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Sample records for fructose glucose corn

  1. Fructose and high fructose corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructose, a monosaccharide, is naturally present in fruits, vegetables and honey, usually accompanied by other sugars including glucose and the disaccharide sucrose. It is also found as a component of sweeteners used in many processed food products, usually as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HF...

  2. Immobilization of Recombinant Glucose Isomerase for Efficient Production of High Fructose Corn Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Qun; Xu, Qi; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jia, Dong-Xu; Liao, Cheng-Jun; Chen, De-Shui; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-09-01

    Glucose isomerase is the important enzyme for the production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). One-step production of HFCS containing more than 55% fructose (HFCS-55) is receiving much attention for its industrial applications. In this work, the Escherichia coli harboring glucose isomerase mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T was immobilized for efficient production of HFCS-55. The immobilization conditions were optimized, and the maximum enzyme activity recovery of 92% was obtained. The immobilized glucose isomerase showed higher pH, temperature, and operational stabilities with a K m value of 272 mM and maximum reaction rate of 23.8 mM min -1 . The fructose concentration still retained above 55% after the immobilized glucose isomerase was reused for 10 cycles, and more than 85% of its initial activity was reserved even after 15 recycles of usage at temperature of 90 °C. The results highlighted the immobilized glucose isomerase as a potential biocatalyst for HFCS-55 production.

  3. The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations.

  4. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject's estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals consuming SSBs occurred independently of the relative

  5. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. Objective: We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. Design: We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)–sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. Results: In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject’s estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). Conclusions: In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals

  6. The Pasting and Gel Textural Properties of Corn Starch in Glucose, Fructose and Maltose Syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order...

  7. Properties of a novel thermostable glucose isomerase mined from Thermus oshimai and its application to preparation of high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-04-01

    Glucose isomerase (GI) is used in vitro to convert d-glucose to d-fructose, which is capable of commercial producing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). To manufacture HFCS at elevated temperature and reduce the cost of enriching syrups, novel refractory GIs from Thermoanaerobacterium xylanolyticum (TxGI), Thermus oshimai (ToGI), Geobacillus thermocatenulatus (GtGI) and Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus (TsGI) were screened via genome mining approach. The enzymatic characteristics research showed that ToGI had higher catalytic efficiency and superior thermostability toward d-glucose among the screened GIs. Its optimum temperature reached 95°C and could retain more than 80% of initial activity in the presence of 20mM Mn 2+ at 85°C for 48h. The K m and k cat /K m values for ToGI were 81.46mM and 21.77min -1 mM -1 , respectively. Furthermore, the maximum conversion yield of 400g/L d-glucose to d-fructose at 85°C was 52.16%. Considering its excellent high thermostability and ameliorable application performance, ToGI might be promising for realization of future industrial production of HFCS at elevated temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement and characterization of a hyperthermophilic glucose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and its application in production of high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Jian-Feng; Jin, Li-Qun; Jia, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Xu, Jian-Miao; Liao, Cheng-Jun; Cheng, Xin-Ping; Mao, Bao-Xing; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2015-08-01

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an alternative of liquid sweetener to sucrose that is isomerized by commercial glucose isomerase (GI). One-step production of 55 % HFCS by thermostable GI has been drawn more and more attentions. In this study, a new hyperthermophilic GI from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus CCSD1 (TEGI) was identified by genome mining, and then a 1317 bp fragment encoding the TEGI was synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). To improve the activity of TEGI, two amino acid residues, Trp139 and Val186, around the active site and substrate-binding pocket based on the structural analysis and molecular docking were selected for site-directed mutagenesis. The specific activity of mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T was 2.3-fold and the value of k cat/K m was 1.86-fold as compared to the wild type TEGI, respectively. Thermostability of mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T at 90 °C for 24 h showed 1.21-fold extension than that of wild type TEGI. During the isomerization of glucose to fructose, the yield of fructose could maintain above 55.4 % by mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T as compared to 53.8 % by wild type TEGI at 90 °C. This study paved foundation for the production of 55 % HFCS using the thermostable TEGI.

  9. No differential effect of beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, or glucose on systemic or adipose tissue inflammation in normal-weight to obese adults: a randomized controlled trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Gail; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Weigle, David S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. Objective: We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight. Secondary endpoints included adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, and plasma fetuin-A as potential mechanistic links between fructose intake and low-grade inflammation. Design: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover design dietary intervention (the Diet and Systemic Inflammation Study) in 24 normal-weight to obese adults without fructose malabsorption. Participants drank 4 servings/d of fructose-, glucose-, or HFCS-sweetened beverages accounting for 25% of estimated calorie requirements while consuming a standardized diet ad libitum for three 8-d periods. Results: Subjects consumed 116% of their estimated calorie requirement while drinking the beverages with no difference in total energy intake or body weight between groups as reported previously. Fasting plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 did not differ significantly at the end of the 3 diet periods. We did not detect a consistent differential effect of the diets on measures of adipose tissue inflammation except for adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue (P = 0.005), which was lowest after the glucose phase. We also did not detect consistent evidence of a differential impact of these sugars on measures of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol test, plasma zonulin, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). Conclusion: Excessive

  10. Rare Sugar Syrup Containing d-Allulose but Not High-Fructose Corn Syrup Maintains Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity Partly via Hepatic Glucokinase Translocation in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Tomoya; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Iida, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yasuo; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Toyoda, Yukiyasu

    2017-04-05

    Ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase. RSS significantly suppressed body weight gain and abdominal fat mass (p < 0.05). The glucose tolerance test revealed significantly higher blood glucose levels in the HFCS group compared to the water group, whereas the RSS group had significantly lower blood glucose levels from 90 to 180 min (p < 0.05). At 30, 60, and 90 min, the levels of insulin in the RSS group were significantly lower than those in the water group (p < 0.05). The amount of hepatic glycogen was more than 3 times higher in the RSS group than that in the other groups. After glucose loading, the nuclear export of glucokinase was significantly increased in the RSS group compared to the water group. These results imply that RSS maintains glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, at least partly, by enhancing nuclear export of hepatic glucokinase.

  11. Consumption of Honey, Sucrose, and High-Fructose Corn Syrup Produces Similar Metabolic Effects in Glucose-Tolerant and -Intolerant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Public health recommendations call for a reduction in added sugars; however, controversy exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. The objective was to compare the effects of the chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners [honey, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup containing 55% fructose (HFCS55)] on circulating glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; body weight; and blood pressure in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (GT) and those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In a crossover design, participants consumed daily, in random order, 50 g carbohydrate from assigned sweeteners for 2 wk with a 2- to 4-wk washout period between treatments. Participants included 28 GT and 27 IGT volunteers with a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.6 y and 52.1 ± 2.7 y, respectively, and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 ± 0.8 and 31.5 ± 1.0, respectively. Body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum inflammatory markers, lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, and oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs) were completed pre- and post-treatment. The OGTT incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) for glucose and insulin were determined and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, inflammatory markers, and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the IGT group than in the GT group at baseline. Glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and the OGTT iAUC for glucose or insulin did not differ by treatment, but all responses were significantly higher in the IGT group compared with the GT group. Body weight was unchanged by treatment. Systolic BP was unchanged, whereas diastolic BP was significantly lower in response to sugar intake across all treatments. An increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was observed in the IGT group in response to all sugars. No treatment effect was observed for interleukin 6. HDL cholesterol did not

  12. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide mixture containing either approximately 42 or 55 percent...

  13. Fructose Malabsorption and Intolerance: Effects of Fructose with and without Simultaneous Glucose Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Marie E.; Skoog, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Concern exists that increasing fructose consumption, particularly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, is resulting in increasing rates of fructose intolerance and aggravation of clinical symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Most clinical trials designed to test this hypothesis have used pure fructose, a form not commonly found in the food supply, often in quantities and concentrations that exceed typical fructose intake levels. In addition, the amount of fructose provided in tests for malabsorption, which is thought to be a key cause of intolerance, often exceeds the normal physiological absorption capacity for this sugar. To help health professionals accurately identify and treat this condition, this article reviews clinical data related to understanding fructose malabsorption and intolerance (i.e., malabsorption that manifests with symptoms) relative to usual fructose and other carbohydrate intake. Because simultaneous consumption of glucose attenuates fructose malabsorption, information on the fructose and glucose content of foods, beverages, and ingredients representing a variety of food categories is provided. PMID:21793722

  14. Fructose malabsorption and intolerance: effects of fructose with and without simultaneous glucose ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Marie E; Skoog, Suzanne M

    2011-08-01

    Concern exists that increasing fructose consumption, particularly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, is resulting in increasing rates of fructose intolerance and aggravation of clinical symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Most clinical trials designed to test this hypothesis have used pure fructose, a form not commonly found in the food supply, often in quantities and concentrations that exceed typical fructose intake levels. In addition, the amount of fructose provided in tests for malabsorption, which is thought to be a key cause of intolerance, often exceeds the normal physiological absorption capacity for this sugar. To help health professionals accurately identify and treat this condition, this article reviews clinical data related to understanding fructose malabsorption and intolerance (i.e., malabsorption that manifests with symptoms) relative to usual fructose and other carbohydrate intake. Because simultaneous consumption of glucose attenuates fructose malabsorption, information on the fructose and glucose content of foods, beverages, and ingredients representing a variety of food categories is provided.

  15. Excess free fructose, high-fructose corn syrup and adult asthma: the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, Luanne R; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-03-28

    There is growing evidence that intakes of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), HFCS-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and apple juice - a high-fructose 100 % juice - are associated with asthma, possibly because of the high fructose:glucose ratios and underlying fructose malabsorption, which may contribute to enteral formation of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation end products, which bind receptors that are mediators of asthma. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess associations between intakes of these beverages and asthma risk, with data from the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Diet soda and orange juice - a 100 % juice with a 1:1 fructose:glucose ratio - were included for comparison. Increasing intake of any combination of HFCS-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and apple juice was significantly associated with progressively higher asthma risk, plateauing at 5-7 times/week v. never/seldom, independent of potential confounders (hazard ratio 1·91, P<0·001). About once a day consumers of HFCS-sweetened soda had a 49 % higher risk (P<0·011), moderate apple juice consumers (2-4 times/week) had a 61 % higher risk (P<0·007) and moderate fruit drink consumers had a 58 % higher risk (P<0·009), as compared with never/seldom consumers. There were no associations with diet soda/orange juice. These associations are possibly because of the high fructose:glucose ratios, and fructose malabsorption. Recommendations to reduce consumption may be inadequate to address asthma risk, as associations are evident even with moderate intake of these beverages, including apple juice - a 100 % juice. The juice reductions in the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in 2009, and the plateauing/decreasing asthma prevalence (2010-2013), particularly among non-Hispanic black children, may be related. Further research regarding the consequences of fructose malabsorption is needed.

  16. Fructose Malabsorption and Intolerance: Effects of Fructose with and without Simultaneous Glucose Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Latulippe, Marie E.; Skoog, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Concern exists that increasing fructose consumption, particularly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, is resulting in increasing rates of fructose intolerance and aggravation of clinical symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Most clinical trials designed to test this hypothesis have used pure fructose, a form not commonly found in the food supply, often in quantities and concentrations that exceed typical fructose intake levels. In addition, the amount of fructose provid...

  17. GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE INDEX IN THE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gnilomedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results summarize literature and experimental data on the content of glucose and fructose of different varieties in grapes belonging to different botanical species of Vitis. The ratio of glucose and fructose indicator can be used for fermentation control and prevention of under fermentation in the production of dry wines, as well as an identification parameter to assess the authenticity of grape juice and concentratedmust. The object of the study were grapes of red and white winemaking European and autochthonous varieties, belonging to Vitis, as well as varieties of new selection (Aligote, Albilio, Verdelho, Sersial, Rkatsiteli, White Muscat, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Bastardo of Magarach, Kephesiya, Ekim kara, Golubok. Sugar content in grape samples was inthe range of 180-260 g/l. Total hexoses were determined by HPLC method according to a modified methodology developed by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Wine of "FSBSI "Magarach ". It was established that the value range of the glucose-fructose index in the grapes cultivated in different viniviticultural regions of the world makes 0.74-1.19. It has been revealed that the glucose-fructose index decreases with the ripening of berries. Low index values are characteristic for the grape that ripens at high temperatures and was cultivated in regions with hot climate. High index valuesare characteristic of table grapes and winemaking grape varieties of the species Vitis labrusca, Vitis amurensis and interspecific hybrids. Within the botanical species we canidentify varieties that tend to accumulate higher volumes of either glucose or fructose. These patterns are equally characteristic of white and red grape varieties. The analytical analyzes of the Crimean winemaking grape varieties resulted in the establishment of the glucose-fructose index for the first time, varying within the range of 0.9-1.06.

  18. Glycemic effect of nutritive sweeteners: Honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controversy currently exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Using a randomized, crossover design we evaluated the effects of chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)) on glucose tolerance in overweigh...

  19. Microbial production of glucose/fructose syrups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matur, A.; Saglam, N.

    1982-04-01

    With the ever-increasing demand for sugar and the trend in rising price, rapid progress in research on new and/or alternative sweeteners has been inevitable during the past decade or so. Pure glucose, glucose/fructose, glucose/maltose syrups are often called isosyrups. Isosyrups have been recognized as a good alternative sources of sugar. These are used today in the manufacture of soft drinks, jams and jellies, confectionary, baking fermentation, dietetic and infant food, ice-cream, pharmaceutical processes, etc. Isosyrups are produced by hydrolysis of starch and cellulocis raw materials have been utilized for the production of isosyrups.

  20. Effect of the fructose and glucose concentration on the rheological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of fructose and glucose content on the rheological behavior of syrups. Initially, high fructose syrup from the fructans present in leaves, bases and head of Agave tequilana Weber blue was obtained. Then, its contents of moisture, ash, fructose, glucose and direct and total ...

  1. Glucose and fructose 6-phosphate cycle in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlander, S.; Roovete, A.; Vranic, M.; Efendic, S.

    1986-01-01

    We have determined the rate of glucose cycling by comparing turnovers of [2- 3 H]- and [6- 3 H]glucose under basal conditions and during a glucose infusion. Moreover, the activity of the fructose 6-phosphate cycle was assessed by comparing [3- 3 H]- and [6- 3 H]glucose. The study included eight lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. They participated in two randomly performed investigations. In one experiment [2- 3 H]- and [6- 3 H]glucose were given simultaneously, while in the other only [3- 3 H]glucose was given. The basal rate of glucose cycling was 0.32 +/- 0.08 mg X kg-1 X min-1 or 17% of basal glucose production (P less than 0.005). During glucose infusion the activity of endogenous glucose cycling did not change but since glucose production was suppressed it amounted to 130% of glucose production. The basal fructose 6-phosphate cycle could be detected only in three subjects and was suppressed during glucose infusion. In conclusion, the glucose cycle is active in healthy humans both in basal conditions and during moderate hyperglycemia. In some subjects, the fructose 6-phosphate cycle also appears to be active. Thus it is preferable to use [6- 3 H]glucose rather than [3- 3 H]glucose when measuring glucose production and particularly when assessing glucose cycle

  2. Synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by acid catalyzed dehydration of glucose-fructose mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer; Grotkjær, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from hexoses has been studied extensively in the scientific literature. However, a process has yet to be implemented at industrial scale. In this paper the simultaneous dehydration of glucose and fructose was investigated, in order to develop a process...... allowing the use of the cheapest available source of fructose: high fructose corn syrup. The dehydration was catalyzed by hydrochloric acid and conducted in acetone-water mixtures, which ensured good selectivity towards HMF and eliminated precipitation of polymer by-products (insoluble humins). Through...... and glucose dimers) are recirculated to the dehydration reactor. The model predicts an HMF selectivity of close to 70% in a recirculating reactor at conditions where HMF degradation is avoided....

  3. [Fructose and fructose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2016-10-01

    Although fructose was discovered in 1794, it was realised in recent decades only that its malabsorption can lead to intestinal symptoms while its excessive consumption induces metabolic disturbances. Fructose is a monosaccharide found naturally in most fruits and vegetables. Dietary intake of fructose has gradually increased in the past decades, especially because of the consumption of high fructose corn syrup. With its 16.4 kg/year consumption, Hungary ranks secondly after the United States. Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine by facilitated transport mediated by glucose transporter proteins-2 and -5, and arrives in the liver cells. Here it is transformed enzymatically into fructose-1-phosphate and then, fructose-1,5-diphosphate, which splits further into glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone-phosphate, entering the process of glycolysis, triglyceride and uric acid production. The prevalence of fructose intolerance varies strongly, depending on the method used. The leading symptoms of fructose intolerance are similar, but less severe than those of lactose intolerance. Multiple secondary symptoms can also occur. A symptom-based diagnosis of fructose intolerance is possible, but the gold standard is the H 2 breath test, though this is less accurate than in lactose testing. Measuring fructosaemia is costly, cumbersome and not widely used. Fructose intolerance increases intestinal motility and sensitivity, promotes biofilm formation and contributes to the development of gastrooesophageal reflux. Long-term use of fructose fosters the development of dental caries and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Its role in carcinogenesis is presently investigated. The cornerstone of dietary management for fructose intolerance is the individual reduction of fructose intake and the FODMAP diet, led by a trained dietetician. The newly introduced xylose-isomerase is efficient in reducing the symptoms of fructose intolerance. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(43), 1708-1716.

  4. Contribution of galactose and fructose to glucose homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the contributions of galactose and fructose to glucose formation, 6 subjects (26 +/- 2 years old; body mass index, 22.4 +/-0.2 kg/m2) (mean +/- SE) were studied during fasting conditions. Three subjects received a primed constant intravenous infusion of[6,6-2H2] glucose for 3 hours foll...

  5. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  6. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  7. Carbohydrate composition of high-fructose corn syrups (HFCS) used for bee feeding: effect on honey composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Matute, Ana Isabel; Weiss, Milagra; Sammataro, Diana; Finely, Jennifer; Sanz, Maria Luz

    2010-06-23

    In this study, the carbohydrate composition of high-fructose corn syrups (HFCS) from commercial manufacturers as well as from beekeepers was characterized by GC-MS. Sucrose syrups (SS) were also included in this work for comparison. Fructosyl-fructoses and some unknown carbohydrates, which could correspond to fructosyl-glucoses, have been detected in HFCS for the first time, whereas SS were mainly characterized by the high contents of sucrose. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content of samples supplied by beekeepers was much more variable; the mean level of HMF was 64.61 ppm (+/-16.92 ppm, 95% CI ranging from 26.91 to 102.31 ppm). Syrups were used to feed caged bees and the resulting honeys produced were analyzed in order to determine their influence in carbohydrate composition. Fructosyl-fructoses were mainly detected in honeys from bees fed with HFCS, but not from those honeys coming from free-flying bees or bees fed with SS.

  8. Gedrag van glucose, fructose en verwante suikers in alkalisch milieu.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, G.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis deals with the behaviour of sugars, particularly glucose and fructose, in alkaline media. The main aim of the investigation is to obtain a mechanistic insight into the reactions taking place in such media. Such insight is of importance with respect to (1) the various derivatization

  9. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: What Are the Concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gain, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and high triglyceride levels. All of these boost your risk of ... fructose hypothesis: New perspectives on fructose consumption and metabolism. Advances in Nutrition. 2013;4:246. Position of ...

  10. Effect of Substitution of Sugar by High Fructose Corn Syrup on the Physicochemical Properties of Bakery and Dairy Products: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollaah Zargaraan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High fructose corn syrup (HFCS is commonly found in soft drinks and juice beverages, as well as in many pre-packaged foods such as breakfast cereals, baked goods and dairy desserts. Historically, sucrose (table sugar was primarily added to processed foods and beverages as the sweetening agent. In recent years, the use of HFCS has significantly increased in popularity due to its sweetness, ability to enhance flavor and shelf life, and its low cost. HFCF made by enzymatic isomerization of glucose to fructose was introduced as HFCS-42 (42% fructose and HFCS-55 (55% fructose and opened a new frontier for the sweetener and soft drink industries. Using a glucose isomerase, the starch in corn can be efficiently converted into glucose and then to various amounts of fructose. Hydrolysis of sucrose produces a 50:50 molar mixture of fructose and glucose. The primary difference is that these monosaccharides exist free in solution in HFCS, but in sucrose bonded together. The disaccharide sucrose is easily cleaved in the small intestine, so free fructose and glucose are absorbed from both sucrose and HFCS. The advantage to food manufacturers is that the free monosaccharide in HFCS provides better flavor enhancement, stability, freshness, texture, color, pourability, and consistency in foods in comparison to sucrose. The development of these inexpensive, sweet corn-based syrups made it profitable to replace sucrose (sugar and simple sugars with HFCS in our diet. In the present study, the replacement of sucrose with HFCS and its effect on the functionality and organoleptic properties of different food products were reviewed.

