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Sample records for fruit bunch-based activated

  1. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: Optimization using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-05-30

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO{sub 2} activation temperature, CO{sub 2} activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO{sub 2} activation temperature of 814 deg. C, CO{sub 2} activation time of 1.9 h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m{sup 2}/g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm{sup 3}/g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  2. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B H; Tan, I A W; Ahmad, A L

    2009-05-30

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO(2) activation temperature, CO(2) activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO(2) activation temperature of 814 degrees C, CO(2) activation time of 1.9h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m(2)/g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm(3)/g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  3. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-05-30

    The adsorption characteristics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were evaluated. The effects of TCP initial concentration, agitation time, solution pH and temperature on TCP adsorption were investigated. TCP adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, agitation time and solution temperature whereas adsorption of TCP was more favourable at acidic pH. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of TCP on the activated carbon was mainly governed by particle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), standard entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}), standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) and activation energy were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the spent activated carbon was high, with TCP desorption of 99.6%.

  4. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, I A W; Ahmad, A L; Hameed, B H

    2009-05-30

    The adsorption characteristics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were evaluated. The effects of TCP initial concentration, agitation time, solution pH and temperature on TCP adsorption were investigated. TCP adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, agitation time and solution temperature whereas adsorption of TCP was more favourable at acidic pH. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of TCP on the activated carbon was mainly governed by particle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ), standard free energy (DeltaG degrees ) and activation energy were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the spent activated carbon was high, with TCP desorption of 99.6%.

  5. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

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    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  6. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

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    Margarita Makarkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  7. DNA polymerase activity of tomato fruit chromoplasts.

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    Serra, E C; Carrillo, N

    1990-11-26

    DNA polymerase activity was measured in chromoplasts of ripening tomato fruits. Plastids isolated from young leaves or mature red fruits showed similar DNA polymerase activities. The same enzyme species was present in either chloroplasts or chromoplasts as judged by pH and temperature profiles, sensitivities towards different inhibitors and relative molecular mass (Mr 88 kDa). The activities analyzed showed the typical behaviour of plastid-type polymerases. The results presented here suggest that chromoplast maintain their DNA synthesis potential in fruit tissue at chloroplast levels. Consequently, the sharp decrease of the plastid chromosome transcription observed at the onset of fruit ripening could not be due to limitations in the availability of template molecules. Other mechanisms must be involved in the inhibition of chromoplast RNA synthesis.

  8. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.

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    Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-12-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

  9. Cardioprotective activity of fruits of Sechium edule

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    Kosanam Neeraja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the study of the ethanolic extract of fruits of Sechium edule for cardioprotective activity. Cardioprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of fruits of Sechium edule was determined by the administration of isoproterenol (60 mg/kg, s.c for two days. Pretreatment with Sechium edule (200 mg/kg, p.o and 100 mg/kg, p.o for 28 days in significantly (P<0.01 reduce the levels of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH, CK, Total Cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C and increase the levels of HDL-C. Histopathological studies of the hearts of ISO treated rats have showed infiltration of inflammatory cells and continuity in muscle fiber was lacking suggesting an irreversible cell injury. Animals treated with ethanolic extract of Sechium edule showed less degenerative changes compared to ISO - treated animals.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

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    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL, and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE. The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  11. Antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit extracts.

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    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75-1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC(50) from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  12. Cytokinin Activity in Avocado Seeds during Fruit Development.

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    Blumenfeld, A; Gazit, S

    1970-08-01

    The soybean callus bioassay was used to determine levels of cytokinin activity in avocado (Persea americana) seeds.In the embryo, levels are high during the early stages of development, but diminish as the fruit grows. The level of cytokinin activity in the endosperm is very high throughout the period that this tissue exists. The seed coats have very high activity levels while the fruit is young, reaching values comparable with those found in the endosperm. The activity level falls as the rate of fruit growth slows down and disappears completely by the time the seed coats shrivel at approximately the same time the fruit reaches "horticultural maturity".

  13. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

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    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive.

  14. Antibacterial activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of Vitex mollis fruit

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    Delgado-Vargas Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of the Vitex mollis fruit is edible and traditionally used to treat diarrhoea. The antibacterial activity of this fruit is reported here for the first time. The fruit pulp was extracted with methanol (ME and the extract was fractionated with solvents. ME and their fractions [hexanic (HF, chloroformic (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous (AqF] were assayed against human pathogenic bacteria (microdilution test and their phytochemicals determined (qualitative chemical determinations. The samples (i.e., ME, HE, CF, EAF and AqF showed antibacterial activity; EAF was the most active, showing such activity against Shigella dysenteriae [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC=2 mg/ml]. Phenolics were mainly found in ME and EAF; compounds of this chemical family are well known for their antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. The reported antibacterial activity and phenolics content of V. mollis fruit could be associated with its use in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  15. Enzyme activities in mitochondria isolated from ripening tomato fruit.

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    Jeffery, D; Goodenough, P W; Weitzman, P D

    1986-09-01

    Mitochondria were isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit at the mature green, orange-green and red stages and from fruit artificially suspended in their ripening stage. The specific activities of citrate synthase (EC 4.1.3.7), malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37), NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.41) and NAD-linked malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.38) were determined. The specific activities of all these enzymes fell during ipening, although the mitochondria were fully functional as demonstrated by the uptake of oxygen. The fall in activity of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase was accompanied by a similar fall in the activity of the cytosolic isoenzyme. Percoll-purified mitochondria isolated from mature green fruit remained intact for more than one week and at least one enzyme, citrate synthase, did not exhibit the fall in specific activity found in normal ripening fruit.

  16. Cellulase Activity and Fruit Softening in Avocado 1

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    Pesis, Edna; Fuchs, Yoram; Zauberman, Giora

    1978-01-01

    Cellulase activity in detached avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruits was found to be directly correlated with ripening processes such as climacteric rise of respiration, ethylene evolutin, and softening. This activity in the pericarp could be induced by ethylene treatment, and the more mature the fruit—the faster and the greater was the response. Only a very low cellulase activity could be detected in hard avocado fruit right after harvest. Cellulase activity was highest at the distal end of the fruit, lower in the midsection, and lowest at the proximal end. The enzyme is heat-labile and appeared to have activity of an endocellulase nature mainly. Electron micrographs of cell walls from hard and soft fruits are presented. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:16660305

  17. Antioxidant activity and phytochemical compounds of snake fruit (Salacca Zalacca)

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    Suica-Bunghez, I. R.; Teodorescu, S.; Dulama, I. D.; Voinea, O. C.; imionescu, S.; Ion, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a palm tree species, which is found in Malaysia and Indonesia. This study was conducted to investigate and compare the composition, total phenolic, flavonoid, tanins and monoterpenoids contents in the core and shell fruits. Concentration values of extracts were obtained from standard curves obtained. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method. For all methods it was used the UV-VIS Specord M40, using different wavelength. The infrared spectral analysis was carried out to caracterized the type of functional group existent in snake fruit parts (shell and core).

  18. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.

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    Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

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    S. A. Emami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of α-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant. Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than α-tocopherol.

  20. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

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    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  1. Reduction of polygalacturonase activity in tomato fruit by antisense RNA.

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    Sheehy, R E; Kramer, M; Hiatt, W R

    1988-12-01

    Polygalacturonase [PG; poly(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide) glycanhydrolase; EC 3.2.1.15] is expressed in tomato only during the ripening stage of fruit development. PG becomes abundant during ripening and has a major role in cell wall degradation and fruit softening. Tomato plants were transformed to produce antisense RNA from a gene construct containing the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and a full-length PG cDNA in reverse orientation. The construct was integrated into the tomato genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The constitutive synthesis of PG antisense RNA in transgenic plants resulted in a substantial reduction in the levels of PG mRNA and enzymatic activity in ripening fruit. The steady-state levels of PG antisense RNA in green fruit of transgenic plants were lower than the levels of PG mRNA normally attained during ripening. However, analysis of transcription in isolated nuclei demonstrated that the antisense RNA construct was transcribed at a higher rate than the tomato PG gene(s). Analysis of fruit from transgenic plants demonstrated a reduction in PG mRNA and enzymatic activity of 70-90%. The reduction in PG activity did not prevent the accumulation of the red pigment lycopene.

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry fruits

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    Stajčić Slađana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, contents of total phenolic (TPh, total flavonoid (TF, and total monomeric anthocyianin (TMA, as well as the antioxidant activity of two raspberry cultivars (Meeker and Willamette, two blackberry cultivars (Čačanska bestrna and Thornfree and wild bilberry were studied. The raspberry cultivars had the highest total solids among fruits investigated. Bilberry fruits had the highest sugar-to-acid ratio. Blackberry fruits were richer in crude fibers (cellulose in comparison to raspberry and bilberry fruits. The content of pectic substances was highest in the bilberry. Also, bilberry had a highest content of TPh (808.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, TF (716.31 mg RE/100 g FW and TMA (447.83 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as the EC50 value (in mg of fresh weight of berry fruit per ml of the reaction mixture, of bilberry (0.3157 ± 0.0145 mg/ml was the highest. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW bilberry, raspberry - Willamette, raspberry - Meeker, blackberry - Čačanska bestrna and blackberry - Thornfree is equivalent to 576.50 mg, 282.74 mg, 191.58 mg, 222.28 mg and 272.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities and content of total phenolics (RTPh 2=0.9627, flavonoids (RTF 2=0.9598 and anthocyanins (RTMA 2=0.9496 in berry fruits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  3. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

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    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ashok Kumar; Narayani, M.; A. Subanthini; Jayakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel e...

  5. Phytotoxic and antioxidant activity of seven native fruits of Brazil

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    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and phytotoxic effects in seven species of fruit native to Brazil: Acrocomia aculeata, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Tamarindus indica, Byrsonima intermedia, Psidium firmum, Myrciaria cauliflora and Ficus obtusifolia. Phytotoxic effects were assessed from crude ethanol extracts and semipurified fractions. In four of the seven fruits, total phenolic content, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, was higher in the peel than in the pulp. We found that total phenolic content correlated significantly with antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in some fruits. We also evaluated the allelopathic effects of the crude ethanol extract and semipurified fractions. In most of the essays, the ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest level of activity.

  6. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

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    Nityananda Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be due to increased sytheses of the enzymes. In an in vitro culture, the fungus exhibited some peroxidase but no polyphenoloxidase activity.

  7. Grilling enhances antidiarrheal activity of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. fruits.

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    Pandey, Garima; Gupta, Shyam Sundar; Bhatia, Anil; Sidhu, O P; Rawat, A K S; Rao, Ch V

    2017-04-18

    Terminalia bellerica Roxb. fruits are rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients. Tharu and Buksa tribes of Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India use grilled fruits of Terminalia bellerica as an effective cure for diarrhea AIM OF THE STUDY: We validated the ethnobotanical claim by comparing the antidiarrheal effect of grilled fruits (GF) with dried fruits (DF). The 50% ethanolic extracts of GF and DF were successively fractionated; the antioxidant and bacterial inhibition activity were studied using DPPH free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation and broth dilution method respectively. Difference in metabolites of ethyl acetate fractions of GF and DF was analyzed using GC-MS, gallic acid content was determined through HPTLC. Further the in-vivo antidiarrheal effect of ethyl acetate fractions of DF and GF was studied on castor oil induced diarrhea model. The ethyl acetate fractions showed potential DPPH free radical scavenging (IC50 11.13µg/ml in DF and 8.56µg/ml in GF), anti-lipid peroxidation and antibacterial activity. The non-targeted metabolic profiling showed higher content of tartaric acid, valeric acid, gallic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, malonic acid, malic acid, 1,2,3 trisbenzene, uridine and 11-eicosenoic acid in GF. The HPTLC results indicated that gallic acid content was 2.8 (±0.14) and 4.92 (±0.28) mg/g while ellagic acid content was 4.7 (±0.32) and 4.45 (±0.45) mg/g dry powder in DF and GF respectively. According to in vivo antidiarrheal activity DF and GF (100mg/kg oral) inhibited diarrhea by 41.87% and 71.72% respectively. Grilling significantly altered the levels of metabolites in T. bellerica fruits which could be responsible for its increased therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Antioxidant activity of selected wild Canadian prairie fruits

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background. Canadian prairies are a habitat for unique wild plants. The main object of the present study was to investigate phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity in seven wild Canadian prairie fruits. Material and methods. The presence of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were identified in the extracts according to standard procedure. Results. Wild rose had the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids, whereas ...

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Broussonetia papyrifera fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    Full Text Available Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products.

  10. Antioxidant activity of selected wild Canadian prairie fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klensporf-Pawlik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Canadian prairies are a habitat for unique wild plants. The main object of the present study was to investigate phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity in seven wild Canadian prairie fruits. Material and methods. The presence of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were identified in the extracts according to standard procedure. Results. Wild rose had the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids, whereas elderberry ex- hibited the highest amount of anthocyanins. All extracts showed good scavenging activities towards DPPH radicals. The results showed a good linear relationship between oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total phenolics indicating that radicals are scavenged at a greater rate as the total phenolics content increases. Addi- tionally, all extracts when applied at concentration of 800 ppm, showed ability to inhibit oxidation of canola oil. In SOT test the best results were obtained when extract of American mountain ash was used. In general, wild rose followed by American mountain ash demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity among assessed Canadian prairie fruits. Conclusion. From the results it can be concluded that prairie fruit extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and poses a high antioxidant activity, confirmed by assessment with different type of radicals employed.

  11. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF FRUIT PULP OF CORDIA DICHOTOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Cordia dichotoma Forst belonging to family Boraginaceae are used traditionally as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and anthelmentic activities. Pulp obtained after separation of seeds was shade dried, powdered and subjected to successive hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether (40-60 C ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Aqueous extract of Cordia dichotoma showed significant activity than ethanolic extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed fruits of Cordia dichotoma possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The fruit pulp extract of Cordia dichotoma also showed presence of flavonoid, alkaloid and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations, TLC and HPTLC methods.

  12. Partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase activity in raspberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E M; de Ancos, B; Cano, M P

    1999-10-01

    A partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in raspberry fruits is described. Two early cultivars harvested in May/June (Heritage and Autumm Bliss) and two late cultivars harvested in October-November (Ceva and Rubi) were analyzed for PPO activity. Stable and highly active PPO extracts were obtained using insoluble poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and Triton X-100 in sodium phosphate, pH 7.0 buffer. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of raspberry extracts under nondenaturing conditions resolved in one band (R(f)()(1) = 0.25). Raspberry PPO activity has pH optima of 8.0 and 5.5, both with catechol (0.1 M). Maximum activity was with D-catechin (catecholase activity), followed by p-coumaric acid (cresolase activity). Heritage raspberry also showed PPO activity toward 4-methylcatechol. Ceva and Autumm Bliss raspberries showed the higher PPO activity using catechol as substrate.

  13. Reinvestigation of the proteolytically active components of Bromelia pinguin fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrol, Juan Abreu; Obregón, Walter D; Natalucci, Claudia L; Caffini, Néstor O

    2005-09-01

    Pinguinain is the name given to a proteolytic enzyme preparation obtained from Bromelia pinguin fruits that has been scarcely studied. The present paper deals on the reexamination of the proteases present in fruits of B. pinguin grown in Cienfuegos, Cuba. The preparation (partially purified pinguinain, PPP) showed the main characteristics of the cysteine proteases, i.e., optimum pH within alkaline range (pH 7.2-8.8), inhibition of proteolytic activity by thiol blocking reagents, which is usually reverted by addition of cysteine, a remarkable thermal stability and notable stability at high ionic strength values. Isoelectric focusing and zymogram of PPP revealed the presence of several proteolytic components between pI 4.6 and 8.1. Preliminary peptidase purification by cationic exchange chromatography showed the presence of two main proteolytic fractions with molecular masses of approximately 20.0 kDa, according to SDS-PAGE.

  14. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  15. Evaluation of anti-bacterial and wound healing activity of the fruits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of anti-bacterial and wound healing activity of the fruits of ... the functional roles of the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa L. during wound healing progress. ... fibroblasts proliferation and migration, leading to promotion of wound healing.

  16. Studies on the nitrate reductase activities of the fruit and the source leaf in pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achhireddy, N.R.; Beevers, L.; Fletcher, J.S.

    1983-12-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity (NO/sub 2//sup -/ produced in the dark and under anaerobic conditions) of 30-day-old fruit of Capsicum annuum L. was 2.2% that in tissues of a single leaf adjacent to each fruit (33 vs. 1500 nmoles/hr-g fresh weight). The optimal NR activity in one source leaf could only account for about 17% of the fruit's total nitrogen accumulation, while the fruit's own NR activity was almost negligible. Covered and uncovered fruits did not differ significantly in NR activities. 19 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  18. Anxiogenic Like activity of Sarcocephalus latifolius Fruit Extract in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    David Arome; Enegide Chinedu; Solomon Fidelis Ameh

    2014-01-01

    The use of pharmacological agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders have fallen out of favour as their unwanted side effects have become evident. The present challenges call for an inward look into harnessing the full potential of medicinal plants that abound around us. The present study evaluates the anxiogenic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius in mice. The prepared extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg as well as 2.5 mg/kg of diazepam, the reference standard w...

  19. Antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chen-Kang; Tso, Tim K; Huang, Ju-Jen; Chang, Wei-Wei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2004-08-01

    Fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. It has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. The antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. Squash, wax gourd, tomato, and guava seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in thiobarbituric acid assay. Wax guard and squash seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in iodometric assay. At the level of 1 g fresh sample, low-density lipoprotein peroxidation was inhibited by at least 90% by tomato meat, guava meat, squash seed, wax gourd meat, core, and seed, and eggplant skin. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activities measured by thiobarbituric acid (r=0.715, P<0.01) and iodometric (r=0.749, P<0.01) assays. The results of this study could be used for development of merchandise with potential health benefits from agricultural products.

  20. Antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins from adansonia digitata fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdelaaty AShahat; Hanaa HAhmed; Rasmeia AHassan; Ahmed AHussein

    2008-01-01

    Besides (-)-epicatechin,epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2),epicatechin-(4β-6 )-epicate-chin (procyanidin B5),epicatechin-(4β-8,2β-O-7)-epicatechin (proanthocyanidin A2)and epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin (procyanidin C1),which were isolated before from Adansonia digita-ta,in this work an A-type proanthocyanidin trimer,i.e.epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin-(4β-8,2β-O-7)-epicatechin,tetrameric procyanidin D1,i.e.epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin and a polymeric compound were isolated from the pericarp (fruit wall)of the fruits for the first time from this plant .The antioxidant activity of different fractions and pure compounds was experimentally e-valuated in the DPPH - assay.The ethyl acetate fraction,and most of the isolated compounds displayed a high activity (IC50 2.40-9.60 μg/ml)compared with the reference antioxidant Trolox (IC50 12.18 μg/ml)as a standard.

  1. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Bansode.D.S.; Chavan.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon) and Orange (Citrus ourantium) against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit ...

  2. Aphrodisiac activity of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DK Patel; R. Kumar; D. Laloo; K. Sairam; S. Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study represents an interesting case report for a very good aphrodisiac activity observed during an oral glucose tolerance test performed while evaluating the antidiabetic potential of Pedalium murex Linn. fruit. Methods: Ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex at a dose of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. was given to the rats followed by administration of 2 g/kg p.o. of glucose 30 min after the administration of extract. Results: Pregnancy was observed in the treated groups after 20-25 days of treatment in females which resulted in birth of pubs ranging upto ten in some females (more significant in case of 500 mg/kg p.o.). The observation also showed a significant increase in weights of pubs along with a normal behavior pattern. The increased pregnancy rate in the drug treated groups may be due to the healthy viable sperm and enhancement of sexual desire of the rats. Conclusion: From the results it may be concluded that the fruits of the plant may be used as a good aphrodisiac agent to promote fertility rate.

  3. ANTIFERTILITY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM FRUIT IN FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y Sushma; Gajanana Kulkarni; Shilender Singh

    2016-01-01

      Semecarpus anacardium plant derivatives has been used since antiquity, the fruit and nut extract of Semecarpus anacardium shows various activities like antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant...

  4. Anticancer activity of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy C

    2012-10-01

    This review investigated the relationship of noni juice, or its extract (fruit, leaves or root), to anticancer and/or immunostimulant properties. A Medline search was conducted using the key search words 'Morinda citrifolia' and 'Morinda citrifolia and cancer' (1964 to October, 2011) along with cross-referencing. Botanical and chemical indexes were not included. A total of 304 and 29 (10%) articles, respectively, were found under these key terms. Of the 19 studies actually related to cancer, seven publications were in vitro cancer studies, nine were in vivo animal cancer studies, and three were in vivo human cancer studies. Among the in vitro studies, a 'concentrated component' in noni juice and not pure noni juice may (1) stimulate the immune system to 'possibly' assist the body fight the cancer, and (2) kill a small percentage (0-36%) of cancer cells depending on the type. The nine animal studies suggest that a concentrated component in noni juice may stimulate the immune system; but only slightly increases the number (about 1/3; 25-45%) of surviving mice. Other than two case studies, only two human clinical studies existed. The first consisted of testing freeze-dried noni fruit, which reduced pain perception, but did not reverse advanced cancer. The second was on smokers ingesting an unknown concentration of noni juice who experienced decreased aromatic DNA adducts, and decreased levels of plasma superoxide anion radicals and lipid hydroperoxide. Factors to consider in the future are clearly defining the substance being tested, and whether or not the juice is pasteurized. Some reports of hepatotoxicity exist, although there were confounding factors in most of the case reports. More importantly, noni juice is high in potassium and needs to be monitored by patients with kidney, liver or heart problems. In conclusion, a few in vitro and in vivo animal studies suggest a possible unidentified substance in unpasteurized noni fruit juice that may have a small degree of

  5. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STRAWBERRY FRUITS DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivna Štolfa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper postharvest storage is an effective way to maintain the quality and nutritional values of fruits. The aim of this study was to determine how environmentally friendly postharvest treatments with salicylic acid solution, colloidal silver solution and ozone, affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Albion during 7 days of storage at 4°C. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits were determined spec-trophotometrically. After 7 days of storage in strawberry fruits treated with all three treatments separately, the contents of ascorbic acid were higher than in the control fruits, supporting the usefulness of these treatments for preserving fruit quality and nutritional value during storage. The treatment with salicylic acid solution showed the most beneficial effect during storage causing a significant increase in the content of ascorbic acid, phenols and antioxidant activity at the end of the storage period.

  6. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O

    OpenAIRE

    Si Yi Pan; Xiao Lin Yao; Gang Fan; Yun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Bi Jun Xie; Yu Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

  7. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Central nervous system activity ofIllicium verum fruit extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Divya Chouksey; Neeraj Upmanyu; RS Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum(I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system.Methods:TheTLC andHPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum.Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study.The powdered material was successively extracted withn-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using aSoxhlet extractor.Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines.TheCNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity.The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each.The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight.The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol.Results:Toxicity studies reported2000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic doseIntraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantlyalter muscles coordination activity.The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts.Conclusions:The observation suggested that the extracts ofI. verum possess potentCNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination.

  9. Anxiogenic Like activity of Sarcocephalus latifolius Fruit Extract in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pharmacological agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders have fallen out of favour as their unwanted side effects have become evident. The present challenges call for an inward look into harnessing the full potential of medicinal plants that abound around us. The present study evaluates the anxiogenic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius in mice. The prepared extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg as well as 2.5 mg/kg of diazepam, the reference standard was administered orally. The anxiogenic activity of the extract was evaluated using elevated plus maze and open field models. In the elevated plus maze, the extract showed an anxiogenic effect in all the experimental dosage levels by decreasing the time spent and number within the open arms. Animals in the extract and physiological saline groups spent more time in the enclosed arms to avoid the open arms, probably to avoid falling off. The reference standard showed a significant (P

  10. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Phyllanthus acidus Fruit Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianto, D.; Widianti, W.; Bintang, M.

    2017-03-01

    Phyllanthus acidus is an Indonesian plant belonging to the Euphorbiaccae family. Extraction of P. acidus was performed using the maceration method. Four-solvent extraction process by ethanol, 70% ethanol, 30% ethanol, and water was used. The antioxidant activity from this extract was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH) and cytotoxicity (biological potency from this extract) using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) method. We found that the extraction yields of samples ranging from 1.13% to 20.25%. The ethanol extract showed the highest yield, while the lowest yield was reported in the water extract of P. acidus fruit. Among the samples, water extract of P. acidus exhibited high antioxidant activity with IC50 26.06 μg/mL. LC50 values for BSLT ranging from 473.26 to 908.98 μg/mL, with the water extract having the lowest value and therefore the most potent, and the ethanol extract having the highest value

  11. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2008-03-06

    A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities.

  12. Extracts of Fruits and Vegetables Activate the Antioxidant Response Element in IMR-32 Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orena, Stephen; Owen, Jennifer; Jin, Fuxia; Fabian, Morgan; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Zeisel, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    .... The goal of this study was to develop an assay to assess the ARE activation capacity of fruit and vegetable extracts and determine whether such capacity was predicted by TP content and/or ORAC activity...

  13. Antioxidant activity and HPTLC profile of Lagenaria siceraria fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparing the 2,2-diphenyl-1,1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing capacity of ethyl ... capacity assay, Bt fresh fruits extract exhibited higher reducing power than all test samples. ..... Exper mental B ology 22, 312-332.

  14. Polyphenolic Profile and Biological Activity of Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Jurikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. fruits are rich in polyphenols (e.g., epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and chlorogenic acid—active compounds that exert beneficial effects. This review summarizes all information available on polyphenolic content and methods for their quantification in Chinese hawthorn berries and the relationships between individual polyphenolic compounds as well. The influence of species or cultivars, the locality of cultivation, the stage of maturity, and extract preparation conditions on the polyphenolic content were discussed as well. Currently, only fruits of C. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of Chinese hawthorn fruit in lowering blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The fruit has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. This review deals mainly with the biological activity of the fruit related to its antioxidant properties.

  15. Polyphenolic profile and biological activity of Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri; Rop, Otakar; Mlcek, Jiri; Balla, Stefan; Szekeres, Ladislav; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-12-06

    Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) fruits are rich in polyphenols (e.g., epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and chlorogenic acid)--active compounds that exert beneficial effects. This review summarizes all information available on polyphenolic content and methods for their quantification in Chinese hawthorn berries and the relationships between individual polyphenolic compounds as well. The influence of species or cultivars, the locality of cultivation, the stage of maturity, and extract preparation conditions on the polyphenolic content were discussed as well. Currently, only fruits of C. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of Chinese hawthorn fruit in lowering blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The fruit has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. This review deals mainly with the biological activity of the fruit related to its antioxidant properties.

  16. Phytochemical profile and free radical nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suluvoy, Jagadish Kumar; Berlin Grace, V M

    2017-05-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi L. belongs to family Oxalidaceae. Traditionally, people use this plant (root, bark, leaves and fruits) for treating several illnesses include itches, boils, syphilis, whooping cough, hypertension, fever and inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity and GC-MS analysis of A. bilimbi L. fruit extract. Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruits were collected for the preliminary phytochemical analysis, antioxidant scavenging activity and biologically important compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. The preliminary phytochemicals, GC-MS, total phenolic content and NO scavenging activity of the plant were analysed. In the present investigation, the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract has major phytochemicals. Among the 151 compounds identified in GC-MS, 15 compounds are found to have diverse biological activity. We also observed that the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract has high level of total phenolic compounds at a concentration of 209.25 GAE mg/g. Presence of phenolic compound apparently explains the antioxidant activity of the plant. Antioxidant activity of A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is proven from its high level of NO scavenging activity of potent IC50 value of 108.10. From the above study, it is apparent that the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is a rich source of phytochemicals (natural products) with biological activity. The GC-MS report on this fruit proves that natural products have pharmacologically and biologically active compounds. A high phenolic content is observed in our study. A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is also found to have NO scavenging activity in our study.

  17. Immunostimulatory activity of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) cultivar Pondoh Hitam extract on the activation of macrophages in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijanarti, Sri; Putra, Agus Budiawan Naro; Nishi, Kosuke; Harmayani, Eni; Sugahara, Takuya

    2017-05-01

    Snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) cultivar Pondoh Hitam is a tropical fruit produced in Indonesia. It is consumed freshly or processed and believed as the most delicious snake fruit cultivar. Snake fruit flesh contains high polisaccharides such as pectin and dietary fiber. Therefore, snake fruit is a potential immunostimulator candidates but the immunological effect of snake fruit flesh has not been reported. In the present study, immunostimulatory activity of snake fruit flesh extract (SFFE) on macrophages activation was evaluated. SFFE was prepared by extracting from snake fruit flesh with water, methanol 70%, and ethanol 70% for 15 h at 4°C. Then obtained SFFE was used to stimulated cytokine production in vitro using J774.1 cell line. The extract giving strongest stimulation was sellected for in vivo assay to stimulate cytokines production and gene expression using peritoneal macrophage (P-mac) of BALB/c mice. The results showed that SFFE exhibited immunostimulatory activities. Immunostimulatory activity could be indicated by macrophages activation characteristics such as cytokines production. Water extract of SFFE gave strongest stimulation on cytokines production in vitro and sellected for in vivo assay. In vivo assay showed that SFFE stimulated cytokines production as well as their gene expression levels. The optimum stimulation was demonstrated by SFFE 16.7 mg/g. Overall findings suggest that SFFE has a potent beneficial effects to promote the body health through activating macrophages.

  18. Antioxidative activity of non-edible parts of selected tropical fruits and its application to cookies

    OpenAIRE

    松坂, 裕子; Yuuko, MATSUSAKA; 藤女子大学人間生活学部食物栄養学科

    2011-01-01

    Total polyphenol content and antioxidative activity of the non-edible parts;i.e., seeds and peel, of three tropical fruits (mango, avocado and starfruit)and apple were analyzed and compared with those of the edible parts. Antioxidative activity was evaluated based on the ability of the fruit extracts (seed, peel and pulp)to scavenge the DPPH radical. The non-edible parts of the tropical fruits tested were found to have significant antioxidant activities. Among them, the DPPH radical scavengin...

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Alberto, Maria Rosa; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria del Pilar Caramantin; Theoduloz, Cristina; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Isla, Maria Ines; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-06-01

    Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) is an endemic species occurring in northern Chile. The edible fruits of this plant are valued for its acidic and refreshing taste. Phenolic-enriched extracts from copao fruit pulp and epicarp, collected in the Elqui and Limari river valleys, were assessed by its in vitro ability to inhibit the pro-inflammatory enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). At 100 μg/mL, pulp extracts showed better effect towards LOX than epicarp extract, while COX-2 inhibition was observed for both epicarp and pulp samples. In general, the extracts were inactive towards COX-1. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-inflammatory activity and the main phenolic compounds found in this fruit. Copao fruits from the Limari valley, a main place of collection and commercialization, showed major activity, adding evidence on the possible health-beneficial effects of this native Chilean fruit.

  20. Effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  1. Antioxidant activity, some nutritional and colour properties of vacuum dried strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hülya Orak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background.Thestrawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L. fruit contains a higher amount of nutrients and bioactive compounds than many other cultivated species, however, the edible use of this fruit is currently not widespread. In this study, the influences of vacuum drying have been investigated in terms of changing of some nutritional characteristics, antioxidant properties, and colour. Material and methods. Fruits were collected from Çanakkale province in Turkey and next vacuum dried. Ethyl oleate and water blanching pre-treatments were applied to fruits before drying. Ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, minerals, colour, total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching activity and HMF formation were determined. Results. The EO pretreatment shortened the drying time more than WB and gives a higher β-carotene bleaching activity, lower HMF and higher yellowness and brightness of external colour characteristics. Conclusions. In this research, the effects of vacuum drying process on the colour, antioxidant activity and nutritional characteristics of fruit have been determined and it has been concluded that the strawberry tree fruit is assessable in food industry by drying due to rich nutritional components, antioxidant activity and attractive colour of the fruit.  

  2. Reduction of polygalacturonase activity in tomato fruit by antisense RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehy, Raymond E.; Kramer, Matthew; Hiatt, William R

    1988-01-01

    Polygalacturonase [PG; poly(1,4-α-D-galacturonide) glycanhydrolase; EC 3.2.1.15] is expressed in tomato only during the ripening stage of fruit development. PG becomes abundant during ripening and has a major role in cell wall degradation and fruit softening. Tomato plants were transformed to produce antisense RNA from a gene construct containing the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and a full-length PG cDNA in reverse orientation. The construct was integrated into the tomato genome by A...

  3. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of tomato fruit sink activity and yield under salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Balibrea, María E.

    2014-01-01

    Salinization of water and soil has a negative impact on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) productivity by reducing growth of sink organs and by inducing senescence in source leaves. It has been hypothesized that yield stability implies the maintenance or increase of sink activity in the reproductive...... on tomato fruit sink activity, growth, and yield: (i) exogenous hormones were applied to plants, and (ii) transgenic plants overexpressing the cell wall invertase (cwInv) gene CIN1 in the fruits and de novo cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis gene IPT in the roots were constructed. Although salinity reduces fruit...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghian

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: The extracts from pomegranate fruit skin possess strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. Therefore this plant could be an important source of new antimicrobial compounds to treat bacterial and fungal infections.

  5. Photosynthetically active radiation and carbon gain drives the southern orientation of Myrtillocactus geometrizans fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Bautista, A; Valverde, P L; Flores, J; Zavala-Hurtado, A; Vite, F; López-Ortega, G; Pérez-Hernández, M A

    2017-03-01

    The equatorial orientation of reproductive structures is known in some columnar cacti from extratropical deserts. It has been hypothesised that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception is the main reason for this orientation, because of its key effect on nocturnal CO2 uptake. However, there are no studies addressing both the effect of PAR and its consequence, carbon gain, on fruit orientation. Accordingly, we tested whether PAR and carbon gain could explain the southern fruit orientation of Myrtillocactus geometrizans, an inter-tropical columnar cactus. We studied three populations of M. geometrizans in Mexico. For each population, azimuth of fruits, total daily PAR, nocturnal acid accumulation (NAA) and fruit production were measured. The relationships between rib orientation and number of fruits, as well as total daily PAR, were evaluated using periodic regressions. The effect of total daily PAR and NAA on number of fruits was assessed using generalised linear models. During spring, mean fruit orientation had a south azimuth for three populations. Likewise, rib orientation had a significant effect on fruit production, with the south-facing ribs having the maximum number of fruits. Total daily PAR was highest in the south-facing ribs, at least for those in the northern and central populations. Furthermore, during spring, there was a significant positive effect of total daily PAR and NAA on fruit production. Our results provide strong evidence that the higher carbon gain in equatorial ribs, through a highest interception of PAR, would be the responsible factor for equatorial orientation of fruits in an inter-tropical columnar cactus.

  6. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthinee Anantachoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  7. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee

    2016-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress. PMID:28074103

  8. Determination and Evaluation of Antioxidative Activity in Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus and Green Kiwi Fruit (Actinidia deliciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normala Halimoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus, is believed to be a healthy source of vitamins, fiber and antioxidants, especially the red-fleshed varieties which contain lycopene. Approach:Compared to green kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa, which already known contain high antioxidant activity. Results:The antioxidant capacity of Hylocereus undatus (H. undatus and Actinidia deliciosa (A. deliciosa in three different solvent extraction; ethanol, methanol and aqueous, was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The inhibition of free radical by A. deliciosa is almost 90% compared with H. undatus which only 60-10% in different solvents. Additionally, their total phenolic contents were analyzed by folin-ciocalteau method. The result showed that A. deliciosa (533.70 mg L-1 in ethanol, 460.87 mg L-1 in methanol and 420.652 mg L-1 in distilled water seemed to be better sources of antioxidant compounds then H. undatus (179.35 mg L-1 in ethanol, 160.87 mg L-1 in methanol and 157.61 in distilled water. Conclusion: When compared between the three different solvent, extract in ethanol shown the most highly antioxidant content followed by methanol and water. The experiment showed the potential of dragon fruit and kiwi extracts high rich in antioxidant which can scavenge free radical in human body. Further study on isolation of individual antioxidant in both extracts can be providing for commercialize the extracts in jus form.

  9. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of tomato fruit sink activity and yield under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Balibrea, María E; Großkinsky, Dominik K; de la Cruz González, María; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Smigocki, Ann C; Roitsch, Thomas; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    Salinization of water and soil has a negative impact on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) productivity by reducing growth of sink organs and by inducing senescence in source leaves. It has been hypothesized that yield stability implies the maintenance or increase of sink activity in the reproductive structures, thus contributing to the transport of assimilates from the source leaves through changes in sucrolytic enzymes and their regulation by phytohormones. In this study, classical and functional physiological approaches have been integrated to study the influence of metabolic and hormonal factors on tomato fruit sink activity, growth, and yield: (i) exogenous hormones were applied to plants, and (ii) transgenic plants overexpressing the cell wall invertase (cwInv) gene CIN1 in the fruits and de novo cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis gene IPT in the roots were constructed. Although salinity reduces fruit growth, sink activity, and trans-zeatin (tZ) concentrations, it increases the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) during the actively growing period (25 days after anthesis). Indeed, exogenous application of the CK analogue kinetin to salinized actively growing fruits recovered sucrolytic activities (mainly cwInv and sucrose synthase), sink strength, and fruit weight, whereas the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon had a negative effect in equivalent non-stressed fruits. Fruit yield was increased by both the constitutive expression of CIN1 in the fruits (up to 4-fold) or IPT in the root (up to 30%), owing to an increase in the fruit number (lower flower abortion) and in fruit weight. This is possibly related to a recovery of sink activity in reproductive tissues due to both (i) increase in sucrolytic activities (cwInv, sucrose synthase, and vacuolar and cytoplasmic invertases) and tZ concentration, and (ii) a decrease in the ACC levels and the activity of the invertase inhibitor. This study provides new functional evidences about the role of

  10. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp) Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-01-01

    Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark colored)The optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25...

  11. Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fourteen Wild Edible Fruits from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile G. Nacoulma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of fourteen (14 species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso wereanalyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities usingthe DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic andtotal flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana andLannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the otherfruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit alsoshowed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with highantioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents.There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidantactivities.

  12. [Antimicrobial activity of the epicarp of the fruits of Paulownia fortunei and Paulownia tomentosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercós, A P

    1982-01-01

    One antimicrobial substance was obtained from the epicarp of the fruits of Paulownia fortunei and Paulownia tomentosa. Other parts of the fruits and leaves had no detectable antimicrobial activity. The substance was active in vitro for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis while it had lower activity for Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and the lowest was for Escherichia coli. The active material was extracted with organic solvents (ether, ethanol and acetone). The activity "in vitro" was demonstrated by the method of dilution in nutrient agar media. The active substance looked as a resin and was insoluble in water at neutral or acid pH. It was very soluble in strong alkaline pH solution.

  13. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansode.D.S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon and Orange (Citrus ourantium against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit juices have always been of great interest to scientist. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and etiological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, the Lemon and Orange fruit juices were subjected to screening against enteric pathogens, E.coli, Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei. Antimicrobial analysis was done by using agar well diffusion method against selected enteric bacteria. The MIC values were determined by using U.V. Spectrophotometer. The fresh crude Lemon fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Salmonella para.B and Shigella sonnei followed by E.coli and fresh crude Orange fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and Salmonella para.B. followed by E.coli. The antimicrobial activity of standard antibiotic Ampicillin was studied in comparison with Lemon and Orange fruit juices. The Minimum inhibitory concentration observed at 25% conc. of lemon juice against Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei and 25% concentration of orange juice against Shigella sonnei. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, steroid, saponin, and reducing sugar in citrus fruit juices.

  14. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2004-09-01

    Oral administration (200 mg/kg) of Foeniculum vulgare fruit methanolic extract exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases and type IV allergic reactions and showed a central analgesic effect. Moreover, it significantly increased the plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. On the contrary, the malondialdehyde (MDA) (as a measure of lipid peroxidation) level was significantly decreased in F. vulgare fruit methanolic extract group compared to the control group (P<0.05). These results seems to support the use of F. vulgare fruit methanolic extract in relieving inflammation.

  15. Anti Epileptic Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn Fruit Extract

    OpenAIRE

    P. Muralidharan; Srikanth, J

    2010-01-01

    Fruit extract of Morinda citrifolia (Noni), a medicinal plant used in many neuro protective ayurvedic preparations was evaluated for its protective effect against seizures induced by Maximal Electro Shock (MES) method in rats. A daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract was administered to the animals for 15 days, after which seizures were induced by maximum electro shock method and the duration of various phases of epileptic attacks were recorded and compared with the control animals. A...

  16. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Infante

    Full Text Available Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes. GC-MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·-, and HOCl. The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods.

  17. Transient expression of organophosphorus hydrolase to enhance the degrading activity of tomato fruit on coumaphos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-hong ZHAO; De-gang ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    We constructed an expression cassette of the organophosphorus pesticide degrading (opd)gene under the control of the E8 promoter.Then opd was transformed into tomato fruit using an agroinfiltration transient expression system.β-Glueuronidase (GUS) staining,reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),wavelength scanning,and fluorescent reaction were performed to examine the expression of the opd gene and the hydrolysis activity on eoumaphos of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) in tomato fruit.The results show that the agroinfiltrated tomato fruit-expressed OPH had the maximum hydrolysis activity of about 11.59 U/mg total soluble protein.These results will allow us to focus on breeding transgenie plants that could not only enhance the degrading capability of fruit and but also hold no negative effects on pest control when spraying organophosphorus pesticides onto the seedlings in fields.

  18. Changes in fruit antioxidant activity among blueberry cultivars during cold-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Ann Marie; Luby, James J; Hancock, James F; Berkheimer, Steven; Hanson, Eric J

    2002-02-13

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, and six other fruit characters including titratable acid concentration, soluble solids, firmness, and percentage of bruised berries were determined for nine blueberry (Vaccinium L. sp.) cultivars at harvest and at various postharvest intervals after storage at 5 degrees C. Berries from MSU-58, Brigitta, and Legacy stored successfully for 7 weeks, Bluegold stored for 3-5 weeks, Bluecrop, Elliott, and Nelson stored for 3 weeks, and Jersey and Little Giant stored for fewer than 3 weeks. During the time they retained marketable quality, one cultivar (MSU-58) demonstrated a 29% increase in antioxidant activity. None of the cultivars showed a significant decrease from the harvest antioxidant activity value during storage. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and anthocyanin content were strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.87-0.99, P cultivar mean basis. Berries from Elliott were also harvested from plants at two levels of bush ripeness (30-50% and 60-80% ripe berries on plants) and separated into three fruit maturity classes on the basis of percent blue color. The level of bush ripeness had no significant effect on antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, or anthocyanin content; however, fruit maturity had a significant effect on antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and anthocyanin content, and bush ripeness x fruit maturity interactions were significant for these three traits. Berries with 50-75% blue coloration harvested from bushes with 60-80% mature fruit showed a significant increase in antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and anthocyanin content during the first 3 weeks in storage. Our results demonstrate that increases in antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and anthocyanin content may occur in the blueberry during cold storage and are cultivar-dependent. The increases that occur in immature fruit, such as in Elliott, may be advantageous for producers

  19. Physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of goji fruits jam and jelly during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ISTRATI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, when the news about antioxidants and their benefits to health has begun to spread to the general public, statements about the benefits of antioxidants ranged from preventing colds to cancer treatment. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of antioxidants. Since the beginning of the 21st century, goji berries have become increasingly popular in Europe and North America and have been promoted in advertisements and in the media as an anti-aging remedy. Goji is a relatively new name given to Lycium Barbarum and Lycium chinense, two nearby species, with a long history of use as medicinal and food plants in East Asia, particularly in China. In the present paper are presented analysis results of Goji fruits and food products made from goji fruits (jam and jelly. Storage conditions are important factors for jams and jelly quality. The objective of this study was to monitor the physicochemical stability, antioxidant activity and sensorial profile of goji fruits jam and jelly. Special attention was paid to total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sensorial characteristics. Our results showed the antioxidant activity of the goji fruit, values which correlate well with the results obtained for total phenolic (351±7.25 mg GAE/100g and flavonoid content (53.06±1.23 mg QE/100g. The antioxidant activity of the goji fruits was maintained also in the finished products obtained in the present study jam (60.98 % and jelly (41.96 %. Both goji fruits jam and goji fruits jelly showed no significant variations of physico-chemical characteristics and sensorial parameter scores after storage at refrigeration temperature for 10 days.

  20. [Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable,s the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Redzuan Hairuddin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L., mango (Mangifera indica L., papaya (Carica papaya L., muskmelon (Cucumis melo L., and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb. were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05 differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC, were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05 change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05 higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05 but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  2. A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hee-Kwon; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-06-19

    Mosquito larvicidal activity of Piper longum fruit-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was examined. A crude methanol extract of P. longum fruits was found to be active against the larvae, and the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality. The biologically active component of P. longum fruits was characterized as pipernonaline by spectroscopic analyses. The LC(50) value of pipernonaline was 0.25 mg/L. The toxicity of pipernonaline is comparable to that of pirimiphos-methyl as a mosquito larvicide. In tests with available components derived from P. longum, no activity was observed with piperettine, piperine, or piperlongumine.

  3. Characterization of aroma active compounds in fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bi Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Fan, Gang; Yao, Xiao Lin; Pan, Si Yi

    2008-06-12

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, beta-myrcene, octanal, linalool, alpha-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  4. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Stultiens, Catharina L. M.; de Groot, Peter F. M.; Powers, Stephen J.; Tikunov, Yury M.; Bovy, Arnoud G.; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development. PMID:25883382

  5. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Stultiens, Catharina L M; de Groot, Peter F M; Powers, Stephen J; Tikunov, Yury M; Bovy, Arnoud G; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-06-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. β-amylase in developing apple fruits: activities, amounts and subcellular localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Dapeng; (张大鹏); WANG; Yongzhang(王永章)

    2002-01-01

    Starch degradation in cells is closely associated with cereal seed germination, photosynthesis in leaves, carbohydrate storage in tuberous roots, and fleshy fruit development. Based on previously reported in vitro assays, β-amylase is considered one of the key enzymes catalyzing starch breakdown, but up to date its role in starch breakdown in living cells remains unclear because the enzyme was shown often extrachloroplastic in living cells. The present experiment showed that β-amylase activity was progressively increasing concomitantly with decreasing starch concentrations during apple (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Starkrimson) fruit development. The apparent amount of β-amylase assessed by Western blotting also increased during the fruit development, which is consistent with the seasonal changes in the enzyme activity. The subcellular-localization studies via immunogold electron-microscopy technique showed that β-amylase visualized by gold particles was predominantly located in plastids especially at periphery of starch granules, but the gold particles were scarcely found in other subcellular compartments. These data proved for the first time that the enzyme is compartmented in its functional sites in plant living cells. The predominantly plastid-distributed pattern of β-amylase in cells was shown unchanged throughout the fruit development. The density of gold particles (β-amylase) in plastids was increasing during the fruit development, which is consistent with the results of Western blotting. So it is considered that β-amylase is involved in starch hydrolysis in plastids of the fruit cells.

  7. Determination of some physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Estrada-Mota, Iván; Estrada-León, Raciel; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Vargas y Vargas, María de Lourdes; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The aim to the study was to determine the physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fruits from Yucatan, Mexico such as star apple, cashew, mombin, mamey sapote, white sapote, sugar apple, sapodilla, dragon fruit, nance, ilama, custard apple, mamoncillo and black sapote. The physicochemical characteristics were different between fruits and were good sources of bioactive compounds. The edible part with the highest values of antioxidant activity were mamoncillo, star apple, mombin, cashew, white sapote, ilama, custard apple, sugar apple, and nance. Total soluble phenols content showed a correlation with antioxidant activity by ABTS (R=0.52, P⩽0.05) and DPPH (R=0.43, P⩽0.05). A high correlation was obtained between the two assays (ABTS and DPPH) used to measure antioxidant activity in the tropical fruit species under study (R=0.82, P⩽0.05). The results show promising perspectives for the exploitation and use of tropical fruits studied with significant levels of nutrients and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening of antibacterial activity of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruit and pomace extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of fruit and pomace extracts (concentration 50 mg/ml of two raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cultivars (Meeker and Willamette was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (reference and wild strains. Disc diffusion method with 15 μl of extracts and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 μl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control. Both raspberry fruit extracts showed the strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (wild strain and Bacillus cereus, where the largest clear zones (without growth appeared. Escherichia coli was the most resistant strain, with only zone of reduced growth. The highest antibacterial activity of pomace extracts was against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. There were no differences in the antibacterial activity between cultivars for both fruit and pomace extracts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  9. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Manthey, John A; Luzio, Gary; Talcott, Stephen T; Goodner, Kevin; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2006-09-20

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature.

  10. Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Sambucus nigra Fruit Extract Using Alternative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Doroftei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro antioxidant activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra fruit extract and to study its toxicity in a plant model system with regard to its possible application in food and agricultural industry. The antioxidant capacity of Sambucus nigra fruit powder was quantified by a photochemiluminescence method. The study of phytotoxicity of aqueous solutions of powder extract was performed using Allium cepa as a test organism. Photochemiluminescence determinations showed a very high antioxidant capacity of the product but also revealed its cytotoxic effect, along with mitodepressive activity and even inhibiton of mitosis at the preprophase stage when the fruit extract was used at higher concentrations. Aqueous solutions of the fruit powder have a reasonably expressed mutagenic activity in vivo on the radicles of Allium cepa, especially when they are used at a concentration of 1 g/dL for a prolonged time (48 h. At lower concentrations (0.1 g/dL, however, the mutagenic effect was not observed any more. The conclusion of our study is that Sambucus nigra fruit extract powder has a very high in vitro antioxidant activity and no mutagenic effects at low concentrations, which makes it recommendable for applications in the food industry.

  11. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  12. Baccaurea angulata fruit inhibits lipid peroxidation and induces the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Hazali, Norazlanshah; Abdul Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Abdul Ghani, Radiah; Hashim, Ridzwan; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan; Jahuari Arief, Solachuddin; Md Isa, Muhammad Lokman; Draman, Samsul; Adros Yahya, Mohammad Noor

    2016-06-01

    The consequence of the increased demand due to the population expansion has put tremendous pressure on the natural supply of fruits. Hence, there is an unprecedented growing interest in the exploration of the potentials of underutilized fruits as alternatives to the commercially available fruits. Baccaurea angulata is an underutilized fruit widely distributed in Borneo Island of Malaysia. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of B. angulata whole fruit (WF), skin (SK) and pulp (PL) juices on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant enzymes in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet. Thirty-six male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to six groups. Rabbits were fed either a standard pellet (group NC) or a high-cholesterol diet (groups HC, PC, WF, SK and PL). Groups WF, SK and PL were also given 1 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF, SK and PL juices, respectively. Baccaurea angulata had high antioxidant activities. The administration of the various juices significantly reduced (p levels caused by cholesterol feeding was also ameliorated with B. angulata. Our results show that B. angulata fruit is beneficial in positively influencing and managing oxidative damage.

