These eating disturbances can result in serious medical consequences, ranging from growth delay to unstable vital signs, which can occur in the absence of weight loss or other restrictive eating disorder symptoms.
Li, Jie; Wang, Deren; Tao, Wendan; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Jie; Liu, Ming
Little is known about the incidence and risk factors of early consciousness disorder (ECD) in patients with acute ischemic stroke, or about how ECD may affect complications and outcomes. Patients admitted to our hospital within 24 h of onset of acute ischemic stroke were consecutively enrolled. ECD was evaluated clinically and using the Glasgow coma scale. Multivariate analysis was used to identify risk factors of ECD, as well as associations between ECD and clinical outcomes. Of the 569 patients enrolled, 199 (35 %) had ECD. Independent risk factors of ECD were advanced age (OR 1.027, 95 % CI 1.007 to 1.048), National Institutes of Health Stroke Score on admission (OR 1.331, 95 % CI 1.257 to 1.410), and massive cerebral infarct (OR 3.211, 95 % CI 1.642 to 6.279). ECD was associated with higher frequency of stroke-related complications (83.4 % vs. 31.1 %, P stroke. Risk factors include advanced age, stroke severity, and massive cerebral infarct. ECD is associated with higher frequency of stroke-related complications and 3-month death/disability.
Full Text Available Rhesus-positive and Rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. The biological function of the RhD molecule is unknown. Its structure suggests that the molecular complex with RhD protein transports NH3 or CO2 molecules across the erythrocyte cell membrane. Some data indicate that RhD positive and RhD negative subjects differ in their tolerance to certain biological factors, including, Toxoplasma infection, aging and fatique. Present cross sectional study performed on 3,130 subjects showed that Rhesus negative subjects differed in many indices of their health status, including incidences of many disorders. Rhesus negative subjects reported to have more frequent allergic, digestive, heart, hematological, immunity, mental health, and neurological problems. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for, for example, by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem.
Smink, F R E; van Hoeken, D; Donker, G A; Susser, E S; Oldehinkel, A J; Hoek, H W
Whether the incidence of eating disorders in Western, industrialized countries has changed over time has been the subject of much debate. The purpose of this primary-care study was to examine changes in the incidence of eating disorders in The Netherlands during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. A nationwide network of general practitioners (GPs), serving a representative sample (~1%) of the total Dutch population, recorded newly diagnosed patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in their practice during 1985-1989, 1995-1999, and 2005-2009. GPs are key players in the Dutch healthcare system, as their written referral is mandatory in order to get access to specialized (mental) healthcare, covered by health insurance. Health insurance is virtually universal in The Netherlands (99% of the population). A substantial number of GPs participated in all three study periods, during which the same case identification criteria were used and the same psychiatrist was responsible for making the final diagnoses. Incidence rates were calculated and for comparison between periods, incidence rate ratios. The overall incidence rate of BN decreased significantly in the past three decades (from 8.6 per 100,000 person-years in 1985-1989 to 6.1 in 1995-1999, and 3.2 in 2005-2009). The overall incidence of AN remained fairly stable during three decades, i.e. 7.4 per 100,000 person-years in 1985-1989, 7.8 in 1995-1999, and 6.0 in 2005-2009. The incidence rate of BN decreased significantly over the past three decades, while the overall incidence rate of AN remained stable.
Havinga, Petra J; Boschloo, Lynn; Bloemen, Annelene J P; Nauta, Maaike H; de Vries, Sybolt O; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Schoevers, Robert A; Hartman, Catharina A
Early recognition of individuals at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders is key in influencing onset and course of these disorders. Parental history is a potent risk factor for the development of these disorders in offspring. However, knowledge about the magnitude of this risk is limited as large-scale longitudinal studies with a follow-up into adulthood are scarce. Those offspring at highest risk may possibly be identified by easy-to-determine parental psychiatric characteristics, family context, and offspring characteristics. From 2000-2002, we recruited 523 offspring (age 13-25 years) of 366 patients who had received specialized treatment for depressive and/or anxiety disorder. Offspring DSM-IV mood (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) were assessed at baseline and at 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year follow-up. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of mood and/or anxiety disorder was 38.0% at age 20 years and 64.7% at age 35 years. Parental early disorder onset (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.77), having 2 affected parents (HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.27), and offspring female gender (HR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.74-3.15) were independent predictors of offspring mood and/or anxiety disorder. Balanced family functioning (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96) was found to be protective against offspring risk. Offspring of depressed and anxious patients are at very high risk of a mood and/or anxiety disorder themselves. Parental early onset, having 2 affected parents, female gender, and family functioning are important additional markers that can be used in clinical practice to identify those offspring at greatest risk. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Khan, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada; Ahmad, Mushtaq
Digestive disorders (DDs) causes indisposition and lead to death, especially in the underdeveloped world where hygienic conditions are scarce. A major proportion of the human populace depends on the use of traditional knowledge about the consumption of medicinal plants for many diseases, including DDs. The contemporary study summarizes the indigenous uses of Wild Edible Fruits (WEFs) of Swat Valley used for DDs and to evaluate the bio-efficacy of these pharmacologically essential fruit species from the available literature. An ethnomedicinal study was conducted in Swat valley, Northern Pakistan. Data was collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and local people by means of personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires, giving value to both rural and urban communities. The ethnomedicinal knowledge was quantitatively analysed using various indices like Familiarity Index (FI), Consensus index (CI), Informant consensus factor (ICF) and the present data was compared with previous studies in the neighbouring areas using Jaccard similarity coefficient (JI). The present study recorded use reports on 53 WEFs of ethnomedicinal prominence in the treatment of DDs, belonging to 23 families. The recurrent growth forms were trees (51%) shrubs (38%) and herbs (11%). High consumption of fruits (50%), leaves (27%) and flowers (12%) was recorded. The traditional preparations were mostly in the form of unprocessed dried/fresh, powder, Juice and decoction and were usually taken orally. Almost 20-30% of the plants occurred in synanthropic vegetation while more than 75% were found in natural woodland and grassland vegetation. Family Berberidaceae dominated with highest FIV (41) followed by Punicaceae (38), Oxalidaceae (36) and Moraceae (35). ICF values for carminative (0.6) showed high consensus factor followed by anthelmintic, gastroenteritis and intestinal disorders (0.5). FI value is high for Berberis lycium (0.5), Morus alba (0.5), Morus nigra
Behrendt, Silke; Bühringer, Gerhard; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja
Comorbid internalizing mental disorders in alcohol use disorders (AUD) can be understood as putative independent risk factors for AUD or as expressions of underlying shared psychopathology vulnerabilities. However, it remains unclear whether: 1) specific latent internalizing psychopathology risk-profiles predict AUD-incidence and 2) specific latent internalizing comorbidity-profiles in AUD predict AUD-stability. To investigate baseline latent internalizing psychopathology risk profiles as predictors of subsequent AUD-incidence and -stability in adolescents and young adults. Data from the prospective-longitudinal EDSP study (baseline age 14-24 years) were used. The study-design included up to three follow-up assessments in up to ten years. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the DIA-X/M-CIDI. To investigate risk-profiles and their associations with AUD-outcomes, latent class analysis with auxiliary outcome variables was applied. AUD-incidence: a 4-class model (N=1683) was identified (classes: normative-male [45.9%], normative-female [44.2%], internalizing [5.3%], nicotine dependence [4.5%]). Compared to the normative-female class, all other classes were associated with a higher risk of subsequent incident alcohol dependence (p<0.05). AUD-stability: a 3-class model (N=1940) was identified with only one class (11.6%) with high probabilities for baseline AUD. This class was further characterized by elevated substance use disorder (SUD) probabilities and predicted any subsequent AUD (OR 8.5, 95% CI 5.4-13.3). An internalizing vulnerability may constitute a pathway to AUD incidence in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, no indication for a role of internalizing comorbidity profiles in AUD-stability was found, which may indicate a limited importance of such profiles - in contrast to SUD-related profiles - in AUD stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schreuer, N; Lifshitz, Y; Weiss, P L
Typing in the work setting, with its emphasis on speed, force and repetitive movements and its tendency to be performed under less than optimum conditions has been one of the major causes of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorder (CTD). This disorder, also known as overuse syndrome, is a chronic condition believed to result from habitual overuse of the digits, hands or arms. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between typing habits, specifically the influence of typing frequency, speed and style, on the incidence of injury. One hundred Israeli female typists aged between 20 and 60 years with no prior history of orthopedic or neurological disease participated in the study. Data collection took place at the work setting and consisted of a clinical evaluation of the upper extremities and trunk, a typing test, and a questionnaire which included questions concerning demographic information, occupational history, and upper extremity usage in the home and at work. Subjects were asked whether they had suffered from pain or other symptoms in the upper extremity (shoulder, arm, forearm, elbow or hand) on more than three occasions in the last year or on one occasion lasting more than a week. Subjects who answered no to this question were designated as 'non-sufferers'. Those who answered yes to the question were designated 'sufferers'. The 100 women who participated in the study represented a wide range of ages and educational levels. The variables describing on-the-job performance showed a wide range of values. Similar variability was found in the anthropometric variables. On the basis of the subjective criterion, 40 of the women belonged to the group labeled 'sufferers'. The remaining 60 subjects belonged to the group of 'non-sufferers'. The Odd's ratio test (OR), a common statistical procedure for risk factor estimation, was used to determine threshold levels associated with the development of CTD. Age, hours worked per week, typing speed, and
Vaccarino, Viola; Goldberg, Jack; Rooks, Cherie; Shah, Amit J; Veledar, Emir; Faber, Tracy L; Votaw, John R; Forsberg, Christopher W; Bremner, J Douglas
The aim of this study was to determine whether post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) using a prospective twin study design and objective measures of CHD. It has long been hypothesized that PTSD increases the risk of CHD, but empirical evidence using objective measures is limited. We conducted a prospective study of middle-aged male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Among twin pairs without self-reported CHD at baseline, we selected pairs discordant for a lifetime history of PTSD, pairs discordant for a lifetime history of major depression, and pairs without either condition. All underwent a clinic visit after a median follow-up of 13 years. Outcomes included clinical events (myocardial infarction, other hospitalizations for CHD and coronary revascularization) and quantitative measures of myocardial perfusion by [(13)N] ammonia positron emission tomography, including a stress total severity score and coronary flow reserve. A total of 562 twins (281 pairs) with a mean age of 42.6 years at baseline were included in this study. The incidence of CHD was more than double in twins with PTSD (22.6%) than in those without PTSD (8.9%; p Stress total severity score was significantly higher (+95%, p = 0.001) and coronary flow reserve was lower (-0.21, p = 0.02) in twins with PTSD than in those without PTSD, denoting worse myocardial perfusion. Associations were only mildly attenuated in 117 twin pairs discordant for PTSD. Among Vietnam-era veterans, PTSD is a risk factor for CHD. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Independent Preharvest Applications of Methyl Jasmonate and Chitosan Elicit Differential Upregulation of Defense-Related Genes with Reduced Incidence of Gray Mold Decay during Postharvest Storage of Fragaria chiloensis Fruit
Gabriela M. Saavedra
Full Text Available The Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis fruit has interesting organoleptic properties, but its postharvest life is affected by gray mold decay caused by Botrytis cinerea. The effect of preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA or chitosan on the molecular defense-related responses and protection against gray mold decay were investigated in Chilean strawberry fruit during postharvest storage. Specifically, we inoculated harvested fruit with B. cinerea spores and studied the expression of genes encoding for the pathogenesis-related (PR proteins β-1,3-glucanases (FcBG2-1, FcBG2-2 and FcBG2-3 and chitinases (FcCHI2-2 and FcCHI3-1, and for polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (FcPGIP1 and FcPGIP2 at 0, 2, 24, 48, and 72 h post inoculation (hpi. Remarkably, MeJA- and chitosan-treated fruit exhibited a lower incidence of B. cinerea infection than the control-treated at 48 and 72 hpi. At the molecular level, both are efficient elicitors for priming in F. chiloensis fruit since we observed an upregulation of the FcBG2-1, FcBG2-3, FcPGIP1, and FcPGIP2 at 0 hpi. Moreover, a chitosan-mediated upregulation of FcPGIPs at early times post inoculation (2–24 hpi and MeJA upregulated FcBGs (24–72 hpi and FcPGIP1 at later times could contribute to reduce B. cinerea incidence by differential upregulation of defense genes. We concluded that preharvest applications of MeJA or chitosan had a long-lasting effect on the reduction of B. cinerea incidence during postharvest as well as an enhancer effect on the induction of PR and PGIP gene expression.
Independent Preharvest Applications of Methyl Jasmonate and Chitosan Elicit Differential Upregulation of Defense-Related Genes with Reduced Incidence of Gray Mold Decay during Postharvest Storage of Fragaria chiloensis Fruit.
Saavedra, Gabriela M; Sanfuentes, Eugenio; Figueroa, Pablo M; Figueroa, Carlos R
The Chilean strawberry ( Fragaria chiloensis ) fruit has interesting organoleptic properties, but its postharvest life is affected by gray mold decay caused by Botrytis cinerea . The effect of preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or chitosan on the molecular defense-related responses and protection against gray mold decay were investigated in Chilean strawberry fruit during postharvest storage. Specifically, we inoculated harvested fruit with B. cinerea spores and studied the expression of genes encoding for the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins β-1,3-glucanases ( FcBG2-1 , FcBG2-2 and FcBG2-3 ) and chitinases ( FcCHI2-2 and FcCHI3-1 ), and for polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins ( FcPGIP1 and FcPGIP2 ) at 0, 2, 24, 48, and 72 h post inoculation (hpi). Remarkably, MeJA- and chitosan-treated fruit exhibited a lower incidence of B. cinerea infection than the control-treated at 48 and 72 hpi. At the molecular level, both are efficient elicitors for priming in F. chiloensis fruit since we observed an upregulation of the FcBG2-1 , FcBG2-3 , FcPGIP1, and FcPGIP2 at 0 hpi. Moreover, a chitosan-mediated upregulation of FcPGIP s at early times post inoculation (2-24 hpi) and MeJA upregulated FcBG s (24-72 hpi) and FcPGIP1 at later times could contribute to reduce B. cinerea incidence by differential upregulation of defense genes. We concluded that preharvest applications of MeJA or chitosan had a long-lasting effect on the reduction of B. cinerea incidence during postharvest as well as an enhancer effect on the induction of PR and PGIP gene expression.
Pallaskorpi, Sanna; Suominen, Kirsi; Ketokivi, Mikko; Valtonen, Hanna; Arvilommi, Petri; Mantere, Outi; Leppämäki, Sami; Isometsä, Erkki
Few long-term studies on bipolar disorder (BD) have investigated the incidence and risk factors of suicide attempts (SAs) specifically related to illness phases. We examined the incidence of SAs during different phases of BD in a long-term prospective cohort of bipolar I (BD-I) and bipolar II (BD-II) patients, and risk factors specifically for SAs during major depressive episodes (MDEs). In the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS), 191 BD-I and BD-II patients were followed using life-chart methodology. Prospective information on SAs of 177 patients (92.7%) during different illness phases was available up to 5 years. The incidence of SAs and their predictors were investigated using logistic and Poisson regression models. Analyses of risk factors for SAs occurring during MDEs were conducted using two-level random-intercept logistic regression models. During the 5 years of follow-up, 90 SAs per 718 patient-years occurred. The incidence was highest, over 120-fold higher than in euthymia, during mixed states (765/1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 461-1269 person-years), and also very high in MDEs, almost 60-fold higher than in euthymia (354/1000 person-years; 95% CI 277-451 person-years). For risk of SAs during MDEs, the duration of MDEs, severity of depression, and cluster C personality disorders were significant predictors. We confirmed in this long-term study that the highest incidences of SAs occur in mixed and major depressive illness phases. The variations in incidence rates between euthymia and illness phases were remarkably large, suggesting that the question "when" rather than "who" may be more relevant for suicide risk in BD. However, risk during MDEs is likely also influenced by personality factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pilver, Corey E; Libby, Daniel J; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated gender-related differences in the associations between problem-gambling severity and substance-use disorders; however, these associations have not been examined longitudinally. We aimed to examine the prospective associations between problem-gambling severity and incident substance-use disorders in women versus men. Analyses were conducted using Wave-1 and Wave-2 NESARC data focusing on psychiatric diagnoses from 34,006 non-institutionalized US adults. Inclusionary criteria for pathological gambling were used to categorize Wave-1 participants as at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG) and non-ARPG (i.e. non-gambling/low-frequency gambling/low-risk gambling). Dependent variables included the three-year incidence of any substance-use disorder, alcohol-use disorders, nicotine dependence, drug-use disorders, prescription drug-use disorders, and illicit drug-use disorders. Significant gender-by-ARPG status interactions were observed with respect to the three-year incidence of nicotine dependence and prescription drug-use disorders, and approached significance with respect to incident alcohol-use disorders. ARPG (relative to non-ARPG) was positively associated with nicotine dependence among women (OR=2.00; 95% CI=1.24-3.00). ARPG was negatively associated with incident prescription drug-use disorders among men (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.10-0.88)). Finally, ARPG was positively associated with incident alcohol-use disorders among men (OR=2.20; 95% CI=1.39-3.48). Gambling problems were associated with an increased 3-year incidence of nicotine dependence in women and alcohol dependence in men. These findings highlight the importance of considering gender in prevention and treatment initiatives for adults who are experiencing gambling problems. Moreover, the specific factors underlying the differential progressions of specific substance-use disorders in women and men with ARPG warrant identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights
Storch, Eric A.; Nadeau, Joshua M.; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Mutch, P. Jane; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.
This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child…
The first aim of this thesis was to investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain in adolescents an a Swedish county and whether there were differences in patient age and gender and in treatment given for TMD pain by dentists in Public Dental Service (PDS) clinics. The epidemiological variable TMD-S was introduced in the PDS in Ostergötland County, Sweden, in 2000 and is recorded for all adolescents aged 12-19 at the annual routine examination. Self-reported TMD pain in this investigation was based upon the response of the subjects to two questions: (1) Do you have pain in your temples, face, temporomandibular joint, or jaws once a week or more? and (2) Do you have pain when you open your mouth wide or chew, once a week or more? Dental records of 200 patients with TMD pain were randomly selected from the population to evaluate treatment given for TMD. Among 28,899 participating adolescents, 4.2% reported TMD pain. Prevalence increased with age, a significant difference was seen between boys and girls, and 34% of patients with TMD pain received TMD-relared treatment in dental clinics. The second aim was to evaluate the reliability and validity of self-reported TMD pain in 120 adolescents, 60 with self-reported TMD pain and 60 age- and sex-matched controls without TMD pain. All adolescents were examined twice at a PDS clinic. At the first examination, self-reported TMD pain was recorded for each patient. At the second examination, a clinical examination was made blind to the patients' self-report of pain symptoms, after which self-reported TMD pain was again recorded. The clinical examination was based upon the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). Test-retest reliability of 0.83 (kappa) was found for the two questions. Sensitivity was 0.98 and specificity 0.90 for assessments made on the same day and 0.96 and 0.83, respectively, for assessments made 2-4 weeks apart. The third aim was to evaluate incidence, by age and gender, and
Ani, Cornelius; Reading, Richard; Lynn, Richard; Forlee, Simone; Garralda, Elena
Little is known about conversion disorder in childhood. To document clinical incidence, features, management and 12-month outcome of non-transient conversion disorder in under 16-year-olds in the U.K. and Ireland. Surveillance through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Surveillance System. In total, 204 cases (age range 7-15 years) were reported, giving a 12-month incidence of 1.30/100 000 (95% CI 1.11-1.52). The most common symptoms were motor weakness and abnormal movements. Presentation with multiple symptoms was the norm. Antecedent stressors were reported for 80.8%, most commonly bullying in school. Most children required in-patient admission with frequent medical investigations. Follow-up at 12 months was available for 147 children, when all conversion disorder symptoms were reported as improved. Most families (91%) accepted a non-medical explanation of the symptoms either fully or partially. Childhood conversion disorder represents an infrequent but significant clinical burden in the UK and Ireland.
Weyerer, S; Häfner, H
In 1965, Häfner et al. (1969) conducted an ecological study of the incidence of treated mental disorders in the industrial city of Mannheim. They found large variations in incidence rates in 20 urban areas: excess morbidity in the socially disorganized areas located mainly in the city center, and low rates in areas on the outskirts. This study incorporates additional data from the Cumulative Psychiatric Case Register established in Mannheim in 1973. It focuses on the short- and long-term stability of the spatial distribution of mental disorders comparing the year 1965 with the period 1974-80, and analysing the individual years from 1974-80. Despite marked changes between 1965 and the seventies (the increase in the number of guest workers; the development of extensive building and urban renewal programs; the establishment of the Central Institute of Mental Health and several community psychiatric services after 1975), the ecological correlation remained relatively high (r = 0.79). Prior to the establishment of the Central Institute of Mental Health, the spatial distribution of mental disorders in the year 1974 was also very similar to that in 1965 (r = 0.73). In general, the study revealed a highly stable ecological distribution of treated mental disorders not only on a long-term basis, but also for the individual years from 1974 to 1980.
Associations of Leisure-Time and Occupational Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Incident and Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder, Depressive Symptoms, and Incident Anxiety in a General Population.
Baumeister, Sebastian E; Leitzmann, Michael F; Bahls, Martin; Dörr, Marcus; Schmid, Daniela; Schomerus, Georg; Appel, Katja; Markus, Marcello R P; Völzke, Henry; Gläser, Sven; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen
Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness may help prevent depression and anxiety. Previous studies have been limited by error-prone measurements. We examined whether self-reported physical activity domains and peak exercise capacity (peakVO₂) are associated with incident and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms, and anxiety disorders. This was a prospective population-based study of 1,080 adult men and women (25-83 years) with a median follow-up of 4.5 years and measures of physical activity during leisure time, sports, and work (Baecke questionnaire); a measure of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II); symptom-limited cycle ergometer testing (peakVO₂, oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold [VO₂@AT], maximum power output at peak exertion); and a structured psychiatric interview (Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview). Baseline data were collected between 2002 and 2006, and follow-up data, between 2007 and 2010. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and waist circumference, the relative risks for incident MDD per standard deviation (SD) increase in leisure-time physical activity, physical activity during sport, physical activity at work, peakVO₂, VO₂@AT, and maximum power output were 1.002 (95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.12), 1.02 (0.90 to 1.15), 0.94 (0.80 to 1.10), 0.71 (0.52 to 0.98), 0.83 (0.66 to 1.04), and 0.71 (0.52 to 0.96), respectively. PeakVO₂, VO₂@AT, and maximum power output were associated with recurrent MDD, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. PeakVO₂ was more strongly related to the co-occurrence of MDD and anxiety (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.45 [0.24 to 0.84]) than depression or anxiety alone (OR = 0.71 [0.53 to 0.94]). Greater cardiorespiratory fitness but not domain-specific physical activity was associated with a lower incidence of MDD and clinical anxiety. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
van Suijlekom-Smit Lisette WA
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing proportion of skin diseases encountered in general practice represents a substantial part of morbidity in children. Only limited information is available about the frequency of specific skin diseases. We aimed to compare incidence rates of skin diseases in children in general practice between 1987 and 2001. Methods We used data on all children aged 0–17 years derived from two consecutive surveys performed in Dutch general practice in 1987 and 2001. Both surveys concerned a longitudinal registration of GP consultations over 12 months. Each disease episode was coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care. Incidence rates of separate skin diseases were calculated by dividing all new episodes for each distinct ICPC code by the average study population at risk. Data were stratified for socio-demographic characteristics. Results The incidence rate of all skin diseases combined in general practice decreased between 1987 and 2001. Among infants the incidence rate increased. Girls presented more skin diseases to the GP. In the southern part of the Netherlands children consulted their GP more often for skin diseases compared to the northern part. Children of non-Western immigrants presented relatively more skin diseases to the GP. In general practice incidence rates of specific skin diseases such as impetigo, dermatophytosis and atopic dermatitis increased in 2001, whereas warts, contact dermatitis and skin injuries decreased. Conclusion The overall incidence rate of all skin diseases combined in general practice decreased whereas the incidence rates of bacterial, mycotic and atopic skin diseases increased.
Riihimäki, K; Vuorilehto, M; Melartin, T; Haukka, J; Isometsä, E
No previous study has prospectively investigated incidence and risk factors for suicide attempts among primary care patients with depression. In the Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study, a stratified random sample of 1119 patients was screened for depression, and Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV used to diagnose Axis I and II disorders. A total of 137 patients were diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive disorder. Altogether, 82% of patients completed the 5-year follow-up. Information on timing of suicide attempts, plus major depressive episodes (MDEs) and partial or full remission, or periods of substance abuse were examined with life charts. Incidence of suicide attempts and their stable and time-varying risk factors (phases of depression/substance abuse) were investigated using Cox proportional hazard and Poisson regression models. During the follow-up there were 22 discrete suicide attempts by 14/134 (10.4%) patients. The incidence rates were 0, 5.8 and 107 during full or partial remission or MDEs, or 22.2 and 142 per 1000 patient-years during no or active substance abuse, respectively. In Cox models, current MDE (hazard ratio 33.5, 95% confidence interval 3.6-309.7) was the only significant independent risk factor. Primary care doctors were rarely aware of the suicide attempts. Of the primary care patients with depressive disorders, one-tenth attempted suicide in 5 years. However, risk of suicidal acts was almost exclusively confined to MDEs, with or without concurrent active substance abuse. Suicide prevention among primary care patients with depression should focus on active treatment of major depressive disorder and co-morbid substance use, and awareness of suicide risk.
Allen, Susan; Casey, Jackie
Introduction Children with developmental coordination disorder or sensory processing and integration difficulties face challenges to participation in daily living. To date there has been no exploration of the co-occurrence of developmental coordination disorders and sensory processing and integration difficulties. Method Records of children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ? V criteria for developmental coordination disorder (n?=?93) age 5 to 12 years were examined. Data on motor ski...
Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary
Following a review of research literature on eating disorders and the fitness image, the report finds that five socio-cultural influences have been associated with the increase and prevalence of eating disorders: the pressure to be thin; glorification of youth; the changing role of females; media image and marketing of the super woman; and the…
Carder, Melanie; McNamee, Roseanne; Turner, Susan; Hodgson, John Timothy; Holland, Fiona; Agius, Raymond M
To determine UK trends (from 1996 to 2009) in incidence of work-related mental ill-health and musculoskeletal disorders, for all industry as well as for health and social care employees. Second, to investigate whether there may have been a recent shift from a physical to psychological perspective in how patients present their illness by comparing reporting trends for back pain and 'other work stress'. Multilevel models were used to investigate changes in incidence of work-related illness, as diagnosed by specialist physicians. The dependent variable comprised case reports to The Health and Occupation Research network. Comparisons were made between medical specialties, industry (health and social care vs all other employees), gender and diagnosis. Trends for Occupational Physicians' (OP) reporting mental ill-health (average annual increase +3.7% (95% CI +2.2% to +5.2%)) differed significantly (ptime period (-5.9% (95% CI -7.6% to -4.2%)). For OPs' reporting, the rate of increase was greater for females and for health and social care employees. A fall in incidence of musculoskeletal disorders for OPs of -5.8% (95% CI -7.3% to -4.3%) and rheumatologists' reporting -6.6% (95% CI -8.3% to -4.8%) was found, with little variation by gender or industry. Within health and social care, an increase in incidence of 'other work stress' was accompanied by a similar decrease in 'spine/back pain'. The evidence presented is consistent with a shift in the presentation of ill-health from a physical to psychological perspective, although changes in hazards, prevention measures and physician awareness should also be considered as explanations.
Teresa A May-Benson
Full Text Available As the diagnosis of sensory processing disorder (SPD is advanced, it is important to investigate potential contributing factors to this disorder as well as early diagnostic signs. An exploratory descriptive study, utilizing retrospective chart review, was conducted to investigate the incidence of pre-, peri- and post-natal, birth and developmental problems in a sample of 1000 children with SPD and of 467 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, who also had SPD. This study revealed that although no one factor was strongly associated with SPD or ASD, an average of seven events for children with SPD and eight events for children with ASD occurred across categories. These included: one pre-natal/pregnancy problem, delivery complication, assisted delivery, gestational or birth-related injury/illness; one or more early childhood illnesses or injuries; two or more infancy/early childhood developmental problems; and one or more delayed early childhood developmental milestones. When comparing results to national studies of the typical population, most remarkable was the incidence of jaundice, three to four times higher in both the SPD and ASD groups than in typical children. In addition, rates of breech position, cord wrap/ prolapse, assisted delivery methods (particularly forceps and suction deliveries, and high birth-weight were greater in both groups. Incidence of premature birth was higher in the ASD although not significantly different from the SPD group. Also of note was a high frequency of absent or brief crawling phase, and high percentages of problems with ear infections, allergies, and maternal stresses during pregnancy.