  11. Short-term dietary supplementation with fructose accelerates gastric emptying of a fructose but not a glucose solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Adora M W; McLaughlin, John; Maughan, Ronald J; Gilmore, William; Evans, Gethin H

    2014-01-01

    Short-term dietary glucose supplementation has been shown to accelerate the gastric emptying rate of both glucose and fructose solutions. The aim of this study was to examine gastric emptying rate responses to monosaccharide ingestion following short-term dietary fructose supplementation. The gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution containing 36 g of fructose and an equicaloric glucose solution containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate were measured in 10 healthy non-smoking men with and without prior fructose supplementation (water control) using a randomized crossover design. Gastric emptying rate was assessed for a period of 1 h using the [(13)C]breath test with sample collections at baseline and 10-min intervals following drink ingestion. Additionally, appetite ratings of hunger, fullness, and prospective food consumption were recorded at baseline and every 10 min using visual analog scales. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in significantly accelerated half-emptying time of a fructose solution (mean = 48, SD = 6 versus 58, SD = 14 min control; P = 0.037), whereas the emptying of a glucose solution remained unchanged (mean = 85, SD = 31 versus 78, SD = 27 min control; P = 0.273). Time of maximal emptying rate of fructose was also significantly accelerated following increased dietary fructose intake (mean = 33, SD = 6 versus 38, SD = 9 min control; P = 0.042), while it remained unchanged for glucose (mean = 45, SD = 14 versus 44, SD = 14 min control; P = 0.757). No effects of supplementation were observed for appetite measures. Three d of supplementation with 120 g/d of fructose resulted in an acceleration of gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  13. High-fructose corn syrup: is this what's for dinner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Popkin, Barry M

    2008-12-01

    Research on trends in consumption of added sugar and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in the United States has largely focused on calorically sweetened beverages and ignored other sources. We aimed to examine US consumption of added sugar and HFCS to determine long-term trends in availability and intake from beverages and foods. We used 2 estimation techniques and data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys (1965 and 1977), Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (1989-1991), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004) to examine trends in HFCS and added sugar both overall and within certain food and beverage groups. Availability and consumption of HFCS and added sugar increased over time until a slight decline between 2000 and 2004. By 2004, HFCS provided roughly 8% of total energy intake compared with total added sugar of 377 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1), accounting for 17% of total energy intake. Although food and beverage trends were similar, soft drinks and fruit drinks provided the most HFCS (158 and 40 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) in 2004, respectively). Moreover, among the top 20% of individuals, 896 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) of added sugar was consumed compared with 505 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) of HFCS. Among consumers, sweetened tea and desserts also represented major contributors of calories from added sugar (>100 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1)). Although increased intake of calories from HFCS is important to examine, the health effect of overall trends in added caloric sweeteners should not be overlooked.

  14. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Li

    Full Text Available Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

  15. High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Mice (C57BL/6) received either water or 10% HFCS solution in combination with ad libitum chow for 15 weeks. HFCS consumption with chow diet did not induce weight gain compared to water, chow-only controls but did induce glucose dysregulation and reduced evoked dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum. These data show that HFCS can contribute to metabolic disorder and altered dopamine function independent of weight gain and high-fat diets. PMID:29287121

  16. High fructose corn syrup use in beverages: Composition, manufacturing, properties, consumption, and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been used in beverages for more than 30 years. Technology to produce it was developed in the 1960s, it was introduced to the food and beverage industry as a liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (sugar) in the 1970s, and it fully replaced sucrose in the USA in m...

  17. High Fructose Corn Syrup, Mercury, and Autism--Is There a Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review relevant background literature and research regarding the evidence linking high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), mercury, and the increased incidence of autism among the population in the United States. Results of review suggest that rigorous scientific studies need to be performed to conclusively identify the…

  18. Adding glucose to food and solutions to enhance fructose absorption is not effective in preventing fructose-induced functional gastrointestinal symptoms: randomised controlled trials in patients with fructose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, C J; Ross, L A; Gibson, P R; Barrett, J S; Muir, J G

    2017-02-01

    In healthy individuals, the absorption of fructose in excess of glucose in solution is enhanced by the addition of glucose. The present study aimed to assess the effects of glucose addition to fructose or fructans on absorption patterns and genesis of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with functional bowel disorders. Randomised, blinded, cross-over studies were performed in healthy subjects and functional bowel disorder patients with fructose malabsorption. The area-under-the-curve (AUC) was determined for breath hydrogen and symptom responses to: (i) six sugar solutions (fructose in solution) (glucose; sucrose; fructose; fructose + glucose; fructan; fructan + glucose) and (ii) whole foods (fructose in foods) containing fructose in excess of glucose given with and without additional glucose. Intake of fermentable short chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs; fermentable, oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) was controlled. For the fructose in solution study, in 26 patients with functional bowel disorders, breath hydrogen was reduced after glucose was added to fructose compared to fructose alone [mean (SD) AUC 92 (107) versus 859 (980) ppm 4 h -1 , respectively; P = 0.034). Glucose had no effect on breath hydrogen response to fructans (P = 1.000). The six healthy controls showed breath hydrogen patterns similar to those with functional bowel disorders. No differences in symptoms were experienced with the addition of glucose, except more nausea when glucose was added to fructose (P = 0.049). In the fructose in foods study, glucose addition to whole foods containing fructose in excess of glucose in nine patients with functional bowel disorders and nine healthy controls had no significant effect on breath hydrogen production or symptom response. The absence of a favourable response on symptoms does not support the concomitant intake of glucose with foods high in either fructose or fructans in patients with functional bowel disorders. © 2016 The British Dietetic

  19. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging response to glucose and fructose infusions in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: In animals, intracerebroventricular glucose and fructose have opposing effects on appetite and weight regulation. In humans, functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies during carbohydrate ingestion suggest that glucose may regulate HT signaling but are potentially confoun...

  20. Kinetic and stoichiometric modelling of acidogenic fermentation of glucose and fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.J.; Villasenor, J.; Infantes, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a model based on Monod equation for the description of the acidogenic fermentation of glucose and fructose as the main substrates contained in the winery wastewater was developed. The data used for calibration and validation of the model parameters were obtained from an acidogenic mixed culture fermenting glucose and fructose in a batch reactor at 35 o C and pH 5. The calibrated model accurately describes the experimental results from biomass growth, substrate consumption and fermentation products generation. The results showed that the microorganisms growth rate and biomass yield were higher when glucose was used as substrate: μ max-Glucose = 0.163 h -1 , μ max-Fructose = 0.108 h -1 , Y x-Glucose = 0.027 g VSS per mmol Glucose and Y x-Fructose 0.017 g VSS per mmol Fructose. Regarding to the fermentation products, the acetic acid was the main fermentation product obtained in both fermentations, followed by lactic and butyric acid. Comparing glucose and fructose fermentations, the main difference was the yield of butyric acid in both fermentations, 0.249 mol per mol Glucose and 0.131 mol per mol Fructose since the other acids concentration were quite similar. In the case of the H 2 production, it was 0.76 mol H 2 per mol Glucose while 0.85 was the yield in fructose fermentation. -- Highlights: → Acidogenic fermentation of glucose and fructose was studied. → A model describing the kinetics and stoichiometry of the fermentation was developed. → The model developed predicted accurately the substrate, products and biomass profiles along the fermentation process. → The microorganisms growth rate was higher in the glucose fermentation. → The fructose fermentation presented higher hydrogen yields.

  1. Reactivity of metal catalysts in glucose-fructose conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Claudia; van Rijn, Jeaphianne; Ruby, Marc-Philipp; Tong, Qiong; Schüth, Ferdi; Thiel, Walter

    2014-09-15

    A joint experimental and computational study on the glucose-fructose conversion in water is reported. The reactivity of different metal catalysts (CrCl3, AlCl3, CuCl2, FeCl3, and MgCl2) was analyzed. Experimentally, CrCl3 and AlCl3 achieved the best glucose conversion rates, CuCl2 and FeCl3 were only mediocre catalysts, and MgCl2 was inactive. To explain these differences in reactivity, DFT calculations were performed for various metal complexes. The computed mechanism consists of two proton transfers and a hydrogen-atom transfer; the latter was the rate-determining step for all catalysts. The computational results were consistent with the experimental findings and rationalized the observed differences in the behavior of the metal catalysts. To be an efficient catalyst, a metal complex should satisfy the following criteria: moderate Brønsted and Lewis acidity (pKa = 4-6), coordination with either water or weaker σ donors, energetically low-lying unoccupied orbitals, compact transition-state structures, and the ability for complexation of glucose. Thus, the reactivity of the metal catalysts in water is governed by many factors, not just the Lewis acidity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effect of steady-state methadone on high fructose corn syrup consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stephen; Pratt, Mick; Zhou, Yan; Leri, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    Patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment self-report enhanced preferences for, and excessive consumption of, foods rich in sugar. However, it is unclear whether these are direct pharmacological effects of methadone or the consequences of metabolic dysfunctions induced by addiction to illicit opiates. Hence, the current study in drug-naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats explored the effects of steady-state methadone delivered by osmotic mini-pumps (13 days; 0, 10, 30 mg/kg/day) on consumption of rat chow and a palatable, sweet, liquid high fructose corn syrup solution. Six days after the removal of the pumps, mRNA expression of genes involved in responses to stress and rewards were quantified: pro-opiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus, mu-opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens, and dopamine D2 receptor in the dorsal striatum. Taste reactivity and locomotion tests were also performed throughout the study. It was found that methadone increased caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup and reduced caloric intake from chow, effects that could not be directly ascribed to changes in high fructose corn syrup taste reactivity or motor functions. However, the changes in caloric intake displayed significant tolerance, and mRNA expression analysis suggested that methadone attenuated the effect of high fructose corn syrup on pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA, and possibly on dopamine D2 receptor mRNA. These findings in rats suggest that the pharmacological effect of methadone, administered to achieve steady-state maintenance, may not be the primary cause of dietary alterations reported by patients maintained on methadone.

  3. Effect of glucose concentration on the rate of fructose consumption in native strains isolated from the fermentation of Agave duranguensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Campillo, M; Urtíz, N; Soto, O; Barrio, E; Rutiaga, M; Páez, J

    2012-12-01

    Studies on hexose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that glucose is consumed faster than fructose when both are present (9:1 fructose to glucose) in the medium during the fermentation of Agave. The objective of this work was to select strains of S. cerevisiae that consume fructose equal to or faster than glucose at high fructose concentrations by analyzing the influence of different glucose concentrations on the fructose consumption rate. The optimal growth conditions were determined by a kinetics assay using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using 50 g of glucose and 50 g of fructose per liter of synthetic medium containing peptone and yeast extract. Using the same substrate concentrations, strain ITD-00185 was shown to have a higher reaction rate for fructose over glucose. At 75 g of fructose and 25 g of glucose per liter, strain ITD-00185 had a productivity of 1.02 gL(-1) h(-1) after 40 h and a fructose rate constant of 0.071 h(-1). It was observed that glucose concentration positively influences fructose consumption when present in a 3:1 ratio of fructose to glucose. Therefore, adapted strains at high fructose concentrations could be used as an alternative to traditional fermentation processes.

  4. Efficient Isomerization of Glucose to Fructose over Zeolites in Consecutive Reactions in Alcohol and Aqueous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Paniagua, Marta; Melero, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    -USY (Si/Al = 6) gave a remarkable 55% yield of fructose after the second reaction step. A main advantage of applying alcohol media and a catalyst that combines Brønsted and Lewis acid sites is that glucose is isomerized to fructose at low temperatures, while direct conversion to industrially important...... chemicals like alkyl levulinates is viable at higher temperatures....

  5. Kinetic analysis for the isomerization of glucose, fructose, and mannose in subcritical aqueous ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Fructose, glucose, and mannose were treated with subcritical aqueous ethanol for ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to 80% (v/v) at 180-200 °C. The aldose-ketose isomerization was more favorable than ketose-aldose isomerization and glucose-mannose epimerization. The isomerization of the monosaccharides was promoted by the addition of ethanol. In particular, mannose was isomerized most easily to fructose in subcritical aqueous ethanol. The apparent equilibrium constants for the isomerizations of mannose to fructose, Keq,M→F, and glucose to fructose, Keq,G→F, were independent of ethanol concentration and increased with increasing temperature. Moreover, the Keq,M→F value was much larger than the Keq,G→F value. The enthalpies for the isomerization of mannose to fructose, ΔHM→F, and glucose to fructose, ΔHG→F, were estimated to be 18 and 24 kJ/mol, respectively, according to van't Hoff equation. Subcritical aqueous ethanol can be used to produce fructose from glucose and mannose efficiently.

  6. Possible consequences of the sucrose replacement by a fructose-glucose syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Judit Süli; Ingrid Hamarová; Anna Sobeková

    2017-01-01

    The fructose-glucose syrup is currently used instead of sucrose in bakery products for economic and technological reasons. The authors investigated the extent to which this change affects the formation of non-enzymatic browning products (Advanced Glycation End - AGE-Products and melanoidins). Formation of these products in model systems - mixtures of various sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose - concentration 6%) with glycine (concentration 0.7%) or/and lysine (concentration 0.3%), heat-treate...

  7. Operant licking for intragastric sugar infusions: differential reinforcing actions of glucose, sucrose and fructose in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Intragastric (IG) flavor conditioning studies in rodents indicate that isocaloric sugar infusions differ in their reinforcing actions, with glucose and sucrose more potent than fructose. Here we determined if the sugars also differ in their ability to maintain operant self-administration by licking an empty spout for IG infusions. Food-restricted C57BL/6J mice were trained 1 h/day to lick a food-baited spout, which triggered IG infusions of 16% sucrose. In testing, the mice licked an empty spout, which triggered IG infusions of different sugars. Mice shifted from sucrose to 16% glucose increased dry licking, whereas mice shifted to 16% fructose rapidly reduced licking to low levels. Other mice shifted from sucrose to IG water reduced licking more slowly but reached the same low levels. Thus IG fructose, like water, is not reinforcing to hungry mice. The more rapid decline in licking induced by fructose may be due to the sugar's satiating effects. Further tests revealed that the Glucose mice increased their dry licking when shifted from 16% to 8% glucose, and reduced their dry licking when shifted to 32% glucose. This may reflect caloric regulation and/or differences in satiation. The Glucose mice did not maintain caloric intake when tested with different sugars. They self-infused less sugar when shifted from 16% glucose to 16% sucrose, and even more so when shifted to 16% fructose. Reduced sucrose self-administration may occur because the fructose component of the disaccharide reduces its reinforcing potency. FVB mice also reduced operant licking when tested with 16% fructose, yet learned to prefer a flavor paired with IG fructose. These data indicate that sugars differ substantially in their ability to support IG self-administration and flavor preference learning. The same post-oral reinforcement process appears to mediate operant licking and flavor learning, although flavor learning provides a more sensitive measure of sugar reinforcement. PMID:26485294

  8. Changes in diffraction efficiency of gratings with high fructose corn syrup by aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, Nildia Y.; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo

    2017-03-01

    High fructose corn syrup was used for preparation of holographic gratings photosensitized with potassium bichromated, for to analyze the behavior of diffraction efficiency to first order. The behavior of diffraction efficiency to first order was analyzed at time intervals different: 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, because to the recorded gratings showed instability 24 hours after of record. For this reason, we decided to study in the time the evolution of diffraction efficiency parameter for to determine the maximum modulation of material holographic (HFCS-bichromated). The study realized showed that after of 72 hours, the photosensitized material reaches its maximum modulation, with a diffraction efficiency to first order of 4 percent.

  9. Comparison of sugar molecule decomposition through glucose and fructose: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2012-02-01

    Efficient chemical conversion of biomass is essential to produce sustainable energy and industrial chemicals. Industrial level conversion of glucose to useful chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid, is a major step in the biomass conversion but is difficult because of the formation of undesired products and side reactions. To understand the molecular level reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of glucose and fructose, we have carried out high-level quantum chemical calculations [Gaussian-4 (G4) theory]. Selective 1,2-dehydration, keto-enol tautomerization, isomerization, retro-aldol condensation, and hydride shifts of glucose and fructose molecules were investigated. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicate that, for acyclic glucose and fructose molecules, the dehydration and isomerization require larger activation barriers compared to the retro-aldol reaction at 298 K in neutral medium. The retro-aldol reaction results in the formation of C2 and C4 species from glucose and C3 species from fructose. The formation of the most stable C3 species, dihydroxyacetone from fructose, is thermodynamically downhill. The 1,3-hydride shift leads to the cleavage of the C-C bond in the acyclic species; however, the enthalpy of activation is significantly higher (50-55 kcal/mol) than that of the retro-aldol reaction (38 kcal/mol) mainly because of the sterically hindered distorted four-membered transition state compared to the hexa-membered transition state in the retro-aldol reaction. Both tautomerization and dehydration are catalyzed by a water molecule in aqueous medium; however, water has little effect on the retro-aldol reaction. Isomerization of glucose to fructose and glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone proceeds through hydride shifts that require an activation enthalpy of about 40 kcal/mol at 298 K in water medium. This investigation maps out accurate energetics of the decomposition of glucose and fructose molecules

  10. Sympathetic overactivity precedes metabolic dysfunction in a fructose model of glucose intolerance in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Katia De; Senador, Danielle D.; Mostarda, Cristiano; Irigoyen, Maria C.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of high levels of fructose in humans and animals leads to metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. There are questions as to the role of the autonomic changes in the time course of fructose-induced dysfunction. C57/BL male mice were given tap water or fructose water (100 g/l) to drink for up to 2 mo. Groups were control (C), 15-day fructose (F15), and 60-day fructose (F60). Light-dark patterns of arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR), and their respective variabilities were measured. Plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and glucose tolerance were quantified. Fructose increased systolic AP (SAP) at 15 and 60 days during both light (F15: 123 ± 2 and F60: 118 ± 2 mmHg) and dark periods (F15: 136 ± 4 and F60: 136 ± 5 mmHg) compared with controls (light: 111 ± 2 and dark: 117 ± 2 mmHg). SAP variance (VAR) and the low-frequency component (LF) were increased in F15 (>60% and >80%) and F60 (>170% and >140%) compared with C. Cardiac sympatho-vagal balance was enhanced, while baroreflex function was attenuated in fructose groups. Metabolic parameters were unchanged in F15. However, F60 showed significant increases in plasma glucose (26%), cholesterol (44%), triglycerides (22%), insulin (95%), and leptin (63%), as well as glucose intolerance. LF of SAP was positively correlated with SAP. Plasma leptin was correlated with triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Results show that increased sympathetic modulation of vessels and heart preceded metabolic dysfunction in fructose-consuming mice. Data suggest that changes in autonomic modulation may be an initiating mechanism underlying the cluster of symptoms associated with cardiometabolic disease. PMID:22319048

  11. Role of nitric oxide in glucose-, fructose and galactose-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have shown that the infusion of glucose, fructose and galactose resulted in significant increases in intestinal glucose uptake (IGU) and the role of nitric oxide in these responses was not known. The present study was designed to investigate the role of nitric oxide in the observed increases in IGU.

  12. High-fructose corn syrup-55 consumption alters hepatic lipid metabolism and promotes triglyceride accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kaitlin; Lateef, Sundus; Benedito, Vagner A; Tou, Janet C

    2017-01-01

    High-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) has been suggested to be more lipogenic than sucrose, which increases the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia. The study objectives were to determine the effects of drinking different sugar-sweetened solutions on hepatic gene expression in relation to liver fatty acid composition and risk of NAFLD. Female rats were randomly assigned (n=7 rats/group) to drink water or water sweetened with 13% (w/v) HFCS-55, sucrose or fructose for 8 weeks. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest (P=.03) hepatic total lipid and triglyceride content and histological evidence of fat infiltration. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest hepatic de novo lipogenesis indicated by the up-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and the highest (Ptriglyceride-rich lipoprotein from the liver was increased as shown by up-regulation of gene expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in rats drinking sucrose, but not HFCS-55 solution. The observed lipogenic effects were attributed to the slightly higher fructose content of HFCS-55 solution in the absence of differences in macronutrient and total caloric intake between rats drinking HFCS-55 and sucrose solution. Results from gene expression and fatty acid composition analysis showed that, in a hypercaloric state, some types of sugars are more detrimental to the liver. Based on these preclinical study results, excess consumption of caloric sweetened beverage, particularly HFCS-sweetened beverages, should be limited. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Changes in MR of malignant melanomas induced by glucose and fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeser, P.; Thuomas, K.A.; Roberto, A.; Larsson, B.S.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.