  13. Physical, chemical, and antioxidant activity characterization of pitaya (Stenocereus pruinosus) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cruz, Leticia; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Salinas-Moreno, Yolanda; Joaquín-Cruz, Elvia

    2013-12-01

    Fruits with red and orange flesh of the columnar cactus pitaya (Stenocereus pruinosus) were studied to evaluate physical characteristics, total soluble solids, betalains and soluble phenols content, and antioxidant activity. Fruits had, in average, weight of 179.0 g, 9.8 °Brix, 9.4 % carbohydrates, 1.25 % protein, 0.11 % ethereal extract, 0.60 % crude fiber, and 0.62 % ash. Also, fruits resulted rich in Fe (22.8-27.8 mg/kg). Hue angle and contents of betacyanins, betaxanthins (μg/g dry sample), and total soluble phenols (mg GAE/g fresh sample) were 19.8°, 2860.0, 3210.0, and 1.6 in the red material, and 28.9°, 470.0, 2670.0, and 1.2, respectively, in the orange fruit. The antioxidant capacity was higher in the red material, since the ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) technique reported 1090.6 and 735.4 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g fresh flesh in red and orange fruits, respectively, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay reported 7.84 and 5.16 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g fresh flesh, respectively. The chromatographic profile showed five betalains in red fruits, but only four of them were observed in those orange fleshed.

  14. Evaluation of anti-melanogenic activity of Ziziphus jujuba fruits obtained by two different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salimi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dried pulps and peels of Ziziphus jujuba fruits are commonly applied as food because of their high nutritional value. It has been widely used in traditional medicine as laxative, tonic, wound healing agent and appetizer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-melanogenic effects of Z. jujuba fruit. Methods: Fruit extracts were obtained by two different extraction methods, percolation (cold extraction and soxhlet (hot extraction using methanol 80% as the solvent. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity and anti-tyrosinase capacity of the MeOH extracts from Z. jujuba fruits were evaluated in vitro. In addition, the effects of fruit extracts on the melanin content and cytotoxicity on human melanoma SKMEL-3 cells were determined after 72 hours. Results: The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the cold extract were found higher in comparison to the hot extract. Moreover, the antioxidant (SC50 =1.40 mg/mL and anti-tyrosinase activities (IC50 = 0.54 mg/mL of the cold extract were significantly stronger than the hot extract. At the dose of 500 μg/mL, the cold extract showed weaker toxicity to the melanoma cells than the hot extract. Melanin content of the cold extract was reduced to 30% at this concentration, while the hot extract had no inhibitory effect on melanin formation. Conclusion: The results showed that the percolation method was more suitable for extraction of the (poly phenolics from Z. jujuba fruits. In addition, the results of tyrosinase activity and melanin content assays suggested that the cold extract of Z. jujuba fruit can be considered as a dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  15. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Syzygium densiflrum fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath Krishnasamy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide experimental support for the traditional knowledge of Syzygium densiflorum (S. densiflorum fruits. Methods: Powered S. densiflorum dried fruits were subjected to successive extraction with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Further, preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out with a series of tests. In vitro free radical scavenging was evaluated using total antioxidant estimation, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, superoxide radical scavenging, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Antidiabetic activity was estimated using α-amylase inhibition assay. Results: Preliminary phytochemical estimation confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols, terpenoids, anthocyanin, phenols, carbohydrates, fixed oils, and fats in fruits of S. densiflorum. Ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts showed less free radical scavenging and α-amylase inhibition activity than ethanol extract. IC50 values of ethanol extracts for 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and α-amylase inhibition assays were found to be 0.01, 0.16, 0.66, 0.46, and 0.46 mg/mL respectively. Conclusions: In vitro evaluations confirmed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of S. densiflorum fruits. Ethanol extract of S. densiflorum fruits showed higher activity with statistical significance vs. ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts.

  16. Comparative Studies on Polyphenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Schisandra chinensis Leaves and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mocan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. leaves and fruits. The leaves are an important source of flavonoids (35.10 ± 1.23 mg RE/g plant material. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The main flavonoid from the leaves was isoquercitrin (2486.18 ± 5.72 μg/g plant material, followed by quercitrin (1645.14 ± 2.12 μg/g plant material. Regarding the fruit composition, the dominant compound there was rutin (13.02 ± 0.21 μg/g plant material, but comparing with the leaves, fruits can be considered a poor source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX, inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c and EPR spectroscopic assays, revealing a better antioxidant activity for the S. chinensis leaves extract. In the antimicrobial assay, S. chinensis leaves extract showed efficient activities against the targeted bacteria, being more active than the fruits extract. The results suggest the leaves of S. chinensis as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  17. Comparative studies on polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Schisandra chinensis leaves and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Andrei; Crișan, Gianina; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Raita, Oana; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Toiu, Anca; Oprean, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. leaves and fruits. The leaves are an important source of flavonoids (35.10 ± 1.23 mg RE/g plant material). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The main flavonoid from the leaves was isoquercitrin (2486.18 ± 5.72 μg/g plant material), followed by quercitrin (1645.14 ± 2.12 μg/g plant material). Regarding the fruit composition, the dominant compound there was rutin (13.02 ± 0.21 μg/g plant material), but comparing with the leaves, fruits can be considered a poor source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX), inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c and EPR spectroscopic assays, revealing a better antioxidant activity for the S. chinensis leaves extract. In the antimicrobial assay, S. chinensis leaves extract showed efficient activities against the targeted bacteria, being more active than the fruits extract. The results suggest the leaves of S. chinensis as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  18. Muscle relaxant activity of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. fruit seeds in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Ramezani, Mohammad; Namjo, Nazanin

    2003-02-01

    Muscle relaxant effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae) fruit seeds was studied in mice using traction test. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts (i.p) induced a muscle relaxant effect in a dose dependent manner as effective as diazepam (1 mg/kg). The aqueous extract was partitioned with methanol-chloroform (MeCh) and n-butanol (Bu.) saturated with water. The MeCh and Bu. fractions did not show activity. Preliminary phytochemical tests showed that the extract contains flavonoid. The results suggested that E. angustifolia fruit seeds exerted muscle relaxant activity via flavonoid component(s).

  19. Phytochemical Investigations on the Fruits of Durio zibenthinus Linn. For Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balram Prasad Sah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethnobotanical information of the plant Durio zibenthinus Linn has been existing for a quite a long time. In India this plant is mainly available for the treatment only from the Nilgiris. Ethnomedical information suggests the proven fertility enhancing activity of the folklore. Hence, it was proposed to carry out the isolation, characterization, screening and documentation of phytoconstituents from the fruits of Durio zibenthinus. An additional advantage in working on this plant is the close proximity with the phytochemical lab, which was thought to cause the least degradation of the biologically active constituents. Durio zibenthinus (Durian fruit is being used by the people world wide for its fertility-enhancing activity. The tribal people who grow and harvest this plant claim that the fruits of Durian increases fertility in human beings because, “it kills the germs in the reproductive organs”. But as per the references available, individual compounds have not been implicated for their antimicrobial activity. So, this work aims to study the phytoconstituents for the antibacterial or antifungal potential, taking the cue from the ethnopharmacological literature. The determination of the biological activities helps in developing these compounds into drugs for further drug development. The compound was isolated from the chloroform extract of the Fruit pulp extract of Durio zibenthinus is 7,8-dimethoxy-13,13-dimethyl-2,13- dihydro-3H-Pyrano[5,6-c]quinolin2-one.The isolated compound showed significant antibacterial as well as antifungal activity against the microorganisms tested.

  20. Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruit juice: anti-inflammatory effect and activity on superoxide anion generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Maria T; Fimiani, Vincenzo; Lanuzza, Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Restuccia, Salvatore; Galati, Enza M

    2014-04-01

    Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge fruit juice was studied in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw edema test and in vitro for the effects on superoxide anion release from neutrophils in human whole blood. The fruit juice was analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and quercetin, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, eriodictyol, gallic acid, pyrocatechol, syringic acid, and eriocitrin were identified. The results showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of F. sellowiana fruit juice, sustained also by an effective antioxidant activity observed in preliminary studies on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity edema inhibition is significant since the first hour (44.11%) and persists until the fifth hour (44.12%) of the treatment. The effect on superoxide anion release was studied in human whole blood, in the presence of activators affecting neutrophils by different mechanisms. The juice showed an inhibiting response on neutrophils basal activity in all experimental conditions. In stimulated neutrophils, the higher inhibition of superoxide anion generation was observed at concentration of 10(-4) and 10(-2) mg/mL in whole blood stimulate with phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 20% and 40%) and with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 15% and 48%). The significant reduction of edema and the inhibition of O2(-) production, occurring mainly through interaction with protein-kinase C pathway, confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of F. sellowiana fruit juice.

  1. [Physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables: social representations in relation to age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlot, Rachel; Laurin, Raphaël; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise; Millot, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to carry out a survey and comparative analysis of social representations of physical activity and fruit and vegetables in a sample of young, adult and elderly subjects. Four "urban" areas and four "rural" areas were selected for the purposes of the investigation. The samples used to assess social representations of fruit and vegetables and physical activity included 132 and 153 participants respectively. Verbal association was used and a factorial correspondence analysis was applied to the data. The prevention messages delivered as part of the second national program of nutrition and health were integrated by adult participants. A very limited awareness of the benefits of eating fruit and vegetable was observed in the young population. This study underlines the importance of implementing regular measures for the purposes of qualitative local evaluations that consider the specific characteristics of every age group in order to assess the psychological impact of prevention campaigns.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of an Iridoid Rich Extract from Morinda citrifolia Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett J. West

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of iridoids in Morinda citrifolia (noni fruits. An iridoid rich extract from noni fruits was prepared and incubated with aliquots of twenty-four hour cultures of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at total iridoid concentrations of 0.096, 0.19, 0.45, 0.82 and 1.41 mg/mL. was monitored by Optical Density (OD at 600 nm. Iridoid concentration dependent decreases in cell growth were observed in all organisms. The results suggest that deacetylasperulosidic acid and asperulosidic acid, the major phytochemical constituents of noni fruit, possess antibacterial activity.

  3. In vitro biological activities and fatty acid profiles of Pistacia terebinthus fruits and Pistacia khinjuk seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacıbekiroğlu, Işil; Yılmaz, Pelin Köseoğlu; Haşimi, Nesrin; Kılınç, Ersin; Tolan, Veysel; Kolak, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    This study reports in vitro anticholinesterase, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and ethanol-water extracts prepared from Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits and Pistacia khinjuk Stocks seeds as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and fatty acid compositions. Ethanol and ethanol-water extracts of both species exhibited higher anticholinesterase activity than galanthamine. Among ABTS, DPPH and CUPRAC assays, the highest antioxidant capacity of the extracts was found in the last one. P. terebinthus ethanol extract being rich in flavonoid content showed the best cupric reducing effect. All extracts possessed no antimicrobial activity. The main fatty acid in P. terebinthus fruits (52.52%) and P. khinjuk seeds (59.44%) was found to be oleic acid. Our results indicate that P. terebinthus fruits and P. khinjuk seeds could be a good source of anticholinesterase compounds, and could be phytochemically investigated.

  4. Anti Epileptic Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn Fruit Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muralidharan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit extract of Morinda citrifolia (Noni, a medicinal plant used in many neuro protective ayurvedic preparations was evaluated for its protective effect against seizures induced by Maximal Electro Shock (MES method in rats. A daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract was administered to the animals for 15 days, after which seizures were induced by maximum electro shock method and the duration of various phases of epileptic attacks were recorded and compared with the control animals. A significant (P<0.01 and P<0.001 reduction in the time taken for righting reflex (recovery was noted in the experimental animals. The levels of biogenic amines such as dopamine, serotonin and nor-adrenaline in the forebrain region were also estimated and a significant level of restoration was opserved in the extract treated animals. Significant results were opserved in the estimated parameters thereby justifying the use of this medicinal plant in the treatment of epilepsy.

  5. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts from Morus alba L. leaves, stems and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts (leaves, stems and fruits) from Morus alba L., a traditional Chinese medicine, were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Ethanolic extracts showed higher contents of both total phenolics and flavonoids than aqueous extracts. The total phenolic content was in the order of: leaf extracts > fruit extracts > stem extracts, whereas the total flavonoids was: leaf extracts > stem extracts > fruit extracts. Using DPPH assays, the concentrations providing 50% inhibition (IC(50)) values of aqueous extracts from leaves, stems and fruits were 7.11 ± 1.45 mg/ml, 86.78 ± 3.21 mg/ml and 14.38 ± 2.83 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC(50) values of ethanolic extracts were 3.11 ± 0.86 mg/ml, 14.62 ± 2.45 mg/ml and 12.42 ± 2.76 mg/ml, respectively. In sum, the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from M. alba L. were stronger than the aqueous extracts, and in the order of: leaf extracts > fruit extracts > stem extracts. The ethanolic extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activities, whereas the aqueous extracts showed poor antimicrobial properties in our test system. This study validated the medicinal potential of M. alba L.

  6. Flavonoids and a Limonoid from the Fruits of Citrus unshiu and Their Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Lee, Dahae; Lee, Seulah; Noh, Hyung Jun; Hyun, Jae Wook; Yi, Pyoung Ho; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-09-28

    The fruits of Citrus unshiu are one of the most popular and most enjoyed fruits in Korea. As we continue to seek for bioactive metabolites from Korean natural resources, our study on the chemical constituents of the fruits of C. unshiu resulted in the isolation of a new flavonoid glycoside, limocitrunshin 1, along with seven other flavonoids 2-8 and a limonoid 9. All structures were identified by spectroscopic methods, namely 1D and 2D NMR, including HSQC, HMBC, and (1)H-(1)H COSY experiments, HRMS, and other chemical methods. Compounds 3, 5, and 9 are reported to be isolated from this fruit for the first time. The isolated compounds were applied to activity tests to verify their inhibitory effects on inflammation and nephrotoxicity. Compounds 6 and 9 showed the most potent inhibitory activity on renal cell damage and nitric oxide production, respectively. Thus, the fruits of C. unshiu could serve as a valuable natural source of bioactive components with health benefits for potential application in functional foods.

  7. Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Various Extracts of Rhus typhina Fruits and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of various extracts (methanol, hexane, dichloro-methane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol water of Rhus typhina fruits and leaves were investigated using different methods and the main phenolic compounds were analyzed by LC-MS. The ethyl acetate extracts from fruits and leaves of R. typhina exhibited the highest DPPH, hydroxyl radical and nitrite scavenging activity, reducing potential and protein protection ability. The phenolic and flavonoïd contents were highest in the ethyl acetate fraction. The LC-MS analysis showed that the contents of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide in leaves are little higher (34.49 and 32.69%, respectively than that (32.49 and 27.89%, respectively in the fruits, the content of rutin in fruits (16.73% is higher than that (7.79% in the leaves. These results implied that the leaves of R. typhina might serve as a natural source of antioxidant using as the food additive for its good nutrition as well as the fruits of Rhus typhina.

  8. The Role of Rootstock in Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Fruit: Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of The Fruits of Two Commercial Citrus Varieties With The Fruits of Four Different Rootstocks

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    N . Hemmati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: all fruits that called citrus are from rutaceae family and aurantioideae subfamily. This subfamily have more than 33 different genus that only three of its genus (citrus, poncirus and fortunella have economic aspects and in citrus producing country are important. It's reported that orange skin has a phenolic compounds which play a role in natural defense mechanism. Also various compounds of phenolic and antioxidant have a major role in fruit tolerance to stressful condition suh as cold and drought. Metabolites found in citrus fruits have antioxidant properties and it's very useful in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Oranges, like other citrus fruits, are an excellent source of vitamin C; Vitamin C is a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the blood. Various factors such as rootstock type can effect on quality and quantity of citrus fruits. Also, the usage of rootstock causes the change in plant characteristics such as flowering time, ripening time, fruit quality and antioxidant characters of the fruits. Other factors except the rootstock such as scion, geographical and climate factors are effective on producing secondary metabolites. Also active substances or secondary metabolites are producing by the conduction of genetic processes, but their production are being effected by other factors obviously. The aim of this study is to investigating the biochemical changes grafted tree fruit that affected by rootstock with study the correlation between grafted tree and rootstock changes. Materials and Methods: This study was done to compare the amount of total phenol, total flavonoids and antioxidant features of fruit flesh and skin with investigating the effect of cultivar and rootstock on these parameters based on completely randomized factorial design with three replications

  9. Correspondence of physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption among prostate cancer survivors and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers Virtue, S; Manne, S L; Kashy, D; Heckman, C J; Zaider, T; Kissane, D W; Kim, I; Lee, D; Olekson, G

    2015-11-01

    A healthy diet and physical activity are recommended for prostate cancer survivors. Interdependence theory suggests that the spousal relationship influences those health behaviours and the degree of correspondence may be an indicator of this influence. This study evaluated the correspondence between prostate cancer survivors and spouses regarding physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption. Baseline data from an ongoing randomised control trial were utilised. Men who had been treated for prostate cancer within the past year and their partners (N = 132 couples) completed self-report measures of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, relationship satisfaction and support for partner's healthy diet and physical activity. Couples reported similar fruit/vegetable consumption and physical activity as indicated by high levels of correspondence. Greater fruit/vegetable correspondence was related to higher relationship satisfaction (F = 4.14, P = 0.018) and greater patient (F = 13.29, P cancer survivors and spouses may influence each other's diet and exercise behaviours. Couple-based interventions may promote healthy behaviours among this population.

  10. Fruit preferential activity of the tomato RIP1 gene promoter in transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Priyanka; Kumar, Rahul; Pareek, Amit; Sharma, Arun K

    2017-02-01

    Isolation and functional characterization of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is beneficial for genetic improvement of economically important crops. Here, we have characterized a putative promoter of a ripening-induced gene RIP1 (Ripening induced protein 1) in tomato. Quantification of the transcript level of RIP1 showed that its expression is fruit preferential, with maximum accumulation in red ripe fruits. To test the promoter activity, we made a reporter construct by cloning 1450 bp putative RIP1 promoter driving the GUS (ß-glucuronidase) gene expression and generated stable transgenic lines in tomato and Arabidopsis. Histochemical and fluorometric assays validated the fruit-specific expression of RIP1 as the highest GUS activity was found in red ripe tomatoes. Similarly, we detected high levels of GUS activity in the siliques of Arabidopsis. On the contrary, weak GUS activity was found in the flower buds in both tomato and Arabidopsis. To characterize the specific regions of the RIP1 promoter that might be essential for its maximum activity and specificity in fruits, we made stable transgenic lines of tomato and Arabidopsis with 5'-deletion constructs. Characterization of these transgenic plants showed that the full length promoter is essential for its function. Overall, we report the identification and characterization of a ripening-induced promoter of tomato, which would be useful for the controlled manipulation of the ripening-related agronomic traits in genetic manipulation studies in future.

  11. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Methanolic Extract Of Moringa Olieifera Lam. Fruits

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    Mohammed Abu Sayeed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate antibacterial and antifungal activity of Methanol extract from the fruits of Moringa oleifera. The extract were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity by Disc diffusion method. The fruit extract of Moringa oleifera showed a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and antifungal activity. The highest zone of inhibition was found at the concentration of 200µg/ disc for Pseudomonas aeruginosa(22mm and Colletotrichum Sp (14mm. Methanol extract possessed moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains- Staphylococccus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species and Proteus species and antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi- Alternaria SP, Colletotrichum SP, Curvularia SP and Fusarium SP.

  12. Steroidal glyco alkaloids and molluscicidal activity of Solanum asperum Rich. fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tania M.S. [Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saude, Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil). Campus Avancado Anisio Teixeira]. E-mail: sarmento@pesquisador.cnpq.br; Camara, Celso A. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Freire, Kristerson R.L.; Silva, Thiago G. da; Agra, Maria de F.; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2008-07-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the alkaloidal extract of the green fruits of Solanum asperum afforded a new compound, solanandaine along with solasonine and solamargine. The total crude alkaloids as well as the isolated pure alkaloids exhibited significant molluscicidal activity. (author)

  13. Partnering with School Nutrition Professionals to Promote Fruit and Vegetable Intake through Taste-Testing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.; Hughes, Luanne J.; Wu-Jung, Corey J.; Morgan, Kathleen; Grenci, Alexandra; Savoca, LeeAnne

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010 sets new nutrition standards for schools, requiring them to serve a greater variety and quantity of fruits and vegetables. Extension educators in New Jersey partnered with school nutrition professionals to implement a school wellness initiative that included taste-testing activities to support…

  14. Phenolic glycosides from Foeniculum vulgare fruit and evaluation of antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marino, Simona; Gala, Fulvio; Borbone, Nicola; Zollo, Franco; Vitalini, Sara; Visioli, Francesco; Iorizzi, Maria

    2007-07-01

    Two diglucoside stilbene trimers and a benzoisofuranone derivative were isolated from Foeniculum vulgare fruit together with nine known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS and chemical methods. Antioxidant activity was tested using three methods: DPPH(), total antioxidant capacity and assay of lipid peroxidation.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions of hexanic fruits of Campomanesia species (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Claudia Andréa Lima; Salmazzo, Gustavo Ruivo; Honda, Neli Kika; Prates, Crislaine Batista; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Coelho, Roberta Gomes

    2010-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the hexanic extracts and fractions of fruits of Campomanesia pubescens pubescens (D.C) O. Berg and Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O. Berg were assayed against six microorganisms. The hexanic extracts of C. pubescens and C. adamantium fruits were also investigated in their composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The results of this study showed the presence of 34 volatile compounds and flavonoids in the hexanic extract of C. pubescens and 33 volatile compounds and flavonoids in the hexanic extract of C. adamantium.

  16. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of hexane fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaeel, Mahmud Yusef Yusef; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Tahir, Mariya Mohd.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa fruits have been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of several infections. The current study was done to determine the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the hexane fraction (HF) of P. macrocarpa fruits. In the hexane fraction of P. macarocarpa fruits, phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids whereas saponins, alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinones were not present. Evaluation on Vero cell lines by using MTT assay showed that the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value was 0.48 mg/mL indicating that the fraction is not cytotoxic. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The effective concentration (EC50) was 0.18 mg/mL. Whereas the selective index (SI = CC50/EC50) of hexane fraction is 2.6 indicating low to moderate potential as antiviral agent.

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY ON THE FRUITS OF HUGONIA MYSTAX L. (LINACEAE

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    A. Vimalavady et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An ethnomedicinal plant, Hugonia mystax L., was examined for preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of various classes of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous fruits extracts showed significant activity against the human pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae causing brain abscesses, pneumonia and septic arthritis; Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing urinary tract infections and septicaemia; Salmonella typhi causing typhoid fever, Vibrio species causing diarrheal infections and the fungus Candida albicans causes urinary tract infections. The antimicrobial activity of the petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous fruits extracts showed concentration-dependent activity against all the tested bacteria at various concentrations. Thus the present findings revealed the medicinal potential of H. mystax to develop a drug against various human ailments.

  18. Changing ribulose diphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity in ripening tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravdo, B A; Palgi, A; Lurie, S

    1977-08-01

    Tomato fruit (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) from green, pink, and red stages were assayed for changes in the activity of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, changes in the levels of glycolate and respiratory gas exchange. The ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity decreased as the fruit ripened. By comparison, the ribulose diphosphate oxygenase activity increased during the transition from the green to the pink stage, and declined afterward. The changes in the endogenous glycolate levels and the respiratory gas exchange, as observed at different stages of ripening, resembled the changes in the ribulose diphosphate oxygenase activity. The utilization of glycolate in further metabolic activity may result in the formation of peroxidases required for the onset of ripening.

  19. Identification of Anthocyanin Composition and Functional Analysis of an Anthocyanin Activator in Solanum nigrum Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoli Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solanum nigrum fruits have been conventionally used in beverages due to their nutritional substances such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, sugars, polyphenols, and anthocyanins. The characterization of components and regulatory mechanism of anthocyanins in S. nigrum fruits have rarely been reported. In this study, we determined that the peel and flesh of S. nigrum fruits shared similar HPLC profiles but different contents and total antioxidant activities for anthocyanins. After an efficient purification method, mainly including extraction with pH 1.0 distilled water and then desorption with pH 1.0 95% ethanol after a DM-130 resin adsorption step to obtain more pure anthocyanin extracts, the purity of anthocyanins extracted from S. nigrum fruits reached 56.1%. Moreover, eight anthocyanins from S. nigrum fruit were identified with HPLC-MS/MS for the first time. A typical R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, SnMYB, was also cloned for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR from S. nigrum. Moreover, the contents of anthocyanins were shown to correlate well (r = 0.93 with the expression levels of SnMYB gene during the fruit’s developmental stages. Most significantly, SnMYB gene successfully produced high anthocyanin content (1.03 mg/g when SnMYB gene was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves. Taken together, S. nigrum fruits are a promising resource for anthocyanin extraction, and SnMYB gene is an activator that positively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in S. nigrum.

  20. Antifreeze Activity of Xylomannan from the Mycelium and Fruit Body of Flammulina velutipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Hidehisa; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Sakaguchi, Takuya; Arai, Naoki; Koide, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    An identified class of antifreeze, a xylomannan-based thermal hysteresis (TH)-producing glycolipid, has been discovered from diverse taxa, including plants, insects, and amphibians. We isolated xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body of the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes using successive hot extraction with water, 2% and 25% aqueous KOH, and gel filtration chromatography. The xylomannan from the fruit body had a recrystallization inhibiting (RI) activity (RI=0.44) at 0.5 mg/mL. The dried weight yield of the fruit body (7.7×10(-2)%, w/w) was higher than that of the mycelium. Although the purified xylomannan from both soures were composed of mannose and xylose in a 2 : 1 molar ratio, the molecular weight of the xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body was 320,000 and 240,000, respectively. The RI activity of mycelial xylomannan was higher than that from the fruit body (RI=0.57) at 45 µg/mL. Although this RI activity was able to remain constant after exposure to various conditions, we confirmed that the decrease of RI activity was stimulated by the decrease of molecular weight that was caused by heating during the alkaline condition. The survival rate of the CHO cells at -20℃ for two days increased to 97% due to the addition of 20 µg/mL of purified xylomannan. This was the first report to indicate that xylomannan from the mycelium of Flammulina velutipes had a high level of ice recrystallization inhibiting activity like antifreeze proteins from plants and had rhe potential to become a new material for cell storage.

  1. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4

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    Bo Yoon Chang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE. MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent.

  2. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-10-13

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent.

  3. Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosalec, Ivan; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kustrak, Danica

    2005-12-01

    Antifungal activities of fluid extract and essential oil obtained from anise fruits Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro on clinical isolates of seven species of yeasts and four species of dermatophytes. Diffusion method with cylinders and the broth dilution method were used for antifungal activity testing. Anise fluid extract showed antimycotic activity against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis and C. krusei with MIC values between 17 and 20% (v/v). No activity was noticed against C. glabrata, and anis fruits extracts showed growth promotion activity on Geotrichum spp. Anise fruits extract inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum) with MIC values between 1.5 and 9.0% (V/V). Anise essential oil showed strong antifungal activity against yeasts with MIC lower than 1.56% (V/V) and dermatophytes with MIC lower than 0.78% (V/V). Significant differences in antifungal activities were found between anise fluid extract and anise essential oil (p<0.01). Anise essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activities against yeasts and dermatophytes with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.56% (V/V), respectively.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE FRUIT-SEEDS MADHUCA LONGIFOLIA (KOENIG

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    Chirantan S Chakma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to study the antibacterial activity of the Madhuca longifolia(Koenig in gram positive and gram negative organism.. Antimicrobial activity of the acetone and aqueous extracts of M.longifolia were determined against various pathogenic bacteria. The extracts were tested against various bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginos, .E.coli by disk diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values of both extracts were determined. It is concluded that acetone extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity. The study lends scientific support for it’s use in folk medicine.

  5. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasena, Paweena

    2012-09-15

    The vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Thailand have been suggested as rich sources of beneficial phytochemicals. In this study, vegetables and fruits native to the Northeast region of Thailand were evaluated for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. For vegetables, the extracts of Limnophila aromatica (Lamk.) Merr. (extracted by 80% ethanol) and Sauropus androgynus (Linn.) Merr. (extracted by distilled water) were found to have significant levels of antioxidant activities measured by DPPH scavenging (IC5o at 4.92+/-0.01 and 4.71+/-0.01 mg mL-1, respectively) and FRAP antioxidant assays (74.38+/-0.25 and 74.00+/-0.04 mmol FeSO4 g-' of dry weight of vegetable, respectively) and also total phenolic compounds (10.96+/-0.02 and 10.34+/-0.01 mg gallic acid eq g-1 of dry weight of vegetable). For fruits, the extracts derived from Terminalia chebula Retz. when using distilled water and 80% ethanol as solvents were shown to have significantly high levels of DPPH scavenging (IC50 at 3.73+/-0.01 and 3.81+/-0.01 mg mL-1, respectively), FRAP antioxidant activities (80.85+/-0.10 and 65.93+/-0.11 mmol FeSO4 g-1of dry weight of fruit, respectively) and total phenolic compounds (13.10+/-0.06 and 10.66+/-0.02 mg gallic acid eq g-1 of dry weight of fruit, respectively). The antibacterial assays showed that Moringa oleifera Lam., Limnophila aromatica (Lamk.) Merr., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. that were extracted using 80% ethanol as solvent were found to have antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Straphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Propionibacterium acnes. The results in this study may be useful for future application of edible plants that are native to Thailand to be used as cosmetic or therapqutic products.

  6. Extracellular enzymatic activities and physiological profiles of yeasts colonizing fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnárová, Jana; Vadkertiová, Renáta; Stratilová, Eva

    2014-07-01

    Yeasts form a significant and diverse part of the phyllosphere microbiota. Some yeasts that inhabit plants have been found to exhibit extracellular enzymatic activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of yeasts isolated from leaves, fruits, and blossoms of fruit trees cultivated in Southwest Slovakia to produce extracellular enzymes, and to discover whether the yeasts originating from these plant organs differ from each other in their physiological properties. In total, 92 strains belonging to 29 different species were tested for: extracellular protease, β-glucosidase, lipase, and polygalacturonase activities; fermentation abilities; the assimilation of xylose, saccharose and alcohols (methanol, ethanol, glycerol); and for growth in a medium with 33% glucose. The black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans showed the largest spectrum of activities of all the species tested. Almost 70% of the strains tested demonstrated some enzymatic activity, and more than 90% utilized one of the carbon compounds tested. Intraspecies variations were found for the species of the genera Cryptococcus and Pseudozyma. Interspecies differences of strains exhibiting some enzymatic activities and utilizing alcohols were also noted. The largest proportion of the yeasts exhibited β-glucosidase activity and assimilated alcohols independently of their origin. The highest number of strains positive for all activities tested was found among the yeasts associated with leaves. Yeasts isolated from blossoms assimilated saccharose and D-xylose the most frequently of all the yeasts tested. The majority of the fruit-inhabiting yeasts grew in the medium with higher osmotic pressure.

  7. Preparation of activated carbon by microwave heating of langsat (Lansium domesticum) empty fruit bunch waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of langsat empty fruit bunch waste for preparation of activated carbon (EFBLAC) by microwave-induced activation was explored. Activation with NaOH at the IR ratio of 1.25, microwave power of 600 W for 6 min produced EFBLAC with a carbon yield of 81.31% and adsorption uptake for MB of 302.48 mg/g. Pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the physical and chemical characteristics of EFBLAC. Equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 402.06 mg/g, and the adsorption kinetics was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high quality activated carbon from langsat empty fruit bunch waste by microwave irradiation.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadeghian; Ahmad Ghorbani; Ahmad Mohamadi-Nejad; Hassan Rakhshandeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Punica granatum, commonly known as pomegranate, has emerged as a medicinal plant with potential antimicrobial activity. The present study was planned to evaluate this activity against both Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria as well as against pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). Material and Methods: The aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin were prepared using a Soxhalet a...

  9. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadeghian; Ahmad Ghorbani; Ahmad Mohamadi-Nejad; Hassan Rakhshandeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Punica granatum, commonly known as pomegranate, has emerged as a medicinal plant with potential antimicrobial activity. The present study was planned to evaluate this activity against both Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria as well as against pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans).Material and Methods: The aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin were prepared using a Soxhalet appar...

  10. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Retrohpyllum rospigliosii fruits from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano-Celis, Clara E; Gaviria, Mauricio; Consuelo, Vanegas-López; Ontiveros, Ina; Echeverri, Leonardo; Morales, Gustavo; Pino, Jorge A

    2010-07-01

    The essential oil from fruits of Retrophyllum rospigliosii (Pilger) C.N. Page grown in Colombia was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Ninety-one compounds were identified, of which the most prominent were limonene (37.7%) and alpha-pinene (16.3%). The in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil was studied against seven bacterial strains using the disc diffusion method. The strongest activity of the oil was against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus cereus.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity and Elemental Composition of Sarcocephalus latifolius Fruits: An Ethnopharmacological Based Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Alsiddig Osama; Sufyan Awadelkarim; Mai Omer; Saga Yasser; Yousra Basher; Thoyba Elmabrouk; Afnan Abdalmaged

    2017-01-01

    Sarcocephalus latifolius have been part of Sudanese ethnomedicine since long time. The current study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Sarcocephalus latifolius fruits and to investigate its elemental composition. The antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic crude extract and solvents fractions (hexane chloroform, acetone and aqua’s) were investigated by the disk diffusion method. These fractions were further screened for the presence of eight secondary metabolites using...

  12. In vitro cytotoxic and in silico activity of piperine isolated from Piper nigrum fruits Linn

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Piper nigrum [Piperaceae], commonly known as black pepper is used as medicine fairly throughout the greater part of India and as a spice globally. Purpose To isolate piperine and evaluate in vitro cytotoxic [antiproliferative] activity and in silico method. Methods Piperine was isolated from the fruits of P.nigrum. Piperine was characterized by UV,IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and Mass spectrum. Standardization of piperine was done also by HPTLC fingerprinting. In vitro cytotoxic activity wa...

  13. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  14. Fibrinolytic activity of kaempferol isolated from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, M S; Mathur, Vineet; Agrawal, Purti; Chandrawanshi, H K; Pilaniya, Urmila

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to isolate a flavonol, kaempferol, from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) as a sole compound and to explore the fibrinolytic potential of the methanolic extract of the fruits of L. siceraria and the isolated compound using their in vitro activity. The fibrinolytic activity in terms of percentage of plasma clot liquefaction was determined by plasma clot lysis at 37°C in 24 h. The fibrinolytic activity of both substances was compared to the well-known thrombolytic agent streptokinase (30,000 IU). The percentage of fibrinolytic activity of the extract and isolated compound were found to be 54.72 ± 0.7210 and 77.37 ± 1.3010, respectively. Streptokinase was considered as the standard fibrinolytic enzyme for comparative purposes and had 91.46 ± 0.7625% fibrinolytic activity. The conclusion drawn in our study after testing the hypothesis by experimental procedures is that in vitro fibrinolytic activity on plasma clots is an inherent property of kaempferol isolated from the fruits of L. siceraria, and its comparison with streptokinase is a new aspect for further study.

  15. Hypolipidemic Activity of Prosopis cineraria L (Druce) Fruit Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collecting blood samples from all the rats and testing for serum lipid profile. Antioxidant activity .... Diagnostic Pvt. Ltd, Gujarat, India), ethanol procured from ... Flow rate was constantly kept at 0.3 ml/min. and detection was ... experiment. Room temperature was maintained ..... oleifera Lam. (hybrid variety) and isolation of 4-.

  16. Effect of postharvest ethylene treatment on sugar content, glycosidase activity and its gene expression in mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidley, Hemangi G; Deshpande, Ashish B; Oak, Pranjali S; Pujari, Keshav H; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2017-03-01

    Ripening-associated softening is one of the important attributes that largely determines the shelf-life of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) fruits. To reveal the effect of pre-climacteric ethylene treatment on ripening-related softening of Alphonso mango, ethylene treatment was given to mature, raw Alphonso fruits. Changes in the pool of reducing and non-reducing sugars, enzymatic activity of three glycosidases: β-d-galactosidase, α-d-mannosidase and β-d-glucosidase and their relative transcript abundance were analysed for control and ethylene treated fruits during ripening. Early activity of all the three glycosidases and accelerated accumulation of reducing and non-reducing sugars on ethylene treatment was evident. β-d-Galactosidase showed the highest activity among three glycosidases in control fruits and marked increase in activity upon ethylene treatment. This was confirmed by the histochemical assay of its activity in control and ethylene treated ripe fruits. Relative transcript abundance revealed high transcript levels of β-d-galactosidase in control fruits. Ethylene-treated fruits showed early and remarkable increase in the β-d-galactosidase transcripts while α-d-mannosidase transcript variants displayed early accumulation. The findings suggest reduction in the shelf-life of Alphonso mango upon pre-climacteric ethylene treatment, a significant role of β-d-galactosidase and α-d-mannosidase in the ripening related softening of Alphonso fruits and transcriptional regulation of their expression by ethylene. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Repellent activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2002-11-20

    The repellent activity of materials derived from the methanol extract of fruits from Foeniculum vulgareagainst hungry Aedes aegypti females was examined using skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid by spectroscopic analyses. Responses varied according to compound, dose, and exposure time. In a skin test with female mosquitoes, at a dose of 0.4 mg/cm(2), (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment, whereas deet provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at 0.2 mg/cm(2). (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid was a more potent repellent agent than (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid merit further study as potential mosquito repellent agents or as lead compounds.

  18. Products Released from Enzymically Active Cell Wall Stimulate Ethylene Production and Ripening in Preclimacteric Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, J K; Huber, D J

    1988-12-01

    Enzymically active cell wall from ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit pericarp release uronic acids through the action of wall-bound polygalacturonase. The potential involvement of products of wall hydrolysis in the induction of ethylene synthesis during tomato ripening was investigated by vacuum infiltrating preclimacteric (green) fruit with solutions containing pectin fragments enzymically released from cell wall from ripe fruit. Ripening initiation was accelerated in pectin-infiltrated fruit compared to control (buffer-infiltrated) fruit as measured by initiation of climacteric CO(2) and ethylene production and appearance of red color. The response to infiltration was maximum at a concentration of 25 micrograms pectin per fruit; higher concentrations (up to 125 micrograms per fruit) had no additional effect. When products released from isolated cell wall from ripe pericarp were separated on Bio-Gel P-2 and specific size classes infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit, ripening-promotive activity was found only in the larger (degree of polymerization >8) fragments. Products released from pectin derived from preclimacteric pericarp upon treatment with polygalacturonase from ripe pericarp did not stimulate ripening when infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit.

  19. NEUROTROPIC AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF THICK EXTRACT OF THE BLOOD-RED HAWTHORN’S FRUITS

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    V. A. Kurkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-red hawthorn (Crataegi fructus are a popular cardiotonic herbal materials, which widely used in medical practice in our country and abroad. In order to prevent diseases of the cardiovascular system is appropriate to prescribe herbal medicines, because they combine the breadth and softness of therapeutic action, along with the absence of a significant number of side effects and contraindications.The purpose was to study diuretic and antidepressant activity of thick fruit extract of blood-red hawthorn.Material and methods. Under laboratory conditions we obtained a thick extract of blood-red hawthorn fruits. This phytopharmaceutical was studied by us for any diuretic and antidepressant activity. Investiga- tions were carried out on white rats of both sexes weighing 200–220 g. Each experimental group consist- ed of ten animals. Study drug was administered intragastrically by stomach tube. Control in both cases served as purified water. For determination of diuretic activity, we used a thick extract of hawthorn fruits in a dose of 20 mg/kg against the background of the water load in the amount of 3% of body weight of the animal. Reference preparation was chosen dichlorthiazid 20 mg/kg. It was administered once. After ad- ministration the animals were placed in metabolic cages for urine collection for 24 hours. The study de- termined diuresis, natriuresis, kaliuresis, and kreatininuresis for 4 h and 24 h of the experiment. On the day of the experiment the animals of the control group was administered water load of 3%, and experi- enced – intragastrically drug in an identical amount. Animals were placed in a metabolic cage for a day. Collected 4 h and 24-h urine sample. Determined by renal excretion of water was recorded concentration of sodium and potassium by flame photometry in the fiery liquid analyzer PAG-1, creatinine – colorimet- ric method for photocolorimeter CFC-3. For determining antidepressant activity we used a thick hawthorn

  20. Prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity by race/ethnicity--United States, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-06

    Diets high in fruits and vegetables and participation in regular physical activity are associated with a lower risk for several chronic diseases and conditions. The National Cholesterol Education Program and the American Cancer Society both emphasize lifestyle modifications that include diet and physical activity to reduce disease risk. These are also two of the strategies implemented by states participating in CDC's Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases. To examine the combined prevalence of 1) consumption of fruits and vegetables five or more times per day and 2) regular physical activity among U.S. adults by race/ethnicity, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that the combined prevalence of these two behavioral strategies was higher among men of multiple/other races (16.5%) compared with non-Hispanic white men (12.6%). In addition, only 12.6% of non-Hispanic black women and 14.8% of Hispanic women, compared with 17.4% of non-Hispanic white women, engaged in these two behavioral strategies. These results underscore the need to promote diets high in fruits and vegetables and regular physical activity among all populations in the United States and among racial and ethnic minority communities in particular.

  1. Go Wild with Fruits and Veggies: Engaging Children in Nutrition Education and Physical Activity with Animal Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Offelen, Sara J.; Schroeder, Mary M.; Leines, DeeAnn R.; Roth-Yousey, Lori; Reicks, Marla M.

    2011-01-01

    The Go Wild with Fruits and Veggies! curriculum incorporates wild animal characters to motivate 3rd-5th grade children to increase fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. Positive findings from a rural setting regarding a self-reported increase in intake of vegetables (n = 1,285) were verified by more intensive evaluation of vegetable…

  2. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrigo, María J.

    2013-09-04

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

  3. Frutos tropicais silvestres e polpas de frutas congeladas: atividade antioxidante, polifenóis e antocianinas Wild fruits and pulps of frozen fruits: antioxidant activity, polyphenols and anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Marta Kuskoski

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os sucos de frutas tropicais conquistam cada vez mais o mercado consumidor, sendo o Brasil um dos principais produtores. Existe grande diversidade de produtos derivados de frutos e constante inserção de novos produtos no mercado de consumo, os quais, na maioria das vezes, ainda não foram devidamente pesquisados com respeito às suas propriedades e atividades benéficas à saúde. Neste trabalho, objetiva-se determinar algumas propriedades de frutos tropicais silvestres in natura e polpas de frutos comercializados congelados. Para determinar a atividade antioxidante, utilizou-se o método do radical 2,2-difeniL-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH·; para determinar os polifenóis totais, o método de Folin-Ciocalteu e, para as antocianinas, o método da diferença de pH. As polpas de frutas analisadas foram de amora, uva, açaí, goiaba, morango, acerola, abacaxi, manga, graviola, cupuaçu e maracujá; e os frutos silvestres, jambolão e baguaçu. Representada em TEAC (atividade antioxidante equivalente a Trolox, a atividade antioxidante global das polpas oscila entre mínimos e máximos 0,5 e 53,2mimol g-1, enquanto que, representada em VCEAC (atividade antioxidante equivalente a vitamina C, entre mínimos e máximos de 64,8 e 1198,9mg100g-1. Para os extratos de polpa dos frutos in natura, a atividade antioxidante oscila entre 13,3 e 111,2mimol g-1 (TEAC e entre 42,8 e 2533,1mg 100g-1 (VCEAC. Em ordem decrescente de capacidade antioxidante, encontra-se: acerola> manga> morango> uva> açaí> goiaba> amora> graviola> maracujá> cupuaçu> abacaxi. Os frutos de baguaçu apresentam maior atividade antioxidante que os de jambolão.The tropical fruit juices are gaining ever greater space in the consumer market, and Brazil is one of the main producer countries in this market. There is a great diversity of products derived from fruits and new products for consumption are launched constantly, often without the necessary research into their active properties and

  4. Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchima Sithisarn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant. Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two clinically isolated bacteria, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius, using disc diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts from O. indicum fruits collected from Nakorn Pathom province at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL exhibited intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with an inhibition zone of 15.11 mm. Moreover, it promoted moderate inhibitory effects on S. suis with an inhibition zone of 14.39 mm. The extracts prepared by maceration with ethanol promoted higher antibacterial activities than those prepared with water. The ethanol extract from the seeds of this plant, purchased in Bangkok, showed stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than the other extracts, with an EC50 value of 26.33 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis suggested that the seed ethanol extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.66 g% gallic acid equivalent and 7.16 g% quercetin equivalent, respectively by a significant amount. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extracts showed the chromatographic band that could correspond to a flavonoid baicalein. From the results, extracts from O. indicum fruits have an in vitro antioxidant effect, with antibacterial potential, on

  5. Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarn, Patchima; Nantateerapong, Petcharat; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Pongtip

    2016-04-07

    Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant. Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two clinically isolated bacteria, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius, using disc diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts from O. indicum fruits collected from Nakorn Pathom province at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL exhibited intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with an inhibition zone of 15.11 mm. Moreover, it promoted moderate inhibitory effects on S. suis with an inhibition zone of 14.39 mm. The extracts prepared by maceration with ethanol promoted higher antibacterial activities than those prepared with water. The ethanol extract from the seeds of this plant, purchased in Bangkok, showed stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than the other extracts, with an EC50 value of 26.33 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis suggested that the seed ethanol extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.66 g% gallic acid equivalent and 7.16 g% quercetin equivalent, respectively) by a significant amount. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extracts showed the chromatographic band that could correspond to a flavonoid baicalein. From the results, extracts from O. indicum fruits have an in vitro antioxidant effect, with antibacterial potential, on clinically pathologic

  6. "Ziziphus jujuba": A red fruit with promising anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahergorabi, Zoya; Abedini, Mohammad Reza; Mitra, Moodi; Fard, Mohammad Hassanpour; Beydokhti, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Z. jujuba) is a traditional herb with a long history of use for nutrition and the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. It grows mostly in South and East Asia, as well as in Australia and Europe. Mounting evidence shows the health benefits of Z. jujuba, including anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antioxidant, and hepato- and gastrointestinal protective properties, which are due to its bioactive compounds. Chemotherapy, such as with cis-diamminedichloroplatinium (CDDP, cisplatin) and its derivatives, is widely used in cancer treatment. It is an effective treatment for human cancers, including ovarian cancer; however, drug resistance is a major obstacle to successful treatment. A better understanding of the mechanisms and strategies for overcoming chemoresistance can greatly improve therapeutic outcomes for patients. In this review article, the bioactive compounds present in Z. jujuba are explained. The high prevalence of many different cancers worldwide has recently attracted the attention of many researchers. This is why our research group focused on studying the anticancer activity of Z. jujuba as well as its impact on chemoresistance both in vivo and in vitro. We hope that these studies can lead to a promising future for cancer patients.

  7. "Ziziphus jujuba": A red fruit with promising anticancer activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Z. jujuba is a traditional herb with a long history of use for nutrition and the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. It grows mostly in South and East Asia, as well as in Australia and Europe. Mounting evidence shows the health benefits of Z. jujuba, including anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antioxidant, and hepato- and gastrointestinal protective properties, which are due to its bioactive compounds. Chemotherapy, such as with cis-diamminedichloroplatinium (CDDP, cisplatin and its derivatives, is widely used in cancer treatment. It is an effective treatment for human cancers,  including ovarian cancer; however, drug resistance is a major obstacle to successful treatment. A better understanding of the mechanisms and strategies for overcoming chemoresistance can greatly improve therapeutic outcomes for patients. In this review article, the bioactive compounds present in Z. jujuba are explained. The high prevalence of many different cancers worldwide has recently attracted the attention of many researchers. This is why our research group focused on studying the anticancer activity of Z. jujuba as well as its impact on chemoresistance both in vivo and in vitro. We hope that these studies can lead to a promising future for cancer patients.

  8. Isolation of a new flavanone from Daidai fruit and hypolipidemic activity of total flavonoids extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Jun; Chen, Dan; Huang, Qing-De; Huang, Qun; Lian, Yun-Fang; Cai, Wei-Wei; Zeng, Hua-Ping; Lin, Yi-Li

    2015-01-01

    In order to further discover the medicinal value of Daidai fruit, an exploration on the hypolipidemic activity of total flavonoids extracts of Daidai fruit (TFEODF) was conducted in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipemia rats. Results indicated that TFEODF exhibited significant hypolipidemic activity which resulted in the decline of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, arteriosclerosis index and rise of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in hyperlipemia rats. For the purpose of expounding the chemical constituents of TFEODF, a phytochemical investigation of TFEODF was carried out for the first time. Research resulted in the isolation of a new compound together with 17 known compounds. This study lay a foundation for the development of a new hypolipidemic agent of traditional Chinese medicine whose chemical constituents were clarified.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Constituents of the Extract from Jatropha curcas Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda Saosoong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of the methanolic extract from J. curcas fruit were evaluated in this study. The crude extract was achieved by extraction with 60 % (v/v methanol. It showed the potencies of antimicrobial activity against P. putida, P. syringae pv. sesami, X. campestris, X. campestris pv. glycines, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and R. solanacearum with the presence of inhibition zone in the range of 8.0 ± 0.0 to 13.7 ± 0.6 mm and MIC value at 214.29 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Furthermore, flavone compound can be proposed by the analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. According to the group of flavonoid compounds have strong bioactive properties; the results suggested that J. curcas fruit has highly potential as effective natural bioactive sources.

  10. [Genoprotective activities of the oils from leaves and fruits of Fagus orientalis Lipsky].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A; Mirzazade, G G

    2011-01-01

    The antimutagenic activities of the oils obtained from leaves and fruits of Fagus orientalis have been shown in experiments with spontaneous and mutagen- and ageing-induced variability. The aberrations of chromosomes in the meristematic cells of the Allium cepa L., Vicia faba L., Triticum aestivum L., and marrow cells of Vistar rats as well as Arabidopsis thaliana gene mutations have been mobilized as experimental tests.