Full Text Available Today, the violations of the digestive system in children of the first years of life remain the actual problem of practical pediatrics and are the common cause for parents to visit a doctor. The importance in the genesis of functional disorders of the digestive system in children of this age may belongs to lactase deficiency. 327 children from Lviv were included in the questionnaire survey. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of clinical symptoms that may be associated with lactase deficiency in infants. Among the clinical symptoms in young children, according to the survey, regurgitation and colic, stool disorders dominated. The diagnosis of lactase deficiency was established in 3.4 % (11 of children, 2.8 % (9 children received enzyme of lactase.
Allen, Susan; Casey, Jackie
Children with developmental coordination disorder or sensory processing and integration difficulties face challenges to participation in daily living. To date there has been no exploration of the co-occurrence of developmental coordination disorders and sensory processing and integration difficulties. Records of children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - V criteria for developmental coordination disorder ( n = 93) age 5 to 12 years were examined. Data on motor skills (Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2) and sensory processing and integration (Sensory Processing Measure) were interrogated. Of the total sample, 88% exhibited some or definite differences in sensory processing and integration. No apparent relationship was observed between motor coordination and sensory processing and integration. The full sample showed high rates of some difficulties in social participation, hearing, body awareness, balance and motion, and planning and ideation. Further, children with co-morbid autistic spectrum disorder showed high rates of difficulties with touch and vision. Most, but not all, children with developmental coordination disorder presented with some difficulties in sensory processing and integration that impacted on their participation in everyday activities. Sensory processing and integration difficulties differed significantly between those with and without co-morbid autistic spectrum disorder.
Kühl, Johanne Olivia Grønne; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Thorup, Anne; Nordentoft, Merete
We aimed to examine changes over time in the incidence of broad and narrow schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Patients were classified as incident schizophrenia if registered with a first time in- or outpatient contact with relevant diagnostic codes in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register between 2000 and 2012. Their history of contacts was traced back to 1969. Broad schizophrenia included schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, persistent delusional disorder, acute and transient psychotic disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and other nonorganic and unspecified psychotic disorders, (ICD 10 codes F20-F29). Narrow schizophrenia was defined with the ICD 10 codes F20.0-F20.9. Incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated using Poisson regression. The IRR for broad schizophrenia increased by 1.43 (CI 95% 1.34-1.52) for females and 1.26 (CI 95% 1.20-1.33) for males. IRR for narrow schizophrenia increased by 1.36 (CI 95% 1.24-1.48) for females and 1.20 (CI 95% 1.11-1.29) for males. There was a significantly increased incidence in patients up to 32years of age. This was mainly explained by a significant 2-3 fold increase in outpatient incidence. We found a significant decrease in IRR for patients with broad and narrow schizophrenia aged 33 or older for both in- and outpatients. The increased incidence of schizophrenia could partly be explained by better implementation of the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia in child and adolescent psychiatry and improved access to early intervention services, but a true increase in incidence of schizophrenia cannot be excluded. The decrease of incidence in the older age group could indicate that the national Danish early intervention strategy was successful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
W. Veling (Wim); J.-P. Selten (Jean-Paul); E. Susser (Ezra); W. Laan (Winfried); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H.W. Hoek (Hans)
textabstractBackground: It is well established now that the incidence of schizophrenia is extremely high for several ethnic minority groups in western Europe, but there is considerable variation among groups. We investigated whether the increased risk among these groups depends upon the degree to
Veling, Wim; Selten, Jean-Paul; Susser, Ezra; Laan, Winfried; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hoek, Hans W.
BACKGROUND: It is well established now that the incidence of schizophrenia is extremely high for several ethnic minority groups in western Europe, but there is considerable variation among groups. We investigated whether the increased risk among these groups depends upon the degree to which they
Campayo, Antonio; de Jonge, Peter; Roy, Juan F.; Saz, Pedro; de la Camara, Concepcion; Quintanilla, Miguel A.; Marcos, Guillermo; Santabarbara, Javier; Lobo, Antonio
Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that clinically significant depression detected in a population sample increases the risk of diabetes mellitus. The authors examined the effect of characteristics of depression frequently found in the community on the risk of incident
Lescure, François-Xavier; Omland, Lars Haukali Hvass; Engsig, Frederik Neess
The risk of neurocognitive disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is controversial. We aimed to compare the incidence and impact on mortality of severe neurocognitive disorders (SNCDs) in HIV-infected patients...
Watson, Hunna J.; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Berg, Cecilie Knoph; Torgersen, Leila; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Background The objective of this study was to validate previously published rates of remission, continuation, and incidence of broadly defined eating disorders during pregnancy. The previous rate modeling was done by our group (Bulik et al. 2007) and yielded participants halfway into recruitment of the planned 100,000 pregnancies in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. This study aimed to internally validate the findings with the completed cohort. Methods 77267 pregnant women enrolled at 17 weeks gestation between 2001 and 2009 were included. Participants were split into a “training” sample (n=41243) based on participants in the MoBa version 2 dataset of the original study and a “validation” sample (n=36024) comprising individuals in the MoBa version 5 dataset that were not in the original study (Bulik et al. 2007). Internal validation of all original rate models involved fitting a calibration model to compare model parameters between the “training” and “validation” samples as well as bootstrap estimates of bias in the entire version 5 dataset. Results Remission, continuation, and incidence estimates from the “training” sample remained stable when evaluated via a split sample validation procedure. Pre-pregnancy prevalence estimates in the “validation” sample were 0.1% for anorexia nervosa, 1.0% for bulimia nervosa (BN), 3.3% for binge eating disorder (BED), and 0.1% for purging disorder (EDNOS-P). In early pregnancy, estimates were 0.2% for BN, 4.8% for BED, and eating disorders during pregnancy. Eating disorders during pregnancy were relatively common, occurring in nearly 1 in every 20 women, although almost all were cases of BED. Pregnancy was a window of remission from BN but a window of vulnerability for onset and continuation of BED. Training to detect the signs and symptoms of eating disorders by obstetricians/gynecologists and interventions to enhance pregnancy and neonatal outcomes
Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Virtanen, M; Stansfeld, S A
Prior research on work-related factors in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders has been concentrated on job control, job demands and social support. To broaden the view to managerial procedures, we examined whether the extent to which employees are treated with equity in the workplace predicts their mental health. Organizational equity refers to decision-making procedures, which are consistently applied, open, correctable and include input from affected parties (procedural justice). It also refers to respectful and considerate treatment of individuals by supervisors (relational justice). A cohort of 1786 female hospital employees with no psychiatric disorder at baseline responded to a questionnaire on organizational equity. From the responses, both an individual score and a work unit mean score were assigned to each participant. The outcome was new reports of doctor-diagnosed psychiatric disorders during the 2-year follow-up. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were corrected for clustering of the data. After adjustment for age and salary, odds ratio of new psychiatric disorders for self-reported low procedural justice was 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2). Corresponding odds ratio for low procedural justice, as assessed with work unit mean scores, was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.0). These associations remained statistically significant after additional adjustment for mental distress at baseline and job control, job demands and social support. Relational justice did not predict psychiatric disorders. Research on organizational equity provides new information about potential work-related determinants of mental health. Low procedural justice seems to be an independent risk factor for psychiatric disorders in female employees.
Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Albor, Yesica; Casanova, Leticia; Orozco, Ricardo; Curiel, Teresa; Fleiz, Clara; Medina-Mora, María Elena
Half of mental disorders have their first onset before adulthood when the presence of a disorder may be particularly disruptive to developmental milestones. Retrospective prevalence estimates have been shown to underestimate the burden of mental illness and scarce data are available on the incidence of disorders throughout the adolescent period, especially in developing countries. Thus, the objective was to determine the incidence of mental disorders in an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood, onset of service use and their predictors in a Mexican cohort. 1071 respondents from a representative two-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. Disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. 37.9% experienced the onset of a psychiatric disorder and 28.4% sought services for the first time. Substance use disorders had the greatest incidence, followed by mood and behavior disorders, anxiety disorders and lastly eating disorders. Sex, age, school dropout, childhood adversities and prior mental disorders predicted the onset of new disorders. Being female, having more educated parents and most classes of disorder predicted first time service use. These findings contribute to a paradigm shift in conceptions of mental disorder similar to how we think of common physical afflictions as near universal experiences across the life course, but less frequent at any given moment. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable. Therefore, public health policy should focus on early universal promotion of positive mental health and structural determinants of mental health.
S. I. Samaei
Conclution: According to results, ROSA assessment method is an efficient tool in the classification and identification of factors affecting the incidence of MSDs among office workers. Performing corrective measures in the dangerous work stations (the second level identified by ROSA technique, reducing the duration of computer use per day, and doing regular sport activities can be noted in order to decrease the prevalence of MSDs in the study group (office workers.
Zeiss, Robert A.; And Others
Following World War I, researchers began to study psychological and behavior problems resulting from war experiences. Today these problems are defined as Posttraumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD). The PTSD problems of Vietnam veterans have been widely reported but less is known about World War II and Korean veterans. A study was undertaken to examine…
Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.
Kaergaard, A.; Andersen, JH
for two main neck-shoulder disorders were defined: rotator cuff tendinitis and myofascial pain syndrome. A baseline control group consisted of 357 women with varied non-repetitive work. RESULTS: At baseline the overall prevalence of myofascial pain syndrome and rotator cuff tendinitis was 15.2% and 5...... ratio (PR)=2.54; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.28 to 5.05) when adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, living alone with children, job strain, and social support from colleagues and supervisors. Only one of 13 participants with rotator cuff tendinitis at baseline recovered during follow up...... with children. CONCLUSION: Rotator cuff tendinitis showed a higher degree of persistence than myofascial pain syndrome. Both disorders highly influenced the perception of general health. Women who lived alone with children, were smokers, or experienced low support from colleagues and supervisors had a higher...
Bijl, R.V.; Graaf, R. de; Ravelli, A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.
Background Prospective studies in the general population are needed to identify risk factors for mental disorders. Samples of sufficient size are needed, but large-scale studies that assess the incidence of psychopathology are rare. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the 12-month first
Berglund, A; Johannsen, T H; Stochholm, K
STUDY QUESTION: What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER: 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status...... was inferior on outcome parameters such as education and long-term income. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: 46,XX DSD males are rare and estimates of prevalence and incidence are limited. An increased morbidity and mortality as well as a negatively affected socioeconomic status are described in males with Klinefelter...... diagnosed 46,XX DSD males only, conclusions cannot be extended to non-diagnosed 46,XX DSD males. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This study provides a new insight into trajectory of health and socioeconomic status of 46,XX DSD males. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was funded by research...
de Heer, Eric W; Have, Margreet Ten; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Dekker, Jack; Graaf, Ron de; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M
Pain might be an important risk factor for common mental disorders. Insight into the longitudinal association between pain and common mental disorders in the general adult population could help improve prevention and treatment strategies. Data were used from the first two waves of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2, a psychiatric epidemiological cohort study among the Dutch general population aged 18-64 years at baseline (N=5,303). Persons without a mental disorder 12 months prior to baseline were selected as the at-risk group (n=4,974 for any mood disorder; n=4,979 for any anxiety disorder; n=5,073 for any substance use disorder). Pain severity and interference due to pain in the past month were measured at baseline using the Short Form Health Survey. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed at both waves using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Moderate to very severe pain was associated with a higher risk for mood (OR=2.10, 95%CI=1.33-3.29) or anxiety disorders (OR=2.12, 95%CI=1.27-3.55). Moderate to very severe interference due to pain was also associated with a higher risk for mood (OR=2.14, 95%CI=1.30-3.54) or anxiety disorders (OR=1.92, 95%CI=1.05-3.52). Pain was not significantly associated with substance use disorders. No interaction effects were found between pain severity or interference due to pain and a previous history of mental disorders. Moderate to severe pain and interference due to pain are strong risk factors for first-incident or recurrent mood and anxiety disorders, independent of other mental disorders. Pain management programs could therefore possibly also serve as a preventative program for mental disorders.
Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate
Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and...
Jackson, James C.; Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D.; Hughes, Christopher G.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Kiehl, Amy L.; Elstad, Mark R.; Wasserstein, Mitzi L.; Goodman, Richard B.; Beckham, Jean C.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Dittus, Robert S.; Ely, E. Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P.
Rationale: The incidence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience have not been reported in a mixed veteran and civilian cohort. Objectives: To describe the incidence and risk factors for ICU-related PTSD in veterans and civilians. Methods: This is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort enrolling adult survivors of critical illness after respiratory failure and/or shock from three Veterans Affairs and one civilian hospital. After classifying those with/without preexisting PTSD (i.e., PTSD before hospitalization), we then assessed all subjects for ICU-related PTSD at 3 and 12 months post hospitalization. Measurements and Main Results: Of 255 survivors, 181 and 160 subjects were assessed for ICU-related PTSD at 3- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. A high probability of ICU-related PTSD was found in up to 10% of patients at either follow-up time point, whether assessed by PTSD Checklist Event-Specific Version (score ≥ 50) or item mapping using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). In the multivariable regression, preexisting PTSD was independently associated with ICU-related PTSD at both 3 and 12 months (P < 0.001), as was preexisting depression (P < 0.03), but veteran status was not a consistent independent risk factor for ICU-related PTSD (3-month P = 0.01, 12-month P = 0.48). Conclusions: This study found around 1 in 10 ICU survivors experienced ICU-related PTSD (i.e., PTSD anchored to their critical illness) in the year after hospitalization. Preexisting PTSD and depression were strongly associated with ICU-related PTSD. PMID:26735627
Holma, K Mikael; Melartin, Tarja K; Haukka, Jari; Holma, Irina A K; Sokero, T Petteri; Isometsä, Erkki T
Prospective long-term studies of risk factors for suicide attempts among patients with major depressive disorder have not investigated the course of illness and state at the time of the act. Therefore, the importance of state factors, particularly time spent in risk states, for overall risk remains unknown. In the Vantaa Depression Study, a longitudinal 5-year evaluation of psychiatric patients with major depressive disorder, prospective information on 249 patients (92.6%) was available. Time spent in depressive states and the timing of suicide attempts were investigated with life charts. During the follow-up assessment period, there were 106 suicide attempts per 1,018 patient-years. The incidence rate per 1,000 patient-years during major depressive episodes was 21-fold (N=332 [95% confidence interval [CI]=258.6-419.2]), and it was fourfold during partial remission (N=62 [95% CI=34.6-92.4]) compared with full remission (N=16 [95% CI=11.2-40.2]). In the Cox proportional hazards model, suicide attempts were predicted by the months spent in a major depressive episode (hazard ratio=7.74 [95% CI=3.40-17.6]) or in partial remission (hazard ratio=4.20 [95% CI=1.71-10.3]), history of suicide attempts (hazard ratio=4.39 [95% CI=1.78-10.8]), age (hazard ratio=0.94 [95% CI=0.91-0.98]), lack of a partner (hazard ratio=2.33 [95% CI=0.97-5.56]), and low perceived social support (hazard ratio=3.57 [95% CI=1.09-11.1]). The adjusted population attributable fraction of the time spent depressed for suicide attempts was 78%. Among patients with major depressive disorder, incidence of suicide attempts varies markedly depending on the level of depression, being highest during major depressive episodes. Although previous attempts and poor social support also indicate risk, the time spent depressed is likely the major factor determining overall long-term risk.
Wu, XiuYun; Bastian, Kerry; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul
Studies among youth suggest that physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and poor diet quality are associated with poor mental health. Few population-based studies have investigated these relationships longitudinally. We examined the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and diet quality in childhood and the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders throughout adolescence. We linked health behavior survey data from 2003 among 10- to 11-year-old children across Nova Scotia, Canada, with administrative health care data from 2003 to 2011. Students' diet quality was assessed using the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were self-reported, and internalizing and externalizing disorders were diagnosed by a physician. We applied Cox regression to examine the associations of the health behaviors with the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders between 2003 and 2011. Of the 4861 participating students, 23.7% and 9.4% had a diagnosis of internalizing and externalizing disorders, respectively. The incidences of internalizing and externalizing disorders were higher among students who were less physically active and spent more time using computers and video games. These findings suggest that promoting an active lifestyle in childhood may contribute to the prevention of both internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Rohde, Paul
We examined the prevalence, incidence, impairment, duration, and course for the proposed DSM-5 eating disorders in a community sample of 496 adolescent females who completed annual diagnostic interviews over 8-years. Lifetime prevalence by age 20 was 0.8% for anorexia nervosa (AN), 2.6% for bulimia nervosa (BN), 3.0% for binge eating disorder (BED), 2.8% for atypical AN, 4.4% for subthreshold BN, 3.6% for subthreshold BED, 3.4% for purging disorder (PD); with a combined prevalence of 13.1% (5...
Nixon, Reginald David Vandervord; Sterk, Jisca; Pearce, Amanda
The present study compared the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with trauma-focused cognitive therapy (without exposure; CT) for children and youth with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children and youth who had experienced single-incident trauma (N = 33; 7-17 years old) were randomly assigned to receive 9 weeks of…
Jensen, Christina Mohr; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet
This study investigated time trends and associated factors of incidence rates of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan from 1995 to 2010, using data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. First time diagnosis of childhood autism, atypical autism, Asperger's syndrome, or pervasive developmental…
Jangam, Kavita; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Tansa, K A; Aravind Raj, E; Bhowmick, Paramita
Childhood abuse has been recognized as a precursor and a maintaining factor for adult psychopathology. There are very few studies that have investigated the incidence of childhood abuse in adult women with psychiatric disorders. Hence, this current investigation is an attempt to study and compare the incidence of childhood abuse (physical, emotional and sexual) among women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders to healthy women. Using consecutive sampling, women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders (N=609) and a group of age-education matched healthy women (N=100) were recruited for the study from a tertiary mental health-care hospital in India. The participants were screened for childhood abuse using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Retrospective (ICAST)-R (I-CAST R, International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) and The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2009). Emotional abuse was significantly more common among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (ppsychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (p=0.07). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on physical and sexual abuse (all p>0.13). There was no statistically significant difference in all three types of abuse across disorder categories, though the report was more among women with severe mental disorders. Women with psychiatric disorders reported more emotional and overall abuse compared with healthy women. Sexual and physical abuse was similar in both groups. It is likely that more emotional abuse predisposes these women to psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tan, Si; Li, Mingxia; Ding, Xiaobo; Fan, Shengjie; Guo, Lu; Gu, Ming; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Li; Jiang, Dong; Li, Yiming; Xi, Wanpeng; Huang, Cheng; Zhou, Zhiqin
Obesity is a nutritional disorder associated with many health problems such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-metabolic disorder effects of kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle) fruit extract (FME) on high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6 obese mice. The kumquat fruit was extracted with ethanol and the main flavonoids of this extract were analyzed by HPLC. For the preventive experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet (Chow), high-fat diet (HF), and high-fat diet with 1% (w/w) extract of kumquat (HF+FME) for 8 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet for 3 months to induce obesity. Then the obese mice were divided into two groups randomly, and fed with HF or HF+FME for another 2 weeks. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, serum and liver lipid levels were assayed and the white adipose tissues were imaged. The gene expression in mice liver and brown adipose tissues were analyzed with a quantitative PCR assay. In the preventive treatment, FME controlled the body weight gain and the size of white adipocytes, lowered the fasting blood glucose, serum total cholesterol (TC), serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels as well as liver lipid contents in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, FME decreased the serum triglyceride (TG), serum TC, serum LDL-c, fasting blood glucose levels and liver lipid contents, improved glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Compared with the HF group, FME significantly increased the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes. Our study suggests that FME may be a potential dietary supplement for preventing and ameliorating the obesity and obesity-related metabolic disturbances.
Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert; Knoph Berg, Cecilie; Torgersen, Leila; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
We explored the course of broadly defined eating disorders during pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. A total of 41,157 pregnant women, enrolled at approximately 18 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. We collected questionnaire-based diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN), and bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). EDNOS subtypes included binge eating disorder (BED) and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P). We explored rates of remission, continuation and incidence of BN, BED and EDNOS-P during pregnancy. Prepregnancy prevalence estimates were 0.1% for AN, 0.7% for BN, 3.5% for BED and 0.1% for EDNOS-P. During early pregnancy, estimates were 0.2% (BN), 4.8% (BED) and 0.1% (EDNOS-P). Proportions of individuals remitting during pregnancy were 78% (EDNOS-P), 40% (BN purging), 39% (BED), 34% (BN any type) and 29% (BN non-purging type). Additional individuals with BN achieved partial remission. Incident BN and EDNOS-P during pregnancy were rare. For BED, the incidence rate was 1.1 per 1000 person-weeks, equating to 711 new cases of BED during pregnancy. Incident BED was associated with indices of lower socio-economic status. Pregnancy appears to be a catalyst for remission of some eating disorders but also a vulnerability window for the new onset of broadly defined BED, especially in economically disadvantaged individuals. Vigilance by health-care professionals for continuation and emergence of eating disorders in pregnancy is warranted.
Full Text Available Background: Current findings suggest that the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD ranges widely between countries. A major reason for this wide range of prevalence is how cases of DCD are identified. Gender differences in level of motor competence in children with movement difficulties may play a key role in the choice of type of intervention. Objective: The aim of the study was to reveal the prevalence of significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD in Czech children aged 11 to 15. At the same time we wanted to assess possible gender differences in different types of the movement difficulties. Methods: A total sample of 507 children (age 11-15 years, 262 boys, 245 girls from all Czech regions was included. The MABC-2 test was used for the identification of movement difficulties with different severity. Children whose total test score (TTS was ≤ 15th percentile were considered at risk for having DCD (children with rDCD. Children whose TTS was ≤ 5th percentile were considered as having significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. An analysis of gender differences of children with rDCD in MABC-2 motor components and tests were carried out. Results: From the entire sample, 33 participants (22 boys, 11 girls were identified as at risk of having DCD (rDCD. 1.4% of the total sample met the criterion for significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. 5.1% of the total sample met the criterion for identification of the risk for having movement difficulties. Almost twice as high predisposition for the occurrence of movement difficulties was revealed in boys as compared to girls in a population of children with rDCD (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.16-2.74. Girls with rDCD performed better in manual dexterity with a medium effect of the gender (Cohen's d = 0.58, whereas boys with rDCD achieved better results in aiming and catching also with a
Thorup, Anne A E; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine
as a reference group. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for offspring diagnosed with a mental disorder by parental mental disorder were calculated. Results: Offspring of parents with SMI showed increased IRR for all diagnoses of child and adolescent mental disorders compared to the reference group. Offspring...... with bipolar disorder the IRR was 2.29 (CI: 2.09-2.50, N = 502), with a father 1.77 (CI: 1.74-1.87, N = 320), whereas the IRR was 2.96 (CI: 2.63-3.34, N = 264) if both parents had unipolar depression. Discussion: Offspring of parents with a SMI have a higher risk of being diagnosed with any child...
Peralta, Gabriela P; Forns, Joan; García de la Hera, Manuela; González, Llúcia; Guxens, Mònica; López-Vicente, Mónica; Sunyer, Jordi; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
To analyze associations between time spent sleeping, watching TV, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and engaging in physical activity, all at 4 years, and (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and (2) behavior problems, both assessed at 7 years, in ADHD-free children at baseline. In total, 817 participants of the Infancia y Medio Ambiente birth cohort, without ADHD at baseline, were included. At the 4-year follow-up, parents reported the time that their children spent sleeping, watching TV, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and engaging in physical activity. At the 7-year follow-up, parents completed the Conners' Parent Rating Scales and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which measure ADHD symptoms and behavior problems, respectively. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess associations between the activities at 4 years and ADHD symptoms and behavior problems at 7 years. Children (48% girls) spent a median (p25-p75) of 10 (10-11) hours per day sleeping, 1.5 (0.9-2) hours per day watching TV, 1.4 (0.9-1.9) hours per day engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and 1.5 (0.4-2.3) hours per day engaging in physical activity. Longer sleep duration (>10 hours per day) was associated with a lower ADHD symptom score (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.00). Longer time spent in cognitively stimulating activities (>1 hours per day) was associated with lower scores of both ADHD symptoms (0.96, 0.94-0.98) and behavior problems (0.89, 0.83-0.97). Time spent watching TV and engaging in physical activity were not associated with either outcomes. A shorter sleep duration and less time spent in cognitively stimulating activities were associated with an increased risk of developing ADHD symptoms and behavior problems.
Geller, Elizabeth J.; Babb, Emma; Nackley, Andrea G.; Zolnoun, Denniz
Study Objective Our aim was to assess incidence and risk factors for pelvic pain after pelvic mesh implantation. Design Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Setting Single university hospital. Patients Women who have undergone surgery with pelvic mesh implant for treatment of pelvic floor disorders including prolapse and incontinence. Interventions Telephone interviews to assess pain, sexual function, and general health. Measurements and Main Results Pain was measured by the McGill Short-Form Pain Questionnaire for somatic pain, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory for neuropathic pain, Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness for somatization, and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) for sexual health and dyspareunia. General health was assessed with the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Among 160 enrolled women, mean time since surgery was 20.8 ± 10.5 months, mean age was 62.1 ± 11.2 years, 93.8% were white, 86.3% were postmenopausal, and 3.1% were tobacco users. Types of mesh included midurethral sling for stress incontinence (78.8%), abdominal/robotic sacrocolpopexy (35.7%), transvaginal for prolapse (6.3%), and perirectal for fecal incontinence (1.9%), with 23.8% concomitant mesh implants for both prolapse and incontinence. Our main outcome, self-reported pelvic pain at least 1 year after surgery, was 15.6%. Women reporting pain were younger, with fibromyalgia, worse physical health, higher somatization, and lower surgery satisfaction (all p pelvic pain correlated with early postoperative pelvic pain (p pelvic pain after pelvic mesh implant surgery, with decreased sexual function. Risk factors included younger age, fibromyalgia, early postoperative pain, poorer physical health, and somatization. Understanding risk factors for pelvic pain after mesh implantation may improve patient selectionq. PMID:27773810
Bitton, Jonathan Y; Demos, Michelle; Elkouby, Katia; Connolly, Mary; Weiss, Shelly K; Donner, Elizabeth J; Whiting, Sharon; Ronen, Gabriel M; Bello-Espinosa, Luis; Wirrell, Elaine C; Mohamed, Ismail S; Dooley, Joseph M; Carmant, Lionel
Infantile spasms (IS) are a severe form of childhood epilepsy associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in up to 35% of cases. The objective of this post hoc analysis of our randomized control trial was to determine whether rapid diagnosis and treatment of IS could limit the incidence of ASD while identifying risk factors related to ASD outcome. Patients with IS were randomized in a standardized diagnostic and treatment protocol. Clinical and electroencephalogram (EEG) evaluations were completed at all eight visits over 5 years, while cognitive evaluations were administered at 0, 6, 24 and 60 months, respectively. Autism was initially screened by means of the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) at 24 months, and formally assessed at the 30-and 60-month follow-ups using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G). Of the 69 patients included in the study, 25 could not be assessed due to severe delay or death. Eleven of the 42 patients screened with CHAT, were found to be at risk of an ASD outcome. ADOS was performed in 44 and 10 were diagnosed with ASD. The CHAT proved to correlate highly with the ADOS (80% ppv). Only patients with symptomatic IS developed ASD (p = 0.003). Earlier diagnosis or successful treatment did not correlate with a reduced rate of ASD. Other risk factors were identified such as having chronic epileptic discharges in the frontotemporal areas after disappearance of hypsarrhythmia (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007) and being of nonwhite origin (p = 0.009). ASD was only observed in children with sympyomatic IS. Other clinical risk factors include chronic frontotemporal epileptic activity and being of non-white origin. Early diagnosis and treatment did not prevent ASD as an outcome of IS. However, patients at risk for ASD could be identified early on and should in the future benefit from early intervention to potentially improve their long-term outcome. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.