    1991-01-01

    MR imaging has been performed on malignant melanomas in vitro and in vivo. Changes of the water content in an enucleated malignant melanoma in vitro were followed by significant changes of the T1 and T2 values. In mice with implanted subcutaneous melanoma similar changes could be obtained after injection of glucose and fructose intraperitoneally. Malignant melanoma of the eye could be influenced in the same way in 10 consecutive patients after oral intake of glucose and fructose. The present study shows that the MR images may be significantly changed after a few hours by altered metabolism induced by glucose and fructose. It is anticipated that this is due to changes within the tumor leading to different water distribution. The finding may be of importance as a further help for diagnosing malignant melanoma of the eye. (orig.)

  14. Isomerization of glucose into fructose by environmentally friendly Fe/β zeolite catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Siquan; Zhang, Lei; Xiao, Kehao; Xia, Haian

    2017-06-29

    Herein, the environmentally friendly Fe/β zeolite for glucose isomerization to fructose in aqueous media was reported for the first time. The effects of various reaction conditions including reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst dosage, etc. on the isomerization reaction over Fe/β zeolite were studied in detail. Under the optimized conditions, yield of fructose higher than 20% were obtained. Moreover, the Fe/β zeolite catalysts were stable and remained constant catalytic activity after five consecutive runs. The possible active Fe species for isomerization of glucose in Fe/β zeolite is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup vs. high fructose corn syrups) were detected between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, colonies installed within a closed arena had increased pr...

  16. Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural in Domestic High Fructose Corn Syrup and Its Toxicity to the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S. high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has become a sucrose replacement for honey bees and has widespread use as a sweetener in many processed foods and beverages for human consumption. It is utilized by commercial beekeepers as a food for honey bees for several reasons: to promote brood produ...

  17. Lactate, fructose and glucose oxidation profiles in sports drinks and the effect on exercise performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Azevedo

    Full Text Available Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation was assessed in 6 male Category 1 and 2 cyclists who consumed CytoMax (C or a leading sports drink (G before and during continuous exercise (CE. C contained lactate-polymer, fructose, glucose and glucose polymer, while G contained fructose and glucose. Peak power output and VO2 on a cycle ergometer were 408+/-13 W and 67.4+/-3.2 mlO2 x kg(-1 x min(-1. Subjects performed 3 bouts of CE with C, and 2 with G at 62% VO2peak for 90 min, followed by high intensity (HI exercise (86% VO(2peak to volitional fatigue. Subjects consumed 250 ml fluid immediately before (-2 min and every 15 min of cycling. Drinks at -2 and 45 min contained 100 mg of [U-(13C]-lactate, -glucose or -fructose. Blood, pulmonary gas samples and 13CO2 excretion were taken prior to fluid ingestion and at 5,10,15,30,45,60,75, and 90 min of CE, at the end of HI, and 15 min of recovery. HI after CE was 25% longer with C than G (6.5+/-0.8 vs. 5.2+/-1.0 min, P<0.05. 13CO2 from the -2 min lactate tracer was significantly elevated above rest at 5 min of exercise, and peaked at 15 min. 13CO2 from the -2 min glucose tracer peaked at 45 min for C and G. 13CO2 increased rapidly from the 45 min lactate dose, and by 60 min of exercise was 33% greater than glucose in C or G, and 36% greater than fructose in G. 13CO2 production following tracer fructose ingestion was greater than glucose in the first 45 minutes in C and G. Cumulative recoveries of tracer during exercise were: 92%+/-5.3% for lactate in C and 25+/-4.0% for glucose in C or G. Recoveries for fructose in C and G were 75+/-5.9% and 26+/-6.6%, respectively. Lactate was used more rapidly and to a greater extent than fructose or glucose. CytoMax significantly enhanced HI.

  18. Lactate, fructose and glucose oxidation profiles in sports drinks and the effect on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, John L; Tietz, Emily; Two-Feathers, Tashena; Paull, Jeff; Chapman, Kenneth

    2007-09-26

    Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation was assessed in 6 male Category 1 and 2 cyclists who consumed CytoMax (C) or a leading sports drink (G) before and during continuous exercise (CE). C contained lactate-polymer, fructose, glucose and glucose polymer, while G contained fructose and glucose. Peak power output and VO2 on a cycle ergometer were 408+/-13 W and 67.4+/-3.2 mlO2 x kg(-1) x min(-1). Subjects performed 3 bouts of CE with C, and 2 with G at 62% VO2peak for 90 min, followed by high intensity (HI) exercise (86% VO(2)peak) to volitional fatigue. Subjects consumed 250 ml fluid immediately before (-2 min) and every 15 min of cycling. Drinks at -2 and 45 min contained 100 mg of [U-(13)C]-lactate, -glucose or -fructose. Blood, pulmonary gas samples and 13CO2 excretion were taken prior to fluid ingestion and at 5,10,15,30,45,60,75, and 90 min of CE, at the end of HI, and 15 min of recovery. HI after CE was 25% longer with C than G (6.5+/-0.8 vs. 5.2+/-1.0 min, P<0.05). 13CO2 from the -2 min lactate tracer was significantly elevated above rest at 5 min of exercise, and peaked at 15 min. 13CO2 from the -2 min glucose tracer peaked at 45 min for C and G. 13CO2 increased rapidly from the 45 min lactate dose, and by 60 min of exercise was 33% greater than glucose in C or G, and 36% greater than fructose in G. 13CO2 production following tracer fructose ingestion was greater than glucose in the first 45 minutes in C and G. Cumulative recoveries of tracer during exercise were: 92%+/-5.3% for lactate in C and 25+/-4.0% for glucose in C or G. Recoveries for fructose in C and G were 75+/-5.9% and 26+/-6.6%, respectively. Lactate was used more rapidly and to a greater extent than fructose or glucose. CytoMax significantly enhanced HI.

  19. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-07-17

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.

  20. Glucose (xylose) isomerase production from thermotolerant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose (xylose) isomerase (GI) is one of the most important industrial enzymes. It is used widely to catalyze the reversible conversion of D-glucose to D-fructose in vivo. The latter is used on a wide scale in the production of the high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) from corn starch. The great need of a thermostable GI, which is ...

  1. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation preventing this. There was no effect of long-term fructose diet and/or taurine supplementation on plasma triglycerides, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, as well as plasma HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol.In conclusion, the study suggests that long-term taurine supplementation improves glucose tolerance and normalize hepatic triglyceride content following long-term fructose feeding. However, as the combination of taurine and fructose also increased fasting glucose levels, the beneficial effect of taurine supplementation towards amelioration of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance may be questionable.

  2. Conversion of Cassava Starch to Produce Glucose and Fructose by Enzymatic Process Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardiono Siswo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, variation of glycosidase enzyme concentration and saccharification time on enzymatic hydrolysis using microwave have been investigated. Concentration and kinetic parameters rate of glucose and fructose were analyzed. Cassava starch was liquefied and gelatinized by microwave at 80°C. The gelatinized starch was saccharified at 60°C using (0.2;0.4;0.6;0.8;1% (w/v glycosidase enzyme for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The glucose which has been saccharified with 1% glycosidase enzyme for 72 hours gave highest conversion 66.23 %. The optimization process by multilevel reaction gave the highest conversion at enzyme concentrations 0.88 %and saccharification time 29 hours that 68.82%. The highest conversion of glucose was isomerized to fructose. The fructose which has been isomerized for 180 minutes gave highest conversion 20.05 %. The kinetics enzymatic reaction was approached and determined by Michaelis - Menten equation, Km and Vmax of reaction for glucose 22.94 g/L; 2.70 g/L hours and for fructose 3.39 g/L; 0.38 g/L. min respectively.

  3. A Simple Test to Distinguish between D-Glucose and D-Fructose

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 4. A Simple Test to Distinguish between D-Glucose and D-Fructose. Sangeeta Pandita Samta Goyal Nadira Arif Sarita Passey. Classroom Volume 12 Issue 4 April 2007 pp 92-94 ...

  4. Sucrose, glucose and fructose have similar genotoxicity in the rat colon and affect the metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Baunsgaard, D.; Autrup, H.

    2008-01-01

    % sucrose, glucose, fructose or potato starch as part of the diet. Mutation rates and bulky DNA adduct levels were determined in colon and liver. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids and pH were deter-mined in caecum, C-peptide was determined in plasma, biomarkers for oxidative damage...

  5. Effect of the fructose and glucose concentration on the rheological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jose Luis Montañez Soto

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... industries due to its functional and technological advan- tages (Kovalenko et al., 2010; Montañez et al., 2011b). In the industries, HFS is obtained commercially from corn starch mainly through a process that utilizes ... intermediary products during manufacturing and of course, of the final products. In sensory ...

  6. Impact of perinatal exposure to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) on adiposity and hepatic lipid composition in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, Carla R; Muhlhausler, Beverly S; O'Dea, Kerin; Gentili, Sheridan

    2017-07-01

    Fructose-containing sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), have been implicated in the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Few studies have evaluated the impact of perinatal exposure to these sugars on metabolic and physiological outcomes in the offspring. Using a rat model, offspring exposed to a maternal sucrose or HFCS diet during the prenatal and/or suckling periods were found to have altered adiposity and liver fat content and composition at weaning. Plasma levels of free fatty acids remained elevated in young adulthood, but consumption of a control diet following weaning appeared to ameliorate most other effects of perinatal exposure to a maternal high-sugar diet. Guidelines for maternal nutrition should advise limiting consumption of fructose-containing sugars, and it is particularly important that these recommendations include maternal nutrition during lactation. Perinatal exposure to excess maternal intake of added sugars, including fructose and sucrose, is associated with an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adult life. However, it is unknown to what extent the type of sugar and the timing of exposure affect these outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of exposure to maternal consumption of a 10% (w/v) beverage containing sucrose or high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) during the prenatal and/or suckling periods on offspring at 3 and 12 weeks, utilising a cross-fostering approach in a rodent model. Perinatal sucrose exposure decreased plasma glucose concentrations in offspring at 3 weeks, but did not alter glucose tolerance. Increased adiposity was observed in 3-week-old offspring exposed to sucrose or HFCS-55 during suckling, with increased hepatic fat content in HFCS-55-exposed offspring. In terms of specific fatty acids, hepatic monounsaturated (omega-7 and -9) fatty acid content was elevated at weaning, and was most pronounced in sucrose offspring exposed during both the prenatal and

  7. Role of Adrenergic Receptors in Glucose, Fructose and Galactose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through a midline laparatomy, the upper jejunum was cannulated for blood flow measurement and blood samples were obtained for measurement of glucose content of the arterial blood and venous blood from the upper jejunal segment. Glucose uptake was calculated as the product of jejunal blood flow and the difference ...

  8. Effects of sucrose, glucose and fructose on peripheral and central appetite signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Andreas; Baelemans, Annemie; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2008-10-09

    In the Western world, consumption of soft drinks has increased the last three decades and is partly responsible for the epidemic-like increase in obesity. Soft drinks, originally sweetened by sucrose, are now sweetened by other caloric sweeteners, such as fructose. In this study, we investigated the short-term effect of sucrose, glucose or fructose solutions on food intake and body weight in rats, and on peripheral and central appetite signals. Rats received water containing either of the sugars and standard rat chow for two weeks. Rats receiving water alone and standard chow were controls. All rats offered the sugar solutions increased their total caloric intake. The increased caloric intake occurred despite the fact that the rats offered either of the sugar solutions consumed less chow. As a consequence of the increased caloric intake, the sugar-drinking rats had elevated serum levels of free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol. In addition, consuming sugar solutions resulted in increased serum leptin, decreased serum PYY and down-regulated hypothalamic NPY mRNA. Serum ghrelin was increased in rats receiving fructose solution. Moreover, consumption of sucrose or fructose solution resulted in up-regulated hypothalamic CB1 mRNA. Hypothalamic POMC mRNA was down-regulated in rats receiving glucose or fructose. In conclusion, consumption of glucose, sucrose or fructose solution results in caloric overconsumption and body weight gain through activation of hunger signals and depression of satiety signals as well as activation of reward components. The weight-promoting effect of these sugar solutions may possibly be ameliorated by the down-regulation of NPY mRNA and increased serum leptin.

  9. No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2007-12-01

    It is unclear whether energy-containing drinks, especially those sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), promote positive energy balance and thereby play a role in the development of obesity. The objective was to examine the satiating effects of HFCS and sucrose in comparison with milk and a diet drink. The effects of four 800-mL drinks [corrected] containing no energy or 1.5 MJ from sucrose, HFCS, or milk on satiety were assessed, first in 15 men and 15 women with a mean (+/-SD) body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 22.1 +/- 1.9 according to visual analogue scales (VAS) and blood variables and second in 20 men and 20 women (BMI: 22.4 +/- 2.1) according to ingestion of a standardized ad libitum meal (granola cereal + yogurt, 10.1 kJ/g). Fifty minutes after consumption of the 1.5-MJ preload drinks containing sucrose, HFCS, or milk, 170%-mm VAS changes in satiety were observed. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (P < 0.001) and ghrelin (P < 0.05) concentrations changed accordingly. Compensatory energy intake did not differ significantly between the 3 preloads and ranged from 30% to 45%. Energy intake compensations were related to satiety (r = 0.35, P < 0.05). No differences were observed between the effects of the sucrose- and HFCS-containing drinks on changes in VAS and on insulin, glucose, GLP-1, and ghrelin concentrations. Changes in appetite VAS ratings were a function of changes in GLP-1, ghrelin, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Energy balance consequences of HFCS-sweetened soft drinks are not different from those of other isoenergetic drinks, eg, a sucrose-drink or milk.

  10. Possible consequences of the sucrose replacement by a fructose-glucose syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Süli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fructose-glucose syrup is currently used instead of sucrose in bakery products for economic and technological reasons. The authors investigated the extent to which this change affects the formation of non-enzymatic browning products (Advanced Glycation End - AGE-Products and melanoidins. Formation of these products in model systems - mixtures of various sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose - concentration 6% with glycine (concentration 0.7% or/and lysine (concentration 0.3%, heat-treated 60 - 100 °C for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min, was studied. The formation of AGE products and melanoidins was determined on the basis of absorption at 294 nm (AGE-products and 420 nm (melanoidins, respectively. The results pointed out notable difference in the AGE-products and also melanoidins formation for a variety of sugars. The reactivity of sucrose was low even at 100 °C/60 min. Fructose and glucose originated a significantly increasing of the non-enzymatic browning products formation. The reactivity of fructose was in the caramelisation and also in Maillard reactions the highest in any combination of composition. Lysine is the most reactive amino acid which takes part in Maillard reactions even if it is bound to protein. The non-enzymatic browning reactions result in the formation of non-digestible cross-linked proteins. Lysine is also the limiting essential amino acid of most cereals. Due to the lysine properties, reduction in protein quality is the most important nutritional effect of Maillard reactions in food. The sucrose replacement by fructose-glucose syrup in bakery products leads to more extensive non-enzymatic browning reactions, i.e. caramelisation and also Maillard reactions, while changes are in the Maillard reaction more pronounced.

  11. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. Objective The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components in Tehranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. Results The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9 and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6 in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47 and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27 higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63 and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27 higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17 and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14 higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15 and 9% (1.04-1.12 higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Conclusion Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  12. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-12

    Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Tehranian adults. This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men) aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9) and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6) in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27) higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63) and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27) higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17) and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14) higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15) and 9% (1.04-1.12) higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  13. Role of Adrenergic Receptors in Glucose, Fructose and Galactose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    homeostasis. Thus, the g.i.t takes up large quantity of glucose from circulation following hyperglycemia induced by catecholamines (Grayson and Oyebola,. 1983; Oyebola and Durosaiye, 1988; Alada and. Oyebola, 1996; Oyebola et al, 2011); nicotine. (Grayson and Oyebola, 1985); cow's urine concoction (Oyebola, 1982); ...

  14. Fructose:Glucose Ratios—A Study of Sugar Self-Administration and Associated Neural and Physiological Responses in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnneMarie Levy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explored whether different ratios of fructose (F and glucose (G in sugar can engender significant differences in self-administration and associated neurobiological and physiological responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, animals self-administered pellets containing 55% F + 45% G or 30% F + 70% G, and Fos immunoreactivity was assessed in hypothalamic regions regulating food intake and reward. In Experiment 2, rats self-administered solutions of 55% F + 42% G (high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, 50% F + 50% G (sucrose or saccharin, and mRNA of the dopamine 2 (D2R and mu-opioid (MOR receptor genes were assessed in striatal regions involved in addictive behaviors. Finally, in Experiment 3, rats self-administered HFCS and sucrose in their home cages, and hepatic fatty acids were quantified. It was found that higher fructose ratios engendered lower self-administration, lower Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus/arcuate nucleus, reduced D2R and increased MOR mRNA in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core, respectively, as well as elevated omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. These data indicate that a higher ratio of fructose may enhance the reinforcing effects of sugar and possibly lead to neurobiological and physiological alterations associated with addictive and metabolic disorders.

  15. Acute Effects of Glucose and Fructose Administration on the Neural Correlates of Cognitive Functioning in Healthy Subjects: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized double-blinded cross-over study aims to extensively study the neural correlates underpinning cognitive functions in healthy subjects after acute glucose and fructose administration, using an integrative multimodal neuroimaging approach. Five minutes after glucose, fructose, or placebo administration through a nasogastric tube, 12 participants underwent 3 complementary neuroimaging techniques: 2 task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI sequences to assess working memory (N-back and response inhibition (Go/No-Go and one resting state fMRI sequence to address the cognition-related fronto-parietal network (FPN and salience network (SN. During working memory processing, glucose intake decreased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC relative to placebo, while fructose decreased activation in the ACC and sensory cortex relative to placebo and glucose. During response inhibition, glucose and fructose decreased activation in the ACC, insula and visual cortex relative to placebo. Resting state fMRI indicated increased global connectivity strength of the FPN and the SN during glucose and fructose intake. The results demonstrate that glucose and fructose lead to partially different partially overlapping changes in regional brain activities that underpin cognitive performance in different tasks.

  16. EXTRACTION-CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE IN THE PRESENCE OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of glucose and fructose from aqueous salt solutions containing aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, hydrophilic solvents (aliphatic alcohols, alkyl acetates, ketones have been studied. The quantitative characteric of the process (the distribution coefficients, the degree of extraction, separation factors are calculeted. The dependence of distribution ratios of monosaccharides from the amino acid content in the solution has been established. A mobile phase for analysis of the concentrate by ascending thin layer chromatography have been developed.

  17. Fructose Alters Intermediary Metabolism of Glucose in Human Adipocytes and Diverts Glucose to Serine Oxidation in the One–Carbon Cycle Energy Producing Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Varma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of sugar and fructose as sweeteners has resulted in the utilization of fructose as an alternative metabolic fuel that may compete with glucose and alter its metabolism. To explore this, human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes in the presence of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mM of fructose added to a medium containing 5 mM of glucose representing the normal blood glucose concentration. Targeted tracer [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose fate association approach was employed to examine the influence of fructose on the intermediary metabolism of glucose. Increasing concentrations of fructose robustly increased the oxidation of [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose to 13CO2 (p < 0.000001. However, glucose-derived 13CO2 negatively correlated with 13C labeled glutamate, 13C palmitate, and M+1 labeled lactate. These are strong markers of limited tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, fatty acid synthesis, pentose cycle fluxes, substrate turnover and NAD+/NADP+ or ATP production from glucose via complete oxidation, indicating diminished mitochondrial energy metabolism. Contrarily, a positive correlation was observed between glucose-derived 13CO2 formed and 13C oleate and doses of fructose which indicate the elongation and desaturation of palmitate to oleate for storage. Collectively, these results suggest that fructose preferentially drives glucose through serine oxidation glycine cleavage (SOGC pathway one-carbon cycle for NAD+/NADP+ production that is utilized in fructose-induced lipogenesis and storage in adipocytes.

  18. The Influence of Pre-Exercise Glucose versus Fructose Ingestion on Subsequent Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jen Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of low glycemic index (LGI carbohydrate (CHO before exercise induced less insulin response and higher fat oxidation than that of high GI (HGI CHO during subsequent exercise. However, the effect on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate ingestion of CHO drinks with different GI using fructose and glucose before endurance exercise on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile. Eight healthy active males completed two experimental trials in randomized double-blind cross-over design. All participants ingested 500 mL CHO (75 g solution either fructose (F or glucose (G before running on the treadmill at 60% VO2max for 1 h. Participants were asked to take an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT immediately after the exercise. Blood samples were obtained for plasma and serum analysis. The F trial was significantly lower than the G trial in TG total area under the curve (AUC; 9.97 ± 3.64 vs. 10.91 ± 3.56 mmol × 6 h/L; p = 0.033 and incremental AUC (6.57 ± 2.46 vs. 7.14 ± 2.64 mmol/L × 6 h, p = 0.004. The current data suggested that a pre-exercise fructose drink showed a lower postprandial lipemia than a glucose drink after the subsequent high-fat meal.