  11. Brief fruit and vegetable messages integrated within a community physical activity program successfully change behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerksen Shawna E

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables is associated with several health benefits. Currently less than 25% of the American population meets the minimum recommendation of five servings a day. In order to change this health behaviour, interventions should be based on theory and include community-wide social support. Methods A low intensity intervention was developed in which participants (n = 86 were randomly assigned to either the fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI or standard control condition. The intervention was integrated into an ongoing community physical activity program and study participants were drawn from the sample of community members enrolled in the program. The FVI consisted of brief social cognitive theory-based messages delivered in nine weekly newsletters designed to improve participant outcome and self-efficacy expectations related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Results Participants in the FVI condition increased in their fruit and vegetable consumption by approximately one to one and one-third servings per day. The control condition showed no change in consumption. The effect of the intervention was enhanced when examined by the extent to which it was adopted by participants (i.e., the number of newsletters read. Those participants who read seven or more newsletters showed an increase of two servings per day. Conclusion This intervention was effective at improving fruit and vegetable consumption among adults. Minimal interventions, such as newsletters, have the ability to reach large audiences and can be integrated into ongoing health promotion programs. As such, they have potential for a strong public health impact.

  12. Bioactivity of mango flesh and peel extracts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ [PPARγ] activation and MCF-7 cell proliferation: fraction and fruit variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ashley S; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Shaw, P Nicholas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Mangos are a source of bioactive compounds with potential health promoting activity. Biological activities associated with mango fractions were assessed in cell-based assays to develop effective extraction and fractionation methodologies and to define sources of variability. Two techniques were developed for extraction and fractionation of mango fruit peel and flesh. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to assess compositional differences between mango fractions in flesh extracts. Many of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. All fractions showed bioactivity in PPAR activation assays, but quantitative responses showed marked fruit-to-fruit variability, highlighting the need to bulk fruit prior to extraction for activity-guided fractionation of bioactive components. This study also suggests that combinations of diverse molecular components may be responsible for cell-level bioactivities from mango fractions, and that purification and activity profiling of individual components may be difficult to relate to whole fruit effects. Practical Application: Although the health benefits of fruits are strongly indicated from studies of diet and disease, it is not known what role individual fruit types can play, particularly for tropical fruits. This study shows that there is a diversity of potentially beneficial bioactivities within the flesh and peel of mango fruit, although fruit-to-fruit variation can be large. The results add to the evidence that the food approach of eating all components of fruits is likely to be more beneficial to health than consuming refined extracts, as the purification process would inevitably remove components with beneficial bioactivities.

  13. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Sherif E A; Shaaban, Mohamed; Elkholy, Yehya M; Helal, Maher H; Hamza, Akila S; Masoud, Mohamed S; El Safty, Mounir M

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, β-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts, rind and flesh established their unique constituents. Chromatographic purification of the extracts afforded triglyceride fatty acid mixture (1), tetrahydro-thiophene (2), linoleic acid (3), calotropoleanly ester (4), cholesterol (5) and 13(18)-oleanen-3-ol (6). GC-MS analysis of the extract's unpolar fraction revealed the existence of dodecane and tetradecane. Structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were confirmed by NMR and EI-MS spectrometry. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumour activities of the fruit parts were discussed. The promising combined extract of rind and flesh was biologically studied for microbial and cytotoxic activities in comparison with the whole isolated components.

  14. Activation of cell-mediated immunity by Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Futamura-Masudaa, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, is a traditional natural medicine in French Polynesia and Hawaii. Functional foods derived from M. citrifolia fruit have been marketed to help prevent diseases and promote good health. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of M. citrifolia fruit on cell-mediated immunity. In the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis test, M. citrifolia fruit extract (Noni-ext) inhibited the suppression of cell-mediated immunity by immunosuppressive substances isolated from freeze-dried ascites of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice (EC-sup). In addition, Noni-ext inhibited reduction of IL-2 production in EC-sup-treated mice and activated natural killer cells in normal mice. These results suggest that Noni-ext has multiple effects on the recovery of cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, we investigated the active principles of Noni-ext and identified an iridoid glycoside, deacetylasperulosidic acid. Oral administration of deacetylasperulosidic acid inhibited the reduction of ear swelling, and also cancelled the suppression of IL-2 production along with the activation of natural killer cells in the same manner as that of Noni-ext.

  15. Acaricidal activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides spp. (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2004-05-19

    Acaricidal activities of components derived from Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were examined using direct contact application and compared with that of the commercial repellent benzyl benzoate. The major biologically active constituent of Foeniculum fruit oil was characterized as (+)-fenchone by spectroscopic analyses. On the basis of LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to D. farinae was p-anisaldehyde (11.3 mg/m(2)) followed by (+)-fenchone (38.9 mg/m(2)), (-)-fenchone (41.8 mg/m(2)), benzyl benzoate (89.2 mg/m(2)), thymol (90.3 mg/m(2)), and estragol (413.3 mg/m(2)). Against D. pteronyssinus, p-anisaldehyde (10.1 mg/m(2)) was much more effective than benzyl benzoate (67.5 mg/m(2)), thymol (68.5 mg/m(2)), and estragol (389.9 mg/m(2)). These results indicate that the acaricidal activity of F. vulgare fruit oil likely results from (+)-fenchone and p-anisaldehyde. (+)-Fenchone was 20.3 times more abundant in the oil than p-anisaldehyde. (+)-Fenchone and p-anisaldehyde merit further study as potential house dust mite control agents or as lead compounds.

  16. Coccoloba uvifera (L. (Polygonaceae Fruit: Phytochemical Screening and Potential Antioxidant Activity

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    Maira Rubi Segura Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Latin America attracts gaining interest as it provides a plethora of still unexplored or underutilized fruits that can contribute to human well-being due to their nutritional value and their content of bioactive compounds. Antioxidant compounds are now of considerable interest due to their effect of preventing or delaying aging and their apparent involvement in prevention of numerous human diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis. In this work, the fruit of Coccoloba uvifera (L. was investigated for their in vitro antioxidant capacity using two assays based on reactions with a relatively stable single reagent radical (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC; and DPPH free radical scavenging assay, DPPH, two assays based on chelating of metallic cations, and one based on the reduction of oxidized species. The TEAC value on ABTS radical, DPPH scavenging activity, ion chelation, and reducing power were found to be 897.6 μM of Trolox/100 g of sample, 22.8% of DPPH free radical scavenging, 11.3% of Cu2+-chelating activity, 23.9% of Fe2+-chelating activity, and a Fe2+-reducing power of 0.76 mg/mL, respectively. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant characteristics of C. uvifera may be due to the presence of diverse phytochemicals in the fruit as anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids.

  17. Comparative study of anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits.

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    Burdulis, Deividas; Sarkinas, Antanas; Jasutiené, Ina; Stackevicené, Elicija; Nikolajevas, Laurynas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous comparison of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) fruits for their anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity is reported. The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in bilberry and blueberry fruits and their skins. The investigations revealed that the highest amount of total anthocyanins was observed in fruits skins of blueberry cultivars. The results, obtained by chromatographic analysis, indicated that cyanidin is a dominant anthocyanidin in bilberry and malvidin in blueberry samples. Extracts of "Herbert", "Coville", "Toro" blueberry cultivars and bilberry fruits revealed antimicrobial properties. Citrobacter freundii (ATCC 8090) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212) were the most sensitive among eight tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Significant differences between berry and skin extracts were not established. Studies with fruits showed that the strongest antioxidant activity possesses blueberry cultivar "Berkeley" (82.13 +/- 0.51%). Meanwhile, the amount of quenched free radicals in bilberry samples was 63.72 +/- 1.11%, respectively. The lowest antioxidant activity was estimated in blueberry cultivar "Coville". Accordingly, the strongest antiradical properties were estimated in blueberry cultivar "Ama" fruit skins. Bilberry fruit skin samples possess strong antiradical activity as well (82.69 +/- 0.37%).

  18. Cross-behavior associations and multiple health behavior change: A longitudinal study on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Küper, Carina; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the interrelation of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The influence of stage congruence between physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake on multiple behavior change was also investigated. Health behaviors, social-cognitions, and stages of change were assessed in 2693 adults at two points in time. Physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed 4 weeks after the baseline. Social-cognitions, stages as well as stage transitions across behavior domains were positively interrelated. Stage congruence was not related to changes in physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Physical activity and nutrition appear to facilitate rather than hinder each other. Having intentions to change both behaviors simultaneously does not seem to overburden individuals.

  19. Study of genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of the digallic acid isolated from Pistacia lentiscus fruits.

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    Bhouri, Wissem; Derbel, Safa; Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Ines; Sghaier, Mohamed B; Kilani, Soumaya; Mariotte, Anne M; Dijoux-Franca, Marie G; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-03-01

    The digallic acid obtained from the fruit Pistacia lentiscus exhibits an inhibitory activity against nitrofurantoine and B[a]P induced genotoxicity when tested by the SOS chromotest bacterial assay system in the presence of Escherichia coli PQ37 strain. The antioxidant activity of the tested compound was determined by its ability to scavenge the free radical ABTS(+), to inhibit the xanthine oxidase, involved in the generation of free radicals, and to inhibit the lipid peroxidation induced by H(2)O(2) in the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that digallic acid shows an important free radical scavenging activity towards the ABTS(+) radical (99%) and protection against lipid peroxidation (68%).

  20. In vitro antioxidant activities and polyphenol contents of seven commercially available fruits

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    Paramita Basu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits are considered one of the richest sources of natural antioxidants. Their consumption has been linked to the prevention of oxidative stress-induced diseases. Objective: In this study, in vitro antioxidant activities of blueberry, jackfruit, blackberry, black raspberry, red raspberry, strawberry, and California table grape extracts were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, nitric oxide (NO, superoxide anion (O2− scavenging assays, and ferric reducing power. Results: Black raspberry extract had the highest phenolic (965.6 ± 2.9 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g, flavonoid (186.4 ± 1.7 mg quercetin equivalents/g, and proanthocyanidin (2677 ± 71.1 mg GAE/g contents. All fruit extracts exhibited increasing radical scavenging activities with increased concentrations. At 100 μg/ml, red raspberry extract showed the highest ferric reducing power (A700 =0.3 ± 0.0052 and FRAP activity (A593 =11.43 mM Fe2+/g. Black raspberry extract (100 μg/ml exhibited the highest DPPH activity (A517 =89.03 ± 0.0471. Jackfruit extract (100 μg/ml had the highest ABTS (A734 =35.6 ± 0.613, NO (A540 =81.7 ± 0.2, and O2− radical scavenging (A230 =55.5 ± 0.2 activities. Positive correlations were observed between IC50values for different radical scavenging activities and different polyphenolics. Red raspberry extract had the highest Pearson's coefficient values (0.952–1 between total phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins and DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging activities. Conclusions: The antioxidant rich fruits in this study are good source of functional food and nutraceuticals that have the potential to improve human health.

  1. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

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    Savić Milena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  2. Enhanced antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of longan fruit pericarp by ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Shi, John; Yu, Chunyan; Zhao, Mouming; Xue, Sophia; Jiang, Yueming

    2010-01-20

    The health benefits of fruits acting against chronic diseases are ascribed to their antioxidant activities which are mainly responsible due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The use of ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction (UHPE) has shown great advantages for the extraction of these phenolic compounds from longan fruit pericarp (LFP). Studies were carried out to investigate the effects of UHPE at pressures of 200, 300, 400 and 500 MPa on total phenolic contents, extraction yield, antioxidant and antityrosinase activities from LFP. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were analyzed, using various antioxidant models like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. Extract from ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction at 500MPa (UHPE-500) showed the highest antioxidant activities of all the tested models. In addition, it also showed moderate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Three phenolic acids, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, and corilagin were identified and quantified by HPLC. Corilagin content was the highest compared to other phenolic acids identified. UHPE-500 obtained the higher phenolic acid contents compared to other high pressure processing and conventional extractions (CE). Compared with CE, UHPE-500 exhibited good extraction effectiveness in terms of higher extraction yields with high phenolic contents and also with higher antioxidant and antityrosinase activities.

  3. Aroma active components in aqueous kiwi fruit essence and kiwi fruit puree by GC-MS and multidimensional GC/GC-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, María J; Margaría, Carlos A; Shaw, Philip E; Goodner, Kevin L

    2002-09-11

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and multidimensional gas chromatography olfactometry (GC/GC-O) were utilized to study the aroma profile and the aroma active components of commercial kiwi essence and the initial fresh fruit puree. Totals of 29 and 33 components were identified and quantified in the essence and the puree, respectively. Ten components were quantified for the first time as constituents of the kiwi fruit including 3-penten-2-ol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-2-butenal, 2-hexanol, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-2-butanone, 3-methyl 3-buten-2-one, and octane. Analysis of these samples by multidimensional gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) allowed for the identification of >80% of the aroma active components present at level traces in this fruit. A total of 35 components appear to contribute to the aroma of kiwi fresh puree and its aqueous essence. Components described for the first time as constituents of the aroma profile in this fruit were 2-ethylfuran, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, (E,E)-2,6-nonadienal, diethyl succinate, and hexyl hexanoate.

  4. Components and Insecticidal Activity against the Maize Weevils of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Fruits and Leaves

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    Shu Shan Du

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, Zanthoxylum schinifolium essential oils were found to possess strong insecticidal activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium fruits and leaves were extracted via hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. Estragole (69.52% was the major compound of the essential oil of fresh fruits, followed by linalool (8.63% and limonene (4.34% and 94.33% of the total components were monoterpenoids. The main components of the essential oil of fresh leaves were linalool (12.94%, ar-tumerone (8.95%, limonene (6.45% and elixene (5.43% and only 50.62% were monoterpenoids. However, the essential oil from purchased fruits contained linalool (33.42%, limonene (13.66% and sabinene (5.72%, followed by estragole (4.67%, nerol (4.56% and 4-terpineol (4.27%. Estragole, linalool and sabinene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. The essential oil from the fresh fruits (LD50 = 15.93 μg/adult possessed two times more toxicity to the insects compared with that of fresh leaves (LD50 = 35.31 μg/adult. Estragole, linalool and sabinene exhibited contact activity against S. zeamais with LD50 values of 17.63, 13.90 and 23.98 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LC50 values of 13.19 mg/L (fresh fruits, 24.04 mg/L (fresh leaves and 17.63 mg/L (purchased fruits. Estragole, linalool and sabinene also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 14.10, 10.46 and 9.12 mg/L, respectively.

  5. Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Constituents from Fresh Fruits of Alchornea cordifolia and Canthium subcordatum

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    Emmanuel E. Essien

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance has been increasingly reported worldwide and is one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of infectious diseases. Natural-based products, including plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals, can be exploited to ameliorate the problem of microbial resistance. The fruit essential oils of Alchornea cordifolia and Canthium subcordatum were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The essential oils were subjected to in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity screening. Thirty-eight compounds comprising 97.7% of A. cordifolia oil and forty-six constituents representing 98.2% of C. subcordatum oil were identified. The major components in A. cordifolia oil were methyl salicylate (25.3%, citronellol (21.4%, α-phellandrene (7.4%, terpinolene (5.7% and 1,8-cineole (5.5%. Benzaldehyde (28.0%, β-caryophyllene (15.5%, (E,E-α-farnesene (5.3% and methyl salicylate (4.5% were the quantitatively significant constituents in C. subcordatum fruit essential oil. A. cordifolia essential oil demonstrated potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 78 μg/mL and marginal antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 156 μg/mL. C. subcordatum showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and S. aureus (MIC = 156 μg/mL and notable antifungal activity against A. niger (MIC = 39 μg/mL. However, no appreciable cytotoxic effects on human breast carcinoma cells (Hs 578T and human prostate carcinoma cells (PC-3 were observed for either essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of A. cordifolia and C. subcordatum fruit essential oils are a function of their distinct chemical profiles; their volatiles and biological activities are reported for the first time.

  6. Acute and chronic hypoglycemic activity of Sida tiagii fruits in N5-streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datusalia, Ashok Kumar; Dora, Chander Parkash; Sharma, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Herbal prescriptions have been recognized as potentially valid by the scientific medical establishment, and their use has been increasing. Sida tiagii Bhandari (Sida pakistanica; family-Malvaceae), a native species of the Indian and Pakistan desert area, popularly known as "Kharenti" in India; is used as a folk medicine. In the present study, various fruit extracts of Sida tiagii were investigated for it's hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential in neonatal streptozotocin-induced (type 2) diabetic rats. Grinded fruits were extracted with 90% ethanol and partitioned with n-hexane (n-hexane extract; HS) and ethyl acetate (Ethyl Acetate Extract; EAS) successively. The residual ethanol fraction (residual ethanol extract; RES) was dried on water bath separately. All three extracts were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Blood glucose level, cholesterol, GSH (glutathione), elevated thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), glycated hemoglobin and liver glycogen contents were measured after 19 days treatment. The residual ethanol extract of Sida tiagii fruits significantly improve glycemic parameter and showed antioxidant activity in diabetic rats. The results of the present study indicated that the active fraction of Sida tiagii (i.e., RES) is suitable for development of a promising phytomedicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Characterisation of Sorbus domestica L. Bark, Fruits and Seeds: Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Activity

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    Boris Majić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the nutritional value of service tree (Sorbus domestica L. bark, fruit exocarp and mesocarp, and seeds by establishing the levels of macro- and microelements, total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. Our results revealed that all of the tested service tree samples were rich in potassium. Bark was the best source of calcium and zinc, while seeds were the best source of magnesium. Compared to the bark and seeds, fruit exocarp and mesocarp contained significantly lower amounts of these three elements. Immature exocarp and bark contained the highest amounts of total phenolics and showed the highest antioxidant activity. Maturation significantly decreased the amount of total phenolics in fruits, as well as the antioxidant activity of total phenolics and total tannins from exocarp, but not from mesocarp. Exocarp was the richest in total flavonoids. Based on the obtained data, we have concluded that the under-utilised species S. domestica L. could serve as an important source of mineral elements and antioxidants in the human diet.

  8. Structure and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds isolated from the edible fruits and stem bark of Harpephyllum caffrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Roshila; Koorbanally, Neil A; Shahidul Islam, Md; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant activity in edible fruits is an important characteristic in the choice of fruits for human consumption, and has profound influence on nutrition and health. Two pharmacologically active triterpenoids, β-sitosterol and lupeol, and the powerful flavan-3-ol antioxidant, (+)-catechin, were isolated from the edible fruits of Harpephyllum caffrum while a mixture of cardanols, an alkyl p-coumaric acid ester, and (+)-catechin were isolated from the stem bark. This is the first report of these compounds being isolated from this plant. The antioxidant capacity of (+)-catechin was higher than the other isolated compounds as well as the known antioxidant, ascorbic acid.

  9. Convulsant activity and neurochemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolino, Ruither O G; Beleboni, Renê O; Pizzo, Andrea B; Vecchio, Flavio Del; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Santos, Wagner F Dos; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a neurotoxic fraction (AcTx) from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and studied its effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission systems. AcTx had no effect on GABA/glutamate uptake or release, or on glutamate binding. However, it specifically inhibited GABA binding in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.89muM). Video-electroencephalogram recordings demonstrated that following cortical administration of AcTx, animals showed behavioral changes, including tonic-clonic seizures, evolving into status epilepticus, accompanied by cortical epileptiform activity. Chemical characterization of AcTx showed that this compound is a nonproteic molecule with a molecular weight less than 500, differing from oxalic acid. This neurotoxic fraction of star fruit may be considered a new tool for neurochemical and neuroethological research.

  10. Validation of spectrophotometric microplate methods for polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities analysis in fruits and vegetables

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    Érica Sayuri SIGUEMOTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD play important roles in the processing of fruits and vegetables, since they can produce undesirable changes in color, texture and flavor. Classical methods of activity assessment are based on cuvette spectrophotometric readings. This work aims to propose, to validate and to test microplate spectrophotometric methods. Samples of apple juice and lyophilized enzymes from mushroom and horseradish were analyzed by the cuvette and microplate methods and it was possible to validate the microplate assays with satisfactory results regarding linearity, repeatability, accuracy along with quantitation and detection limits. The proposed microplate methods proved to be reliable and reproducible as the classical methods besides having the advantages of allowing simultaneous analysis and requiring a reduced amount of samples and reactants, which can beneficial to the study of enzyme inactivation in the processing of fruits and vegetables.

  11. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS FRUITS AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

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    K. RAVI SHANKAR, A. LAKSHMANA RAO, L. KALYANI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of fruits of Alstonia scholaris was evaluated by carbon tetrachloride (CCL4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The toxicant CCL4 was used to induce hepatotoxicity at a dose of 2 ml/kg as 1:1 mixture with olive oil. The ethanolic extract of fruits of Alstonia scholaris was administered in the dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day orally for 5 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic extract was evaluated by the assessment of biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, SALKP, total bilirubin and histopathological studies of the liver. Treatment of animals with the ethanolic extract significantly reduced the liver damage and the symptoms of liver injury by restoration of architecture of liver as indicated by lower levels of serum bilirubin as compared with the normal and silymarin treated groups.

  12. Antiradical activity of different parts of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) fruit as a function of genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Vali; Jamei, Rashid; Heidari, Reza; Esfahlan, Ali Jahanban

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this work was to analyse phenolic compounds and antiradical capacity of different parts of walnut fruit among six genotypes of Juglans regia L. Therefore, total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined and methanolic extracts of walnut genotypes were considered by the reducing power, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenging. Significant differences were found in phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity of different parts of fruits and among various genotypes. High correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.81) was observed between phenol content and radical scavenging activity, but this was not always true (R(2)=0.01). These results demonstrated that walnut genotypes have different phenolic compounds and phenolic compounds have different radical scavenging power. The differences of phenolic compounds were confirmed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  13. Evaluation of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaf and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit rind for activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaves have been used in traditional medicine, including as anthelmintics. Methanolic extracts from these plants were investigated for activity against the southern root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Dried, ground p...

  14. Partial characterization of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in blackberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E M; de Ancos, B; Cano, M P

    2000-11-01

    A partial characterization of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities in blackberry fruits is described. Two cultivars of blackberry (Wild and Thornless) were analyzed for POD and PPO activities. Stable and highly active POD and PPO extracts were obtained using insoluble poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and Triton X-100 in 0.05 M sodium phosphate, pH 7.5, buffer. Blackberry POD and PPO activities have a pH optimum of 6.5, in a reaction mixture of 0.2 M sodium phosphate. Optimal POD activity was found with 3% o-dianisidine. Maximum PPO activity was found with catechol (catecholase activity) followed by 4-methylcatechol. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of blackberry extracts under non-denaturing conditions resolved in various bands. In the POD extracts of Wild fruits, there was only one band with a mobility of 0.12. In the Thornless POD extracts there were three well-resolved bands, with R(f) values of 0.63, 0.36, and 0.09. Both the Wild and Thornless blackberry cultivars produced a single band of PPO, with R(f) values of 0.1 for Wild and 0.06 for Thornless.

  15. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, L; Fernandes, E; Escapa, A L; Fajardo, A; Aligue, R; Albericio, F; Neng, N R; Nogueira, J M F; Romano, A

    2011-07-13

    Extracts from fruit pulps of six female cultivars and two hermaphrodite Portuguese carob trees [(Ceratonia siliqua L., Fabaceae)] exhibited strong antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds. The extracts decreased the viability of different human cancer cell lines on a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gender and cultivar significantly influenced the chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts. Extracts from hermaphrodite trees had a higher content of phenolic compounds, and exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Among females, cv. Aida had the highest radical scavenging activity and total content of phenolics, Mulata the highest capacity to inhibit lipid oxidation and Gasparinha the strongest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells. The decrease in cell viability was associated with apoptosis on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 lines. (+)-Catechin and gallic acid (GA) were the main compounds identified in the extracts, and GA contributed to the antioxidant activity. Our results show that the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar, and provide new knowledge about the advantages of hermaphrodite trees over female cultivars, namely, as a source of compounds with biological interest, which may represent an increase of their agronomic interest.

  16. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDLEY FRUITS AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HAPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

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    C.V. Panchal*, Jyotiram A. Sawale , B. N. Poul and K.R. Khandelwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Fruit juice of Lagenaria siceraria (LS belonging to Cucurbitaceae family, has been used traditionally to treat jaundice and to cure certain liver disorders. Antioxidants are well known for their hepatoprotective effect and in curing liver disorders. In this study, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of fruits were investigated. Materials and Methods: The coarsely powdered plant material was extracted successively with petroleum ether (PE and ethanol (ETH using soxhlet. PE & ETH, were then evaluated for their hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity and different in vitro assays respectively. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated at three oral dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Results: Both extracts, PE and ETH exhibited a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. The ETH (1000 mg/kg showed maximum hepato-protection. ETH also showed better antioxidant activity, in comparison to PE, in all the antioxidant assays. Conclusions: ETH has shown better hepatoprotective activity than PE, which could be due to its better antioxidant activity. Moreover, better activity can also be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds as these were absent in the PE.

  17. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, carotenoids, phenolic acids and essential oils, are of vital importance to human health due to their active properties. These characteristics include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc. This review summarizes the global distribution and taxonomy, numerous secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Citrus fruits to provide a reference for further study. Flavonoids as characteristic bioactive metabolites in Citrus fruits are mainly introduced.

  18. Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Color of Hydroponic Tomato Fruits at Different Stages of Ripening

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    Violeta NOUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in order to study the simultaneous effect of on-vine ripening and examined cultivars on fruit quality, color development and antioxidant content in two different types of tomatoes. ‘Admiro’ and ‘Komet’ (normal average fruit weight and ‘Cheramy’ (cherry type cultivars grown in hydroponic culture were used. Dry matter, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, lycopene, b-carotene, total phenolic, total flavonoid content and hydrophilic antioxidant activity were measured in six ripening stages. Color of fruits was determined by CIELab system. The L*, a*, b* values were used to calculate hue angle (ho, chroma (C* and a* to b* ratio. In all analysed cultivars total phenolic content increased as ripening progressed, reached the maximum at the pink stage and subsequently declined, while the trend of ascorbic acid was cultivar dependent. DPPH radical scavenging activity showed significant moderately strong positive correlations with total phenolics and ascorbic acid. The content of β-carotene increased constantly during ripening while lycopene content registered a sharp rise, especially in the last stage of ripening when 47.2% of the lycopene content was accumulated. During ripening the lightness (L* decreased because tomato fruit colour became darker while the ratio of red to green colour increased as a result of carotenoids synthesis. Among color indexes, hue angle (ho was best correlated with lycopene content (r = −0.758, followed by a* (r = 0.748, C* (r = 0.708 and a*/b* (r = 0.683. Better correlations were established between main carotenoids content (lycopene + b-carotene and each of the color indexes.

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids Isolated From the Fruits of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich. Benth

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    AT Tchinda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the antioxidant activity of the different flavonoids of the fruits of Xylopia parviflora used in Cameroon as spice in common traditional dishes. The fruits were successively extracted with hexane and methanol. The isolation of flavonoids was guided by the DPPH-TLC technique. The methanol crude extract and isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using DPPH radical-scavenging, β-carotene/linoleic acid and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The total phenolic content of the methanol crude extract was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method. The DPPH-TLC technique led to the isolation of (+-catechin (1, kaempferol 3-O-arabinofuranoside (2 and quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside (3 identified by NMR and mass spectra analysis. In the colorimetric DPPH test, compound 1 had the same activity (EC50 8.1µg/ml as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT used as standard while compound 3 and the methanol crude extract were less active (EC50 17.2µg/ml. Compound 2 was completely inactive. The total phenolic content of the fruit extracts was 113.03 mg gallic acid equivalents per g of extract. In the carotene bleaching test at the highest concentration of 100µg/mL, the order of inhibition of β-carotene discoloration was BHT > crude extract > quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside (3 > catechin (1 > kaempferol 3-O- arabinofuranoside (2. In the reducing power assay, compound 3 was more active at concentrations 40-100µg/mL. The HPLC analysis of the methanol crude extract revealed the presence of compounds 1-3 and unidentified phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract is probably due to the presence of compounds 1 and 3.

  20. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity

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    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark coloredThe optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25oC, suggest sorting of harvesting fruits in three groups. (1 fruits are harvested 9-24 days after the fruits reach its yellowish green color, Ao, (2 25 - 32 days after Ao, and (3 33 - 38 days after Ao.Fermenting at 35o C grouping into four types of maturation degree. (1 9 - 11 days after Ao, (2 12 - 22 days after Ao, (3 23 - 30 days after Ao, and (4 24-36 days after Ao. The optimum harvesting time is when the beans reach light red until the color starts getting dark. The optimum activity of the enzyme pectinase is at 35oC.

  1. Phytochemical investigation of sesquiterpenes from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkanna, A; Siva, B; Poornima, B; Vadaparthi, P R Rao; Prasad, K Rajendra; Reddy, K Ashok; Reddy, G Bhanu Prakash; Babu, K Suresh

    2014-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis led to the isolation of four new sesquiterpenes (1-4); their structures were determined by a combination of NMR (1D and 2D) and MS spectroscopic techniques. In addition, all these isolates were screened for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, Caco-2, Hela, Lncap, Hep G2 and MDA-MB231 cancer cell lines. Results indicated that compounds 2 and 3 displayed potent cytotoxic activity against Caco2 cell lines with IC50 values of 17.10 μg/mM and 16.46 μg/mM, respectively.

  2. Flavonoid Analyses and Antimicrobial Activity of Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl Fruit

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    Ehsan Oskoueian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl (Thymelaceae is commonly known as ‘Crown of God’, ‘Mahkota Dewa’, and ‘Pau’. It originates from Papua Island, Indonesia and it grows in tropical areas. Empirically, it is potent in treating the hypertensive,diabetic, cancer and diuretic patients. It has a long history of ethnopharmacological usage, and the lack of information about its biological activities led us to investigate the possible biological activities by characterisation of flavonoids and antimicrobial activity of various part of P. macrocarpa against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed that kaempferol, myricetin, naringin, and rutin were the major flavonoids present in the pericarp while naringin and quercetin were found in the mesocarp and seed. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of different parts of P. macrocarpa fruit showed a weak ability to moderate antibacterial activity against pathogenic tested bacteria (inhibition range: 0.93–2.17 cm at concentration of 0.3 mg/disc. The anti fungi activity was only found in seed extract against Aspergillus niger (1.87 cm at concentration of 0.3 mg/well. From the results obtained, P. macrocarpa fruit could be considered as a natural antimicrobial source due to the presence of flavonoid compounds.

  3. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of phenolics isolated from fruits of Himalayan yellow raspberry (Rubus ellipticus).

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    Saini, Ritu; Dangwal, Koushalya; Singh, Himani; Garg, Veena

    2014-11-01

    Yellow Himalayan raspberry, a wild edible fruit, was analyzed for phenolic contents, and antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. Phenolics were extracted using 80 % aqueous solvents containing methanol, acidic methanol, acetone and acidic acetone. Our analysis revealed that the acidic acetone extracts recovered the highest level of total phenolics (899 mg GAE/100 g FW) and flavonoids (433.5 mg CE/100 g FW). Free radical scavenging activities (DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and linoleate hydroperoxide radicals) and ferric reducing activity were highest in the acetone and acidic acetone extracts. No metal chelating or antibacterial activity was detected in any of the extracts. Acetone and methanol extracts showed potent antiproliferative activity against human cervical cancer cells (C33A) with an EC50 of inhibition at 5.04 and 4. 9 mg/ml fruit concentration respectively, while showing no cytotoxicity to normal PBMCs cells. Therefore, the present study concluded that the yellow Himalayan raspberry is a potent source of phytochemicals having super antioxidant and potent antiproliferative activities.

  4. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Taehyun; Oke, Moustapha; Schofield, Andrew; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2005-03-09

    The effects of soil and foliar phosphorus supplementation on the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in tomato fruits were evaluated by determining enzyme activities and isoenzyme analysis. Both protein levels and enzyme activities varied depending on the variety and season. In general, phosphorus supplementation did not alter SOD, POX, and APX activities significantly;however, some treatments showed season- and stage-specific enhancement in activities as noticed with hydrophos and seniphos supplementation. Three different SOD isozymes were observed, and these isozymes showed very similar staining intensities in response to P application and during the three developmental stages studied. Two major isozymes of POX and two different APX isozymes were observed at all the developmental stages. The results suggest that antioxidant enzyme activities may be influenced by the availability of phosphorus, but are subject to considerable variation depending on the developmental stage and the season.

  5. Stability, antimicrobial activity, and effect of nisin on the physico-chemical properties of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, Adelson Alves; de Araújo Couto, Hyrla Grazielle Silva; Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues

    2015-10-15

    Heat processing is the most commonly used hurdle for inactivating microorganisms in fruit juices. However, this preservation method could interfere with the organoleptic characteristics of the product. Alternative methods have been proposed and bacteriocins such as nisin are potential candidates. However, the approval of bacteriocins as food additives is limited, especially in foods from vegetal origin. We aimed to verify the stability, the effect on physico-chemical properties, and the antimicrobial activity of nisin in different fruit juices. Nisin remained stable in fruit juices (cashew, soursop, peach, mango, passion fruit, orange, guava, and cupuassu) for at least 30 days at room or refrigerated temperature and did not cause any significant alterations in the physico-chemical characteristics of the juices. Besides, nisin favored the preservation of vitamin C content in juices. The antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in cashew, soursop, peach, and mango juices. Nisin caused a 4-log reduction in viable cells of A. acidoterrestris in soursop, peach, and mango juices after 8h of incubation, and no viable cells were detected in cashew juices. After 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, no viable cells were detected, independently of the juices. To S. aureus, at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, viable cells were only detected in mango juices, representing a 4-log decrease as compared with the control treatment. The number of viable cells of B. cereus at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin represented at least a 4-log decrease compared to the control treatment. When the antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against L. monocytogenes in cashew and soursop juices, no reduction in the viable cell number was observed compared to the control treatment after 24h of incubation. Viable cells were four and six times less than in the

  6. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.

  7. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Gook KIM; Hong Lim KIM; Su Jin KIM; Kyo-Sun PARK

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon,Korea were analyzed for fruit size,soluble solids content,titratable acidity,total anthocyanin content,total phenolic content,and antioxidant activity.Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars.Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g,soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3°Brix,and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%.Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars.Among the 45 blueberry cultivars,high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols,and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’,‘Rubel’,‘Rancocas’,and ‘Friendship’.

  8. Comparison on pore development of activated carbon produced by chemical and physical activation from palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, A.; Sutrisno, B.

    2016-11-01

    It is well-known that activated carbon is considered to be the general adsorbent due to the large range of applications. Numerous works are being continuously published concerning its use as adsorbent for: treatment of potable water; purification of air; retention of toxins by respirators; removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from flue gases and industrial waste gases and water; recuperation of solvents and hydrocarbons volatilized from petroleum derivatives; catalysis; separation of gas mixtures (molecularsieve activated carbons); storage of natural gas and hydrogen; energy storage in supercapacitors; recovery of gold, silver and othernoble metals; etc. This work presents producing activated carbons from palm empty fruit bunch using both physical activation with CO2 and chemical activation with KOH. The resultant activated carbons were characterized by measuring their porosities and pore size distributions. A comparison of the textural characteristics and surface chemistry of the activated carbon from palm empty fruit bunch by the CO2 and the KOH activation leads to the following findings: An activated carbon by the CO2 activation under the optimum conditions has a BET surface area of 717 m2/g, while that by the KOH activation has a BET surface area of 613 m2/g. The CO2 activation generated a highly microporous carbon (92%) with a Type-I isotherm, while the KOH activation generated a mesoporous one (70%) with a type-IV isotherm, the pore volumes are 0.2135 and 0.7426 cm3.g-1 respectively. The average pore size of the activated carbons is 2.72 and 2.56 nm for KOH activation and CO2 activation, respectively. The FT-IR spectra indicated significant variation in the surface functional groups are quite different for the KOH activated and CO2 activated carbons.

  9. Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 μM Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 μM Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Anthocyans from fruits and vegetables--does bright colour signal cancer chemopreventive activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Darren; Steward, William P; Gescher, Andreas J; Marczylo, Tim

    2005-09-01

    Consumption of fruits and berries has been associated with decreased risk of developing cancer. The most abundant flavonoid constituents of fruits and berries are anthocyans (i.e. anthocyanins, glycosides, and their aglycons, anthocyanidins) that cause intense colouration. In this review, we describe epidemiological evidence hinting at the cancer preventive activity of anthocyan-containing foods in humans, results of chemoprevention studies in rodent models with anthocyans or anthocyan-containing fruit/vegetable extracts, and pharmacological properties of anthocyans. Anthocyanidins have been shown to inhibit malignant cell survival and confound many oncogenic signalling events in the 10(-6)-10(-4) M concentration range. Studies of the pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins after their consumption as single agents, anthocyanin mixtures or berry extracts suggest that anthocyanins reach levels of 10(-8)-10(-7) M in human blood. It is unclear whether such concentrations are sufficient to explain anticarcinogenic effects, and whether anthocyanins exert chemopreventive efficacy themselves, or if they need to undergo hydrolysis to their aglyconic counterparts. The currently available literature provides tantalising hints of the potential usefulness of anthocyans or anthocyan mixtures as cancer chemopreventive interventions. Nevertheless further studies are necessary to help adjudge the propitiousness of their clinical development.

  11. Antileishmanial Activity of Date (Phoenix dactylifera L) Fruit and Pit Extracts In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakhit, Sedighe; Khademvatan, Shahram; Doudi, Monir; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered as a major public health problem worldwide. Current drugs in treatment of leishmaniasis have some limitations; thus, the current study was aimed to assess the methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of Phoenix dactylifera against Leishmania major promastigotes. L major promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 and incubated at 25°C ± 1°C for 24, 48, and 72 hours. For obtaining the IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value, MTT assay was employed. Furthermore, promastigotes were examined in terms of morphology under light microscope. About 48 hours after treatment, IC50s were estimated 23 μg/mL and 500 mg/mL for methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of P dactylifera, respectively. Both extracts exhibited a dose and time-dependent antileishmanial activity against L major parasites. Also, some visible morphological changes were seen. This finding revealed both date fruit and pit, are effective against L major promastigotes. Further studies should be designed in future based on apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among fruits and vegetable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Qiao-Juan; Jiang, Zheng-Qiang

    2016-12-15

    In this study, a comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among 90 plant resources, including fruits and vegetables, has been performed. Protease activities of plant extracts were assayed at different pH values (pH 3.0, pH 7.5 and pH 10.5) using casein as a substrate. Ten fruits and thirteen vegetables show protease activities above 10U/g. Pineapple, fig and papaya, which are used for commercial protease production, exhibited high protease activities. Additionally, high protease activities were detected in kiwifruit (28.8U/g), broccoli (16.9U/g), ginger (16.6U/g), leek (32.7U/g) and red pepper (15.8U/g) at different pH values. SDS-PAGE and zymograms confirmed that various types of proteases existed in the five plant extracts and might be explored. Furthermore, five plant extracts were treated by different protease inhibitors. These results show that there are still many plant resources unexplored, which may be promising candidates for plant-derived protease production.

  13. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

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    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  14. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, P. S.; Kokila, T.; Geetha, D.

    2015-05-01

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15 nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

  15. Low temperature alters plasma membrane lipid composition and ATPase activity of pineapple fruit during blackheart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuchan; Pan, Xiaoping; Qu, Hongxia; Underhill, Steven J R

    2014-02-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) plays central role in triggering primary responses to chilling injury and sustaining cellular homeostasis. Characterising response of membrane lipids to low temperature can provide important information for identifying early causal factors contributing to chilling injury. To this end, PM lipid composition and ATPase activity were assessed in pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) in relation to the effect of low temperature on the development of blackheart, a form of chilling injury. Chilling temperature at 10 °C induced blackheart development in concurrence with increase in electrolyte leakage. PM ATPase activity was decreased after 1 week at low temperature, followed by a further decrease after 2 weeks. The enzyme activity was not changed during 25 °C storage. Loss of total PM phospholipids was found during postharvest senescence, but more reduction was shown from storage at 10 °C. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant PM phospholipid species. Low temperature increased the level of phosphatidic acid but decreased the level of phosphatidylinositol. Both phospholipid species were not changed during storage at 25 °C. Postharvest storage at both temperatures decreased the levels of C18:3 and C16:1, and increased level of C18:1. Low temperature decreased the level of C18:2 and increased the level of C14:0. Exogenous application of phosphatidic acid was found to inhibit the PM ATPase activity of pineapple fruit in vitro. Modification of membrane lipid composition and its effect on the functional property of plasma membrane at low temperature were discussed in correlation with their roles in blackheart development of pineapple fruit.

  16. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

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    ESTER ALICE FERREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pineapple is widely consumed and appreciated not only due to its taste and aroma, and also to its nutritional, functional and antioxidant properties, including its vitamin C and carotenoid contents. Brazil is one of the largest world’ pineapple producer, and Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars are the most commonly grown and marketed, but their susceptibility to fusariosis can compromise cultivation. New cultivars resistant to this pathogen are available to meet the demands of pineapple producers and consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of pineapple fruits of Imperial, Victoria, IAC Fantástico and Gomo de Mel cultivars, as well as traditional Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars. Fruits grown in the Triângulo Mineiro region were evaluated by colorimetry, determination of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds by spectrometry, antioxidant activity by ABTS and carotenoid profile by HPLC. Regarding color, Gomo de Mel cultivar showed lower brightness and higher value of parameter b*, indicating a more intense yellow color in this fruit. This result is consistent with the highest carotenoid concentration in this cultivar. Another cultivar that stood out was Imperial, which, while maintaining high carotenoid levels, also showed high concentrations of vitamin C and phenolic compounds, and higher antioxidant activity. Victoria cultivar showed low levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, even lower than IAC Fantástico cultivar, which showed levels of bioactive compounds similar to traditional Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars.

  17. Ammonium secretion by Colletotrichum coccodes activates host NADPH oxidase activity enhancing host cell death and fungal virulence in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Davydov, Olga; Sagi, Moshe; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2009-12-01

    Colletotrichum pathogens of fruit and leaves are known ammonium secretors. Here, we show that Colletotrichum coccodes virulence, as measured by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Motelle) fruit tissue necrosis, correlates with the amount of ammonium secreted. Ammonium application to fruit tissue induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation. To examine whether the tomato NADPH oxidase, SlRBOH, is a source for the ammonium-induced H(2)O(2), wild-type and antisense lines abrogated for SlRBOH (SlRBOH-AS) were examined. Wild-type lines produced 7.5-fold more reactive oxygen species when exposed to exogenous ammonium than did SlRBOH-AS lines. C. coccodes colonization of wild-type tomato lines resulted in higher H(2)O(2) production and faster fungal growth rate compared with colonization in the SlRBOH-AS mutant, although the amount of ammonium secreted by the fungi was similar in both cases. Enhanced ion leakage and cell death of fruit tissue were correlated with H(2)O(2) accumulation, and treatment with the reactive oxygen scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine decreased H(2)O(2) production, ion leakage, and cell death. Importantly, the activation of reactive oxygen species production by ammonium was positively affected by an extracellular pH increase from 4 to 9, implying that ammonium exerts its control via membrane penetration. Our results show that C. coccodes activates host reactive oxygen species and H(2)O(2) production through ammonium secretion. The resultant enhancement in host tissue decay is an important step in the activation of the necrotrophic process needed for colonization.

  18. Phytochemical screening, acute toxicity, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the Nelumbo nucifera fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2017-02-01

    Recently use of herbal therapies and diet rich in flavonoids and vitamin C have increased significantly to treat minor to modest anxiety disorders and various forms of depression. But further research and studies are necessary to evaluate the pharmacological & toxicological effects of plants. Hence present study was designed to conduct phytochemical screening, acute toxicity study, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the ethanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera fruit in order to ascertain its therapeutic potential. The qualitative phytochemical screening of the seed pods of the N. nucifera fruit extract exposed the existence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins and terpenoids in it. The acute toxicity of the N. nucifera fruit extract in mice revealed its LD50 value to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. Antianxiety activity was determined by elevated plus maze and light and dark test using 35 male Wister rats weighing 200-220 g which were equally divided in to 5 groups. The animals used in EPM underwent testing in light and dark box just 30 min after EPM. The antidepressant effect was assessed by forced swimming test using 35 male albino mice weighing 20-25 g equally divided in to 5 groups. In elevated plus maze, N. nucifera fruit extract exhibited substantial rise in number of open arm entries and time spent in open arms at dose 50 mg/kg while highly noteworthy increase in both parameters were observed at extract doses 100 and 200 mg/kg as compared to control. In light dark test highly significant increase in the percentage of time spent in light compartment was observed as compared to control. In forced swimming test highly noteworthy decline in duration of immobility was recorded at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg on 15th day i-e after administration of 14 doses, as compared to control; whereas same doses demonstrated significant decrease as compared to control in duration of immobility after single dose administration i-e on 2nd day of experiment. Thus N

  19. Rapid ester biosynthesis screening reveals a high activity alcohol-O-acyltransferase (AATase) from tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyun-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Wheeldon, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Ethyl and acetate esters are naturally produced in various yeasts, plants, and bacteria. The biosynthetic pathways that produce these esters share a common reaction step, the condensation of acetyl/acyl-CoA with an alcohol by alcohol-O-acetyl/acyltransferase (AATase). Recent metabolic engineering efforts exploit AATase activity to produce fatty acid ethyl esters as potential diesel fuel replacements as well as short- and medium-chain volatile esters as fragrance and flavor compounds. These efforts have been limited by the lack of a rapid screen to quantify ester biosynthesis. Enzyme engineering efforts have also been limited by the lack of a high throughput screen for AATase activity. Here, we developed a high throughput assay for AATase activity and used this assay to discover a high activity AATase from tomato fruit, Solanum lycopersicum (Atf-S.l). Atf1-S.l exhibited broad specificity towards acyl-CoAs with chain length from C4 to C10 and was specific towards 1-pentanol. The AATase screen also revealed new acyl-CoA substrate specificities for Atf1, Atf2, Eht1, and Eeb1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Atf-C.m from melon fruit, Cucumis melo, thus increasing the pool of characterized AATases that can be used in ester biosynthesis of ester-based fragrance and flavor compounds as well as fatty acid ethyl ester biofuels.

  20. Activity and functional interaction of alternative oxidase and uncoupling protein in mitochondria from tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Sluse

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase (AOX is not limited to plant mitochondria and is widespread among several types of protists. The uncoupling protein (UCP is much more widespread than previously believed, not only in tissues of higher animals but also in plants and in an amoeboid protozoan. The redox energy-dissipating pathway (AOX and the proton electrochemical gradient energy-dissipating pathway (UCP lead to the same final effect, i.e., a decrease in ATP synthesis and an increase in heat production. Studies with green tomato fruit mitochondria show that both proteins are present simultaneously in the membrane. This raises the question of a specific physiological role for each energy-dissipating system and of a possible functional connection between them (shared regulation. Linoleic acid, an abundant free fatty acid in plants which activates UCP, strongly inhibits cyanide-resistant respiration mediated by AOX. Moreover, studies of the evolution of AOX and UCP protein expression and of their activities during post-harvest ripening of tomato fruit show that AOX and plant UCP work sequentially: AOX activity decreases in early post-growing stages and UCP activity is decreased in late ripening stages. Electron partitioning between the alternative oxidase and the cytochrome pathway as well as H+ gradient partitioning between ATP synthase and UCP can be evaluated by the ADP/O method. This method facilitates description of the kinetics of energy-dissipating pathways and of ATP synthase when state 3 respiration is decreased by limitation of oxidizable substrate.

  1. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Some Small Fruits Containing Anthocyanins Using Electrochemical and Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Căta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the antioxidant capacity of some fruits extracts containing anthocyanins (strawberry, raspberry, elderberry, mulberry, blackberry, bilberry, black and red currant using an electrochemical technique and three classical chemical methods based on reaction between antioxidants and a chromogen compound. evaluation of antioxidant activities of extracts was performed by using FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant capacity, ABTS (2,2’-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate] and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were correlated with their content of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. Good correlations were obtained especially between antioxidant activities and total phenolics content. Cyclic voltammetry was used for the evaluation of overall reducing capacity of the extracts using a glassy carbon electrode. Reducing capacity of selected fruits extracts was assessed based on the half-peak potential (E1/2 of the first oxidation peak. The oxidation potentials characterized by E1/2 value were not correlated with the antioxidant activities evaluated by the classical methods. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  2. Evaluation of fruit extracts of six Turkish Juniperus species for their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Mehmet; Tümen, İbrahim; Uğur, Aysel; Aydoğmuş-Öztürk, Fatma; Topçu, Gülaçtı

    2011-03-30

    Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species are mostly spread out in the Northern Hemisphere of the world, and some of them are used as folkloric medicines. The fruits of some species are eaten. Since oxidative stress is one of the reasons for neurodegeneration and is associated with the Alzheimer's disease (AD), the extracts prepared from the fruits of six Juniperus species were screened for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the extracts were also evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are chief enzymes in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, acetone extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. excelsa, and methanol extracts of J. phoenicea and J. sabina, effectively inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid. The hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. foetidissima and J. phoenicea showed remarkable inhibitory effect against AChE and BChE. Because of their high antioxidant activity, J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. phoenicia might be used in the food industry as preservative agents or extension of the shelf-life of raw and processed foods. Since the hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. foetidissima demonstrated significant anticholinesterase activity they should be considered as a potential source for anticholinesterase agents. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Changes of Activities in NAD Kinase and NADP Phosphatase During Ripening and Senescence of Tomato and Strawberry Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cai-qin; GUAN Jun-feng; XI Yu-fang; LI Guang-min

    2002-01-01

    Activities of NAD kinase(NADK)and NADP phosphatase and relationship between the two enzymes and temperature, respiration, ethylene production and trifluoperazine(TFP) were studied during ripening and senescence of strawberry and tomato frnits after harvest at 4℃and 20℃. The activity of NAD kinase in strawberry decreased slowly during first four days, then increased gradually. The NADP phosphatase activity increased at the second day, decreased the next day,then increased again. In tomato fruit, the activities of NAD kinase and NADP phosphatase increased at the second day, decreased with the ripening and senescence of the fruit. The change trend of NAD kinase and respiration in the two fruits were similar, the same were NADP phosphatase and ethylene production. TFP enhanced the activity of NAD kinase and had little effect on NADP phosphatase. Low temperature(4℃ ) activated the NAD kinase and reduced the activity of NADP phosphatase. These results indicated that the NAD kinase and NADP phosphatase were related to the ripening and senescence of strawberry and tomato fruits. The activation of NAD kinase probably postponed the ripening and senescence of the fruits.