Rosling, Agneta; Salonen Ros, Helena; Swenne, Ingemar
Aims To study the 1-year outcome and to analyse predictors of outcome of a cohort of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) or restrictive eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOSr) treated as out-patients in a family-based programme at a specialized eating disorder service. To calculate the incidence of anorexia nervosa among treatment-seeking girls younger than 18 in Uppsala County from 2004 to 2006. Methods A total of 168 female patients were offered treatment, and 141 were followed-up 1 year after starting treatment, 29 with AN and 112 with EDNOSr. Results Of the 29 girls who initially had AN, 6 (20%) had a good outcome and were free of any form of eating disorder at follow-up; only 1 (3%) had AN. Of the patients with EDNOSr, 54 (48%) had a good outcome and were free of eating disorders. Three (3%) had a poor outcome and had developed AN. The incidence of AN was 18/100,000 person-years in girls younger than 12 and 63/100,000 in girls younger than 18. Conclusion Restrictive eating disorders, including AN, in children and adolescents can be successfully treated in a family-based specialized out-patient service without in-patient care.
Incidência de Colletotrichum spp. em frutos de Coffea arabica L. em diferentes estádios fisiológicos e tecidos do fruto maduro Incidence of Colletotrichum spp. in Coffea arabica L. fruits at different physiological stages and tissues mature of berries
Josimar Batista Ferreira
populations can infect plant and cause disease or colonize plants in an endophytic form. This study was carried out with the objective to verify the presence of Colletotrichum spp. in different stages of development of coffee fruits and in the exocarp plus mesocarp, endocarp and endosperm of ripe fruits. In Fruits from the cultivars Catuaí Amarelo and Vermelho, Icatu, Topázio, Katipó, Rubi, Acaiá Cerrado and Mundo Novo came from the experimental farm the of Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. In the developing young fruits Colletotrichum spp. occurred at the average incidence of 86.6%. The highest incidence, 94.4% was observed in fruits from Topázio and Rubi cultivars, and the lowest incidences were 72.8% and 78.4%, in fruits from Icatu and Mundo Novo cultivars, respectively. Incidence of Colletotrichum spp. in the tissues of coffee berries varied according to the cultivar and the type of infected tissue. Based on exocarp plus mesocarp infection, the cultivars Topázio, Rubi, Acaiá Cerrado and Icatu were colonized with 84.72%, 79.16%, 77.77% and 48.6%, respectively. In relation to endocarp the maximum colonization was of 9.72% in cultivar Rubi and lower percentage of colonization was observed in Acaiá Cerrado with 1.39%. In relation to endosperm, the maximum colonization was observed in Rubi cultivar with 8.33% and lower percentage of colonization was observed in Mundo Novo and Katipó cultivars, both with 1.39%. Colletotrichum spp. was present in the seeds of all cultivars studied.
Simut, Ramona E.; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Peca, Andreea; Van de Perre, Greet; Vanderborght, Bram
Social robots are thought to be motivating tools in play tasks with children with autism spectrum disorders. Thirty children with autism were included using a repeated measurements design. It was investigated if the children's interaction with a human differed from the interaction with a social robot during a play task. Also, it was examined if…
Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron
Much is unclear about the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol use (disorder). Research on this subject is hindered by the role of conduct disorder (CD). We investigate whether (1) childhood ADHD is associated with higher prevalence and earlier onset of
Bennett, Derrick A; Brayne, Carol; Feigin, Valery L; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Brainin, Michael; Davis, Daniel; Gallo, Valentina; Jetté, Nathalie; Karch, André; Kurtzke, John F; Lavados, Pablo M; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Nagel, Gabriele; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Rothwell, Peter M; Svenson, Lawrence W
Incidence and prevalence studies of neurological disorders play an extremely important role in hypothesis-generation, assessing the burden of disease and planning of health services. However, the assessment of disease estimates is hindered by the poor quality of reporting for such studies. We developed the Standards of Reporting of Neurological Disorders (STROND) guideline in order to improve the quality of reporting of neurological disorders from which prevalence, incidence, and outcomes can be extracted for greater generalisability. The guideline was developed using a 3-round Delphi technique in order to identify the 'basic minimum items' important for reporting, as well as some additional 'ideal reporting items.' An e-consultation process was then used in order to gauge opinion by external neuroepidemiological experts on the appropriateness of the items included in the checklist. The resultant 15 items checklist and accompanying recommendations were developed using a similar process and structured in a similar manner to the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist for ease of use. This paper presents the STROND checklist with an explanation and elaboration for each item, as well as examples of good reporting from the neuroepidemiological literature. The introduction and use of the STROND checklist should lead to more consistent, transparent and contextualised reporting of descriptive neuroepidemiological studies that should facilitate international comparisons, and lead to more accessible information for multiple stakeholders, ultimately supporting better healthcare decisions for neurological disorders.
Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Yang, Dalong; Wang, Tao; Liu, Sen; Yang, Sidong; Ding, Wenyuan
The purpose of this study was to explore incidence and risk factors of adjacent segment disease (ASD) following posterior decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders, and hope to provide references in decision making and surgical planning for both spinal surgeon and surgically treated patients.By retrieving the medical records from January 2011 to December 2013 in our hospital, 237 patients were retrospectively reviewed. According to the occurrence of ASD at follow up, patients were divided into 2 groups: ASD and N-ASD group. To investigate risk values for the occurrence of ASD, 3 categorized factors were analyzed statistically: Patient characteristics: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), duration. Surgical variables: surgical strategy, number of fusion level, surgery segment, surgery time, blood loss, intraoperative superior facet joint violation. Radiographic parameters: preoperative lumbar lordosis, preoperative angular motion at adjacent segment, preoperative adjacent segment disc degeneration, preoperative paraspinal muscle degeneration.Postoperative ASD was developed in 15 of 237 patients (6.3%) at final follow up. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in patient characteristics of age, sex composition, BMD, duration, while the BMI was higher in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. There was no difference in surgical variables of surgical strategy, number of fusion level, surgery segment, surgery time, blood loss, while intraoperative superior facet joint violation was more common in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. There was no difference in radiographic parameters of preoperative lumbar lordosis, preoperative paraspinal muscle degeneration, while preoperative adjacent segment disc degeneration were more severe in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. The Logistic regression analysis revealed that, BMI >25 kg/m, preoperative disc degeneration, and superior facet joint
Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M; Dinesen, Peter T
The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a nutritional disorder associated with many health problems such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-metabolic disorder effects of kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle fruit extract (FME on high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6 obese mice. METHODS: The kumquat fruit was extracted with ethanol and the main flavonoids of this extract were analyzed by HPLC. For the preventive experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet (Chow, high-fat diet (HF, and high-fat diet with 1% (w/w extract of kumquat (HF+FME for 8 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet for 3 months to induce obesity. Then the obese mice were divided into two groups randomly, and fed with HF or HF+FME for another 2 weeks. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, serum and liver lipid levels were assayed and the white adipose tissues were imaged. The gene expression in mice liver and brown adipose tissues were analyzed with a quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS: In the preventive treatment, FME controlled the body weight gain and the size of white adipocytes, lowered the fasting blood glucose, serum total cholesterol (TC, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c levels as well as liver lipid contents in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, FME decreased the serum triglyceride (TG, serum TC, serum LDL-c, fasting blood glucose levels and liver lipid contents, improved glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Compared with the HF group, FME significantly increased the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that FME may be a potential dietary supplement for preventing and ameliorating the obesity and obesity-related metabolic disturbances.
Effect of Calcium Borogluconate Injection pre and Immediately Postpartum on Production Performance, Incidence of Metabolic Disorders and Situation of the Uterus After Calving in Cows Fed Anionic Diets
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of calcium borogluconate injection 48 and 24 hours prepartum and immediately after parturition on dry matter intake at day of calving, milk yield, incidence of metabolic disorders and uterine conditions during the first 21 days postpartum in cows fed anionic diets. Thirty six lactating dairy cows were balanced by parity (1, 2, 3+ and allocated to 4 subcutaneous injection treatments of 15.2 gr calcium as borogluconate at different times pre and postpartum than expected calving date . Group 1 consisted of 9 cows receiving no treatment before or after parturition. Group 2 consisted of 9 cows receiving calcium borogluconate 48 h prepartum.Group 3 consisted of 9 cows receiving calcium borogluconate 24 h prepartum. Group 4 consisted of 9 cows receiving 15.2 gr of ca as borogluconate immediately postpartum. Dry matter intake was in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 10.87, 12.32, 12.63 and 15.03 kg in the first 24 h after calving, respectively And indicated significantly difference among treatments. milk yield in 2, 3 and 4 treatments was significantly greater than group 1 in the first 21 days of lactation (38.7, 38.9, 40.3 vs 36.07 kg/d. Treatment had a significant effect on the subclinical hypocalcemia incidence so incidence risk of subclinical hypocalcemia in 1 treatment was 10 times more likely than 4 treatment. Data regression analysis indicated that 4 treatment had a significant effect on the ketosis incidence. So that the cows no calcium injection 2.43 times more likely to experience ketosis than 4 treatment. But experimental treatments were not significantly effect on the incidence of milk fever, displacement abomasum, retained placenta, metritis and endometritis. In general, calcium injection, especially immediately after parturation increased the dry matter intake in day of calving and reduced metabolic disorders such as hypocalcaemia and ketosis.
Mohr Jensen, Christina; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
To investigate time trends in incidence rates of first-time diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a nationwide sample aged 4-65 years across 16 years and identify potential contributing factors to these time trends. Incidence rates of first-time diagnosed ADHD based on ICD-10 criteria in Danish psychiatric hospitals per 100,000 person years (PY) were calculated for the total population, the 2 sexes, and 4 age groups using data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry and annual census data. Time trends and the role of contributing factors were analyzed and identified using joinpoint regression procedures by calculating annual percent changes for the time period 1995-2010. A total of 20,281 patients were diagnosed with ADHD and incidence rates increased from 7.3 to 91.2 per 100,000 PY during the study period. Joinpoint analysis suggested that incidence rates for diagnosed ADHD rapidly increased from 1998 to 2002, peaked from 2002 to 2008, and slowed down from 2008 to 2010. Contributing factors to the observed time trends were a general increase in patients seen in psychiatry for any mental disorder and an increased awareness and recognition of ADHD in females, adolescents, and adults. These results provide empirical data needed in the public and professional debate often based on theoretical rather than empirical arguments. Results support the notion of increasing incidence rates of diagnosed ADHD and identify that contributing factors are a general increase in the number of patients assessed in psychiatry and an increased recognition of females, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Stice, Eric; Marti, C Nathan; Rohde, Paul
We examined prevalence, incidence, impairment, duration, and course for the proposed DSM-5 eating disorders in a community sample of 496 adolescent females who completed annual diagnostic interviews over 8 years. Lifetime prevalence by age 20 was 0.8% for anorexia nervosa (AN), 2.6% for bulimia nervosa (BN), 3.0% for binge eating disorder (BED), 2.8% for atypical AN, 4.4% for subthreshold BN, 3.6% for subthreshold BED, 3.4% for purging disorder (PD), and combined prevalence of 13.1% (5.2% had AN, BN, or BED; 11.5% had feeding and eating disorders not elsewhere classified; FED-NEC). Peak onset age was 19-20 for AN, 16-20 for BN, and 18-20 for BED, PD, and FED-NEC. Youth with these eating disorders typically reported greater functional impairment, distress, suicidality, mental health treatment, and unhealthy body mass index, though effect sizes were relatively smaller for atypical AN, subthreshold BN, and PD. Average episode duration in months ranged from 2.9 for BN to 11.2 for atypical AN. One-year remission rates ranged from 71% for atypical AN to 100% for BN, subthreshold BN, and BED. Recurrence rates ranged from 6% for PD to 33% for BED and subthrehold BED. Diagnostic progression from subthreshold to threshold eating disorders was higher for BN and BED (32% and 28%) than for AN (0%), suggesting some sort of escalation mechanism for binge eating. Diagnostic crossover was greatest from BED to BN. Results imply that the new DSM-5 eating disorder criteria capture clinically significant psychopathology and usefully assign eating disordered individuals to homogeneous diagnostic categories. © 2013 American Psychological Association
Štuhec, Matej; Švab, Vesna; Locatelli, Igor
To estimate prevalence and incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents in Slovenia using different epidemiological models. Data from the National Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia for the period 1997-2012 were analyzed. The database includes the annual number of newly diagnosed outpatients with ADHD in Slovenia. The evaluation for ADHD diagnoses was done in accordance with the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) outpatient data codes. In model 1, a linear increase was proposed to fit the data in the period from 1997 to 2003 in order to extrapolate the data before 1997. In model 2 and 3, an exponential increase in the annual incidence rate was proposed. The incidence rate of ADHD diagnosis in 1997 was 0.032% and in 2012 it increased to 0.082%. Mean prevalence rate was 750 (95% confidence interval: 660-840) per 100 000 children and adolescents. It was estimated that the prevalence rate in 2020 would be 1% (95% confidence interval: 0.875-1.125), which is 6.3-fold higher than in 1997. ADHD is a common mental health disorder among Slovenian children and adolescents, but it remained underdiagnosed compared with Western countries. Our results indicated a need for improved timely interventions in Slovenia, not only in child and adolescent psychiatry but also in primary settings and adult psychiatry, where ADHD should be more efficiently recognized.
Rattenborg, Erik; Chriél, Mariann; Dietz, Hans H.
The distribution of gastrointestinal disorders in mink in Danish farms is presented based on data collected in a longitudinal design. The time at risk was from weaning in June until pelting in November. The occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders after weaning of the mink kits together with the ...
Wu, Lei; Sun, Dali; He, Yao
Previous epidemiological studies have provided inconsistent conclusions on the impact of coffee consumption in the developing of cognitive disorders. However, no previous meta-analysis has pooled the evidence from the prospective cohort studies to assess the influence of coffee drinking and its potential dose-response patterns on the risk of developing cognitive disorders specifically. Two databases (PubMed and Embase) were searched for evidence of cohort studies from inception to February 2016. We used a generic inverse-variance method with a random-effects model to pool the fully adjusted relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the dose-response analyses, a generalized least-squares trend estimation model was applied to computing the study-specific slopes. Nine prospective cohort studies involving 34,282 participants were included in our study. The duration of follow-up years ranged from 1.3 to 28. Compared with coffee was inversely linked with the occurrence of cognitive disorders (i.e., Alzheimer's disease, dementia, cognitive decline, and cognitive impairment), and the pooled RR (95% CI) was 0.82 (0.71, 0.94) with evidence of non-significant heterogeneity (I 2 = 25%). Non-significant differences were presented for the association between coffee consumption (>3 vs. coffee consumption. A "J-shaped" association was presented between coffee intake and incident cognitive disorders, with the lowest risk of incident cognitive disorders at a daily consumption level of 1-2 cups of coffee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
[Prevalence and incidence studies of voice disorders among teaching staff of La Rioja, Spain. Clinical study: questionnaire, function vocal examination, acoustic analysis and videolaryngostroboscopy].
Preciado, J; Pérez, C; Calzada, M; Preciado, P
The aim of this study was calculate the prevalence and incidence of voice disorders among teaching staff of La Rioja, Spain. We carried out a transversal study of voice disorders in teaching staff of La Rioja (a random sample of 931 of 3113 teachers) and a longitudinal study (we collect the new cases during the 3 years which lasts the study). 527 teachers of random sample took part of study: 332 female (63%) and 195 male (37%). All of teachers fill in a standard questionnaire, ENT and function vocal examination, videolaryngostroboscopy and acoustic analysis with MDVP. The prevalence of voice disorders among La Rioja Teachers was 57%: 20.3% for organic lesions [nodular lesions (14%), polyps (2%), submucous suffusions (1.4%), edema Reinke (1.2%) Sulcus (0.4%), scalp (0.6%), leucoplasia (0.2%) vocal cord paralysis (0.2%)] 8.1% for chronic laryngitis [not specific (2.8%), smoke (3.9%) gastroe-sofageal reflux (2.5%)] and 29% for functional lesions [hyperfunctional dysphonia (7.5%) hypofunctional dysphonia (0.4%) vocal overefforts (18%) hyperplasia false cords (2.8)]. The incidence rate was 4 new cases each 1000 teachers and year. Organic lesions were more prevalent in women (25.4%) than in men (9.5%), but functional lesions and chronic laryngitis were more prevalent in men (36.5% and 13.2%) than in women (24% and 5%).
Andreas, Sylke; Haerter, Martin; Volkert, Jana; Hausberg, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rabung, Sven; Ausin, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Lelliott, Paul; Munoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan
Background The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of me...
Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets
Matsuoka, Michiko; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Iwasaki, Mizue; Iemura, Akiko; Yamashita, Yushiro; Maeda, Masaharu; Kitani, Shingo; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Uchimura, Naohisa; Matsuishi, Toyojiro
The aim of the present school-based questionnaire was to analyze the sleep problems of children with developmental disorders, such as pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The sleep problems of 43 children with developmental disorders were compared with those of 372 healthy children (control group). All children attended one public elementary school in Kurume, Japan; thus, the study avoided the potential bias associated with hospital-based surveys (i.e. a high prevalence of sleep disturbance) and provided a more complete picture of the children's academic performance and family situation compared with a control group under identical conditions. Children's sleep problems were measured with the Japanese version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Children with developmental disorders had significantly higher total CSHQ scores, as well as mean scores on the parasomnias and sleep breathing subscales, than children in the control group. The total CSHQ score, bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and daytime sleepiness worsened with increasing age in children with developmental disorders; in contrast, these parameters were unchanged or became better with age in the control group. In children with developmental disorders, there was a significant association between a higher total CSHQ score and lower academic performance, but no such association was found in the control group. For both groups, children's sleep problems affected their parents' quality of sleep. There were no significant differences in physical, lifestyle, and sleep environmental factors, or in sleep/wake patterns, between the two groups. Children with developmental disorders have poor sleep quality, which may affect academic performance. It is important for physicians to be aware of age-related differences in sleep problems in children with developmental disorders. Further studies are needed to identify the association between sleep quality and
Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks
Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an
In order to assess the impact on man of a sustained change in mutation rate that might be caused by ionizing radiation or a chemical mutagen in the environment, it is important to determine the current incidence of genetic disease, the rate at which deleterious mutations arise and the number of generations that mutations persist before eliminated by selection. From these data it should be possible to estimate both the increase in genetic disease in the first generation following the increase in mutation rate, and the rate at which a new equilibrium between mutation and selection would occur. In this paper the results of a survey to determine birth frequency, mutation rate and reproductive fitness for each of the important dominant and X-linked recessive disorders are described. It is estimated that these disorders affect about 0.6% of live-born individuals, including 0.1% of live-borns who carry a newly-arising mutation. (orig.)
Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved
Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew
Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium
João Ricardo T. Milam
Full Text Available In this research, temporomandibular disorder signs and symptoms incidence were detected in two groups of patients. Group I was composed of 40 patients (23,9% who presented TMJ disorders drawn out of a 167 patients universe that were referred to be treated in the Dental Clinics of the State University of Londrina; Group II was composed by 24 individuals (48% which presented TMJ disorders, selected from a larger group of 50 Dental College students of the same University. The clinical and anamnesis examination were performed according to the International Society of Head Symptoms (IHS criteria for diagnosis and classification of headaches, cranial neuralgias and facial pain, associated with the TMJ disorders Research Diagnosis Criteria. The diagnosed signs and symptoms in both groups, supported by the criteria mentioned above, consisted of patients presenting TMJ and/or masticatory muscles pain, movement limitation while opening and closing the mouth, even with mandibular locking, irradiated facial, neck and shoulders pain, a painful click or crepitation while opening the mouth, stimulated pain while yawning, chewing or wide opening the mouth, bruxism and pain related to occlusal problems. Only in Group I it was also analyzed the effectiveness of a hard acrylic flat stabilization splint use in the control of the presented signs and symptoms, as a reversible occlusal therapy, which showed to be efficient in all cases, eliminating pain symptoms. Neste trabalho foram levantadas as incidências de sinais e sintomas de desordens têmporo-mandibulares (DTMs em dois grupos de pessoas: Grupo I: composto de 40 pessoas (23,9% que apresentaram incidência de DTMs em um universo de 167 pacientes pesquisados nos serviços prestados nas clínicas do Curso de Odontologia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina – UEL. Grupo II: composto de 24 pessoas (48% que apresentaram incidência de DTMs de um universo de 50 alunos pesquisados do mesmo Curso. O exame anamn
Goetzel, Ron Z; D'Arco, Malinda; Thomas, Jordana; Wang, Degang; Tabrizi, Maryam J; Roemer, Enid Chung; Prasad, Aishwarya; Yarborough, Charles M
To determine the prevalence and incidence of low back pain (LBP) among workers in the aerospace and defense industry and in a specific company. Claims and demographic data from the Truven Health MarketScan normative database representing more than 1 million workers were drawn from a group of 18 US benchmark companies and compared with one particular company, Lockheed Martin Corporation. The prevalence of LBP in the MarketScan normative group was 15.6% in the final study year (2012), whereas the incidence of new cases was 7.2% and 7.3% in years 2011 and 2012, respectively. Compared with the normative group, the company's prevalence and incidence rates were lower. Women and older workers were more likely to experience LBP compared with men and younger workers. The analysis was used to inform the company's leadership about the health burden of the condition and evaluate alternative treatment options to prevent the incidences and reduce the prevalence of clinical back pain among workers.
Tully, P J; Turnbull, D A; Beltrame, J; Horowitz, J; Cosh, S; Baumeister, H; Wittert, G A
Substantial healthcare resources are devoted to panic disorder (PD) and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the association between these conditions remains controversial. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of studies assessing the association between PD, related syndromes, and incident CHD. Relevant studies were retrieved from Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS and PsycINFO without restrictions from inception to January 2015 supplemented with hand-searching. We included studies that reported hazard ratios (HR) or sufficient data to calculate the risk ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) which were pooled using a random-effects model. Studies utilizing self-reported CHD were ineligible. Twelve studies were included comprising 1 131 612 persons and 58 111 incident CHD cases. PD was associated with the primary incident CHD endpoint [adjusted HR (aHR) 1.47, 95% CI 1.24-1.74, p < 0.00001] even after excluding angina (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.81, p < 0.00001). High to moderate quality evidence suggested an association with incident major adverse cardiac events (MACE; aHR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16-1.69, p = 0.0004) and myocardial infarction (aHR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12-1.66, p = 0.002). The risk for CHD was significant after excluding depression (aHR 1.64, 95% CI 1.45-1.85) and after depression adjustment (aHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.03-1.87). Age, sex, length of follow-up, socioeconomic status and diabetes were sources of heterogeneity in the primary endpoint. Meta-analysis showed that PD was independently associated with incident CHD, myocardial infarction and MACE; however, reverse causality cannot be ruled out and there was evidence of heterogeneity.
Arendt, Mikkel; Rosenberg, Raben; Foldager, Leslie; Perto, Gurli; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
Few studies have examined samples of people with cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms. To establish whether cannabis-induced psychotic disorders are followed by development of persistent psychotic conditions, and the timing of their onset. Data on patients treated for cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms between 1994 and 1999 were extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Those previously treated for any psychotic symptoms were excluded. The remaining 535 patients were followed for at least 3 years. In a separate analysis, the sample was compared with people referred for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders for the first time, but who had no history of cannabis-induced psychosis. Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were diagnosed in 44.5% of the sample. New psychotic episodes of any type were diagnosed in 77.2%. Male gender and young age were associated with increased risk. Development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders was often delayed, and 47.1% of patients received a diagnosis more than a year after seeking treatment for a cannabis-induced psychosis. The patients developed schizophrenia at an earlier age than people in the comparison group (males, 24.6 v. 30.7 years, females, 28.9 v. 33.1 years). Cannabis-induced psychotic disorders are of great clinical and prognostic importance.
Coloração do fruto, distúrbios fisiológicos e doenças em maçãs 'Gala' e 'Fuji' pulverizadas com aminoetoxivinilglicina Fruit color, physiological disorders and diseases of 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apples sprayed with aminoethoxyvinylglycine
Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da pulverização pré-colheita de macieiras 'Gala' e 'Fuji' com aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG sobre a qualidade dos frutos e a ocorrência de distúrbios fisiológicos e doenças. O experimento foi conduzido nos anos de 2005 e 2006, com pulverização de AVG (30 dias antes do início da colheita comercial dos frutos nas doses de 0; 125 e 250 mg L-1, sendo que, na segunda safra, também foi utilizada a dose de 62,5 mg L-1. Em maçãs 'Gala', o aumento na dose de AVG reduziu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha e a permeância à perda de água na casca. Nesta mesma cultivar, em frutos avaliados após armazenamento refrigerado (três meses a 0±0,5ºC/90-95% UR, seguido de uma semana de vida de prateleira (20±4ºC/60-70% UR, o tratamento pré-colheita com AVG aumentou a incidência de "bitter pit", porém reduziu a incidência de escaldadura, rachadura peduncular e podridões. Em maçãs 'Fuji', o aumento na dose de AVG reduziu a incidência e a severidade de pingo-de-mel em frutos colhidos tardiamente. A pulverização com AVG aumentou a severidade de mancha foliar de 'Gala' (Glomerella cingulata.The objective of this work was to study the effects of preharvest spraying of 'Gala' and 'Fuji' apple trees with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in fruit quality and incidence of physiological disorders and diseases. The experiments were carried out in 2005 and 2006, with AVG sprayed (30 days before anticipated fruit harvest at the doses of 0, 125 and 250 mg L-1, and also at the dose of 62.5 mg L-1 in 2006. In 'Gala' apples, the increase of AVG dose delayed red color development and reduced the water loss permanence of the skin. For this cultivar, the preharvest treatment with AVG increased the incidence of bitter pit, and reduced the incidence of scald, stem-end splitting and decay on fruits assessed after cold storage (three months at 0±0.5ºC/90-95% RH, followed by one week of shelf life (20±4ºC/60
van Steden, R.; Broekhuizen, J.
This paper presents fieldwork on police–citizen interactions in a setting of (latent) friction with ethnically diverse populations. Often, the police are frustrated with disorderly youngsters hanging out on streets and squares. Contrary to what was anticipated, however, escalation occurred only
Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate
Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986
Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate
Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention.
Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U
Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Fourteen studies (n = 1595), in which 52.1% of patients were male and the mean age was 14.4 years, reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean 42 months of follow-up) were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female sex, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. SI and SA are very common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley
Fontalba-Navas, A; Lucas-Borja, M E; Gil-Aguilar, V; Arrebola, J P; Pena-Andreu, J M; Perez, J
We aimed to study the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people who resided in an affected area by an extremely severe flood, and sociodemographic risk factors associated with this condition. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to distribute the rainfall data. A case-control study was developed to study the relationship between PTSD and sociodemographic risk factors. To delineate the areas affected by the flood and the intensity of this rainfall in comparison with historical hydrological data, we employed geographical information systems (GIS). Then, we recruited a representative sample of the affected population and another population sample that lived at the time of this disaster in adjacent geographical areas that were not affected. Both groups were randomly selected in primary care practices, from December 1st 2012 to January 31st 2013. All participants, 70 from the affected areas and 91 from the non-affected, filled a sociodemographic questionnaire and the trauma questionnaire (TQ) to identify and rate PTSD symptoms. Our GIS analysis confirmed that the amount of precipitation in 2012 in the areas affected by the flood was exceptionally high compared with historical average rainfall data (461l per square metre vs 265). Individuals who resided in the affected areas at the time of the flood were at much higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms (OR: 8.18; 95% CI: 3.99-17.59) than those living in adjacent, non-affected localities. Among the sociodemographic variables included in this study, only material and financial losses were strongly associated with the onset of PTSD (P disorder, may help develop effective plans to minimize the negative impact of these natural disasters on public health. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Yang, Dalong; Yang, Sidong; Ding, Wenyuan
To explore incidence and risk factors of postoperative adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) following anterior decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Medical records from January 2005 to September 2011 of 283 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on occurrence of ASD at follow-up: ASD group and no ASD group. To investigate risk for occurrence of ASD, 3 sets of factors were analyzed statistically: patient characteristics, surgical variables, and radiographic parameters. Postoperative ASD developed in 68 of 283 patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in patient characteristics or the surgical variables of surgical strategy, surgical time, and blood loss. The number of patients receiving 2-level spinal fusion was higher in the ASD group. Upper instrumented vertebra at C5 was more common in the ASD group. There was no difference between groups in all but 1 of the radiographic parameters; the plate-to-disc distance was much smaller in the ASD group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that upper instrumented vertebra at C5, plate-to-disc distance fusion were independently associated with ASD. Patients with degenerative disorders of the cervical spine who receive 2-level cervical fusion and with upper instrumented vertebra at C5 are at high potential risk of ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ivanoff, Chris S; Pancratz, Frank
A 2011 study at one U.S. dental school found that patients were not routinely screened by dental students for obstructive sleep apnea and/or other related sleep disorders, nor were students being trained to screen. Consequently, the medical history questionnaire used in the clinic was updated to include five specific screening questions. The aim of this two-year follow-up study was to determine whether screening had improved at the school. A retrospective chart review of all patients (age 14-70+) in the third- and fourth-year dental clinics in 2012 and 2013 searched for "YES" responses to the five questions. Of 5,931 patients, 38% reported they snore or were told they snore. By age 50-59, their reports of snoring increased to 50%. About 5% reported incidents waking up choking. By age 50, between one-fifth and one-quarter indicated they woke up frequently during the night. One in six frequently felt overly tired during the daytime, often falling asleep. This problem was evenly reported by all age groups between ages 30 and 69. About half the patients reporting sleep problems also had hypertension and cardiovascular problems with an equal distribution between males and females. The results showed that updating the medical history form had dramatically improved screening for sleep-disordered breathing by these dental students. Though screening is neither a definitive diagnosis nor an attempt to distinguish among sleep disorders, the results correlate with national statistics. Screening is an important step to increase student awareness of this serious health trend as it prepares students to engage more constructively in its management and referral.