  19. Complex formation of uranium(VI) with fructose and glucose phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koban, A.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.; Fanghaenel, T.

    2002-01-01

    The uptake of heavy metals into plants is commonly quantified by the soil-plant transfer factor. Up to now little is known about the chemical speciation of actinides in plants. To compare the obtained spectroscopic data of uranium complexes in plants with model compounds, we investigate the complexation of uranium with relevant bioligands of various functionalities. A very important class of ligands consists of phosphate esters, which serve as phosphate group and energy transmitters as well as energy storage media in biological systems. Heavy metal ions bound to the phosphate esters can be transported into living cells and then deposited. Therefore, in our study we present the results of uranium complexation with glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) obtained by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The experiments were performed at a fixed uranyl concentration (10 -5 M) as a function of the ligand concentrations (10 -5 to 10 -3 M) in a pH range from 2 to 4.5. For the glucose phosphate system we observed, using increasing ligand concentrations, a decrease in the fluorescence intensity and a small red shift of the emission bands. From this we conclude that the complexed uranyl glucose phosphate species show only minor or no fluorescence properties. The TRLFS spectra of the glucose phosphate samples indicated the presence of a single species with fluorescence properties. This species has a lifetime of approximately 1.5 μs and was identified as the free uranyl ion. An opposite phenomenon was observed for the fructose phosphate system: there was no decrease in fluorescence intensity. However, a strong red shift of the spectra was observed, illustrating the fluorescence properties of the uranyl fructose phosphate complex. The TRLFS spectra of the fructose phosphate system showed a second lifetime ( 2 2+ UO 2 (lig) x (2-y)+ + y H + (lig = sugar phosphate). Applying the mass action law and transformation to the logarithmic

  20. Enzymatic, spectrophotometric determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and inulin/oligofructose in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegmans, Monique; Iliaens, Saskia; Hoebregs, Hubert

    2004-01-01

    A fast, simple, and accurate method, using only standard laboratory equipment, was developed for the quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and inulin/oligofructose in different food matrixes. Samples were extracted using boiling water and hydrolyzed with sucrase and fructanase. Sugars were determined in the initial extract and in both hydrolysates using an enzymatic, spectrophotometric kit for glucose and fructose determination with hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglucose isomerase. Calculations of sucrose and inulin/oligofructose were based only on fructose measurement. Glucose results of the hydrolysates were not used for inulin/oligofructose calculations because of possible interference. Released glucose by the hydrolysis of maltose or by possible partial hydrolysis of other compounds like maltodextrines, starch, lactose, or maltitol could interfere in the measurement of the sucrase and the fructanase hydrolysates. To validate the method, a wide range of different food matrixes and different amounts of inulin/oligofructose (1-54%) were analyzed. Mean recovery +/- relative standard deviation (RSD) for inulin or oligofructose was 96.0 +/- 5.3%. The RSDr for inulin/oligofructose measured on 35 food samples, analyzed in duplicate, was 5.9%. Accuracy and precision of the method were less for samples with large concentrations of sucrose, maltose, maltodextrines, or starch (ratio to inulin/oligofructose >4 to 1). Precision and accuracy were comparable with those of the ion exchange chromatographic method AOAC 997.08 and the enzymatic, spectrophotometric method AOAC 999.03. In contrast to 999.03, this method allows the accurate quantification of both GFn and Fn forms.

  1. Fructose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Karolin; Witt, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose might lead to abdominal complaints such as pain, flatulence and diarrhoea. Whether defect fructose transporters such as GLUT5 or GLUT2 are involved in the pathogenesis of fructose malabsorption is a matter of debate. The hydrogen production by colonic bacteria is used for diagnosis with the hydrogen breath test. However, the appropriate fructose test dose for correct diagnosis is unclear. Subjects with fructose malabsorption show increased breath hydrogen levels and abdominal symptoms after fructose administration but do not report any symptoms when fructose is given together with glucose. This beneficial effect of glucose, however, cannot be explained yet but might be used for clinical care of these subjects.

  2. Utilization of High-Fructose Corn Syrup for Biomass Production Containing High Levels of Docosahexaenoic Acid by a Newly Isolated Aurantiochytrium sp. YLH70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ying-Liang; Sun, Jie; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Wang, Zhao

    2015-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an agro-source product and has been the most commonly used substitute for sugar as sweetener in food industry due to its low price and high solution property. In this study, the F55 HFCS, rich in fructose and glucose, was first tested for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions as a mixed carbon source by a newly isolated Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70. After the compositions of the HFCS media were optimized, the results showed that the HFCS with additions of metal ion and vitamin at low concentrations was suitable for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions and the metal ion and sea salt had the most significant effects on biomass production. During the 5-l fed-batch fermentation, total HFCS containing 180 g l(-1) reducing sugar was consumed and yields of biomass, lipid, and DHA could reach 78.5, 51, and 20.1 g l(-1), respectively, at 114 h. Meanwhile, the daily productivity and the reducing sugar conversion yield for docosahexaenoic acid were up to 4.23 g l(-1)day(-1) and 0.11 g g(-1). The fatty acid profile of Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 showed that 46.4% of total fatty acid was docosahexaenoic acid, suggesting that Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 was a promising DHA producer.

  3. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Is this what’s for dinner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Research on trends in consumption of added sugar and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in the U.S. has largely focused on calorically-sweetened beverages, ignoring other sources. Objective To examine U.S. consumption of added sugar and HFCS to determine long-term trends in availability and intake from beverages and foods. Design We used two estimation techniques and data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys (1965 and 1977), Continuing Survey of Food Intake in Individuals (1989–1991) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004) to examine trends in HFCS and added sugar, including: (a) overall trends, and (b) within certain food and beverage groups. Results Availability and consumption of HFCS and added sugar increased over time until a slight decline between 2000 and 2004. By 2004, HFCS provided roughly 8% of total energy intake compared to total added sugar of 377 kcal/person/d, accounting for 17% of total energy intake. While food and beverage trends were similar, soft drinks and fruit drinks provided the most HFCS (158 and 40 kcal/person/d in 2004, respectively). Moreover, among the top 20% of individuals, 896 kcal/person/d of added sugar was consumed compared to 505 kcal/person/d of HFCS. Among consumers, sweetened tea and desserts also represented major contributors of calories from added sugar (over 100 kcal/person/d). Conclusion While increased intake of calories from HFCS is important to examine, the health affect of overall trends in added caloric sweeteners should not be overlooked. PMID:19064537

  4. Effects of Red Wine Tannat on Oxidative Stress Induced by Glucose and Fructose in Erythrocytes in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzini, Camila Eliza Fernandes; Colpo, Ana Ceolin; Poetini, Márcia Rósula; Pires, Cauê Ferreira; de Camargo, Vanessa Brum; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Azevedo, Miriane Lucas; Soares, Júlio César Mendes; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that red wine presents in its composition several substances that are beneficial to health. This study has investigated the antioxidant effects of Tannat red wine on oxidative stress induced by glucose and fructose in erythrocytes in vitro, with the purpose to determine some of its majoritarian phenolic compounds and its antioxidant capacity. Erythrocytes were incubated using different concentrations of glucose and fructose in the presence or absence of wine. From these erythrocytes were determined the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), glucose consumption, and osmotic fragility. Moreover, quantification of total phenolic, gallic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, resveratrol, and DPPH scavenging activity in wine were also assessed. Red wine showed high levels of polyphenols analyzed, as well as high antioxidant potential. Erythrocytes incubated with glucose and fructose had an increase in lipid peroxidation and this was prevented by the addition of wine. The wine increased glucose uptake into erythrocytes and was able to decrease the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes incubated with fructose. Altogether, these results suggest that wine leads to a reduction of the oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of glucose and fructose. PMID:26078708

  5. Replacing dietary glucose with fructose increases ChREBP activity and SREBP-1 protein in rat liver nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Hyun-Young; Miyashita, Michio; Simon Cho, B.H.; Nakamura, Manabu T.

    2009-01-01

    Diets high in fructose cause hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in part due to simultaneous induction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes in liver. We investigated the mechanism underlying the unique pattern of gene induction by dietary fructose. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were meal-fed (4 h/d) either 63% (w/w) glucose or 63% fructose diet. After two weeks, animals were killed at the end of the last meal. Nuclear SREBP-1 was 2.2 times higher in fructose-fed rats than glucose-fed rats. Nuclear FoxO1 was elevated 1.7 times in fructose group, but did not reach significance (P = 0.08). Unexpectedly, no difference was observed in nuclear ChREBP between two groups. However, ChREBP DNA binding was 3.9x higher in fructose-fed animals without an increase in xylulose-5-phospate, a proposed ChREBP activator. In conclusion, the gene induction by dietary fructose is likely to be mediated in part by simultaneously increased ChREBP activity, SREBP-1 and possibly FoxO1 protein in nucleus.

  6. Replacing dietary glucose with fructose increases ChREBP activity and SREBP-1 protein in rat liver nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Hyun-Young [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Miyashita, Michio [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi, Tokyo (Japan); Simon Cho, B.H. [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Harlan E. Moore Heart Research Foundation, 503 South Sixth Street, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Nakamura, Manabu T., E-mail: mtnakamu@illinois.edu [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Diets high in fructose cause hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in part due to simultaneous induction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes in liver. We investigated the mechanism underlying the unique pattern of gene induction by dietary fructose. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were meal-fed (4 h/d) either 63% (w/w) glucose or 63% fructose diet. After two weeks, animals were killed at the end of the last meal. Nuclear SREBP-1 was 2.2 times higher in fructose-fed rats than glucose-fed rats. Nuclear FoxO1 was elevated 1.7 times in fructose group, but did not reach significance (P = 0.08). Unexpectedly, no difference was observed in nuclear ChREBP between two groups. However, ChREBP DNA binding was 3.9x higher in fructose-fed animals without an increase in xylulose-5-phospate, a proposed ChREBP activator. In conclusion, the gene induction by dietary fructose is likely to be mediated in part by simultaneously increased ChREBP activity, SREBP-1 and possibly FoxO1 protein in nucleus.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and metabolic activators: HXT3 gene expression and fructose/glucose discrepancy in sluggish fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hellín, Patricia; Naranjo, Victoria; Úbeda, Juan; Briones, Ana

    2016-12-01

    When exposed to mixtures of glucose and fructose, as occurs during the fermentation of grape juice into wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses these sugars at different rates. Moreover, glucose and fructose are transported by the same hexose transporters (HXT), which present a greater affinity for glucose, so that late in fermentation, fructose becomes the predominant sugar. Only a few commercial fermentation activators are available to optimally solve the problems this entails. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between HXT3 gene expression and fructose/glucose discrepancy in two different media inoculated with a commercial wine strain of S. cerevisiae in the presence of three metabolic activators. Fermentation kinetics, vitality and major metabolites were also measured. Rehydration with ergosterol improved the area under the curve and the growth rate (µ max ) in both studied media. Also, the fructose/glucose discrepancy values were improved with all activator treatments, highlighting rehydration in the presence of ascorbic acid. The yeast rehydration process was demonstrated to influence HXT3 expression under the studied conditions. Tetrahydrofolic acid treatment greatly influenced HXT3 gene expression, especially on the 12th day of the fermentation process. To a lesser extent, ergosterol and ascorbic acid also improved this parameter.

  8. Gum Guar fiber associated with fructose reduces serum triacylglycerol but did not improve the glucose tolerance in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyama Caio SM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The increased intake of dietary fructose can be associated with alterations on energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism, such as insulin resistance and dislipidemia. On the other hand, the ingestion of soluble fiber gum guar could improve benefic mechanism on glucose tolerance and lipids profile. Objective The aim of the present study were to investigate the effects of the supplemental feeding partially hydrolyzed gum guar on glucose and lipid homeostasis, in rats fed with fructose solution. Methods The study was performed on thirty day-old male Wistar rats randomly assigned into four groups: control(C or treated with fructose (F-20%, fiber (FB-5%, or fructose plus fiber (F-20% + FB-5% = FF solution for 30 days on glucose tolerance (OGTT, triacylglycerol concentration in the liver by chloroform/methanol method, glucose, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol serum concentration by assayed by enzymatic colorimetric method, insulin receptor (IR concentration in the liver by Western Blotting. Results The total body weight gain was not different between groups; in regards of total caloric intake, in the F group was significantly higher and in the FB group was lower than other groups. The triacylglycerol concentration in the liver of FF group was significantly higher than F group, the triacylglycerol concentration in the serum was higher the F group compared with other groups. The OGTT reveal impaired on glucose tolerance in the F, FB, FF compared with C. The IR concentration in the liver was lower in the F, FB, FF compared with C, no significant difference was observed between groups for IR concentration in the gastrocnemius muscle. No significant difference was observed between groups for carcass fat content and serum total cholesterol. Conclusion Fructose induced important alterations on glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, despite of fiber showed reversion of part this alterations. The association fructose plus

  9. Effects of long-term consumption of high fructose corn syrup containing peach nectar on body weight gain in sprague dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsah OZCAN SINIR

    Full Text Available Abstract High fructose corn syrup (HFCS is one of the most used sweeteners in the food industry. Health concerns regarding the consumption of HFCS-containing foods have developed in parallel with the increasing amount of people who become overweight. This study was conducted to investigate whether HFCS-containing peach nectar (pn-HFCS consumption has more detrimental effects on anthropometrical and biochemical parameters compared with sucrose-containing peach nectar (pn-sucrose. Fifty-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups and were fed (A pn-HFCS + ad libitum chow, (B pn-sucrose + ad libitum chow and (C only ad libitum chow for 7 months. The percentage change in body weight (PCBW, body mass index (BMI, and Lee index were calculated, and serum triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were measured. The PCBW, BMI, Lee index, serum triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were insignificant among the three groups. We can suggest that peach nectar consumption resulted in more energy intake than the control and since pn-HFCS group consumed more chow than the pn-sucrose group. The results show that long term daily HFCS or sucrose consumption in peach nectar is not associated with weight gain and does not stimulate metabolic changes in Sprague Dawley rats.

  10. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20-30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-03-07

    There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20-30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003-2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ(2) was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20-7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults aged 20-30 years, possibly due to the

  11. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E

    2017-01-01

    but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m(2)) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP...... not worsen their glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or PYY responses. A minor increase in GIP response during OGTT occurred in subjects who gained liver fat (p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: In obese males with features of metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks fructose intervention 75 g/day did not change glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or GIP...

  12. Restriction of glucose and fructose causes mild oxidative stress independently of mitochondrial activity and reactive oxygen species in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenko, Bohdana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Gospodaryov, Dmytro V; Yurkevych, Ihor S; Sanz, Alberto; Lushchak, Oleh V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2015-09-01

    Our recent study showed different effects of glucose and fructose overconsumption on the development of obese phenotypes in Drosophila. Glucose induced glucose toxicity due to the increase in circulating glucose, whereas fructose was more prone to induce obesity promoting accumulation of reserve lipids and carbohydrates (Rovenko et al., Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 2015, 180, 75-85). Searching for mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes in this study, we analyzed mitochondrial activity, mitochondrial density, mtROS production, oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense in fruit flies fed 0.25%, 4% and 10% glucose or fructose. It is shown that there is a complex interaction between dietary monosaccharide concentrations, mitochondrial activity and oxidative modifications to proteins and lipids. Glucose at high concentration (10%) reduced mitochondrial protein density and consequently respiration in flies, while fructose did not affect these parameters. The production of ROS by mitochondria did not reflect activities of mitochondrial complexes. Moreover, there was no clear connection between mtROS production and antioxidant defense or between antioxidant defense and developmental survival, shown in our previous study (Rovenko et al., Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 2015, 180, 75-85). Instead, mtROS and antioxidant machinery cooperated to maintain a redox state that determined survival rates, and paradoxically, pro-oxidant conditions facilitated larva survival independently of the type of carbohydrate. It seems that in this complex system glucose controls the amount of oxidative modification regulating mitochondrial activity, while fructose regulates steady-state mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A dose-response of consuming high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles. Objective: To determine the dose response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, ...

  14. Chronic fructose substitution for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages has little effect on fasting blood glucose, insulin, or triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rebecca A; Frese, Michael; Romero, Julio; Cunningham, Judy H; Mills, Kerry E

    2017-08-01

    Background: Conflicting evidence exists on the role of long-term fructose consumption on health. No systematic review has addressed the effect of isoenergetic fructose replacement of other sugars and its effect on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for a reduction in fasting glycemic and insulinemic markers after chronic, isoenergetic replacement of glucose or sucrose in foods or beverages by fructose. The target populations were persons without diabetes, those with impaired glucose tolerance, and those with type 2 diabetes. Design: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and clinicaltrials.gov The date of the last search was 26 April 2016. We included randomized controlled trials of isoenergetic replacement of glucose, sucrose, or both by fructose in adults or children with or without diabetes of ≥2 wk duration that measured fasting blood glucose. The main outcomes analyzed were fasting blood glucose and insulin as well as fasting triglycerides, blood lipoproteins, HbA1c, and body weight. Results: We included 14 comparison arms from 11 trials, including 277 patients. The studies varied in length from 2 to 10 wk (mean: 28 d) and included doses of fructose between 40 and 150 g/d (mean: 68 g/d). Fructose substitution in some subgroups resulted in significantly but only slightly lowered fasting blood glucose (-0.14 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.036 mmol/L), HbA1c [-10 g/L (95% CI: -12.90, -7.10 g/L; impaired glucose tolerance) and -6 g/L (95% CI: -8.47, -3.53 g/L; normoglycemia)], triglycerides (-0.08 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.02 mmol/L), and body weight (-1.40 kg; 95% CI: -2.07, -0.74 kg). There was no effect on fasting blood insulin or blood lipids. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that the substitution of fructose for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages may be of benefit

  15. Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2008-11-01

    The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions.

  16. Analysis of the exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2772 grown in continuous culture on glucose and fructose.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobben, G.J.; Casteren, van W.H.M.; Schols, H.A.; Oosterveld, A.; Sala, G.; Smith, M.R.; Sikkema, J.; Bont, de J.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2772 grown in defined medium were investigated. At equal cell densities, the strain produced 95 mg l−1 exopolysaccharides with glucose and 30 mg l−1 with fructose as the carbohydrate source. High-performance

  17. The Effect of Normally Consumed Amounts of Sucrose or High Fructose Corn Syrup on Lipid Profiles, Body Composition and Related Parameters in Overweight/Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS, the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05. There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or apolipoprotein B (Apo B. We conclude that (1 when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose—when given with glucose (as normally consumed does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2 There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters.

  18. Production of glucose and fructose syrups from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) starch using enzymes produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Roberto do Nascimento; Quintino,Fábio Pereira; Monteiro,Valdirene Neves; Asquieri,Eduardo Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    The high demands for sugars and the development of enzymatic technology have increased the production of sweeteners, especially for glucose and fructose syrups. This work describe a technology for glucose and fructose syrups from Brazilian cassava starch using enzymes produced by soil microrganisms isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado soil. Firstly, Aspergillus niger and Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the soil and used as glucoamylase (GA) and glucose isomerase (GI) producer sources. Afte...