  4. Composition and antioxidant activity of the anthocyanins of the fruit of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Li; Gao, Wan; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Li, Cheng; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun; Ji, Teng-Fei

    2014-11-19

    In present study, the anthocyanin composition and content of the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk were determined for the first time. The total anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk using 0.5% HCl in 80% methanol and were then purified using an AB-8 macroporous resin column. The purified anthocyanin extract (PAE) was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-high resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-HR-ESI-MS) under the same experimental conditions. The results revealed the presence of seven different anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins purified by preparative HPLC were confirmed to be delphinidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (30.3%), cyanidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (33.5%), petunidin-3-Ο-glucopyranoside (10.5%), peonidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (8.5%) and malvidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (13.8%) using HPLC-HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The total anthocyanin content was 2036.6 ± 2.2 mg/100 g of the fresh weight of B. heteropoda Schrenk fruit. In terms of its total reducing capacity assay, DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS radical cation-scavenging activity assay, the PAE also showed potent antioxidant activity. The results are valuable for illuminating anthocyanins composition of B. heteropoda Schrenk and for further utilising them as a promising anthocyanin pigment source. This research enriched the chemical information of B. heteropoda Schrenk.

  5. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of fruit extracts of Calamus tenuis Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaki Uddin Ahmed; Seheli Sejuti Bithi; Md Minhazur Rahman Khan; Md Mofazzol Hossain; Suriya Sharmin; Satyajit Roy Rony

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the fruits of Calamus tenuis Roxb. Methods:The preliminary phytochemical group tests were done, which revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid and steroid. The dried fruit was extracted in soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant potential of each extract was evaluated using total phenol content, total flavonoid content, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and total antioxidant capacity determinations. Results:The extracts were found to possess moderate to high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid contents. In cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assay the extracts showed moderate reducing power which increases with concentration. Scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical was found to rise with concentration with lowest IC50 value for methanol extract, which was confirmed by total antioxidant activity test that shows highest (95 mg/g of extract) in ascorbic acid equivalent for methanol extract. In Brine shrimp lethality bioassay the methanol and petroleum ether extracts were found to be toxic to Brine shrimp nauplii, with LC50 of 25.53 µg/mL and 28.07 µg/mL respectively while the LC50 of the reference vincristine sulphate was 1.32 µg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract was found to be moderately cytotoxic showing LC50 of 47.79 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the fruits of Calamus tenuis Roxb possess antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. Moreover, phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid and steroid, which may be responsible for the observed bioactivities.

  6. Cellulase occurs in multiple active forms in ripe avocado fruit mesocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellis, A K; Kalaitzis, P

    1992-02-01

    The existence of multiple forms of avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) cellulase in crude protein extracts of ripe avocado fruit is reported. Cellulase was separated into at least 11 multiple forms by native isoelectric focusing in the pH range between 4 and 7 and visualized by both activity staining using Congo red and immunostaining. The enzyme components were acidic proteins with isoelectric points in the range of pH 5.10 to 6.80, the predominant forms having isoelectric points of 5.60, 5.80, 5.95, and 6.20. All 11 forms were immunologically related with molecular masses of 54 kilodaltons.

  7. Structural identification and cytotoxic activity of a polysaccharide from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (Lau).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kaushik; Chandra, Krishnendu; Ojha, Arnab K; Sarkar, Siddik; Islam, Syed S

    2009-03-31

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, isolated from fruiting bodies of Lagenaria siceraria, is composed of methyl-alpha-d-galacturonate, 3-O-acetyl methyl-alpha-d-galacturonate, and beta-d-galactose in a ratio of nearly 1:1:1. Compositional analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, 2D-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HMBC) revealed the presence of the following repeating unit in the polysaccharide: [carbohydrate structure: see text] This polysaccharide showed cytotoxic activity in vitro against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7).

  8. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit on quality and active components over postharvest storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...

  9. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  10. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  11. Optimization of Antifungal Extracts from Ficus hirta Fruits Using Response Surface Methodology and Antifungal Activity Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuying Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Ficus hirta (FH display strong antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. In order to optimize the extraction conditions of antifungal extracts from FH fruit, various extraction parameters, such as ethanol concentration, extraction time, solvent to solid ratio and temperature, were chosen to identify their effects on the diameters of inhibition zones (DIZs against these two Penicillium molds. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to obtain the optimal combination of these parameters. Results showed that the optimal extraction parameters for maximum antifungal activity were: 90% (v/v ethanol concentration, 65 min extraction time, 31 mL/g solvent to solid ratio and 51 °C temperature. Under the abovementioned extraction conditions, the experimental DIZs values obtained experimentally were 57.17 ± 0.75 and 39.33 ± 0.82 mm, which were very close to the values of 57.26 and 39.29 mm predicted by the model. Further, nine kinds of phytopathogens were tested in vitro to explore the antifungal activity of the FH extracts. It was found for the first time that the FH extracts showed significant inhibition on the growth of P. italicum, A. citri, P. vexans, P. cytosporella and P. digitatum.

  12. Ethylene-induced gene expression, enzyme activities, and water soaking in immature and ripe watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Yasar; Huber, Donald J

    2004-04-01

    Watermelon fruit exhibit acute softening and placental-tissue water soaking following short exposure to exogenous ethylene. Experiments were performed to address transcript abundance and activities of cell wall and membrane hydrolases in placental tissue in response to treatment of watermelon fruit with ethylene. Watermelon fruit were harvested at immature and full-ripe stages and exposed to 50 microL L(-1) ethylene for 6 days at 20 degrees C. Ethylene affected the abundance of transcripts for PME (EC 3.2.1.11), and alpha-(EC 3.2.1.22) and beta-GAL (EC 3.2.1.23) but these effects were dependent on fruit maturity and appeared not to be associated with the water-soaking syndrome. PG (EC 3.2.1.15) and EXP mRNAs accumulated significantly in response to ethylene exposure. Additionally, the levels of mRNA and activities of LOX (EC 1.13.11.12), PLC (EC 3.1.4.3) and PLD (EC 3.1.4.4) were elevated in fruit of both maturity classes exposed to ethylene and were temporally associated with the visible symptoms of water soaking. The activity trends and transcript abundance in ethylene- compared with air-treated fruit indicate that PG, EXP, LOX, PLC and PLD levels increase with the onset and development of the water-soaking disorder and support the view that catabolic reactions targeting the membranes and cell-walls contribute to the disorder.

  13. Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty-fruit bunches: Application to environmental problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Zahangir ALAM; Suleyman A.MUYIBI; Mariatul F.MANSOR; Radziah WAHID

    2007-01-01

    Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated to find the suitability of its application for removal of phenol in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Two types of activation namely; thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800℃ and physical activation at 150℃ (boiling treatment) were used for the production of the activated carbons. A control (untreated EFB) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced from these processes. The results indicated that the activated carbon derived at the temperature of 800℃ showed maximum absorption capacity in the aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon at 800℃. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data fitted better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm compared to the Langmuir. Kinetic studies of phenol adsorption onto activated carbons were also studied to evaluate the adsorption rate. The estimated cost for production of activated carbon from EFB was shown in lower price (USD 0.50/kg of AC) compared the activated carbon from other sources and processes.

  14. Biological Activity of Sour Cherry Fruit on the Bacterial Flora of Human Saliva in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Blázovics

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first report on the antibacterial effect of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars. Biological activity of sour cherry juices prepared from fruits Érdi jubileum, Érdi bőtermő, Maliga emléke and Kántorjánosi 3 harvested at different maturity stages was investigated on bacteria present in human saliva. The influence of sour cherry on a mixed bacterial flora of human saliva of 10 volunteers was determined by different experimental approaches. Bactericidal effects were evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC using agar diffusion methods and by minimum bactericidal dilution (MBD assays counting the number of surviving bacterial cells in the diluted juices. Time-dependent antibacterial effects were also determined by monitoring the decrease in bacterial cell numbers after the treatment with undiluted juices. The investigated sour cherry juices displayed an impressive bactericidal effect against human saliva bacteria (10–100× reduction of cell numbers within a short time frame (10–40 min. Érdi jubileum was more effective (100 000× reduction of cell number after 270 min than the other studied cultivars. Bactericidal effect was influenced by ripening of samples of Érdi jubileum obtained at different harvesting dates. Biologically active components were effective against a large spectrum of opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Pantoea spp. and Escherichia coli, including the antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa but they were ineffective against beneficial probiotic Lactobacillus spp. Results confirmed the antibacterial potential of all the investigated sour cherry fruits, therefore the consumption of the fruit or its juice for positive influence on oral hygiene is highly recommended.

  15. Anti-Oxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ziziphus mucronata Fruit Extract Against Dimethoate-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwape Tebogo Elvis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Ziziphus mucronata (ZM fruit extract. Methods: The different types of fruit extract were prepared by soaking the dry powdered fruit in different solvents followed by rotary evaporation. Each extract was tested for its phenol content and antioxidant activities. An in vivo study was performed in Sprague- Dawley (SD rats. Thirty adult male SD rats (aged 21 weeks were divided into six groups of five rats each and treated as follows: The normal control (NC received distilled water while the dimethoate control (DC received 6 mg/kg.bw.day-1 dimethoate dissolved in distilled water. The experimental groups E1, E2, E3, and E0 received dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (100 mg/kg.bw-1, dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (200 mg/kg.bw-1, dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1, and ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1 only. Both the normal control and the dimethoate control groups were used to compare the results. After 90 days, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected for biochemical assays, and livers were harvested for histological study. Results: High phenol content was estimated, and 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH spectrophotometric, thin layer chromatography (TLC and 2, 2-Azobis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assays showed a high antioxidant activity among the extracts. The preventive effects observed in the E1, E2 and E3 groups proved that the extract could prevent dimethoate toxicity by maintaining normal reduced glutathione (GSH, vitamin C and E, superoxide dismutase, catalase, cholineasterase and lipid profiles. The preventive effect was observed to be dose dependent. The EO group showed no extractinduced toxicity. Histological observations agreed with the results obtained in the biochemical studies. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that ZM methanol fruit extract is capable of attenuating dimethoate-induced toxicity because of its

  16. Improvement of activity, thermo-stability and fruit juice clarification characteristics of fungal exo-polygalacturonase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Faiza; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    An extracellular exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) from Penicillium notatum was immobilized in sodium-alginate matrix through two different protocols, viz. covalent bonding and adsorption to enhance its catalytic activity, thermal stability and life-time properties for industrial applications. Covalent immobilization was more efficient in terms of high relative activity (45.89%) and immobilization yield (71.6%) as compared to adsorption. Immobilized exo-PG derivatives displayed maximum activities at pH 5.5 and 55°C as compared to free enzyme which showed its optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. The affinity of enzyme towards its substrate (Km(app)) was reduced after immobilization and Vmax of covalently immobilized exo-PG decreased to 66.7% while the Vmax value of adsorbed enzyme increased up to 150% as compared to free counterpart. Both immobilization techniques greatly enhanced the thermal stability profile of the enzyme. At 60°C, immobilized exo-PGs retained more than 90% of their residual activities after 60min of heating, while free enzyme did not show any activity at the same temperature. Thermodynamic properties (i.e., Ea, ΔH*, ΔS*and ΔG*) of the free and immobilized enzymes were also investigated. Sodium-alginate covalently immobilized and adsorbed enzymes showed excellent recycling efficiencies and retained 50.0% and 41.0% of original activities, respectively after seven consecutive batch reactions. Moreover, the immobilized enzymes treatment achieved promising results in turbidity and viscosity reduction as well as clarity amelioration in various fruit juices. Altogether catalytic, thermo-stability and fruit juices clarification characteristics of the immobilized ex-PGs suggest a high potential for biotechnological exploitability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro Antioxidant Activities and Polyphenol Contents of Seven Commercially Available Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Paramita; Maier, Camelia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fruits are considered one of the richest sources of natural antioxidants. Their consumption has been linked to the prevention of oxidative stress-induced diseases. Objective: In this study, in vitro antioxidant activities of blueberry, jackfruit, blackberry, black raspberry, red raspberry, strawberry, and California table grape extracts were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O2−) scavenging assays, and ferric reducing power. Results: Black raspberry extract had the highest phenolic (965.6 ± 2.9 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g), flavonoid (186.4 ± 1.7 mg quercetin equivalents/g), and proanthocyanidin (2677 ± 71.1 mg GAE/g) contents. All fruit extracts exhibited increasing radical scavenging activities with increased concentrations. At 100 μg/ml, red raspberry extract showed the highest ferric reducing power (A700 =0.3 ± 0.0052) and FRAP activity (A593 =11.43 mM Fe2+/g). Black raspberry extract (100 μg/ml) exhibited the highest DPPH activity (A517 =89.03 ± 0.0471). Jackfruit extract (100 μg/ml) had the highest ABTS (A734 =35.6 ± 0.613), NO (A540 =81.7 ± 0.2), and O2− radical scavenging (A230 =55.5 ± 0.2) activities. Positive correlations were observed between IC50 values for different radical scavenging activities and different polyphenolics. Red raspberry extract had the highest Pearson's coefficient values (0.952–1) between total phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins and DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging activities. Conclusions: The antioxidant rich fruits in this study are good source of functional food and nutraceuticals that have the potential to improve human health. SUMMARY All fruit extracts exhibited increasing radical scavenging activities with increased concentrations

  18. Radiation-induced enhancement of antifungal activity of chitosan on fruit-spoiling fungi during postharvest storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diep, Tran Bang; Lam, Nguyen Duy; Quynh, Tran Minh [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique-VAEC, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Experiment conducted four fruit-spoiling fungal strains that were isolated from spoilt fruits (mango and dragon fruit) and were identified as follows: Fusarium dimerum Penzig, Aspergillus nidulans Wint, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius and Aspergillus japonicus Saito. Chitosan samples with various deacetylation degree (70-99%) were irradiated at doses ranging from 20 to 200kGy, then were supplemented to liquid medium for growth of fungi. We have found that chitosan possesses not only well known antibacterial activity but also the antifungal one on fruit-spoiling fungi. Method of fungal cultivation using liquid medium showed that it has higher sensitivity compared with the cultivation on agar plate, so we recommend this method should be used for evaluation of antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Our study also indicated that deacetylation degree of chitosan clearly affects its antifungal activity, the higher the deacetylation of chitosan, stronger antifungal activity can be observed. This finding recommends the use of chitosan with higher deacetylation for fruit coating and other pharmacology utilization. Results from the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) on fungal growth showed that radiation treatment increased antifungal activity of chitosan and dose of 60kGy gave highest activity. (author)

  19. Moringa oleifera fruit induce apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human melanoma A2058 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guon, Tae Eun; Chung, Ha Sook

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera fruit extract on the apoptosis of human melanoma A2058 cells. A2058 cells were treated for 72 h with Moringa oleifera fruit extract at 50-100 µg/ml, and cell viability with apoptotic changes was examined. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was examined. It was revealed that Moringa oleifera fruit extract significantly inhibited the cell viability and promoted apoptosis of A2058 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moringa oleifera fruit extract-treated A2058 cells exhibited increased activities of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. It also caused an enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation and ROS production. The pro-apoptotic activity of Moringa oleifera fruit extract was significantly reversed by pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98058 or ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Taken together, Moringa oleifera fruit extract is effective in inducing mitochondrial apoptosis of A2058 cells, which is mediated through induction of ROS formation, and JNK and ERK activation. Moringa oleifera fruit extract may thus have therapeutic benefits for human melanoma A2058 cells.

  20. Antifungal activity of essential oil from fruits of Indian Cuminum cyminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Andreotti, Elisa; Maietti, Silvia; Mahendra, Rai; Mares, Donatella

    2010-07-01

    The essential oil of fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. (Apiaceae), from India, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and its antifungal activity was tested on dermatophytes and phytopathogens, fungi, yeasts and some new Aspergilli. The most abundant components were cumin aldehyde, pinenes, and p-cymene, and a fraction of oxygenate compounds such as alcohol and epoxides. Because of the large amount of the highly volatile components in the cumin extract, we used a modified recent technique to evaluate the antifungal activity only of the volatile parts at doses from 5 to 20 microL of pure essential oil. Antifungal testing showed that Cuminum cyminum is active in general on all fungi but in particular on the dermatophytes, where Trichophyton rubrum was the most inhibited fungus also at the lowest dose of 5 microL. Less sensitive to treatment were the phytopathogens.

  1. In vitro and in vivo biological activities of anthocyanins from Nitraria tangutorun Bobr. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Hu, Na; Ding, Chenxi; Zhang, Qiulong; Li, Wencong; Suo, Yourui; Wang, Honglun; Bai, Bo; Ding, Chenxu

    2016-03-01

    Anthocyanins are the main compounds in Nitraria tangutorun Bobr. The enrichment and purification of anthocyanins on macroporous resins were investigated. Regarding anthocyanin purification, static adsorption and desorption were studied. The optimal experimental conditions were the following: resin type: X-5; static adsorption time: 6h; desorption solution: ethanol-water-HCl (80:19:1, V/V/V; pH 1); desorption time: 40min. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the anthocyanins were evaluated. The anthocyanins showed ideal scavenging effects on free radicals in vitro, especially on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radical (OH). In the animal experiment, blood lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats was regulated by anthocyanin contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hyperlipidemia rats were also improved by anthocyanins. These results showed that anthocyanins from N. tangutorun Bobr. fruits had potential biological activities in vivo as well as in vitro.

  2. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

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    Khatib N.A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose shows significant (P<0.001 anti inflammatory activity in (Carrageenan induced paw odema acute inflammation. The extracts treatment also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in the levels of serum enzymes ACP & ALP. Similar results were obtained from aspirin (200mg/kg treated group. The result obtained from the present study indicates both aqueous and ethanolic extracts possessing anti inflammatory activity and further study required to establish its mechanism of action.

  3. Optimized Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Pyracantha fortuneana Fruit and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities

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    Yun Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction (UAE method was developed for extraction of total flavonoids from Pyracantha fortuneana fruit. The UAE parameters and the antioxidant activities of flavonoids extract were investigated. Important variables and their levels were obtained using single factor analysis method and central composite design. Through Response Surface Methodology (RSM design experiments, the processing conditions were optimized as follows: ethanol concentration, 81.15%; liquid-solid ratio, 30.00 mL/g; extraction time, 3.14 h; and temperature, 69.55°C. Under the optimum condition, the extraction yield was 1.261%, which was well matched with the predicted values of 1.263%. The antibacterial activities of extract against four bacterial strains were determined by agar well diffusion method and the results indicated that the extract showed potent antibacterial activities, which concludes its application as natural antibacterial agent.

  4. Triterpene Esters and Biological Activities from Edible Fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard, Sapotaceae

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    Caio P. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard (Sapotaceae is popularly known in Brazil as “guracica.” Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea.

  5. Gastroprotective activity of reconstituted red fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swapnil; Dave, Vivek; Paliwal, Sarvesh; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jain, Sonika

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus citroides (CLC) on pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. In indomethacin-induced ulcer model, CLC was administered in the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight orally, tds for 5 days. The antiulcer activity was determined via observing reduction in ulcer index whereas in the pyloric ligation model, the gastroprotective effect of CLC was assessed from the alteration in volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration in gastric juice. Further lipid peroxide (LPO), and activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was also determined along with the levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa. In both models, treatment with CLC caused a significant reduction in lesion index when compared to vehicle treated group, providing evidence for antiulcer capacity. In pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with CLC resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants, that is, SOD, CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output, and LPO levels respectively. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CLC. The aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of CLC showed significant gastroprotective potential against pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats.

  6. Gastroprotective activity of reconstituted red fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus in rats

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    Swapnil Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus citroides (CLC on pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: In indomethacin-induced ulcer model, CLC was administered in the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight orally, tds for 5 days. The antiulcer activity was determined via observing reduction in ulcer index whereas in the pyloric ligation model, the gastroprotective effect of CLC was assessed from the alteration in volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration in gastric juice. Further lipid peroxide (LPO, and activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT was also determined along with the levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa. Results: In both models, treatment with CLC caused a significant reduction in lesion index when compared to vehicle treated group, providing evidence for antiulcer capacity. In pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with CLC resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants, that is, SOD, CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output, and LPO levels respectively. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CLC. Conclusions: The aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of CLC showed significant gastroprotective potential against pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats.

  7. Inoculation of the nonlegume Capsicum annuum (L.) with Rhizobium strains. 1. Effect on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and fruit ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Azevedo, Jessica; Pereira, Maria J; Carro, Lorena; Velazquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-22

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important agricultural crop and an excellent dietary source of natural colors and antioxidant compounds. The levels of these compounds can vary according to agricultural practices, like inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In this work we evaluated for the first time the effect of the inoculation of two Rhizobium strains on C. annuum metabolites and bioactivity. The results revealed a decrease of organic acids and no effect on phenolics and capsaicinoids of leaves from inoculated plants. In the fruits from inoculated plants organic acids and phenolic compounds decreased, showing that fruits from inoculated plants present a higher ripeness stage than those from uninoculated ones. In general, the inoculation with Rhizobium did not improve the antioxidant activity of pepper fruits and leaves. Considering the positive effect on fruit ripening, the inoculation of C. annuum with Rhizobium is a beneficious agricultural practice for this nonlegume.

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Straw Jackfruit Jam (Artocarpus heterophyllus, L. was Added “Senduduk” Fruit Juice (Melastoma malabathricum, L.

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    Kesuma Sayuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Straw jackfruit is part of a jackfruit which has not been used optimally. These foods are rich of fiber so it can be processed into jam, but this product has a weakness in color. The addition of “senduduk”fruit juice, has a lot of anthocyanin expected improving the color and it also produce a functional food. In this study, it has been addition of some level of concentration of “Senduduk” fruit juice, were: 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%.  The result shows, the more “Senduduk” fruit juice added,  the more antioxidant activity. Addition 8% of “Senduduk” fruit extract was the best product.   

  9. Isolation, characterization, and antioxidant activity of E- and Z-p-coumaryl fatty acid esters from cv. Annurca apple fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefarelli, Giuseppe; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Izzo, Angelina; Monaco, Pietro

    2005-05-04

    A total of 12 fatty acid esters of Z- and E-p-coumaryl alcohol were isolated from cv. Annurca apple fruit and characterized. This apple variety is widely cultivated in the south of Italy, and the fruits typically undergoe a reddening treatment after harvest. Structures of the p-coumaryl esters were elucidated by GC-MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR after purification of individual compounds by HPLC. It was found that the esters are localized in the fruit peel. During reddening of the fruit, there was a substantial increase in the amount of esters and particularly in molecular species with unsaturated fatty acids. The individual compounds were tested for antioxidant activity, and over half were shown to be at least as effective as alpha-tocopherol.

  10. The relationship of psychosocial factors to mammograms, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption among sisters of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sheri J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of psychosocial factors to health-promoting behaviors in sisters of breast cancer patients. One hundred and twenty sisters of breast cancer patients completed questionnaires assessing response efficacy of mammography screenings, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption on decreasing breast cancer risk, breast cancer worry, involvement in their sister's cancer care, mammography screenings, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Results indicate that greater perceived effectiveness for mammograms was associated with a 67% increase in odds of yearly mammograms. Greater involvement in the patient's care was associated with a 7% decrease in odds of yearly mammograms. Greater perceived effectiveness for physical activity was significantly related to greater physical activity. There was a trend for greater perceived effectiveness for fruits and vegetables to be associated with consuming more fruits and vegetables. Breast cancer worry was not significantly associated with the outcomes. While perceived effectiveness for a specific health behavior in reducing breast cancer risk was consistently related to engaging in that health behavior, women reported significantly lower perceived effectiveness for physical activity and fruits and vegetables than for mammograms. Making women aware of the health benefits of these behaviors may be important in promoting changes.

  11. Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, John; Su, Lan; Moore, Jeffrey; Cheng, Zhihong; Luther, Marla; Rao, Jaladanki N; Wang, Jian-Ying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2006-05-31

    Seed flours from black raspberry, red raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, pinot noir grape, and chardonnay grape were examined for their total fat content, fatty acid composition, total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), radical scavenging capacities against the peroxyl (ORAC) and stable DPPH radicals, chelating capacity against Fe(2+), and antiproliferative activities using the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. Significant levels of fat were detected in the fruit seed flours and their fatty acid profiles may differ from those of the respective seed oils. Cranberry seed flour had the highest level of alpha-linolenic acid (30.9 g/100 g fat) and the lowest ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids (1.2/1). The ORAC value of the chardonnay seed flour was 1076.4 Trolox equivalents mumol/g flour, and its TPC was 186.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g flour. These values were 3-12 times higher than the other tested fruit seed flours. Furthermore, the ORAC value was significantly correlated to the TPC under the experimental conditions (P seed flours also differed in their TAC values and Fe(2+)-chelating capacities. In addition, black raspberry, cranberry, and chardonnay grape seed flour extracts were evaluated for their antiproliferative effects using HT-29 colon cancer cells. All three tested seed flour extracts significant inhibited HT-29 cell proliferation. The data from this study suggest the potential of developing the value-added use of these fruit seed flours as dietary sources of natural antioxidants and antiproliferative agents for optimal human health.

  12. Transcriptional regulation of auxin metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis activation during apple (Malus × domestica) fruit maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at13 harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale 14 transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crossta...

  13. Changes of Polyphenol Content, PPO Activity and POD Activity in Banana Fruits during Fruit Development%蕉类果实发育过程中多酚含量及PPO.POD活性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 杨昌鹏; 黄虹心

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the changes of polyphenol content, PPO activity and POD activity in banana fruits during fruit development, lay reference for selection of raw material and improvement of technology of banana fruits, and development and utilization of banana polyphenol. [Result] The samples of banana fruits were picked in-60, 75, 90,105, and 120 d after bearing fruit, then determined the weight, polyphenol content, PPO activity and POD activity. [ Result] The results showed that polyphenol content, PPO activity and POD activity of Williams jiao(Musa cavendishii L. , AAA genome grgup), Da jiao(M. Sapientum L. , ABB genome group), Ji jiao(M. Paradisiaca L. , AAB genome group) and Fen jiao( M, paradisiaca L. , ABB genome group), were relatively high during initial stage of fruit development, while gradually decreased with fruit development, tended to a stable level or decreased a little. And the PPO activity of each banana fruit was obvious higher than POD activity. [Conclusion] The deserted young banana fruits when fruit thinning during banana production has more polyphenols. So if we want to utilize polyphenoles in banana fruits, we should choose its young fruits. Using mature banana fruits as raw materials is in favour of controling enzymatic browning.%[目的]研究蕉类果实发育过程中多酚含量及多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)活性的变化,为蕉类果实加工原料的选择和工艺技术的改进及香蕉多酚的开发利用提供参考.[方法]于坐果后60、75、90、105、120d取样,测定果实的重量、多酚含量及PPO、POD活性.[结果]威廉斯蕉(Musa cavendishiiL.,AAA基因型)、大蕉(M.sapientum L.,ABB基因型)、鸡蕉(M.paradisiacaL.,AAB基因型)和粉蕉(M.paradisiaca L.,ABB基因型)果实发育过程中,多酚含量及PPO、POD活性在果实发育初期都相对较高,而随着果实的发育逐渐下降,最后趋于稳定或稍有下降,且同一品种中PPO活性均明显高于POD活性.[

  14. Antioxidant levels and activities of selected seeds of malaysian tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norshazila, S; Syed Zahir, I; Mustapha Suleiman, K; Aisyah, M R; Kamarul Rahim, K

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study are to determine and compare the antioxidant levels and activities (i.e. primary and secondary) between selected seeds of Malaysian tropical fruits - guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.). Seeds are among byproducts from the processing of fruitsbased products. Instead of discarding seeds as waste, seeds with high potential as antioxidants could be utilised for commercial purposes. Accordingly, the selected seeds of Malaysian tropical fruits were tested in this study for total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging activity by 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and metal ion chelating effect by ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Extraction of antioxidant compounds from sample was done with 70% ethanol. TPCs of the seeds were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in mg per 100 g fresh seed weight. TPC assay showed that mango seeds had the highest TPC (i.e. 32 ± 0.001 mg GAE) followed by guava seeds (i.e. 20 ± 0.001 mg GAE) and papaya seeds (8 ± 0.003 mg GAE). For DPPH assay, IC50 data showed that mango seed extract scavenged 50% DPPH radicals at the lowest concentration (0.11 ± 0.01 mg/mL) followed by the positive control BHA (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL), guava seed extract (0.26 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and papaya seed extract (0.34 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Interestingly, all seed extracts showed higher free radical scavenging activities than BHA after sample concentration of 0.60 mg/mL. However, FIC assay indicated that metal ion chelating effects of all seed extracts were weaker than BHA suggesting that the fruit seeds are not sources of good metal ion chelators. Overall, present results suggest that TPC of the seeds show strong negative correlation with their primary antioxidant activity (r= -0.985, R2= 0.970), and not all compounds in extracts which could scavenge DPPH radicals are good metal ion chelators. Mango seeds relatively showed the highest antioxidant level and primary antioxidant

  15. Investigation of antioxidant activity of some fruit stem barks in the Eastern Black Sea Region

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    Aytaç Güder

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant compounds in food play an important role as a health protecting factor. Scientific evidence suggests that antioxidants reduce the risk for chronic diseases including cancer and heart disease. Primary sources of naturally occurring antioxidants are whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Antioxidant activity can be investigated by using different methods such as total antioxidant activity, hydrogen peroxide and DPPH free radical scavenging activities, metal-chelating activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents and others. In this study, antioxidant activity of the ethanol-water extracts of three stem barks, Kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch. (AC, lemon (Citrus limon (L. Burm. f. (CL and chery laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. (LO has been designated. According to FTC method, the total antioxidant activities (% of AC, CL and LO have been determined as 73.35, 67.59 and 61.62, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of AC, CL, LO, BHA, RUT and TRO in terms of SC50 values (µg/mL were found as 50.52, 56.56, 98.18, 8.58, 17.01, 26.84, respectively. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in AC, CL and LO ranged from 850.71 to 457.79 µg gallic acid equivalent/g and 58.77 to 22.91 µg of catechin equivalents/g, respectively. In conclusion, the extracts of AC showed higher antioxidant activity than the other samples so needs further exploration for its effective use in pharmaceutical and medicine sectors.

  16. Brazilian savanna fruits contain higher bioactive compounds content and higher antioxidant activity relative to the conventional red delicious apple.

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    Egle Machado de Almeida Siqueira

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds content and the antioxidant activity (AA of twelve fruits native to the Cerrado were compared with the Red Delicious apple by means of the antiradical efficiency (using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil assay/DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and the β-carotene/linoleic system. The antiradical efficiency (AE and the kinetic parameters (Efficient concentration/EC50 and time needed to reach the steady state to EC50 concentration/TEC50 of the DPPH curve were also evaluated for comparison with the Trolox equivalent (TE values. A strong, significant and positive correlation was observed between the TE and AE values, whereas a weak and negative correlation was observed between TE and EC50, suggesting that the values of AE and TE are more useful for the determination of antiradical activity in fruits than the widely used EC50. The total phenolic content found in the fruits corresponded positively to their antioxidant activity. The high content of bioactive compounds (flavanols, anthocyanins or vitamin C relative to the apple values found in araticum, cagaita, cajuzinho, jurubeba, lobeira, magaba and tucum corresponded to the high antioxidant activity of these fruits. Flavanols and anthocyanins may be the main bioactive components in these Cerrado fruits. The daily consumption of at least seven of the twelve Cerrado fruits studied, particularly, araticum, cagaita, lobeira and tucum, may confer protection against oxidative stress, and thus, they may prevent chronic diseases and premature aging. The findings of this study should stimulate demand, consumption and cultivation of Cerrado fruits and result in sustainable development of the region where this biome dominates.

  17. Brazilian savanna fruits contain higher bioactive compounds content and higher antioxidant activity relative to the conventional red delicious apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida; Rosa, Fernanda Ribeiro; Fustinoni, Adriana Medeiros; de Sant'Ana, Lívia Pimentel; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The bioactive compounds content and the antioxidant activity (AA) of twelve fruits native to the Cerrado were compared with the Red Delicious apple by means of the antiradical efficiency (using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil assay/DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the β-carotene/linoleic system. The antiradical efficiency (AE) and the kinetic parameters (Efficient concentration/EC50 and time needed to reach the steady state to EC50 concentration/TEC50) of the DPPH curve were also evaluated for comparison with the Trolox equivalent (TE) values. A strong, significant and positive correlation was observed between the TE and AE values, whereas a weak and negative correlation was observed between TE and EC50, suggesting that the values of AE and TE are more useful for the determination of antiradical activity in fruits than the widely used EC50. The total phenolic content found in the fruits corresponded positively to their antioxidant activity. The high content of bioactive compounds (flavanols, anthocyanins or vitamin C) relative to the apple values found in araticum, cagaita, cajuzinho, jurubeba, lobeira, magaba and tucum corresponded to the high antioxidant activity of these fruits. Flavanols and anthocyanins may be the main bioactive components in these Cerrado fruits. The daily consumption of at least seven of the twelve Cerrado fruits studied, particularly, araticum, cagaita, lobeira and tucum, may confer protection against oxidative stress, and thus, they may prevent chronic diseases and premature aging. The findings of this study should stimulate demand, consumption and cultivation of Cerrado fruits and result in sustainable development of the region where this biome dominates.

  18. Activity of Ligninolytic Enzymes during Growth and Fruiting Body Development of White Rot Fungi Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus

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    HAPPY WIDIASTUTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi (WRF Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus was observed during somatic and fruiting body development in solid substrate fermentation using empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFB. The enzyme activity was dominated by laccase both of Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus. The laccase activity on somatic phase (mycelium growth was higher compared to that of fruiting body formation phase. The laccase activity of Omphalina sp. was slightly higher compared to that of P. ostreatus. The peak activity of manganese peroxidase (MnP for Omphalina sp. was observed two weeks after inoculation, while P. ostreatus had two peaks i.e. two and four weeks after inoculation period. The MnP activity of P. ostreatus was higher compared to that of Omphalina sp. Omphalina sp. growth in EFB did not secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP in contrast to P. ostreatus. The peak of LiP activity of P. ostreatus was reached two and four weeks after inoculation. The MnP and LiP activities declined during the development of fruiting bodies while laccase increased both in Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus. It seems that the activities of ligninolytic enzyme profile were regulated in line with developmental phase of growth both in Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus.

  19. Investigation of dye adsorption onto activated carbon from the shells of Macoré fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboua, Kouassi Narcisse; Yobouet, Yao Augustin; Yao, Kouassi Benjamin; Goné, Droh Lanciné; Trokourey, Albert

    2015-06-01

    The activated carbon obtained from the shells of Macoré fruit was used as an adsorbent for the removal of dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) from synthetic contaminated aqueous solutions. It holds that the adsorption is more favourable at acidic pH, with an optimum adsorption at pH = 2. At this pH, the adsorption rate is more than 98% for the two dyes. The sorption capacity was enhanced by increasing the amount of activated carbon. Above room temperature, the adsorption rates remain constant at a value of approximately 99%. The study of the adsorption kinetics indicates that the adsorption on the studied dyes follows second-order kinetics. The isotherm adsorption data were found to be described by both Langmuir and Freundlich. In addition, the thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process is a favourable, endothermic and spontaneous phenomenon.

  20. In vitro Antibacterial activity of Pimpinella anisum fruit extracts against some pathogenic bacteria

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    A.Akhtar

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the aqueous, 50% (v/v methanol,acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Pimpinella anisum (L fruits were studied. The extracts of Pimpinella anisum were tested in vitro against 4 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96, Streptococcus pyogenes (MTCC 442, Escherchia coli (MTCC 723 and Klebsiella Pneumoniae (MTCC 109 were used in this investigation. Only aqueous and 50% (v/v methanol extract exhibited fair antibacterial activity against all the test bacteria whereas acetone and petroleum ether extract were not observed to inhibit the growth of any of the test bacteria under study. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(9.000: 272-274

  1. Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Activities of Various Extracts from the Fruiting Bodies of Lentinus lepideus

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    Tae Soo Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus lepideus is an edible mushroom currently available in Korea. The acetone, methanol and hot water extracts were prepared and assayed for their antioxidant and antityrosinase inhibitory activities. The hot water extract showed the strongest β-carotene-linoleic acid inhibition compared to the other extracts. At 8 mg/mL, the methanolic extract showed a high reducing power of 1.21. The acetone and methanol extracts were more effective in scavenging DPPH radicals than the hot water extract. The strongest chelating effect was obtained from the methanolic extract. Xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the acetonic, methanol and hot water extracts increased with increasing concentration. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillin, naringin, naringenin, formononetin, and biochanin-A were detected in the acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid (5:1 solvent extract. This study suggests that fruiting bodies of L. lepideus can potentially be used as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants.

  2. Cytotoxic activity of C-geranyl compounds from Paulownia tomentosa fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smejkal, Karel; Babula, Petr; Slapetová, Tereza; Brognara, Eleonora; Dall'acqua, Stefano; Zemlicka, Milan; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Cvacka, Josef

    2008-10-01

    The newly discovered 5,7-dihydroxy-6-geranylchromone ( 1) was isolated from PAULOWNIA TOMENTOSA fruit and subsequently characterized. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR experiments including HMQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY, as well as HR-MS, IR, and UV. The cytotoxicity of 1 was evaluated using a plant cell model represented by tobacco BY-2 cells. The other phytoconstituents ( 2 - 8) previously isolated from P. TOMENTOSA were similarly evaluated together with the known flavanones 10 and 11. The cytotoxicity (human erythro-leukaemia cell line K562) and activity on erythroid differentiation of compounds 2 - 9 and 12 and 13 have also been evaluated. Acteoside ( 2) was determined to be the most toxic of the compounds tested on BY-2 cells, diplacone ( 6) on the K562 cell line. Some aspects of the relationship between the flavanone skeleton substitution and the metabolic activation necessary for a toxic effect are discussed.

  3. Characterization and biological activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeyuan; Liu, Lu; Xu, Yaqin; Wang, Libo; Teng, Xin; Li, Xingguo; Dai, Jing

    2015-11-05

    A water-soluble polysaccharide namely RCP-II from raspberry fruits was obtained by complex enzyme method followed by successive purification using macroporous resin D4020 and Sephadex G-100 columns. RCP-II was an acidic heteropolysaccharide and the characteristic structure of polysaccharide was determined. The carbohydrate of RCP-II was composed with galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:0.55:1.19:0.52:0.44:1.90 and the average molecular weight was estimated to be 4013 Da, based on dextran standards. RCP-II presented high scavenging activity toward DPPH•, HO•, O2(•-) in a concentration-dependent manner. The determination of the inhibitory activity on protein glycation showed that in 14 days of incubation the inhibitory ability of RCP-II was more effective on the development of non-enzymatic glycation reaction at early phase than that at the following two phases.

  4. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Wild Blackberry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Mirosława; Wojdyło, Aneta; Cebulak, Tomasz; Oklejewicz, Krzysztof

    2015-06-26

    Twenty three different wild blackberry fruit samples were assessed regarding their phenolic profiles and contents (by LC/MS quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)) by two different extraction methods. Thirty four phenolic compounds were detected (8 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 3 hydroxycinnamic acids, 6 ellagic acid derivatives and 2 flavones). In samples, where pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used for extraction, a greater increase in yields of phenolic compounds was observed, especially in ellagic acid derivatives (max. 59%), flavonols (max. 44%) and anthocyanins (max. 29%), than after extraction by the ultrasonic technique extraction (UAE) method. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the PLE method was more suitable for the quantitative extraction of flavonols, while the UAE method was for hydroxycinnamic acids.

  5. Gastroprotective and Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice, Papaya fruit juice and Aloe vera and Papaya fruit combined juice in Ethanol induced Ulcerated Rats

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    S. Gopinathan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1 Aloe vera juice, (2 papaya fruit juice (3 Aloe vera and papaya fruit combined juice were investigated in the ethanol induced ulcerated rats. The administration of plant juices decreased the offensive factors like ulcer index and acid secretion and also reduced the amount of protein and carbohydrates in the stomach fluid. Further, plant juices increased the defensive factors like activity of oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. Activities of alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxide were higher in the diseased condition and same were reduced after the treatment with plant juices. Content of haemoglobin and RBC and WBC counts were brought back to normalcy after the treatment with plant juices. The efficacy of plant juices was comparable with the reference drug- Ranitidine. The results of the present study reveal that the plant juices are having efficiency in the gastroprotective activity. It is recommended that the above said plant juices can be further studied for their anti ulcer efficacy in human subjects.

  6. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of the Volatile Composition of the Flower and Fruit of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Litchi Tomato

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    Ardalan Pasdaran, Arsalan Pasdaran, Nazim Mamedov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. is used as traditional remedy in South America, recently this plant considered as new edible source. Berries and flower of S. sisymbriifolium have a characteristic fragrance. The pleasant fragrance of the S. sisymbriifolium could be considered as a source of food additive or preservative. Methods: The essential oils of the flower and fruit of S. sisymbriifolium Lam. (litchi tomato were isolated by hydrodistillation method and tested for antibacterial and antioxidant potentials also these volatile oils analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID.The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of fruits and flowers were tested against Staphylococcus aureus using the well diffusion method and their free-radical-scavenging activity were assessed by the 2, 2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. Results: The essential oil of flower was characterized by a high content of aldehydes and aliphatic hydrocarbons (66.8% and the essential oil of the fruit has high amount of fatty acids and their derivatives (80.1%. Heptadecane (37.9 % and 9,12,15-octadecatrienal (22.7% were the main compounds in flower whereas the fruits essential oil contained hexadecanoic acid (77.4% and ambrettolide (7.4%. The essential oils showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus in 60 and 80 µg/mL for fruit and flower, respectively. In antioxidant activity assay fruit essential oil (with100 µg/mL showed better activity in compression to flower essential oil with 83.33% activity. Conclusion: This study showed that litchi tomato can be considered as a new source of edible compounds. Flower showed suitable antioxidant and antibacterial activity. This study also can be present an overview about chemical marker compounds of Solanum genus.

  7. Anti-acne-inducing bacterial activity of mangosteen fruit rind extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the most effective solvent extract of mangosteen, anti-acne- inducing bacterial activity and the amount of alpha-mangostin, a major active component in each mangosteen fruit rind extract, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fruit rinds of mangosteen were extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and water. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against bacteria that induce acne, including Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thin-layer chromatographic autobiography against these bacteria was also performed for each extract, while the alpha-mangostin content was analyzed using a validated HPLC method. The dichloromethane extract exhibited the strongest antibacterial effect with minimum inhibitory concentration values for both bacterial species at 3.91 microg/ml, while the minimum bactericidal concentration values against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 3.91 and 15.63 microg/ml, respectively. Thin-layer chromatographic autobiography indicated that alpha-mangostin was present in all extracts, except the water extract, and is a major active component against both P. acnes and S. epidermidis. Using HPLC, the dichloromethane extract yielded the highest content (46.21% w/w) of alpha-mangostin followed by the ethanol extract (18.03% w/w), the hexane extract (17.21% w/w) and the water extract (0.54% w/w). Dichloromethane extract exhibited the strongest anti-acne-inducing bacterial effect and this extract yielded the highest amount of alpha-mangostin. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Studies on the antidiarrhoeal activity of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit: Validating its traditional usage

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    Antia Noshir

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aegle marmelos (L. Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for its antimicrobial activity and effect on various aspects of pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. Methods The decoction was assessed for its antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities. The effect of the decoction on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells were assessed as a measure of its effect on colonization. The effect of the decoction on production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT and cholera toxin (CT and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid receptor (GM1 were assessed by GM1-enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay whereas its effect on production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST was assessed by suckling mouse assay. Results The decoction showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus whereas viability of none of the six bacterial strains tested was affected. It significantly reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. The extract also affected production of CT and binding of both LT and CT to GM1. However, it had no effect on ST. Conclusion The decoction of the unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos, despite having limited antimicrobial activity, affected the bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain enterotoxins. These observations suggest the varied possible modes of action of A. marmelos in infectious forms of diarrhoea thereby validating its mention in the ancient Indian texts and continued use by local communities for the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases.

  9. Analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract and its saponin-containing fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia Osama; Kassem, Iman; Melek, Farouk Rasmy

    2016-01-01

    Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Leguminosae) pods are used in folk medicine for pain relief as anodyne and narcotic. The objective of this study is to evaluate analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract (MEGT) and its saponin-containing fraction (SFGT). Peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice at doses of 140, 280, and 560 mg/kg and formalin test in rats at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses. Central analgesic activity was evaluated using the hotplate method in rats (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). In the writhing test, six mice groups treated with MEGT and SFGT found ED50 values 268.2 and 161.2 mg/kg, respectively, displayed a significant decrease in writhing count compared with the group treated with standard drug indomethacin (14 mg/kg). SFGT (280 and 560 mg/kg) showed 64.94 and 70.78% protection, respectively, which are more than double % protection caused by indomethacin (31.82%). In the formalin test, MEGT and SFGT (ED50 values 287.6 and 283.4 mg/kg for phase I as well as 295.1 and 290.4 mg/kg for phase II, respectively) at 400 mg/kg showed significant % inhibition in both phase I (18.86 and 52.57%) and phase II (39.36 and 44.29%) with reference to 10 mg/kg indomethacin (56.0 and 32.29%). MEGT and SFGT caused significant delay in responses in hotplate model (ED50 values 155.4 and 200.6 mg/kg, respectively) compared with that of 10 mg/kg indomethacin at 30, 60, and 120 min. Central and peripheral analgesic activities induced by Gleditsia triacanthos fruits might account for its uses in folk medicine.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of seco-Triterpenoids from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruits on HUVEC Invasion and ACE Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Dae-Young

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the crude extract from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits and the isolated seco-triterpenoids from the crude extract on blood flow in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) invasion assay and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity assay. On the basis of DMSO, the extent of HUVECs' invasion was remarkably decreased with crude extract concentrations of 400 and 1000 pg/mL. Additionally, the extent of the HUVEC invasion inhibitory effect in 400 and 1000 µg/mL of acanthosessilioside F were 55.8% and 72.4%, respectively. In addition, the maximum extent of the HUVEC invasion inhibitory effect of 22-α-hydroxychiisanoside was 88.9%. The IC50 value of the inhibitory effect on ACE activity in the crude extract was 4 µg/mL. The isolated seco-triterpenoids, 22α-hydroxychiisanogenin, 3,4-seco-lupan-20(30)-en-3,28-dioic acid, (lR)-1,4-epoxy-11α,22α-hydroxy-3,4-seco-lupan-20(30)-en-3,28-dioicacid, (+)-divaroside, and chiisanosidehad showed very high inhibitory effects on ACE activity, ranging from 1.8 to 2.9 µg/mL, which is much higher than the 150.0 µg/mL effect of aspirin. These results suggest that the crude extract from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits and the isolated seco-triterpenoids from the crude extract enhance the blood flow effect by decreasing ACE activity.

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis in Strawberry Fruits Reveals Active Auxin Biosynthesis and Signaling in the Ripe Receptacle

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    Elizabeth Estrada-Johnson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of auxin in ripening strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa fruits has been restricted to the early stages of development where the growth of the receptacle is dependent on the delivery of auxin from the achenes. At later stages, during enlargement of the receptacle, other hormones have been demonstrated to participate to different degrees, from the general involvement of gibberellins and abscisic acid to the more specific of ethylene. Here we report the involvement of auxin at the late stages of receptacle ripening. The auxin content of the receptacle remains constant during ripening. Analysis of the transcriptome of ripening strawberry fruit revealed the changing expression pattern of the genes of auxin synthesis, perception, signaling and transport along with achene and receptacle development from the green to red stage. Specific members of the corresponding gene families show active transcription in the ripe receptacle. For the synthesis of auxin, two genes encoding tryptophan aminotransferases, FaTAA1 and FaTAR2, were expressed in the red receptacle, with FaTAR2 expression peaking at this stage. Transient silencing of this gene in ripening receptacle was accompanied by a diminished responsiveness to auxin. The auxin activity in the ripening receptacle is supported by the DR5-directed expression of a GUS reporter gene in the ripening receptacle of DR5-GUS transgenic strawberry plants. Clustering by co-expression of members of the FaAux/IAA and FaARF families identified five members whose transcriptional activity was increased with the onset of receptacle ripening. Among these, FaAux/IAA11 and FaARF6a appeared, by their expression level and fold-change, as the most likely candidates for their involvement in the auxin activity in the ripening receptacle. The association of the corresponding ARF6 gene in Arabidopsis to cell elongation constitutes a suggestive hypothesis for FaARF6a involvement in the same cellular process in the growing and

  12. Hypolipemic and antioxidant activities from Tamarindus indica L. pulp fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, F; Soares, S M; Franco, J J; Santos, A C; Sugohara, A; Garcia, S B; Curti, C; Uyemura, S A

    2006-06-01

    Dietary modifications may significantly reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including cholesterol and atherosclerosis. The present study addressed the effects of the crude extract from the pulp fruit of Tamarindus indica L. on lipid serum levels and early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic hamsters in vivo, and the extract's antioxidant action, in vitro. Animals were fed on either chow or atherogenic diet during 10 weeks and concomitantly received either water or T. indica L. extract for drinking. Treatment of hypercholesterolemic hamsters with the T. indica pulp fruit extract (5%) led to a decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (50%), non-HDL cholesterol (73%) and triglyceride (60%), and to an increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (61%). In vitro, the extract presented radical scavenging ability, as assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals assays, and led to decreased lipid peroxidation in serum, as assessed by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In vivo, the extract improved the efficiency of the antioxidant defense system, as assessed by the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Together these results indicate the potential of tamarind extracts in diminishing the risk of atherosclerosis development in humans.

  13. Mast Cell Stabilizing,Antianaphylactic and Antihistaminic Activity of Coccinia grandis Fruits in Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Coccinia grandis Linn(Curcubitaceae)is a climber herb cultivated throughout India.In traditional medicine fruits have been used to treat leprosy,fever,asthma,bronchitis and jaundice.In present study,ethanol extract of C.grandis fruit(ECGF)at 100,125 and 150 mg·kg-1,i.p.,was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing,antianaphylactic and antihistaminic activity using egg albumin induced mast cell degranulation in mice;passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats and clonidine induced catalepsy in mice respectively.ECGF at(100-150 mg·kg-1,i.p.)significantly protected egg albumin induced degranulations of mast cells and caused reduction of blue dye leakage in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in dose dependently.The treatment ECGF also inhibited clonidine induced catalepsy in dose dependent manner.Phytochemical studies observed presence of saponin,steroids,alkaloids,flavonoids and glycosides.In conclusion ECGF possesses mast cell stabilizing;anti anaphylactic and antihistaminic potential which might be used in treatment of asthma.