R. Fatehi; M. Saberi; H. Tofighi Zavare; H. Banifatemi
Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate the incidence of substance abuse in patients with borderline personality disorder with or without self injurious behavior who referred to Rouzbeh hospital in Tehran from July 2008 to July 2009. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 70 patients with Borderline personality disorder. Only patients who were diagnosed according to DSM IV and psychiatric interview were recruited. A questionnaire was given to all patients including...
The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and fruit cracking in four ...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘Bartlett’ pears from different harvest dates were assessed regarding to cold storage potential and reduction of physiological disorder incidence. Three harvests, the first (HD1, second (HD2, and third (HD3, were carried out at weekly intervals. The pears were assessed after the harvest, with no exposition to the temperature conditioning, after 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 days at 0 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH and after three and six days at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C. Fruit from the early harvest (HD1 showed the smallest incidence of physiological disorder during both cold and room temperature storage. The disorder symptoms became apparent in HD1 fruit after 20 days at cold storage followed by three days at 20 °C, whereas HD2 and HD3 fruit showed the symptoms before being kept in a cold room. ‘Bartlett’ pears harvested at 70.75 N flesh firmness can be stored at 0 ± 1 °C for up to 40 days and preferably commercialized within three days, when they reach the firmness for eating. The extension of cold storage as well as the trade period can result in higher physiological disorder incidence and loss of sensorial quality.
Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario
To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.
Nettesheim, Susanne; Kölker, Stefan; Karall, Daniela; Häberle, Johannes; Posset, Roland; Hoffmann, Georg F; Heinrich, Beate; Gleich, Florian; Garbade, Sven F
Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are a group of rare inherited metabolic disorders. Affected individuals often present with hyperammonemic encephalopathy (HE) and have an increased risk of severe neurologic disease and early death. The study aims to provide epidemiologic data and to describe the disease manifestation and short-term outcome. Cross-border surveillance of newly diagnosed patients with UCDs - below 16 years of age - was performed from July 2012 to June 2015 in Germany and Austria and from January 2012 to December 2015 in Switzerland. Inquiries were sent monthly to all Pediatric Departments in Germany and Switzerland, and quarterly to the Austrian Metabolic Group. In addition, data were collected via a second source (metabolic laboratories) in all three countries. Between July 2012 and June 2015, fifty patients (Germany: 39, Austria: 7, Switzerland: 4) with newly diagnosed UCDs were reported and later confirmed resulting in an estimated cumulative incidence of 1 in 51,946 live births. At diagnosis, thirty-nine patients were symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic [10 identified by newborn screening (NBS), 1 by high-risk-family screening (HRF)]. The majority of symptomatic patients (30 of 39 patients) developed HE with (n = 25) or without coma (n = 5), 28 of them with neonatal onset. Despite emergency treatment 15 of 30 patients with HE already died during the newborn period. Noteworthy, 10 of 11 patients diagnosed by NBS or HRF remained asymptomatic. Comparison with the European registry and network for intoxication type metabolic diseases (E-IMD) demonstrated that cross-national surveillance identified a higher number of clinically severe UCD patients characterized by earlier onset of symptoms, higher peak ammonium concentrations in plasma and higher mortality. Cross-border surveillance is a powerful tool to identify patients with UCDs demonstrating that (1) the cumulative incidence of UCDs is lower than originally suggested, (2) the mortality rate is still
Suzuki, T.; Nomura, Y.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.
Radial fruit cracking (RFC) can contribute to serious economic losses in tomato production under rain shelter in cool uplands. In order to investigate the effects of translocation and distribution of photosynthate to the fruits during the occurrence of RFC, tomato plants were grown under treatments with fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, which regulate the strength of sink and source, and treatments with covering of the fruit truss, which decreases solar radiation incident on the fruit surface. The occurrence of RFC was increased by fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, and decreased by covering of fruit truss. Time course of the percentage of RFC to total harvest showed a remarkable rise toward the end of August and toward the end of October in 2004, when harvested fruit weight was increasing. These finding suggest that RFC is attributed to excessive enlargement of the fruit by promotion of translocation and distribution of photosynthate from leaves (source) to fruits (sink) and the solar radiation incident on the fruits. In addition, the relation between RFC and the generation of a cork layer is considered
Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp Population dynamic and occurrence of fruit flies and their parasitoids in peach cultivars (Prunus persica L. Batsch in presidente prudente municipality, sp
Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.The objectives of this research were evaluate the population dynamic and diversity of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea on peach cultivars Tropical, Talisma, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 and Doçura 2, under the rootstocks 'Okinawa' and Umê, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The dynamic population of fruit flies was correlated with temperature and precipitation. The fruit fly infestation was correlated with chemical characteristics of fruits
Teores de Ca e variáveis meteorológicas: relações com a incidência da mancha fisiológica do mamão no Norte Fluminense Ca concetration and meteorological variables: relationships with skin freckles in papaya (Carica papaya L. fruits
Full Text Available No Brasil e no mundo, o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. tem apresentado um distúrbio fisiológico no fruto denominado de Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM. Na literatura, pouco se conhece sobre as causas desta anomalia que afeta sensivelmente a comercialização dos frutos da espécie. Com o objetivo de se buscar informações relacionadas às causas da MFM, foi realizado um estudo, durante um ano, em um plantio comercial localizado em São Franscisco do Itabapoana (RJ, no norte fluminense. Foram feitas relações entre algumas variáveis do clima (temperatura, déficit de pressão de vapor, precipitação pluvial e radiação solar global e os teores de Ca na planta [limbo, pecíolo, pedúnculo, epicarpo não-exposto (face do fruto próxima ao tronco e epicarpo exposto (face do fruto oposta ao tronco] com a incidência da MFM. Observou-se que a maior incidência de MFM foi durante setembro/2000. Em janeiro/2001, a incidência da MFM foi praticamente nula. A amplitude térmica, nos três meses que antecederam a setembro/2000, foi a variável do clima que mais se relacionou com a incidência da MFM. Em setembro, os teores de Ca em todas as partes do fruto (pedúnculo, epicarpo exposto e não-exposto estudadas foram maiores. Na época que antecedeu o mês de setembro, as relações Ca/K e Ca/Mg foram estatisticamente maiores no epicarpo exposto e não-exposto e, nesta época, a relação Ca/P foi estatisticamente maior no pedúnculo e no epicarpo não-exposto. Os efeitos da amplitude térmica sobre a incidência da MFM são discutidos e a hipótese de que os teores baixos de Ca no fruto poderiam causar desestabilização na parede celular, o que facilitaria o extravasamento do látex e provocaria a MFM, deve ser reavaliada.In Brazil and other parts of the world, papaya fruit suffer with a physiological disruption, known as skin freckles (SF. There is very little information available concerning the causes of this disruption that seriously affects the
Studies on biodiversity and bionomics of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) were conducted in Morogoro Region, Central Tanzania from 2004 to 2006. Specifically studies aimed at determining the biodiversity of fruit flies, their host range, infestation rate, incidence and seasonality. These are among the pre-requisites for ...
Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori. Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body productio...
D. M. Vani
Full Text Available Tomato fruits are usually consumed soon after harvest, however, as they are mainly comprised of water, and its walls are fragile, facilitates the emergence of diseases, making necessary the use of preventive measures in the field in order to reduce incidence of disease. The objective is then to evaluate the effect of foliar application of fungicides on the final quality of tomato fruits in postharvest. There were 13 applications of foliar fungicides Azoxystrobin+Cyproconazol and Boscalida, 7 applications Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and 17 applications of Propamocarb+Fluopicolide (Control. We analyzed the incidence of Fusarium sp. in fruits, decay percentage of fruit weight (g and Brix. For incidence of Fusarium sp. in fruits, treatments Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol reduced by 14.3%, the pathogen in fruits. There was a decrease of 82% in the deterioration of fruits treated with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and 91% in those treated with Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol. As for the weight gain, treatments Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin, Boscalida and Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol reduced the weight gain in 8.12%, 20.8% and 38.8%, respectively, compared to the control. ° Brix values of fruits treated with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and Boscalida were higher than those treated with Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol and Control (Propamocarb+Fluopicolide. It is concluded that the treatment carried out with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin afforded the greatest benefits in maintaining the tomato fruits in harvest.
The annual meeting for the LHC Performance Workshop was held in Chamonix from 25 to 29 January 2010 in the Centre de Congrès Le Majestic. The Workshop focused on how to reach the maximum operating energy. The LHC Performance Workshop took place between 25 and 29 January 2010 in a rather chilly Chamonix. Following the successful start of beam commissioning last year, there remain a number of important questions about the near future of the machine. Topics discussed included the maximum operational energy that will be possible in 2010 and the steps need to go above the planned 2010 start-up energy of 3.5 TeV. Of particular importance were the required splice and magnet consolidation measures that would be demanded by an increase above this energy. The energy in the magnets and beams will always represent a considerable threat, and the possible impact of an incident and the potential measures required to speed up a recovery were put on the table. Safety is critical and there were...
Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM
This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with
Jonkers, H.; Hoestra, H.; Borsboom, O.; Pouwer, A.
Field plots were established with 4 target pH values, viz. 4, 5, 6 and 7, to study the effect of pH on specific apple replant disorder (SARD). The target pH levels were not stable and frequently showed fluctuations. Although no significant differences have been found on tree performance, the
Stocks, S. Jill; McNamee, Roseanne; van der Molen, Henk F.; Paris, Christophe; Urban, Pavel; Campo, Giuseppe; Sauni, Riitta; Martínez Jarreta, Begoña; Valenty, Madeleine; Godderis, Lode; Miedinger, David; Jacquetin, Pascal; Gravseth, Hans M.; Bonneterre, Vincent; Telle-Lamberton, Maylis; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Faye, Serge; Mylle, Godewina; Wannag, Axel; Samant, Yogindra; Pal, Teake; Scholz-Odermatt, Stefan; Papale, Adriano; Schouteden, Martijn; Colosio, Claudio; Mattioli, Stefano; Agius, Raymond
The European Union (EU) strategy for health and safety at work underlines the need to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (OD), but European statistics to evaluate this common goal are scarce. We aim to estimate and compare changes in incidence over time for occupational asthma, contact
Berglund, A; Johannsen, T H; Stochholm, K; Aksglaede, L; Fedder, J; Viuff, M H; Main, K M; Gravholt, C H
What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status was inferior on outcome parameters such as education and long-term income. 46,XX DSD males are rare and estimates of prevalence and incidence are limited. An increased morbidity and mortality as well as a negatively affected socioeconomic status are described in males with Klinefelter Syndrome. However, this has never been systematically studied in 46,XX DSD males. In this nationwide registry study including 44 males with a verified diagnosis of 46,XX DSD we aimed to estimate incidence, prevalence and diagnostic delay. Further, we aimed to study morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic outcome parameters using the Danish registries. The socioeconomic outcome parameters were education, income, retirement, parenthood and cohabitation. 46,XX DSD males were born during 1908-2012 and follow-up started at birth or at start of registration and ended in 2014. Potential cases (n = 69) were identified in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry and the diagnosis was verified by medical record evaluation (n = 44). A randomly selected age-matched control group of 100 males and 100 females per case was identified by Statistics Denmark. Among newborn males the prevalence of diagnosed 46,XX DSD males was 3.5-4.7 per 100 000. Median age at diagnosis was 17.0 years (range: 0.0-62.8). Overall morbidity was increased compared to male controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.8-3.3) but not when excluding endocrine and urogenital diseases as well as congenital malformations (HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.6). Mortality was not increased (HR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.2-2.5) compared to male controls. 46,XX DSD males had poorer education (HR = 0.1, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9) and fewer fatherhoods (HR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7) than male controls
[Mental disorders of working age : Evaluation of the administrative incidence and prevalence as well as regional differences in Lower Saxony on the basis of secondary data from a statutory health insurance provider].
Gerdau-Heitmann, Cornelia; Mümken, Sarah; Eberhard, Sveja; Koppelin, Frauke
Mental disorder is the subject of ever-increasing attention in the field of public health. However, the actual number of such cases is difficult to determine owing to the lack of comprehensive longitudinal studies. The administrative incidence and prevalence of mental disorders were estimated on the basis of data from 2010 to 2013 provided by the health insurance company AOK, Lower Saxony, and were assessed according to age and gender. Additionally, possible correlations between local conditions and the occurrence of diagnosed mental disorders were examined for both urban and rural districts. Analyses were conducted using the secondary datasets of 1.5 million persons born between 1940 and 1994 who had been continuously insured throughout the period specified. Only documented diagnoses from outpatient care were taken into account. One third of the insured persons showed at least one documented diagnosis of a mental disorder within a 12-month period. In approximately 11 out of 100 cases, there was a newly documented diagnosis in 2012. With the exception of cases relating to psychotropic substance use, women were significantly more frequently affected than men. Age-specific differences were also determined. At a regional level, in relation to administrative prevalence, mental disorders showed positive correlations in the density of doctors and psychotherapists. Moreover, regions with a high rate of unemployment generally show a higher prevalence of mental disorders. Despite certain limitations, the use of administrative incidence and prevalence data is a viable approach to assessing gender- and age-specific, and regional differences. Our regional analyses suggest a correlation between the local job situation and the level of regional administrative prevalence.
Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)
Proto, A R; Zimbalatti, G
Musculoskeletal disorders are injuries of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage, or spinal discs and are often classified as soft tissue injuries. They are the result of chronic or gradual development and are not caused by acute incidents such as slips, trips, or falls. The significance of this phenomenon prompted us to carry out a broader study of pathologies attributable to repetitive movements in the upper limbs within the citrus growing industry. Calabria, a very important region for citrus fruit growing in Italy, was chosen as the study area. The study analyzed the risks of repetitive movements for 180 workers on 35 different farms using the OCRA (Occupational Repetitive Actions) checklist method By analyzing the scores obtained in the different work phases, it was possible to determine the tasks that incur more risk in the citrus fruit industry. The OCRA checklist considers all the repetitive tasks involved in a complex job and estimates the level of exposure to each worker. In support of the specific aims of the present study, it is possible to identify a series of working conditions for which the level of risk may be reasonably estimated and for which it is possible to adopt a checklist system. The results of this study suggest that there must be a significant increase in the use of effective ergonomic interventions in the workplace in order to attain reductions in the number of local musculoskeletal complaints.
Full Text Available Brown rot, triggered by Monilinia spp., causes significant economic losses in fruit crop and it is mainly controlled by chemicals with inherent environmental costs. Controlling brown rot spreading by diminishing fruit susceptibility to the disease, via sustainable cultural practices, is a promising approach. In a 2 years experiment (2014–2015 on a peach (Prunus persica orchard, we controlled fruit growth rates by varying the fruit load. Fruit thinning practices enhanced the fruit growth and laboratory analyses showed that, in both 2014 and 2015 samples, fast growing fruits were more susceptible to infection when in contact with conidia suspension of Monilinia laxa. In the field, brown rot infection took place in 2014 and not in 2015. In 2014, trees subject to moderate thinning intensities had the highest brown rot incidence. We argue that this is due to the fact that, for null thinning, slow growing fruits are less susceptible to the infection while, for intense thinning, even if faster growing fruits are more susceptible to infection, the lower fruits density reduces per-contact probability of infection. We compared meteorological data of 2014 and 2015 and we argue that brown rot did not spread in 2015 due to an absence of favorable conditions, summarized as the number of rainy days with mean temperature between 22 and 26°C, in the period of fruit susceptibility.
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per
AIMS: The study compensates for the non-response that was observed in a previous study that estimated the frequencies of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA) (more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence). In this study, the frequency of any mental disorder was estimated a...
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per
, municipality, and social transfer income variables were used for the adjustment of weights in weighted analyses and in the imputation models. RESULTS: The frequencies were: any mental disorder 46%-49%, depression 31%-36%, anxiety 13%-15%, and somatoform disorder 8%-9%. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of whether...
The MentDis_ICF65+ study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation.
Andreas, Sylke; Härter, Martin; Volkert, Jana; Hausberg, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rabung, Sven; Ausín, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Lelliott, Paul; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Siegert, Jens; Weber, Kerstin; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Holger
The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of mental disorders in the elderly. Using a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design, this multi-centre study from six European countries and associated states (Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland) is based on age-stratified, random samples of elderly people living in the community. The study program consists of three phases: (1) a methodological phase devoted primarily to the adaptation of age- and gender-specific assessment tools for older people (e.g., the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) as well as psychometric evaluations including translation, back translation; (2) a baseline community study in all participating countries to assess the lifetime, 12 month and 1 month prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders, including prior course, quality of life, health care utilization and helpseeking, impairments and participation and, (3) a 12 month follow-up of all baseline participants to monitor course and outcome as well as examine predictors. The study is an essential step forward towards the further development and improvement of harmonised instruments for the assessment of mental disorders as well as the evaluation of activity impairment and participation in older adults. This study will also facilitate the comparison of cross-cultural results. These results will have bearing on mental health care in the EU and will offer a starting point for necessary structural changes to be initiated for mental health care policy at the level of
We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per
at 48% by a two-phase design and weighted logistic regression. The total non-response rate was 53.6%. This motivated the present study to compensate for non-response by applying adjustment of the weights and by multiple imputation of missing data in the estimation of the frequencies of mental disorders......, municipality, and social transfer income variables were used for the adjustment of weights in weighted analyses and in the imputation models. RESULTS: The frequencies were: any mental disorder 46%-49%, depression 31%-36%, anxiety 13%-15%, and somatoform disorder 8%-9%. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of whether...
Andersen, S S; Andersson, C; Berger, S M; Jensen, T B; Torp-Pedersen, C T; Gislason, G H; Køber, L; Schmiegelow, M D
Whether overweight is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the absence of metabolic disorders remains under debate and is largely unexamined in young women. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in fertile women conditional on time-dependent presence of metabolic disorders. From nationwide registers we identified all normal weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 18.5 to fertile women. Targeting prevention of metabolic disorders might be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular disease in overweight/obese young women. © 2015 World Obesity.
Full Text Available Background. Disorders connected with the musculoskeletal and central nervous system dysfunction are the most significant clinical problem worldwide. Our earlier research has shown that back and spinal disorders and lumbar disc disorders were most frequently diagnosed using MRI scanner at the University Clinical Hospital (UCH in Olsztyn in years 2011–2015. We have also observed that another two diseases of spinal column, spondylosis and cervical disc disorders, were also very prevalent. The main objective of this work was to analyze the prevalence of spondylosis and cervical disc disorders in the study population diagnosed at UCH in years 2011–2015. Methods. The digital database including patients’ diagnostic and demographic information was generated based on MRI reports from years 2011–2015 and analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Within the study group (n=13298 the most frequently MRI-diagnosed diseases were musculoskeletal group (M00–M99; n=7711; 57,98% and cervical disc disorders (M50; n=1659; 12,47% and spondylosis (M47, n=611; 4,59%. More women (67% than men (33% were enrolled in the study, and the largest fraction of the study population was in the range of 51–60 years, with about 1/3 of cases of both diseases diagnosed in early age range of 31–40 years. Conclusion. Significant number of patients presenting with either of the spine disorders at the young age of 31–40 years points to the necessity of introducing methods preventing disorders of the vertebral column at younger age, preferably at school age.
... Bellyaches in Children Childhood Defecation Disorders Diarrhea Hirschsprung's Disease Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction Irritable Bowel Syndrome General Treatments Lifestyle Changes Strategies for Improving Bowel Habits Improving Sleep Quality Kids & Dietary Fiber Fruit Juice Surgery Laxatives ...
Identificação pré-colheita do risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'gala' por meio de infiltração com magnésio e análise dos teores de cálcio e nitrogênio nos frutos Preharvest identification of bitter pit risk in 'gala' apples by fruit infiltration with magnesium and analysis of fruit contents of calcium and nitrogen
Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante
Full Text Available O "bitter pit" é um distúrbio fisiológico pós-colheita em maçãs, ocasionado pela deficiência de Ca e agravado pela presença de elevados níveis de Mg, N e K nos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade prática da infiltração de maçãs 'Gala' com Mg, visando a avaliar, em pré-colheita, o risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" durante o armazenamento refrigerado, bem como a identificar os atributos minerais do fruto associados à ocorrência do distúrbio. Em 50 talhões de pomares localizados no município de Fraiburgo-SC, foram coletadas amostras de 25 frutos / talhão, cerca de 20 dias antes do início da colheita comercial, sendo os mesmos infiltrados a vácuo com Mg e avaliados quanto à incidência (% e severidade (manchas / fruto de "bitter pit". Nos mesmos talhões, na maturação comercial, foram coletadas amostras de 120 frutos / talhão, sendo que 100 frutos foram armazenados em câmara fria convencional durante quatro meses (0 ± 0,5ºC e 90-95% UR, e 20 frutos foram utilizados para a análise mineral (teores de Ca, Mg, K e N. Cinco dias após a remoção da câmara fria, os frutos foram avaliados quanto à incidência (% e severidade (manchas / fruto de "bitter pit". Houve correlação linear altamente significativa (r² = 0,69; pBitter pit is a postharvest physiological disorder in apples, related to Ca deficiency, and aggravated by high levels of Mg, N, and K in the fruits. This work was carried out to assess the practical viability of 'Gala' apples infiltration with Mg, for preharvest identification of bitter pit risk during cold storage, as well as, to identify the mineral attributes associated with the occurrence of the disorder. Fruits were sampled in 50 plots of apple orchards located in Fraiburgo, SC (Southern Brazil. Samples of 25 fruits / plot were harvested about 20 days before commercial harvesting, and then vacuum infiltrated with Mg and assessed for incidence (% and severity (pits / fruit of
Andersen, S S; Andersson, C; Berger, S M
AIMS: Whether overweight is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the absence of metabolic disorders remains under debate and is largely unexamined in young women. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in fertile women conditional on time-dependent presence of ...... be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular disease in overweight/obese young women.......AIMS: Whether overweight is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the absence of metabolic disorders remains under debate and is largely unexamined in young women. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in fertile women conditional on time-dependent presence...
... Americans Eating fruit provides health benefits. People who eat more vegetables and fruits as part of an ... lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat or choose fruits from a salad bar. Individual ...
ABDULLAH M AL-SADI
Full Text Available A study was undertaken to characterize and manage pathogens associated with fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits in greenhouses in Oman. A survey over 5 growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 in 99 different greenhouses in Oman showed that the disease is prevalent in 91 (92% greenhouses and results in losses of 10 to 60% (avg. 33% of immature fruits per plant. Incidence of the disease was not found to be affected by growing seasons, which could be attributed to the limited fluctuations in ambient temperatures in greenhouses. Isolations from diseased cucumber fruits yielded Alternaria alternata (isolation frequency = 52%, Fusarium equiseti (40%, Cladosporium tenuissium (27%, Botrytis cinerea (6%, Fusarium solani (6%, Corynespora cassiicola (3%, Aspergillus spp. (2%, Curvularia sp. (1% and Bipolaris sp. (1%. With the exception of Curvularia and Bipolaris species, all other fungi were pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium equiseti being the most aggressive, followed by Corynespora cassiicola, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Cladosporium and Aspergillus spp. were found to be weakly pathogenic. Comparing the efficacy of foliar and soil applications of carbendazim fungicide on fruit rot of cucumber showed that foliar applications significantly reduced fruit rot and increased cucumber yield when compared to soil application or to control (P < 0.01. This appears to be the first report of the association of Corynespora cassiicola and Fusarium equiseti with fruit rot of immature greenhouse cucumbers. This is also the first report in Oman for the association of Cladosporium tenuissimum with fruit rot of immature cucumbers. Findings are discussed in terms of factors affecting disease control in greenhouses using carbendazim.
Spijker, Jan; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Nolen, Willem A.; Speckens, Anne
The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. The Netherlands Mental Health Survey
Spijker, J.; Graaf, R. de; Have, M. ten; Nolen, W.A.; Speckens, A.E.M.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. METHOD: The Netherlands
Spijker, J.; Graaf, R. de; Have, M.L. ten; Nolen, W.A.; Speckens, A.E.M.
The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. The Netherlands Mental Health Survey
in beverages, yogurt, ice cream, and baby food. The fruits are used by rural villagers as an iron supplement for anemic children. A thin porridge called nesha is prepared by boiling millet flour and the pulp of Grewia tenax fruits and then adding custard to the mixture . This porridge is given to pregnant and lactating women ...
Gamma rays are being used for artificially inducing mutations in deciduous fruits, so that improvements in characteristics and quality can be developed and new fruit cultivars sent out to compete on international markets. Progress in this field of research at Stellenbosch is described
Influência do manejo do solo na conservação, qualidade sensorial, teor de nutrientes e incidência de fitopatias e fisiopatias pós-colheita de pêssegos cv. Cerrito Soil management effects in respect to conservation and sensorial quality, nutrients levels and incidence of rot and physiological disorders of peaches in post harvest
CARLOS ROBERTO MARTINS
Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do manejo do solo mantido com cobertura vegetal, na linha de plantio, na qualidade pós-colheita de pêssegos cv. Cerrito durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Os tratamentos constaram de frutas colhidas em pomares com solo com cobertura vegetal (aveia e com cultivo tradicional (sem cobertura, em três estádios de maturação. O armazenamento foi feito em câmara fria a 0ºC e umidade relativa do ar acima de 90%. As avaliações da presença de fisiopatias e fitopatias, análise sensorial e análise de nutrientes foram feitas na colheita e após 6; 12 e 18 dias de armazenamento, mais três dias de simulação de comercialização. A análise sensorial demonstrou que as frutas colhidas em pomares com manejo do solo com cobertura vegetal apresentaram aparência, aroma, qualidade e sabor ao final do período de armazenamento superior às frutas de cultivo tradicional. Os atributos aceitação comercial e desidratação não apresentaram diferenças significativas. A coloração demonstrou ser superior em pêssegos provenientes de pomar com manejo do solo tradicional. A análise de nutrientes demonstrou maior conteúdo de N, Ca e B em frutas provenientes de pomar com manejo do solo com cobertura vegetal.The effect of soil management, with mulching on the planting line on the quality of post harvest of peaches, cv. Cerrito, during cold storage was studied. The treatments were consisted by fruits harvested on orchards with mulching (oat and without mulching (traditional cultivation on three stages of maturation. The storage was performed at temperature 0º C and above 90% of air humidity. The presence of physiological disorders and rot evaluations, sensorial analysis and analysis of nutrients were performed at harvest and after 6, 12 and 18 days of storage, plus three days of commercialization simulation. The sensorial analysis showed that the fruits harvested on orchard management soil with mulching presented, on the final of
Full Text Available It is a known phenomenon that loads during fruit treatment (e.g., harvesting, transport, and manipulating result in the damage of product parts, primarily below the surface. The maximum stress likely develops inside the fruit, which leads to its damage. This phenomenon was analysed in a general manner (general material properties, unit load by finite element method (FEM simulations on an apple and a pear. The shell was found to have a significant effect on the developed stress state, especially for juicy fruits. The mechanism that determines how the stress properties of tomatoes affect the stress state was analysed. According to our model, the stress maxima develop in the middle of the analysed fruits. Such stress maxima might be the reason for the inner damage, which, in the case of a missing healing period, results in fruit breakage.