  19. Fructose; a Hidden Threat for Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Korkmaz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Incremental usage of the fructose derived from corn by processed-food manufacturers has become a crucial threat in terms of human health. Although it is known as fruit sugar, the most important source of dietary fructose is now, processed-food prepared by using high-fructose corn syrup. Basically, fructose is metabolized within liver and its energy load is equal to glucose. Nevertheless, it does not make up satiety and fullness. Therefore, fructose-rich foods and beverages can be consumed in large amount because the absence of satiety. Studies performed recently unveil a connection between amount of fructose consumed and metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The incidence of metabolic diseases which are already affecting more than half of the adults has been increasing among children. Moreover, these types of foods are generally consumed by children. Therefore, in order to reduce the frequency of metabolic disorders in all ages, the amount of fructose in processed-foods and beverages should also be taken into consideration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 343-346

  20. Comparison of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for glucose-to-fructose isomerization in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Vinit; Pinar, Ana B; Lobo, Raul F; Vlachos, Dionisios G; Sandler, Stanley I

    2013-12-01

    Herein, the first comparison of the mechanisms of glucose-to-fructose isomerization in aqueous media enabled by homogeneous (CrCl3 and AlCl3 ) and heterogeneous catalysts (Sn-beta) by using isotopic-labeling studies is reported. A pronounced kinetic isotope effect (KIE) was observed if the deuterium label was at the C2 position, thus suggesting that a hydrogen shift from the C2 to C1 positions was the rate-limiting step with the three catalysts. (13) C and (1) H NMR spectroscopic investigations confirmed that an intra-hydride-transfer reaction pathway was the predominant reaction channel for all three catalysts in aqueous media. Furthermore, the deuterium atom in the labeled glucose could be mapped onto hydroxymethylfurfural and formic acid through reactions that followed the isomerization step in the presence of Brønsted acids. In all three catalysts, the active site appeared to be a bifunctional Lewis-acidic/Brønsted-basic site, based on a speciation model and first-principles calculations. For the first time, a mechanistic similarities between the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of aldose-to-ketose isomerization is established and it is suggested that learning from homogeneous catalysis could assist in the development of improved heterogeneous catalysts. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Colorimetric determination of fructose for the high-throughput microtiter plate assay of glucose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Hajime; Takakuwa, Masahiro; Itoh, Takafumi; Hibi, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A colorimetric method for the reducing monosaccharide determination is optimized for the assay of glucose isomerase, which converts glucose (Glc) to fructose (Fru). Test solution was mixed with 20-fold volume of the 50 mM Na2SiO3, 600 mM Na2MoO4, and 0.95 M HCl aqueous solution (pH 4.5), in which a yellow molybdosilicate species was formed. The mixture was kept at 70 °C for 30 min. Test solution containing 10 mM level Fru gave a remarkable blue reaction mixture, in which the Mo(VI) species was reduced by Fru to form a blue molybdosilicate species. The blueness increased with the Fru concentration. Glc cannot render the reaction mixture blue as strong as Fru. Thus, the colorimetric method can be used advantageously for the determination of 10 mM level Fru in the Glc isomerase reaction mixture, even in the presence of 100 mM level Glc, and has been applied successfully to the microtiter plate assay of the enzyme.

  2. Glucose tracer, kinetics and turnover in monkeys and chickens infused with ethanol, 1,3-butanediol, or fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Mixtures of (2- 3 H) and (U- 14 C) glucose were injected as single doses into fasted cynomolgus monkeys to assess glucose tracer kinetics and obtain rates of turnover. Data were treated by stochastic and compartmental analyses and results from both analyses closely agreed. However, (2- 3 H) data analyzed by the compartmental analysis required three pools to fit the glucose disappearance curve while (6- 3 H) data fit a two or three pool model equally well. Turnover rates averaged 4.9-4.0, and 3.0 mg/min x kg -1 body weight with (2- 3 H), 6- 3 H) and (U- 14 C) glucose tracers, respectively. The data heuristically suggest that the slow turnover pool that was necessary to fit (2- 3 H) glucose data is related to isotope discrimination. The effects of four treatment solutions on (6- 3 H) glucose metabolism in monkeys were examined. The solutions and their rates of infusion (umoles/min x kg -1 ) were: (1) ethanol, 110; (2) 1,3-butanediol, 110; (3) fructose, 30; and (4) ethanol pus fructose, 110 and 30, respectively. The glucose clearance rate was lowest during the ethanol plus fructose infusions. Ethanol infusions (222 or 444 umoles/min x kg -1 body weight) in chickens (1500 g) fasted 64 hours did not cause hypoglycemia although the high dose slightly decreased the rate of glucose turnover 15% (14.0 versus 12.0 mg/min x kg -1 ). It was further found that neither the hepatic cytosolic nor the mitochondrial redox state significantly changed in chickens infused with the high dose of ethanol. The unchanged hepatic metabolite ratios in chickens are consistent with their unusual resistance to ethanol-induced hypoglycemia

  3. Activity of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in normal and cirrhotic rat liver during glycogen synthesis from glucose or fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezborodkina, Natalia N; Chestnova, Anna Yu; Okovity, Sergey V; Kudryavtsev, Boris N

    2014-03-01

    Cirrhotic patients often demonstrate glucose intolerance, one of the possible causes being a decreased glycogen-synthesizing capacity of the liver. At the same time, information about the rates of glycogen synthesis in the cirrhotic liver is scanty and contradictory. We studied the dynamics of glycogen accumulation and the activity of glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) in the course of 120min after per os administration of glucose or fructose to fasted rats with CCl4-cirrhosis or fasted normal rats. Blood serum and liver pieces were sampled for examinations. In the normal rat liver administration of glucose/fructose initiated a fast accumulation of glycogen, while in the cirrhotic liver glycogen was accumulated with a 20min delay and at a lower rate. In the normal liver GS activity rose sharply and GPa activity dropped in the beginning of glycogen synthesis, but 60min later a high synthesis rate was sustained at the background of a high GS and GPa activity. Contrariwise, in the cirrhotic liver glycogen was accumulated at the background of a decreased GS activity and a low GPa activity. Refeeding with fructose resulted in a faster increase in the GS activity in both the normal and the cirrhotic liver than refeeding with glucose. To conclude, the rate of glycogen synthesis in the cirrhotic liver is lower than in the normal one, the difference being probably associated with a low GS activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinetics of D-glucose and D-fructose conversion during the alcoholic fermentation promoted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnai, Angela; Venturi, Francesca; Sanmartin, Chiara; Quartacci, Mike F; Andrich, Gianpaolo

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies on the different aspects of alcoholic fermentation are available in the literature, it is still difficult to identify the possible causes of the slowing-down or stuck of fermentations, even if the change of some compositional parameters (D-glucose/D-fructose and glycerine produced/hexoses converted ratios) could be assumed as sound signals of a possible deviation from the usual Saccharomyces metabolic pathways. The reason why alcoholic yeasts preferably metabolise D-glucose rather than D-fructose was investigated by a kinetic model based on six functional parameters having a well-defined chemical-physical meaning. The time evolution of different initial concentrations of D-glucose and D-fructose, dissolved in a model solution simulating a must (citrate buffer at pH 3.4 inoculated by a commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae), was investigated adding or not ethanol to the reaction medium. When a reduced amount of ethanol was dissolved in the reaction medium, the time evolution of the fermentation rates of these two sugars did not differ significantly, to diversify rather strongly when the alcoholic concentration increased. The hypothesised mathematical model accounts for this particular kinetic behaviour. In fact, only the sensitivity to ethanol showed by the enzymatic protein involved in the limiting steps of the fermentation process of these two sugars differed significantly, the enzymatic transformation of D-fructose being more sensitive to ethanol than D-glucose. This difference was able to justify the different kinetic behaviours shown by the two sugars when ethanol concentration in the reaction medium increased. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of agonist-receptor modeling to the sweetness synergy between high fructose corn syrup and sucralose, and between high-potency sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P A; Bridges, J R; Wicklund, R

    2010-03-01

    The agonist-receptor-transducer model of D. Ennis is applied to beverage formulations sweetened with high fructose corn syrup, sucralose, and other high-potency sweeteners, confirming the utility of the model, and supports the growing volume of evidence for multiple binding sites on the sweetness receptor. The model is further simplified to require less parameters for other sweetener blend systems whenever potency information is available for the single sweeteners.

  6. Effect of Substitution of Sugar by High Fructose Corn Syrup on the Physicochemical Properties of Bakery and Dairy Products: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Azizollaah Zargaraan; Leila Kamaliroosta; Amin Seyed Yaghoubi; Leila Mirmoghtadaie

    2016-01-01

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is commonly found in soft drinks and juice beverages, as well as in many pre-packaged foods such as breakfast cereals, baked goods and dairy desserts. Historically, sucrose (table sugar) was primarily added to processed foods and beverages as the sweetening agent. In recent years, the use of HFCS has significantly increased in popularity due to its sweetness, ability to enhance flavor and shelf life, and its low cost. HFCF made by enzymatic isomerization of glu...

  7. Assessment of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats with 125I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose, a new tracer of glucose transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, Pascale; Slimani, Lotfi; Briat, Arnaud; Villemain, Daniele; Fagret, Daniel; Ghezzi, Catherine; Halimi, Serge; Demongeot, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance, characterised by an insulin-stimulated glucose transport defect, is an important feature of the pre-diabetic state that has been observed in numerous pathological disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess variations in glucose transport in rats using 125 I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose (6DIG), a new tracer of glucose transport proposed as an imaging tool to assess insulin resistance in vivo. Two protocols were performed, a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and a normoinsulinaemic-normoglycaemic protocol, in awake control and insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. The tracer was injected at steady state, and activity in 11 tissues and the blood was assessed ex vivo at several time points. A multicompartmental mathematical model was developed to obtain fractional transfer coefficients of 6DIG from the blood to the organs. Insulin sensitivity of fructose-fed rats, estimated by the glucose infusion rate, was reduced by 40% compared with control rats. At steady state, 6DIG uptake was significantly stimulated by insulin in insulin-sensitive tissues of control rats (basal versus insulin: diaphragm, p < 0.01; muscle, p < 0.05; heart, p < 0.001), whereas insulin did not stimulate 6DIG uptake in insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. Moreover, in these tissues, the fractional transfer coefficients of entrance were significantly increased with insulin in control rats (basal vs insulin: diaphragm, p < 0.001; muscle, p < 0.001; heart, p < 0.01) whereas no significant changes were observed in fructose-fed rats. This study sets the stage for the future use of 6DIG as a non-invasive means for the evaluation of insulin resistance by nuclear imaging. (orig.)

  8. Green and Chamomile Teas, but not Acarbose, Attenuate Glucose and Fructose Transport via Inhibition of GLUT2 and GLUT5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Rodriguez, Jose A; Aydin, Ebru; Gauer, Julia S; Pyner, Alison; Williamson, Gary; Kerimi, Asimina

    2017-12-01

    High glycaemic sugars result in blood-glucose spikes, while large doses of post-prandial fructose inundate the liver, causing an imbalance in energy metabolism, both leading to increased risk of metabolic malfunction and type 2 diabetes. Acarbose, used for diabetes management, reduces post-prandial hyperglycaemia by delaying carbohydrate digestion. Chamomile and green teas both inhibited digestive enzymes (α-amylase and maltase) related to intestinal sugar release, as already established for acarbose. However, acarbose had no effect on uptake of sugars using both differentiated human Caco-2 cell monolayers and Xenopus oocytes expressing human glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and GLUT5. Both teas effectively inhibited transport of fructose and glucose through GLUT2 inhibition, while chamomile tea also inhibited GLUT5. Long term incubation of Caco-2/TC7 cells with chamomile tea for 16 h or 4 days did not enhance the observed effects, indicating that inhibition is acute. Sucrase activity was directly inhibited by green tea and acarbose, but not chamomile. These findings show that chamomile and green teas are potential tools to manage absorption and metabolism of sugars with efficacy against high sugar bolus stress inflicted, for example, by high fructose syrups, where the drug acarbose would be ineffective. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Combined Function of Brønsted and Lewis Acidity in the Zeolite-Catalyzed Isomerization of Glucose to Fructose in Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders; Taarning, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Glucose conversion via fructose to useful chemicals and fuels has attracted considerable attention. Isomerization of glucose to fructose can proceed along several different reaction pathways involving different sugar intermediates and isomeric forms. Presently, the roles of the substrate isomeric...... forms and of the catalyst properties remain incompletely understood. By using NMR spectroscopy, we elucidate the interplay of the catalyst active sites in converting monosaccharide forms to products, byproducts, and intermediates in alcohols....

  10. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; Pantophlet, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; Hendriks, W H; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-02-01

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy and protein metabolism in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian calves (114±2.4 kg) were fed milk replacer containing 46% lactose (CON) or 31% lactose and 15% of glucose (GLUC), fructose (FRUC), or glycerol (GLYC). Solid feed was provided at 10 g of dry matter (DM)/kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) per day. After an adaptation of 48 d, individual calves were harnessed, placed in metabolic cages, and housed in pairs in respiration chambers. Apparent total-tract disappearance of DM, energy, and N and complete energy and N balances were measured. The GLUC, FRUC, and GLYC calves received a single dose of 1.5 g of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, or [U-(13)C]glycerol, respectively, with their milk replacer at 0630 h and exhaled (13)CO2 and (13)C excretion with feces was measured. Apparent total-tract disappearance was decreased by 2.2% for DM, 3.2% for energy, and 4.2% for N in FRUC compared with CON calves. Energy and N retention did not differ between treatments, and averaged 299±16 kJ/kg of BW(0.75) per day and 0.79±0.04 g/kg of BW(0.75) per day, respectively, although FRUC calves retained numerically less N (13%) than other calves. Recovery of (13)C isotopes as (13)CO2 did not differ between treatments and averaged 72±1.6%. The time at which the maximum rate of (13)CO2 production was reached was more than 3 h delayed for FRUC calves, which may be explained by a conversion of fructose into other substrates before being oxidized. Recovery of (13)C in feces was greater for FRUC calves (7.7±0.59%) than for GLUC (1.0±0.27%) and GLYC calves (0.5±0.04%), indicating incomplete absorption of fructose from the small intestine resulting in fructose excretion or

  11. Associations of Dietary Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose with β-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Type 2 Diabetes in the Maastricht Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggelaar, Louise J C J den; Eussen, Simone J P M; Sep, Simone J S; Mari, Andrea; Ferrannini, Ele; Dongen, Martien C J M van; Denissen, Karlijn F M; Wijckmans, Nicole E G; Schram, Miranda T; Kallen, Carla J van der; Koster, Annemarie; Schaper, Nicolaas; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dagnelie, Pieter C

    2017-04-13

    The associations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies focusing on early markers of T2DM that provide insight into the process of T2DM progression: impaired pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) and insulin sensitivity. This study evaluated associations cross-sectionally in a population-based cohort consisting of 2818 individuals (mean ± SD age 59.7 ± 8.18, 49.5% male, n = 120 newly diagnosed T2DM). Glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Glucose metabolism status, insulin sensitivity, and BCF were measured by a seven-points oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive association of glucose intake with insulin sensitivity in the fully adjusted model (standardized beta (95% CI) 0.07 (0.05, 0.14) SD for ≥23 g vs. insulin sensitivity after full adjustments. In addition, no associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF were detected. In conclusion, higher intake of glucose, not fructose and sucrose, was associated with higher insulin sensitivity, independent of dietary fibre. No convincing evidence was found for associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF in this middle-aged population.

  12. Glycerol Production from Glucose and Fructose by 3T3-L1 Cells: A Mechanism of Adipocyte Defense from Excess Substrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Romero

    Full Text Available Cultured adipocytes (3T3-L1 produce large amounts of 3C fragments; largely lactate, depending on medium glucose levels. Increased glycolysis has been observed also in vivo in different sites of rat white adipose tissue. We investigated whether fructose can substitute glucose as source of lactate, and, especially whether the glycerol released to the medium was of lipolytic or glycolytic origin. Fructose conversion to lactate and glycerol was lower than that of glucose. The fast exhaustion of medium glucose was unrelated to significant changes in lipid storage. Fructose inhibited to a higher degree than glucose the expression of lipogenic enzymes. When both hexoses were present, the effects of fructose on gene expression prevailed over those of glucose. Adipocytes expressed fructokinase, but not aldolase b. Substantive release of glycerol accompanied lactate when fructose was the substrate. The mass of cell triacylglycerol (and its lack of change could not justify the comparatively higher amount of glycerol released. Consequently, most of this glycerol should be derived from the glycolytic pathway, since its lipolytic origin could not be (quantitatively sustained. Proportionally (with respect to lactate plus glycerol, more glycerol was produced from fructose than from glucose, which suggests that part of fructose was catabolized by the alternate (hepatic fructose pathway. Earlier described adipose glycerophophatase activity may help explain the glycolytic origin of most of the glycerol. However, no gene is known for this enzyme in mammals, which suggests that this function may be carried out by one of the known phosphatases in the tissue. Break up of glycerol-3P to yield glycerol, may be a limiting factor for the synthesis of triacylglycerols through control of glycerol-3P availability. A phosphatase pathway such as that described may have a potential regulatory function, and explain the production of glycerol by adipocytes in the absence of

  13. Formation of hydroxymethylfurfural in domestic high-fructose corn syrup and its toxicity to the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Blaise W; Eggleston, Gillian; Sammataro, Diana; Cornett, Charles; Dufault, Renee; Deeby, Thomas; St Cyr, Eldwin

    2009-08-26

    In the United States, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has become a sucrose replacement for honey bees and has widespread use as a sweetener in many processed foods and beverages for human consumption. It is utilized by commercial beekeepers as a food for honey bees for several reasons: to promote brood production, after bees have been moved for commercial pollination, and when field-gathered nectar sources are scarce. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a heat-formed contaminant and is the most noted toxin to honey bees. Currently, there are no rapid field tests that would alert beekeepers of dangerous levels of HMF in HFCS or honey. In this study, the initial levels and the rates of formation of HMF at four temperatures were evaluated in U.S.-available HFCS samples. Different HFCS brands were analyzed and compared for acidity and metal ions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Levels of HMF in eight HFCS products were evaluated over 35 days, and the data were fit to polynomial and exponential equations, with excellent correlations. The data can be used by beekeepers to predict HMF formation on storage. Caged bee studies were conducted to evaluate the HMF dose-response effect on bee mortality. Finally, commercial bases such as lime, potash, and caustic soda were added to neutralize hydronium ion in HMF samples, and the rates of HMF formation were compared at 45 degrees C.

  14. Consumption of sucrose, but not high fructose corn syrup, leads to increased adiposity and dyslipidaemia in the pregnant and lactating rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, C R; Muhlhausler, B S; O'Dea, K; Gentili, S

    2015-02-01

    Excess consumption of added sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55), have been implicated in the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate and compare the impact of maternal consumption of sucrose or HFCS-55 during pregnancy and lactation on the metabolic health of the dam and her offspring at birth. Female Albino Wistar rats were given access to chow and water, in addition to a sucrose or HFCS-55 beverage (10% w/v) before, and during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal glucose tolerance was determined throughout the study, and a postmortem was conducted on dams following lactation, and on offspring within 24 h of birth. Sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased total energy intake compared with controls, however the increase from sucrose consumption was accompanied by a compensatory decrease in chow consumption. There was no effect of sucrose or HFCS-55 consumption on body weight, however sucrose consumption resulted in increased adiposity and elevated total plasma cholesterol in the dam, while HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased plasma insulin and decreased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Maternal HFCS-55 consumption was associated with decreased relative liver weight and plasma NEFA in the offspring at birth. There was no effect of either treatment on pup weight at birth. These findings suggest that both sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption during pregnancy and lactation have the potential to impact negatively on maternal metabolic health, which may have adverse consequences for the long-term health of the offspring.

  15. When a Spoonful of Fallacies Helps the Sweetener Go Down: The Corn Refiner Association's Use of Straw-Person Arguments in Health Debates Surrounding High-Fructose Corn Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Sarah N; Bates, Benjamin R

    2016-08-01

    The American public is increasingly concerned about risks associated with food additives like high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). To promote its product as safe, the Corn Refiners Association (CRA) employed two forms of straw-person arguments. First, the CRA opportunistically misrepresented HFCS opposition as inept. Second, the CRA strategically chose to refute claims that were easier to defeat while remaining ambiguous about more complex points of contention. We argue that CRA's discursive contributions represented unreasonable yet sustainable use of straw-person arguments in debates surrounding health and risk.

  16. Ovarian monosaccharides (glucose and fructose): hormonal effects and their role in final oocyte maturation and egg quality in catfish Heteropneustes fossilis, Bloch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Joy, K P

    2004-11-01

    In the catfish H. fossilis, ovarian glucose and fructose levels showed significant annual variations that could be correlated with the gonado-somatic index. The concentration of the sugars, which was low in resting phase of gonad increased with the onset of oogenesis, reaching the peak in prespawning (June) phase. Glucose is the predominant monosaccharide in the late oogenesis, while fructose in early oogenesis and resting phase. Administration of a single injection of HCG (100 IU/fish) decreased glucose at 4 hr but increased fructose (6 hr) in the resting phase. In the preparatory phase (active oogenesis), fructose decreased significantly at 4 hr and glucose at 6 and 12 hr. In the prespawning phase, HCG administration induced a significant decrease in glucose level at 2 hr but increased it significantly at 16 and 18 hr. Fructose concentration, on the other hand, decreased > or = 4 hr. The involvement of different energy substrates (glucose, fructose, 2-deoxyglucose and pyruvate) on final oocyte maturation and viability of eggs were demonstrated in an in vitro study, employing incubation of mature oocytes in medium containing one or the other energy substrates. Glucose at 4 and 8 mM concentrations increased the viability of eggs without affecting germinal vesicle break down (GVBD) and at high concentrations (16 and 32 mM) marginally increased GVBD but decreased viability. Pyruvate at high concentrations (> or = 8 mM) produced a positive effect on both GVBD and viability. Fructose and 2-deoxyglucose did not elicit any effect on these parameters. The results suggest that glucose has an active role in catfish oogenesis and maintaining egg quality and HCG influences monosaccharide metabolism in a season-dependent manner.