  14. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

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    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  15. Report: Antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity of strawberry fruit extracts against alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2016-01-01

    The strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) of Rosaceae family are an accomplished source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid and diverse range of polyphenols including anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols, ellagitannins etc. These phenolic compounds classify strawberry as an important health promoting food. Strawberries are proved to have potent antioxidant capacity in various in vitro assay systems. The in vivo beneficial effects are getting explored against various ailments including cancer, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. The present research study was designed to analyze the effect of strawberry fruit extracts (water and methanol) against alloxan induced hyperglycemia in albino rats of Wister strain. Upon alloxan (150mg/kg body weight) induction, the diabetic animals showed marked increase in the values of plasma glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and concomitant decrease in body weight and plasma insulin level. The oral administration of strawberry extracts for 45 days in diabetic animals reversed the biochemical changes significantly (P0.05) to near normal. Furthermore, the restoration of body weight loss was also observed. The results suggest that the strawberry extract has effective hypoglycemic activity against alloxan diabetes. The poly phenolic antioxidant contents of the strawberry fruit extracts are responsible for the observed biological effect.

  16. Metabolic Profiles and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Cordyceps bassiana Fruiting Bodies According to Developmental Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seok-Young; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana. PMID:24058459

  17. Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities and Protein Pattern of Avocado Fruit Ripened in Air and in Low Oxygen, with and without Ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellis, A K; Solomos, T; Mattoo, A K

    1989-05-01

    The effect of 2.5% O(2) atmosphere with and without ethylene on the activities of hydrolytic enzymes associated with cell walls, and total protein profile during ripening of avocado fruits (Persea americana Mill., cv Hass) were investigated. The low 2.5% O(2) atmosphere prevented the rise in the activities of cellulase, polygalacturonase, and acid phosphatase in avocado fruits whose ripening was initiated with ethylene. Addition of 100 microliters per liter ethylene to low O(2) atmosphere did not alter these suppressive effects of 2.5% O(2). Furthermore, 2.5% O(2) atmosphere delayed the development of a number of polypeptides that appear during ripening of avocado fruits while at the same time new polypeptides accumulated. The composition of the extraction buffer and its pH greatly affected the recovery of cellulase activity and its total immunoreactive protein.

  18. Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit

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    Prapaipat Klungsupya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK and seeds (SD become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2−• and OH•. It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2−• and OH• scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA fractionation (LDSK50-EA and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O. Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products.

  19. Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klungsupya, Prapaipat; Suthepakul, Nava; Muangman, Thanchanok; Rerk-Am, Ubon; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu

    2015-08-14

    Lansium domesticum Corr. or "long-kong" is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK) and seeds (SD) become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD) skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2(-•) and OH(•). It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2(-•) and OH(•) scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA) fractionation (LDSK50-EA) and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O). Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products.

  20. Cell wall glycosidase activities and protein content variations during fruit development and ripening in three texture contrasted tomato cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konozy, Emadeldin H.E.; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Excessive softening is the main factor limiting fruit shelf life and storage. It is generally acceptable now that softening of fruit which occurs during the ripening is due to synergistic actions of several enzymes on cell wall polysaccharides. As a subject for this study, we have assayed some glycosidase activities using three tomato species (Lycopersicon esculentum) contrasted for their texture phenotypes; the cherry tomato line Cervil (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme), a common taste tomato line Levovil (S. lycopersicum Mill.) and VilB a modern line, large, firmer and with good storage capability. Four glycosidase activities namely α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, β-mannosidase and β-glucosidase were extracted from tomato’s cell wall of the three species. Cell wall protein from fruits pericarp was extracted and compared among the three cultivars at the following stages; 14 days post anthesis (14DPA) fruit; 21 days post anthesis (21DPA), turning (breaker), red and over ripe. When glycolytic activities were also compared among these cultivars at the precited development stages, gross variations were noticed from stage to stage and also from species to species in accordance with the fruit firmness status. Interestingly, VilB cultivar, the firmer among the other two, though possessed the highest total protein content, exhibited the lowest enzymatic activities. Taken together, these results may therefore allow us to conclude that studies of glycolytic activities in a single tomato cultivar cannot be generalized to all species. On the other hand, relating fruit development to glycosidase activities should logically be coupled to these enzymes from cell wall compartment. PMID:23961187

  1. Oleuropein-Specific-β-Glucosidase Activity Marks the Early Response of Olive Fruits (Olea europaea) to Mimed Insect Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonia Spadework; Silvia Mazzuca; Francesca Fiorella Chiappetta; Attilio Parise; Enzo Perri; Anna Maria Innocenti

    2008-01-01

    Olive fruits are seriously deteriorated by pre and postharvest damage due to the attack of insects, such as Bactrocera olaea, which strongly alters the quality of olives. Defence response in olive fruits injured both by pathogens and by mechanical damages has been associated with the enzyme β-glucosidase, which specifically hydrolyses oleuropein, producing highly reactive aldehyde molecules. In situ detection of β-glucosidase activity in olive fruit tissues following injury, which simulates Bactrocera oleae punctures, is reported. The assay was performed in two cultivars showing different degrees of susceptibilities to fly infestation. In both cultivars, the histochemical assay for β-glucosidase showed that within 20 min after the injury, a strong β-glucosidase activity could be observed in the damaged tissues. Thereafter a progressive enzyme inactivation occurred starting from tissues around the boundary of the injury with decrease of the enzyme activity and stopped after 3h. Whereas the mass of active celsreached a distance of (300±50)μm from the edge of the injury. Biochemical analyses showed that in extracts of the injured fruit, β-glucosidase activity rapidly increased within 20 min from injury, thereafter decreasing and reaching values comparable with those in intact fruits. Following puncture, the oleuropein contents did not change significantly in the high susceptibility cultivar, whereas it rapidly decreased in the cultivar showing low susceptibility. The results strongly suggest that olive fruits susceptible towards fly infestation could be related to the ability of the oleuropein-degrading-β-glucosidase to produce the highly reactive molecules in the damaged tissues. As a consequence of puncture, high level of peroxidase activity was detected. This feature also suggested that this enzyme could play a key role in the defence response against insect injuries.

  2. DNA-binding specificity, transcriptional activation potential, and the rin mutation effect for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Ihashi, Nao; Yabe, Kimiko; Kimbara, Junji; Yasuda, Junichi; Ito, Hirotaka; Inakuma, Takahiro; Hiroi, Seiji; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2008-07-01

    The RIN gene encodes a putative MADS box transcription factor that controls tomato fruit ripening, and its ripening inhibitor (rin) mutation yields non-ripening fruit. In this study, the molecular properties of RIN and the rin mutant protein were clarified. The results revealed that the RIN protein accumulates in ripening fruit specifically and is localized in the nucleus of the cell. In vitro studies revealed that RIN forms a stable homodimer that binds to MADS domain-specific DNA sites. Analysis of binding site selection experiments revealed that the consensus binding sites of RIN highly resemble those of the SEPALLATA (SEP) proteins, which are Arabidopsis MADS box proteins that control the identity of floral organs. RIN exhibited a transcription-activating function similar to that exhibited by the SEP proteins. These results indicate that RIN exhibits similar molecular functions to SEP proteins although they play distinctly different biological roles. In vivo assays revealed that RIN binds to the cis-element of LeACS2. Our results also revealed that the rin mutant protein accumulates in the mutant fruit and exhibits a DNA-binding activity similar to that exhibited by the wild-type protein, but has lost its transcription-activating function, which in turn would inhibit ripening in mutant fruit.

  3. 5'-Methylthioadenosine Nucleosidase and 5-Methylthioribose Kinase Activities and Ethylene Production during Tomato Fruit Development and Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushad, M M; Richardson, D G; Ferro, A J

    1985-10-01

    5'-Methylthioadenosine (MTA) nucleosidase and 5-methylthioribose (MTR) kinase activities were measured in crude extracts of tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv Rutgers) during fruit development and ripening. The highest activity of MTA nucleosidase (1.2 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute) was observed in small green fruits. The activity decreased during ripening; at the overripe stage only 6.5% of the peak activity remained. MTR kinase activity was low at the small green stage and increased thereafter until it reached peak activity at the breaker stage (0.7 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute) followed by a sharp decline at the later stages of fruit ripening. 1-Amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) levels peaked at the red stage, while ethylene reached its highest level at the light-red stage. Several analogs of MTA and MTR were tested as both enzyme and ethylene inhibitors. Of the MTA analogs examined for their ability to inhibit MTA nucleosidase, 5'-chloroformycin reduced enzyme activity 89%, whereas 5'-chloroadenosine, 5'-isobutylthioadenosine, 5'-isopropylthioadenosine, and 5'-ethylthioadenosine inhibited the reaction with MTA by about 40%. 5'-Chloroformycin and 5'-chloroadenosine inhibited ethylene production over a period of 24 hours by about 64 and 42%, respectively. Other analogs of MTA were not effective inhibitors of ethylene production, whereas aminoethoxyvinylglycine showed a 34% inhibition over the same period of time. Of the MTR analogs tested, 5-isobutylthioribose was the most effective inhibitor of both MTR-kinase (41%) and ethylene production (35%).

  4. In vivo biochemical and gene expression analyses of the antioxidant activities and hypocholesterolaemic properties of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Yin Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tamarindus indica (T. indica is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9 ± 10.1 mg GAE/extract and flavonoid (93.9 ± 2.6 mg RE/g extract content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia.

  5. Assessment of haemolytic, cytotoxic and free radical scavenging activities of an underutilized fruit, Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. (Roxb.) Muell. Arg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Dey, Priyankar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kr; Sarker, Dilip De; Sen, Arnab

    2016-02-01

    Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. (Roxb.) Muell. Arg. is an underutilized juicy fruit bearing plant found in sub-Himalayan area, South China, Indo-Burma region, etc. The fruit is considered to be nutritive, and in this study, we evaluated its antioxidant, haemolytic and cytotoxic properties. The juice was examined for the quenching activity of hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, total antioxidant activity (TAA), erythrocyte membrane stabilizing activity (EMSA) along with quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents and also tested for its potential activity as iron chelator, inhibitor of lipid peroxidation and total reducing power. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were also performed to correlate antioxidant capacities with the phenolic and flavonoid content. Haemolytic activity on murine erythrocyte and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cytotoxic test was performed on murine splenocytes, thymocytes, hepatocytes and peritoneal exudates macrophage to examine the cytotoxic effect of its juice. The result exhibited its potent free radical scavenging activity. In case of TAA, DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), EMSA and lipid peroxidation, the fruit juice was found to have significant (P cytotoxic test confirms that the juice does not contain any cytotoxic effect and the fruit is safe for consumption. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra analysis exhibited high possibility of presence of flavonoid compounds in the juice.

  6. Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts from Fruiting Body of Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June Woo; Baek, Seong Jin; Bae, Woo Chul; Park, Jeong Min; Kim, Yong Seok

    2006-12-01

    Fruiting bodies of Phellinus linteus were extracted by hot water and alkali methods. Sugar contents of PL-H (hot water extract) and PL-A (alkali water extract) were 81.1%, 37.4% and protein contents were 6.2%, 21.8%, respectively. Amino acid pattern showed that two extracts contained large amount of aspartic acid and alanine. Two extracts showed characteristic IR absorption pattern for glycosidic bond at 890 cm(-1). PL-H was divided two fractions by gel filtration chromatography and the molecular weights of each fraction were estimated to be about 10 kD and 225 kD, respectively and also PL-A was estimated 10 kD. Two extracts showed strong antitumor, immunomodulating and antioxidant activities, and were compared with commercialized glycopeptide anticancer drugs.

  7. Tannins and extracts of fruit byproducts: antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widsten, Petri; Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C; Pajak, Marta A; McGhie, Tony K

    2014-11-19

    The shelf life of fresh fish and meat transported over long distances could be extended by using plant-based extracts to control spoilage bacteria. The goals of the present study were to identify plant-based extracts that effectively suppress the main spoilage bacteria of chilled fish and lamb and to assess their antioxidant capacity. The phenolic compounds in wood-based tannins and extracts isolated from byproducts of the fruit processing industry were identified and/or quantified. The total phenol content, but not the flavonoid to total phenol ratio, was strongly associated with higher antibacterial activity against several fish and lamb spoilage bacteria in zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration assays as well as greater antioxidant capacity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay. The most promising compounds in both cases, and thus good candidates for antibacterial packaging or antioxidant dietary supplements, were mango seed extract and tannic acid containing mostly polygalloyl glucose type phenols.

  8. In vivo and in silico investigation of antidiabetic activity of fruit of withania coagulans Dunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Sudhanshu Kumar; Krishnan, Supriya; Sharma, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Prakash, Om; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Awanish

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the antidiabetic activities of methanolic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal (Ashutosh booti) fruit (WCFE) in poloxamer-407 induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rats. The electrochemical behaviour of WCFE with anodic peak of 1.19± 0.01V was found similar to standards used indicating that extract is antioxidant in nature. Unlike diabetic control rats, the WCFE treated diabetic rats presented significant amelioration of glycaemia, insulinamia and lipid dysmetabolism, remarkable reduction of oxidative markers and improved cecal and pancreatic characteristics. HYBRID and FRED docking were performed for 25 documented WCFE botanicals for putative action mechanism concerning three diabetic therapeutic proteins namely PTP-1B, PPAR-γ and DPP-IV fully support the in vivo findings. Botanicals like nicandrenone10 and Acnistin F have shown considerable interaction potential with aforesaid proteins. Results provide pharmacological evidence of WCFE as antihyperglyceamic mediated by interaction of various botanicals with various targets operating in diabetes mellitus.

  9. Antioxidant activity of a new phenolic glycoside from Lagenaria siceraria Stand. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Rahul; Birari, Rahul; Karmase, Aniket; Jagtap, Sneha; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    The antioxidant properties of different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) fruit were evaluated. In the process, a new phenolic glycoside (E)-4-hydroxymethyl-phenyl-6-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) was isolated and identified together with 1-(2-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl)-phenyl-6-O-caffeoyl-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (2), protocatechuic acid (3), gallic acid (4), caffeic acid (5) and 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid (6). Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR experiments including (1)H-(1)H (COSY) and (1)H-(13)C (HMQC and HMBC) spectroscopy and chemical evidences. The antioxidant potential of the compound 1 and 2 was tested in different in vitro assay systems such as free radical scavenging assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay, superoxide scavenging activity, reducing power assay and linoleic acid peroxidation assay.

  10. Structural characterization and DPPH· radical scavenging activity of a polysaccharide from Guara fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dehong; Zhang, Dezhi; Huang, Bing; Yi, Pan; Yan, Chunyan

    2014-03-15

    The crude polysaccharides were extracted from fruits of Psidium guajava Linn. by hot water. After removal of proteins, isolation and purification by DEAE-52 Cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, a polysaccharide (GP70-2) was obtained and structurally characterized. GP70-2 has a relative molecular weight of 74 kDa and was composed of D-galactose and L-arabinose in the ratio of 1:1, with a specific optical rotation of [a]D(25) = +101°. Structural characterization of this novel polysaccharide was carried out using infrared spectroscopy, methylation analyses, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, (1)H-(1)H-COSY, HMQC, and HMBC). Based on the above data, the following structure was assigned to the repeated core unit of GP70-2: [Formula: see text]. This polysaccharide showed a concentration dependent DPPH· radical scavenging activity.

  11. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Extracts Improve Colon Microflora and Exert Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Chou, Ming-Chih; Ko, Chien-Hui; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microflora and inflammation are associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) has various bioactivities, but its effect on colon health remains unknown. This study focused on the effects of fermented noni fruit extracts on colon microflora and inflammation of colon epithelial cells. The anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts on Caco-2 cells were evaluated including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was promoted by ethanol extract. Ethyl acetate extract decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and significantly suppressed COX-2, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 production and neutrophil chemotaxis by suppressing the translocation of the p65 subunit. Quercetin was the main contributor to the anti-inflammatory activity. The fermented noni fruit promoted probiotic growths and downregulated the intracellular oxidation and inflammation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that fermented noni fruit might protect against inflammatory diseases of the colon.

  12. Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Babak; Mirshekari, Amin; Yahia, Elhadi

    2016-07-01

    There have been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Pinoresinol from the fruits of Forsythia koreana inhibits inflammatory responses in LPS-activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyo Won; Mahesh, Ramalingam; Lee, Jong Gu; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Young Shik; Park, Yong-Ki

    2010-08-23

    The activation of microglia plays an important role in a variety of brain disorders by the excessive production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and proinflammatory cytokines. We investigated here whether pinoresinol isolated from the fruits of Forsythia koreana Nakai inhibits the inflammatory responses in LPS-activated microglia. Pinoresinol inhibited the production of NO, PGE(2), TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 in LPS-activated primary microglia. Also, pinoresinol attenuated mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-activation. However, most of these inhibitory effects of pinoresinol have been mediated by extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and the NF-kappaB dependent. The results suggest that pinoresinol attenuates inflammatory responses of microglia and could be potentially useful in modulation of inflammatory status in brain disorders.

  14. Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh Ramdas Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg kg−1 day−1, p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders.

  15. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, E Christy; Jenothiny, S; Pathmanathan, M K; Jeyadevan, J P

    2012-10-01

    To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals. Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (Peffect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100 µl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower. The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  16. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Christy Jeyaseelan; S Jenothiny; MK Pathmanathan; JP Jeyadevan

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals.Results:Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/ 100 μl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower.Conclusions:The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  17. A VIN1 GUS::GFP fusion reveals activated sucrose metabolism programming occurring in interspersed cells during tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estornell, Leandro Hueso; Pons, Clara; Martínez, Alicia; O'Connor, José Enrique; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2013-08-15

    The tomato is a model for fleshy fruit development and ripening. Here we report on the identification of a novel unique cell autonomous/cellular pattern of expression that was detected in fruits of transgenic tomato lines carrying a GFP GUS driven by the fruit specific vacuolar invertase promoter VIN1. The VIN1 promoter sequence faithfully reproduced the global endogenous VIN expression by conferring a biphasic pattern of expression with a second phase clearly associated to fruit ripening. A closer view revealed a salt and pepper pattern of expression characterized by individual cells exhibiting a range of expression levels (from high to low) surrounded by cells with no expression. This type of pattern was detected across different fruit tissues and cell types with some preferences for vascular, sub-epidermal layer and the inner part of the fruit. Cell ability to show promoter activity was neither directly associated with overall ripening - as we find VIN+ and - VIN- cells at all stages of ripening, nor with cell size. Nevertheless the number of cells with active VIN-driven expression increased with ripening and the activity of the VIN promoter seems to be inversely correlated with cell size in VIN+ cells. Gene expression analysis of FACS-sorted VIN+ cells revealed a transcriptionally distinct subpopulation of cells defined by increased expression of genes related to sucrose metabolism, and decreased activity in protein synthesis and chromatin remodeling. This finding suggests that local micro heterogeneity may underlie some aspects (i.e. the futile cycles involving sucrose metabolism) of an otherwise more uniform looking ripening program.

  18. Effects of seasonal variations on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Haniza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations during rainy and hot season on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits in approximately one year duration specifically on November 2012, December 2012, January 2013, March 2013, April 2013, May 2013, July 2013, August 2013 and November 2013. Fruit samples (Sungkai and Semenyih variants) were collected from Sime Darby Beverages plantation located in Sitiawan. The fruits were samples for 9 times from Nov 2012 to Nov 2013 except Feb 2013, Jun 2013, Sept 2013 and Oct 2013. Fruits were peeled, seeded and blended into uniform puree. Samples were then extracted for its antioxidant activity determination using 50% acetone. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using total phenolic compounds (TPC) assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl1-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH). Analysis was conducted using 96-well microplate spectrophotometer UV. The highest TPC result was Semenyih var recorded 2192.80 mg GAE/100g FW whilst Sungkai var 1595.98 mg GAE/100g FW both on July 2013 with rainfall was at the least (45mm) and the lowest for Sungkai var was 792.75 mg GAE/100g FW and 1032.41 mg GAE/100g FW for Semenyih var, both on Nov 2012 with 185mm rainfall. There were significant negative correlation between TPC and rainfall (mm) for both Semenyih var (r = - 0.699, p<0.005, r2 = 0.489) and Sungkai var (r = -0.72, p<0.05, r2 = 0.531). The highest FRAP result (mg TE/100g FW) was 1677.74 for Semenyih var (Aug 2013, rainfall = 160.5mm) and the highest FRAP for Sungkai var was 1104.60 (Jul 2013, rainfall = 45.0mm) whereas the lowest for Semenyih and Sungkai var was 1090.22 (Mar 2013, rainfall = 97.5mm) and 767.88 (Nov 2012, rainfall = 185.50) respectively. There was weak negative correlation between FRAP and rainfall(mm) for both Sungkai var (r = - 0.324, p<0.05, r2 = 0.105) and Semenyih var (r = - 0.362, p<0.05, r2 = 0.132). The highest DPPH for Semenyih var was 88.40% (Aug

  19. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Activity of Opuntia dillenii Haw Fruit Juice in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit is used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible curative role of O. dillenii fruit juice using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The nutritive value of the edible portion of the fruit was also assessed. Results: The results showed that O. dillenii fruit is a rich source of fiber, carbohydrates, vitamins B1, B2 and C, in addition to the minerals, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ca, and Mg. Biological...

  20. New glycosidic constituents from fruits of Lycium chinense and their antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Chung

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential biologically active new constituents labd-3β, 9β-diol-3α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2a → 1b-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2b → 1c-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2c → 1d-α-d-arabinofuranosyl-2d-p-hydroxybenzoate (1 and α-d-glucuronopyranosyl (2 → 1′-α-d-glucuronopyranosyl (2′ → 1″-α-d-glucopyranosyl-2″-n-octadec-9‴-enoate (2 along with β-sitosterol-β-d-glucoside were isolated from the fruits of Lycium chinense. Their chemical structures were elucidated using detailed spectroscopic studies. The structure assignments are based on two-dimensional (2D-NMR techniques including COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for antioxidant activities with three assay protocols such as diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the phosphomolybdenum activity, compound 2 showed more potential as compared with 1.

  1. Studies on the Antifatigue Activities of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body Extract in Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris has been used extensively as a crude drug and a folk tonic food in East Asia due to its various pharmacological activities. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract (CM on antifatigue in mouse model. Two week CM administration significantly delayed fatigue phenomenon which is confirmed via rotating rod test, forced swimming test and forced running test. Compared to nontreated mouse, CM administration increased ATP levels and antioxidative enzymes activity and reduced the levels of lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species. Further data suggests that CM-induced fatigue recovery is mainly through activating 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and protein kinase B (AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways and regulating serum hormone level. Moreover, CM-enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK contributes to its antioxidant effect. Our data provides experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of CM as an effective agent against fatigue.

  2. Relationship Between Ca2+-CaM and Ethylene-Induced PG Activity in Tomato Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cai-qin; XI Yu-fang; GUAN Jun-feng; LI Guang-min

    2003-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was studied during ripening and senescence of postharvest tomatofruit at pink stage at low and normal temperature. The results showed that the PG activity increased, thendecreased during ripening and senescence of tomato. Low temperature inhibited but ethylene enhanced PGactivity. Ethylene also enhanced caimodulin content, which was dependent on Ca2+ concentration in cell.When EGTA(Ca2+ chelator), verapamil (Vp) and LaCl3 (Ca2+ channel blockers), trifluoperazine and chloro-promaize (two CaM antagonisms) were used to treat tomato fruit at green mature stage with ethylene, theycould reverse ethylene-induced increase in PG activity, but Vp, chloropromaize (CPZ), trifluoperazine(TFP) could not directly influence PG activity, which indirectly indicated that influx of Ca2+ from the ex-tracellular space including the cell wall via the Ca2+ channel localized in plasma membrane and CaM were re-quired for ethylene-induced PG activity increase and that ethylene signal transduction may be related to Ca2+- CaM messenger system.

  3. Studies on the Antifatigue Activities of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body Extract in Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Teng, Meiyu; Cai, Guangsheng; Xu, Hongkai; Guo, Hanxiao; Liu, Yang; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been used extensively as a crude drug and a folk tonic food in East Asia due to its various pharmacological activities. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract (CM) on antifatigue in mouse model. Two week CM administration significantly delayed fatigue phenomenon which is confirmed via rotating rod test, forced swimming test and forced running test. Compared to nontreated mouse, CM administration increased ATP levels and antioxidative enzymes activity and reduced the levels of lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species. Further data suggests that CM-induced fatigue recovery is mainly through activating 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways and regulating serum hormone level. Moreover, CM-enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK contributes to its antioxidant effect. Our data provides experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of CM as an effective agent against fatigue. PMID:26351509

  4. Antioxidant activity of yellow dock (Rumex crispus L., Polygonaceae) fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimović, Zoran; Kovacević, Nada; Lakusić, Branislava; Cebović, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    The methanol extract of ripe Rumex crispus L. fruits was evaluated for its antioxidant potential by assays for ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH-free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and the influence on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LP). Considerable activity was observed in all test systems (FRAP: 9.9 mmol Fe(2+) /g; DPPH IC(50) : 3.7 μg/mL; LP IC(50) : 4.9 μg/mL), comparable to that of BHT (FRAP: 8.0 μg/mL; DPPH IC(50) : 19.4 μg/mL; LP IC(50) : 3.5 μg/mL), but lower than the activity of ascorbic acid, rutin and quercetin, used as positive control substances. The in vivo effects were evaluated in several hepatic antioxidant systems (activities of LPx, GSH-Px, Px, CAT and XOD, as well as GSH content), after treatment with the studied yellow dock extract in different doses, or in combination with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ). Pretreatment with the R. crispus extract inhibited CCl(4) -induced oxidative stress by decreasing LPx and increasing GSH content in a dose dependent manner, bringing the levels of antioxidant enzymes to near control values. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Bruna V; Morais, Selene M; dos Santos Fontenelle, Raquel Oliveira; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Vila-Nova, Nadja S; Pereira, Christiana M C; Brito, Edy S; Neto, Manoel A S; Brito, Erika H S; Cavalcante, Carolina S P; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2012-07-11

    The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from C. sativum L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%). The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC₅₀ value of 23 μg/mL in the Artemia salina lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for M. canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 μg/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 μg/mL, respectively. C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity.

  6. Phenolic Compounds and In Vitro Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Three Tropic Fruits: Persimmon, Guava, and Sweetsop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, WenQing; Zhou, XiaoMin

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we have found that persimmon, guava, and sweetsop owned considerably high antioxidant activity and contained high total phenolic contents as well. In order to further supply information on the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of these three tropic fruits, they were extracted by 80% methanol. We then examined the extractions about their phenolic compounds and also studied the extractions and phenolic contents about their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against twelve targeted pathogens including 8 standard strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Monilia albican, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and 4 multidrug-resistant strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ESBLs-producing Escherichia coli, carbapenems-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii), which are common and comprehensive in clinic. We also employed two ways, that is, FRAP and TEAC, to evaluate their antioxidant activities, using ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. Our study indicated that the three tropical fruits possessed obvious antioxidant and antibacterial activity, which supported the possibility of developing the fruits into new natural resource food and functional food as well as new natural antimicrobial agent and food preservatives. Moreover, phenolic compounds detected in the fruits could be used as a potential natural antibacterial agent and antioxidant. PMID:27648444

  7. The Relationship Between Senescence and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Microsomal Membrane and Lipid Peroxidation in Harvested Peach Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jun-feng; FAN Xiu-cai; DOU Shi-juan; ZHANG Ji-shu; LI Guang-min

    2006-01-01

    Peach fruit easily soften and have a short storage time at normal temperature. In this study, peach fruit (Prunus persica sieb et Zucc cv. Yingqing) were picked and stored at 25 and 4℃ to investigate the senescence in correlation with Ca2+- ATPase activity of microsomal membrane and lipid peroxidation during ripening and senescence. In comparison with that stored at 25℃, the fruit stored at 4℃ exhibited a higher flesh firmness, lower respiration rate, and generated the late bigger peak value of Ca2+-ATPase activity as well as maintained the higher activity of the enzyme. Meanwhile, the lower levels of super oxygen radical (O2-) production and content of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of membrane lipid peroxidation were observed. Sodium orthovanadate (SO) and erythrosin B (EB), as Ca2+-ATPase inhibitors, could stimulate the respiration rate. The results suggested that the slower senescence rate of peach fruit was closely related to the higher peak value and longer duration of Ca2+-ATPase activity in microsomal membrane, with the slighter membrane lipid peroxidation and lower O2(-) production rate.

  8. Pesticide residues and estrogenic activity in fruit and vegetables sampled from major fresh produce markets in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni Thomas; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard; Korsten, Lise; Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina; De Jager, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Food is likely to be one of the major pathways through which people are exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. With the exception of residual effects, there are concerns that a number of naturally occurring and synthetic chemicals exert adverse effects upon endocrine systems in wildlife and humans. The current study reports selected pesticide concentrations and the total estrogenic activity of fruit and vegetables using the recombinant yeast oestrogen screen (YES) and T47D-KBluc reporter gene assays. A total of 53 food samples (27 fruit and 26 vegetables) from Johannesburg and Tshwane fresh produce markets (in South Africa) were analysed. Of these, 17 contained one to three different pesticide residues with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 0.68 mg kg(-1), whereas in the rest of the samples no residues were detected. All pesticides detected except in one sample were below the maximum residue level (MRL), but others were unauthorised for use in specified fruit and vegetables. Estrogenic activity was detected in 26.4% (14 samples) of the samples tested, and the estradiol equivalents ranged from 0.007 to 2 pg g(-1). Although the estrogenic activity was low, it may contribute to adverse health effects. Continuous monitoring for pesticides in fruit and vegetables is important in view of the unauthorised pesticides detected in produce from South Africa and the endocrine-disrupting chemical activity found.

  9. The relationship of psychosocial factors to mammograms, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption among sisters of breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman SJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sheri J Hartman1, Shira I Dunsiger1, Paul B Jacobsen21Centers for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine, The Miriam Hospital and W Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI; 2Department of Health Outcomes and Behavior, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: This study examined the relationship of psychosocial factors to health-promoting behaviors in sisters of breast cancer patients. One hundred and twenty sisters of breast cancer patients completed questionnaires assessing response efficacy of mammography screenings, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption on decreasing breast cancer risk, breast cancer worry, involvement in their sister’s cancer care, mammography screenings, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Results indicate that greater perceived effectiveness for mammograms was associated with a 67% increase in odds of yearly mammograms. Greater involvement in the patient’s care was associated with a 7% decrease in odds of yearly mammograms. Greater perceived effectiveness for physical activity was significantly related to greater physical activity. There was a trend for greater perceived effectiveness for fruits and vegetables to be associated with consuming more fruits and vegetables. Breast cancer worry was not significantly associated with the outcomes. While perceived effectiveness for a specific health behavior in reducing breast cancer risk was consistently related to engaging in that health behavior, women reported significantly lower perceived effectiveness for physical activity and fruits and vegetables than for mammograms. Making women aware of the health benefits of these behaviors may be important in promoting changes.Keywords: breast cancer risk, mammograms, physical activity, diet, perceived effectiveness

  10. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils from the Leaves and Fruits of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Anne Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the larvicidal activity of essential oil (EO extracted from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt leaves and fruits by steam distillation, and to analyze its chemical compounds. The EO yield of nutmeg leaves and fruits collected from the same tree was 0.66% and 0.30%, respectively. Larvicidal tests with the EO were carried out against Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae. The concentrations of nutmeg EO used for the larvicidal assay were 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL. The results showed that fruit oil was more toxic than the leaf oil. LC50 values of leaf and fruit EOs were 133.8 and 110.1 µg/mL, respectively. The chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the chemical components in nutmeg leaf and fruit EOs were dominated by α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, delta-3-carene, limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpinolene, linalool, safrole, croweacin, and myristicin.

  11. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world’s most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers.

  12. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Dai, Longhai; Liu, Yueping; Rong, Long; Dou, Dequan; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Lanqing

    2016-06-13

    Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world's most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers.

  13. Isolation of two triterpenoids and a biflavanone with anti-Inflammatory activity from Schinus molle fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueqin, Zeng; Recio, M Carmen; Máñez, Salvador; Giner, Rosa M; Cerdá-Nicolás, M; Ríos, José-Luis

    2003-10-01

    Three compounds with anti-inflammatory activity were isolated from Schinus molle fruits. Two of the compounds were identified as 3- epi-isomasticadienolalic acid ( 1), isomasticadienonalic acid ( 2) and chamaejasmin ( 3). Triterpenes 1 and 2, and biflavanone 3 were tested on two models of mice paw inflammation: one of acute inflammation, induced by subcutaneous injection of either phospholipase A (2) (PLA (2)) or carrageenan in the paws of mice, and one of chronic inflammation in the form of eczema, provoked by repeated administration of TPA to the ears of mice. On the PLA (2)-induced mouse paw oedema, only 2 was active (30 mg/kg, 66 % inhibition at 60 min), whereas all compounds reduced the chronic model of inflammation (48 to 26 % of swelling reduction), but only triterpenes reduced the leukocyte infiltration, measured as tissue peroxidase activity. In the case of the carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema, only 3 led to a reduction of the swelling 3 h after challenge (50 mg/kg, 46 % oedema inhibition). In addition, 3 inhibited the LTB (4) production in rat peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes with an IC (50) value of 29.8 microM, while triterpenes showed toxicity against cells at 100 microM.

  14. Synchrony between fruit maturation and effective dispersers' foraging activity increases seed protection against seed predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Raphaël; Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C; Cerdá, Xim

    2007-10-22

    The evolution of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms is conditioned by the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of animals and plants. In the present study we explore the timing of seed release of a myrmecochorous plant (Helleborus foetidus) and ant activity in two populations in southern Spain during 2 consecutive years. The results indicate that fruit dehiscence and seed shedding occur mostly in the morning and correspond to the period of maximum foraging activity of the most effective ant dispersers. By contrast, ant species that do not transport seeds and/or that do not abound near the plants are active either before or after H. foetidus diaspores are released. Experimental analysis of diet preference for three kinds of food shows that effective ant dispersers are mostly scavengers that readily feed on insect corpses and sugars. Artificial seed depots suggest that seeds deposited on the ground out of the natural daily time window of diaspore releasing are not removed by ants and suffer strong predation by nocturnal rodents Apodemus sylvaticus. Nevertheless, important inter-annual variations in rodent populations cast doubts on their real importance as selection agents. We argue that traits allowing synchrony between seed presentation and effective partners may constitute a crucial pre-adaptation for the evolution of plant-animal mutualisms involving numerous animal partners.

  15. Chemical analysis and toxicity of seaweed extracts with inhibitory activity against tropical fruit anthracnose fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Levi Pompermayer; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Jamal, Claudia Masrouah; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Colepicolo Neto, Pio; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Yokoya, Nair S

    2014-07-01

    Banana and papaya are among the most important crops in the tropics, with a value amounting to millions of dollars per year. However, these fruits suffer significant losses due to anthracnose, a fungal disease. It is well known that certain seaweed extracts possess antifungal activity, but no published data appear to exist on the practical application of this property. In the present study, five organic Brazilian seaweed extracts were screened for their activity against banana and papaya anthracnose fungi. Furthermore, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of the extracts were evaluated by the brine shrimp lethality assay and the Allium cepa root-tip mutagenicity test respectively, while their major components were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Strong fungus-inhibitory effects of Ochtodes secundiramea and Laurencia dendroidea extracts were observed on both papaya (100 and 98% respectively) and banana (89 and 78% respectively). This impressive activity could be associated with halogenated terpenes, the major components of both extracts. Only Hypnea musciformis extract showed cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. The results of this study suggest the potential use of seaweed extracts as a source of antifungal agents with low toxicity to control anthracnose in papaya and banana during storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Maternal temperature history activates Flowering Locus T in fruits to control progeny dormancy according to time of year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; MacGregor, Dana R; Dave, Anuja; Florance, Hannah; Moore, Karen; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Graham, Ian A; Penfield, Steven

    2014-12-30

    Seasonal behavior is important for fitness in temperate environments but it is unclear how progeny gain their initial seasonal entrainment. Plants use temperature signals to measure time of year, and changes to life histories are therefore an important consequence of climate change. Here we show that in Arabidopsis the current and prior temperature experience of the mother plant is used to control germination of progeny seeds, via the activation of the florigen Flowering Locus T (FT) in fruit tissues. We demonstrate that maternal past and current temperature experience are transduced to the FT locus in silique phloem. In turn, FT controls seed dormancy through inhibition of proanthocyanidin synthesis in fruits, resulting in altered seed coat tannin content. Our data reveal that maternal temperature history is integrated through FT in the fruit to generate a metabolic signal that entrains the behavior of progeny seeds according to time of year.

  17. Structural analysis of proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn with potent antityrosinase and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Chen, Chih-Min; Gao, Yu-Sen; Feng, Hui-Ling; Ding, Yu-Mei; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-01-08

    Proanthocyanidins were isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.). Their structures were analyzed and elucidated by methods of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The results demonstrated that these compounds are complicated mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers consisting of procyanidin/procyanidin gallate and prodelphinidin. They possessed structural heterogeneity in monomer units, polymer length, and interflavan linkage (A-type and B-type). Their antityrosinase and antioxidant activity were then investigated. The results revealed that they can inhibit tyrosinase activities, including the monophenolase activity and the diphenolase activity. In addition, proanthocyanidins possessed potent antioxidant activity. Our studies revealed that proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn may be applied in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  18. Effects of solvents and extraction methods on the content and antiradical activity of polyphenols from fruits Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens and Schisandra chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliszka, Barbara; Huszcza-Ciołkowska, Grażyna; Wierzbicka, Elwira

    2016-01-01

    In line with the current tendency towards the production of the so-called safe foods, the use of environmentally-friendly methods for the extraction of polyphenols from fruits has been sought. Citric acid is a good solvent in the preparation of phenolic compounds for the food and pharmaceutical industries because it is a natural antioxidant and is non-toxic for the environment. Furthermore, new sources of polyphenols from fruit of orchard plants that are less known in Poland have been looked for. The aim of this study was  to assess the content and antiradical activity of polyphenolic compounds in fruit extracts, depending on the extraction method employed. In addition, the yield of extraction processes was assessed. The experimental materials were fruits of the following plants: Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens, Schisandra chinensis. For the extraction, aqueous solutions of citric acid (CAE) and methanol (ME) were used. The following were determined in fruit extracts: the content of total phenols (TP) and anthocyanins (A), and antiradical activity (DPPH and ABTS). In general, the C. monogyna fruit extracts were distinguished by the highest TP and A content. The TP and A content was significantly higher in fruit extracts obtained with the CAE method than in the ones produced with the ME method. The highest mean A/TP ratio was determined for S. chinensis fruit extracts. The antiradical activity (DPPH and ABTS) in fruit extracts did not depend on an extraction method, but on fruit species. Overall, a higher yield of extraction processes was achieved for the CAE method than for the ME method. The present study indicates that the selected extraction methods are able to obtain polyphenolic extracts from fruits with a high antiradical activity and high yield. The use of citric acid in order to extract polyphenols from fruits may be an alternative to the conventional extraction method, while being eco-friendly and more effective than the latter.

  19. A novel ribonuclease with antiproliferative activity from fresh fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, G P; Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2007-12-01

    An 18-kDa ribonuclease (RNase) with a novel N-terminal sequence was purified from fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus. The purification protocol comprised ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and Q-Sepharose and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The starting buffer was 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2), 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2), 10 mM NH(4)OAc buffer (pH 5), 10 mM NH(4)HCO(3) buffer (pH 9.4) and 200 mM NH(4)HCO(3) (pH 8.5), respectively. Absorbed proteins were desorbed using NaCl added to the starting buffer. A 42-fold purification of the enzyme was achieved. The RNase was unadsorbed on DEAE cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose but adsorbed on Q-Sepharose. It exhibited maximal RNase activity at pH 5 and 70 degrees C. Some RNase activity was detectable at 100 degrees C. It demonstrated the highest ribonucleolytic activity (196 U/mg) toward poly C, the next highest activity (126 U/mg) toward poly A, and much weaker activity toward poly U (48 U/mg) and poly G (41 U/mg). The RNase inhibited [(3)H-methyl]-thymidine uptake by leukemia L1210 cells with an IC(50) of 60 microM.

  20. Antimutagenic and antirecombinagenic activities of noni fruit juice in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO P. FRANCHI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Noni, a Hawaiian name for the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L., is a traditional medicinal plant from Polynesia widely used for the treatment of many diseases including arthritis, diabetes, asthma, hypertension and cancer. Here, a commercial noni juice (TNJ was evaluated for its protective activities against the lesions induced by mitomycin C (MMC and doxorrubicin (DXR using the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART in Drosophila melanogaster. Three-day-old larvae, trans-heterozygous for two genetic markers (mwh and flr3 , were co-treated with TNJ plus MMC or DXR. We have observed a reduction in genotoxic effects of MMC and DXR caused by the juice. TNJ provoked a marked decrease in all kinds of MMC- and DXR-induced mutant spots, mainly due to its antirecombinagenic activity. The TNJ protective effects were concentration-dependent, indicating a dose-response correlation, that can be attributed to a powerful antioxidant and/or free radical scavenger ability of TNJ.

  1. Evaluation of the free radical scavenging activity and radioprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Krishna V; Sisodia, Rashmi [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan-302055 (India)], E-mail: rashsisodia@yahoo.co.in

    2009-09-01

    The radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit (GAE) which contains anthocyanin-type cyanidin 3-glucoside, vitamins C and A, minerals, carotenes and dietary fibre was studied. For the study Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups: (1) control (vehicle treated); (2) GAE treated (700 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1} for 15 days); (3) irradiated (5 Gy); (4) GAE+irradiated and (5) irradiated+GAE treated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and depletion in glutathione (GSH) and protein levels at all intervals studied, namely 1-30 days, in comparison to the control group. Treatment of mice with GAE before and after irradiation caused a significant depletion in TBARS content followed by a significant elevation in GSH and protein concentration in the intestine and testis of mice at all post-irradiation autopsy intervals in comparison to irradiated mice. Significant protection of DNA and RNA in testis was also noticed. GAE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH{sup *}) and O{sub 2}{sup -} assays and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity in protein carbonyl assay in a dose-dependent manner. The above results prove the radioprotective efficacy of GAE.

  2. ACUTE ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA FRUIT PULP IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar R

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a general term for several disorders that cause nervousness, fear, apprehension and worry. These disorders affect how we feel and behave and they can even manifest as real physical symptoms. Mild anxiety is vague and unsettling, while severe anxiety can be extremely debilitating, having a serious impact on daily life.When anxiety becomes excessive, it may fall under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Most of the times, benzodiazepines (BZDs remains the major class of compounds used in anxiety. Although BZDs are safe in short term treatment for anxiety, on long term therapy they cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula Fruit Pulp (AETCFP by using Elevated Plus Maze model in rats. The rats weighing 150–200gm were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals for each dose and were housed for 10 days prior to experiment. For acute study, the control (1% Gum acacia, test drug AETCFP (9, 18 and 36mg/ kg and standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg were administered orally one hour before behavioral experiment using Elevated Plus Maze. The results suggest that, behavioral disinhibitory effects of AETCFP exhibited anxiolytic activity at the dose of 18mg/kg comparable to diazepam.

  3. Gene clone,expression and enzyme activity assay of a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase from apple fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxin YAO; Yujin HAO; Ming LI; Mingli PANG; Zhi LIU; Heng ZHAI

    2008-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) ubiquitously exists in animals,plants and microoganisms,and catalyzes the interconversion from oxaloacetate to malate.Cytosolic NAD-dependent MDH gene (cyMDH)encodes a key enzyme crucial for malic acid synthesis in the cytosol which has not been extensively characterized in plants.In this study,a full-length cDNA of cyMDH was isolated from apple fruits with RT-PCR as well as 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends,and designated as Mal-cyMDH (GenBank accession No.DQ221207).It contained a 996-bp ORF and its sequence analysis shows a high similarity to other plant cyMDHs.Phylogenetic analysis indicated that almost all the cyMDHs could be clustered into the same group and it was likely to represent the original MDH.A roughly 37-kDa fused protein was obtained by the recombinant prokaryotic expression and its enzyme activity assay showed that it mainly catalyzed oxaloacetate to malate.It was also discovered that the enzyme activity of cyMDH exhibited remarkable difference between the high- and low-acid apple germplasm.

  4. Optimization, characterization, sulfation and antitumor activity of neutral polysaccharides from the fruit of Borojoa sorbilis cuter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fangfang; Liao, Kangsheng; Wu, Yunshan; Pan, Qi; Wu, Lilan; Jiao, Hong; Guo, Dean; Li, Ben; Liu, Bo

    2016-10-20

    Extraction optimization, purification, characterization, sulfation and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from the fruit body of Borojoa sorbilis cuter were investigated in present study. The optimal Ultrahigh Pressure extraction condition was determined as: extraction once with the solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 in 30°C and 1500Mpa for crude polysaccharide (BP) and experimental yield was 8.28%. Four water-soluble polysaccharides named as BP1-1, BP1-2, BP1-3 and BP1-4, with molecular weight of 35.8, 32.4, 30.1 and 27.7kDa, were purified by DEAE Sepharose and Superdex 200 chromatography. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, BP1-1-BP1-4 were found to be neutral β-d-galactan containing a (1→4)-linked backbone. S-BP1s with the DSS of 1.18, was sulfated by chloro-sulfonic acid-pyridine method. Furthermore, S-BP1s exhibited significant in vitro antitumor activity against liver cancer HepG2 and lung cancer A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicated that S-BP1s could be potentially developed as functional antitumor drug.

  5. Sulfation modification and anticoagulant activity of the polysaccharides obtained from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyun; Mo, Xiaoyan; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Yali

    2012-12-01

    The optimal conditions for sulfation of polysaccharides from persimmon fruits (PFP) with chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method were determined by response surface methodology. Box-Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (volume ratio of Pyr to CSA, volume ratio of PFP to SO(3)Pyr and reaction time) on the degree of substitution (DS), molecular weight (MW) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of sulfated polysaccharides (PFP-S). The APTT activity of PFP-S could be improved by application of various volume ratio of Pyr to CSA, volume ratio of PFP to SO(3)Pyr and reaction time, which was possible due to the degradation of polysaccharides to different extent and increasing of DS. The optimal conditions to obtain the strongest APTT of PFP-S were the volume ratio of CSA to Pyr of 1:8, the volume ratio of SO(3)Pyr to PFP of 1:3.6 and the reaction time of 3 h, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of the free radical scavenging activity and radioprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna V; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2009-09-01

    The radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit (GAE) which contains anthocyanin-type cyanidin 3-glucoside, vitamins C and A, minerals, carotenes and dietary fibre was studied. For the study Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups: (1) control (vehicle treated); (2) GAE treated (700 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 15 days); (3) irradiated (5 Gy); (4) GAE+irradiated and (5) irradiated+GAE treated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and depletion in glutathione (GSH) and protein levels at all intervals studied, namely 1-30 days, in comparison to the control group. Treatment of mice with GAE before and after irradiation caused a significant depletion in TBARS content followed by a significant elevation in GSH and protein concentration in the intestine and testis of mice at all post-irradiation autopsy intervals in comparison to irradiated mice. Significant protection of DNA and RNA in testis was also noticed. GAE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) and O(2)(-) assays and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity in protein carbonyl assay in a dose-dependent manner. The above results prove the radioprotective efficacy of GAE.

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fruit Rind Extract of Garcinia dulcis (Roxburgh) Kurz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Nabajyoti; Gogoi, Ankur; Neog, Bijoy; Baruah, Dibyojyoti; Singh, Khumanthem Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Background: Garcinia spp. belongs to the family Clusiaceae has been traditionally used for the treatment of many ailments including the liver damage. Garcinia dulcis found in North Eastern region of Assam; India can be a potential candidature to combat different ailments. Objective: The present work has been designed in such a way to appraisal the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of fruit rind extract of this plant. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was investigated through the various in vitro models, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, nitrite oxide. Phytochemical investigation for total phenolic and flavonoids contents were carried out by standard protocol. For the evaluation of hepatoprotective activity, albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups, five animals per group and activity was determined by measuring the contents of liver function marker enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and biochemical parameter, that is, Bilirubin and total protein. Histopathology observation of liver sections was conducted. Results: Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of both phenolic and flavonoid groups in the extract in a significant amount. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was observed in all models and percentage of inhibition was dose-dependent. Intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride, elevated the liver function enzymes, bilirubin, and suppressed the production of total protein. Pretreatment with the extract decreased the SGOT, SGPT, ALP, and bilirubin level significantly and increased the production level of total protein in a dose-dependent manner. The histopathological observation supported the hepatoprotective potentiality of the extract. Conclusion: The results indicate that fruit rind part of G. dulcis is nontoxic and the plant can utilize as an

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Ethyl Acetate the Extract of Noni Fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) Against Bacterial Spoilage in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, E. R.; Adriani, G. R.; Munawaroh, H.

    2017-04-01

    Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) contains compounds that have potential as antibacterial agent. Antibacterial compounds produced noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) can inhibit bacterial growth. This study was conducted to test the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) against spoilage bacterial in fish. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Enterobacter aerogenes isolates and examine antibacterial phytochemical profile. Extraction of noni compounds was done by maceration, followed by partition with ethyl acetate to obtain the soluble and insoluble ethyl acetate fraction. Previews result show that the ethyl acetate extract had very strong activity. Extraction process continued by separation and isolation used preparative thin layer chromatography method, so that obtained five isolates and mark them as A, B, C, D and E. Antibacterial activity assay performed on isolates A, B, C, D, and E with 20 and 30% concentration. The test results showed that isolates A could not be inhibit the growth of bacteria, isolates B, C, D, and E has antibacterial activity with weak to strong inhibition. Isolate B had the greatest inhibition activity against the B. cereus, whereas isolates E had the greatest inhibition activity against P. aeroginosa. MIC (Minimum Inhibitor Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) test result showed that MIC and MBC values could not be determined. Analysis of compounds by TLC showed that isolate B suspected contains coumarin or flavonoids compounds that have antibacterial activity.

  9. Antioxidant activity, polyphenol content, and related compounds in different fruit juices and homogenates prepared from 29 different pomegranate accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzulker, Revital; Glazer, Ira; Bar-Ilan, Igal; Holland, Doron; Aviram, Michael; Amir, Rachel

    2007-11-14

    Pomegranate juice is well known for its health beneficial compounds, which can be attributed to its high level of antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content. Our objective was to study the relationships between antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content, total anthocyanins content, and the levels of four major hydrolyzable tannins in four different juices/homogenates prepared from different sections of the fruit. To this end, 29 different accessions were tested. The results showed that the antioxidant activity in aril juice correlated significantly to the total polyphenol and anthocyanin contents. However, the homogenates prepared from the whole fruit exhibited an approximately 20-fold higher antioxidant activity than the level found in the aril juice. Unlike the arils, the antioxidant level in the homogenates correlated significantly to the content of the four hydrolyzable tannins in which punicalagin is predominant, while no correlation was found to the level of anthocyanins.