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.
Q Tri Ho
Full Text Available Exchange of O(2 and CO(2 of plants with their environment is essential for metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. In some fruits such as pears, which are typically stored under a controlled atmosphere with reduced O(2 and increased CO(2 levels to extend their commercial storage life, anoxia may occur, eventually leading to physiological disorders. In this manuscript we have developed a mathematical model to predict the internal gas concentrations, including permeation, diffusion, and respiration and fermentation kinetics. Pear fruit has been selected as a case study. The model has been used to perform in silico experiments to evaluate the effect of, for example, fruit size or ambient gas concentration on internal O(2 and CO(2 levels. The model incorporates the actual shape of the fruit and was solved using fluid dynamics software. Environmental conditions such as temperature and gas composition have a large effect on the internal distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in fruit. Also, the fruit size has a considerable effect on local metabolic gas concentrations; hence, depending on the size, local anaerobic conditions may result, which eventually may lead to physiological disorders. The model developed in this manuscript is to our knowledge the most comprehensive model to date to simulate gas exchange in plant tissue. It can be used to evaluate the effect of environmental stresses on fruit via in silico experiments and may lead to commercial applications involving long-term storage of fruit under controlled atmospheres.
Fruits and vegetables are particularly interesting for health for their content in minerals, antioxidant vitamins, phytochemicals and dietary fiber. All these substances are related to lower risk for the development of health probems, such as certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, constipation or diverticolsys. The sound basis of scientific evidence led European and American scientific organizations and societies to recommend an intake up to 150-200 g of vegetables every day; ie. 2 or more portions daily and 3 or more portions of fruit; five portions of fruit and vegetables all together. According to the consumer panel from the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, between the late 80s and the end of the 90s. consumption of fruit and vegetables decreased. However, in late years this trend has slow down and even reversed. Results from food consumption studies based on individual level assessment in Spain estimate an average consumption of fruit and vegetables of 154 g/per person/day in adults aged 25-60 yr. Prevalence of inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables is high among children and young people. In this age group above 70% of the population consume less than 3 portions of fruit every day on average. Reorientation of prevailing food patterns nowadays require investment in measures aimed at increasing the consumption of plant foods and estimulate healthy food habits in families.
Zajac, J.; Lans, van der I.A.
The goals of this study were to make an inventory of recent and ongoing fruit and fruit product innovations, to assess what novelty or improvement they offer, and whether consumers could identify and/or recognise them. Researchers from 11 European countries submitted 386 examples of fruit and fruit
A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...
At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits
The incidence of root rot disease in the nursery of Chrysophyllum albidun Dacryodes edulis, persea Americana, Irvingia gabonensis and Annona muricala was assessed. Ten fungal pathogen were isolated using serial dilution and pathogenicity tests were carried out on the 5 fruit trees with the 10 isolated fungi. The 5 fruit ...
Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth [Department of Psychology, Sigmund Freud Private University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore [Department of Anaesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Management, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Sturdza, Alina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Dimopoulos, Johannes C. [Metropolitan Hospital, Athens (Greece); Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)
Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful
Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore; Nout, Remi A.; Sturdza, Alina; Dimopoulos, Johannes C.; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard
Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful
B. L. Gagetti
Full Text Available Abstract Ecological restoration aims to retrieve not only the structure but also the functionality of ecosystems. Frugivorous birds may play an important role in this process due to their efficiency in seed dispersal. Color perception in these animals is highly developed, and then the colors of fleshy fruits may provide important clues for choosing plant species for restoration plans. This study aims to integrate bird color preferences and restoration of degraded areas, with an objective to evaluate the potential attractiveness to birds by colored fruits. We carried out an experiment with 384 artificial fruits made of edible modeling clay with the following colors: black, blue, green and red, with 96 fruits of each color in six sites, including four restored areas and two second-growth forest fragments. We also tested the possible effect of light intensity on fruit consumption by color. A total of 120 (38.6% were assumed to be consumed by birds, and the fruit consumption varied in response to the location and light incidence. Consumption of black and blue fruits was not related to site by chance. Notwithstanding, red and black fruits were consumed significantly more than any other colors, emphasizing bird preference to these colors, regardless of location. Enrichment with shade tolerant shrubs or forest species with black or red fruits may be an alternative way to manage established restorations. In recently established or new restorations, one may introduce pioneer shrubs or short-lived forest species which have blue fruits, but also those having black or red ones.
Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz-Oyola
Full Text Available Growth and fruit development are conditioned by environmental factors such as solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, affecting phenology and metabolic processes, which are reflected in its quality and size. Besides the variety, the age of the plant species, cultural practices, the amount of CO2, plant growth regulators and nutrition also influence this process of maturation. Moreover, the photosynthetic process occurs in immature fruits same manner as in the leaves, however, when the ripening process starts it changes because chlorophyll is degraded and other pigments intervene such as carotenoids, α-carotene and β-carotene, which contain antioxidants good for human health.
Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M
Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.
Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph
We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…
This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique
Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...
... personality disorder Borderline personality disorder Dependent personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorder Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Paranoid ...
Mariana Morales-de la Peña
Full Text Available Eating habits of western populations are changing due to modern lifestyles. As a result, people are becoming more susceptible to chronic and degenerative diseases. This fact has motivated the food industry to develop functional products that could decrease the incidence of those disorders. It is well known that fruit juices, milk and soymilk possess high concentrations of antioxidant and bioactive substances. Hence, the development of these functional beverages is a potential way to take advantage of their nutritional properties and exotic flavors that could attract the interest of consumers. At the same time, application of the right preservation treatment is of high relevance in order to obtain safe products with convenient shelf life and high concentration of health-related compounds. This fact represents a great challenge that scientists and technologists are currently facing. Today, novel preservation processes such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF and ultrasound (US, among others, are being evaluated as an alternative to heat pasteurization, obtaining promising results. Hence, this review gathers the most relevant information about the development of mixed beverages containing fruit juices and milk or soymilk. Furthermore, the advantages and drawbacks of the application of non-thermal treatments for functional beverages’ preservation with high content of bioactive compounds are also mentioned.
Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....
Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and
eggplant is grown in almost every region and is one of the most traded indigenous vegetables in local markets (Chadha, 2006). African eggplant fruits have relatively higher carbohydrate. (7.2 g/100g), fibers (2.0g/100g), calcium (28 mg/100g), iron (1.5 mg/100g) and considerable amount of beta carotene (0.35 mg/100g),.
Strawn, Laura K; Schneider, Keith R; Danyluk, Michelle D
There are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. Tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. Tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. Documented outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with tropical fruits have occurred. Norovirus and Salmonella are the leading viral and bacterial pathogens, respectively, documented to have caused outbreaks of infections associated with consumption of tropical fruits. Sources of contamination of tropical fruit have been identified in the production environment and postharvest handling, primarily related to sanitation issues. Limited data exist on the specific route of transmission from these sources. Research on the microbial safety of tropical fruits is minimal; with the growing market for tropical fruit expected to increase by 33% in 2010 this research area needs to be addressed. The aim of this review is to discuss the foodborne pathogen outbreaks associated tropical fruit consumption, research previously completed on pathogen behavior on tropical fruits, preventive strategies for pathogen contamination, and research needs.
Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Wedick, Nicole M; Pan, An; Manson, JoAnn E; Rexrode, Kathyrn M; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B
Background: Dietary guidelines recommend increasing fruit and vegetable intake and, most recently, have also suggested increasing variety. Objective: We prospectively examined the independent roles of quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable intake in relation to incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Design: We prospectively followed 71,141 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984–2008) and 42,135 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2008) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by using a validated questionnaire and updated every 4 y. Variety was defined as the number of unique fruit and vegetables consumed at least once per week. Potatoes, legumes, and fruit juices were not included in our definition of fruit and vegetables. Results: During follow-up, we documented 2582 CHD cases in women and 3607 cases in men. In multivariable analyses, after adjustment for dietary and nondietary covariates, those in the highest quintile of fruit and vegetable intake had a 17% lower risk (95% CI: 9%, 24%) of CHD. A higher consumption of citrus fruit, green leafy vegetables, and β-carotene– and vitamin C–rich fruit and vegetables was associated with a lower CHD risk. Conversely, quantity-adjusted variety was not associated with CHD. Conclusions: Our data suggest that absolute quantity, rather than variety, in fruit and vegetable intake is associated with a significantly lower risk of CHD. Nevertheless, consumption of specific fruit and vegetable subgroups was associated with a lower CHD risk. PMID:24088718
Car windshields that don't break during accidents and jets that fly longer without making a refueling stop. Compact discs, credit cards, and pocket calculators. Refrigerator magnets and automatic car window openers. Beach shoes, food packaging, and bulletproof vests made of tough plastics. The quality and range of consumer products have improved steadily since the 1970s. One of the reasons: neutron research. Industries, employing neutron scattering techniques, to study materials properties, to act as diagnostics in tracing system performance, or as sources for radioactive isotopes used in medical fields for diagnostics or treatment, have all benefited from the fruits of advanced work with neutron sources
Incidence and Severity of Common Viral and Fungal Diseases of Dry Season Tomato Crop in a Southern Guinea Savannah Agro-Ecology. ... growth (height and mean number of leaves/ leaflets) and yield attributes such as the number of fruits produced per plant compared to singly infected and apparently healthy plants.
Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W
The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence
Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi
To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit butters...
Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.
The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)
Ntagkas, N.; Min, Q.; Woltering, E.J.; Labrie, C.; Nicole, C.C.S.; Marcelis, L.F.M.
L-ascorbate (AsA; Vitamin C) is an anti-and pro-oxidant phytochemical essential for the proper functioning of the human body. Field grown tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) contain substantial amounts of AsA. When grown in the greenhouse, tomato fruit typically have low levels of AsA. Light is
Oshima, Naohiro; Masada, Sayaka; Suzuki, Ryuta; Yagi, Kanae; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Emi; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yahagi, Tadahiro; Watanabe, Masato; Yahara, Shoji; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo; Maruyama, Takuro; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi
Agnus Castus Fruit is defined in the European Pharmacopoeia as the dried ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus. In Europe it is used as a medicine targeting premenstrual syndrome and climacteric disorder. In Japan, Agnus Castus Fruit is becoming popular as a raw material for over-the-counter drugs and health food products, though its congenic species, Vitex rotundifolia and Vitex trifolia, have been used as Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit in traditional medicines. Therefore, it is important to discriminate these Vitex plants from the viewpoint of regulatory science. Here we tried to identify putative marker compounds that distinguish between Agnus Castus Fruit and Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit. We analyzed extracts of each crude drug by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and performed differential analysis by comparison of each chromatogram to find one or more peaks characteristic of Agnus Castus Fruit. A peak was isolated and identified as an equilibrium mixture of new compounds named chastol (1) and epichastol (1a). The planar structures of 1 and 1a were determined spectroscopically. Their relative configurations were revealed by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy and differential nuclear Overhauser effect-NMR data. Since avoiding contamination from closely related species is needed for the quality control of natural pharmaceuticals, this information will be valuable to establish a method for the quality control of both, Agnus Castus Fruit and Shrub Chaste Tree Fruit products. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Folkvord, Frans; Anastasiadou, Dimitra Tatiana; Anschütz, Doeschka
Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether playing a memory game with fruit affects fruit intake among young children. We used a randomized between-subject design with 127 children (age: 7-12 y) who played a memory-game, containing either fruit ( n = 64) or non-food products ( n = 63). While playing the memory-game in a separate room in school during school hours, free intake of fruit (mandarins, apples, bananas, and grapes) was measured. Afterwards, the children completed self-report measures, and length and weight were assessed. The main finding is that playing a memory-game containing fruit increases overall fruit intake ( P = 0.016). Children who played the fruit version of the memory-game ate more bananas ( P = 0.015) and mandarins ( P = 0.036) than children who played the non-food memory-game; no effects were found for apples ( P > 0.05) and grapes ( P > 0.05). The findings suggest that playing a memory-game with fruit stimulates fruit intake among young children. This is an important finding because children eat insufficient fruit, according to international standards, and more traditional health interventions have limited success. Healthy eating habits of children maintain when they become adults, making it important to stimulate fruit intake among children in an enjoyable way. Nederlands Trial Register TC = 5687.
Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains the monthly summary data indicating incident occurred in each fire station response area. The summary data is the incident count broken down by...
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...
Full Text Available Although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging to cells and tissues, causing variety of chronic ailments like, aging, cancer, autoimmune problems, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders etc. Redox protective systems are present in body for general immunization against free radicals, which can be supported by antioxidants that we take in our daily diet. Natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, coumarins, xanthones, phenolics, terpenoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and proanthocyanins are found in various plant products, including fruits, leaves, seeds oils, and juices. This review gives a brief account of research reports on fruits and vegetables which provide free radical scavenging compounds to the body.
González-Agüero, Mauricio; Pavez, Leonardo; Ibáñez, Freddy; Pacheco, Igor; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Meisel, Lee A; Orellana, Ariel; Retamales, Julio; Silva, Herman; González, Mauricio; Cambiazo, Verónica
Woolliness is a physiological disorder of peaches and nectarines that becomes apparent when fruit are ripened after prolonged periods of cold storage. This disorder is of commercial importance since shipping of peaches to distant markets and storage before selling require low temperature. However, knowledge about the molecular basis of peach woolliness is still incomplete. To address this issue, a nylon macroarray containing 847 non-redundant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a ripe peach fruit cDNA library was developed and used. Gene expression changes of peach fruit (Prunus persica cv. O'Henry) ripened for 7 d at 21 degrees C (juicy fruit) were compared with those of fruit stored for 15 d at 4 degrees C and then ripened for 7 d at 21 degrees C (woolly fruit). A total of 106 genes were found to be differentially expressed between juicy and woolly fruit. Data analysis indicated that the activity of most of these genes (>90%) was repressed in the woolly fruit. In cold-stored peaches (cv. O'Henry), the expression level of selected genes (cobra, endopolygalacturonase, cinnamoyl-CoA-reductase, and rab11) was lower than in the juicy fruit, and it remained low in woolly peaches after ripening, a pattern that was conserved in woolly fruit from two other commercial cultivars (cv. Flamekist and cv. Elegant Lady). In addition, the results of this study indicate that molecular changes during fruit woolliness involve changes in the expression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism and endomembrane trafficking. Overall, the results reported here provide an initial characterization of the transcriptome activity of peach fruit under different post-harvest treatments.
Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M
To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...
Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.
Bierema, Andrea; Schwartz, Renee
The fruit fly ("Drosophila melanogaster") is an ideal subject for studying inheritance patterns, Mendel's laws, meiosis, Punnett squares, and other aspects of genetics. Much of what we know about genetics dates to evolutionary biologist Thomas Hunt Morgan's work with mutated fruit flies in the early 1900s. Many genetic laboratories…
Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…
The treat01ent of tomato fruit with oligandrin (10 μg/ml) significantly reduced the incidence and severity of gray mould (caused by Botrytis cinerea). After 5, 7 and 9 days of artificial inoculation, the relative cure effect was 60.5, 52.1 and 48.5%, respectively. The results from bio-assay indicated that the treatment stimulated the ...
de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.
Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.
Kamal Rai Aneja
Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.
Full Text Available Many studies have indicated that consumption of vegetables and fruits are positively related to lower incidence of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. Although composition of fruit and vegetable juices is different from that of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables, they contain polyphenols and vitamins from fruits and vegetables. Drinking vegetable and fruit juices is very popular in many countries, and also an efficient way to improve consumption of fruits and vegetables. The studies showed that fruit and vegetable juices affect cardiovascular risk factors, such as lowering blood pressure and improving blood lipid profiles. The main mechanisms of action included antioxidant effects, improvement of the aspects of the cardiovascular system, inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory effects, and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. Drinking juices might be a potential way to improve cardiovascular health, especially mixtures of juices because they contain a variety of polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals from different fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes recent studies on the effects of fruit and vegetable juices on indicators of cardiovascular disease, and special attention is paid to the mechanisms of action.
Montanaro, Giuseppe; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Lang, Alexander; Mininni, Alba N; Xiloyannis, Cristos
Accumulation of Ca in several fleshy fruit is often supposed to depend, among others, by climatic variables driving fruit transpiration. This study tests the whole causal chain hypothesis: VPD → fruit transpiration → Ca accumulation. Also there are evidences that relationship between fruit transpiration and Ca content is not always clear, hence the hypothesis that low VPD reduces the fraction of xylemic water destined to transpiration was tested by examining the water budget of fruit. Attached fruits of Actinidia deliciosa were subjected to Low (L) and High (H) VPD. Their transpiration was measured from early after fruit-set to day 157 after full bloom (DAFB). Fruits were picked at 70, 130 and 157 DAFB for Ca and K determinations and for water budget analysis. Cumulative transpired water was ∼ 70 g and ∼ 16 g H2O f(-1) in HVPD and LVPD, respectively. Calcium accumulated linearly (R(2) = 0.71) with cumulative transpiration when VPD was high, while correlation was weaker (R(2) = 0.24) under LVPD. Under low VPD the fraction of xylem stream destined to transpiration declined to 40-50%. Results suggest that Ca accumulation is coupled to cumulative transpiration under high VPD because under that condition cumulative transpiration equals xylem stream (which carry the nutrient). At LVPD, Ca gain by fruit is uncoupled from transpiration because ∼ 60% of the xylemic water is needed to sustain fruit growth. Results will apply to most fruits (apples, tomatoes, capsicum, grapes etc.) since most suffer Ca deficiency disorders and grow in changing environments with variable VPD, also they could be supportive for the implementation of fruit quality models accounting also for mineral compositions and for a reinterpretation of certain field practices aimed at naturally improve fruit Ca content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Yun, Ze; Gao, Huijun; Liu, Ping; Liu, Shuzhen; Luo, Tao; Jin, Shuai; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin
Background From field harvest to the consumer?s table, fresh citrus fruit spends a considerable amount of time in shipment and storage. During these processes, physiological disorders and pathological diseases are the main causes of fruit loss. Heat treatment (HT) has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage; however, limited molecular information related to this treatment is currently available at a systemic biological level. Results Mature ?Kamei? Satsuma mandar...
Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
Full Text Available Introduction: Date bunch fading disorder has been one of the most important problems, which caused economic damage to date plantation area of Iran. It has been first reported on Mozafti cultivar in Kahnuj area, Kerman province. It has often been observed on soft and mid ripening cultivars such as Mozafti, Mordaseng and Kalote. Furthermore, it usually appears on Mozafti cultivar when fruits change from Khalal to Rutab stage. The most important symptoms of this disorder are sudden wilting of fruits and necrotic strips on the upper surface of the main bunch stalk. Incidence and development of these symptoms increase by high temperature, low relative humidity, and hot and dry wind. Several research studies have been carried out on this disorder so far, but the only research about the effect of nutrition on disorder was performed by Rosta (2003. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calcium and potassium spray on date bunch fading and some traits of date fruit in Rigan region, Kerman province. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block designs with three replicates in Rigan located in east south of Kerman province, Iran, in 2012. Treatments were: T1: control, T2: spray of calcium nitrate at the concentration of 5 ppm, T3: spray of potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm, and T4: combined spray of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm. Treatments were applied at Kimri, Hobabok and Khalal stages. Sampling was performed from 3 date palms (3 bunches from each date palm were selected randomly at the second date harvest. Totally, the traits of 200 fruits were measured in each date palm. The traits measured in the present study were: fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, stone weight, stone diameter, and bunch fading percentage. Results and Discussions: According to the data of variance analysis, treatments had a significant effect on wet fruit
Sérgio Tonetto de Freitas
Full Text Available Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus is an exotic non-climacteric fruit that reaches its best eating quality when harvested ripe, decreasing thereafter during storage. Our objectives were to determine the best combination of storage temperature and use of perforated plastic bags to maintain the postharvest quality of the fruit. Fruits were stored at 5, 7, or 10 ºC with and without a perforated plastic bag for 20 days, followed by five days at 20 ºC without the bag for shelf-life determination. Storage at 5 ºC, followed by 7 ºC maintained better visual appearance of the pitaya fruit after 20 days, by reducing decay incidence and severity, and maintaining greener bracts compared with fruit stored at 10 ºC. Pitaya fruit stored at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag showed no decay after storage and shelf-life. In general, higher temperatures and the use of a perforated plastic bag increased decay incidence, as well as decay severity after storage and shelf-life conditions. At all temperatures, fruit stored in a perforated plastic bag had lower weight loss during storage. After shelf-life, weight loss was highest in fruit stored at higher temperatures. Storage of fruits at 5 ºC resulted in minor chilling injury symptoms in the outer flesh tissue, close to the peel. Storage at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag was the best condition to maintain the postharvest quality of the pitaya fruit.
de Heer, E.W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; Have, M.T.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Dekker, J.; Graaf, R.; Beekman, A.T.F.
Pain might be an important risk factor for common mental disorders. Insight into the longitudinal association between pain and common mental disorders in the general adult population could help improve prevention and treatment strategies. Data were used from the first two waves of the Netherlands
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...
Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew
Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling...
A group of eighteen fruits cultivated in Ecuador were evaluated for their total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity and attempts were made to identify the group and content of phenolic compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity. In terms of total phenolic content, three groups (with 1000 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW) were clearly distinguishable. RP-HPLC-DAD and/or LC-MS/MS were used to study the phenolic compounds in four Rosaceae fruits (Andean blackberry, str...
Kyu Yun Chai
Full Text Available Sorbus commixta Hedl. (Rosaceae has been traditionally used in oriental countries for the treatment of asthma and other bronchial disorders. In this study, a chalcone glycoside was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruits of this plant. The compound was identified as neosakuranin based on the spectroscopic analysis and comparion with literature data. This is the first report of isolation of neosakuranin from Sorbus commixta.
Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, M. Tauseef; Aziz, Mahwish; Naz, Ambreen; Ahmed, Waqas; Kumar, Naresh; Imran, Muhammad
Currently, nutrition and health linkages focused on emerging strategy of diet based regimen to combat various physiological threats including cardiovascular disorders, oxidative stress, diabetes mellitus, etc. In this context, consumption of fruits and vegetables is gaining considerable importance as safeguard to maintain human health. Likewise, their phytochemicals and bioactive molecules are also becoming popular as promising demulcent against various ailments. The current review is an effo...
Incidents can occur during induction, maintenance and emergence from anaesthesia. The following acute critical incidents are discussed in this article: • Anaphylaxis. • Aspiration ..... Already used in South Africa and Malawi, a scale-up of the technique is under way in Tanzania, Rwanda and Ghana. The report found that.
Fernandez, Melissa Anne; Marette, André
Fruit and yogurt have been identified individually as indicators of healthy dietary patterns. Fruits are relatively low in energy density and are an excellent source of antioxidants and prebiotic fibers and polyphenols, which can promote digestive health. Yogurt, on the other hand, is a nutrient-dense food that is a good source of dairy protein, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B-12, conjugated linoleic acid, and other key fatty acids. In addition, it contains beneficial bacterial cultures, making it a potential source of probiotics. Yogurt's unique fermented food matrix provides added health benefits by enhancing nutrient absorption and digestion. Combining the intake of yogurt and fruit could provide probiotics, prebiotics, high-quality protein, important fatty acids, and a mixture of vitamins and minerals that have the potential to exert synergistic effects on health. Yogurt consumption has been associated with reduced weight gain and a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes, whereas fruits have established effects on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yogurt and fruits can be eaten together and may exert combined health benefits through potential prebiotic and probiotic effects. Furthermore, substituting high-energy, nutrient-deficient snacks with fruit and yogurt could reduce the intake of high-calorie obesogenic foods. In light of the positive cardiometabolic impacts of fruit and yogurt and their association with healthy dietary patterns, there is sufficient evidence to warrant further exploration into the potential synergistic health benefits of a combined intake of fruit and yogurt. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Fruit and yogurt have been identified individually as indicators of healthy dietary patterns. Fruits are relatively low in energy density and are an excellent source of antioxidants and prebiotic fibers and polyphenols, which can promote digestive health. Yogurt, on the other hand, is a nutrient-dense food that is a good source of dairy protein, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B-12, conjugated linoleic acid, and other key fatty acids. In addition, it contains beneficial bacterial cultures, making it a potential source of probiotics. Yogurt’s unique fermented food matrix provides added health benefits by enhancing nutrient absorption and digestion. Combining the intake of yogurt and fruit could provide probiotics, prebiotics, high-quality protein, important fatty acids, and a mixture of vitamins and minerals that have the potential to exert synergistic effects on health. Yogurt consumption has been associated with reduced weight gain and a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes, whereas fruits have established effects on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yogurt and fruits can be eaten together and may exert combined health benefits through potential prebiotic and probiotic effects. Furthermore, substituting high-energy, nutrient-deficient snacks with fruit and yogurt could reduce the intake of high-calorie obesogenic foods. In light of the positive cardiometabolic impacts of fruit and yogurt and their association with healthy dietary patterns, there is sufficient evidence to warrant further exploration into the potential synergistic health benefits of a combined intake of fruit and yogurt. PMID:28096139
Singh, S. P.; Pal, R. K.
We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation for improving physiological responses, quality, and storage time of fresh guava fruit. Ionizing radiation treatment suppressed the respiration and ethylene production rates and thus retarded the process of fruit ripening during storage. Irradiation treatment also retarded the physical and biochemical changes associated with ripening such as firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and vitamin C during storage, but for doses higher than 0.25 kGy the vitamin C content decreased. The positive effects of ionizing radiation treatment on delayed fruit ripening and other quality attributes diminished during 22 days of storage at 10 °C. Thus, a combination of ionizing radiation with low-temperature storage (10 °C) did not have much synergistic effect on storage life and quality of guava fruit. In conclusion, ionizing radiation treatment of guava fruit with 0.25 kGy dose increased the postharvest life by 3-4 days, maintained fruit quality, and reduced the decay incidence. The optimal dose (0.25 kGy) for postharvest life extension of guava fruit may be exploited to provide phytosanitary security against many insect pests including fruit flies.
Singh, S.P. [Handling and Storage Laboratory, Division of Postharvest Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Pal, R.K. [Handling and Storage Laboratory, Division of Postharvest Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India)
We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation for improving physiological responses, quality, and storage time of fresh guava fruit. Ionizing radiation treatment suppressed the respiration and ethylene production rates and thus retarded the process of fruit ripening during storage. Irradiation treatment also retarded the physical and biochemical changes associated with ripening such as firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and vitamin C during storage, but for doses higher than 0.25 kGy the vitamin C content decreased. The positive effects of ionizing radiation treatment on delayed fruit ripening and other quality attributes diminished during 22 days of storage at 10 deg. C. Thus, a combination of ionizing radiation with low-temperature storage (10 deg. C) did not have much synergistic effect on storage life and quality of guava fruit. In conclusion, ionizing radiation treatment of guava fruit with 0.25 kGy dose increased the postharvest life by 3-4 days, maintained fruit quality, and reduced the decay incidence. The optimal dose (0.25 kGy) for postharvest life extension of guava fruit may be exploited to provide phytosanitary security against many insect pests including fruit flies.
Singh, S.P.; Pal, R.K.