  17. Fructose malabsorption syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkonen, Leena; Yao, Chu K; Gibson, Peter R

    2013-07-01

    Fructose malabsorption is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. This review examines new findings on the physiology, assessment and therapy of fructose malabsorption in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Additional GLUT transport mechanisms that regulate fructose absorption might be involved in symptom adaptation to high-fructose diets. Although glucose is known to facilitate fructose absorption, erythritol promotes malabsorption. The methodologies of fructose breath testing and its clinical utility have been questioned by findings of unrealistic testing dose and poor reproducibility. Although fructose restriction appears to benefit children with functional abdominal pain, fructose restriction itself may not be the key player. In irritable bowel syndrome, fructose restriction within a diet low in other fermentable carbohydrates fermentable, oligosaccharide, disaccharide monosaccharide and polyols produced good symptom control compared with habitual diet, but such therapy resulted in significantly reduced bifidobacteria. Fructose absorption and subsequently, abdominal pain and nausea are improved by a novel enzyme therapy that converts fructose to glucose for absorption. New insights into factors affecting fructose absorption may have therapeutic applications. Doubts surrounding clinical utility of fructose breath testing are emerging. Although restriction of fructose and other fermentable, oligosaccharide, disaccharide monosaccharide and polyols have efficacy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms, potentially negative effects on microbiota deserve attention.

  18. Effects of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on the metabolic and cardiac responses to obesogenic or high-fructose diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Peter A.; Mapanga, Rudo F.; Kimar, Charlene P.; Ribeiro, Rogerio F.; Brown, Bethany H.; O'Connell, Kelly A.; Cox, James W.; Shekar, Kadambari C.; Asemu, Girma; Essop, M. Faadiel

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common human enzymopathy that affects cellular redox status and may lower flux into nonoxidative pathways of glucose metabolism. Oxidative stress may worsen systemic glucose tolerance and cardiometabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that G6PD deficiency exacerbates diet-induced systemic metabolic dysfunction by increasing oxidative stress but in myocardium prevents diet-induced oxidative stress and pathology. WT and G6PD-deficient (G6PDX) mice received a standard high-starch diet, a high-fat/high-sucrose diet to induce obesity (DIO), or a high-fructose diet. After 31 wk, DIO increased adipose and body mass compared with the high-starch diet but to a greater extent in G6PDX than WT mice (24 and 20% lower, respectively). Serum free fatty acids were increased by 77% and triglycerides by 90% in G6PDX mice, but not in WT mice, by DIO and high-fructose intake. G6PD deficiency did not affect glucose tolerance or the increased insulin levels seen in WT mice. There was no diet-induced hypertension or cardiac dysfunction in either mouse strain. However, G6PD deficiency increased aconitase activity by 42% and blunted markers of nonoxidative glucose pathway activation in myocardium, including the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway activation and advanced glycation end product formation. These results reveal a complex interplay between diet-induced metabolic effects and G6PD deficiency, where G6PD deficiency decreases weight gain and hyperinsulinemia with DIO, but elevates serum free fatty acids, without affecting glucose tolerance. On the other hand, it modestly suppressed indexes of glucose flux into nonoxidative pathways in myocardium, suggesting potential protective effects. PMID:22829586

  19. Comparison of Productivity of Colonies of Honey Bees, Apis mellifera, Supplemented with Sucrose or High Fructose Corn Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammataro, Diana; Weiss, Milagra

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup (SS) vs. high fructose corn syrup, or HFCS) could be measured between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, there was a significant difference in mean wax production between the treatment groups and a significant interaction between time and treatment for the colonies confined in a flight arena. On average, the colonies supplied with SS built 7916.7 cm2 ± 1015.25 cm2 honeycomb, while the colonies supplied with HFCS built 4571.63 cm2 ± 786.45 cm2. The mean mass of bees supplied with HFCS was 4.65 kg (± 0.97 kg), while those supplied with sucrose had a mean of 8.27 kg (± 1.26). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in terms of brood rearing. Differences in brood production were complicated due to possible nutritional deficiencies experienced by both treatment groups. In the second experiment, colonies supplemented with SS through the winter months at a remote field site exhibited increased spring brood production when compared to colonies fed with HFCS. The differences in adult bee populations were significant, having an overall average of 10.0 ± 1.3 frames of bees fed the sucrose syrup between November 2008 and April 2009, compared to 7.5 ± 1.6 frames of bees fed exclusively on HFCS. For commercial queen beekeepers, feeding the right supplementary carbohydrates could be especially important, given the findings of this study. PMID:23886010

  20. Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkalla Salwa W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews evidence in the context of current research linking dietary fructose to health risk markers. Fructose intake has recently received considerable media attention, most of which has been negative. The assertion has been that dietary fructose is less satiating and more lipogenic than other sugars. However, no fully relevant data have been presented to account for a direct link between dietary fructose intake and health risk markers such as obesity, triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in humans. First: a re-evaluation of published epidemiological studies concerning the consumption of dietary fructose or mainly high fructose corn syrup shows that most of such studies have been cross-sectional or based on passive inaccurate surveillance, especially in children and adolescents, and thus have not established direct causal links. Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive. Third: the results of longer-term intervention studies depend mainly on the type of sugar used for comparison. Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group. Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts. The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients. It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight. No fully relevant data account for a direct link between moderate dietary fructose

  1. Production of Normal Mammalian Organ Culture Using a Medium Containing Mem-Alpha, Leibovitz L 15, Glucose Galactose Fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under micro- gravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel. The medium used for culturing the cells, especially a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal cells contains a mixture of Mem-alpha and Leibovits L15 supplemented with glucose, galactose and fructose.

  2. Effect of transmucosal corn syrup application on postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; Shaver, Stephanie L; Semick, Danielle N; Bradley, Nancy C; Kreisler, Rachael E

    2018-04-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a common clinical practice, the transmucosal (TM) application of corn syrup, on postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens. Methods This study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-five kittens between the age of 8 and 16 weeks scheduled for surgical sterilization by gonadectomy at an animal shelter were enrolled. Kittens were randomly assigned to either a routine treatment group that received the shelter's typical postoperative application of corn syrup immediately following gonadectomy or to a control group that did not receive typical treatment. Three blood glucose measurements were obtained per kitten: baseline reading prior to preoperative examination, immediately postoperatively and 20 mins postoperatively. The median values of the 20 min postoperative blood glucose reading for the control and treatment groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Postoperative application of corn syrup to the oral mucosa of kittens did not result in significant elevations in blood glucose compared with controls. No kitten was hypoglycemic (⩽60 mg/dl) at any point during the study. Conclusions and relevance TM application of corn syrup did not affect postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens. Protocols that use routine TM administration of corn syrup in kittens should be re-evaluated.

  3. The role of fructose in metabolism and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrez, Bérénice; Qiao, Liang; Hebbard, Lionel

    2015-05-01

    Fructose consumption has dramatically increased in the last 30 years. The principal form has been in the form of high-fructose corn syrup found in soft drinks and processed food. The effect of excessive fructose consumption on human health is only beginning to be understood. Fructose has been confirmed to induce several obesity-related complications associated with the metabolic syndrome. Here we present an overview of fructose metabolism and how it contrasts with that of glucose. In addition, we examine how excessive fructose consumption can affect de novo lipogenesis, insulin resistance, inflammation, and reactive oxygen species production. Fructose can also induce a change in the gut permeability and promote the release of inflammatory factors to the liver, which has potential implications in increasing hepatic inflammation. Moreover, fructose has been associated with colon, pancreas, and liver cancers, and we shall discuss the evidence for these observations. Taken together, data suggest that sustained fructose consumption should be curtailed as it is detrimental to long-term human health.

  4. [Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  5. Molecular and industrial aspects of glucose isomerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhosale, S H; Rao, M B; Deshpande, V V

    1996-01-01

    Glucose isomerase (GI) (D-xylose ketol-isomerase; EC. 5.3.1.5) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-glucose and D-xylose to D-fructose and D-xylulose, respectively. The enzyme has the largest market in the food industry because of its application in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS, an equilibrium mixture of glucose and fructose, is 1.3 times sweeter than sucrose and serves as a sweetener for use by diabetics. Interconversion of xylose to xylulose by GI serves a ...

  6. A comparison between the impact of two types of dietary protein on brain glucose concentrations and oxidative stress in high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Malaisse, Willy J; Ait-Yahia, Dalila

    2015-09-01

    The present study explored the potential of fish proteins to counteract high glucose levels and oxidative stress induced by fructose in the brain. A total of 24 male Wistar rats consumed sardine protein or casein with or without high fructose (64%). After 2 months, brain tissue was used for analyses. The fructose rats exhibited an increase in body mass index (BMI), body weight, absolute and relative brain weights and brain glucose; however, there was a decrease in food and water intake. Fructose disrupts membrane homeostasis, as evidenced by an increase in the brain hydroperoxides and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) compared to the control. The exposure to the sardine protein reduced BMI, food intake, glucose and hydroperoxides, and increased CAT and GSH-Px in the brain. In conclusion, the metabolic dysfunctions associated with the fructose treatment were ameliorated by the presence of sardine protein in the diet by decreasing BMI, brain glucose and lipid peroxidation, and increasing CAT and GSH-Px activities.

  7. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose extraction in aqueous carrot root extracts prepared at different temperatures by means of direct NMR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazor, Anne; Deborde, Catherine; Moing, Annick; Rolin, Dominique; This, Hervé

    2006-06-28

    Solutions obtained by heating carrot roots in water (stocks) are widely used in the food industry, but little information is available regarding the metabolites (intermediates and products of metabolism) found in the stock. The effect of treatment temperature and duration on the sugar composition of stocks was investigated directly by quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy, to understand the extraction mechanism when processing at 100 degrees C. Stocks prepared at three different temperatures (50, 75, and 100 degrees C) were investigated for up to 36 h. Three sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) were detected and quantified. The concentrations of these three sugars reached a maximum after 9 h when the temperature of treatment was 50 or 75 degrees C. At 100 degrees C, the sucrose concentration reached a maximum after 3 h, whereas the concentration of glucose and fructose was still increasing at that time. Comparison of the kinetic composition of these carrot stocks with that of model sugar solutions leads to the proposal that the changes in stock composition result from sugar diffusion, sucrose hydrolysis, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation.

  8. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowndes Joshua

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Results Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States.

  9. [Fructose consumption and its health implications; fructose malabsorption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, María Jesús; Parada, Alejandra; Pettinelli, Paulina

    2014-03-01

    Fructose intake has increased considerably in recent years, especially in the form high fructose corn syrup, due its high sweetening power. Several studies have associated high intake of fructose to metabolic alterations, as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and fructose malabsorption, among other pathologies. This review aims to update about the effect of high intake of fructose in the liver and intestine, mainly associated with processed foods with added fructose. An updated literature search was conducted using databases (Pubmed, Scopus and SciELO), selecting articles published after the year 2000, resulting from the keywords "fructose intake, fructose intolerance, nonalcoholic fatty liver and fructose, fructose malabsorption" Of 735 articles initially retrieved, 78 met the inclusion criteria. Fructose consumption has increased in recent decades, especially due to increased consumption of sweetened beverages and processed foods with added fructose. High fructose intake has been associated to pathologies as NAFLD and fructose malabsorption. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential Effects of Sucrose, Fructose, Glucose, and Lactose on Crying in 1- to 3-Day-Old Human Infants: Qualitative and Quantitative Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Elliott M.; Smith, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    The potency of different sugars as calming agents in human infants was investigated in 2 experiments with 40 infants. Sucrose and fructose were equally effective calming agents, whereas glucose was less effective. Results indicate that the calming effects of milk lie in components other than its sugar. (LB)

  11. Combined dehydration/(transfer)-hydrogenation of C6-sugars (D-glucose and D-fructose) to gamma-valerolactone using ruthenium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, Hans; Handana, Ratna; Chunai, Dai; Rasrendra, Carolus Borromeus; Girisuta, Buana; Heeres, Hero Jan

    2009-01-01

    gamma-Valerolactone (GVL) is considered a very interesting green, bio-based platform chemical with high application potential. We here describe research activities on the one-pot catalytic synthesis of GVL from C6-sugar sources (D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose and cellulose) using an acid catalyst in

  12. Mesoporous cellular-structured carbons derived from glucose-fructose syrup and their adsorption properties towards acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkov, George; Spassov, Tony; Kaneva, Nina; Tsyntsarski, Boyko

    Here, a series of cellular-structured and predominantly mesoporous carbons were prepared via carbonization of glucose-fructose syrup (GFS) with sulfuric acid and subsequent calcination between 400∘C and 700∘C. Comparative results on the microstructure, chemical and textural properties of the newly produced carbons are presented. Furthermore, their adsorption performance for removal of acetaminophen from water was tested and it was found that the carbon calcined at 700∘C has a maximum adsorption capacity (98.7mgṡg-1) among all samples due to its suitable textural properties (BET surface area of 418m2ṡg-1 and total pore volume of 0.2cm3ṡg-1). This study demonstrates the potential use of GFS as a precursor in the preparation of carbonaceous materials for removal of biologically-active micropollutants from water.

  13. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  14. Glucose Induces Protein Targeting to Glycogen in Hepatocytes by Fructose 2,6-Bisphosphate-Mediated Recruitment of MondoA to the Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, John L.; Al-Oanzi, Ziad H.; Arden, Catherine; Tudhope, Susan J.; Mann, Jelena; Kieswich, Julius; Yaqoob, Muhammad M.; Towle, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    In the liver, a high glucose concentration activates transcription of genes encoding glucose 6-phosphatase and enzymes for glycolysis and lipogenesis by elevation in phosphorylated intermediates and recruitment of the transcription factor ChREBP (carbohydrate response element binding protein) and its partner, Mlx, to gene promoters. A proposed function for this mechanism is intracellular phosphate homeostasis. In extrahepatic tissues, MondoA, the paralog of ChREBP, partners with Mlx in transcriptional induction by glucose. We tested for glucose induction of regulatory proteins of the glycogenic pathway in hepatocytes and identified the glycogen-targeting proteins, GL and PTG (protein targeting to glycogen), as being encoded by Mlx-dependent glucose-inducible genes. PTG induction by glucose was MondoA dependent but ChREBP independent and was enhanced by forced elevation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and by additional xylitol-derived metabolites. It was counteracted by selective depletion of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate with a bisphosphatase-active kinase-deficient variant of phosphofructokinase 2/fructosebisphosphatase 2, which prevented translocation of MondoA to the nucleus and recruitment to the PTG promoter. We identify a novel role for MondoA in the liver and demonstrate that elevated fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is essential for recruitment of MondoA to the PTG promoter. Phosphometabolite activation of MondoA and ChREBP and their recruitment to target genes is consistent with a mechanism for gene regulation to maintain intracellular phosphate homeostasis. PMID:23207906

  15. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii) ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hshuan-Chen; Chang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Tsung-Han; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF) diet (57.1% w/w). Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1) control diet group (Con); (2) HF diet group (HF); and (3) HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Food availability of glucose and fat, but not fructose, increased in the U.S. between 1970 and 2009: analysis of the USDA food availability data system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Trevor J; Carr, Timothy P

    2013-09-23

    Obesity rates in the United States have risen consistently over the last four decades, increasing from about 13% of the population in 1970 to more than 34% in 2009. Dietary fructose has been blamed as a possible contributor to the obesity increase, although the consumption pattern of fructose and other key nutrients during this 40 year period remains a topic of debate. Therefore, we analyzed the USDA Loss-Adjusted Food Availability Database in combination with the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (Release 24) to determine whether fructose consumption in the US has increased sufficiently to be a casual factor in the rise in obesity prevalence. Per capita loss-adjusted food availability data for 132 individual food items were compiled and analyzed. Nutrient profiles for each of these foods were used to determine the availability of energy as well as macronutrients and monosaccharides during the years 1970-2009. The percent change in energy from food groups and individual nutrients was determined by using the year 1970 as the baseline and area-under-the-curve analysis of food trends. Our findings indicate that during this 40 year period the percent change in total energy availability increased 10.7%, but that the net change in total fructose availability was 0%. Energy available from total glucose (from all digestible food sources) increased 13.0%. Furthermore, glucose availability was more than 3-times greater than fructose. Energy available from protein, carbohydrate and fat increased 4.7%, 9.8% and 14.6%, respectively. These data suggest that total fructose availability in the US did not increase between 1970 and 2009 and, thus, was unlikely to have been a unique causal factor in the increased obesity prevalence. We conclude that increased total energy intake, due to increased availability of foods providing glucose (primarily as starch in grains) and fat, to be a significant contributor to increased obesity in the US.

  17. A mixture of apple pomace and rosemary extract improves fructose consumption-induced insulin resistance in rats: modulation of sarcolemmal CD36 and glucose transporter-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng; Yao, Ling; Lin, Xuemei; Gu, Tieguang; Rong, Xianglu; Batey, Robert; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2016-01-01

    Apple pomace is a by-product of the processing of apple for juice, cider or wine preparation. Rosemary is a herb commonly used as spice and flavoring agent in food processing. Evidence suggests that both apple pomace and rosemary have rich bioactive molecules with numerous metabolic effects. To provide more information for using apple pomace and rosemary as functional foods for management of metabolism-associated disorders, the present study investigated the insulin-sensitizing effect of a mixture of apple pomace and rosemary extract (AR). The results showed that treatment with AR (500 mg/kg, daily, by gavage) for 5 weeks attenuated chronic liquid fructose consumption-induced increases in fasting plasma insulin concentration, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and the adipose tissue insulin resistance index in rats. Mechanistically, AR suppressed fructose-induced acceleration of the clearance of plasma non-esterified fatty acids during oral glucose tolerance test, and decreased excessive triglyceride accumulation and the increased Oil Red O staining area in the gastrocnemius. Furthermore, AR restored fructose-induced overexpression of sarcolemmal CD36 that is known to contribute to etiology of insulin resistance by facilitating fatty acid uptake, and downregulation of sarcolemmal glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 that is the insulin-responsive glucose transporter. Thus, these results demonstrate that AR improves fructose-induced insulin resistance in rats via modulation of sarcolemmal CD36 and GLUT-4.

  18. Central and Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Consumption: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Stoianov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructose consumption has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, and its role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome has been implicated by many studies. It is most often encountered in the diet as sucrose (glucose and fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (55% fructose. At high levels, dietary exposure to fructose triggers a series of metabolic changes originating in the liver, leading to hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and decreased leptin sensitivity. Fructose has been identified to alter biological pathways in other tissues including the central nervous system (CNS, adipose tissue, and the gastrointestinal system. Unlike glucose, consumption of fructose produces smaller increases in the circulating satiety hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, and does not attenuate levels of the appetite suppressing hormone ghrelin. In the brain, fructose contributes to increased food consumption by activating appetite and reward pathways, and stimulating hypothalamic AMPK activity, a nutrient-sensitive regulator of food intake. Recent studies investigating the neurophysiological factors linking fructose consumption and weight gain in humans have demonstrated differential activation of brain regions that govern appetite, motivation and reward processing. Compared to fructose, glucose ingestion produces a greater reduction of hypothalamic neuronal activity, and increases functional connectivity between the hypothalamus and other reward regions of the brain, indicating that these two sugars regulate feeding behavior through distinct neural circuits. This review article outlines the current findings in fructose-feeding studies in both human and animal models, and discusses the central effects on the CNS that may lead to increased appetite and food intake. Keywords: Fructose, Metabolic syndrome, Appetite, Central nervous system

  19. Saccharin Increases Fasting Blood Glucose but Not Liver Insulin Resistance in Comparison to a High Fructose-Fed Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avshalom Leibowitz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent data indicate that artificial sweeteners (AS may have deleterious effects on glucose metabolism. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of AS and the effects of a high fructose diet (HFrD on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (IR in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. SD rats were fed either regular chow, chow with saccharin (Sac (0.1 mg/mL placed in their water, or HFrD for seven weeks. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides (Tg levels were measured upon completion. A homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR index was used to determine insulin resistance. The liver was stained to detect signs of a fatty liver. Hepatic mRNA expression of glucose metabolism regulation genes, Srepb-1c (sterol regulatory element binding protein and ChREB (α & β (carbohydrate response element binding protein, as well as other glycolytic and lipogenic genes including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc, were considered IR markers. Both HFrD and Sac significantly increased fasting blood glucose levels compare to the control (140 ± 5 and 137 ± 6 vs. 118 ± 3 mg/dL, respectively, p < 0.05. However, only HFrD increased insulin secretion (0.99 ± 0.12 vs. 0.7 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 ug/L, Tg levels (420 ± 43 vs. 152 ± 20 and 127 ± 13 mg/dL, and the HOMA-IR index (3.4 ± 0.4 vs. 2.3 ± 0.36 and 2.13 ± 0.3 (HFrD vs. control and sac, p < 0.05. Fatty liver changes were only observed in HFrD fed rats. The expression of ChREB β, Srepb-1c, and G6pc mRNA were only significantly elevated (between 2–10 times folds, p < 0.05 in HFrD fed rats. Sac may increase fasting blood glucose but has no effect on liver insulin resistance.