  10. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Ferulago carduchorum in two vegetative stages (flower and fruit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Jamalifar, Hossein; Ramezani, Nasrin; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2016-03-01

    Ferulago carduchorum (Apiaceae family) is an endemic plant of Iran. The crude extract and four fractions of aerial parts of F. carduchorum in two vegetative stages (flower and fruit) were studied for their total phenolic contents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities using folin-ciocalteu assay, micro dilution method and DPPH assay, respectively. The results indicated that the best antioxidant activity was determined in flower crude extract (IC50=0.44 mg/mL). The flower ethyl acetate fraction (FLE) showed better antimicrobial and antifungal activities than other fractions. So, FLE was selected for phytochemical investigations, resulting in isolation of a flavonoid (hesperetin). Hesperetin showed antimicrobial activity. The results showed that the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects during the flowering are obviously more than the fruit season.

  11. Remarkable reproducibility of enzyme activity profiles in tomato fruits grown under contrasting environments provides a roadmap for studies of fruit metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biais, Benot; Bénard, Camille; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Colombié, Sophie; Prodhomme, Duyên; Ménard, Guillaume; Bernillon, Stéphane; Gehl, Bernadette; Gautier, Hélène; Ballias, Patricia; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Sweetlove, Lee; Génard, Michel; Gibon, Yves

    2014-03-01

    To assess the influence of the environment on fruit metabolism, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneymaker') plants were grown under contrasting conditions (optimal for commercial, water limited, or shaded production) and locations. Samples were harvested at nine stages of development, and 36 enzyme activities of central metabolism were measured as well as protein, starch, and major metabolites, such as hexoses, sucrose, organic acids, and amino acids. The most remarkable result was the high reproducibility of enzyme activities throughout development, irrespective of conditions or location. Hierarchical clustering of enzyme activities also revealed tight relationships between metabolic pathways and phases of development. Thus, cell division was characterized by high activities of fructokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, indicating ATP production as a priority, whereas cell expansion was characterized by enzymes involved in the lower part of glycolysis, suggesting a metabolic reprogramming to anaplerosis. As expected, enzymes involved in the accumulation of sugars, citrate, and glutamate were strongly increased during ripening. However, a group of enzymes involved in ATP production, which is probably fueled by starch degradation, was also increased. Metabolites levels seemed more sensitive than enzymes to the environment, although such differences tended to decrease at ripening. The integration of enzyme and metabolite data obtained under contrasting growth conditions using principal component analysis suggests that, with the exceptions of alanine amino transferase and glutamate and malate dehydrogenase and malate, there are no links between single enzyme activities and metabolite time courses or levels.

  12. Phenolics and Ascorbic Acid Related to Antioxidant Activity of MaoFruit Juice and Their Thermal Stability Study (Review Article)

    OpenAIRE

    Thitiya Sripakdee; Ratana Mahachai; Saksit Chanthai

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidantand/or anti-aging activities are always linedwith people’s minds as major potential benefits concerning human health in the recent commercial features for an economicworld of foodstuffs and medical uses. Total phenolics includingflavonoids and anthocyanins,and ascorbic acid in the Mao juices areclosely related to their antioxidant activity.Numerous research approaches on these functional foods, in particular the colored fruits and vegetableshave been investigated. Method validation...

  13. Physical Activation of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch via CO2 Activation Gas for CO2 Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, C. G.; Quek, K. S.; Daud, W. M. A. W.; Moh, P. Y.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, different parameters for the preparation of activated carbon were investigated for their yield and CO2 capture capabilities. The activated carbon was prepared from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) via a 2-step physical activation process. The OPEFB was pyrolyzed under inert conditions at 500 °C and activated via CO2. A 2-factorial design was employed and the effects of activation temperature, activation dwell time and gas flow rate on yield and CO2 capture capabilities were compared and studied. The yield obtained ranged from between 20 - 26, whereby the temperature was determined to be the most significant factor in influencing CO2 uptake. The CO2 capture capacity was determined using Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) technique. The CO2 uptake of EFB activated carbon achieved was between 1.85 - 2.09 mmol/g. TPD analysis has shown that the surface of AC were of basic nature. AC was found to be able to withhold the CO2 up to 663°C before maximum desorption occurs. The surface area and pore size of OPEFB obtained from BET analysis is 2.17 m2 g-1 and 0.01 cm3 g-1. After activation, both surface area and pore size increased with a maximum observed surface area and pore size of 548.07 m2 g-1 and 0.26 cm3 g-1. Surface morphology, functional groups, pore size and surface area were analyzed using SEM, FT-IR, TPD and BET.

  14. Antifungal activity of TiO2 photocatalysis against Penicillium expansum in vitro and in fruit tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneerat, Chamorn; Hayata, Yasuyoshi

    2006-03-15

    The antifungal activity of TiO2 photocatalytic reaction in the form of TiO2 powder and TiO2 coated on a plastic film against Penicillium expansum was investigated in vitro and in fruit tests. The mixture of P. expansum conidial suspension and TiO2 powder was added to potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates for vitro test. The TiO2 photocatalytic reaction reduced conidial germination of the fungal pathogen. It was found that the ability of the TiO2 photocatalytic reaction to suppress P. expansum growth correlated to the amount of TiO2 added. Lower numbers of viable colonies of P. expansum were observed with increasing amount of TiO2. Regardless of the kind of selected fruit inoculated with P. expansum, both TiO2 powder and TiO2-coated film exhibited antifungal activity to control fruit rot. Development of Penicillium rot in apple was significantly (P = 0.05) retarded by the TiO2 photocatalytic reaction. Similarly the TiO2 photocatalytic reaction was the only treatment where no tomato fruit rot was noticeable after 1 week of storage. TiO2-coated film also decreased brown lesions and Penicillium rot infection in lemons. The mean severity fruit rot scores (browning and softening flesh) were 3.2 and 1.9 for uncoated and TiO2-coated film, respectively. Our findings suggest that "TiO2 photocatalytic reaction" shows antifungal activity against P. expansum which may have potential for postharvest disease control.

  15. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawole Olaniyi A

    2012-10-01

    comprising of more than 50% of total phenolic compounds detected in each cultivar. Conclusions The present study showed that the tested pomegranate peels exhibited strong antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities. These results suggest that pomegranate fruit peel could be exploited as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents as well as tyrosinase inhibitors.

  16. Fruit antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, total phenol, quercetin, and carotene of Irwin mango fruits stored at low temperature after high electric field pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankara, K S; Isobe, Seiichiro; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Takenaka, Makiko; Shiina, Takeo

    2004-03-10

    Greenhouse-grown tree ripe (TR) and mature green (MG) mangoes (cv. Irwin) were exposed to high electric field treatment before 20 and 30 days of storage at 5 degrees C. MG fruits were allowed to ripen at room temperature after low-temperature storage. Fruit physical quality attributes, ascorbic acid, carotene, quercetin, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were estimated before and after the storage period. Antioxidant capacity of fruit juice was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Fruit firmness decreased significantly during storage. Titratable acidity decreased 20 days after storage. Total soluble solids did not change during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits remained unchanged up to 20 days of storage period and decreased thereafter. Total phenol and carotenes increased during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits was significantly correlated only to ascorbic acids. Peel color and carotenes were higher in TR fruits, whereas titratable acidity and firmness were higher in MG fruits. There was no significant difference in other parameters between the stages of picking. Electric field pretreatment affected the respiration and antioxidant capacity of TR fruits and did not have any significant affect on other parameters. TR mangoes of cv. Irwin are more suitable for low-temperature storage and can be successfully stored for up to 20 days at 5 degrees C without any significant losses in functional properties and quality attributes.

  17. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of Portuguese Foeniculum vulgare fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ana S; Martins, M Rosário; Arantes, Sílvia; Lopes, Violeta R; Bettencourt, Eliseu; Pombal, Sofia; Gomes, Arlindo C; Silva, Lúcia A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of Portugal. Composition of essential oils was established by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly in the range of 1.1 to 2.9% (v/w) and the chemical composition varied with the region of collection. A total of 16 compounds were identified. The main compounds were fenchone (16.9 - 34.7%), estragole (2.5 - 66.0%) and trans-anethole (7.9 - 77.7%). The percentages of these three main compounds were used to determine the relationship between the different oil samples and to group them into four different chemotypes: anethole/fenchone; anethole; estragole and anethole/estragole. Antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against six food spoilage fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. japonicus, A. oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizophus oryzae and R. stolonifer. Antibacterial activity was assessed against three Gram-positive strains: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and S. aureus ATCC 28213; and against six Gram-negative strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Morganella morganii LFG 08; Proteus mirabilis LFG 04; Salmonella enteritidis LFG 05; S. entiritidis serovar typhimurium LFG 06 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 by the disc diffusion agar method; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth macro-dilution method. The MIC values varied from 62.5 (E. coli ATCC 25922) to 2000 µmL (P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853).

  18. Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sithisarn, Patchima; Nantateerapong, Petcharat; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Pongtip

    2016-01-01

    .... Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two...

  19. Nanoporous separators for supercapacitor using activated carbon monolith electrode from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor, N. S. M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Omar, R., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    Activated porous carbon electrode prepared from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches was used for preparing the carbon based supercapacitor cells. The symmetrical supercapacitor cells were fabricated using carbon electrodes, stainless steel current collector, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, and three types of nanoporous separators. Cells A, B and C were fabricated using polypropylene, eggshell membrane, and filter paper, respectively. Electrochemical characterizations data from Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, and Galvanic Charge Discharge techniques showed that specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy for cell A were 122 F g{sup −1}, 177 W kg{sup −1}, 3.42 Wh kg{sup −1}, cell B; 125 F g{sup −1}, 179 W kg{sup −1}, and 3.64 Wh kg{sup −1}, and cell C; 180 F g{sup −1}, 178 W kg{sup −1}, 4.27 Wh kg{sup −1}. All the micrographs from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope showed that the different in nanoporous structure of the separators lead to a significant different in influencing the values of specific capacitance, power and energy of supercapacitors, which is associated with the mobility of ion into the pore network. These results indicated that the filter paper was superior than the eggshell membrane and polypropylene nanoporous separators. However, we found that in terms of acidic resistance, polypropylene was the best nanoporous separator for acidic medium.

  20. Xanthones with quinone reductase-inducing activity from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Young-Won; Jung, Hyun-Ah; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2008-02-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a dichloromethane-soluble extract of Garcinia mangostana fruits has led to the isolation and identification of five compounds, including two xanthones, 1,2-dihydro-1,8,10-trihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-9-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)furo[3,2-a]xanthen-11-one (1) and 6-deoxy-7-demethylmangostanin (2), along with three known compounds, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (3), mangostanin (4), and alpha-mangostin (5). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined from analysis of their spectroscopic data. All isolated compounds in the present study together with eleven other compounds previously isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen, were tested in an in vitro quinone reductase-induction assay using murine hepatoma cells (Hepa 1c1c7) and an in vitro hydroxyl radical antioxidant assay. Of these, compounds 1-4 induced quinone reductase (concentration to double enzyme induction, 0.68-2.2microg/mL) in Hepa 1c1c7 cells and gamma-mangostin (6) exhibited hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (IC50, 0.20microg/mL).

  1. Phytochemicals content, antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of indigenous Garcinia parvifolia fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as "asam kandis" or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents.

  2. CHAIN FOOD ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COMPETITIVENESS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLES GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Pawlewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems of Polish agriculture is insuffi cient state horizontal integration of agricultural producers. Identifi cation of factors that affect the improvement of the competitiveness of producer groups in the food chain can help in the development of such entities. The aim of the publication is to present activities that should improve competitiveness in the food chain which are undertaken by groups of raw materials producers on the example of fruit and vegetable producers groups operating in Kujawsko-Pomorskie region. In studies the method of participant observation interview were used. The measurement was conducted in late April and May 2013 and included 19 leaders of producer groups. According to them the most important factor infl uencing the market position of the groups in the food chain, was the high quality of the manufactured goods in farms affi liated farmers. Few respondents identifi ed marketing as an opportunity to strengthen the competitive advantage of producer groups in the food supply chain. This is due to the fact that farmers are far removed in the supply chain from consumers with whom they have contact only in the form of market random retail.

  3. Five furostanol saponins from fruits of Tribulus terrestris and their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Zu, Xuyu; Jiang, Yuyang

    2009-01-01

    Two new furostanol saponins, terrestroside A, 3-O-{beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-galactopyranosy}-26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-5a-furost-20(22)-en-(25R)-3beta,26-diol (1) and terrestroside B, 3-O-{beta-D-xylopyran-osyl(1-->3)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-galactopyranosy}-26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5a-furostan-12-one-(25R)-22-methoxy-3beta,26-diol (2), together with three known compounds, chloromaloside E (3), terrestrinin B (4) and terrestroneoside A (5) were isolated from the dry fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the compounds on tumour cells were evaluated, and compounds 1-5 showed potential anti-tumour activity.

  4. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hawa Ali Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana, which is known locally in Sabah as “asam kandis” or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2±0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 5.9±0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0±0.3 and 3.0±0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer’s agents.

  5. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml and free amino acids (15.18 mg/100 ml as compared to other species of Citrus while C. sinensis contained the highest amount (23.07 mg/100 ml of total phenolic content. Further, C. limon contained the highest amount of total soluble proteins (180.67 mg/100 ml, total RNA & pentose sugar content (131.07 mg/100 ml, and Vitamin C (ascorbic acid content (67.97 mg/100 ml. C. sinensis & C. reticulata showed good reducing power activity at the dose of 300 µg/ml while C. limon showed good DPPH radical scavenging at all concentration ranges in comparison to the standard.

  6. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shivananda Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25 was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2 ml/kg, twice a day and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150 mg/dl ±15.88 and 125 mg/dl ±3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS = 360.0 mg/dl ±15.81, (<.003. On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2 g, 5.11% which increased significantly by the 20th day (6 g, 3.0%, <.022. Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia.

  7. Minor C-geranylated flavanones from Paulownia tomentosa fruits with MRSA antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátilová, Alice; Schneiderová, Kristýna; Veselá, Daniela; Hanáková, Zuzana; Fontana, Anna; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Cvačka, Josef; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Novotná, Jana; Urbanová, Marie; Pelletier, Jerry; Čížek, Alois; Žemličková, Helena; Šmejkal, Karel

    2013-05-01

    Exhaustive chromatographic separation of the chloroform portion of the ethanolic extract obtained from Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb). Steud. (Paulowniaceae) fruits has led to isolation of ten C-6 geranylated flavanones tomentodiplacone C-I and mimulone C-E, featured by 3'-methoxy and 4'-hydroxy or 4'-hydroxy substitution of the B-ring of the flavonoid, respectively. The structures of these compounds were determined by using mass spectrometry (including HRMS) and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The absolute configurations of the compounds at C-2 were determined using circular dichroism. The obtained compounds showed the presence of a geranyl moiety functionalized by a carbonyl, hydroxyl or methoxyl group, or by formation of tetrahydrofuran or fused-pyrane ring, respectively. All of the flavanones described were isolated for the first time from a natural source. The antibacterial activities of selected compounds isolated along with the previously isolated geranylated flavanones were evaluated against a common panel of microbes and MRSA strains. The selected isolated compounds were tested for their ability to affect eukaryotic translation initiation via dual-luciferase reporter assay (firefly and renilla).

  8. Effect of Turning Frequency on Composting of Empty Fruit Bunches Mixed with Activated Liquid Organic Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Lubis, J.; Husaini, T.; Irvan

    2017-03-01

    Composting of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) by mixing it with activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) is an alternative way in the utilization of solid waste produced from the palm oil mill (POM). This research was to determine the effect of turning frequency on the rate of composting of EFB mixed with ALOF in a basket composter. The composting process was started with cutting the EFB into pieces with size 1-3 cm, inserting the EFB pieces into basket composter (33 cm W × 28 cm L × 40 cm H), and adding ALOF until moisture content (MC) in the range of 55-65%. During composting, the MC was maintained at 55-65% range by adding the ALOF. The turning frequency on each composter was varied i.e. once in every 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days. The parameters analysed during composting were temperature, pH, MC, compost weight, water holding capacity (WHC), CN ratio, and the quality of the final compost. Composting was carried out for 40 days and the best result obtained at turning frequency was 3 days. The best compost characteristic was pH 9.0; MC 57.24%; WHC 76%; CN ratio 12.15%; P 0.58%; and K 0. 95%.

  9. Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-27

    The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant, total phenol and flavonoid content and antimicrobial activities of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) of underutilized tropical fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Tara Kamal; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam; Momand, Lailuma; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Nor Omar, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan

    2015-04-01

    Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.

  11. Recruitment of a mast-fruiting, bird-dispersed tree: Bridging frugivore activity and seedling establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Carlos M.; Jordano, Pedro; López-Soria, L.; Amat, Juan A.

    1994-01-01

    The recruitment of Phillyrea latifolia L. (Oleaceae), a bird-dispersed tree of Mediterranean forest, is described. Fruit removal by birds, seed rain, post-dispersal seed predation, seed germination, and seedling emergence, survival, and establishment were studied. The main objective was testing whether seed dispersal by birds produced a predictable seedling shadow as a result of coupled patterns of seed rain, seedling emergence, and seedling establishment. P. latifolia is a mast-fruiting spec...

  12. POLYGALACTURONASE AND PECTIN METHYLESTERASE ACTIVITIES OF CaCl2 TREATED RED-FLESHED DRAGON FRUIT (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS HARVESTED AT DIFFERENT MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Awang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits harvested at different maturity possess different biochemical constituents and physiological properties that make the fruits may react somewhat differently to the postharvest treatment. A study to examine the activity of Polygalacturonase (PG and Pectin Methylesterase (PME enzymes during storage in dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus harvested at 28 days (Index 3 and 34 days (Index 5 after anthesis and postharvest treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1 CaCl2 was performed. The PG activity was lower in younger fruit and vice-versa for PME activity. Increasing concentration of CaCl2 effectively reduced the activity of both enzymes. PG activity for fruit treated with 0, 5 and 7.5 g L-1 CaCl2 increased linearly with the time of storage while its activity for the fruit treated with 2.5 g L-1 CaCl2 was lower at the beginning of storage. PG activity of Index 5 fruits increased almost linearly during storage while its activity in Index 3 fruits was low at the early days of storage and later continued to increase until day seven. At both maturity indices, the PME activity was low at the early days of storage and later continued to increase until day seven. Overall, results obtained indicated that CaCl2 postharvest treatment reduced both PME and PG activities thus slowing down the softening process giving an evident that calcium possess a distinguishable role in the reducing softening of fruit, regardless of maturity index.

  13. Correlation of rutin accumulation with 3-O-glucosyl transferase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities during the ripening of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanoglu, Esra; Beekwilder, Jules; Matros, Andrea; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Mock, Hans Peter

    2012-12-01

    In tomato, the predominant flavonoid is quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). In this study, we aim to investigate the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the quercetin-3-O-glucosyl transferase (3-GT) reactions in the formation of rutin during tomato fruit ripening. Tomatoes of the Moneymaker variety at different development stages (green, breaker, turning, pink, red, and deep red) were divided into flesh and peel fractions. In each sample, both the content of rutin and the enzymatic activities for PAL and 3-GT were recorded. The highest activities of PAL were recorded in the peel of turning fruit (3,000 μkat/mg fresh weight). In fruit flesh, maximal activity was observed in red fruit (917.3 μkat/mg). For both tissues, PAL activity strongly decreased at the final (deep red) fruit stage. The activity of 3-GT in peel peaked in the turning fruit stage (50.7 pkat/mg), while in flesh maximal activity (33.4 pkat/mg) was observed in green fruit, which rapidly declined at the turning stage. Higher levels of rutin were detected in the tomato peel compared to the flesh part with the highest level being found at the green stage. The relation of PAL and 3-GT activities to rutin content is also evaluated.

  14. Divergence in the enzymatic activities of a tomato and Solanum pennellii alcohol acyltransferase impacts fruit volatile ester composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Charles; Kamiyoshihara, Yusuke; Lam, Nghi B; Richard, Théo; Taylor, Mark G; Tieman, Denise M; Klee, Harry J

    2015-01-01

    Tomato fruits accumulate a diverse set of volatiles including multiple esters. The content of ester volatiles is relatively low in tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and far more abundant in the closely related species Solanum pennellii. There are also qualitative variations in ester content between the two species. We have previously shown that high expression of a non-specific esterase is critical for the low overall ester content of S. lycopersicum fruit relative to S. pennellii fruit. Here, we show that qualitative differences in ester composition are the consequence of divergence in enzymatic activity of a ripening-related alcohol acyltransferase (AAT1). The S. pennellii AAT1 is more efficient than the tomato AAT1 for all the alcohols tested. The two enzymes have differences in their substrate preferences that explain the variations observed in the volatiles. The results illustrate how two related species have evolved to precisely adjust their volatile content by modulating the balance of the synthesis and degradation of esters.

  15. Comparative analysis of polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of tunisian pome fruit pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattouch, S; Caboni, P; Coroneo, V; Tuberoso, C; Angioni, A; Dessi, S; Marzouki, N; Cabras, P

    2008-02-13

    Pome trees, apple, pear, and quince, are classified into the subfamily Pomoideae, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Their autumnal fruits are consumed worldwide in different forms, that is, fresh or transformed into jams, jelly, juices, etc. Their well-established beneficial properties to human health were found mainly related to their phenolic content. Pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts obtained from Tunisian fruits at commercial maturity were comparatively evaluated for their phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials. The phenolic compounds present in the extracts were identified and quantified using RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS techniques. Significant differences in the chromatographic profiles among these fruits, as well as between pulp and peel extracts of each fruit, were observed. Quince, followed by 'Red Delicious', peel extracts showed the highest phenolic content (160.33 and 110.90 mg/100 g of fresh weight). The stronger inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals corresponded to those obtained from peel materials. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial potential against a range of microorganism strains was also carried out. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus were the most sensitive to the active extracts. Among the examined phenolic extracts, 'Red Delicious' and quince peels showed the highest effects for inhibiting bacteria growth. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(4) microg of polyphenol/mL. Red skin apple and quince peels could be of great interest as important antioxidant and antimicrobial polyphenol sources.

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla%益智的抗氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 郭祀远; 肖凯军; 韩长日; 刘友艳; 王花芳

    2006-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of extracts and residuum of Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel fruits from supercritical CO2 extraction were determined in vitro. The residuum was extracted in turn with water, propyl alcohol and ethyl acetate. The total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents of the extracts were evaluated and the antioxidant activities of the extracts were assayed with antioxidant capacity in linoleic acid model system, reducing powers, radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The total phenolic contents of the fruit extracts as gallic acid equivalents by the Folin Cioealteu method were found to be highest in propyl extracts (5.53%) and supercritical CO2 extracts (5.53%),a little lower in ethyl acetate extracts (4.04%) and lowest in water extracts (0.89%). The phenolic constituents appeared to be responsible, at least in part,for the antioxidant capacity of extracts ( R2=0.703). At the same time,flavonoid content is in the following order: ethyl acetate extract (6.29%), propyl alcohol extract (5.81%), water extract (4.85%) and supercritical CO2 extract (4.70%).The results show that the ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel possesses strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power in a concentration-dependent manner.%本文探讨了益智(Alpinia oxyphyllaMiquel)超临界CO2提取物及其渣的水提物、正丙醇提取物和乙酸乙酯提取物的抗氧化作用,测定了总酚含量、黄酮含量、抗氧化力、还原能力、DPPH清除率.结果表明,益智超临界CO2提取物和正丙醇提取物的总酚含量最高,均为5.53%,乙酸乙酯提取物的总酚含量为4.04%,水提物总酚含量最低,为O.89%.抗氧化力与酚含量相关(R2=0.703).四种提取物中黄酮含量顺序为:乙酸乙酯提取物(6.29%)>丙醇提取物(5.81%)>水提取物(4.85%)>超临界CO2提取物(4.70%).在还原能力、清除DPPH自由基和羟自由基方面,乙酸乙酯提取物表现出了很

  17. Antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating activity of Vangueria madagascariensis leaves and ripe fruit pericarp against human pathogenic clinical bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fawzi Mahomoodally

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating property of Vangueria madagascariensis (VM (fruit and leaf extracts against 10 clinical isolates. A microdilution broth susceptibility assay for bacteria was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and associated with antibiotics to evaluate any synergistic effect. VM extracts were found to potentiate the activity of 3 conventional antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin showed no activity against Acinetobacter spp. but when mixed with VM (in a ratio of 50% VM extracts: 30% antibiotic, showed potentiating effect. The methanolic fruit extract at lower concentration of Chloramphenicol (30% gave better synergistic effect (MIC = 3.75 μg/mL as compared to 50% (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL. With Gentamicin, no activity was detected with leaf decoction but other extracts (methanolic leaf/fruit extract and fruit decoction showed enhancement (MIC- 0.47, 7.5 and 15 μg/mL respectively. Interestingly, Chloramphenicol showed no activity against MRSA, but when mixed with VM, produced low MICs (<0.39–0.78 μg/mL with 50% antibiotic and from <0.47 to 0.94 μg/mL with 30% antibiotic. Combining Gentamicin with VM extracts showed an enhancement in the potentiating activity against MRSA. In conclusion, the observed antimicrobial property of VM tend to suggest a promising alternative and complementary strategy to manage bacterial infections and hence can open new avenues for further research using traditional medicinal food plant.

  18. Antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating activity of Vangueria madagascariensis leaves and ripe fruit pericarp against human pathogenic clinical bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomoodally, M Fawzi; Dilmohamed, Schajeed

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the antibacterial and antibiotic potentiating property of Vangueria madagascariensis (VM) (fruit and leaf extracts) against 10 clinical isolates. A microdilution broth susceptibility assay for bacteria was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and associated with antibiotics to evaluate any synergistic effect. VM extracts were found to potentiate the activity of 3 conventional antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin showed no activity against Acinetobacter spp. but when mixed with VM (in a ratio of 50% VM extracts: 30% antibiotic), showed potentiating effect. The methanolic fruit extract at lower concentration of Chloramphenicol (30%) gave better synergistic effect (MIC = 3.75 μg/mL) as compared to 50% (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL). With Gentamicin, no activity was detected with leaf decoction but other extracts (methanolic leaf/fruit extract and fruit decoction) showed enhancement (MIC- 0.47, 7.5 and 15 μg/mL respectively). Interestingly, Chloramphenicol showed no activity against MRSA, but when mixed with VM, produced low MICs (<0.39-0.78 μg/mL with 50% antibiotic and from <0.47 to 0.94 μg/mL with 30% antibiotic). Combining Gentamicin with VM extracts showed an enhancement in the potentiating activity against MRSA. In conclusion, the observed antimicrobial property of VM tend to suggest a promising alternative and complementary strategy to manage bacterial infections and hence can open new avenues for further research using traditional medicinal food plant.

  19. Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of selected actinorhizal fruits growing in the forests of Northeast India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind K Goyal; Tanmayee Mishra; Malay Bhattacharya; Pallab Kar; Arnab Sen

    2013-11-01

    Hippophae salicifolia, Elaeagnus pyriformis, Myrica esculenta and M. nagi are actinorhizal plants growing in the sacred forests of Northeast India with multipurpose uses. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the phenol, flavonoid and flavonol contents of the fresh fruit juice of these plant species including the antioxidant potential by means of DPPH, H2O2 and NO scavenging activity and FRP. The total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents of fruit juice ranged from 321.68±0.06 to 76.67±0.01 mg/g GAE, 272.92±0.07 to 20.12±0.02 mg/g QE and 258.92±0.08 to 18.72±0.02 mg/g QE, respectively. At 2.0 mg/mL concentration, DPPH scavenging activity was found to be the highest in M. esculenta (89.62%) and the lowest in E. pyriformis (17.58%). The reducing power activity was found significantly higher in H. salicifolia juice, which increased with increase in concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of H. salicifolia juice was found to be as high as 98.78%, while Elaeagnus juice was found to be less effective with just 48.90%. Juice of H. salicifolia showed the greatest NO scavenging effect of 75.24% as compared to juice of E. pyriformis, where only 37.54% scavenging was observed at the same concentration. Taking into account all the experimental data, it can be said that the fruits of H. salicifolia and both M. nagi and M. esculenta have good antioxidant activity compared to fruits of E. pyriformis.

  20. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, Fat Intake, and Physical Activity Participation in Relation to Socio-demographic Factors Among Medically Underserved Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Hadi Alakaam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable intake as well as physical activity participation in Mississippi is consistently lower than recommendations. We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine fruit and vegetables consumption, fat intake, and moderate-intensity physical activity participation and how these variables relate to socio-demographic factors among medically underserved adults in south Mississippi. Fruit and vegetable consumption and fat intake along with physical activity participation and socio-demographic characteristics was collected from a sample of 161 (48 male and 113 female adults in south Mississippi. A majority (81.9% of participants reported consuming less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day and 54% reported exercising less than three times a week. Only 14% of participants reported eating a low fat diet. Bivariate correlations revealed no significant relationships between fruit and vegetable consumption and fat intake as well as no significant relationships between fruit and vegetable consumption and gender, ethnicity, income, marital status, or education. However, there were significant correlations between physical activity and fat intake (r = -0.21, p = 0.01, and physical activity with fruit and vegetable consumption (r = 0.16, p = 0.05. Higher physical activity rates were associated with decreased fat intake and increased fruit and vegetable consumption. Physical activity was also higher among men (r = -0.16, p = 0.05 and positively correlated with income level (r = 0.21 p = 0.01. In order to effectively identify or develop strategies to improve health by promoting increased fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, further research is needed to understand the factors that affect behavior choices regarding nutrition and physical activity in this medically underserved adult population.

  1. Appraisal of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Various Extracts from the Fruiting Bodies of Pleurotus florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hoan Im

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus florida has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the fruiting bodies of P. florida extracted with acetone, methanol, and hot water. The antioxidant activities of the acetone and methanol extracts of P. florida showed stronger inhibition of β-carotene-linoleic acid compared to that of the hot water extract. The acetone extract (8 mg/mL showed a high reducing power of 1.86. The acetone and methanol extracts showed more effective DPPH radical scavenging activities than the hot water extract. The chelating effect of the extracts at lower concentrations was significantly effective compared to that of the positive control. Thirteen phenolic compounds were detected from acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid solvent extracts. Nitric oxide (NO production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in lipolysaccahride (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line, were inhibited significantly by the mushroom extracts in a concentration dependent manner. The anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced edema in the rat hind-paw reduced significantly by the mushroom extracts. Therefore, we have demonstrated that P. florida fruiting bodies possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activites related to their inhibitory activities on NO production, iNOS protein expression, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The results suggest that the fruiting bodies of P. florida are a good source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.

  2. Contact and fumigant activities of constituents of Foeniculum vulgare fruit against three coleopteran stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D H; Ahn, Y J

    2001-03-01

    The insecticidal activities of materials derived from the fruit of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, against adults of Sitophilus oryzae, Callosobruchus chinensis and Lasioderma serricorne were examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as the phenylpropenes (E)-anethole and estragole, and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone, by spectroscopic analysis. Responses varied with insect species, compound, dose and exposure time. In a filter paper diffusion test, estragole at 0.168 mg cm-2 caused 91% mortality to S oryzae adults within 1 day after treatment (DAT), whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 DAT, respectively. Against C chinensis adults, all test compounds revealed potent insecticidal activities at 0.021 mg cm-2 at 2 DAT. Against L serricorne adults at 0.105 mg cm-2, (E)-anethole gave 100% mortality at 1 DAT, whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 DAT was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone, respectively. In a fumigation test, the compounds were much more effective against adults of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. As naturally occurring insect-control agents, the F vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne.

  3. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; El Ashry, Fatma El Zahraa Z; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes). The effects of MC juice were studied both in vivo and in vitro by studying the glucose uptake of isolated rat diaphragm muscles in the presence and absence of insulin. Histopathological examination of pancreas was also performed. This study showed that MC caused a significant reduction of serum glucose (135.99 ± 6.27 and 149.79 ± 1.90 vs. 253.40* ± 8.18) for prophylaxis and treatment respectively, fructosamine (0.99 ± 0.01 and 1.01 ± 0.04 vs. 3.04 ± 0.07), total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index (1.13 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.05 vs. 1.48 ± 1.47) and pancreatic malondialdehyde content (p Momordica charantia presents excellent antidiabetic and antioxidant activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment whether it is used for prophylaxis or treatment.

  4. Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Sridharan; Manickam, Shanti; RajaMohammed, Meher Ali

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni) fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxiety was assessed by 'Isolation-induced aggression' model, sedation by 'Spontaneous locomotor activity using actophotometer' and hypnotic activity by 'Prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time'. Six male mice were used for each of the groups and postdose, all the six that received diazepam had shown an inhibition of aggression, whereas in the test group, five of six mice and none in the control group had shown an inhibition of aggression (P = 0.0007). Similarly, for the sedative activity, the total number of spontaneous locomotor activity at 30 min following drug administration was found to be 364.67 ± 10.74, 123.16 ± 8.33, and 196.67 ± 3.7, while at 60 min it was found to be 209 ± 12.98, 49 ± 5.78, and 92 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD) for the control, standard, and test groups of mice respectively (P < 0.001). Hypnotic activity was measured by prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time wherein the onset and duration of loss of righting reflex were compared among each group of mice. The time in minutes for the onset in control, standard, and test groups was 4.01 ± 0.22, 1.23 ± 0.05, and 2.23 ± 0.07, respectively. The duration of loss of righting reflex was 44.23 ± 0.59, 56.03 ± 1.34, and 50.57 ± 0.36, respectively. Both these were statistically significant (P < 0.001). However, more clinical studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of the extract in humans.

  5. Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridharan Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxiety was assessed by ′Isolation-induced aggression′ model, sedation by ′Spontaneous locomotor activity using actophotometer′ and hypnotic activity by ′Prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time′. Six male mice were used for each of the groups and postdose, all the six that received diazepam had shown an inhibition of aggression, whereas in the test group, five of six mice and none in the control group had shown an inhibition of aggression (P = 0.0007. Similarly, for the sedative activity, the total number of spontaneous locomotor activity at 30 min following drug administration was found to be 364.67 + 10.74, 123.16 + 8.33, and 196.67 + 3.7, while at 60 min it was found to be 209 + 12.98, 49 + 5.78, and 92 + 2.5 (mean + SD for the control, standard, and test groups of mice respectively (P < 0.001. Hypnotic activity was measured by prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time wherein the onset and duration of loss of righting reflex were compared among each group of mice. The time in minutes for the onset in control, standard, and test groups was 4.01 + 0.22, 1.23 + 0.05, and 2.23 + 0.07, respectively. The duration of loss of righting reflex was 44.23 + 0.59, 56.03 + 1.34, and 50.57 + 0.36, respectively. Both these were statistically significant (P < 0.001. However, more clinical studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of the extract in humans.

  6. Effect of different solvents on extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ÇOKLAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of bio compounds from plant materials is one of the most important step of the processes such as dietary supplement production and recovery of the compounds from the industrial wastes. It is highly affected from the factors such as solvent type, particle size, extraction time and temperature. To determine the total phenolics, individual phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of Hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis fruit extracted with different solvents and to specify the best solvent for extraction of phenolics were aimed in this research. Fruits, picked from wild growing trees in Beyşehir, were extracted with water, methanol and methanol:water (1:1 mixture. Highest total phenolics and antioxidant activity were observed in methanol:water extract. While gallic acid was extracted effectively in water, methanol:water mixture was the best solvent for extraction of procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, (-- epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and rutin.

  7. An analysis of the influence of logistics activities on the export cold chain of temperature sensitive fruit through the Port of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide. Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain.Objective: The objective of this article was to identify the influence of logistics activities on breaks along the South African fruit export cold chain. The focus is specifically on temperature sensitive fruit, exported in refrigerated containers to Europe and the United Kingdom through the Port of Cape Town. This supply chain was selected as this was the most accessible supply chain in terms of retrieving the necessary temperature data.Method: The cold chain was investigated from the cold store, through all segments, until the Port of Cape Town. Temperature data collected with temperature monitoring devices from different fruit export supply chains of grapes, plums and pome fruit (apples and pears were analysed to identify the percentage of temperature breaks and the length of temperature breaks that occur at each segment of the cold chain.Results: The results show that a large number of breaks are experienced along South Africa’s fruit export cold chain, specifically at the interface between the cold store and the truck. In addition, the findings also show that there has been an improvement in the number of breaks experienced in the Port of Cape Town following the implementation of the NAVIS and Refcon systems.Conclusion: This article concludes by providing the fruit industry with areas that require addressing to improve operational procedures along the fruit export cold chain to help ensure that the fruit arrives at its final destination at optimal quality.

  8. The Effect of MethyI Jasmonate on Ethylene Production, ACC Oxidase Activity and Carbon Dioxide Evolution in the Yellowish-Tangerine Tomato Fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellowish-tangerine tomato (cv. Bursztyn in the green, light yellow and yellow stages of ripening were treated with 0.1% and 1.0% of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me in lanolin paste and kept for several days and then they were evaluated for production of ethylene, ACC oxidase activity and CO2 evolution. Production of endogenous ethylene in mature green fruits was low and increased during ripening. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity in all investigated stages of fruit ripening. Slices excised from mature green fruits produced highest amount of carbon dioxide as compared to more advanced stages of ripening. JA-Me in O,1 % and 1,0% concentrations increased significantly CO2 evolution in green fruits, while in light yellow and yellow fruits only higher concentration of JA-Me stimulated carbon dioxide production.

  9. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nizam Uddin; Md. Rakib Hasan; Md. Monir Hossain; Arjyabrata Sarker; A.H.M. Nazmul Hasan; A.F.M. Mahmudul Islam; Mohd. Motaher H. Chowdhury; Md. Sohel Rana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit in α-amylase inhibitory activity (in vitro) and hypoglycemic activity in normal and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (in vivo). Methods: Fruits of Citrus macroptera without rind was extracted with pure methanol following cold extraction and tested for presence of phytochemical constituents, α-amylase inhibitory activity, and hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats.Results:showed that fruit extract had moderate α-amylase inhibitory activity [IC50 value=(3.638±0.190) mg/mL] as compared to acarbose. Moreover at 500 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg doses fruit extract significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) reduced fasting blood glucose level in normal rats as compared to glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). In oral glucose tolerance test, 500 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level (P<0.05) at 2 h but 1000 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level at 2 h and 3 h (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) whereas glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced glucose level at every hour after administration. Overall time effect is also considered extremely significant with F value=23.83 and P value=0.0001 in oral glucose tolerance test.Conclusion:These findings suggest that the plant may be a potential source for the development Presence of saponin, steroid and terpenoid were identified in the extract. The results of new oral hypoglycemic agent.

  10. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nardi,Geisson Marcos; Farias Januario, Adriana Graziele; Freire, Cassio Geremia; Megiolaro, Fernanda; Schneider, Kétlin; Perazzoli, Marlene Raimunda Andreola; Do Nascimento, Scheley Raap; Gon, Ana Cristina; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Wagner, Glauber; Niero, Rivaldo; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. Objective: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). Materials and Methods: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by hi...

  11. Reduction in Activity/Gene Expression of Anthocyanin Degradation Enzymes in Lychee Pericarp is Responsible for the Color Protection of the Fruit by Heat and Acid Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Fang; ZHANG Zhao-qi; ZHANG Xue-lian; WU Zhen-xian; YIN Hui-fang; PANG Xue-qun

    2013-01-01

    Heat and acid treatments were reported to be a promising substitute for SO2 fumigation in color protection of postharvest lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruits, but the mechanism was not clear. In the present study, hot water (70°C) dipping followed by immersion in 2%HCl (heat-acid) substantially protected the red color of the fruit during storage at 25°C and inhibited anthocyanin degradation while hot water dipping alone (heat) led to rapidly browning and about 90%loss in anthocyanin content. The pH values in the pericarp of the heat-acid treated fruit dropped to 3.2, while the values maintained around 5.0 in the heat-treated and control fruit. No significantly different pH values were detected among the arils of heat-acid, heat treated and control fruit. Heat-acid treatment dramatically reduced the activities of anthocyanin degradation enzyme (ADE), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase in the pericarp. A marked reduction in LcPOD gene expression was also detected in heat-acid treated fruit, in contrast, induction was found in heat treated fruit. The pericarp of heat-acid treated fruit exhibited significantly lower respiration rate but faster water loss than that of the untreated or heat treated fruit. Taken together, heat treatment triggered quick browning and anthocyanin loss in lychee fruit, while heat-acid treatment protected the fruit color by a great reduction in the activities/gene expression of anthocyanin degradation enzymes and acidification of lychee pericarp.

  12. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata) extracts on stimulated neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Serteyn, Didier; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Wauters, Jean-Nöel; Tits, Monique; Yariwake, Janete H; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry

    2011-09-15

    The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts from Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata pulp, and P. edulis rinds, healthy or infected with the passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV), was investigated using the oxidant activities of the neutrophil and the neutrophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), both playing key roles in inflammation. The reactive oxygen species produced by stimulated neutrophils were evaluated by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and the activity of purified MPO was measured by SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection), a technique for studying the direct interaction of a compound with the enzyme. The rind extracts of P. edulis possessed higher and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on CL response and on the peroxidase activity of MPO than total pulp extracts from both passion fruit species. The quantification of isoorientin in the extracts showed a correlation with their antioxidant activity, suggesting the potential of P. edulis rinds as functional food or as a possible source of natural flavonoids.

  13. Anti-acne inducing bacteria activity and -mangostin content of Garcinia mangostana fruit rind extracts from different provenience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werayut Pothitirat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit rind of Garcinia mangostana Linn. has been traditionally used for treatment of skin infection, wounds, dysentery, and diarrhea. -Mangostin, a major constituent of the fruit rind, was reported to possess a strong inhibitory effect against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is involved in acne development. This study was conducted to quantitative analyze the content of -mangostin in the fruit rind of this plant collected from 13 locations in the South and East of Thailand by validated TLC-densitometric method. Antibacterial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis of the extracts was also determined. -Mangostin contents in the fruit rinds and in the 95 % ethanolic extracts were found in the ranges of 3.39-5.68 and 11.83-23.11 % dry weight, respectively. The samples from the South showed higher contents of -mangostin (average 17.64 % w/w in the extract and 4.85 % w/w in the dried powder than the eastern samples. The MIC values of all extracts against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were in the range of 7.81-15.63 and 15.63-31.25 g/mL, respectively,while the MBC values were in the range of 15.63-31.25 and 62.50-125.00 g/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activityand mangostin content of the samples from different locations were significantly different (p<0.05. The average MIC and MBC values indicate that the samples from the South of Thailand (MIC = 13.02 g/mL, MBC = 15.63 g/mL for P. acne and MIC = 23.44 g/mL, MBC = 83.33 g/mL for S. epidermidis promoted stronger antibacterial effect than the samples from the East. The results suggest that the -mangostin content in the extract of G. mangostana fruit rind correlates with the antiacne inducing bacteria activity. The fruit rinds of G. mangostana cultivated in the South seemed to be the appropriate source in terms of higher -mangostin content and better anti-acne property.

  14. Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Fruit and Leave Extracts from Virus Infected and Healthy Cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanian, Zahra; Behbahani, Mandana; Shanehsaz, Mehrnaz; Hessami, Mohammad Javad; Nejatian, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Grape virus diseases are a serious problem in Iran. Leaves and fruits of grape have been used for different purposes like cooking in Iran. The present investigation was carried out to study on the cytotoxic-activities of extracts of fruits and leaves of Vitis vinifera from both virus-free and virus-infected grape cultivars against breast cancer cell line (MDAMB- 231) and human embryonic kidney normal cell line (HEK 293). IN THIS EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, THE CONSIDERED GRAPE CULTIVARS WERE AS FOLLOWS: Rish Baba Sefid, Shahani Ghasre Shirin, Rotabi Zarghan, Asgari Najaf Abad, Fars, Kaj Angor Bojnord, Sarkesh Shiraz and Siahe Zarqan. A real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (real-time Multiplex PCR) assay was applied to detect virus infected cultivars. The cytotoxic effect of the methanol extracts of different Vitis vinifera varieties on cultured cells was monitored using (3- (4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000 μg mL(-1)). Among these cultivars, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) along with related symptoms was detected in Siahe Zarqan and Fars. Methanolic extracts of leaves and fruits of Vitis vinifera from both virus free and virus infected cultivars showed a range of limited to moderate cytotoxic activity. However, methanol extract of leaves belonged to virus infected cultivars was found to have strong cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-231 at different concentrations. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) can potentially increase the cytotoxicity of grape cultivars.

  15. Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Illicium verum Fruit and Its Main Component trans-Anethole

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    Qi Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify natural products for plant disease control, the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum Hook. f. fruit was investigated for its antifungal activity on plant pathogenic fungi. The fruit essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation was analyzed for its chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. trans-Anethole (89.5%, 2-(1-cyclopentenyl-furan (0.9% and cis-anethole (0.7% were found to be the main components among 22 identified compounds, which accounted for 94.6% of the total oil. The antifungal activity of the oil and its main component trans-anethole against plant pathogenic fungi were determined. Both the essential oil and trans-anethole exhibited strong inhibitory effect against all test fungi indicating that most of the observed antifungal properties was due to the presence of trans-anethole in the oil, which could be developed as natural fungicides for plant disease control in fruit and vegetable preservation.

  16. Lurking: a challenge or a fruitful strategy? A comparison between lurkers and active participants in an online corporate community of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam, Neelen; Sibren, Fetter

    2011-01-01

    Neelen, M., & Fetter, S. (2010). Lurking: a challenge or a fruitful strategy? A comparison between lurkers and active participants in an online corporate community of practice. International Journal of Knowledge and Learning, 6(4), 269-284.

  17. Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2012-09-01

    Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity.

  18. Expression and location of endo-beta-mannanase during the ripening of tomato fruit, and the relationship between its activity and softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aoxue; Li, Jingfu; Zhang, Bingxiu; Xu, Xiangyang; Bewley, J Derek

    2009-10-15

    Endo-beta-mannanase is thought to play a role in tomato fruit ripening by participating in the degradation of cell walls. Its spatial and temporal expression during ripening was examined, as was the relationship between its activity and softening of the fruit using a large number of tomato lines, and by suppression of transcription of the endo-beta-mannanase (LeMan4a) gene. Immunolocalization studies showed that the enzyme is expressed in the fruit cell wall at all ripening stages, but it is not active during the initial green stage; this is not due to the presence of inhibitors of its activity, nor due to changes in its mRNA sequence. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells of endo-beta-mannanase transcripts fused to green fluorescent protein resulted in the expressed enzyme being localized to the cell walls. Transgenic tomato plants expressing a GUS gene attached to the LeMan4a promoter showed that this occurs initially during ripening in the skin and outer pericarp of the fruit, and later in the skin and throughout the pericarp. Fruit firmness and activity of endo-beta-mannanase were not strongly correlated during ripening of many lines of tomato. Several plants of cv. Micro-Tom were transformed using RNA interference (mRNAi) and antisense RNA strategies to suppress transcription of the LeMan4a gene. When endo-beta-mannanase activity was much reduced in the transgenic fruits, their firmness was higher compared to those of control fruits at the turning and orange-color stages, but at the red-ripe stage firmness was similar between the two fruit types. We suggest that while the enzyme does participate in fruit ripening it alone is not sufficient to cause hydrolysis of the cell walls which results in their weakening; it likely plays a cooperative role with other known wall-modifying enzymes, and/or is involved in cell wall rearrangement.

  19. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, De Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, B.C.J.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Bovy, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for

  20. Unraveling the active hypoglycemic agent trigonelline in Balanites aegyptiaca date fruit using metabolite fingerprinting by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Porzel, Andrea; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2015-11-10

    Trigonelline (3-carboxy-1-methyl pyridinium) was identified as a relevant bioactivity and taste imparting component in Balanites aegyptiaca fruit, using (1)H NMR of crude extracts without any fractionation or isolation step. The structural integrity of trigonelline was established within the extract matrix via(1)H NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC and HMBC and by comparison with authentic standard. A quantitative (1)H NMR method (qHNMR) was used to determine trigonelline concentrations in the peel and pulp of B. aegyptiaca fruit of 8 and 13mgg(-1), respectively. Trigonelline so far has not been reported from B. aegyptiaca or its genus as it easily escapes LC-MS based detection. Its discovery provides novel insight into the balanite fruits antidiabetic properties as the compound is known for a pronounced hypoglycemic effect. In addition, it is likely to impart the perceptible bitter taste portion to balanites sweet bitter taste. UPLC-MS of the crude extract additionally revealed the fruit flavonoid pattern showing quercetin/isorhamnetin flavonol conjugates in addition to epicatechin, the latter being present at much lower levels.

  1. Investigation of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Enzyme Activity, β-carotene, Total Phenol and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruit Peel of Five Citrus Cultivars under Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Golein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the sensitivity of citrus fruit to low temperatures and the conjunction of the fruit harvest season with cold days of the year necessisates more research on physiological effects of cold-stress damages. In this study, five citrus cultivars including Sanguinelli blood orange, Local lemon, Valencia orange, Unshiu mandarin and Local orange were stored under various cold treatments (3, 0, -3 and -6 °C at two stages of before fruit ripening and ripening. Control treatment had temperature of 15 °C. Variations of activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, β-carotene and total phenol of fruit peel at two stages of before fruit ripening and ripening, as well as antioxidant capacity at ripening stage were examined. Results showed that under low temperature and control treatment, the SOD acivity, β–carotene and total phenol in fruit peel of the studied cultivars at ripening stage are higher than before ripening stage. In all the cultivars, except Local lemon, there was an increasing trend in the antioxidant capacity until 0 °C treatment and then became stable. The increasing trend of enzymetic and non-enzymetic antioxidants in fruit peel at ripening stage as compared with before ripening stage, was probably due to cold tolerance of fruits at this stage.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Junqueira-Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic. LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit’s characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  3. Effects of bagging and storage temperature on anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL activity in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. fruit pericarp during maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobkiat Saengnil

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of bagging and storage temperature on anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activity of mangosteen fruit pericarp. Six maturity stages (stage 1 to stage 6, defined by the extension of red or purple colouration on the pericarp of attached mangosteen fruits with bagged and unbagging were compared. It was found that sunlight had no significant effect on both anthocyanin content and PAL activity. The effect of storage temperature onanthocyanin content and PAL activity were also studied. Fruits at stage 1 (indicated by scattered of pink spot on pericarp were harvested and allowed to develop red colour to stage 6 at different storage temperatures: 15º, 25º, 30º (room temperature and 35ºC. It was found that temperature had no effect on anthocyanin content in any stage of fruit development. At all temperature levels, the anthocyanin content was increased accordingly and had the highest level at stage 6. Temperature affected on PAL activity at different stages. Levels of PAL activity decreased at the early stages and increased at the final stage of maturity except for fruits held at 25ºC, PAL activity remained at a low level through stage 6, while fruit at 35ºC had the highest level of PAL at stage 5.