We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation for improving physiological responses, quality, and storage time of fresh guava fruit. Ionizing radiation treatment suppressed the respiration and ethylene production rates and thus retarded the process of fruit ripening during storage. Irradiation treatment also retarded the physical and biochemical changes associated with ripening such as firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and vitamin C during storage, but for doses higher than 0.25 kGy the vitamin C content decreased. The positive effects of ionizing radiation treatment on delayed fruit ripening and other quality attributes diminished during 22 days of storage at 10 deg. C. Thus, a combination of ionizing radiation with low-temperature storage (10 deg. C) did not have much synergistic effect on storage life and quality of guava fruit. In conclusion, ionizing radiation treatment of guava fruit with 0.25 kGy dose increased the postharvest life by 3-4 days, maintained fruit quality, and reduced the decay incidence. The optimal dose (0.25 kGy) for postharvest life extension of guava fruit may be exploited to provide phytosanitary security against many insect pests including fruit flies
Kaluza, Joanna; Larsson, Susanna C; Orsini, Nicola; Linden, Anders; Wolk, Alicja
Antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables may protect the lung from oxidative damage and prevent COPD. To determine the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of COPD by smoking status in men. The population-based prospective Cohort of Swedish Men included 44 335 men, aged 45-79 years, with no history of COPD at baseline. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.2 years, 1918 incident cases of COPD were ascertained. A strong inverse association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and COPD was observed in smokers but not in never-smokers (p-interaction=0.02). The age-standardised incidence rate per 100 000 person-years in the lowest quintile (fruit and vegetable consumption was 1166 in current smokers and 506 in ex-smokers; among those in the highest quintile (≥5.3 servings/day), 546 and 255 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. The multivariable HR of COPD comparing extreme quintiles of total fruit and vegetable consumption was 0.60 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.76, p-trend fruit and vegetable consumption decreased risk of COPD significantly by 8% (95% CI 4% to 11%) in current smokers and by 4% (95% CI 0% to 7%) in ex-smokers. These results indicate that high consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced COPD incidence in both current and ex-smokers but not in never-smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Raphael N Okigbo
Full Text Available Raphael N Okigbo1, Omokaro Obire21Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: An investigation was conducted on the mycoflora associated with the different parts of fresh and rotten fruits of soursop (Annona muricata L. and the potential of using both indigenous yeast flora and commercial yeast extract for wine production. Isolation of fungi and pathogenicity test were carried out with Sabouraud dextrose agar. Mycoflora were more in the rotten fruits than in the fresh fruits. Botryodiplodia theobromae was isolated only from the rotten fruits (skin while Trichoderma viride was isolated only from the fresh fruits. Penicillium sp., was the most dominant in all the fruit part of fresh soursop fruit with Rhizopus stolonifer having the highest percentage occurrence (36.39% in the rotten fruit. Most of the isolated fungi indicated occurrence of such common airborne fungi on soursop fruits and the potential to induce rot in fresh healthy fruits of soursop in storage. Soursop juice was fermented for 10 days and wine was obtained. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the alcoholic content of the wines obtained from the indigenous and commercial yeasts. The wine obtained from the pasteurized, ameliorated soursop juice inoculated with propagated indigenous yeast yielded the highest alcoholic content. Based on the level of the nutritional composition of soursop juice, the ability to support yeast growth, the high alcoholic content and palatability of the wine, the Annona muricata is good source for wine production and single-cell protein.Keywords: fermentation, fruit yeast, fungi, incidence, rot
Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.
In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)
This report is concerned with an investigation of the major markets for processed tropical or exotic fruit. The markets studied are France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, the United States and Japan. Tropical fruit and their products are many and diverse; the study is concentrated on the more dynamic sectors of the market: that is, pulps, juices and canned fruits. The processed fruit for which there is significant demand are passion fruit, g...
Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, cognitive behavioral writing therapy, and wait-list in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder following single-incident trauma : a multicenter randomized clinical trial
de Roos, C.; van der Oord, S.; Zijlstra, B.; Lucassen, S.; Perrin, S.; Emmelkamp, P.; de Jongh, A.
Background: Practice guidelines for childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) recommend trauma-focused psychotherapies, mainly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a brief trauma-focused, evidence-based treatment for PTSD in adults,
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
This factsheet describes the different mental, emotional, and behavior problems that can occur during childhood and adolescence. The incidence and symptoms of the following disorders are discussed: (1) anxiety disorders (including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder);…
Dræbel, Tania Aase; Keller, Amélie; de Courten, Max
of fruit and vegetables is associated with NCDs. In Zanzibar, the incidence of diabetes has increased from 252 new cases in 2006, to 373 in 2008, in an adult population of just over a million people and hypertension is the second commonest cause of death. We explored the association between fruit...... and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related NCDs in Zanzibar....
Schrøder, Stine Attrup; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan
Sialolithiasis is a frequent disorder affecting the salivary glands. The incidence rate (IR) has been reported to be 2.9-5.5 per 100,000 person-years, but all previous studies have been based on selected hospital data. In this study, we conducted a population-based study evaluating the IR...... of sialolithiasis and the IR variation according to age, gender and geography in Denmark. We included data from hospitals as well as from private ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. The study was based on registry data on all sialolithiasis cases in Denmark between 2003 and 2009 extracted from the Danish National...... Patient Registry (hospital cohort) and the Danish Regions Centre for Healthcare Statistics (private ENT clinic cohort). To validate the diagnosis, the proportion of visually confirmed cases was estimated based on patient records from subsamples of the two cohorts. The IR was 7.27 and 14.10 per 100...
Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z
Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation.
Winkelman, John W; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan
Both restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) may be associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the individual contributions of these factors to adverse CVD outcomes are unknown. During the MrOS Sleep Study, 2823 men (mean age = 76.3 years) participated in a comprehensive sleep assessment from 2000 to 2002. RLS was identified by self-report of a physician diagnosis of RLS. A periodic limb movement of sleep index (PLMI) was derived from unattended in-home polysomnography. Incident cardiovascular events were centrally adjudicated during 8.7 ± 2.6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was all-cause CVD; secondary outcomes included incident myocardial infarction (MI) and cerebrovascular disease. Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for multiple covariates, including PLMI, to examine if there were independent associations of RLS and PLMI to the outcomes. Physician-diagnosed RLS was reported by 2.2% and a PLMI ≥ 15 was found in 59.6% of men. RLS was not associated with the composite CVD outcome. RLS was significantly associated with incident MI (Hazard ratio [HR] = 2.02, 95% CI, 1.04-3.91) even after adjustment for multiple covariates. Results were only modestly attenuated when PLMI was added to the model. PLMI also was found to predict incident MI (per SD increase in PLMI, HR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.00-1.30, p = .05), and was materially unchanged after addition of RLS. The independent risk that RLS confers for MI suggests a role for non-PLMS factors such as sleep disturbance, shared genetic factors, or PLM-independent sympathetic hyperactivity. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail email@example.com.
Lim, J J; Childs, J; Gonsalves, K
Recent studies have indicated implementation of the CISM Program has impacted and reduced the cost of workers' compensation claims for stress related conditions and the number of lost work days (Ott, 1997; Western Management Consultants, 1996). Occupational health professionals need to be ready to develop and implement a comprehensive critical incident stress management process in anticipation of a major event. The ability to organize, lead, or administer critical incident stress debriefings for affected employees is a key role for the occupational health professional. Familiarity with these concepts and the ability to identify a critical incident enhances value to the business by mitigating the stress and impact to the workplace. Critical Incident Stress Management Systems have the potential for decreasing stress and restoring employees to normal life function--a win/win situation for both the employees and the organization.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...
EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.
D. I. Persanov
Full Text Available The present report highlights the points of information security incident management in an enterprise. Some aspects of the incident and event classification are given. The author presents his view of the process scheme over the monitoring and processing information security events. Also, the report determines a few critical points of the listed process and gives the practical recommendations over its development and optimization.
Voorrips, L.E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R.J.J.; Brandt, P.A. van den
The relation between vegetable and fruit consumption and colorectal cancer risk was comprehensively assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer using a validated 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of follow-up (1986-1992), over 1,000 incident cases of colorectal
Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.
The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at the start in September 1986. Analyses were based on 282 incident stomach cancer cases after 6.3 years of follow-up. Age-
Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K
of the fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and the words 'antidiabetic', 'hypoglycemic', 'anti-hyperglycemic', 'type 2 diabetes' were used as keywords for search. RESULTS: Certain fruits and vegetables are functional foods and their consumption reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemic......-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of some dietary fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and their active hypoglycemic constituents. Including such plant species in the diet might improve management of type 2 diabetes....... for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our aim is to present a review...
Bazzano, Lydia A; Serdula, Mary K; Liu, Simin
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. In this review, we examine the scientific evidence in support of current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake for CVD prevention. Available evidence indicates that persons who consume more fruits and vegetables often have lower prevalence of important risk factors for CVD, including hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent large, prospective studies also show a direct inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and the development of CVD incidents such as coronary heart disease and stroke. However, the biologic mechanisms whereby fruits and vegetables may exert their effects are not entirely clear and are likely to be multiple. Many nutrients and phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables, including fiber, potassium, and folate, could be independently or jointly responsible for the apparent reduction in CVD risk. Functional aspects of fruits and vegetables, such as their low dietary glycemic load and energy density, may also play a significant role. Although it is important to continue our quest for mechanistic insights, given the great potential for benefits already known, greater efforts and resources are needed to support dietary changes that encourage increased fruit and vegetable intake.
Duan, Xiaofang; OuYang, Qiuli; Tao, Nengguo
Green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum is the most damaging postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. Cinnamaldehyde (CA) is a food additive that has potential use in controlling postharvest disease of fruits and vegetables. In this study, the effectiveness of wax with CA (WCA) in controlling Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco) green mould was investigated. The mycelial growth of P. digitatum was inhibited by CA in a dose-dependent manner. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were both 0.50 mL L -1 . In vivo tests demonstrated that WCA (1 × and 10 × MFC) applied to Ponkan fruits inoculated with P. digitatum could significantly decrease the incidence of green mould for up to 5 days. The WCA treatment increased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, polyphenol oxidase, as well as the total phenols and flavonoids contents. Meanwhile, the treatment remarkably decreased the weight loss rate of fruits and maintained fruit quality. These results indicated that WCA treatment might induce defence responses against green mould in citrus fruit. Our findings suggest that WCA might be a promising approach in controlling green mould of citrus fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G; Schaefer, H Martin; Habermann, Gustavo; Cazetta, Eliana; Soares, Natalia Costa; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia C
Most bird-dispersed fruits are green when unripe and become colored and conspicuous when ripe, signaling that fruits are ready to be consumed and dispersed. The color pattern for fruits of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae), however, is the opposite, with reddish unripe and green ripe fruits. We (1) verified the maintenance over time of its bicolored display, (2) tested the communicative function of unripe fruits, (3) tested the photoprotective role of anthocyanins in unripe fruits, and (4) verified whether green ripe fruits can assimilate carbon. Using a paired experiment, we tested whether detection of ripe fruits was higher on infructescences with unripe and ripe fruits compared with infructescences with only ripe fruits. We also measured and compared gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and heat dissipation of covered (to prevent anthocyanin synthesis) and uncovered ripe and unripe fruits. Although the bicolored display was maintained over time, unripe fruits had no influence on bird detection and removal of ripe fruits. Ripe and unripe fruits did not assimilate CO2, but they respired instead. Since the communicative function of unripe fruits was not confirmed, seed dispersers are unlikely to select the display with bicolored fruits. Because of the absence of photosynthetic activity in ripe and unripe fruits and enhanced photoprotective mechanisms in ripe fruits rather than in unripe fruits, we could not confirm the photoprotective role of anthocyanins in unripe fruits. As an alternative hypothesis, we suggest that the bicolored fruit display could be an adaptation to diversify seed dispersal vectors instead of restricting dispersal to birds and that anthocyanins in unripe fruits may have a defense role against pathogens. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.
Disordered systems are ubiquitous in nature and their study remains a profound and challenging subject of current research. Ideas and methods from the physics of Disordered systems have been fruitfully applied to several fields ranging from computer science to neuroscience. This book contains a selection of lectures delivered at the 'SERC School on Disordered Systems', spanning topics from classic results to frontier areas of research in this field. Spin glasses, disordered Ising models, quantum disordered systems, structural glasses, dilute magnets, interfaces in random field systems and disordered vortex systems are among the topics discussed in the text, in chapters authored by active researchers in the field, including Bikas Chakrabarti, Arnab Das, Deepak Kumar, Gautam Menon, G. Ravikumar, Purusattam Ray, Srikanth Sastry and Prabodh Shukla. This book provides a gentle and comprehensive introduction to the physics of disordered systems and is aimed at graduate students and young scientists either working i...
Full Text Available Iodine is an essential microelement for humans and iodine deficiency disorder (IDD is one of the most widespread nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world. Iodine biofortification of plants provides an attractive opportunity to increase iodine intake in humans and to prevent and control IDD. This study was conducted to investigate the iodine uptake and accumulation in edible portion of two fruit trees: plum and nectarine, and two horticultural crops: tomato and potato. Two type of iodine treatments (soil and foliar spray application, and, for fresh market tomato, two production systems (open field and greenhouse hydroponic culture were tested. The distribution of iodine in potato stem and leaves, and in plum tree fruits, leaves, and branches was investigated. Iodine content of potato tubers after postharvest storage and processing (cooking, and iodine content of nectarine fruits after postharvest storage and processing (peeling were also determined. Differences in iodine accumulation were observed among the four crops, between applications, and between production systems. In open field, the maximum iodine content ranged from 9.5 and 14.3 μg 100 g−1 for plum and nectarine fruit, to 89.4 and 144.0 μg 100 g−1 for potato tuber and tomato fruit, respectively. These results showed that nectarine and plum tree accumulated significantly lower amounts of iodine in their edible tissues, in comparison with potato and tomato. The experiments also indicated hydroponic culture as the most efficient system for iodine uptake in tomato, since its fresh fruits accumulated up to 2423 μg 100 g−1 of iodine. Iodine was stored mainly in the leaves, in all species investigated. Only a small portion of iodine was moved to plum tree branches and fruits, and to potato stems and tubers. No differences in iodine content after fruit peeling was observed. A significant increase in iodine content of potato was observed after baking, whereas a significant decrease was
... and Bulimia What Causes Eating Disorders? Sports and Eating Disorders Effects of Eating Disorders Treatment for Eating Disorders Print ... when they are biologically destined to gain it. Effects of Eating Disorders Eating disorders are serious medical illnesses. They often ...
Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...
Robert J. Cannon
Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods
Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others
As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the ... Author Affiliations. Amitabh Joshi1. Animal Behaviour Unit Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research Jakkur P.O. Bangalore 560 064, India ...
Pelkmans, J.F.; Lugones, L.G.; Wosten, H.A.B.
Establishment of the dikaryotic mycelium and formation of fruiting bodies are highly complex developmental programmes that are activated by a combination of environmental cues. A wide variety of proteins are expected to regulate and coordinate these programmes or to fulfil enzymatic conversions or
The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)
Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)
Dr. M. Nejat SEFERCIOĞLU
Full Text Available About 80 divans were studied and poems with fruitnames as a refrain were specified. In the Divan poetry,fruit names as a refrain were used rarely. In these poems,the similes about fruits are concerned with their colours,shapes and tastes. In these ghazels, some similes weremade with fruit names which were used as a refrain, forexample bitter orange - lover, aggrieved, deus exmachina; citrus fruit - lover; peach - lovers lips. Alsothese refrains’s importance was emphasized.
Brug, J.; de Vet, E.W.M.L.; De Nooijer, J.; Verplanken, B.
Objective: To study predictors of fruit intake in a sample of 627 adults. Design: Potential predictors of fruit intake were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed at two-week follow-up with self-administered questionnaires distributed by e-mail. Setting: The study was conducted among
Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon
We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from
De nVWA en het RIVM doen al jaren onderzoek naar residuen van giftige stoffen op groenten en fruit. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat met name peuters en baby’s meer groenten en fruit binnenkrijgen dan eerder werd gedacht. Met meer groenten en fruit zouden ze ook meer residuen binnenkrijgen. Ernst Woltering
Zamora-Ros, Raul; Béraud, Virginie; Franceschi, Silvia; Cayssials, Valerie; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Eriksen, Anne K; Bonnet, Fabrice; Affret, Aurélie; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Karakatsani, Anna; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Skeie, Guri; Parr, Christine L; Merino, Susana; Salamanca-Fernández, Elena; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Almquist, Martin; Drake, Isabel; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Schmidt, Julie A; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Agudo, Antonio; Rinaldi, Sabina
Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is considered as probably protective against overall cancer risk, but results in previous studies are not consistent for thyroid cancer (TC). The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, fruit juices and differentiated thyroid cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The EPIC study is a cohort including over half a million participants, recruited between 1991 and 2000. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 incident first primary differentiated TC cases were identified. F&V and fruit juice intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of intake, differentiated TC risk was not associated with intakes of total F&V (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.68-1.15; p-trend = 0.44), vegetables (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.69-1.14; p-trend = 0.56), or fruit (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.79-1.26; p-trend = 0.64). No significant association was observed with any individual type of vegetable or fruit. However, there was a positive borderline trend with fruit juice intake (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.98-1.53; p-trend = 0.06). This study did not find any significant association between F&V intakes and differentiated TC risk; however a positive trend with fruit juice intake was observed, possibly related to its high sugar content. © 2017 UICC.
Folkvord, F.; Anastasiadou, D.T.; Anschutz, D.J.
Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of
Whyte, John; Nordenbo, Annette M; Kalmar, Kathleen
To assess the incidence of medical complications in patients with recent traumatic disorders of consciousness (DOCs).......To assess the incidence of medical complications in patients with recent traumatic disorders of consciousness (DOCs)....
Franzen, L.F.; Wienhold, W.
With reference to the incident list of the Ministry for the period 1971-74, Prof. Bechert has expressed a lot of questions and statements in a letter to the Government. The letter is quoted in full. Inadequate conclusions drawn by Prof. Bechert in connection with quotations from daily newspapers and other documents are put right. (HP) [de
Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.
the result of an incident that requires (or should require) treatment by a practitioner of medicine , a registered emergency medical technician, or a...UNANNOUNCED AIRCRAFT EMERGENCYS ~~PRIOR TO TAKE OFF OR AFTERLADN 5 FUEL OPERATIONS REQUIRING 1AREING G A FIRE10 ARRESTING GEAR’BARRIER FR . ENGAGEMENTS AND
Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.
Ranjan, Sanjay; Singh, Ruchi; Soni, Devendra K; Pathre, Uday V; Shirke, Pramod A
Jatropha curcas (L.) trees under north Indian conditions (Lucknow) produce fruits in two major flushes, once during autumn-winter (October-December). The leaves at this time are at the senescence stages and already shedding. The second flush of fruit setting occurs during the summer (April-June) after the leaves have formed during spring (March-April). Photosynthetic performance of detached jatropha fruits was studied at three developmental stages, immature, mature and ripe fruits. Studies were made in both winter and summer fruits in response to light, temperature and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) under controlled conditions to assess the influence of these environmental factors on the photosynthetic performance of jatropha fruits. Immature fruits showed high light saturating point of around 2000 μmol m(-2) s(-1). High VPD did not show an adverse effect on the fruit A. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) showed an inverse behaviour to increasing VPD, however, transpiration (E) was not restricted by the increasing VPD in both seasons. During winter in absence of leaves on the jatropha tree the fruits along with the bark contributes maximum towards photoassimilation. Dark respiration rates (R(d)) monitored in fruit coat and seeds independently, showed maximum R(d) in seeds of mature fruit and these were about five times more than its fruit coat, reflecting the higher energy requirement of the developing fruit during maximum oil synthesis stage. Photosynthesis and fluorescence parameters studied indicate that young jatropha fruits are photosynthetically as efficient as its leaves and play a paramount role in scavenging the high concentration of CO(2) generated by the fruit during respiration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake to esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China.We calculated the proportion of esophageal cancer attributable to four known modifiable risk factors [population attributable fraction (PAF]. Exposure data was taken from meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risks were also from meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies. Esophageal cancer mortality and incidence came from the 3(rd national death cause survey and population-based cancer registries in China. We estimated that 87,065 esophageal cancer deaths (men 67,686; women: 19,379 and 108,206 cases (men: 83,968, women: 24,238 were attributable to tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake in China in 2005. About 17.9% of esophageal cancer deaths among men and 1.9% among women were attributable to tobacco smoking. About 15.2% of esophageal cancer deaths in men and 1.3% in women were caused by alcohol drinking. Low vegetable intake was responsible for 4.3% esophageal cancer deaths in men and 4.1% in women. The fraction of esophageal cancer deaths attributable to low fruit intake was 27.1% in men and 28.0% in women. Overall, 46% of esophageal cancers (51% in men and 33% in women were attributable to these four modifiable risk factors.Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake were responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China.
Ripening and development of physiological disorders and decay were assessed in ‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit following 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and cold storage in air or controlled atmosphere (CA). Fruit were exposed after harvest to 0 or 12.6 µmol•L-1 1-MCP and then stored at 0.5 oC in air o...
Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D
The consumption of fruit is generally associated with better health, but also higher socioeconomic status (SES). Most previous studies evaluating consumption of fruits have not separated 100% fruit juice and whole fruit, which may conceal interesting patterns in consumption. To estimate demographic and socioeconomic correlates of whole fruit versus 100% juice consumption among children and adults in the United States. Secondary analyses of two cycles of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2007-2010, by gender, age group, race/ethnicity and SES among 16,628 children and adults. Total fruit consumption (population average of 1.06 cup equivalents/d) fell far short of national goals. Overall, whole fruit provided about 65% of total fruit, while 100% juice provided the remainder. Whereas 100% juice consumption was highest among children and declined sharply with age, whole fruit consumption was highest among older adults. Total fruit and whole fruit consumption was generally higher among those with higher incomes or more education. By contrast, the highest 100% juice consumption was found among children, racial/ethnic minorities and lower-income groups. Consumption patterns for whole fruit versus 100% fruit juice showed different gradients by race/ethnicity, education, and income. The advice to replace 100% juice with whole fruit may pose a challenge for the economically disadvantaged and some minority groups, whose fruit consumption falls short of national goals.
Louise Larissa May de Mio
Full Text Available The bagging technique of fruits comes being used by many producers, aiming at the fruit quality, reduction of application of agro toxics and reduction of the damages caused by insects and diseases. The present work evaluated the quality of bagging fruits of ‘Jiro’ japanese persimmon with different types of bags. The experiment was lead in the orchard of Japanese persimmon of the Experimental Farm of the Canguiri of the UFPR, located in Pinhais-PR. The fertilization and the management of the orchard were entirely organic. The treatments had been: microperforated plastic bag, brown kraft paper bag, butter-like paper bag, newspaper bag and without bagging. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with five replicates, being each plant considered a block. Each parcel was composed by 20 fruits. The bagging was made after the physiological fall of the young fruits, distributing the types of bags aleatorely inside each plant. The evaluation was 77 days after bagging, verifying the number of fruits harvested, mass of the fruits, diameter of the fruits, number of fruits in each category of maturation, number of fruits attacked with Schyzothyrium pomi and soluble solids content. The results were significant only in the incidence of S. pomi and in the percentage of coloration of the fruits. The bagging with newspaper and brown kraft bags reduced the incidence of S. Pomi and the color of fruits. The size and the soluble solids content were not affected by bagging.A técnica de ensacamento de frutos vem sendo utilizadas por muitos produtores, visando a melhor qualidade de frutos, redução de aplicação de agrotóxicos e diminuição dos danos provocados por pragas e doenças. O presente trabalho avaliou a qualidade de frutos de caquizeiro ‘Jiro’ ensacados com diferentes tipos de embalagens. O experimento foi conduzido no pomar de caquizeiro da Fazenda Experimental do Canguiri da UFPR, localizada em Pinhais-PR. A adubação e o manejo do
LUIZ CARLOS CHAMHUM SALOMÃO
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate some changes in the metabolism of papaya fruits submitted to damage by impact, abrasion and compression. Injuries were caused in two areas of 15 cm2 each; in diametrically opposite positions in the equatorial region of ‘Improved Sunrise Solo Line 72/12’ papaya fruits in ripening stage 3 (fruits with 25-40% of yellow skin. After damage, fruits were stored at 15 ± 1 °C and 85 ± 5% RH, and samples were taken at intervals of two days to evaluate skin color index, incidence of diseases, loss of fresh weight, leak of solutes, pulp firmness, soluble solids content and pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase activities. The respiratory rate was measured at intervals of 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after damage. The results show the suppressive effects of mechanical damage on the final quality and also on fruit shelf life. Mechanically damaged fruits anticipated ripening, with skin color indexes higher than control fruits. Abrasion was the damage that caused more dramatic effects, showing, at the end of the study period, loss of fresh weight and leak of solutes of 27% and 18.7%, respectively, higher than control fruits. In addition, fruits submitted to this type of damage have higher respiratory rate and also higher rot incidence. The pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase activity was not consistently changed in relation to damage. Similarly, there was no difference in soluble solids content.
Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio
At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening is considered to be the main process in fruit development, and all studies had been focused on this process which included physicochemical, biochemical, and molecular analysis. With the development of genomic analysis the strategies to study fruit ripening have been changing and now there are new perspectives and opportunities. The objective of this review is to describe the state of the art in the studies related to fruit ripening with emphasis in molecular studies.
Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros
Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346
Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.
Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros
Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.
There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)
Drenth, André; Guest, David I
The tropics produce a range of fruit from tree crops that cannot be grown in colder climates. Bananas, mangos, several nuts, spices, coffee, and cacao are widely traded and much sought after around the world. However, the sustainable production of these tropical tree fruit crops faces significant challenges. Among these, losses due to pests and diseases play a large part in reducing yields, quality, and profitability. Using bananas and cacao as key examples, we outline some of the reasons fungal and oomycete diseases cause such significant losses to tropical tree crops. Cultivation of monocultures derived from limited genetic diversity, environmental conditions conducive for disease development, high levels of disease incidence and severity, a lack of disease resistance in planting materials, shortages of labor, and inadequate infrastructure and investment pose significant challenges, especially for smallholder producers. The expansion of travel and trade has given rise to emerging infectious plant diseases that add further insecurity and pressure. We conclude that holistic actions are needed on multiple fronts to address the growing problem of disease in tropical fruit tree crops.
Taragola, N.; Van Passel, S.; Zwiekhorst, W.
As fruit growers are faced with a growing need for sustainable development, it is important to integrate sustainability into their management processes. This research applies and evaluates a self-analysis tool for entrepreneurs called the ‘sustainability scan’. The scan identifies 23 sustainability themes, divided according to the 3P-framework (People, Planet and Profit). In the scan, it is assumed that the management of these themes is at the core of sustainable entrepren...
Reddy, Sagili Chandrasekhara
To report various ocular injuries caused by durian fruit. Three cases of ocular injuries were described in young patients, due to accidental fall of durian fruit on the forehead and face, while they were taking rest/sleeping /playing under the durian tree. The ocular injuries observed were lacerating injury of cornea with iris incarceration, hyphema, superficial penetrating injury of sclera and angle recession glaucoma in the right eye of first patient; lacerating injury of cornea with iris prolapse in the left eye of second patient; subconjunctival haemorrhage, traumatic mydriasis and superficial penetrating injury of sclera, commotion retinopathy and macular edema in the left eye of third patient. Vision improved to normal in all the eyes following surgical/ medical/optical treatment. Evidence of penetrating injury (because of thorns) and blunt injury (because of weight) can be seen in the eyes when durian fruit falls on the face. Vision can be recovered fully with immediate and appropriate treatment in these cases. The ocular injuries can be prevented by educating the public to wear protective metal frame wide goggles and not to sleep/take rest under the durian tree.
Low temperature stress is implicated in a wide-range of apple fruit postharvest necrotic disorders. Previously, untargeted metabolic profiling identified alterations in multiple metabolic processes that precede superficial scald symptom development. Metabolites with free sterol (FS) –like mass spe...
Low temperature stress is implicated in a wide-range of apple fruit postharvest necrotic disorders. Previously, untargeted metabolic profiling identified alterations in multiple metabolic processes that precede superficial scald symptom development. Metabolites with free sterol (FS) –like mass spe...
Zwaving, J.H; Bos, R.
Vitex agnus-castus, the chaste tree, is used against disorders of the female sexual organs and as an anaphrodisiac. Active constituents are not known. In this study the essential oil of the fruits was investigated by GC and GC-MS.
Jawad, Mustafa Bashir M; Sjögren, Magnus
Body dysmorphic disorder is defined by a preoccupation of one or more non-existent or slight defects or flaws in the physical appearance. The prevalence is 1.7-2.4% in the general population with a higher incidence rate in women. The rate of suicidal ideation is as high as 80%, and up to 25......% of the patients attempt to commit suicide. Comorbidities, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety, are frequent. These patients may seek cosmetic or dermatologic rather than psychological treatment. In the view of the high prevalence and risk of suicide, recognizing this disorder...
Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P
Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete
.51), adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR=1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.62), and mesothelioma (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.77). By contrast with earlier studies, the incidence of testicular cancer was decreased (SIR=0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Some of these associations have been observed previously, and potential...
Jawad, Mustafa Bashir M; Sjögren, Magnus
Body dysmorphic disorder is defined by a preoccupation of one or more non-existent or slight defects or flaws in the physical appearance. The prevalence is 1.7-2.4% in the general population with a higher incidence rate in women. The rate of suicidal ideation is as high as 80%, and up to 25...
Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M
To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....