  20. Applications of a post-column fluorigenic reaction in liquid chromatography for the determination of glucose and fructose in biological matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquet, A.; Veuthey, J.-L.; Haerdi, W.; Degli Agosti, R.

    1991-01-01

    A post-column fluorigenic reaction with benzamidine coupled to liquid chromatographic separation was used for the determination of reducing carbohydrates in three complex biological samples. This method allows the simultaneous determination of the different reducing sugars, which represent an improvement over batch enzymatic tests where in most instances only single monosaccharides can be determined. This selective liquid chromatographic method has a broad linear range. The method was validated by simultaneous analyses with a specific enzymatic test for glucose. Results are presented for the determination of glucose in human serum and mustard plants and glucose and fructose in white wines. (author). 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract affects hepatic glucose transporter-2 to attenuate early onset of insulin resistance consequent to high fructose intake: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R.; Dutta, Shagun; Velpandian, T.; Mathur, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is amalgam of pathologies like altered glucos metabolism, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and associated with type-II diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. One of the reasons leading to its increased and early incidence is understood to be a high intake of processed fructose containing foods and beverages by individuals, especially, during critical developmental years. Objective: To investigate the preventive potential of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves (PG) against metabolic pathologies, vis-à-vis, IR, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, due to excess fructose intake initiated during developmental years. Materials and Methods: Post-weaning (4 weeks old) male rats were provided fructose (15%) as drinking solution, ad libitum, for 8 weeks and assessed for food and water/fructose intake, body weight, fasting blood sugar, mean arterial pressure, lipid biochemistry, endocrinal (insulin, leptin), histopathological (fatty liver) and immunohistochemical (hepatic glucose transporter [GLUT2]) parameters. Parallel treatment groups were administered PG in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d, po × 8 weeks and assessed for same parameters. Using extensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocols, PG was analyzed for the presence of phytoconstituents like Myrecetin, Luteolin, Kaempferol and Guavanoic acid and validated to contain Quercetin up to 9.9%w/w. Results: High fructose intake raised circulating levels of insulin and leptin and hepatic GLUT2 expression to promote IR, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that were favorably re-set with PG. Although PG is known for its beneficial role in diabetes mellitus, for the first time we report its potential in the management of lifelong pathologies arising from high fructose intake initiated during developmental years. PMID:25829790

  2. Adsorptive separation of fructose and glucose from an agroindustrial waste of cashew industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, D A; Rodrigues, A K O; Silva, F R C; Torres, A E B; Cavalcante, C L; Brito, E S; Azevedo, D C S

    2008-05-01

    Nearly all agroindustrial wastes have appreciable sugar content including cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale, L.), which are an important sub-utilized biomass source in Northeastern Brazil. Adsorption in fixed bed, both in batch and continuous modes, is a low-cost separation technique, which has been widely used in the concentration, separation and purification of bioproducts, such as sugars. The present work is an experimental study aimed at measuring responses in fixed bed, needed for design purposes. Two commercial ion-exchange resins were studied: DOWEX Monosphere 99/Ca and DIAION UBK555. The adsorbents showed linear isotherms for both sugars with marked selectivity for fructose (2.2 for DOWEX and 1.5 for DIAION). A mathematical model was used to estimate kinetic parameters and predict breakthrough behaviour of binary solutions and complex feeds. The kinetics of mass transfer was well described by a linear driving force approximation (LDF) and estimated kinetic constants were around 1 min(-1). The results indicate that the use of independent experiments with synthetic monocomponent solutions leads to reliable parameters, and the model is capable to foresee reasonably well the breakthrough curve of the sugars present in the juice, under different purification conditions. The use of complex feeds led to overshoot behaviour, possibly due to the irreversible adsorption of oligosaccharides.

  3. Consumption of honey, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup produce similar metabolic effects in glucose tolerant and glucose intolerant individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Current public health recommendations call for reduction of added sugars; however, controversy exits over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Objective: To compare effects of chronic consumption of three nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructo...

  4. Optimization of Fermentation Medium for the Production of Glucose Isomerase Using Streptomyces sp. SB-P1

    OpenAIRE

    Bhasin, Sheetal; Modi, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of medium ingredients has a profound influence on the metabolic pathways running in the microorganism which regulates the production of numerous metabolites. Glucose isomerase (GI), an enzyme with huge potential in the market, can isomerise glucose into fructose. GI is used widely for the production of High-Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS). HFCS is used as a sweetener in food and pharmaceutical industries. Streptomyces are well-known producers of numerous enzymes including glucose i...

  5. Fructose malabsorption in Thai adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu

    2007-01-01

    Fructose malabsorption has not been well-defined in Thai populations but there has been increasing consumption of fructose-fortified drinks. To assess the incidence of fructose malabsorption and intolerance in Thai normal subjects as well as the facilitating effect of glucose on fructose absorption. Twenty-five gram of fructose was ingested by 77 subjects (37 men, 40 women; mean age 26 and 31 y, range 20-50 y and 21-50 y for men and women, respectively). Measurement of breath-H(2) levels after fructose ingestion in each subject up to 2 h was performed. Those who showed fructose malabsorption were later given 25 g of each glucose and fructose and second tests of breath-H(2) tests were done. Fructose malabsorption was found in eleven females with a significant rise in average breath-H(2) level at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min (pfructose malabsorbers, excess breath-H(2) reverted to normal when the fructose solution was mixed and administered with 25 g glucose (pfructose malabsorption was 11 of 77 subjects but these were female. One of the 11 had gastrointestinal symptoms. It was found that an equal amount of glucose would abolish fructose malabsorption.

  6. A novel technique for determination of the fructose, glucose and sucrose distribution in nectar from orchids by HPLC-ELSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Dan Nybro; Pedersen, Henrik Ærenlund; Rasmussen, Lars Holm

    2018-01-01

    .0000. The LOD of all sugars were 5–7 mg L−1 and the LOQ were 17–19 mg L−1. Field samples were stable for min. 7 weeks at −18 °C. The technique was applied to two species of Platanthera (Orchidaceae) in order to test whether species-related differences in sugar composition could be observed. No differences were......The dominant components in floral nectar is fructose, glucose and sucrose. The concentration and the ratio between the sugars are indicative for plant species and play an important part in the interplay between plants and pollinators. In this paper we present a novel HPLC-ELSD based analytical...... method for sugar characterization of nectar from orchids. Nectar was collected on Whatman No. 1 paper and preserved in the field by 70 v/v% ethanol. The analytical method had a linear range up to at least 3000 mg L−1 for all 3 sugars with a precision of 1.5–1.7%. Correlation coefficients were 0.9999 to 1...

  7. Kinetics of Glycoxidation of Bovine Serum Albumin by Glucose, Fructose and Ribose and Its Prevention by Food Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics of the glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA as a model protein by three sugars: glucose, fructose and ribose, using fluorometric measurements of the content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs, protein-bound fructosamine, dityrosine, N'-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, tryptophan, the content of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl groups, as well as thiol groups. Moreover, the levels of glycoalbumin and AGEs were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Based on the kinetic results, the optimal incubation time for studies of the modification of the glycoxidation rate by additives was chosen, and the effects of 25 compounds of natural origin on the glycoxidation of BSA induced by various sugars were examined. The same compounds were found to have different effects on glycoxidation induced by various sugars, which suggests caution in extrapolation from experiments based on one sugar to other sugars. From among the compounds tested, the most effective inhibitors of glycoxidation were: polyphenols, pyridoxine and 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid.

  8. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wist...

  9. Antioxidant activity of the melanoidin fractions formed from D-Glucose and D-Fructose with L-Asparagine in the Maillard reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Echavarría

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoidins formed at the last stage of the Maillard reaction have been shown to possess certain functional properties, such as antioxidant activity. In order to gain more insight into these functional properties, soluble model systems melanoidins from L - Asparagine with D - glucose or D - fructose fractionating by ultrafiltration were analyzed. The fractionating/concentration sequence of the melanoidin fraction (1 - 300 kDa enabled five fractions to be produced. Additionally, the absorption of melanoidins was measured at different wavelengths (280, 325, 405 and browning at 420 nm. The fractionati on effect of melanoidin systems on the color intensity, UV - absorbance scan wavelengths (nm, CIE, L*, a*, b* parameters and antioxidant activity were measured. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was evaluated through the free radical scavenging activit y, including 1,1 - diphenyl - 2 - picryl - hydrazil (DPPH and 2,20 - azinobis (3 - ethylbenothiazoline - 6 - sulfonic acid, diammonium salt (ABTS. The results showed that the absorption of the melanoidins formed from Glucose/L - Asn was higher than for those derived from Fructose/L - Asn. On the other hand, their antioxidant power was lower than that for melanoidins formed from Fructose/L - Asn systems.

  10. Effect of skim milk and dahi (yogurt) on blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in rats fed with high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Sinha, P R

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of skim milk and the fermented milk product named dahi (yogurt) on plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid levels as well as on liver glycogen and lipid contents in rats fed with high fructose diet has been investigated. Rats were fed with high fructose diet (21%) supplemented with skim milk, dahi (10 g/day each), or no milk product (control group) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of high fructose diet administration, the plasma glucose became significantly higher in control animals (246 mg/dL), whereas it was lower in skim milk (178 mg/dL)- and dahi (143 mg/dL)-fed rats. The glucose tolerance became impaired at the third week of feeding of high fructose diet in control animals, whereas in skim milk- and dahi-fed animals achievement of glucose intolerance was delayed until the fourth and fifth week, respectively. Blood glycosylated hemoglobin and plasma insulin were significantly lower in skim milk (10% and 34%, respectively)- and dahi (17%, and 48%, respectively)-fed animals than those of the control group. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and blood free fatty acids were significantly lower in skim milk (13%, 14%, 14%, 19%, and 14%, respectively)- and dahi (22%, 33%, 30%, 33%, and 29%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. Moreover, the total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycogen contents in liver tissues were also lower in skim milk (55%, 50%, and 36%, respectively)- and dahi (64%, 27%, and 4%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in plasma was higher in skim milk (14%)- and dahi (29%)-fed animals as compared with control animals. These results indicate that skim milk and its fermented milk product, dahi, delay the progression of fructose-induced diabetes and dyslipidemia in rats and that these may be useful as antidiabetic food supplements that can be

  11. Fructose malabsorption.

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, Karolin;Witt, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose might lead to abdominal complaints such as pain, flatulence and diarrhoea. Whether defect fructose transporters such as GLUT5 or GLUT2 are involved in the pathogenesis of fructose malabsorption is a matter of debate. The hydrogen production by colonic bacteria is used for diagnosis with the hydrogen breath test. However, the appropriate fructose test dose for correct diagnosis is unclear. Subjects with fructose malabsorption show increased breath h...

  12. Qualitative and quantitative detection of honey adulterated with high-fructose corn syrup and maltose syrup by using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuifang; Zhang, Xin; Shan, Yang; Su, Donglin; Ma, Qiang; Wen, Ruizhi; Li, Jiaojuan

    2017-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used for qualitative and quantitative detection of honey adulterated with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or maltose syrup (MS). Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was employed to select key variables. Partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was adopted to classify the adulterated honey samples. The CARS-PLS-LDA models showed an accuracy of 86.3% (honey vs. adulterated honey with HFCS) and 96.1% (honey vs. adulterated honey with MS), respectively. PLS regression (PLSR) was used to predict the extent of adulteration in the honeys. The results showed that NIR combined with PLSR could not be used to quantify adulteration with HFCS, but could be used to quantify adulteration with MS: coefficient (R p 2 ) and root mean square of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.901 and 4.041 for MS-adulterated samples from different floral origins, and 0.981 and 1.786 for MS-adulterated samples from the same floral origin (Brassica spp.), respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Alterations of naltrexone-induced conditioned place avoidance by pre-exposure to high fructose corn syrup or heroin in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stephen; Marshall, Paul; Leri, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested that withdrawal from sugar produces a set of symptoms that resemble those observed following withdrawal from opiate drugs. This study explored naltrexone-induced withdrawal in animals pre-exposed to acute, chronic, and intermittent high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or acute and chronic heroin administration. Experiment 1 examined conditioned place avoidance (CPA) induced by different doses of naltrexone (0.01-1 mg/kg) in naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats. In experiment 2, rats received continuous or intermittent home cage HFCS access (0 or 50 %) prior to conditioning with 1 mg/kg naltrexone. In experiment 3, HFCS ingestion was increased by food restriction and rats were conditioned with 3 mg/kg naltrexone. In experiment 4, the timing and quantity of HFCS ingestion (0, 0.5, 1, 2 g/kg) was controlled by intragastric administration, and rats were conditioned with 1 mg/kg naltrexone. In experiment 5, rats received acute (2 mg/kg) or chronic heroin (3.5 mg/kg/day) prior to conditioning with 1 mg/kg naltrexone. Administration of naltrexone produced moderate conditioned place avoidance in naïve rats. Importantly, acute, continuous, and intermittent HFCS pre-exposure did not significantly amplify this effect, but acute and chronic heroin pre-exposure did. As assessed by CPA, these results in rats fail to support the hypothesis that an opioid antagonist can precipitate similar affective withdrawal states following pre-exposure to sugars and opiates.

  14. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on high-fructose corn syrup supply in Canada: a natural experiment using synthetic control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-07-04

    Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA. We estimate the impact of NAFTA on supply of HFCS in Canada using an innovative, quasi-experimental methodology - synthetic control methods - that creates a control group with which to compare Canada's outcomes. Additional robustness tests were performed for sample, control groups and model specification. Tariff reductions in NAFTA coincided with a 41.6 (95% confidence interval 25.1 to 58.2) kilocalorie per capita daily increase in the supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS. This change was not observed in the control groups, including Australia and the United Kingdom, as well as a composite control of 16 countries. Results were robust to placebo tests and additional sensitivity analyses. NAFTA was strongly associated with a marked rise in HFCS supply and likely consumption in Canada. Our study provides evidence that even a seemingly modest change to product tariffs in free trade agreements can substantially alter population-wide dietary behaviour and exposure to risk factors. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  15. Maternal dietary free or bound fructose diversely influence developmental programming of lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Armagan Aytug; Nergiz-Unal, Reyhan

    2017-12-01

    Maternal dietary choices throughout preconception, pregnancy, and lactation irreversibly affect the development of fetal tissues and organs, known as fetal programming. Recommendations tend to emphasize reducing added sugars. However, the impact of maternal dietary free or bound fructose in added sugars on developmental programming of lipogenesis is unknown. Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats were given feed and plain water (control) or water containing maltodextrin (vehicle), fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) containing 55% fructose, sucrose (20% w/v) for 12 weeks before mating and throughout the pregnancy and lactation periods. Body weight, water, and feed intake were measured throughout the study. At the end of the lactation period, blood was drawn to determine the fasting levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in blood. Triglycerides and acetyl Co-A Carboxylase-1 (ACC1) levels in livers were analyzed, and insulin resistance was calculated. The energy intake of dams in the HFCS group was higher than in the fructose group, while weight gain was less in the HFCS group than in the fructose group. HFCS resulted in greater insulin resistance in dams, whereas free fructose had a robust effect on the fetal programming of insulin resistance. Free fructose and HFCS in the maternal diet increased blood and liver triglycerides and NEFA content in pups. Furthermore, fructose and HFCS exposure increased phosphorylated ACC1 as compared to maltodextrin and control, indicating greater fatty acid synthesis in pups and dams. Different types of added sugar in the maternal diet have different metabolic effects on the developmental programming of lipogenesis. Consequently, high fructose intake via processed foods may increase the risk for chronic diseases, and free fructose might contribute to developmental programming of chronic diseases more than bound fructose.

  16. Properties of L-ascorbic acid in water and binary aqueous mixtures of D-glucose and D-fructose at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi; Thakur, R. C.; Sani, Balwinder; Kumar, Harsh

    2017-12-01

    Using density and sound velocity partial molar volumes, partial molar adiabatic compressibilities, partial molar expansibilities and structure of L-ascorbic acid have been determined in water and aqueous mixtures of D-glucose and D-fructose at different concentrations and temperatures. Masson's equation was used to analyze the measured data. The obtained parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. It is found that the L-ascorbic acid acts as structure breaker in water as well in binary studied mixtures.

  17. Inulin crystal initiation via a glucose-fructose cross-link of adjacent polymer chains: atomic force microscopy and static molecular modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter D; Rajapaksha, K Harinda; Barclay, Thomas G; Ginic-Markovic, Milena; Gerson, Andrea R; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2015-03-06

    Semi-crystalline microparticles of inulin (MPI) have clinical utility as potent human vaccine adjuvants but their relevant surface structure and crystal assembly remain undefined. We show inulin crystal surfaces to resemble multi-layered, discoid radial spherulites resulting from very rapid formation of complex tertiary structures, implying directed crystal initiation. Physical and in silico molecular modelling of unit cells confirm steric feasibility of initiation by hydrogen-bonded cross-linking of terminal glucose to a fructose of another chain, mimicking bonding in sucrose crystals. A strong, chelate-like dual H-bond is proposed to compel the known antiparallel alignment of inulin chains. Such cross-linking would require one extra fructose per chain in the native inulin crystal, as observed. Completion of five H-bonded internal ring-domains would 'lock in' each new 6-fructose structural unit of each antiparallel helix pair to create a new isoform. All known properties of inulin isoforms follow readily from these concepts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Peter L; Caviar, Elena M; McCallum, Richard W

    2005-10-01

    Fructose intake has increased considerably in the United States, primarily as a result of increased consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, fruits and juices, and crystalline fructose. The purpose was to determine how often fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, would result in malabsorption and/or symptoms in healthy persons. Fructose absorption was measured using 3-hour breath hydrogen tests and symptom scores were used to rate subjective responses for gas, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and loose stools. The study included 15 normal, free-living volunteers from a medical center community and was performed in a gastrointestinal specialty clinic. Subjects consumed 25- and 50-g doses of crystalline fructose with water after an overnight fast on separate test days. Mean peak breath hydrogen, time of peak, area under the curve (AUC) for breath hydrogen and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured during a 3-hour period after subjects consumed both 25- and 50-g doses of fructose. Differences in mean breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptom scores between doses were analyzed using paired t tests. Correlations among peak breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptoms were also evaluated. More than half of the 15 adults tested showed evidence of fructose malabsorption after 25 g fructose and greater than two thirds showed malabsorption after 50 g fructose. AUC, representing overall breath hydrogen response, was significantly greater after the 50-g dose. Overall symptom scores were significantly greater than baseline after each dose, but scores were only marginally greater after 50 g than 25 g. Peak hydrogen levels and AUC were highly correlated, but neither was significantly related to symptoms. Fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, may result in mild gastrointestinal distress in normal people. Additional study is warranted to evaluate the response to fructose-glucose mixtures (as in high-fructose corn syrup) and fructose taken with food in both normal people and those with

  19. The Impact of Fructose on Renal Function and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kretowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose is a sugar present in sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, and fruits. Fructose intake has increased markedly in the last two centuries, primarily due to increased intake of added sugars. Increasing evidence suggests that the excessive intake of fructose may induce fatty liver, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and kidney disease. These studies suggest that excessive intake of fructose might have an etiologic role in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and cardiorenal disease.

  20. Inhibition of glucose- and fructose-mediated protein glycation by infusions and ethanolic extracts of ten culinary herbs and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugjeet Singh Ramkissoon

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The higher rate of fluorescence generation by fructation suggests that glycation by fructose deserves much attention as a glycating agent. Data herein showed that the extracts inhibited GMG and FMG. Thus, these edible plants could be a natural source of antioxidants and anti-glycation agent for preventing advanced glycation end-products-mediated complications.