  4. Evaluation of activities promoting fruits and vegetables consumption in 8 countries members of the Global Alliance for Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption “5 a day” – AIAM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Moñino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article compiles practices promoting fruits and vegetables consumption launched by eight members of AIAM5 - Global Alliance for Promoting Fruits and Vegetables Consumption “5 a day”, with the aim of identifying best practices in the approaching strategies, programs and activities to encourage fruits and vegetables consumption. Material and Methods: A questionnaire designed to categorize and identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, cost-effectiveness, feasibility and practices with the greatest potential to adapt to national health promoting policies, was used. Questionnaires from eight countries from AIAM5 were evaluated: Mexico, Chile, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Nicaragua and Spain. Results: One of the greatest strengths of the organizations of AIAM5 is the prestige and the professional, technical and academic knowledge that back up their activities. One evident weakness of their strategies is the lack of measuring practices of the impact of the implemented activities, and the evaluation of their cost-effectiveness. It was also observed that some of the entities that carry out the programs “5 a day” are conceived as social enterprises with diverse types of partners and allies. Conclusions: It is recommended that AIAM5 members should make an effort to measure the impact of their activities and interventions by setting quantifiable goals, and using indicators to assess the degree of achievement of the activities carried out. It is also recommended to exploit the niche of opportunities provided by the Corporate Social Responsibility to help them achieve their objectives of promoting fruits and vegetables consumption.

  5. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lim, Ju-Jin; Ahn, Mun-Seob; Jeong, Haet-Nim; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with the external calibration method. Antioxidative activity of ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were evaluated using the method of DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity. Results The total phenol content in ginseng fruit and leaves was higher than in ginseng roots (p ginseng samples was significantly correlated to the DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity (r = 0.928****). In particular, p-coumaric acid (r = 0.847****) and ferulic acid (r = 0.742****) greatly affected the DPPH activity. Among the 23 phenolic compounds studied, phenolic acids were more abundant in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. Conclusion This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products. PMID:26843824

  6. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit extracts in an oil model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Augusto-Obara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g-1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg-1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg-1 oil in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil.

  7. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Extracts from Leaves and Fruits of Schinusterebinthifolius Raddi from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Piras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oils composition from leaves and ripe fruits of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi growing in Tunisia were investigated using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Volatile oil extraction was achieved by hydrodistillation (HD using a Clevenger apparatus and by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using carbon dioxide. All plant organs, gave SFE extracts chiefly composed by a -pinene, a -phellandrene, b -phellandrene, germacrene D and bicyclogermacrene. In the case of the fruits, both extraction techniques gave volatile oils of similar composition; whereas the comparison between the HD and SFE leave oils revealed important differences in the content of a -pinene (6.1 % vs traces, a -phellandrene (22.7 % vs 0.8 % and b -phellandrene (14.6 % vs 1.2 %. All volatile samples were evaluated against yeasts and dermatophyte strains, being more active against Cryptococcus neoformans, particularly the volatile oil from the fruits, with MIC values of (0.32-0.64 mg/mL.Moreover, this oil revealed an inhibitory effect on germ tube formation in C. albicans at sub-inhibitory concentration. At the concentration of MIC/8 the inhibition of filamentation was more than 70 %.

  8. Quality and bioactive compounds in fruit of foreign accessions of mango conserved in an Active Germplasm Bank1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Passos Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the quality and levels of bioactive compounds in the fruit of 22 foreign accessions of the mango belonging to the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Semiárido. Sixty fruits from each of the accessions: Florigon, Haden, 65, Irwin, M 13269, Momi-K, Scuper Many, Simmonds, Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke, Winter, Zill, Amrapali, Olour, Aplle DCG 406, Mon Amon DCG 407, Black Java, Kensington, Chené, Manila, Manzanillo and Maya, were harvested upon reaching physiological maturity, one half being analysed when harvested and the other half stored at ambient temperature (25.4 ± 2.9 ºC and 41 ± 9% RH until ripe. The experimental design was completely randomised in a 22 x 2 factorial (accession x maturity stage, with three replications of ten fruits. The accessions Chene, Momi-K and Van Dyke stood out for their physical attributes: weight, length, diameter and firmness of pulp, and for their good post-harvest conservation. The accession Amrapali was different because of its high levels of soluble solids, total soluble sugars, starch, ascorbic acid and carotenoids, suggesting a high potential for insertion into a breeding program aimed at the quality of the mango.

  9. Activity of cycloartane-type triterpenes and sterols isolated from Musa paradisiaca fruit peel against Leishmania infantum chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A A S; Morais, S M; Falcão, M J C; Vieira, I G P; Ribeiro, L M; Viana, S M; Teixeira, M J; Barreto, F S; Carvalho, C A; Cardoso, R P A; Andrade-Junior, H F

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of triterpenes and sterols isolated from Musa paradisiaca (banana) fruit peel used traditionally to treat leishmaniasis. The compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the peel of the banana fruit by column chromatography. The chemical structure of compounds was determined by (1)H and (13)C - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity was measured in RAW 264.7 cells and LLC-MK2. Leishmanicidal activity against L. infantum chagasi promastigotes was performed by the MTT colorimetric method and activity against amastigotes was assayed in mammalian cells using in situ ELISA method. Five compounds were identified, consisting of three triterpenes: cycloeucalenone, 31-norcyclolaudenone and 24-methylene-cicloartanol and a mixture of two sterols: beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. With the exception of cycloeucalenone, all compounds showed statistically similar activity against promastigote to pentamidine. While, acting against amastigotes, excluding 31-norcyclolaudenone, other compounds showed activity similar to amphotericin B. All compounds showed low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. This study partially confirms the use of Musa paradisiaca in folk medicine against leishmaniasis. Further in vivo studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in amylase activity starch and sugars contents in mango fruits pulp cv. Tommy Atkins with spongy tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Oliveira Lima

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in amylase activity, starch and reducing and non-reducing sugars contents were monitored during ripening of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.. The climateric raising in mango fruit is marked by an appreciable increase in the activity of amylase, reducing and non-reducing sugars contents and decrease in the starch content. The fruit affected with spongy tissue exhibited much lower amylase activity and reducing and non-reducing sugars, but exhibited much higher starch content during storage at 12 ± 2° C and 90 ± 5% RH for 28 days, when compared to healthy tissue of ‘Tommy Atkins’. Whether this is caused due to adverse effects on certain enzyme activities during ripening is not clearly known. These dates showed that carbohydrate metabolism is an important feature during ripening of mango.Mudanças na atividade amilase, conteúdo de amido e açúcares redutores e não redutores foram monitorados durante o amadurecimento de mangas (Mangifera indica L. . A elevação climatérica em mangas é marcada por apreciável aumento na atividade de amilases, aumento do conteúdo de açúcares redutores e não redutores e um decréscimo no conteúdo de amido. Os frutos afetados com tecido esponjoso exibiu atividade desta enzima muito mais baixa e conteúdo de açúcares redutores e não redutores, mas exibiu conteúdo muito mais elevado de amido durante o armazenamento em 12 ± 2 ° C e 90 ± 5 % de umidade relativa por 28 dias, comparado ao fruto sadio de "Tommy Atkins". Se isto é causado devido a fatores adversos sob a atividade de certas enzimas durante o amadurecimento isto não é claramente conhecido. Estes dados mostram que o metabolismo de carboidratos é um importante aspecto durante o amadurecimento de mangas.

  11. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi, E-mail: mausumi_mukhopadhyay@yahoo.com [S.V. National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2013-01-15

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1 Prime -diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2 Prime -azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  12. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2013-01-01

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1'-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  13. Effects of solvents and extraction methods on the content and antiradical activity of polyphenols from fruits Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens and Schisandra chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pliszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In line with the current tendency towards the production of the so-called safe foods, the use of environmentally-friendly methods for the extraction of polyphenols from fruits has been sought. Citric acid is a good solvent in the preparation of phenolic compounds for the food and pharmaceutical industries because it is a natural antioxidant and is non-toxic for the environment. Furthermore, new sources of polyphenols from fruit of orchard plants that are less known in Poland have been looked for. The aim of this study was  to assess the content and antiradical activity of polyphenolic compounds in fruit extracts, depending on the extraction method employed. In addition, the yield of extraction processes was assessed. Material and methods. The experimental materials were fruits of the following plants: Actinidia arguta, Crataegus monogyna, Gaultheria procumbens, Schisandra chinensis. For the extraction, aqueous solutions of citric acid (CAE and methanol (ME were used. The following were determined in fruit extracts: the con- tent of total phenols (TP and anthocyanins (A, and antiradical activity (DPPH and ABTS. Results. In general, the C. monogyna fruit extracts were distinguished by the highest TP and A content. The TP and A content was significantly higher in fruit extracts obtained with the CAE method than in the ones produced with the ME method. The highest mean A/TP ratio was determined for S. chinensis fruit extracts. The antiradi- cal activity (DPPH and ABTS in fruit extracts did not depend on an extraction method, but on fruit species. Overall, a higher yield of extraction processes was achieved for the CAE method than for the ME method. Conclusions. The present study indicates that the selected extraction methods are able to obtain polyphenolic extracts from fruits with a high antiradical activity and high yield. The use of citric acid in order to extract polyphenols from fruits may be an alternative to the conventional

  14. Antiamoebic activity of Piper longum fruits against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, S; Prasad, B N; Lakshmi, V

    1996-03-01

    The fruits of Piper longum used in traditional remedies against intestinal distress have been tested for their efficacy against experimental caecal amoebiasis of rats. The ethanolic extract, hexane fraction, n-butanol soluble fraction exerted in vitro amoebicidal action at 1000 micrograms/mL and the chloroform fraction at 500 micrograms/mL. The ethanolic extract and piperine, a pure compound, from this plant material cured 90% and 40% of rats with caecal amoebiasis, respectively.

  15. Fruit Juice.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Homogenization, Stabilizer and Amylase Treatment on Viscosity of Passion. Fruit Juice. ... viscosity during storage of sweetened, pasteurized passion fruit juice were investigated. .... minutes after which the temperature was.

  16. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Cucumis melo fruit peel extracts in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidkar, Jayant S; Ghanwat, Dhanaji Dadaso; Bhujbal, Madhuri D; Dama, Ganesh Y

    2012-09-24

    Abstract Cucumis melo Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits have been used, traditionally in Indian traditional system of medicine, for the treatment of various disorders such as liver tonic, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, antiobesity, etc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Cucumis melo fruit peel (CMFP) methanolic and aqueous extract in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Treatment with CMFP methanolic and aqueous extract showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in gain in body weight, serum lipid profile like total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, atherogenic index and increased the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in 28 days treatment when compared to the hyperlipidemic control group. The fecal excretion of bile acids and sterols was further increased upon treatment with CMFP methanolic and aqueous extract and standard drug. Administration of methanolic extract of CMFP at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed higher antihyperlipidemic activity as compared to other extract treated groups. The results concluded that CMFP methanolic extract (500 mg/kg) have potent antihyperlipidemic activity in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia model and which is equipotent activity when compared with atorvastatin treated group.

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Wound Healing Properties of Jaboticaba (Plinia peruviana) Fruit Peel Hydroalcoholic Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aline; Blasius, Mayara B.; Voytena, Ana Paula L.; Fanan, Simone; Trevisan, Adriana C. D.; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa M.; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Jaboticaba is a fruit from a native tree to Brazil, Plinia peruviana. Jaboticaba peels are an important source of antioxidant molecules such as phenolic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of jaboticaba fruit peels (HEJFP) in wound healing processes and antioxidant activity in murine fibroblasts (L929 cell line). HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL) were tested in MTT assay and cell proliferation was verified at 100 µg/mL after 24 h and at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL after 48 h of extract exposure. Evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed at 0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL HEJFP concentrations. Cell treatment with HEJFP at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL for 24 h followed by H2O2 exposure for 3 h showed a strong cytoprotective effect. In vitro scratch wound healing assay indicated that none of tested HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) were capable of increasing migration rate after 12 h of incubation. These results demonstrate a positive effect of HEJFP on the wound healing process on L929 fibroblasts cell line, probably due to the antioxidant activity exhibited by phytochemicals in the extract. PMID:27630758

  18. Comparison of the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of European commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gina; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-10-01

    Thirty six commercial European fruit juices were tested to ascertain their antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition. Six of the products were labelled 100% pomegranate juice, the others included 20 brands of diluted pomegranate juice or pomegranate blended with other fruit juices and 10 different non-pomegranate fruit juices. The antioxidant capacity of all the juices was determined while anthocyanin, ellagitannin and ellagic acid profiles of the 26 pomegranate juices and pomegranate juice blends were obtained using HPLC-PDA-MS(2). Additional analysis was conducted on seven of the juices using HPLC with an on-line antioxidant detection system. Three of the "pure" pomegranate juices had the highest ellagitannin content and the highest antioxidant capacity. Only one of these three juices was rich in anthocyanins. The other "pure juices" had differences in their HPLC "pomegranate" fingerprint and also had a lower antioxidant capacity, in some cases lower than that of some of the blended juices. Vitamin C rather than phenolic compounds was the major contributor to the antioxidant capacity for some of the juices. Statistical analysis of both the antioxidant assay and the HPLC on-line antioxidant data demonstrated that the ellagitannins were the major antioxidants in the pomegranate juices. The complexity of the polyphenolic profile of pomegranates necessitates the use of HPLC-PDA-MS(2) for a thorough evaluation of juice composition and authenticity.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract and bioactive compounds identified from the fruits of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza; Andrade, Rafael Caetano Lisbôa Castro de; Azevedo, Eduardo Pereira de; Soares, Thaciane da Cunha; Tomaz, José Carlos; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2016-08-05

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), popularly known as "mangabeira," has been used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, hypertension, dermatitis, diabetes, liver diseases and gastric disorders. Although the ethnobotany indicates that its fruits can be used for the treatment of ulcers and inflammatory disorders, only few studies have been conducted to prove such biological activities. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous extract of the fruits of H. speciosa Gomes as well as its bioactive compounds using in vivo experimental models. The bioactive compounds were identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The anti-inflammatory properties were investigated through in vivo tests, which comprised xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α were determined using ELISA. Rutin and chlorogenic acid were identified in the extract as the main secondary metabolites. In addition, the extract as well as rutin and chlorogenic acid significantly inhibited the xilol-induced ear edema and also reduced the cell migration in both carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch models. Reduced levels of cytokines were also observed. This is the first study that demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract of H. speciosa fruits against different inflammatory agents in animal models, suggesting that its bioactive molecules, especially rutin and chlorogenic acid are, at least in part, responsible for such activity. These findings support the widespread use of Hancornia speciosa in popular medicine and demonstrate that its aqueous extract has therapeutical potential for the development of herbal drugs with anti-inflammatory properties.

  20. Antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic and fractionated extracts of Punica granatum Linn. fruit peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverton Silva Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is clear the need to develop new antimicrobial seeking to solve problems such as antibiotic resistance, in this context medicinal plants has been using a prominent place, and knowledge of popular medicine shows itself to be a promising search tool. Peel of Punica granatum fruits are popularly used for the treatment of diarrhea, eye and upper airway inflammation, and in the external treatment of infectious sores. Thus, this study had the objective to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of the crude ethanol extract of peels of P. granatum, three organic fractions and also fractions obtained by column chromatography, on reference microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disk diffusion method. The obtained results evidenced that the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions facing S. aureus and E. coli showed significant antimicrobial activity, close to the antimicrobial gentamicin and penicillin, respectively. In its turn the crude ethanolic extract of P. granatum and aqueous fraction showed inhibitory effect similar to the antimicrobial tetracycline facing P. aeruginosa. It was observed an increase in the inhibition of the microorganisms with increasing extract volume (from 10 to 30 μL, being S. aureus and P. aeruginosa the most susceptible microorganisms. Differences in activity between the extracts and fractions can be partly explained by qualitative and quantitative variations in the secondary metabolites present in the extracts and fractions.Keywords: Pomegranade. Medicinal plants. Antimicrobial action. RESUMO Atualmente está clara a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos antimicrobianos buscando resolver problemas como a resistência a antibióticos, neste contexto, as plantas medicinais vem utilizando um lugar de destaque, e os conhecimentos da medicina popular mostram-se uma ferramenta de busca promissora. Cascas dos frutos de Punica granatum s

  1. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of seeds oils and fruit juice of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Opuntia Dillenii from Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi, Z.; Ramdani, M.; Tahri, M.; Rmili, R.; Elmsellem, H.; El Mahi, B.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    This study provides basic information on the mineral composition of the seeds and antioxidant activity in seeds oils and fruit juices of cactus belonging to two species Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii, from Morocco (Oujda), in order to evaluate the nutritional value of the Opuntia extracts. Minerals determined from dry seeds of Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii were: calcium 480.93 and 408.28; phosphorus 1417.59 and 970.15; potassium 304.51 and 201.96; magnesium: 316.59 and ...

  2. Flavonols and antioxidant activity of Physalis peruviana L. fruit at two maturity stages - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Licodiedoff

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the characteristics of the fresh fruit of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. are little known, its valorization and use are impaired. The fruit’s bioactive compounds at two stages of maturity, start and end of maturity, are evaluated, with differentiating colors between green-yellow and orange for two sizes of the fruit. The ratio between sugars and acids increased from the beginning to the end of maturity. Quercetin was not found in the samples. Nevertheless, rutin was predominant in small and large size mature sample, followed by greenish yellow (start of maturity color of the small size fruit, with values ranging between 6.904 and 6.761 mg g-1 and 5.891 to 4.465 mg g-1, respectively. Myricetin rates ranged between 1.085 and 1.170 mg g-1 and 1.110 to 1.309 mg g-1 for greenish yellow and orange fruits, respectively. These results characterize the fruit of Physalis peruviana L. as a source of phenolic compounds in food. Antioxidant activity, influenced by the different stages of fruit ripening, is correlated to a higher content of the flavonols rutin and myricetin. Maturity degree and fruit size affect the fruit’s chemical characteristics.  

  3. Evaluation of removal efficiency of heavy metals by low-cost activated carbon prepared from African palm fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazak, Sani; Hussaini, K.; Sani, H. M.

    2016-09-01

    This study details the removal of heavy metals; Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead from wastewater effluent using an activated carbon produced from African palm fruit. The effluent was obtained from Old Panteka market; a metal scrap Market located in Kaduna State, Nigeria, which has several components that constitute high level of pollution in the environment. The effect of temperature and contact time on the removal of these heavy metals using the activated carbon produced was investigated. The activated carbon showed a significant ability in removing heavy metals; Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead from the wastewater. Higher percentage removal was observed at a temperature of 80 °C (93.23 ± 0.035, 96.71 ± 0.097, 92.01 ± 0.018, and 95.42 ± 0.067 % for Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead, respectively) and at an optimum contact time of 60 min (99.235 ± 0.148, 96.711 ± 0.083, 95.34 ± 0.015, and 97.750 ± 0.166 % for Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead, respectively) after which the percentage removal decreases. This work, therefore, suggests that African palm fruit can be successfully applied to solve this environmental pollution.

  4. Investigating Potential Modes of Actions of Mimusops kummel Fruit Extract and Solvent Fractions for Their Antidiarrheal Activities in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Mulugeta; Gemeda, Negero; Abay, Solomon M

    2017-01-01

    Fruits of Mimusops kummel A. DC. (Sapotaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea. The present study aimed at investigating modes of actions of this fruits for antidiarrheal action to guide future drug development process. Fractions of chloroform, n-butanol, and water were obtained from 80% methanol extract, which was prepared by maceration. Antidiarrheal activities and the modes of actions were investigated in mice. In castor oil induced diarrheal model, the extract delayed onset of diarrhea and reduced number and weight of feces at all tested doses significantly. In this model all fractions significantly delayed onset of diarrhea at all tested doses. Charcoal meal test showed that the extract and all the fractions produced a significant antimotility effect at all tested doses. Enteropooling test showed that the extract as well as n-butanol and aqueous fractions at all tested doses produced a significant decline in volume and weight of intestinal contents, whereas chloroform fraction had substantial effect only at high dose. This study demonstrated that the extract and solvent fractions produced antidiarrheal activities due to dual inhibitory effect, intestinal motility, and fluid secretion, with the aqueous fraction being the most active among fractions in three models.

  5. Investigating Potential Modes of Actions of Mimusops kummel Fruit Extract and Solvent Fractions for Their Antidiarrheal Activities in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Molla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fruits of Mimusops kummel A. DC. (Sapotaceae are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea. The present study aimed at investigating modes of actions of this fruits for antidiarrheal action to guide future drug development process. Methods. Fractions of chloroform, n-butanol, and water were obtained from 80% methanol extract, which was prepared by maceration. Antidiarrheal activities and the modes of actions were investigated in mice. Results. In castor oil induced diarrheal model, the extract delayed onset of diarrhea and reduced number and weight of feces at all tested doses significantly. In this model all fractions significantly delayed onset of diarrhea at all tested doses. Charcoal meal test showed that the extract and all the fractions produced a significant antimotility effect at all tested doses. Enteropooling test showed that the extract as well as n-butanol and aqueous fractions at all tested doses produced a significant decline in volume and weight of intestinal contents, whereas chloroform fraction had substantial effect only at high dose. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the extract and solvent fractions produced antidiarrheal activities due to dual inhibitory effect, intestinal motility, and fluid secretion, with the aqueous fraction being the most active among fractions in three models.

  6. Expression patterns, activities and carbohydrate-metabolizing regulation of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and neutral invertase in pineapple fruit during development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion.

  7. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  8. Study on the antioxidant activity of different fruits by spectroscopy%光度法测定常见水果的总抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵立群; 尹计秋; 周君; 郭爽; 丁玲; 张旭

    2013-01-01

    目的:利用微波辅助提取光度法研究不同水果的总抗氧化活性.方法:通过微波辅助提取水果活性成分,利用高锰酸钾光度法对10种水果的抗氧化活性进行比较;另以灌胃法观察10种水果对小鼠外周血抗氧化能力的影响.结果:10种水果中柠檬和猕猴桃的抗氧化活性较强;10种水果中对小鼠外周血抗氧化能力影响最大的是圣女果、紫葡萄、猕猴桃,但与其它水果差异性较小.结论:某些水果具有较强体外抗氧化活性,但其体内抗氧化活性趋于均化.%Objective:To study the antioxidant activity of different fruits by spectroscopy with microwave-assisted extraction.Methods:The active components of fruits were extracted by microwave and the antioxidant abilities of 10 kinds of fruits were compared using potassium permanganate spectrophotometry.And the influence of antioxidant abilities on mouse' s peripheral blood were studied by intragastric administration.Results:Lemon and Kiwi fruit have stronger antioxidant among 10 kinds of fruits ; cherry tomato,purple grape and Kiwi fruit have greater influence on antioxidant abilities in peripheral blood of mouse,however,the difference with other 7 kinds of fruits is small.Conclusion:Some fruits have relatively strong antioxidant activity in vitro,and almost the same in vivo.

  9. Comparative evaluation of the medicinal activities of methanolic extract of seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of Syzygium cumini in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repon Kumer Saha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the health benefits of Syzgium cumin to discover functional components present in the seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of this fruit grown in Bangladesh. Methods: Thin layer chromatography and ultra-violet spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of various types of compound in seeds and juice. Antioxidant effects were measured by DPPH scavenging assay and total reducing assay. Receptor binding activities was performed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Anti-inflammatory assay and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis assay was also investigated. Disc diffusion assay was performed to show the antibacterial effect using Gram positive, Gram negative strains of bacteria and fungi. Results: Methanolic extract of the seeds showed stronger antioxidant, hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis activities, hemagglutination inhibition activities and membrane stabilization activities than those of fresh juice. However, fresh juice showed stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities than those of methanolic seed extract. The seed contains higher amount of polyphenols and flavanoids than those of fruit juice. Conclusions: Therefore, fruit juice, fruit pulp and seed of Syzygium cumini contain medicinal active components in different ratios.

  10. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn. desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tharachand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn. Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Significant anthelmintic effects of the fruits and leaves of G. cambogia and G. indica (P<0.05 were observed and the results were expressed in terms of paralysis and death time. All the extracts showed the dose dependent paralysis and death of earthworms. Among all the extracts used, methanol extract exhibited the highest activity. G. cambogia leaf extract (50 mg/mL had 30% faster paralysis effect on earthworms than the standard reference. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of the fruits and leaves showed significant (P<0.05 activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At a concentration of 500 µg/mL, G. indica fruit extract presented higher zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, it could be concluded that the leaves and fruits of G. indica and G. cambogia contained active anthelmintic and antibacterial phytochemicals, which could find their applications in pharmaceuticals.

  11. Encapsulation of Active Compounds in Fruit and Vegetable Juice Processing: Current State and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Barbara; Petruzzi, Leonardo; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Gallo, Mariangela; Campaniello, Daniela; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2017-06-01

    The production of value-added and/or functional juices has increased significantly in recent years, following an increased consumer demand to promote health and/or prevent disease through diet and nutrition. Micro and nano-encapsulation are promising technologies to protect and deliver sensitive compounds, allowing a controlled release in the target sites. This paper offers an overview of current applications, limits and challenges of encapsulation technologies in the production of fruit and vegetable juices, with a particular emphasis on products derived from different botanical sources. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Steroidal Saponins from the Mesocarp of the Fruits of Raphia farinifera (Arecaceae) and their Cytotoxic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapondjou, Léon A; Siems, Kristina J; Böttger, Stefan; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-11-01

    Eight steroidal saponins (1-8), including one previously unreported derivative (1), have been isolated from the mesocarp of Raphia farinifera fruits by combined column chromatography and RP-HPLC methods. They were characterized by spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR experiments) and spectrometric (ESIMS) methods, as well as by comparison of their spectral data with those of reported compounds in the literature. All the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against urinary bladder carcinoma cells (ECV-304). Our results revealed that, for a high cytotoxicity, a sugar chain of at least three sugar moieties attached to C-3 of the steroidal saponin is necessary.

  13. Comparison of methods for extraction of biologically active substances from hawthorn fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trapeznikova

    2016-02-01

    Extraction was performed by infusion, GM = 1: 10 (raw materials: extractant, heated in different conditions: 1 in an incubator at 60 ° C for 1.5 hours; duration of 1st extraction stage 1 h, a second - 30 minutes; 2 in a microwave oven at 300 W power for 5 min (1st extraction step; 3 in an oven with simultaneous sonication (ultrasound mode in the 1st embodiment. In extracts of the fruit and extract the content of ascorbic acid is determined, the free organic acids and sugars, calculated yield of extractives (EV.

  14. Phenolics and Ascorbic Acid Related to Antioxidant Activity of MaoFruit Juice and Their Thermal Stability Study (Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitiya Sripakdee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidantand/or anti-aging activities are always linedwith people’s minds as major potential benefits concerning human health in the recent commercial features for an economicworld of foodstuffs and medical uses. Total phenolics includingflavonoids and anthocyanins,and ascorbic acid in the Mao juices areclosely related to their antioxidant activity.Numerous research approaches on these functional foods, in particular the colored fruits and vegetableshave been investigated. Method validation and determination ofthe potential compounds have been increasingly developedwith highly sensitive and selective procedures and applications including thermal stability of the Mao juice.Their antioxidant activities obtained from different assays related to the contents of both phenolics and ascorbic acid in the anthocyanins-richMao juicesin Thailand are reported and discussed.

  15. Control of skin colour and polyphenol oxidase activity in santol fruit by dipping in organic acid solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P

    2009-01-01

    .... The experiment aimed to determine an effective natural organic acid that would delay the unattractive skin browning of santol fruit, while at the same time not damaging the quality of the fruit...

  16. Study of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of date fruit as a function of ripening stages and drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdadi, F; Mirzaei, H O; Daraei Garmakhany, A

    2015-03-01

    Edible parts of two varieties of date palm (Mazfati and Kalute varieties) (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits (DPF) from Iran were analyzed to determine their phenolic compound and antioxidant activities (AA). Antioxidant activity evaluated using typical methods such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and total antioxidant method. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the DPF was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau method. The samples used in this study included samples were gathered at three stages of khalaal, rutab, tamr and dried date from Bam and Jiroft date. The TPC ranged from 2.89 to 4.82, 1074 to 856.4 and 782.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 gdw sample) for khalal, rutab and tamr stage of Mozafati variety, respectively. This work demonstrates the potential of Iranian dates as good sources of antioxidant which can be used as functional food ingredients. The influence of sun drying process and oven drying at temperature ranged 50-80 °C on phenolic compounds and AA of date palm fruits were investigated. Result of drying process showed that TPC and AA varied with temperature and decreased by increase of drying temperature (from 667.3 to 610.5 mg galic acid in sun dried dates of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively to 314.2 and 210.4 in dried dates (80 °C) of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively).

  17. Moringa fruit inhibits LPS-induced NO/iNOS expression through suppressing the NF-κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Tae-Sung; Park, Yoon-Yub; Chae, Whi-Gun; Chung, Il-Kyung; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a natural biologically active substance, by determining its inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Extracts from different parts of moringa (root, leaf, and fruit) reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release in a dose-dependent manner. The moringa fruit extract most effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production and levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The moringa fruit extract also was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Furthermore, moringa fruit extract inhibited the cytoplasmic degradation of I κ B -α and the nuclear translocation of p65 proteins, resulting in lower levels of NF -κ B transactivation. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that moringa fruit extract reduces the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including NO , IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 via the inhibition of NF -κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells. These findings reveal, in part, the molecular basis underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of moringa fruit extract.

  18. Chebulin: Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit-derived peptide with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornwatana, Thakorn; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Wetprasit, Nuanchawee; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Ratanapo, Sunanta

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in blood pressure regulation. In this study, an ACE-hexapeptide inhibitor (Asp-Glu-Asn-Ser-Lys-Phe) designated as chebulin was produced from the fruit protein of Terminalia chebula Retz. by pepsin digestion, ultrafiltrated through a 3 KDa cut-off membrane, a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Chebulin was found to inhibit ACE in a noncompetitive manner, as supported by the structural model. It bounds to ACE by the hydrogen bond, hydrophobic and ionic interactions via the interactions of C-terminal Phe (Phe-6), and N-terminal residues (Asp-1 and Glu-2) with the amino acid residues on noncatalytic sites of the ACE. The results showed that chebulin derived from fruits of T. chebula Retz. is a potential ACE-peptide inhibitor that could be used as a functional food additive for the prevention of hypertension and as an alternative to ACE inhibitor drug.

  19. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and relaxant activity of fruits of callistemon citrinus curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Ismail

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Callistemon citrinus Curtis belongs to family Myrtaceae that has a great medicinal importance. In our previous work, fruits of Callistemon citrinus were reported to have relaxant (antispasmodic activity. The current work describes the screening of fractions of the crude methanol extract for tracing spasmolytic constituents so that it shall help us for isolation of bioactive compounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract are also performed to standardize it. Methods The crude methanol extract was obtained by maceration with distilled water (500 ml three times and fractionated successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol (300 ml of each solvent. Phytochemical analysis for crude methanol extract was performed. Acute toxicity studies were performed in mice. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity studies were performed to determine its cytotoxicity and standardize it. In other series of experiments, rabbits' jejunum preparations were used in screening for possible relaxant activities of various fractions. They were applied in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations. In similar fashion, fractions were also tested on KCl (80 mM -induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed in K-rich Tyrode's solution. The effects of various fractions were tested on calcium chloride curves at concentrations 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Curves of verapamil used as reference drug at concentration 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM were also constructed. The curves were compared with their respective controls for possible right shift. Results Methanol extract tested strongly positive for saponins and tannins. However, it tested mild positive for presence of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. LD50 value for crude methanol extract is 476.25 ± 10.3 (470-481, n = 4 mg/ml. Similarly, EC50 value for brine shrimp

  20. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jaijoy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The fresh or dry fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. is used in traditional medicines for the treatment of diarrhea, jaundice and inflammatory disorder. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the standardized water extract from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica was prepared according to the Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia (THP. P. emblica water extract was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity in rats using ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP-induced and arachidonic acid (AA-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced paw edema as well as cotton pellet-induced granuloma models, and its analgesic activity in mice using formalin test. The extract at 1 mg/ear exhibited anti-inflammatory effect on EPP-induced ear edema, but not on AA-induced ear edema. Oral administration of P. emblica at the doses of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg caused dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. P. emblica at 600 mg/kg did reduce neither transudative and proliferative phases nor body weight gain and thymus weight in cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation. The extract at the doses of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg elicited a significant analgesic activity in a dose-dependent manner on both the early and late phase of formalin test. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic mechanism of activity of the standardized water extract of P. emblica seems to be similar to NSAIDs rather than to steroidal drugs. Inhibitory effect on the synthesis and/or release of inflammatory or pain mediators may be the main mechanisms of action of P. emblica water extract.   Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants have long been recognized as an important source of therapeutically effective treatment for inflammatory diseases. Many patients are turning to herbal medicine as their primary, complementary or alternative therapies because of the adverse effects of the pharmaceutical drugs. P. emblica fruit has been used in traditional management

  1. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  2. Stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster under semi-natural condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha N Kannan

    Full Text Available Here we report the results of a study aimed at examining stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms under semi-natural conditions (henceforth SN, in four large outbred fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster populations, selected for emergence in a narrow window of time under laboratory (henceforth LAB light/dark (LD cycles. When assessed under LAB, selected flies display enhanced stability in terms of higher amplitude, synchrony and accuracy in emergence and activity rhythms compared to controls. The present study was conducted to assess whether such differences in stability between selected and control populations, persist under SN where several gradually changing time-cues are present in their strongest form. The study revealed that under SN, emergence waveform of selected flies was modified, with even more enhanced peak and narrower gate-width compared to those observed in the LAB and compared to control populations in SN. Furthermore, flies from selected populations continued to exhibit enhanced synchrony and accuracy in their emergence and activity rhythms under SN compared to controls. Further analysis of zeitgeber effects revealed that enhanced stability in the rhythmicity of selected flies under SN was primarily due to increased sensitivity to light because emergence and activity rhythms of selected flies were as stable as controls under temperature cycles. These results thus suggest that stability of circadian rhythms in fruit flies D. melanogaster, which evolved as a consequence of selection for emergence in a narrow window of time under weak zeitgeber condition of LAB, persists robustly in the face of day-to-day variations in cycling environmental factors of nature.

  3. Chitinase-like proteins with antifungal activity from emperor banana fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vincent S M; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2007-01-01

    Two 30-kDa proteins with N-terminal sequence homology to chitinases have been isolated from fruits of the emperor banana by using a protocol that involved (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Mono S and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The proteins were adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. They both inhibited mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum but not in Mycosphaerella arachidicola. The chitinase-like protein more strongly bound on Mono S was obtained with a slightly lower yield and exhibited a higher antifungal potency toward F. oxysporum when compared with the less strongly bound chitinase-like protein.

  4. Microwave assisted extraction process of betalain from dragon fruit and its antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thirugnanasambandham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the operating parameters in microwave assisted extraction process (MIE such as temperature, mass of the sample, extraction time on the betalain content from dragon fruit peel using response surface methodology (RSM. Three factors three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD was used for optimization and mathematical model development. Significant quadratic polynomial model was obtained (R2 = 0.9892 for betalain content with high coefficient determination value and numerical optimization was employed to achieve optimum conditions which was found to be; temperature of 35 °C, mass of the sample of 20 g, and treatment time of 8 min. Under these conditions, 9 mg/L of betalain content was obtained and it was validated using experimental values.

  5. Inhibitory effect of fruit juices on the doxorubicin metabolizing activity of carbonyl reductase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takeshi; Nagai, Katsutoshi; Kaneshiro, Shingo; Taketomi, Ayako; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Konishi, Hiroki; Nishinaka, Toru; Terada, Tomoyuki

    2017-03-09

    Doxorubicin, an anthracycline anti-cancer drug, is effective for breast cancer and childhood lymphoma. Chronic cardiotoxicity has been known as a critical adverse effect of doxorubicin and is attributed to its metabolite doxorubicinol produced by carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1, SDR21C1). Some flavonoids have been reported to act as inhibitors for CBR1, therefore, commercially available juices containing flavonoids are likely to be applicable as a prophylactic treatment against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by suppression doxorubicinol production. In the study, fruit juices containing flavonoids were investigated on inhibitory effects for CBR1. Recombinant CBR1 protein was subjected to in vitro enzymatic assays with/without juices. An apple juice and a grapefruit juice were selected in the present study as candidates capable of inhibiting CBR1. The enzymatic assays revealed that both juices potently inhibit the CBR1-mediated metabolic conversion of doxorubicin to doxorubicinol in concertation-dependent manners. The concentrations required for obtaining 50% inhibition (IC50) were 0.0012% (v/v) and 0.0014% (v/v) for apple and grapefruit juices, respectively. Additionally, it is worth noting that these juices showed inhibitory effects on doxorubicin metabolism by CBR1 even at very low concentrations (0.0001% (v/v)). An apple juice and a grape fruit juice showed strong inhibitory effects on doxorubicin metabolism by CBR1 in vitro. These results suggest that the intake of flavonoid-containing juices can be promising measure for the protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity, enabling patients to keep higher adherence with routine use in light of safety, economic performance and stable supply to market. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Effect of different extracting solvents on antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of a fruit and vegetable residue flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica C. P. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify antioxidant capacity in food products, several methods have been proposed over the years. Among them, DPPH radical is widely used to determine the antioxidant capacity of different substrates. However, it is known that different types of extractants, providing different responses, can extract a variety of bioactive compounds. Besides, storage time seems to interfere in the stability of these substances. Integral use of fruits and vegetables has been proposed along the years as a means of reducing environmental pollution and give a better destination to by-products from food industries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of a fruit and vegetables residue flour (FVR with sequential and non-sequential extraction, in order to evaluate its antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds. And these compounds stability during storage of 180 days. It was observed that in non-sequential extraction, water was able to reduce by 74% the radical; however, at sequential extraction process, using six different extractors, each one was able to reduce at least 40% of DPPH. The total soluble phenolic contents in sequential extraction were 22.49 ± 1.59 mg GAE/g FVR on the first day and 5.35 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g FVR after 180 days.

  7. Anti-yeast activity of mentha oil and vapours through in vitro and in vivo (real fruit juices) assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Gottardi, Davide; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2013-04-15

    The anti-yeast activity of mentha oil and vapours was evaluated against 8 food spoiling yeasts through disc diffusion, disc volatilisation and micro broth dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.28 to 2.25 and 1.13 to 4.5 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the anti-yeast efficacy of mentha oil alone and in combination with thermal treatment was evaluated in a real food system i.e. mixed fruit juices. The samples treated with a combination of mentha oil at the MIC, ½ MIC and ¼ MIC levels and thermal treatment enhanced the reduction viability. Chemical characterisation of mentha oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that the dominant compounds were cis-menthone (27.43%), menthol (24.3%), trans-menthone (9.23%), limonene (5.84%), menthofuran (4.44%) and isomenthol (3.21%). Present results established the superior performance of integrated treatment over individual exposure for fruit juice preservation.

  8. Antioxidants Activity and Color Evaluation of Date Fruit of Selected Cultivars Commercially Available in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Mohammed Al-Jasass

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dates (Phoenix dactylifera L. are nutrient-rich fruit consumed throughout the world, either directly or in several food products. Six commercially available date cultivars in the US were analyzed for total phenolics, antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays, and instrumental color. Total phenolics content varied from 33 to 125 mg GAE/100 g dry weight, with the highest in Barni (Saudi Arabia. Antioxidant values as determined by the ABTS in Deglet Nour (Algeria, Deglet Nour (California, Deglet Noor (Tunisia, Shahia (Tunisia, Barni (Saudi Arabia, and Khudri (Saudi Arabia were 1300, 1047, 796, 452, 776, and 341 μmol TE/g dry weight, respectively. Antioxidative properties as measure by DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC varied from 3.27 to 3.54, 3.29 to 5.22, and 189 to 243 μmol TE/g dry basis, respectively. Fruit and pulp color of Deglet Nour (Algeria was lighter whereas pulp of Barni (Saudi Arabia was the darkest. Antioxidant values varied with different techniques used and also followed a different pattern than that of phenolics content.

  9. Antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities of Terminalia pallida Linn. fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M T Sampathkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia contributes significantly in the manifestation and development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD. Although synthetic lipid-lowering drugs are useful in treating hyperlipidemia, there are number of adverse effects. So the current interest has stimulated the search for new lipid-lowering agents with minimal side effects from natural sources. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic potentiality of ethanolic extract of Terminalia pallida fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. T. pallida fruits ethanolic extract (TPEt was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. Sprague-Dawley male rats were made hyperlipidemic by giving high fat diet, supplied by NIN (National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India. TPEt was administered in a dose of 100 mg/kg.b.w./day for 30 days in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The body weights, plasma lipid, and lipoprotein levels were measured before and after the treatment. TPEt showed significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities as evidenced by significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels coupled together with elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and diminution of atherogenic index in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. There was a significantly reduced body weight gain in TPEt-treated hyperlipidemic rats than in the control group. The present study demonstrates that TPEt possesses significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic properties, thus suggesting its beneficial effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Evaluation of different extraction methods from pomegranate whole fruit or peels and the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the polyphenolic fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Alessandra; Coccia, Andrea; Lendaro, Eugenio; Mosca, Luciana; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Cesa, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    Pomegranate is a functional food of great interest, due to its multiple beneficial effects on human health. This fruit is rich in anthocyanins and ellagitannins, which exert a protective role towards degenerative diseases. The aim of the present work was to optimize the extraction procedure, from different parts of the fruit, to obtain extracts enriched in selected polyphenols while retaining biological activity. Whole fruits or peels of pomegranate cultivars, with different geographic origin, were subjected to several extraction methods. The obtained extracts were analyzed for polyphenolic content, evaluated for antioxidant capacity and tested for antiproliferative activity on human bladder cancer T24 cells. Two different extraction procedures, employing ethyl acetate as a solvent, were useful in obtaining extracts enriched in ellagic acid and/or punicalagins. Antioxidative and antiproliferative assays demonstrated that the antioxidant capability is directly related to the phenolic content, whereas the antiproliferative activity is to be mainly attributed to ellagic acid.

  11. Effect of the Production of Dried Fruits and Juice from Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L. on the Content and Antioxidative Activity of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oszmiański

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of dried fruits and juices from chokeberry as potential sources of bioactive compounds with beneficial effects on human health. Dry powders and juices from chokeberry were analyzed for the contents of sugars with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD method, and the antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the FRAP (ferric-reducing ability of plasma and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid tests. Polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer and a photodiode-array detector (LC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS, and their quantitative analysis was carried out by UPLC-MS/MS (using a Q/TOF detector and a PDA detector. A total of 27 polyphenolic compounds was identified in chokeberry products, including 7 anthocyanins, 11 flavonols, 5 phenolic acids, 3 flavan-3-ols and 1 flavanone. Three anthocyanin derivatives were reported for the first time from chokeberry fruit. A higher activity of the bioactive compounds was determined in dried fruit pomace and in juice obtained from crushed fruits than in those from the whole fruits. In addition, the pomace was found to be a better material for the production of dry powders, compared to chokeberry fruits.

  12. Determination of the Elemental Composition of the Pulp, Seed and Fruit Coat of Black Velvet Tamarind (Dialium guineense using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Ofosu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to provide data on the mineral composition of the fruit pulp, outer coat and seed of Dialiu guineense in an attempt to widen the sources of minerals for the rural population of sub-Saharan Africa. The elemental composition of the pulp, seed and fruit coat of black velvet tamarind (Dialiu guineense was determined using Neutron Activation Analysis. The fruit pulp contained manganese (23.40±1.57µg/g, chlorine (205.40±37.59 &mu g/g, calcium (5671.00±2132.30 &mug/g, sodium (332.95±8.76 &mud/gand potassium (6190.00±711.85 &mug/g. The seed and fruit coat contained all these minerals except potassium and sodium respectively. The fruit pulp can serve as a good source of macrominerals for humans while the fruit coat and seed could be ground and incorporated in various meal formulations of livestock as mineral supplements.

  13. Effect of the Production of Dried Fruits and Juice from Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) on the Content and Antioxidative Activity of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Lachowicz, Sabina

    2016-08-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of dried fruits and juices from chokeberry as potential sources of bioactive compounds with beneficial effects on human health. Dry powders and juices from chokeberry were analyzed for the contents of sugars with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD method), and the antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the FRAP (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) tests. Polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer and a photodiode-array detector (LC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS), and their quantitative analysis was carried out by UPLC-MS/MS (using a Q/TOF detector and a PDA detector). A total of 27 polyphenolic compounds was identified in chokeberry products, including 7 anthocyanins, 11 flavonols, 5 phenolic acids, 3 flavan-3-ols and 1 flavanone. Three anthocyanin derivatives were reported for the first time from chokeberry fruit. A higher activity of the bioactive compounds was determined in dried fruit pomace and in juice obtained from crushed fruits than in those from the whole fruits. In addition, the pomace was found to be a better material for the production of dry powders, compared to chokeberry fruits.

  14. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) against Russell's viper venom: characterization of piperine as active principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2013-05-20

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. To examine the ability of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L., Piperaceae (PLE) and piperine, one of the main active principles of Piper longum, to inhibit the Russell's viper (Doboia russelii, Viperidae) snake venom activities. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine against Russell's viper venom was studied in embryonated fertile chicken eggs, mice and rats by using various models as follows: inhibition of venom lethal action, inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vitro), inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vivo), inhibition of venom necrotizing action, inhibition of venom defibrinogenating action, inhibition of venom induced paw edema, inhibition of venom induced mast cell degranulation, creatine kinase assay and assay for catalase activity. PLE was found to inhibit the venom induced haemorrhage in embryonated fertile chicken eggs. Administration of PLE and piperine significantly (p<0.01) inhibited venom induced lethality, haemorrhage, necrosis, defibrinogenation and inflammatory paw edema in mice in a dose dependent manner. PLE and piperine also significantly (p<0.01) reduced venom induced mast cell degranulation in rats. Venom induced decrease in catalase enzyme levels in mice kidney tissue and increase in creatine kinase enzyme levels in mice serum were significantly (p<0.01) reversed by administration of both PLE and piperine. PLE possesses good anti-snake venom properties and piperine is one of the compounds responsible for the effective venom neutralizing ability of the plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cyt1Aa protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) serovar israelensis is active against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Quist, J Cristian; Castañera, Pedro; González-Cabrera, Joel

    2010-09-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is one of the world's most destructive fruit pests. The aim of this study was to ascertain insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) delta-endotoxins to C. capitata. Among 42 selected Bacillus strains, only B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis (Bti) solubilised protoxins showed biological activity against C. capitata neonate larvae, whereas Bti spore and crystal mixture was inactive. Insecticidal activity of Bti protoxins was significantly enhanced by incubation with Culex pipiens L. gut extracts. Overdigestion of Bti protoxins with Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) gut extracts suppressed biological activity against C. capitata, and this correlated with degradation of Cyt toxins. Cyt1Aa solubilised protoxin showed the highest toxicity, LC(50) after 7 days of 4.93 microg cm(-2), while proteolytical processing of Cyt1Aa protoxins by larval gut extracts did not enhance insecticidal activity. The present study provides evidence for the first time of the insecticidal activity of a B. thuringiensis strain against C. capitata and identifies a single delta-endotoxin with potential for controlling this pest. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Hydrolytic activity and ultrastructural changes in fruit skins from two prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) varieties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-López, Armando; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Cárabez-Trejo, Alfonso; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2002-03-13

    The activity of four cell wall hydrolases, pectinmethylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), cellulase, and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal), was measured in fruit skins of two prickly pear varieties, Naranjona and Charola, during storage at 18 degrees C and 85-95% relative humidity (RH). In Naranjona (Opuntia ficus indica), of short postharvest life (ca. 2 weeks), PG, cellulase, and beta-Gal increased their activity more than twice, whereas PME activity tended to increase only slightly during storage. In Charola (Opuntia sp.), of long postharvest life (ca. 2 months), only beta-Gal increased its activity (77%), showing a high PG activity from the beginning of storage. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed middle lamella dissolution at the end of storage for both varieties. Naranjona showed a higher cell wall enzymatic activity than Charola, in agreement with their storability differences. Our results suggest that PG and cellulase in Naranjona and PG and beta-Gal in Charola are the main enzymes responsible for cell wall hydrolytic and ultrastructural changes in skins of stored prickly pears.

  17. Chemical composition, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of Schinus molle L. leaf and fruit essential oils against Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sattar, Essam; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Farag, Mohamed A; Gayed, Sabah H El; Harraz, Fathalla M H

    2010-02-01

    Fruit and leaf essential oils of Schinus molle showed insect repellent and insecticidal activity against Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum. In these oils, 65 components were identified by GC-MS analysis. Hydrocarbons dominated the oil composition with monoterpenes occurring in the largest amounts in fruits and leaves, 80.43 and 74.84%, respectively. p-Cymene was identified as a major component in both oils. The high yield and efficacy of S. molle essential oil against T. granarium and T. castaneum suggest that it may provide leads for active insecticidal agents.