Garriga, Teresa; Guilarte, Mar; Luengo, Olga; Guillén, Mercé; Labrador-Horrillo, Moisés; Fadeeva, Tatiana; Sala, Anna; Cardona, Victória
Diagnosis of fruit sensitisation by skin prick test (SPT) is fast and easy to perform. Nevertheless, some fruit is not available throughout the year. Freezing aliquots of these fresh fruits to be defrosted would be a good solution to perform SPT at any time. To compare the reproducibility of SPT with Rosaceae and Cucurbitaceae frozen fruit with fresh and commercial fruit extracts. SPT with the following fruit were performed: apricot, cherry, strawberry, nectarine, Japanese medlar, peach, (peel and pulp), yellow and red plum, melon and watermelon. We compared fresh fruit, commercial extract and fruit which had been frozen at -18 degrees C. Results were read by planimetry (Inmunotek prick-film) after 15 minutes. The study group comprised 48 patients (9 males, 39 females) with a mean age of 31, 6 +/- 2.0 years. Concordance of positive and negative results was extremely high and significant in all cases. Correlation between frozen fruit and commercial extract, frozen fruit and fresh and commercial extract and fresh fruit was statistically significant in all cases except for strawberry. The use of frozen fruit is a valid method, as the performance of the SPT is similar to that of fresh fruit. This enables diagnostic procedures with seasonal fruit at any time of the year.
Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning
In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.
Poiroux-Gonord, Florine; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Poggi, Isabelle; Urban, Laurent
The final contents of primary and secondary metabolites of the ripe fruit depend on metabolic processes that are tightly regulated during fruit ontogeny. Carbohydrate supply during fruit development is known to influence these processes but, with respect to secondary metabolites, we do not really know whether this influence is direct or indirect. Here, we hypothesized that the sensitivity of clementine fruit metabolism to carbohydrate supply was conditional on fruit developmental stage. We applied treatments increasing fruit load reversibly or irreversibly at three key stages of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) fruit development: early after cell division, at the onset of fruit coloration (color break) and near maturity. The highest fruit load obtained by early defoliation (irreversible) had the highest impact on fruit growth, maturity and metabolism, followed by the highest fruit load obtained by early shading (reversible). Final fruit size decreased by 21 and 18% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Soluble sugars decreased by 18% in the early irreversible treatment, whereas organic acids increased by 46 and 29% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Interestingly, total carotenoids increased by 50 and 18%, respectively. Changes in leaf starch content and photosynthesis supported that these early treatments triggered a carbon starvation in the young fruits, with irreversible effects. Furthermore, our observations on the early treatments challenge the common view that carbohydrate supply influences positively carotenoid accumulation in fruits. We propose that early carbon starvation irreversibly promotes carotenoid accumulation. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.
Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth
AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...
This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures
Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Rießland-Seifert, Angelika; Fasching, Peter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Toplak, Hermann
Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications. Improvement of therapeutic outcome is a challenge in the modern health care system. The intentions behind this position paper are to rise awareness of this special set of problems, to intensify cooperation between involved health care providers and to reduce incidence of diabetes mellitus as well as morbidity and mortality from diabetes in this patient group.
Full Text Available A novel flavonoid glucoside, ruthenicunoid A (1, together with eight known substances, were isolated from the fruits of Lycium ruthenicun Murr. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data and chemical methods. Especially, the absolute configuration of glucose residue in 1 was assigned by acid hydrolysis followed by derivatization and GC analysis. Biological evaluation towards Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 found that compounds 1 and 2 exhibit inhibitory activity against SIRT1 in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its potential on SIRT1-associated disorders.
Forsline, P.L. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY); Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.
Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.
Zhou, Yahan; Li, Shunmin; Zeng, Kaifang
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in numerous plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the effects of NO on the control of postharvest anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in citrus fruit and its possible mechanisms, citrus fruit were treated with an NO donor. The results showed that exogenous NO released from 50 µmol L(-1) sodium nitroprusside aqueous solution could effectively reduce the disease incidence and lesion diameter of citrus fruit inoculated with C. gloeosporioides during storage at 20 °C. Exogenous NO could regulate hydrogen peroxide levels, stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds, and induce phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase activities, and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Furthermore, exogenous NO could inhibit weight loss, improve the ascorbic acid and titratable acidity content, and delay the increase in total soluble solids content in citrus fruit during storage at 20 °C. The results suggest that the use of exogenous NO is a potential method for inducing the disease resistance of fruit to fungal pathogens and for extending the postharvest life of citrus fruit. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely; de Nooijer, Jascha; Verplanken, Bas
To study predictors of fruit intake in a sample of 627 adults. Potential predictors of fruit intake were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed at two-week follow-up with self-administered questionnaires distributed by e-mail. The study was conducted among Dutch adult members of an Internet research panel. A random sample of 627 adults aged 18-78. Attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, expected pros and cons, habit strength, intention, and fruit intake. Fruit intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses. Alpha pros, different self-efficacy expectations, and habit strength were significantly associated with the intention to eat two or more servings of fruit per day. Age, intentions, and habit strength were significant predictors of consumption of two or more servings of fruit per day. The results confirm that Theory of Planned Behavior constructs predict fruit intake, and that habit strength and different self-efficacy expectations may be additional determinants relevant to fruit intake. Because habitual behavior is considered to be triggered by environmental cues, fruit promotion interventions should further explore environmental change strategies.
Boeing, Heiner; Bechthold, Angela; Bub, Achim; Ellinger, Sabine; Haller, Dirk; Kroke, Anja; Leschik-Bonnet, Eva; Müller, Manfred J; Oberritter, Helmut; Schulze, Matthias; Stehle, Peter; Watzl, Bernhard
Vegetables and fruit provide a significant part of human nutrition, as they are important sources of nutrients, dietary fibre, and phytochemicals. However, it is uncertain whether the risk of certain chronic diseases can be reduced by increased consumption of vegetables or fruit by the general public, and what strength of evidence has to be allocated to such an association. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the studies available in the literature and the respective study results has been performed and evaluated regarding obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cancer, chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, osteoporosis, eye diseases, and dementia. For judgement, the strength of evidence for a risk association, the level of evidence, and the number of studies were considered, the quality of the studies and their estimated relevance based on study design and size. For hypertension, CHD, and stroke, there is convincing evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of disease. There is probable evidence that the risk of cancer in general is inversely associated with the consumption of vegetables and fruit. In addition, there is possible evidence that an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit may prevent body weight gain. As overweight is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit therefore might indirectly reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Independent of overweight, there is probable evidence that there is no influence of increased consumption on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is possible evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit lowers the risk of certain eye diseases, dementia and the risk of osteoporosis. Likewise, current data on asthma, COPD, and RA indicate that an
For fresh grapefruit, the goal is to maximize pack-out by minimizing canker lesions on fruit. The objective of these trials was to determine the relationship between wind speed and incidence and severity of citrus canker on 5 to 7 yr-old Ruby Red grapefruit trees located in two trial blocks (~4.5 ha...
Full Text Available Cold storage (CS can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI in nectarine fruits. The main symptom is mealiness that is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. Postharvest treatments such as controlled atmosphere (CA; a high CO2 concentration and low O2 have been used under cold conditions to avoid this disorder. With the objective of exploring the mechanisms involved in the CA effect on mealiness prevention, we analyzed transcriptomic changes under six conditions of ‘Red Pearl’ nectarines by RNA-Seq. Our analysis included just harvested nectarines, juicy non-stored fruits, fruits affected for CI after CS and fruits stored in a combination of CA plus CS without CI phenotype. Nectarines stored in cold conditions combined with CA treatment resulted in less mealiness; we obtained 21.6% of juice content compared with just CS fruits (7.7%; mealy flesh. RNA-Seq data analyses were carried out to study the gene expression for different conditions assayed. During ripening, we detected that nectarines exposed to CA treatment expressed a similar number of genes compared with fruits that were not exposed to cold conditions. Firm fruits have more differentially expressed genes than soft fruits, which suggest that most important changes occur during CS. On the other hand, gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment mainly in metabolic and cellular processes. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that low O2 concentrations combined with cold conditions slows the metabolic processes more than just the cold storage, resulting mainly in the suppression of primary metabolism and cold stress response. This is a significant step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that explains the effectiveness of CA as a tool to prevent CI development on fruits.
AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.
Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam
Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.
Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Abu-Mweis, Suhad S; Bawadi, Hiba A; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Heath, Dennis D
Diets that include fruits and vegetables have been suggested as one way to reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between consuming fruits and vegetables and CRC risk is not clear. The objective of the present study is to compare fruit and vegetable intake between 2 groups of Jordanians and further investigate this possible relationship. A history of fruit and vegetable consumption was obtained from 220 people with CRC and 281 healthy controls, all of whom were from Jordan. Both groups were matched for age, sex, occupation, and marital status. Fruit and vegetable consumption was quantified for the previous 12 months in both groups. Total vegetable intake was associated with the risk of developing CRC. Consuming 5 servings of vegetables a day decreased the risk of developing CRC when compared with no more than 1 serving a day (odds ratio [OR] = 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.97). A significant direct relationship between CRC risk and consuming cauliflower and cabbage was found; however, no association was found for raw or cooked leafy vegetable and other vegetable types. Consuming several types of fruits also revealed no association with risk of CRC, although an increased intake of dates and figs was associated with a reduced risk of developing CRC. The ORs for the highest intake of servings compared with the lowest intake were 0.48 (95% CI: 0.27-0.87; P = .004) for dates and 0.604 (95% CI: 0.35-1.06; P = .003) for figs. Consuming fruits and vegetables did not significantly correlate with a lowered incidence of CRC. However, a trend of protection was detected for several types of fruits and vegetables.
Monte, L.; Quaggia, S.; Pompei, F.; Fratarcangeli, S.
The results of measurements carried out during the period 1987-1988, to evaluate the levels of 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in fruit samples and in various components of fruit-trees have been reported. It has been demonstrated that, in the case of an accidental contamination of the air, the contamination of fruit is mainly due to the foliar translocation of radionuclide. Data of radioactivity content in fruits collected through a period of three years show that the radioactivity content in fruit diminishes exponentially. Rough estimates of ''translocation coefficient'' defined as the ratio (radionuclide concentration in fruit)/(radionuclide deposition on soil), and of the ''biological half time'' have been carried out in the case of hazel-nut, walnut, apple, chestnut and olive
Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz
of fruit and vegetable intake (Nielsen et al. 2002). The overall aim of the present Ph.D. thesis was to further develop and validate this potentially new fruit and vegetable biomarker and furthermore use it for the validation of self-reported dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in intervention...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...
Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie
PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...... initial antipsychotic prescribing patterns and associated use of mental health care services. METHOD: Population-based cohort study linking the following Danish national registers: the Central Psychiatric Research Register, the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS...
The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...
There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.
Full Text Available Three new acyclic monoterpenoids named (2E-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-a-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1®6-b-D-glucopyranoside (1, (3Z,6E-3,7-dimethyl-3,6-octadiene-1,2,8-triol (2 and (6E-7-methyl-3-methylene-6-octene-1,2,8-triol (3 were isolated from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits, along with three known monoterpenoid compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS and chemical methods.
Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Maher, M.J.
In the last two decades, tomato fruit yields in Ireland have increased by 100% to about 375 tonnes per hectare for long-season crops. This represents a very considereable increase in the intensity of growing and may have implications for fruit quality. For this reason, the inter-relationship between crop production, yield, quality and composition of tomato fruit from high-yielding, intensive growing systems was evaluated by the authors (a food technologist and a crop production specialist, re...
... make treatment less successful. Examples include: Anxiety disorders Eating disorders Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Alcohol or drug problems Physical health problems, such as heart disease, thyroid ...
... disorder Images Schizoaffective disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...
Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G
Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....
Mansoura, Egypt. ... al., 2006, 2010). It is well known that plant hormones such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins have critical role in fruit set and subsequent growth, ..... Initial results reported on mango fruit by Roemer et al.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon
Full Text Available Astringency is one of the most important components of fruit oral sensory quality. Astringency mainly comes from tannins and other polyphenolic compounds and causes the drying, roughening and puckering of the mouth epithelia attributed to the interaction between tannins and salivary proteins. There is growing interest in the study of fruit astringency because of the healthy properties of astringent substances found in fruit, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiallergenic, hepatoprotective, vasodilating and antithrombotic activities. This review will focus mainly on the relationship between tannin structure and the astringency sensation as well as the biosynthetic pathways of astringent substances in fruit and their regulatory mechanisms.
Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian
Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…
Tanveer, Amna; Akram, Kashif; Farooq, Umar; Hayat, Zafar; Shafi, Afshan
Diabetes mellitus is a global disorder, and a major issue for health care systems. The current review outlooks the use of fruit flavonoids as natural remedy in the prevention of diabetes mellitus. The onset of diabetes mainly depends upon genetics and lifestyle issues. Currently used therapeutic options for the control of diabetes, like dietary amendments, oral hypoglycemic drugs, and insulin, have their own limitations. Fruit flavonoids possess various antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant potentials and act on various cellular signaling pathways in pancreas, white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver function, which in result induces antidiabetic effects. Recently, antidiabetic effect of fruit flavonoids has been studied using various animal models and clinical trials. Research studies revealed a statistically significant potential of fruit flavonoids in managing the altered glucose and oxidative metabolisms in diabetes. Unlike synthetic antidiabetic agents, fruit flavonoids manage diabetes without compromising cellular homeostasis thereby posing no side effects. Further studies are required in purification and characterization of different fruit flavonoids with respect to their beneficial effect for diabetic patients.
Zahoor, Muhammad; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Naz, Sumaira
Glucose-6-phosphatase is a key enzyme of glucose metabolic pathways. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to glycogen storage disease. This enzyme also plays a negative role in diabetes mellitus disorder in which the catalytic activity of this enzyme increases. Thus there is need for activators to enhance the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase in glycogen storage disease of type 1b while in diabetes mellitus repressors are needed to reduce its activity. Crude extracts of apricot, fig, mulberry and apple fruits were investigated for their repressive/enhancive effects on glucose-6-phosphatase in vivo. Albino mice were used as experimental animal. All the selected extracts showed depressive effects on glucose-6-phosphatase, which shows that all these extracts can be used as antidiabetic supplement of food. The inhibitory pattern was competitive one, which was evident from the effect of increasing dose from 1g/Kg body weight to 3g/Kg body weight for all the selected fruit extracts. However fig and apple fruit extracts showed high repressive effects for high doses as compared to apricot and mulberry fruit extracts. None of these selected fruit extracts showed enhancive effect on glucose-6-phosphatase activity. All these fruits or their extracts can be used as antidiabetic dietary supplement for diabetes mellitus.
Taleb, Hajer; Maddocks, Sarah E; Morris, R Keith; Kanekanian, Ara D
Date fruit, Phoenix dactylifera L. has traditionally been used as a medicine in many cultures for the treatment of a range of ailments such as stomach and intestinal disorders, fever, oedema, bronchitis and wound healing. The present review aims to summarise the traditional use and application of P. dactylifera date fruit in different ethnomedical systems, additionally the botany and phytochemistry are identified. Critical evaluation of in vitro and in vitro studies examining date fruit in relation to anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and antimicrobial activities are outlined. The ethnomedical use of P. dactylifera in the treatment of inflammatory disease has been previously identified and reported. Furthermore, date fruit and date fruit co-products such as date syrup are rich sources of polyphenols, anthocyanins, sterols and carotenoids. In vitro studies have demonstrated that date fruit exhibits antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activity. The recent interest in the identification of the numerous health benefits of dates using in vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed that date fruit and date syrup have beneficial health effects that can be attributed to the presence of natural bioactive compounds. Date fruit and date syrup have therapeutic properties, which have the potential to be beneficial to health. However, more investigations are needed to quantify and validate these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L
Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder...
Griffiths, M D
In the U.K., the major commercial gambling activity in adolescents is the playing of slot machines (commonly known as "fruit machines"). Over the past few years, the negative effects of "fruit machine addiction" have been reported by various helping organizations (e.g. Gamblers Anonymous) and the national press, including allegations of attempted murder, suicide and prostitution as well as a wider incidence of petty crime.Fifty adolescent fruit machine players from a 'user population' participated in a face-to-face interview and questionnaire study examining factors in the acquisition, development and maintenance of gambling behaviour. Nine adolescent males were deemed to be pathological gamblers as measured by the American Psychiatric Association DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria, and a number of serious consequences were reported including gambling debts, truancy and stealing.
Wei, Yingying; Zhou, Dandan; Peng, Jing; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang
To explore the effects of hot air (HA, 38 °C for 12 h) treatment on the phenylpropanoid metabolism in cherry tomatoes, phenylpropanoid metabolite levels and the activities and expression of key enzymes were analyzed in HA-treated fruit. HA treatment enhanced phenylpropanoid metabolism, as evidenced by elevated levels of phenolics and flavonoids, higher activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, and upregulated expression of LeCHS, LeCHI, LeF3H, and LeFLS. Levels of several phenylpropanoid metabolites were higher after HA treatment, including p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, quercetin, and rutin. These metabolic changes may be related to the reduced disease incidence and smaller lesion diameters observed in HA-treated fruit inoculated with Alternaria alternata (black mold) or Botrytis cinerea (gray mold). The results suggest that HA treatment induces disease resistance by activating the phenylpropanoid pathway in cherry tomato fruit.
Studies were made to establish standard conditions for mutation induction by gamma-irradiation to be performed in combination with in-vitro culture for banana and citrus spp. Besides this, radio-sensitivity of seeds and/or plantlets of mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit was investigated and primary observation on the occurrence of mutation was made. For the mutagenesis of banana shoot tip cultures, radio-sensitivity of plantlets derived from the culture as well as fresh-cultured shoots was examined and phenotypes indicative of mutation, such as chlorophyl streaking, slow growth, pigmentation and varied bunch orientation were recorded. Isozyme analysis for mutated protein structure was not conclusive. In the in-vitro culture of Citrus spp., seeds placed on fresh media as well as germinating seeds and two-leaf stage seedlings in test tubes were examined for their radio-sensitivity. Irradiated materials were propagated for further observation. In these two crops, basic methodology for mutation induction with combined use of in-vitro culture and gamma-irradiation was established. In mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit, basic data on radiosensitivity were obtained. In mango, leaf abnormalities were observed after the treatment of scions
This result shows that the incorporation of this screen machine in the SSPEenhances pre-sterilization cleaning of palm fruits thereby improving the fruit quality in the Small Scale ProcessingEquipment. KEY WORDS: oil palm fruit screen, oil palm fruit, calyx removal, fruit cleaning, practice, technology innovation, small scale ...
Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...
Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Groot, M.J.
Innovative techniques were developed in the Isafruit project in order to create a more ecological sustainable way of fruit growing. Before fruit growers will consider implementation of these innovations they need information concerning their economic sustainability. The economic model ProfitFruit is
Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, M Tauseef; Aziz, Mahwish; Naz, Ambreen; Ahmed, Waqas; Kumar, Naresh; Imran, Muhammad
Currently, nutrition and health linkages focused on emerging strategy of diet based regimen to combat various physiological threats including cardiovascular disorders, oxidative stress, diabetes mellitus, etc. In this context, consumption of fruits and vegetables is gaining considerable importance as safeguard to maintain human health. Likewise, their phytochemicals and bioactive molecules are also becoming popular as promising demulcent against various ailments. The current review is an effort to sum up information regarding persimmon fruit with special reference to its phytochemistry and associated health claims. Accordingly, the role of its certain bioactive molecules like proanthocyanidin, carotenoids, tannins, ﬂavonoids, anthocyanidin, catechin, etc. is highlighted. Owing to rich phytochemistry, persimmon and its products are considered effective in mitigating oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant potential is too responsible for anti-malignant and anti-melanogenic perspectives of persimmon functional ingredients. Additionally, they are effectual in soothing lifestyle related disparities e.g. cardiovascular disorders and diabetes mellitus. There are proven facts that pharmacological application of persimmon or its functional ingredients like proanthocyanidin may helps against hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. Nevertheless, astringent taste and diospyrobezoars formation are creating lacuna to prop up its vitality. In toto, persimmon and its components hold potential as one of effective modules in diet based therapy; however, integrated research and meta-analysis are still required to enhance meticulousness.
Mizrahi, Anna; Knekt, Paul; Montonen, Jukka; Laaksonen, Maarit A; Heliövaara, Markku; Järvinen, Ritva
Studies on the association between plant foods and cerebrovascular diseases have given contradictory results suggesting the existence of some effect-modifying factors. The present study determines whether the consumption of plant foods (i.e. fruits and berries, vegetables, and cereals) predicts a decreased cerebrovascular disease incidence in a population with low fruit and vegetable and high wholegrain intake. This cohort study on 3932 men and women was based on data from the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, conducted in 1968-72. The participants were 40-74 years of age and free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Data on the plant food consumption were derived from a 1-year dietary history interview. During a 24-year follow-up 625 cases of cerebrovascular diseases occurred, leading to either hospitalisation or death. An inverse association was found between fruit consumption and the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases, ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage. The adjusted relative risks (RR) between the highest and lowest quartiles of intake of any cerebrovascular disease, ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage were 0.75 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), 0.73 (95 % CI 0.54, 1.00) and 0.47 (95 % CI 0.24, 0.92), respectively. These associations were primarily due to the consumption of citrus fruits and occurred only in men. Total consumption of vegetables or cereals was not associated with the cerebrovascular disease incidence. The consumption of cruciferous vegetables, however, predicted a reduced risk of cerebrovascular diseases (RR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.63, 0.99), ischaemic stroke (RR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.49, 0.92) and intracerebral haemorrhage (RR 0.49; 95 % CI 0.25, 0.98). In conclusion, the consumption of fruits, especially citrus, and cruciferous vegetables may protect against cerebrovascular diseases.
American Psychiatric Association. Cyclothymic disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013:139-141. Fava M, Ostergaard SD, Cassano P. Mood disorders: depressive disorders (major ...
Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon
We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Weikert, S.; Boeing, H.; Pischon, T.; Olsen, A.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Becker, N.; Linseisen, J.; Lahmann, P.H.; Arvaniti, A.; Kassapa, C.; Trichoupoulou, A.; Sieri, S.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Buchner, F.L.; Ljungberg, B; Hallmans, G.; Berglund, G.; Wirfalt, E.; Pera, G.; Dorronsoro, M.; Gurrea, A.B.; Navarro, C; Martinez, C.; Quiros, J.R.; Allen, N.; Roddam, A.W.; Bingham, S.; Jenab, M.; Slimani, N.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.
We examined the association between fruits and vegetables and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake data and complete follow-up information on cancer incidence were available for 375,851 participants recruited in
Voorrips, L.E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Poppel, G.A.F.C. van; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R.J.J.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Objective: The purpose was to study the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and lung cancer incidence using 1074 cases after 6.3 years of follow-up in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a 150-item food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate models
Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan
For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. PMID:25289585
Xie, H-L; Wu, B-H; Xue, W-Q; He, M-G; Fan, F; Ouyang, W-F; Tu, S-L; Zhu, H-L; Chen, Y-M
In this case-control study, we examined the relationship between the consumption of fruit and vegetables and risk of hip fractures in 646 pairs of incident cases and controls in elderly Chinese. We found that greater consumption of both fruit and vegetables in men and vegetables in women was associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of osteoporotic fractures remains controversial due to limited published evidence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consuming fruits and vegetables has a protective effect against hip fractures. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 646 (162 males, 484 females) incident cases (70.9 ± 6.8 years) of hip fractures were enrolled from five hospitals, with 646 sex- and age-matched (±3 years) controls (70.7 ± 6.8 years) from hospitals or the community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to assess habitual dietary intakes using a 79-item food frequency questionnaire and various covariates by structured questionnaires. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed dose-dependent inverse correlations between the intake of total fruit (p-trend = 0.014), total vegetables (p-trend fruits and vegetables combined (p-trend fruits, vegetables and the combination of fruits and vegetables were 0.53 (0.32-0.87), 0.37 (0.23-0.60) and 0.25 (0.15-0.41), respectively. Stratified analyses showed that the benefits remained significant in males (p = 0.001) but not in females (p = 0.210) (p-interaction 0.045). Among the subcategories of fruits and vegetables, similar associations were observed for all subgroups except light-coloured fruits. Our findings suggest that greater consumption of both fruits and vegetables in men and vegetables in women may decrease the risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese.
Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.
A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.
Boffetta, Paolo; Couto, Elisabeth; Wichmann, Janine
conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to assess relationships between intake of total fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits and vegetables combined and cancer risk during 1992-2000. Detailed information on the dietary habit......BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. METHODS: We...... and lifestyle variables of the cohort was obtained. Cancer incidence and mortality data were ascertained, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Analyses were also conducted for cancers associated with tobacco and alcohol after...
Full Text Available Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period.
Hoeksma, A. F.; Wolf, H.; Oei, S. L.
The incidence of obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) was investigated and the natural course of this disorder and the frequency of shoulder contracture described. Between 1988 and 1997 13,366 children with a gestational age of 30 weeks or more, were born at the Academic Medical Center,
Drake, Jennifer E.; Winner, Ellen
Although one study has reported that 6% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have drawing talent, no study has examined the incidence of drawing talent in typical children. We asked 153 children aged 6-12 years to draw a picture of their hand. We scored the drawings for the use of detail, correct proportion, and overall contour;…
S. de Jonge (Suzan); C. van den Berg; R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan); H.J.L. van der Heide; A. Weir (Adam); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.L. Tol (Johannes)
textabstractBackground Achilles tendon disorders, like Achilles tendinopathy, are very common among athletes. In the general population, however, knowledge about the incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is lacking. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods In a cohort of 57.725 persons registered in
de Jonge, S.; van den Berg, C.; de Vos, R. J.; van der Heide, H. J. L.; Weir, A.; Verhaar, J. A. N.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. A.; Tol, J. L.
Achilles tendon disorders, like Achilles tendinopathy, are very common among athletes. In the general population, however, knowledge about the incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is lacking. Design Cross-sectional study. In a cohort of 57.725 persons registered in primary care, the number of patients
Floral bud distortion in soybean and incidence in Central India. V Jadhav Pravin, SS Mane, RS Nandanwar, PB Kale, MS Dudhare, MP Moharil, RG Dani. Abstract. We describe a peculiar and often harmful budding disorder in soybean, leading to huge yield loss in India. To determine the prevalence of floral distortion in ...
Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, cognitive behavioral writing therapy, and wait-list in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder following single-incident trauma: a multicenter randomized clinical trial.
de Roos, Carlijn; van der Oord, Saskia; Zijlstra, Bonne; Lucassen, Sacha; Perrin, Sean; Emmelkamp, Paul; de Jongh, Ad
Practice guidelines for childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) recommend trauma-focused psychotherapies, mainly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a brief trauma-focused, evidence-based treatment for PTSD in adults, but with few well-designed trials involving children and adolescents. We conducted a single-blind, randomized trial with three arms (n = 103): EMDR (n = 43), Cognitive Behavior Writing Therapy (CBWT; n = 42), and wait-list (WL; n = 18). WL participants were randomly reallocated to CBWT or EMDR after 6 weeks; follow-ups were conducted at 3 and 12 months posttreatment. Participants were treatment-seeking youth (aged 8-18 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of PTSD (or subthreshold PTSD) tied to a single trauma, who received up to six sessions of EMDR or CBWT lasting maximally 45 min each. Both treatments were well-tolerated and relative to WL yielded large, intent-to-treat effect sizes for the primary outcomes at posttreatment: PTSD symptoms (EMDR: d = 1.27; CBWT: d = 1.24). At posttreatment 92.5% of EMDR, and 90.2% of CBWT no longer met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. All gains were maintained at follow-up. Compared to WL, small to large (range d = 0.39-1.03) intent-to-treat effect sizes were obtained at posttreatment for negative trauma-related appraisals, anxiety, depression, and behavior problems with these gains being maintained at follow-up. Gains were attained with significantly less therapist contact time for EMDR than CBWT (mean = 4.1 sessions/140 min vs. 5.4 sessions/227 min). EMDR and CBWT are brief, trauma-focused treatments that yielded equally large remission rates for PTSD and reductions in the severity of PTSD and comorbid difficulties in children and adolescents seeking treatment for PTSD tied to a single event. Further trials of both treatments with PTSD tied to multiple traumas are warranted. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental
Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion,
auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype
Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper
Tephritid fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests in the world, owing in large part to those species having broad host ranges including hundreds of fruits and vegetables. They are the largest group of insects subject to population control by a biologically-based systems, most notab...
Jorge B. Retamales
Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.
Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio
The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas
Mar 1, 2013 ... Abstract. An impact damage assessment of fresh apple fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of height and surfaces on bruise area and impact energy. Five different impact surfaces namely: Cardboard (E), wood (F), metal (G), plastic (H) and foam (I) were used for the experiment. The weighed fruits ...
Hui, YH; Chen, F; Nollet, LML; Guiné, Raquel; Martín-Belloso, O; Mínguez-Mosquera, MI; Poliyath, D; Pessoa, FLP; Le Quéré, J-L; Sidhu, JS; Sinha, N; Stanfield, P
Acting as chemical messengers for olfactory cells, food flavor materials are organic compounds that give off a strong, typically pleasant smells. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors explores the flavor science and technology of fruits and vegetables, spices, and oils by first introducing specific flavors and their commercialization, then detailing the technical aspects, including biology, biotechnology, chemistry, physiochemistry, processing, analysis, extraction, commodities, and require...
Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido
The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110
The potential of ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit and vegetables may be considered within four major use areas. The shelf life of such fruits as bananas, mangoes and pawpaws can be extended by a direct physiological effect on the fruit. This treatment renders the fruit less sensitive to ethylene, a natural senescence-promoting chemical, and retards the onset of the climactric rise in respiration which is associated with fruit ripening. Postharvest decay caused by radio-sensitive organisms can also be controlled by low irradiation treatments, although this is only applicable in cases where the host fruit is less sensitive to the treatment than the decay causing organism. The sprouting of onions and potatoes can be controlled by a single low dose treatment which has a direct effect on the meristematic tissue. By killing insects of quarantine significance the interstate and export marketing of Australian fresh fruit may be expanded, with a consequent expansion of these horticultural industries. Ionising energy treatment of fruit and vegetables is therefore a valuable postharvest tool to improve the quality of fresh produce on local and export markets
Satya P. Sharma
Full Text Available Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc., which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight.
Muna Ahmed Mohamed El Hadi
Full Text Available Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.
Full Text Available In Romania the blueberry breeding program started in 1982 and till now was conducted by dr. Paulina Mladin. For inducing the variability, different genetic resources of American blueberry cultivars (V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium were involved in a high number of crosses. For identify the genotype with the best fruit quality, some biometric quality indicators (average fruit weight, size index and basically chemical compounds of fruits including ascorbic acid, dry matter, ash, soluble solids, total sugar, titratable acidity, tanoid substances, pectic substances, protein crude, phosphorus and potassium were determined. Of the eleven chemical studied properties who reflected the fruits quality, for five of them were found no statistically significant differences. The purpose of this paper work was to evaluate fruit quality and to identify the valuable genotypes resulted from Romanian blueberry breeding program.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".
Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Zheng, Yonghua
The efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit and the possible mechanisms were investigated. The results indicated B. subtilis SM21 treatment reduced lesion diameter and disease incidence by 37.2% and 26.7% on the 2nd day of inoculation compared with the control. The in vitro test showed significant inhibitory effect of B. subtilis SM21 on mycelial growth of R. stolonifer with an inhibition rate of 48.9%. B. subtilis SM21 treatment significantly enhanced activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity were also increased by this treatment. Transcription of seven defense related genes was much stronger in fruit treated with B. subtilis SM21 or those both treated with B. subtilis SM21 and inoculated with R. stolonifer compared with fruit inoculated with R. stolonifer alone. These results suggest that B. subtilis SM21 can effectively inhibit Rhizopus rot caused by R. stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit, possibly by directly inhibiting growth of the pathogen, and indirectly inducing disease resistance in the fruit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lumpkin, Christie; Fellman, John K; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James
Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit volatile production is regulated by a variety of factors including low oxygen storage conditions. This study examined the impact of low pO2 controlled atmospheres on 'Scarlett Spur Red Delicious' apple volatile production and disorder development. Accumulation of apple volatile compounds was characterized during long-term cold storage at 0.5 °C in air or low pO2 (0.3, 0.8, or 1.5 kPa) with 1 kPa CO2. Volatile accumulation differed quantitatively with pO2 as acetaldehyde, ethanol, and ethyl ester accumulation increased with decreased pO2 during the first weeks in storage. Differences in volatile accumulation among atmospheres were evident through 6 months. The rate of ethanol accumulation increased with decreased pO2 and could potentially be used to monitor low O2 stress. Incidence of low oxygen disorders after 9 months was highest in fruit held at the lowest pO2. The sesquiterpene α-farnesene was not detected throughout the storage period.
Vieira, Ana R; Vingeliene, Snieguole; Chan, Doris S M; Aune, Dagfinn; Abar, Leila; Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Greenwood, Darren C; Norat, Teresa
Smoking is estimated to cause about half of all bladder cancer cases. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk. As part of the World Cancer Research/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to assess the dose-response relationship between fruit and vegetables and incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. We searched PubMed up to December 2013 for relevant prospective studies. We conducted highest compared with lowest meta-analyses and dose-response meta-analyses using random effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and used restricted cubic splines to examine possible nonlinear associations. Fifteen prospective studies were included in the review. The summary RR for an increase of 1 serving/day (80 g) were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99) I(2) = 0%, eight studies for fruits and vegetables, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.00, I(2) = 10%, 10 studies) for vegetables and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-1.00, I(2) = 0%, 12 studies) for fruits. Results were similar in men and women and in current, former and nonsmokers. Amongst fruits and vegetables subgroups, for citrus fruits the summary RR for the highest compared with the lowest intake was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.76-0.99, I(2) = 0%, eight studies) and for cruciferous vegetables there was evidence of a nonlinear relationship (P = 0.001). The current evidence from cohort studies is not consistent with a role for fruits and vegetables in preventing bladder cancer. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M
Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.
Koloverou, E; Panagiotakos, D B; Pitsavos, C; Chrysohoou, C; Georgousopoulou, E N; Grekas, A; Christou, A; Chatzigeorgiou, M; Skoumas, I; Tousoulis, D; Stefanadis, C
The purpose of this work was to investigate the links between oxidative stress, inflammation and coagulation and their effect on Mediterranean diet-diabetes relationship. In 2001-2002, a random sample of 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) was selected to participate in the ATTICA study, where Athens is the major metropolis. A validated questionnaire was used to assess lifestyle and dietary factors. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was recorded using MedDietScore. Among others, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers were recorded. During 2011-2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed. Diabetes incidence was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. A total of 191 incident cases of diabetes were documented, yielding an incidence of 12.9% (13.4% in men and 12.4% in women). Medium and high adherence was found to decrease diabetes risk by 49% (95% CI: 0.30, 0.88) and 62% (95% CI: 0.16, 0.88), respectively, compared with low adherence. A logarithmic trend between Mediterranean diet and diabetes incidence was also revealed (p for trend = 0.042). Individuals with abnormal waist circumference (>94 for men, >80 for women) were benefited the most. Wholegrain cereals, fruits and legumes had the greatest predictive ability. The anti-diabetic effect of Mediterranean diet correlated with measurements of tumour necrosis factor-α, homocysteine and total antioxidant capacity. The reported results support the role of Mediterranean diet as a promising dietary tool for the primary prevention of diabetes, by attenuating inflammation and fostering total antioxidant capacity. This dietary pattern may have therapeutic potential for many cardiometabolic disorders associated with inflammation and/or oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
van de Weerdt, Emma K.; Biemond, Bart J.; Baake, Bart; Vermin, Ben; Binnekade, Jan M.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.
Central venous catheters are frequently inserted into patients with coagulation disorders. It is unclear whether preprocedural correction of hemostasis is beneficial. We determined the incidence of bleeding complications after central venous catheter placement in patients who had severe coagulopathy
Izquierdo-Vega, Jeannett Alejandra; Morales-González, José Antonio; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Sosa-Delgado, Sara M.; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Morales-González, Ángel; Paniagua-Pérez, Rogelio; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo
Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. The agents capable of causing damage to genetic material are known as genotoxins and, according to their mode of action, are classified into mutagens, carcinogens or teratogens. Genotoxins are involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic degenerative diseases including hepatic, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, chronic inflammation and ageing. In recent decades, researchers have found novel bioactive phytocompounds able to counteract the effects of physical and chemical mutagens. Several studies have shown potential antigenotoxicity in a variety of fruits. In this review (Part 1), we present an overview of research conducted on some fruits (grapefruit, cranberries, pomegranate, guava, pineapple, and mango) which are frequently consumed by humans, as well as the analysis of some phytochemicals extracted from fruits and yeasts which have demonstrated antigenotoxic capacity in various tests, including the Ames assay, sister chromatid exchange, chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus and comet assay. PMID:28157162
A major export barrier for food commodities is the incidence of insect pests on export agricultural products which are endemic to parts of the host country and that are not established in potential export destinations. Pest outbreaks influence trade, when trading partners revoke access for exports. Plant protection authorities enforce the use of various phytosanitary treatments or systems approach to counter the threat of insect pests. Methyl bromide is the most common phytosanitary treatment used in the fresh produce industry. It is a rapidly dispersing gas that targets a wide range of insect pests. Despite its effectiveness, it is being phased out due to its depleting effect on the ozone layer. Therefore, there is a need to explore postharvest treatments that can serve as alternatives to methyl bromide. Ionizing irradiation at low doses is a promising phytosanitary treatment that is increasing in use worldwide for various fruits such as guavas, papayas, sweet potato and mangoes. The USDA has approved a generic dose of 400 Gy for the sterilization of all insects excluding the pupae and adults of the insect order Lepidoptera. This is also the target dose for mangoes exported from India to the U.S. As with all phytosanitary treatments, the quality of the commodity may be affected by irradiation treatments as well has pre and post-harvest handling methods. In order to develop a practical treatment that can be used operationally, quality assessments must be conducted on each commodity, and in some cases, varieties of each commodity. In this presentation, I will present results of our work on phytosanitary irradiation on various fruit. The objectives of our research has been to determine the radiotolerance of various fruit, evaluate the effect of irradiation compared to other commercial treatments such as methyl bromide and modified atmosphere packaging, and determine the effect of phytosanitary dose on spoilage organisms as well as pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7
Abdel-Ghani, A.H.; El-Naggar, A.M.; El-Kadi, A.A.
During the first international Conference on the long -term consequences of the Chernobyl disaster in 1995 at Kiev, and also during the 1996 International Conference at Vienna, Summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the data regarding the delayed health consequences were mainly related to thyroid cancer, hereditary disorders, general morbidity, mortality and psychological disturbances. Contrary to expectations, the incidences of Leukemia and Soft Tissue tumors were similar to the spontaneous incident. The expected delayed effects, however, among the accident survivors, the liquidators and populations resident in contaminated areas would show higher incidence probability to Leukemia. These population groups have been continuously exposed to low level radiation both externally and internally. Application of the new ICRP concept of radiation-induced Detriment, and the Nominal Probability Coefficient for Cancer and hereditary effects for both workers and populations are used as the rationale to calculate the incidence probability of occurrence of delayed health effects of the Chernobyl accidents
Full Text Available Flavonols are polyphenolic secondary plant metabolites that are present in varying levels in commonly consumed fruits, vegetables and beverages. Flavonols have long held an interest for nutritionists, which has increased following a Dutch study in the early 1990’s showing that dietary intake of flavonols was inversely correlated with the incidence of coronary heart disease. The main factors that have hindered workers in the field of flavonol research are (i the accurate measurement of these compounds in foods and biological samples, and (ii a dearth of information on their absorption and metabolism. This review aims to highlight the work of the authors in attempting to clarify the situation. The sensitive and selective HPLC procedure to identify and quantify common flavonols and their sugar conjugates is described. In addition, the results of an on-going screening program into the flavonol content of common produce and beverages are presented. The bioavailability of dietary flavonols is discussed with reference to an intervention study with onions, as well as pilot studies with tea, red wine and cherry tomatoes. It is concluded that flavonols are absorbable and accumulate in plasma and that consuming high flavonol-containing varieties of fruits and vegetables and particular types of beverages could increase their circulatory levels
Full Text Available The intake of 400-600 g/d of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many common forms of cancer, and diets rich in plant foods are also associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and many chronic diseases of ageing. These foods contain phytochemicals that have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties which confer many health benefits. Many phytochemicals are colourful, and recommending a wide array of colourful fruits and vegetables is an easy way to communicate increased diversity of intake to the consumer. For example, red foods contain lycopene, the pigment in tomatoes, which is localized in the prostate gland and may be involved in maintaining prostate health, and which has also been linked with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Green foods, including broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale, contain glucosinolates which have also been associated with a decreased risk of cancer. Garlic and other white-green foods in the onion family contain allyl sulphides which may inhibit cancer cell growth. Other bioactive substances in green tea and soybeans have health benefits as well. Consumers are advised to ingest one serving of each of the seven colour groups daily, putting this recommendation within the United States National Cancer Institute and American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines of five to nine servings per day. Grouping plant foods by colour provides simplification, but it is also important as a method to help consumers make wise food choices and promote health.
Pike, Kathleen M; Hoek, Hans W; Dunne, Patricia E
Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. While historically, eating disorders were conceptualized as primarily afflicting Caucasian adolescent or young adult women within high-income, industrialized Western Europe and North America, eating disorders are increasingly documented in diverse countries and cultures worldwide. This study highlights recent trends that reflect the changing landscape of culture and eating disorders: stabilization of the incidence of anorexia nervosa and possibly lower incidence rates of bulimia nervosa in Caucasian North American and Northern European groups; increasing rates of eating disorders in Asia; increasing rates of eating disorders in the Arab region; and increasing rates of binge eating and bulimia nervosa in Hispanic and Black American minority groups in North America. The changing face of eating disorders calls for a new conceptualization of culture in both the emergence and spread of eating disorders across the globe.
Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe
Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.
Jezek, Mareike; Zörb, Christian; Merkt, Nikolaus; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin
Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar plant pigments that are mainly synthesized in epidermal layers and the flesh of fruits such as apples, cherries, grapes, and other berries. Because of their attractive red to purple coloration and their health-promoting potential, anthocyanins are significant determinants for the quality and market value of fruits and fruit-derived products. In crops, anthocyanin accumulation in leaves can be caused by nutrient deficiency which is usually ascribed to insufficient nitrogen or phosphorus fertilization. However, it is a little-known fact that the plant's nutrient status also impacts anthocyanin synthesis in fruits. Hence, strategic nutrient supply can be a powerful tool to modify the anthocyanin content and consequently the quality and market value of important agricultural commodities. Here we summarize the current knowledge of the influence of plant nutrients on anthocyanin synthesis in fruits of major global market value and discuss the underlying cellular processes that integrate nutrient signaling with fruit anthocyanin formation. It is highlighted that fertilization that is finely tuned in amount and timing has the potential to positively influence the fruit quality by regulating anthocyanin levels. We outline new approaches to enrich plant based foods with health-promoting anthocyanins.
Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J
With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Full Text Available Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.
Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff
This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.
The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident
Bilge Ertekin Filiz; Atıf Can Seydim
In this study, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of various dried fruits were investigated. Total phenolic content of dried fruits (apple, quince, peach, orange, grapefruit, kiwi, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, strawberries and tomatoes) were between 219-5386 mg GAE/kg in dry matter (dm). TEAC and ORAC values of the samples were between 7.01-126 µmol TE/g dm and 11.69-211 µmol TE/g dm, respectively. Dried fruits can be considered as an important source of antioxidant components...
Jan, M.; Sattar, A.; Ahmad, W.A.; Khan, I.
Present studies were conducted to investigate insect infestation and oxidative changes of packaging materials. Dry fruits and nuts such as apricots, dates raisins, almonds, pinenuts and walnuts were used for these experiments. Insect infestation and other physico-chemical parameters were used for quality evaluation of the stored dry fruits and nuts. The effect of irradiation and polyethylene (PE) thickness on the over all acceptance of dry fruits on their color, texture, taste and flavor were evaluated. Radiation treatment and low temperature independently inhibited insect infestation during storage. (A.B.)
Yu, Hao; Ren, Ya-shuo; Wu, De-ling; Xu, Feng-qing; Zhang, Wei
To study the flavonoids in the fruits of Buddleja lindleyana. The compounds were separated by repeated silica gel, RP-18 and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical evidence and spectral data. Five flavonoids were isolated and identified as luteolin (1), tricin (2), acacetin (3), acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and linarin(5). Compounds 3,4 and 5 are isolated from fruits of Buddleja lindleyana for the first time. Compound 2 is isolated from fruits of Buddleja lindleyana for the first time.
Bilge Ertekin Filiz
Full Text Available In this study, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of various dried fruits were investigated. Total phenolic content of dried fruits (apple, quince, peach, orange, grapefruit, kiwi, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, strawberries and tomatoes were between 219-5386 mg GAE/kg in dry matter (dm. TEAC and ORAC values of the samples were between 7.01-126 µmol TE/g dm and 11.69-211 µmol TE/g dm, respectively. Dried fruits can be considered as an important source of antioxidant components in diet with the higher antioxidant properties.
Butler, Lesley M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; van Dam, Rob M
Background: Findings on the relation between fruit consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Objectives: We examined whether the consumption of total, temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit is associated with T2DM risk and whether differences in the carbohydrate quality of fruit influence T2DM risk in Asians. Design: We included 45,411 participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who were 45–74 y old and had no diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease at recruitment (1993–1998). Fruit intake was assessed with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed incident T2DM cases were reported at follow-up 1 (1999–2004) and follow-up 2 (2006–2010) interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of diabetes risk. Results: In 494,741 person-years of follow-up, 5207 participants developed T2DM. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary risk factors, high total fruit consumption was not consistently associated with lower T2DM risk [men: HR of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.71) for ≥3 servings/d compared with fruit [HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.86) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely consumed; P-trend = 0.001] but not for lower or moderate GI fruit. In women, the consumption of temperate fruit, but not of subtropical or tropical fruit, was associated with lower T2DM risk [HR: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.92) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely; P-trend = 0.006]. Conclusions: The consumption of temperate fruit, such as apples, was associated with a lower risk of T2DM in women, whereas the consumption of higher-GI fruit, such as bananas, was associated with higher risk in men. The impact of fruit consumption on the risk of diabetes may differ by the type of fruit, which may reflect differences in the glycemic impact or phytochemical content. PMID:28179225
Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Butler, Lesley M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; van Dam, Rob M
Background: Findings on the relation between fruit consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Objectives: We examined whether the consumption of total, temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit is associated with T2DM risk and whether differences in the carbohydrate quality of fruit influence T2DM risk in Asians. Design: We included 45,411 participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who were 45-74 y old and had no diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease at recruitment (1993-1998). Fruit intake was assessed with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed incident T2DM cases were reported at follow-up 1 (1999-2004) and follow-up 2 (2006-2010) interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of diabetes risk. Results: In 494,741 person-years of follow-up, 5207 participants developed T2DM. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary risk factors, high total fruit consumption was not consistently associated with lower T2DM risk [men: HR of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.71) for ≥3 servings/d compared with fruit [HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.86) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely consumed; P -trend = 0.001] but not for lower or moderate GI fruit. In women, the consumption of temperate fruit, but not of subtropical or tropical fruit, was associated with lower T2DM risk [HR: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.92) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely; P -trend = 0.006]. Conclusions: The consumption of temperate fruit, such as apples, was associated with a lower risk of T2DM in women, whereas the consumption of higher-GI fruit, such as bananas, was associated with higher risk in men. The impact of fruit consumption on the risk of diabetes may differ by the type of fruit, which may reflect differences in the glycemic impact or phytochemical content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed.
The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references
George, E.K.; Mearin, M.L.; Franken, H.C.M.; Houwen, R.H.J.; Hirasing, R.A.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.
Background - The incidence of coeliac disease varies internationally. Aims - To assess the incidence of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands and to study the clinical features and the presence of associated disorders. Subjects - Identified cases of childhood coeliac disease in The
Khandelwal, Deepak; Dutta, Deep; Chittawar, Sachin; Kalra, Sanjay
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has shown to be associated with higher incidence of sleep disorders, which may be due to disease itself or because of secondary complications or associated comorbidities associated with diabetes. On the other hand, shorter sleep duration and erratic sleep behavior itself have been linked with higher incidence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and T2DM. Assessment of sleep quality and sleep disorders as a part of the comprehensive medical evaluation is recommended...
The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...
Johannes F. J. Max
Full Text Available The combined effects of shoot pruning (one or two stems and inflorescence thinning (five or ten flowers per inflorescence on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality were studied during the dry season (DS and rainy season (RS in Central Thailand. Poor fruit set, development of undersized (mostly parthenocarpic fruits, as well as the physiological disorders blossom-end rot (BER and fruit cracking (FC turned out to be the prevailing causes deteriorating fruit yield and quality. The proportion of marketable fruits was less than 10% in the RS and around 65% in the DS. In both seasons, total yield was significantly increased when plants were cultivated with two stems, resulting in higher marketable yields only in the DS. While the fraction of undersized fruits was increased in both seasons when plants were grown with a secondary stem, the proportions of BER and FC were significantly reduced. Restricting the number of flowers per inflorescence invariably resulted in reduced total yield. However, in neither season did fruit load considerably affect quantity or proportion of the marketable yield fraction. Inflorescence thinning tended to promote BER and FC, an effect which was only significant for BER in the RS. In conclusion, for greenhouse tomato production under climate conditions as they are prevalent in Central Thailand, the cultivation with two stems appears to be highly recommendable whereas the measures to control fruit load tested in this study did not proof to be advisable.
Wei, Dizhe; Wang, Yao; Jiang, Dongmei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Li, Jun; Wang, Meng
Occurrence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on dried fruits is a worldwide problem, but limited information is available in China. A total of 220 dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, dates and wolfberries) purchased from China were analyzed for 17 mycotoxins (i.e., Alternaria toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT) and trichothecenes) by UPLC-MS/MS, combined with a single-step cleanup. The result showed that at least one mycotoxin was detected in 142 samples (64.6%). The lowest incidence of contaminated samples was observed in dried apricots (48.2%), and the highest incidence in dried wolfberries (83.3%). The Alternaria toxins seemed to be the major problem in dried fruits, rather than OTA or PAT. Tenuazonic acid (TeA) was the predominant mycotoxin, in both frequency and concentration, ranging from 6.9 to 5665.3 μg kg -1 , followed by tentoxin (TEN; 20.5%), and mycophenolic acid (MPA; 19.5%). Moreover, raisins are more likely to be contaminated with OTA than the other dried fruits. Penicillic acid (PA) was detected only in dried dates, and PAT was detected only in one apricot sample. In addition, our results also showed that the simultaneous presence of 2-4 mycotoxins was observed in 31.4% of dried fruits. TeA and TEN were the most frequent combination, detected in 29 (13.2%) samples, followed by TeA and MPA with a prevalence of 11.4%. Therefore, the results of this survey suggest the need for wider monitoring on the contamination of these mycotoxins, especially Alternaria toxins in agro-products, and indicate the importance of setting a maximum limit for Alternaria toxins in China.
Shigihara, Michiko; Obara, Taku; Nagai, Masato; Sugawara, Yumi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kakizaki, Masako; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Tsuji, Ichiro
Studies on the effects of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds on the incidence of pancreatic cancer are not conclusive. We examined the association (if any) between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds and the risk of pancreatic cancer in Japan. Data from 32,859 participants registered in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study who were 40-79 years old and free of cancer at baseline were analyzed. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds was assessed at baseline using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (containing 40 items). Incidences of pancreatic cancer were identified by computer linkage with the Miyagi Prefectural Cancer Registry. During 11 years of follow-up, 137 pancreatic cancers (67 men and 70 women) were identified. The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of pancreatic cancer risk for the highest versus the lowest tertile were 0.82 (0.40-1.68, trend P=0.57) in men and 0.64 (0.35-1.20, trend P=0.22) in women for total consumption of fruits, 0.89 (0.46-1.73, trend P=0.76) in men and 0.67 (0.33-1.35, trend P=0.23) in women for total consumption of vegetables, and 0.92 (0.46-1.84, trend P=0.81) in men for consumption of seaweeds (results for the consumption of seaweeds in women were not analyzed because of poor reliability), respectively. Total consumption of fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds was not associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... actions and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways that are involuntary and unhealthy and ... conditions. Complications People with dissociative disorders are at increased risk of complications and associated disorders, such as: ...
... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...
... a Therapist Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Helping Kids Cope With Stress Helping Kids Handle Worry Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress Anxiety Disorders Special Needs Factsheet Social Phobia Special Needs Factsheet Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) ...
Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror ... their lives and they cannot leave their homes. Panic disorder is more common in women than men. It ...
The highest damage was observed in guava (92.5% of fruits) followed by tropical almond (67.3%) and mango (56.5%). Mean number of pupae/fruit and per kg was also higher in guava with 10.10±0.57 and 217.33±3.93, respectively. Tropical almond had the highest number of B. invadens/fruit (6.63±1.35) and per kg ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.
CARLOS LACY SANTOS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate different fertilization-management strategies in ten progenies of passion fruit from the third recurrent selection cycle and their effects on yield and fruit-quality traits. For this purpose, we adopted the strategy of correlations analysis, using the phenotypic and path correlations in different environmental conditions characterized by three levels of fertilization. The trial was set up as a randomized-block design in a split-plot arrangement with progenies representing the plots and three levels of potassium-nitrogen fertilization as the sub-plots, with three replicates. Path analysis showed that number of fruits was the variable of highest correlation with fruit diameter at fertilization I. Fruit weight and pulp weight were correlated with each other and with other traits like fruit length and fruit diameter at the three fertilization levels, except for number of fruits, which was correlated with nitrogen and potassium only at fertilization II. Path analysis also revealed that fruit diameter (3.125 showed the highest direct effect on yield at fertilization I. However, fruit weight and number of fruits showed, at fertilization II, the highest direct effects of 2.964 and 1.134 on yield, respectively, and number of fruits had a high phenotypic correlation and direct effect on yield at the three fertilization levels: 0.528 at fertilization I; 2.206 at fertilization II; and 0.928 at fertilization III. The results demonstrate the greater direct effect obtained with fertilization II, suggesting that the level adopted at fertilization II can provide satisfactory gains in yield and is thus recommended for the population in question.
Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte
, providing 600hairspg fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit...... and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes....... No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL...
Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...
Đorović Milutin T.
Full Text Available This paper contains a comparative analysis of some of the most important indicators of both global and domestic fruit market. It shows the results of a study on the volume, dynamics and the structure of production, as well as the trade of fruit at the global level, that is continents and some countries. It also defines leading producers, trends in the international trade, and leading exporters and importers of these products. Besides, it analyses the position of Serbia in the international fruit market based on the spectre of the aforementioned criteria. Subsequently, balances, structure and regional trends in Serbian foreign trade exchange of fresh and processed fruit has been analyzed. Additionally, attention has been focused on the requirements, possibilities, measures and development trends of domestic production and export of analyzed products. .
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Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic condition due to cerebral function disorders. Epilepsy occurs as a common complication of many neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy (CP that can affect further brain damage especially if they are with prolonged seizure. The incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP varies between 25-35%. The high incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP suggests that this disorder has common or related origins. We carried out the retrospective study to determine incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP registered within July 1988 to June 1998 in YPAC Medan and to determine whether the incidence of epilepsy differed according to type of CP. Data were compiled from medical records, including name, sex, parity, mothers age, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history, and EEG results. Data were analyzed using statistical computer program and its significance was evaluated by chi square test at p < 0,05. There were 67 cases with CP, 53 cases spastic CP, 13 cases mixed CP and one case dyskinetic CP. Of the 67 cases CP, 47,8% male, 52,2% female and mean age 50,3 (SD 36,9 months. There were 25 (37,3% patients CP associated with epilepsy, 72% general seizures, 20% partial seizures, and 8% infantile spasms. The incidence of epilepsy was significant different among patients with CP associated with type of CP and gestasional age, p < 0,05. We concluded that incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP in YPAC Medan was 37,3% and significantly different among patients with CP according to type CP and gestasional age.
Nott, Sherrill B.
This report is a summary of the financial and production records kept by fruit farmers enrolled in the Telfarm/MicroTel record program through Michigan State University Extension. This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on fruit farms during 1998; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide information on the trends in resource use, income and costs during the last few years.
Luna C, P.C.
It was carried out a bibliographical review that embraces the years 1984-1987, on the relating works to the irradiation of some fruits like the apple, date, peach, plum, cherry, papaya, grape, banana, pear and strawberry. The purpose is to have a reference on the doses and the conditions used by several investigators for some fruits, as for its disinfestation and extension of shelf life. (Author)