  18. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry Analysis of High Antioxidant Australian Fruits with Antiproliferative Activity Against Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdaarta, Joseph; Maen, Anton; Rayan, Paran; Matthews, Ben; Cock, Ian Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Background: High antioxidant capacities have been linked to the treatment and prevention of several cancers. Recent reports have identified several native Australian fruits with high antioxidant capacities. Despite this, several of these species are yet to be tested for anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: Solvent extracts prepared from high antioxidant native Australian fruits were analyzed for antioxidant capacity by the di (phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium free radical scavenging assay. Antiproliferative activities against CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cells were determined by a multicellular tumor spheroid-based cell proliferation assay. Toxicity was determined by Artemia franciscana bioassay. Results: Methanolic extracts of all plant species displayed high antioxidant contents (equivalent to approximately 7–16 mg of vitamin C per gram of fruit extracted). Most aqueous extracts also contained relatively high antioxidant capacities. In contrast, the ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extracts of most species (except lemon aspen and bush tomato) had lower antioxidant contents (below 1.5 mg of vitamin C equivalents per gram of plant material extracted). The antioxidant contents correlated with the ability of the extracts to inhibit proliferation of CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The high antioxidant methanolic extracts of all species were potent inhibitors of cell proliferation. The methanolic lemon aspen extract was particularly effective, with IC50 values of 480 and 769 μg/mL against HeLa and CaCo2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the lower antioxidant ethyl acetate and hexane extracts (except the lemon aspen ethyl acetate extract) generally did not inhibit cancer cell proliferation or inhibited to only a minor degree. Indeed, most of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts induced potent cell proliferation. The native tamarind ethyl acetate extract displayed low-moderate toxicity in the A. franciscana bioassay (LC50 values below 1000

  19. Atividade antioxidante de frutas do cerrado Antioxidant activity of cerrado fruits

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    Roberta Roesler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora (araticum, Solanum lycocarpum (lobeira, Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita, Caryocar brasilense (pequi e Swartzia langsdorfii (banha de galinha são frutas do bioma cerrado, conhecidas e consumidas principalmente por populações nativas dessa região. Nesse estudo, as diferentes frações dos frutos acima descritos (polpa, semente e casca foram avaliadas por meio de extratos aquosos e etanólicos. Alguns extratos mostraram altíssimos conteúdos de compostos fenólicos e foram escolhidos para avaliação do potencial em seqüestrar radicais livres por meio do modelo 2,2 difenil-1-picril hidrazil (DPPH. Os melhores resultados foram: extrato aquoso e etanólico de casca de pequi (IC50 igual a 9,44 e 17,98 µg.mL-1 respectivamente, extrato etanólico de sementes de cagaita (IC50 igual a 14,15 µg.mL-1, extrato etanólico de sementes e casca de araticum (IC50 igual a 30,97 e 49,18 µg.mL-1, respectivamente. Este é o primeiro estudo que avalia o potencial em seqüestrar radicais livres de frações de frutas do cerrado. Os resultados indicam que os extratos possuem grande potencial antioxidante e estudos adicionais são necessários para avaliar essa propriedade dos extratos como uma aplicação sustentável dos recursos do cerrado nos setores farmacêuticos, cosméticos e nutricionais.Annona crassiflora (araticum, Solanum lycocarpum (lobeira, Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita, Caryocar brasilense (pequi and Swartzia langsdorfii (banha de galinha are tropical fruits consumed mainly by native people in the Brazilian Cerrado (second biggest biome of Brazil. In this study, pulp, seed and peel of the fruits were extracted using ethanol and water. Some of the extracts showed a high content of total phenols and were screened for their potential as antioxidants using the in vitro model 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH. The best results were found for aqueous and ethanolic extracts of pequi peel (IC50 of 9,44 and 17,98 µg.mL-1 respectively

  20. The Effect of Ethylene and Propylene Pulses on Respiration, Ripening Advancement, Ethylene-Forming Enzyme, and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Avocado Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, D A; Laties, G G

    1991-03-01

    When early-season avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) were treated with ethylene or propylene for 24 hours immediately on picking, the time to the onset of the respiratory climacteric, i.e. the lag period, remained unchanged compared with that in untreated fruit. When fruit were pulsed 24 hours after picking, on the other hand, the lag period was shortened. In both cases, however, a 24 hour ethylene or propylene pulse induced a transient increase in respiration, called the pulse-peak, unaccompanied by ethylene production (IL Eaks [1980] Am Soc Hortic Sci 105: 744-747). The pulse also caused a sharp rise in ethylene-forming enzyme activity in both cases, without any increase in the low level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity. Thus, the shortening of the lag period by an ethylene pulse is not due to an effect of ethylene on either of the two key enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis. A comparison of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis polypeptide profiles of in vitro translation products of poly(A(+)) mRNA from control and ethylene-pulsed fruit showed both up- and down-regulation in response to ethylene pulsing of a number of genes expressed during the ripening syndrome. It is proposed that the pulse-peak or its underlying events reflect an intrinsic element in the ripening process that in late-season or continuously ethylene-treated fruit may be subsumed in the overall climacteric response. A computerized system that allows continuous readout of multiple samples has established that the continued presentation of exogeneous ethylene or propylene to preclimacteric fruit elicits a dual respiration response comprising the merged pulse-peak and climacteric peak in series. The sequential removal of cores from a single fruit has proven an unsatisfactory sampling procedure inasmuch as coring induces wound ethylene, evokes a positive respiration response, and advances ripening.

  1. Evaluation of Citrullus colocynthis fruits on in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo DEN/PB induced hepatotoxicity

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    J Rajangam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary:The present work was aimed to study the biochemical effect of methanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits (MECC against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatic damage in male rats.Rats received with DEN/PB showed the elevated levels of cholesterol (p<0.05, triglycerides (TG, p<0.01, free fatty acids (FFA, p<0.01, low density lipoprotein (LDL, p<0.01, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, p<0.05 and decreased level of high density lipoprotein (HDL, urea and creatinine. Administration of MECC 200,400 mg/kg.p.o to rats orally for 28 days significantly reduced the biochemical alterations induced by DEN/PB. Moreover results from invitro antioxidant studies revealed that, maximum percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals by MECC was about 62% at 800 µg/mL. In the nitric oxide radical scavenging model, the maximum percentage inhibition by MECC is about 56% at 800µg/mL and in reducing power method, MECC demonstrated dose dependent antioxidant activity comparable with Ascorbic acid. Thus, results from our preliminary studies clearly indicates that Citrullus colocynthis might be beneficial in attenuating the elevated biochemical parameters during DEN/PB induced hepatic damage and the results suggested the ability of the extract to combat oxidative stress by quenching free radicals which reveals that, the attenuation due to its anti-oxidant property. Industrial relevance: Citrullus Colocynthis fruits are traditionally used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. But the experimental background has not been sufficient. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant showed the presence of terpinoids,flavonoids,glycosides,alkaloids,phytosterols,tannins and phenolics along with cucurbitacins, caffeic acid derivatives.In view of the above fact, the present study was designed to study the biochemical effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruits on in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo DEN

  2. Isolation and anti-hepatitis B virus activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongbo; Li, Xifeng; Du, Xue; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Weiguang; Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Jijun; Pu, Jianxin; Sun, Handong

    2015-08-01

    Seven lignans with a dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton, termed schinlignans A-G, and a 6,7-seco-homolignan, schischinone, together with seven known lignans, were isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, IR, UV, and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, COSY, and HMBC experiments). The stereochemistry at the chiral centers and the biphenyl moiety, were determined using ROESY, as well as via interpretation of their ECD spectra. Schinlignan G and methylgomisin O exhibited potent anti-hepatitis B virus activity against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 5.13 and 5.49μgmL(-1), respectively.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of the Isolation Ethyl Acetate-Soluble Extract Noni Fruit (Morindra citrifolia L.) against Meat Bacterial Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, E. R.; Nurrakhman, M. B. E.; Munawaroh, H.; Saputri, L.

    2017-02-01

    Noni (Morindra citrifolia L.) is native to Indonesia which have medicinal properties. One of them as an antibacterial. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of isolates from the ethanol extract noni fruit to bacterial decay meat is Bacillus licheniformis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus alvei, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The extraction process using the maceration method, and then made a partition by centrifugation ethyl acetate. Soluble part partition showed bacterial growth inhibition activity of the strong to very strong. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate soluble partition on preparative thin layer chromatography produced 5 isolates. Isolates obtained antibacterial activity test performed with a concentration of 20% and 30%. The results of antibacterial test against bacteria test isolates, showing isolates A can not inhibit the growth of bacteria, isolates B and C have medium activity and strong, isolates D and E isolates have activity against bacteria that were tested. MIC and MBC test results showed that the isolates B gives an inhibitory effect (bacteriostatic) against all bacteria. Content analysis of compounds by TLC using the reagents cerium (IV) sulfate indicates a phenol group. Isolates B contains a major compound which can be used as an antibacterial candidate in food preservation replace chemical preservatives.

  4. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of olive fruits of the Turkish variety “Sarıulak” from different locations

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    Arslan, D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compounds, radical scavenging effect and antioxidant capacity of olive fruits from the “Sarıulak” variety were studied from four different locations: Alanya, Ceyhan, Silifke and Karaman in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. They were collected on three different harvest dates (HDs and in two consecutive crop years. The levels of most of the phenolic compounds in the fruits of the Alanya location were remarkably high among the values (mg/kg obtained for all location samples mainly on the first HDs, for instance hydroxytyrosol rose to 3596.4, luteolin rose to 269.5, vanillic acid rose to 159.8 and caffeic acid rose to 62.1. The olive fruits from Alanya, which had the highest average rainfall compared to the other locations, showed the highest phenolic content. The olive fruits from Silifke, which had a dramatic decrease in rainfall between the two crop years, showed a reduction in total phenolic content in the following crop year. The highest oleuropein contents (mg/kg were detected for the fruit samples grown in Silifke (963.5-2981.8 and for Karaman (835.2-655.6. All of the locations showed similar changes in antioxidant activity pointing to an increase with later HDs. The effect of HD on the phenolic compounds such as 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid and hidroxytyrosol, luteolin, chlorogenic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were more dependent on the location factor.

    Se han estudiado los compuestos fenólicos, el efecto captador de radicales y la capacidad antioxidante de aceitunas de la variedad “Sarıulak” procedentes de cuatro localidades diferentes, Alanya, Ceyhan, Silifke y Karaman de la región mediterránea de Turquía, que fueron recogidas en tres diferentes fechas de cosecha (HDs y en dos años consecutivos de cultivos. Los niveles de la mayoría de estos compuestos fenólicos, expresados en mg/kg , de los frutos procedentes de Alanya fueron los mas altos entre los valores

  5. REMOVAL OF METHYLENE BLUE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED FROM THE PEEL OF CUCUMIS SATIVA FRUIT BY ADSORPTION

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    Manonmani Subbian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of low-cost, locally available, highly efficient, and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the peel of Cucumis sativa fruit for the removal of methylene blue (MB dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH, and contact time were investigated, and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. The optimum pH for dye adsorption was 6.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 50 min of the start of each experiment. The adsorption of methylene blue followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushekevich (D-R, and Tempkin equations well. Maximum removal of MB was obtained at pH 6 as 99.79% for adsorbent doses of 0.6 g/ 50 mL and 25 mg/L initial dye concentrations at room temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir equation was 46.73 mg g-1. The rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good correlation (R2 > 0.9677 with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate-determining steps. Activated carbon developed from the peel of Cucumis sativa fruit can be an attractive option for dye removal from wastewater.

  6. A search for hepatoprotective activity of fruit extract of Mangifera indica L. against oxidative stress cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmad, Jalal; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Shakibaei, Rashin; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and their components are commonly used in folk medicine for many curative effects. The protective effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. fruit (Mango Extract) (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) and also gallic acid (100 microM) as a pure compound in the extract were examined against oxidative stress toxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in isolated rat hepatocytes. The extracts and gallic acid (100 microM) protected the hepatocyte against all oxidative stress markers including cell lysis, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, lysosomal membrane oxidative damage and cellular proteolysis. Mango Extracts (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) were more effective than gallic acid (100 microM) in protecting hepatocytes against CHP induced lipid peroxidation. On the other hand gallic acid (100 microM) acted more effective than Mango Extracts (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) at preventing lysosomal membrane damage. In addition H(2)O(2) scavenging effect of all extracts were determined in hepatocytes and compared with gallic acid (100 microM). There were no significance differences (PMango Extract against liver injury associated with oxidative stress.

  7. Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by mesoporous activated carbon prepared from H3PO4-activated langsat empty fruit bunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, V O; Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-05-01

    The removal of toxic herbicide from wastewater is challenging due to the availability of suitable adsorbents. The Langsat empty fruit bunch is an agricultural waste and was used in this study as a cheap precursor to produce activated carbon for the adsorption of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at different initial concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mg/L. The produced Langsat empty fruit bunch activated carbon (LEFBAC) was mesoporous and had high surface area of 1065.65 m(2)/g with different active functional groups. The effect of shaking time, temperature and pH on 2,4-D removal were investigated using the batch technique. The adsorption capacity of 2,4-D by LEFBAC was decreased with increase in pH of solution whereas adsorption capacity increased with temperature. The adsorption data was well described by Langmuir isotherm followed by removal capacity of 261.2 mg/g at 30 °C. The results from this work showed that LEFBAC can be used as outstanding material for anionic herbicide uptake from wastewater.

  8. Transcriptional Activity of the MADS Box ARLEQUIN/TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 Gene Is Required for Cuticle Development of Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Estela; Dominguez, Eva; Pineda, Benito; Heredia, Antonio; Moreno, Vicente; Lozano, Rafael; Angosto, Trinidad

    2015-07-01

    Fruit development and ripening entail key biological and agronomic events, which ensure the appropriate formation and dispersal of seeds and determine productivity and yield quality traits. The MADS box gene Arlequin/tomato Agamous-like1 (hereafter referred to as TAGL1) was reported as a key regulator of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) reproductive development, mainly involved in flower development, early fruit development, and ripening. It is shown here that silencing of the TAGL1 gene (RNA interference lines) promotes significant changes affecting cuticle development, mainly a reduction of thickness and stiffness, as well as a significant decrease in the content of cuticle components (cutin, waxes, polysaccharides, and phenolic compounds). Accordingly, overexpression of TAGL1 significantly increased the amount of cuticle and most of its components while rendering a mechanically weak cuticle. Expression of the genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis agreed with the biochemical and biomechanical features of cuticles isolated from transgenic fruits; it also indicated that TAGL1 participates in the transcriptional control of cuticle development mediating the biosynthesis of cuticle components. Furthermore, cell morphology and the arrangement of epidermal cell layers, on whose activity cuticle formation depends, were altered when TAGL1 was either silenced or constitutively expressed, indicating that this transcription factor regulates cuticle development, probably through the biosynthetic activity of epidermal cells. Our results also support cuticle development as an integrated event in the fruit expansion and ripening processes that characterize fleshy-fruited species such as tomato.

  9. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Litsea japonica fruit are mediated via suppression of NF-κB and JNK/p38 MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Ham, Young-Min; Jang, Seon-A; Kwon, Jung-Eun; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Sohn, Eunsoo; Park, Soo-Young; Jang, Ki-Hyo; Namkoong, Seung; Han, Hyo-Sang; Jung, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Se Chan

    2014-09-01

    Fruits of the Litsea family of trees and shrubs contain biologically active compounds, some of which have been used as natural nutrients and flavoring agents in food. In this study, we identified novel anti-nociceptive effects of the 30% ethanol extract, the CH(2)Cl(2) fraction and the associated active components (Hamabiwalactone A and B) from Litsea japonica fruit by using in vivo peripheral and central nervous pain models. In addition, we compared the anti-inflammatory effects of several fractions from L. japonica fruit extracts using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw264.7 cells. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction of L. japonica fruit (LJM) had an optimal combination of anti-inflammatory effects and low cytotoxicity. Dose response studies were performed to determine the inhibitory effects of LJM on the pro-inflammatory enzymes, COX-2/PGE(2) and NO/iNOS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Molecular profiling revealed that LJM exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of NF-κB and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling in LPS-induced macrophages. This study suggests that CH2Cl2 fraction of L. japonica fruit and its bioactive components are potential candidates as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents (painkillers) for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits,flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L.from Jaffna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E; Christy; Jeyaseelan; S; Jenothiny; MK; Pathmanathan; JP; Jeyadevan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits,flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis(L against)some pathogenic bacteria.Methods:Powders of fruits,flowers and leaves of L inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane(DCM),ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature.The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method,and also the extracts were tested to detennine the available phytochemicals.Results:Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly(P<0.05).The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus)and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P.aeruginosa),and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli(E.coli)and Bacillus subtilis(6.subtilis).The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower,fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100μl against all test bacteria.Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower.Conclusions:The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  11. Effect of increasing manganese concentration in nutrient solution on the antioxidant activity, vitamin C, lycopene and polyphenol contents of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzolf-Panek, Małgorzata; Kleiber, Tomasz; Kaczmarek, Anna

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of increasing manganese (Mn) nutrition on the content of antioxidative compounds such as vitamin C, lycopene and polyphenols, and the antioxidant activity of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cvs 'Alboney F1' and 'Emotion F1') fruit. Plants were grown in rockwool using a nutrient solution with the following content of Mn (mg dm(-3)): 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 and 19.2. The level of vitamin C and lycopene decreased with the increasing Mn nutrition. Since the colour of fruits was correlated with the change in carotenoid content, the decrease in lycopene content promoted the reduction of redness and increase of yellowness of fruits. However, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity significantly increased when plant were exposed to toxic levels of Mn. Observed changes could be the result of the oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of Mn. Polyphenolic compounds play a crucial role in the plant's response to Mn stress and affect predominantly the total antioxidant properties of fruits, which could be used as a source of phenolics. Moreover, total phenolic content measurement, as an easy and inexpensive method, could be used as an indicator of Mn-induced stress in fruits of tomato.

  12. STUDY ON THE SUGAR-ACID RATIO AND RELEVANT METABOLIZING ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN NAVEL ORANGE FRUITS FROM DIFFERENT ECO-REGIONS

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    GONG RONGGAO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The flavor quality of citrus fruits is largely determined by the sugar-acid ratio, but it remains uncertain how sugar- and/or acid-metabolizing enzymes regulate the sugar-acid ratio of navel oranges and further affect the fruit quality. In the present study, Robertson navel oranges (Citrus sinesis Osb. were collected from six representative habitats in three eco-regions of Sichuan, China. The changes in the sugar-acid ratio and the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, sucrose synthase (SS, cytosolic cio-aconitase (ACO, and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH were examined in navel oranges during fruit development. The results indicated that the sugar-acid ratio of fruits in different eco-regions changed significantly from 150 days after full bloom. The SPS and cytosolic ACO fruit activities had minor changes among different ecoregions throughout the experimental periods, whereas the activities of SS and IDH changed significantly in fruits among three eco-regions. Furthermore, the sugar-acid ratio and the activities of SS in the synthetic direction and IDH were the highest in south subtropics and the lowest in north mid-subtropics, probably due to the effects of climate conditions and/or other relevant eco-factors. It demonstrated that SS in the synthetic direction and IDH were of greater importance in regulating the sugar-acid ratio of navel oranges in different eco-regions, which provided new insights into the factors that determine the flavor quality of navel oranges and valuable data for guiding relevant agricultural practices.

  13. Evaluation of Salicylic Acid and Calcium Chloride Effect on Shelf Life, Quality Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Peach Fruit cv. Amesden after Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Davarynejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of postharvest salicylic acid and calcium chloride on shelf life, quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of peach fruit cv. Amesden, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized completely design with three replications. Fruits were harvested at the commercial ripening stage, and fruits were immerged in different concentrations of salicylic acid (1 and 2 mM, calcium chloride (1.5 and 3%, combined salicylic acid and calcium chloride (1-1.5, 1-3, 2-1.5 and 2-3, and distilled water (control for 5 min, then fruits were packed in boxes with polyethylene cover and stored at 4°C with 80-85% relative humidity for 35 days. The changes in weight loss, fruit firmness, rot percentage; pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity were estimated in 0 and 35 days during storage. The results showed that the weight loss, rot percentage, pH and total soluble solids significantly increased, while the fruit firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity significantly decreased at the end of storage period. The salicylic acid and calcium chloride treatments significantly reduced the weight loss and maintained their firmness. In this condition, the highest of titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity were observed in treatments of salicylic acid and calcium chloride, while the lowest of total soluble solids and rot percentage was showed in treatments of salicylic acid and calcium chloride than in the control treatment. Also, combined treatment (salicylic acid + calcium chloride had an important effect in relative to each treatment separately. The data indicated that the use of salicylic acid and calcium chloride may be introduced as an effective and successful strategy in postharvest technology of the peach.

  14. Posttranslational elevation of cell wall invertase activity by silencing its inhibitor in tomato delays leaf senescence and increases seed weight and fruit hexose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ye; Ni, Di-An; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Invertase plays multiple pivotal roles in plant development. Thus, its activity must be tightly regulated in vivo. Emerging evidence suggests that a group of small proteins that inhibit invertase activity in vitro appears to exist in a wide variety of plants. However, little is known regarding their roles in planta. Here, we examined the function of INVINH1, a putative invertase inhibitor, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of a INVINH1:green fluorescent protein fusion revealed its apoplasmic localization. Ectopic overexpression of INVINH1 in Arabidopsis thaliana specifically reduced cell wall invertase activity. By contrast, silencing its expression in tomato significantly increased the activity of cell wall invertase without altering activities of cytoplasmic and vacuolar invertases. Elevation of cell wall invertase activity in RNA interference transgenic tomato led to (1) a prolonged leaf life span involving in a blockage of abscisic acid-induced senescence and (2) an increase in seed weight and fruit hexose level, which is likely achieved through enhanced sucrose hydrolysis in the apoplasm of the fruit vasculature. This assertion is based on (1) coexpression of INVINH1 and a fruit-specific cell wall invertase Lin5 in phloem parenchyma cells of young fruit, including the placenta regions connecting developing seeds; (2) a physical interaction between INVINH1 and Lin5 in vivo; and (3) a symplasmic discontinuity at the interface between placenta and seeds. Together, the results demonstrate that INVINH1 encodes a protein that specifically inhibits the activity of cell wall invertase and regulates leaf senescence and seed and fruit development in tomato by limiting the invertase activity in planta.

  15. Psychoneuropharmacological activities and chemical composition of essential oil of fresh fruits of Piper guineense (Piperaceae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyemitan, Idris Ajayi; Olayera, Omotola Aanuoluwa; Alabi, Akeeb; Abass, Luqman Adewale; Elusiyan, Christianah Abimbola; Oyedeji, Adebola Omowumi; Akanmu, Moses Atanda

    2015-05-26

    Piper guineense Schum & Thonn (Piperaceae) is a medicinal plant used in the Southern States of Nigeria to treat fever, mental disorders and febrile convulsions. This study aims at determining the chemical composition and the central nervous system (CNS) activities of the essential oil obtained from the plant׳s fresh fruits in order to rationalize its folkloric use. Essential oil of P. guineense (EOPG) obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC/MS. EOPG (50-200mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated for behavioural, hypothermic, sedative, muscle relaxant, anti-psychotic and anticonvulsant activities using standard procedures. Analysis of the oil reveals 44 compounds of which 30 compounds constituting 84.7% were identified. The oil was characterized by sesquiterpenoids (64.4%) while only four monoterpeneoids (21.3%) were found present in the oil. Major compounds identified were β-sesquiphellandrene (20.9%), linalool (6.1%), limonene (5.8%), Z-β-bisabolene (5.4%) and α-pinene (5.3%). The EOPG (50-200mg/kg, i.p.) caused significant (p<0.01) inhibition on rearing {F(4,20)=43}, locomotor {F(4,20)=22} activity and decreased head dips in hole board {F(4,20)=7} indicating CNS depressant effect; decreased rectal temperature {F(4,20)=7-16}, signifying hypothermic activity; decreased ketamine-induced sleep latency {F(4,20)=7.8} and prolonged total sleeping time {F(4,20)=8.8}, indicating sedative effect; reduced muscular tone on the hind-limb grip test {F(4,20)=22}, inclined board {F(4,20)=4-49} and rota rod {F(4,20)=13-106}, implying muscle relaxant activity; induced catalepsy {F(4,20)=47-136}, inhibited apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour {F(4,20)=9} and inhibited apomorphine-induced locomotor {F(4,20)=16}, suggesting anti-psychotic effect; and protected mice against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions, indicating anticonvulsant potential. The most abundant component of the fresh fruits essential oil of P. guineense was β-sesquiphellandrene (20.9%); and the oil possesses

  16. Associations of quality of life with physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity in a free living, multiethnic population in Hawaii: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horwath Caroline

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction High intake of fruit and vegetables and being physically active are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. In the current study, we examined the associations of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and TV/video watching (indicator for physical inactivity with perceived quality of life (QOL in a sample of free living adults. Methods A cohort (N = 139 from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was evaluated at 3-month intervals for the first year and 6-month intervals for the second year. QOL was assessed from self-reports of mental or physical health at the end of the study. Results Overall, the cohort participants appeared to maintain relatively constant levels of physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and TV/video watching. Physical activity was positively related to mental health (p-values Conclusion Our study supports that physical activity is positively associated with mental health. Fruit and vegetable consumption and TV/video watching may be too specific to represent an individual's overall nutritional status and physical inactivity, respectively.

  17. Phenolic Profile and Biological Activities of the Pepino (Solanum muricatum Fruit and Its Wild Relative S. caripense

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    Francisco J. Herraiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pepino (Solanum muricatum is an edible and juicy fruit native to the Andean region which is becoming increasingly important. However, little information is available on its phenolic composition and bioactive properties. Four pepino varieties (37-A, El Camino, Puzol, and Valencia and one accession (E-7 of its close wild relative S. caripense were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MSn/ESI. Twenty-four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected (5 to 16 compounds per variety or accession, with differences of more than two-fold for their total content among the materials studied. The major phenolics in the pepino varieties were chlorogenic acids and derivatives, while in S. caripense a caffeoyl-synapoyl-quinic acid was the major compound. The in vitro antioxidant capacity (DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate, ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and TRC (total reducing capacity tests was higher in S. caripense. Pepino and S. caripense extracts were not toxic for RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, and the raw extracts inhibited NO production of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages by 36% (El Camino to 67% (37-A. No single variety ranked high simultaneously for hydroxycinnamic acids content, antioxidant activity and biological activity. We suggest the screening of large collections of germplasm or the use of complementary crosses between Puzol (high for hydroxycinnamic acids and biological activity and S. caripense E-7 (high for antioxidant activity to select and breed pepino varieties with enhanced properties.

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOID AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS OF LUFFA ECHINATA ROXB. FRUITS AND NYCTANTHUS ARBOR-TRISTIS LEAVES

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    Anuj Modi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain a systematic record of the relative antioxidant activity of flavonoid and phenolic contents of Luffa echinata Roxb fruit and Nyctanthus arbor-tristis leaves extracts.Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were determined by using gallic acid  and quercetin as standard, antioxidant properties were evaluated by the methods, namely the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC Assay and DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay.Results: Total phenolic content were found 76.34±0.44 and 45.53±0.65 mg/g, while flavonoid contents were found 65.98±0.83 and 34.92±0.76 mg/g in Luffa echinata Roxb and Nyctanthus arbor-tristis respectively. In the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, TEAC value were found 0.34 mmole/g and 0.28 mmole/g, while in Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, ORAC value was found 253.7m moles TE #/ g and 221.6 m moles TE #/ g, where as DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay showed IC50 value 188±0.87 and 176±0.68 for Luffa echinata Roxb and Nyctanthus arbor-tristis extracts. Conclusion: The present studies suggest that both the plants have moderate to potent antioxidant activity.

  19. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyo-Nam; Shin, Mi-Rae; Shin, Sung Ho; Lee, Ah Reum; Lee, Joo Young; Seo, Bu-Il; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Noh, Jeong Sook; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM) was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control). PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p < 0.05). These results suggest that PCM administration may be a novel potential antiobesity agent for reduction of fat absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. PMID:27529064

  20. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyo-Nam Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD- fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control. PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p<0.05. These results suggest that PCM administration may be a novel potential antiobesity agent for reduction of fat absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase.

  1. Phenolic Profile and Biological Activities of the Pepino (Solanum muricatum) Fruit and Its Wild Relative S. caripense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz, Francisco J.; Villaño, Débora; Plazas, Mariola; Vilanova, Santiago; Ferreres, Federico; Prohens, Jaime; Moreno, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    The pepino (Solanum muricatum) is an edible and juicy fruit native to the Andean region which is becoming increasingly important. However, little information is available on its phenolic composition and bioactive properties. Four pepino varieties (37-A, El Camino, Puzol, and Valencia) and one accession (E-7) of its close wild relative S. caripense were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MSn/ESI. Twenty-four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected (5 to 16 compounds per variety or accession), with differences of more than two-fold for their total content among the materials studied. The major phenolics in the pepino varieties were chlorogenic acids and derivatives, while in S. caripense a caffeoyl-synapoyl-quinic acid was the major compound. The in vitro antioxidant capacity (DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate), ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), and TRC (total reducing capacity) tests) was higher in S. caripense. Pepino and S. caripense extracts were not toxic for RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, and the raw extracts inhibited NO production of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages by 36% (El Camino) to 67% (37-A). No single variety ranked high simultaneously for hydroxycinnamic acids content, antioxidant activity and biological activity. We suggest the screening of large collections of germplasm or the use of complementary crosses between Puzol (high for hydroxycinnamic acids and biological activity) and S. caripense E-7 (high for antioxidant activity) to select and breed pepino varieties with enhanced properties. PMID:26999114

  2. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  3. Antifungal Activity, Toxicity and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Coriandrum sativum L. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika H. S. Brito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from C. sativum L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%. The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC50 value of 23 µg/mL in the Artemia salina lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for M. canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 µg/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 µg/mL, respectively. C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity.

  4. Uncovering the Molecular Mechanism of Anti-Allergic Activity of Silkworm Pupa-Grown Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Feng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Shi, Wan-Yin; Jhong, Meng-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been widely used as an herbal drug and tonic food in East Asia and has also been recently studied in the West because of its various pharmacological activities such as antitumoral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-allergic activity of ethanol extract prepared from silkworm pupa-cultivated Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies in activated mast cells. Our results showed that ethanol extract treatment significantly inhibited the release of [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase (a degranulation marker) and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] as well as interleukin-4 in RBL-2H3 cells. The cells were sensitized with 2,4-dinitrophenol specific IgE and then stimulated with human serum albumin conjugated with 2,4-dinitrophenol. Oral administration of 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg ethanol extract significantly ameliorated IgE-induced allergic reaction in mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Western immunoblotting results demonstrated that ethanol extract incubation significantly inhibited Syk/PI3K/MEKK4/JNK/c-jun biochemical cascade in activated RBL-2H3 cells, which activated the expression of various allergic cytokines. In addition, it suppressed Erk activation and PLC[Formula: see text] evocation, which would respectively evoke the synthesis of lipid mediators and Ca[Formula: see text] mobilization to induce degranulation in stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. A compound, identified as [Formula: see text]-sitostenone, was shown to inhibit [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase secretion from activated mast cells. Our study demonstrated that ethanol extract contained the ingredients, which could inhibit immediate degranulation and de novo synthesis of allergic lipid mediators and cytokines in activated mast cells.

  5. Insecticidal activity of Trichilia claussenii (Meliaceae) fruits against Spodoptera frugiperda; Atividade inseticida dos frutos de Trichilia claussenii (Meliaceae) sobre Spodoptera frugiperda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebo, Liliane; Matos, Andrea Pereira; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da, E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2010-07-01

    An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia claussenii was carried out and the methanol extract revealed to have strong insecticidal activity. The fractionation of methanol extract of T. claussenii seeds bioassay-guided against Spodoptera frugiperda has led to the identification of the {omega}-phenylalkyl and alkenyl fatty acids as active compounds in this extract. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  6. The protective effect of the Cornus mas fruits (cornelian cherry) on hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis through PPARα activation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozański, T; Kucharska, A Z; Szumny, A; Magdalan, J; Bielska, K; Merwid-Ląd, A; Woźniak, A; Dzimira, S; Piórecki, N; Trocha, M

    2014-11-15

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits have been used in traditional cuisine and in folk medicine in various countries. This study was conducted to evaluate the constituents and impact of cornelian cherry (C. mas L.) fruits lyophilisate on lipid levels, PPARα protein expression, atheromatous changes in the aorta, oxido-redox state, and proinflammatory cytokines in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The HPLC-MS method was used for determining active constituents in cornelian cherry. In a subsequent in vivo study the protective effect of the cornelian cherry on diet-induced hyperlipidemia was studied using a rabbit model fed 1% cholesterol. Cornelian cherry (100mg/kg b.w.) or simvastatin (5mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally for 60 days. Two iridoids - loganic acid and cornuside - and five anthocyanins were identified as the main constituents of the cornelian cherry. The administering of the cornelian cherry led to a 44% significant decrease in serum triglyceride levels, as well as prevented development of atheromatous changes in the thoracic aorta. Cornelian cherry significantly increased PPARα protein expression in the liver, indicating that its hypolipidemic effect may stem from enhanced fatty acid catabolism. Simvastatin treatment did not affect PPAR-α expression. Moreover, the cornelian cherry had a significant protective effect on diet-induced oxidative stress in the liver, as well as restored upregulated proinflammatory cytokines serum levels. In conclusion, we have shown loganic acid to be the main iridoid constituent in the European cultivar of the cornelian cherry, and proven that the cornelian cherry could have protective effects on diet-induced hypertriglicerydemia and atherosclerosis through enhanced PPARα protein expression and via regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts from fruits of Seseli devenyense Simonk. and the herb of Peucedanum luxurians Tamam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widelski Jaroslaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Apiaceae family usually contain coumarins. These are used worldwide in traditional medicine, as well as in modern therapeutics. The aim of our study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of four extracts (methanolic and petroleum ether extracts obtained from two Apiaceae species: Seseli devenyense (fruits and Peucedanum luxurians (herb.

  8. The "Power Play! Campaign's School Idea & Resource Kits" Improve Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Physical Activity among Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihner, Angie Jo; Meigs, Reba; Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Garbolino, Tanya; Mitchell, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the effect of the "California Children's Power Play! Campaign's School Idea & Resource Kits" for fourth/fifth grades on the psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA). Methods: Randomized, controlled trial (n = 31 low-resource public schools; 1,154 children). Ten…

  9. Activated carbons from end-products of tree nut and tree fruit production as sorbents for removing methyl bromide in ventilation effluent from postharvest chamber fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    End-products of tree nuts and tree fruits grown in California, USA were evaluated for the ability to remove methyl bromide from the ventilation effluent of postharvest chamber fumigations. Activated carbon sorbents from walnut and almond shells as well as peach and prune pits were prepared using dif...

  10. The "Power Play! Campaign's School Idea & Resource Kits" Improve Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Physical Activity among Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihner, Angie Jo; Meigs, Reba; Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Garbolino, Tanya; Mitchell, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the effect of the "California Children's Power Play! Campaign's School Idea & Resource Kits" for fourth/fifth grades on the psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA). Methods: Randomized, controlled trial (n = 31 low-resource public schools; 1,154 children). Ten grade-specific,…

  11. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer according to cultivation years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill-Min Chung

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products.

  12. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Akmal Ishak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P<0.05 increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL, insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats.

  13. Preparation of highly porous binderless activated carbon electrodes from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches for application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, R; Deraman, M; Awitdrus, A; Talib, I A; Taer, E; Basri, N H; Manjunatha, J G; Ishak, M M; Dollah, B N M; Hashmi, S A

    2013-03-01

    Fibres from oil palm empty fruit bunches, generated in large quantities by palm oil mills, were processed into self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). Untreated and KOH-treated SACG were converted without binder into green monolith prior to N2-carbonisation and CO2-activation to produce highly porous binderless carbon monolith electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Characterisation of the pore structure of the electrodes revealed a significant advantage from combining the chemical and physical activation processes. The electrochemical measurements of the supercapacitor cells fabricated using these electrodes, using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques consistently found that approximately 3h of activation time, achieved via a multi-step heating profile, produced electrodes with a high surface area of 1704m(2)g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.889cm(3)g(-1), corresponding to high values for the specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power of 150Fg(-1), 4.297Whkg(-1) and 173Wkg(-1), respectively.

  14. Adsorption efficiencies of calcium (II ion and iron (II ion on activated carbon obtained from pericarp of rubber fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Sirichote

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of adsorption efficiencies of activated carbon from pericarp of rubber fruit for calcium (II ion and iron (II ion has been performed by flowing the solutions of these ions through a column of activated carbon. The weights of activated carbon in 500 mL buret column (diameter 3.2 cm for flowing calcium (II ion and iron (II ion solutions were 15 g and 10 g, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ion was prepared to be about eight times more diluted than the true concentration found in the groundwater from the lower part of southern Thailand. Calcium (II ion concentrations were analysed by EDTA titration and its initial concentration was found to be 23.55 ppm. With a flow rate of 26 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 11.4 % with passed through volume 4.75 L. Iron (II ion concentrations were analysed by spectrophotometric method; its initial concentration was found to be 1.5565 ppm. At a flow rate of 22 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 0.42 % with passed through volume of 34.0 L.

  15. Rapid screening and quantitative determination of bioactive compounds from fruit extracts of Myristica species and their in vitro antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Mahar, Rohit; Hasanain, Mohammad; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Sarkar, Jayanta; Rameshkumar, K B; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-11-15

    Efficient and sensitive LC-MS/MS methods have been developed for the rapid screening and determination of bioactive compounds in different fruit parts of four Myristica species, viz., Myristica beddomeii, Myristica fragrans, Myristica fatua and Myristica malabarica. Twenty-one compounds were identified and characterized on the basis of their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation pattern using HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and NMR analysis. Quantitative determination of five major bioactive compounds was performed using multiple-reaction monitoring mode with continuous polarity switching by UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS. Moreover, in vitro antiproliferative activity of these Myristica species was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines A549, DLD-1, DU145, FaDu and MCF-7 using SRB assay. Seventeen phytoconstituents were identified and reported for the first time from M. beddomeii and sixteen from M. fatua. Quantification result showed highest total content of five major bioactive compounds in mace of M. fragrans. Evaluation of in vitro antiproliferative activity revealed potent activity in all investigated species except M. fragrans.

  16. Chemical composition and biological activity of leaves and fruits of Triphasia trifolia; Composicao quimica e atividade biologica das folhas e frutos de Triphasia trifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renata P. dos; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br; Melo, Vania Maria M. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves and fruits of Triphasia trifolia was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents of oil obtained from leaves were sabinene (35.4%) and myrcene (34.1%), while the prevalent compounds in oil from fruits were sabinene (37.2%), {beta}-pinene (23.95) and {gamma}g-terpinene (16.3%). Both oils showed moderate antimicrobial activity. The fruit decoction was also investigated leading to the isolation of the coumarins isopimpinelin, (R)-byakangelicin and (S)-mexoticin. From leaves were isolated the coumarins (R)-byakangelicin, aurapten, (S)-mexoticin, isosibiricin, isomerazin and coumurrayin and the flavonoid vitexin. All coumarins showed cholinesterase inhibition on TLC tests. (author)

  17. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fawole, Olaniyi A; Makunga, Nokwanda P; Opara, Umezuruike Linus

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars...

  18. Shelf life extension and antioxidant activity of 'Hayward' kiwi fruit as a result of prestorage conditioning and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seo; Im, Myeng He; Gorinstein, Shela

    2015-05-01

    Kiwi fruits (Actinidia deliciosa C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson) were treated by prestorage conditioning (20 °C for 2 days), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 1 ppm for 16 h) and conditioning plus 1-MCP. After the treatment the fruits were immediately stored at 0 °C during 24 weeks. Flesh firmness gradually decreased with storage time and the rate of its loss was lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP treatments than those of control or conditioning. However, SSC, acidity and pH did not change among treatments. Starch content decreased during the storage time regardless of treatments. Oppositely the amount of reducing sugars increased at the same duration of the treatments. Rate and incidence of fruit decay was the lowest in fruit treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Fruit decay mainly caused pathogen Botrytis cinerea and its rate significantly decreased with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Ethylene and respiration abruptly increased after 8 weeks of storage, but their contents were lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP. Total soluble phenolics, flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacities were much higher than in other treatments. Kiwi fruits treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP extended the shelf life by reducing the rate of fruit decay and softening during the storage. The bioactive compounds and total antioxidant status of fruits increased during the treatment.

  19. Comparative analysis of Tunisian wild Crataegus azarolus (yellow azarole) and Crataegus monogyna (red azarole) leaf, fruit, and traditionally derived syrup: phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous-acetone extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhir, Manel; Rebai, Olfa; Dhaouadi, Karima; Congiu, Francesca; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Amri, Mohamed; Fattouch, Sami

    2013-10-09

    Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the yellow and red azarole phenolic extracts prepared from leaf, fruit peel/pulp, and syrup were comparatively investigated. The yellow azarole was found significantly richer in polyphenols than the red-fruit species. Hyperoside was the main phenolic in both yellow and red azarole leaves and only in yellow fruits, whereas procyanidin B2 was the major compound in red fruits. Yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities using DPPH (≈168 and 79 μmol TEAC/g fw, respectively) and FRAP (≈378 and 161 μmol Fe(2+)/g fw, respectively) assays. The highest antibacterial activities were recorded for the yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts, especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis . The low phenolic content of the syrups contrasted with their significant antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials, which were correlated to their hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (furan derivative amounts) content.

  20. Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of acid glycoside from Spondias mangifera fruit against physically and chemically challenged albino mice.

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    Arif, Muhammad; Fareed, Sheeba; Rahman, Md Azizur

    2016-01-01

    Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of fruit Spondias mangifera (EEFSM) and its isolated compound (Sm-01) were evaluated. The structure of Sm-01 was also elucidated. EEFSM at two different doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (bw)/day and Sm-01 at dose of 10 mg/kg (bw)/day were screened for in vivo stress relaxant activity using anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression model and in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) model. The levels of Hb, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) along with organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide were estimated. The structure of Sm-01 was elucidated by spectroscopy (ultraviolet, infrared, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR],(13) C-NMR and mass spectrometry) and chemical analyses. Sm-01 was structurally elucidated as propan-1,2-dioic acid-3-carboxyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(6'→1")-β-D-glucofuranoside. It was found that EEFSM and Sm-01 significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and duration of stay on rotarod and normalized the levels of Hb, RBC, and WBC along with altered organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide. EEFSM and Sm-01 also exhibited significant antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL with obtained IC50 of 0.32 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. These findings demonstrated that extract and Sm-01 both possess significant stress relaxant and antioxidant activities favoring its use as adaptogens. The activities of the extract may be due to the Sm-01.

  1. Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of acid glycoside from Spondias mangifera fruit against physically and chemically challenged albino mice

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    Muhammad Arif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of fruit Spondias mangifera (EEFSM and its isolated compound (Sm-01 were evaluated. The structure of Sm-01 was also elucidated. Materials and Methods: EEFSM at two different doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (bw/day and Sm-01 at dose of 10 mg/kg (bw/day were screened for in vivo stress relaxant activity using anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression model and in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH model. The levels of Hb, red blood cell (RBC and white blood cell (WBC along with organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide were estimated. The structure of Sm-01 was elucidated by spectroscopy (ultraviolet, infrared, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR], 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. Results: Sm-01 was structurally elucidated as propan-1,2-dioic acid-3-carboxyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(6'→1"-β-D-glucofuranoside. It was found that EEFSM and Sm-01 significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and duration of stay on rotarod and normalized the levels of Hb, RBC, and WBC along with altered organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide. EEFSM and Sm-01 also exhibited significant antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL with obtained IC50of 0.32 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that extract and Sm-01 both possess significant stress relaxant and antioxidant activities favoring its use as adaptogens. The activities of the extract may be due to the Sm-01.

  2. Incidence of ripening and chilling injury on the oxidative activities and Fatty Acid compositions of the mitochondria from mango fruits.

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    Kane, O; Marcellin, P

    1978-04-01

    The succinate oxidation capacities of mitochondria isolated from mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) stored at 4, 8, 12, and 20 C were investigated during storage. In normally ripening fruits (at 12 and 20 C) the oxidative capacities increased during the first 10 days and then decreased slowly. At lower temperatures (4 and 8 C), the fruits showed chilling injury symptoms, after about 10 days of storage and the succinate oxidation capacities of mitochondria decreased progressively. Plots of succinate oxidation capacities as against storage temperature showed a marked discontinuity between 12 and 8 C, only when chilling injury was observed on fruits stored at low temperature.The variations of mitochondrial fatty acid composition during the storage of fruits at different temperatures were also investigated. A marked decrease of the molar ratio palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid, the predominant fatty acids in mitochondrial lipids, was observed to accompany both the succinate oxidation decrease and the induction of chilling injury.

  3. A study of anti-hyperlipidemia, hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of emblica officinalis (amla in high fat fed albino rats

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    Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available : Emblica Officinalis (Amla, belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officinalis powder, high fat diet, High fat diet plus E. Officinalis powder both and Atorvastatin respectively for 8 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding animals with high fat diet per orally, consisting of coconut oil and vanaspati ghee, daily ad libitum. At the end of the study, blood samples of the animals were sent for the estimation of the lipid profile and effects of test drug studied by comparing levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and Atherogenic index. The statistical significance between groups was analysed by using one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnet’s multiple comparison test. Results: Fruit of Amla showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect. All these effects may contribute to its anti-atherogenic activity. Conclusion: Present study revealed the antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of Amla fruit powder and can be safely used in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of hyperlipidemia considering its easy availability, cost effectiveness, and other beneficial effects.

  4. The E-screen test and the MELN gene-reporter assay used for determination of estrogenic activity in fruits and vegetables in relation to pesticide residues.

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    Schilirò, Tiziana; Porfido, Arianna; Longo, Annalisa; Coluccia, Sara; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may lead to adverse systemic effects by interfering with normal hormone homeostasis, and diet is considered to be among the main routes of EDC exposure. The present study investigated the total estrogenic activity of fruits and vegetables by calculating the 17-β-estradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ) using two in vitro tests: the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay (E-screen test) and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay. Of the 24 analyzed fruits and vegetables, 14 contained from 1 to 4 pesticide residues in concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 1.19 ppm, whereas the other 10 did not contain any pesticide residues. The EEQ values for all positive samples ranged from 0.010 to 0.616 μg/100g for the above in vitro tests. Our study demonstrates that estrogenic activity was present in fruits and vegetables and that the concentration of allowable pesticide residues and EEQ values were positively correlated; however, no correlation was found by comparing the estrogenic activity and the intrinsic content of phytoestrogens obtained from the available literature. A theoretical adult dietary intake of 0.7-0.9 ng EEQ/L/day from fruits and vegetables was calculated.

  5. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic, and antioxidant activity of Syzygium densiflorum fruits in streptozotocin and nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

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    Krishnasamy, Gopinath; Muthusamy, Karthikeyan; Chellappan, David Raj; Subbiah, Nagarajan

    2016-09-01

    Context Syzygium densiflorum Wall. ex Wight & Arn (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used by local tribes of the Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India, for the treatment of diabetes, however, no definitive experimental studies are available. Objective This study investigates the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of S. densiflorum (EFSD) fruits in streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide (NA)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and methods Acute oral toxicity and oral glucose tolerance were assessed in normal rats. The antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant activities were investigated in STZ - NA-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were orally administered with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.wt), EFSD (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg b.wt) for 28 d. Further, changes in the blood glucose level (BGL), biochemical parameters, antioxidants were observed and histology of pancreas was performed. Results No toxicity and lethality were observed. Results of the following parameters are represented by treated versus disease control (STZ + NA) groups. BGL (161.33 ± 22.8 versus 476.17 ± 56.58 mg/dl), glycosylated haemoglobin (5.285 ± 0.19 versus 8.05 ± 0.55%), urea (40.32 ± 1.96 versus 75.37 ± 2.91 mg/dl), uric acid (1.2 ± 0.07 versus 2.16 ± 0.05 mg/dl), total cholesterol (89.3 ± 5.14 versus 139.7 ± 5.95 mg/dl) and triglycerides (79.65 ± 2.52 versus 108.9 ± 3.61 mg/dl) were significantly decreased, whereas haemoglobin (11.75 ± 0.73 versus 7.95 ± 0.42 g/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (14.2 ± 1.11 versus 6.97 ± 0.84 mg/dl), total protein (45%) and liver glycogen (87%) were significantly increased in EFSD-treated diabetic group. Significant changes were observed in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in EFSD-treated groups (p < 0.001). Histopathological examination showed the regeneration of β-cells in Islets of Langerhans

  6. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

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    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  7. Pharmacological evaluation of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam. Muell.-Arg. fruit hair extract for Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Hypnotic Activity

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    Mayank Gangwar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently we observed wound healing activity of 50% ethanol extract of Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (MP fruit hairs extract (MPE. In several intestinal infections, localized inflammation is of common occurrence and hence we evaluated the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE in different rat experimental models. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan (acute and turpentine oil induced formalin (subacute induced paw oedema and while, granuloma pouch (subacute in rats. Analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE was undertaken by tail-flick, hot and ndash;plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests while pentobarbitone-induced hypnotic potentiation respectively in rats.\tMPE at a dose of 200 mg/kg at 3 hr after their administration showed inhibition of formalin-induced paw oedema by 41.60% (P<0.001 and carrageenan-induced paw oedema by 55.30% (P<0.001. After 7 days of treatments, MPE showed 38.0% (P<0.001 inhibition against formalin-induced paw oedema and reduced weight of turpentine-induced granuloma pouch by 29.6% (P<0.01 and volume of exudates by 26.1% (P<0.01 respectively. MPE (200 mg/kg showed dose-dependent elevation in pain threshold and peak analgesic effect at 120 min as evidenced by increased latency period in tail flick method and increased reaction time in hot-plate test while reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhes by 45.7% (P<0.001. The pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis model showed potentiation, as defined by increased duration of sleep in treated group rats as compared to control. Thus, the study revealed MPE is effective in reducing acute and sub-acute inflammation and showed effective and similar analgesic activity. This seemed to be safe in the treatment of pain and inflammation. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 14-21

  8. Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several C-geranyl-substituted flavanones from Paulownia tomentosa fruit.

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    Zima, Ales; Hosek, Jan; Treml, Jakub; Muselík, Jan; Suchý, Pavel; Prazanová, Gabriela; Lopes, Ana; Zemlicka, Milan

    2010-08-31

    Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several flavanones isolated from Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. (Scrophulariaceae) have been evaluated using different in vitro and in vivo methods. The capacity of flavanones to scavenge radicals was measured in vitro by means of DPPH and ABTS assays, the inhibition of hydroxyl radicals produced in Fenton reactions, FRAP, scavenging superoxide radicals using enzymatic and nonenzymatic assays and the inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced nitration of tyrosine. The in vivo testing involved measuring the cytoprotective effect of chosen flavanones against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice. The activity of tested compounds was expressed either as a Trolox® equivalent or was compared with rutin or morine as known antioxidant compounds. The highest activity in most tests was observed for diplacone and 3´-O-methyl-5´-hydroxydiplacone, and the structure vs. the antioxidant activity relationship of geranyl or prenyl-substituted flavonoids with different substitutions at the B and C ring was discussed.

  9. Inhibition of anaphylaxis-like reaction and mast cell activation by water extract from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus.

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    Choi, Yun Ho; Yan, Guang Hai; Chai, Ok Hee; Lim, Jung Min; Sung, So Young; Zhang, Xin; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Su Hwan; Lee, Moo Sam; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Song, Chang Ho

    2006-07-01

    Mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Phellinus linteus has been used as a traditional herb medicine in oriental countries and is known to have anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities. However, roles of Phellinus linteus in the mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions have not fully been examined. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of water extract from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus (WEPL) on mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions. Oral administration of WEPL inhibited the compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction and ear swelling re