  1. A convenient photosynthesis of uniformly [14C]-labelled D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose, and chemical synthesis of methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside ([U-14C]-glucose)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, G.; Unny, V.K.P.; Mukkanti, K.; Choudary, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a convenient procedure for the radiochemical preparation of D-[U- 14 C]-glucose, D-[U- 14 C]-fructose and [U- 14 C]-sucrose with high specific activity by photosynthesis using ‘canna indica’ leaf, [ 14 C]-carbon dioxide and water in presence of light in a closed system. The [ 14 C]-sugars formed were extracted, separated and then purified by paper chromatography. Further, the pure D-[U- 14 C]-glucose obtained was converted to methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside ([U- 14 C]-glucose) by glycosidation with methanol using (i) HCl, the conventional Fischer method (ii) heterogeneous organic cation exchange resin (Amberlite IR-120 (H + )) and (iii) heterogeneous inorganic cation exchanged montmorillonites called metal M +n -monts. The results indicated that the latter in the form of Fe +3 -montmorillonite gave a better yield ( 65%) as compared to others (40–56%). The radiochemical purity of the no-carrier added product was more than 98%. The product retained its specific activity as that of the starting material which is in the range of 250–300 mCi/mmole (9.25–11.1 GBq/mmole), suitable for use as a radiotracer in biochemical investigations. - Graphical abstract: A convenient photosynthesis of uniformly [ 14 C]-labelled D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose, and chemical synthesis of methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside ([U- 14 C]-glucose)/[ 14 C]–AMG, in short. The photosynthesis of D-[U- 14 C]-glucose, and two other [ 14 C]-sugars (fructose and sucrose) with high specific activity using ‘Canna indica’ leaf, 14 CO 2 and water in presence of light is presented in this paper. Further, the D-[U- 14 C]-glucose obtained was converted to methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside ([U- 14 C]-glucose)/[ 14 C]–AMG having 98% radiochemical purity and specific activity in the range of 250–300 mCi/mmole, using montmorillonites (M +n -monts). Highlights: ► Synthesis of methyl α D-glucopyranoside ([U- 14 C] glucose) has not been reported using M +n -monts. ► M +n -monts are

  2. The production of glucose from corn stalk using hydrothermal process with pre-treatment ultrasound assisted alkaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolanda, Dora; Prasutiyo, Indry; Trisanti, P. N.; Sumarno

    2015-12-01

    The production of glucose from corn stalk by using subcritical hydrothermal technology is studied in this work. Ultrasound-assisted alkaline delignification methods are used as pre-treatment. The corn stalk powder were pretreated with ultrasound-assisted alkaline (NaOH 2% w/w, solid to liquid ratio 1:22 w/v) at room temperature and 30 minutes. After pre-treatment, solid residue and liquid fractions are separated by filtration. Pretreated solids are further submitted to hydrothermal process for glucose production. Hydrothermal process was carried out at 100 Bar and 120°C in various times. The solid product was characterized by SEM and XRD. And liquid product was analysis using DNS method to determine percentage of glucose. From XRD analysis showed that crystallinity of material was lower than delignification product.

  3. Glucose and Fructose to Platform Chemicals: Understanding the Thermodynamic Landscapes of Acid-Catalysed Reactions Using High-Level ab Initio Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Kim, Taijin; Low, John; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-12-28

    Molecular level understanding of acid-catalysed conversion of sugar molecules to platform chemicals such as hydroxy-methyl furfural (HMF), furfuryl alcohol (FAL), and levulinic acid (LA) is essential for efficient biomass conversion. In this paper, the high-level G4MP2 method along with the SMD solvation model is employed to understand detailed reaction energetics of the acid-catalysed decomposition of glucose and fructose to HMF. Based on protonation free energies of various hydroxyl groups of the sugar molecule, the relative reactivity of gluco-pyranose, fructo-pyranose and fructo-furanose are predicted. Calculations suggest that, in addition to the protonated intermediates, a solvent assisted dehydration of one of the fructo-furanosyl intermediates is a competing mechanism, indicating the possibility of multiple reaction pathways for fructose to HMF conversion in aqueous acidic medium. Two reaction pathways were explored to understand the thermodynamics of glucose to HMF; the first one is initiated by the protonation of a C2–OH group and the second one through an enolate intermediate involving acyclic intermediates. Additionally, a pathway is proposed for the formation of furfuryl alcohol from glucose initiated by the protonation of a C2–OH position, which includes a C–C bond cleavage, and the formation of formic acid. The detailed free energy landscapes predicted in this study can be used as benchmarks for further exploring the sugar decomposition reactions, prediction of possible intermediates, and finally designing improved catalysts for biomass conversion chemistry in the future.

  4. Determination of fructose metabolic pathways in normal and fructose-intolerant children: A 13C NMR study using [U-13C]fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopher, A.; Lapidot, A.; Vaisman, N.; Mandel, H.

    1990-01-01

    An inborn deficiency in the ability of aldolase B to split fructose 1-phosphate is found in humans with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI). A stable isotope procedure to elucidate the mechanism of conversion of fructose to glucose in normal children and in HFI children has been developed. A constant infusion of D-[U- 13 C]fructose was given nasogastrically to control and to HFI children. Hepatic fructose conversion to glucose was estimated by examination of 13 C NMR spectra of plasma glucose. Significantly lower values (∼3-fold) for fructose conversion to glucose were obtained for the HFI patients as compared to the controls. A quantitative determination of the metabolic pathways of fructose conversion to glucose was derived from 13 C NMR measurement of plasma [ 13 C]glucose isotopomer populations. The finding of isotopomer populations of three adjacent 13 C atoms at glucose C-4 ( 13 C 3 - 13 C 4 - 13 C 5 ) suggests that there is a direct pathway from fructose, by-passing fructose-1-phosphate aldolase, to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The metabolism of fructose by fructose-1-phosphate aldolase activity accounts for only ∼50% of the total amount of hepatic fructose conversion to glucose. In view of the marked decline by 67% in synthesis of glucose from fructose in HFI subjects found in this study, the extent of [ 13 C]glucose formation from a trace amount of [U- 13 C]fructose infused into the patient can be used as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic test for inherent faulty fructose metabolism

  5. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  6. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Oltramari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO or glucose syrup (GS in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO; ii starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO; iii starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO; and iv starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS. Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids, divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h. Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA. At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05 concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  7. NMR studies on mechanism of isomerisation of fructose 6-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate catalysed by phosphoglucose isomerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Shahzada Nadeem; Mok, Kenneth Hun; Rashid, Naeem; Xie, Yongjing; Ruether, Manuel; O'Brien, John; Akhtar, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    The fate of hydrogen atoms at C-2 of glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) and C-1 of fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) was studied in the reaction catalysed by phosphoglucose isomerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis (TkPGI) through 1D and 2D NMR methods. When the reaction was performed in (2)H2O the hydrogen atoms in the aforementioned positions were exchanged with deuterons indicating that the isomerization occurred by a cis-enediol intermediate involving C-1 pro-R hydrogen of F6P. These features are similar to those described for phosphoglucose isomerases from rabbit muscle and Pyrococcus furiosus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy and greenhouse gas assessment of European glucose production from corn – a multiple allocation approach for a key ingredient of the bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, I.; Cok, B.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Bio-based products are considered to be a sustainable alternative to conventional fossil fuel-based materials. This paper studies the production of glucose from corn starch, an important feedstock for a wide range of bio-based products (e.g. ethanol, bio-based monomers), in a European corn wet mill

  9. Mathematical modeling of fructose production by immobilised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of fructose from glucose isomerisation process using commercial immobilized glucose isomerase (IGI) was conducted in a batch type of stirred tank bioreactor. A mathematical model was developed to describe the effect of temperature and pH on the kinetic parameters of fructose production. Modified Santos ...

  10. Chronic intake of honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup exert equivalent effects on glucose and insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of nutritive sweeteners is high with ‘added sugars’ intake from the WWEIA (2009-2010) survey in all individuals = 2 yr at 76.2 g or 295 kcal daily. Controversy continues regarding the metabolic effects of the source of sweetener. Our goal was to evaluate the glycemic and insulin effect o...

  11. Effect of varying the dose of corn syrup on the insulin and glucose response to the oral sugar test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocelyn, N A; Harris, P A; Menzies-Gow, N J

    2018-03-05

    The oral sugar test (OST) is used to identify equine insulin dysregulation (ID); however only a dose of 0.15 mL/kg bwt corn syrup has been evaluated. To determine the effect of varying the dose of corn syrup on insulin and glucose response to the OST and the test's ability to distinguish between ponies with a history of laminitis (PL) and without laminitis (NL). Randomised crossover experiment. After an overnight fast, in a three-way randomised crossover study with a 7-day washout, 0.15, 0.3 or 0.45 mL/kg bwt corn syrup was administered orally to eight ponies (5 PL and 3 NL) and blood obtained between 0 and 120 min. Serum [insulin] and [glucose] were measured using previously validated radioimmunoassay and colorimetric assays respectively. The repeatability of and the effect of continued pasture access on the dose that best distinguished PL and NL ponies were then assessed. The effect of dose, laminitis history and fasting on serum [insulin] and [glucose] responses were assessed using mixed-effects models. The serum [insulin] following 0.15 mL/kg bwt were not significantly different from 0.3 mL/kg bwt at any time point, while serum [insulin] following 0.45 mL/kg bwt significantly (Psyrup may be preferable to differentiate PL and NL ponies. © 2018 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Way back for fructose and liver metabolism: bench side to molecular insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Alba; Roglans, Núria; Alegret, Marta; Laguna, Juan C

    2012-12-07

    The World Health Organization recommends that the daily intake of added sugars should make up no more than 10% of total energy. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is the main source of added sugars. Fructose, together with glucose, as a component of high fructose corn syrups or as a component of the sucrose molecule, is one of the main sweeteners present in this kind of beverages. Data from prospective and intervention studies clearly point to high fructose consumption, mainly in the form of sweetened beverages, as a risk factor for several metabolic diseases in humans. The incidence of hypertension, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia (mainly hypertriglyceridemia), insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and the cluster of many of these pathologies in the form of metabolic syndrome is higher in human population segments that show high intake of fructose. Adolescent and young adults from low-income families are especially at risk. We recently reviewed evidence from experimental animals and human data that confirms the deleterious effect of fructose on lipid and glucose metabolism. In this present review we update the information generated in the past 2 years about high consumption of fructose-enriched beverages and the occurrence of metabolic disturbances, especially NAFLD, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. We have explored recent data from observational and experimental human studies, as well as experimental data from animal and cell models. Finally, using information generated in our laboratory and others, we provide a view of the molecular mechanisms that may be specifically involved in the development of liver lipid and glucose metabolic alterations after fructose consumption in liquid form.

  13. Is Fructose Malabsorption a Cause of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio, James J.; Lucan, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a condition that may be marked by abdominal pain, bloating, fullness, indigestion, belching, constipation and/or diarrhea. IBS symptoms can result from malabsorption of fructose. Fructose is a monosaccharide found naturally in small quantities in fruits and some vegetables, and in much larger quantities in industrially manufactured sweeteners and a dded sugars (e.g. sucrose and high fructose corn syrup). Fructose malabsorption leads to osmotic diarrhea as wel...

  14. Insights into the Cr(III) catalyzed isomerization mechanism of glucose to fructose in the presence of water using ab initio molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrif, Samir H; Varghese, Jithin J; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2014-09-28

    The mechanism of glucose ring opening and isomerization to fructose, catalyzed by the Lewis acid catalyst CrCl3 in the presence of water, is investigated using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics with metadynamics. Minimum energy pathways for the reactions are revealed and the corresponding free energy barriers are computed. Addition of glucose replaces two water molecules in the active [Cr(H2O)5OH](+2) complex, with two hydroxyl groups of glucose taking their place. Ring opening and isomerization reactions can only proceed if the first step involving the deprotonation of glucose is accompanied by the protonation of the OH(-) group in the partially hydrolyzed metal center ([Cr(C6H12O6)(H2O)3OH](+2) → [Cr(C6H11O6)(H2O)4](+2)). This provides further evidence that the partially hydrolyzed [Cr(H2O)5OH](+2) is the active species catalyzing ring opening and isomerization reactions and that unhydrolyzed Cr(+3) may not be able to catalyze the reactions. After the ring opening, the isomerization reaction proceeds via deprotonation, followed by hydride shift and the back donation of the proton from the metal complex to the sugar. Water molecules outside the first coordination sphere of the metal complex participate in the reaction for mediating the proton transfer. The hydride shift in the isomerization is the overall rate limiting step with a free energy barrier of 104 kJ mol(-1). The simulation computed barrier is in agreement with experiments.

  15. Fructose as a key player in the development of fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaranoglu, Metin; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Sentürk, Hakan

    2013-02-28

    We aimed to investigate whether increased consumption of fructose is linked to the increased prevalence of fatty liver. The prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is 3% and 20% in nonobese and obese subjects, respectively. Obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammatory condition and obesity-related cytokines such as interleukin-6, adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α may play important roles in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Additionally, the prevalence of NASH associated with both cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma was reported to be high among patients with type 2 diabetes with or without obesity. Our research group previously showed that consumption of fructose is associated with adverse alterations of plasma lipid profiles and metabolic changes in mice, the American Lifestyle-Induced Obesity Syndrome model, which included consumption of a high-fructose corn syrup in amounts relevant to that consumed by some Americans. The observation reinforces the concerns about the role of fructose in the obesity epidemic. Increased availability of fructose (e.g., high-fructose corn syrup) increases not only abnormal glucose flux but also fructose metabolism in the hepatocyte. Thus, the anatomic position of the liver places it in a strategic buffering position for absorbed carbohydrates and amino acids. Fructose was previously accepted as a beneficial dietary component because it does not stimulate insulin secretion. However, since insulin signaling plays an important role in central mechanisms of NAFLD, this property of fructose may be undesirable. Fructose has a selective hepatic metabolism, and provokes a hepatic stress response involving activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases and subsequent reduced hepatic insulin signaling. As high fat diet alone produces obesity, insulin resistance, and some degree of fatty liver with minimal inflammation and no fibrosis, the fast food diet which includes fructose and fats produces

  16. Lactose in milk replacer can partly be replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol without affecting insulin sensitivity in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, A. J.; Gilbert, M. S.; van den Borne, J. J. G. C.; Gerrits, W. J. J.; Roelofsen, H.; Priebe, M. G.; Vonk, R. J.

    Calf milk replacer (MR) contains 40 to 50% lactose. Lactose strongly fluctuates in price and alternatives are desired. Also, problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (i.e., high incidence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) have been described for heavy veal calves (body weight

  17. Lactose in milk replacer can partly be replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol without affecting insulin sensitivity in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, A.J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Roelofsen, H.; Priebe, M.G.; Vonk, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Calf milk replacer (MR) contains 40 to 50% lactose. Lactose strongly fluctuates in price and alternatives are desired. Also, problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (i.e., high incidence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) have been described for heavy veal calves (body

  18. Hereditary fructose intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructosemia; Fructose intolerance; Fructose aldolase B-deficiency; Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase deficiency ... substances build up in the liver. Hereditary fructose intolerance is inherited, which means it can be passed ...

  19. SMB chromatography applied to the separation/purification of fructose from cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.S. Azevedo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulated moving-bed (SMB technology has been successfully used in separations in petrochemical, food and fine chemical industries. This work is intended to show a potencial economic alternative for the industrial processing of the cashew apple juice. The cashew tree is a native tropical plant abundant in Northeastern Brazil, whose commercial value relies mainly on the processing of its nut. The penduncle of the fruit is called the cashew apple. Despite its high nutrition value, around 90% of the crop spoils on the soil. Simulation and experimental results are presented for SMB separation of fructose from glucose, both present (~40 kg/m³ in the aqueous phase of comercial cashew apple juice. Kinetic and equilibrium data for fructose and glucose on packed columns using cation-exchange resins are reported. Experimental results for SMB operation indicate close to 90% purity in each product (fructose-rich extract and glucose-rich raffinate. Simulated unit performance and internal profiles agree well with experimental values. To increase the added-value and versatility of the products, either a step of isomerization of the raffinate or diverse SMB fluid-solid flowrate ratios may be applied. By this way, a wide range of products may be obtained, from nearly pure fructose to 42%, 55% and 90% solutions, which are the standard high fructose syrup concentrations. If solids content is conveniently raised to the usual HFCS (high fructose corn syrup comercial standards, these products may be used as food additives, thus confirming a potentially attractive use of cashew apple juice.

  20. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  1. What Enables Self-Control? A Test of Glucose, Fructose, and Vagus Nerve Activation as Possible Factors (¿Que permite el autocontrol? Un test de glucosa, fructosa y activación del nervio vago como posibles factores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Clohecy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study replicated the study by Miller, Bourrasseau, and Blampain (2013 on the effects of fructose and glucose on self-control. It also investigated these authors' suggestion that self-control may be under the influence of the vagus nerve, which can be activated by forceful exhalation in the Valsalva manoeuvre. The participants (N = 101 were assigned to one of five conditions: three groups that received a solution of either glucose, fructose, or a placebo sweetener (solution condition; and two groups that underwent the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM and VM-control. Participants in the solution condition groups ingested one of the three sweeteners, whereas those in the VM and VM-control conditions were required to blow or not blow into a manometer for 15 seconds, respectively. The number of anagrams that participants subsequently completed was used to assess their level of self-control. In contrast to the results obtained by Miller et al. (2013, it was found that fructose, glucose, and VM did not increase the participants' levels of self-control compared to control subjects. These negative results concur with several recent studies which document the difficulty of replicating published findings in psychology.

  2. Is fructose malabsorption a cause of irritable bowel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C

    2015-09-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a condition that may be marked by abdominal pain, bloating, fullness, indigestion, belching, constipation and/or diarrhea. IBS symptoms can result from malabsorption of fructose. Fructose is a monosaccharide found naturally in small quantities in fruits and some vegetables, and in much larger quantities in industrially manufactured sweets with added sugars (e.g. sucrose and high fructose corn syrup). Fructose malabsorption leads to osmotic diarrhea as well as gas and bloating due to fermentation in the colon. A low-fructose diet has been found to improve IBS symptoms in some patients. This paper discusses the prevalence of fructose malabsorption and considers fructose ingestion as a possible cause of--and fructose restriction as a possible dietary treatment for--IBS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intestinal fructose transport and malabsorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hilary F; Butler, Ross N; Brooks, Doug A

    2011-02-01

    Fructose is a hexose sugar that is being increasingly consumed in its monosaccharide form. Patients who exhibit fructose malabsorption can present with gastrointestinal symptoms that include chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain. However, with no clearly established gastrointestinal mechanism for fructose malabsorption, patient analysis by the proxy of a breath hydrogen test (BHT) is controversial. The major transporter for fructose in intestinal epithelial cells is thought to be the facilitative transporter GLUT5. Consistent with a facilitative transport system, we show here by analysis of past studies on healthy adults that there is a significant relationship between fructose malabsorption and fructose dose (r = 0.86, P fructose malabsorption with age have been observed in human infants, and this may parallel the developmental regulation of GLUT5 expression. Moreover, a GLUT5 knockout mouse has displayed the hallmarks associated with profound fructose malabsorption. Fructose malabsorption appears to be partially modulated by the amount of glucose ingested. Although solvent drag and passive diffusion have been proposed to explain the effect of glucose on fructose malabsorption, this could possibly be a result of the facilitative transporter GLUT2. GLUT5 and GLUT2 mRNA have been shown to be rapidly upregulated by the presence of fructose and GLUT2 mRNA is also upregulated by glucose, but in humans the distribution and role of GLUT2 in the brush border membrane are yet to be definitively decided. Understanding the relative roles of these transporters in humans will be crucial for establishing a mechanistic basis for fructose malabsorption in gastrointestinal patients.

  4. Differential effects of acute and chronic fructose administration on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and lipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.

    1988-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to distinguish between the acute and chronic effects of fructose administration. In vivo, liver lipogenesis, as measured by 3 H 2 O incorporation, was greater in rats fed 60% fructose than in their glucose fed controls. Both fructose feeding, and fructose feeding plus intraperitoneal fructose injection increased the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. Liver PDH activity was increased by fructose feeding, and was increased even more by fructose feeding and injection of fructose, but this was not associated with any changes in hepatic ATP concentrations

  5. Differential effects of acute and chronic fructose administration on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and lipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, L.

    1988-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to distinguish between the acute and chronic effects of fructose administration. In vivo, liver lipogenesis, as measured by {sup 3}H{sub 2}O incorporation, was greater in rats fed 60% fructose than in their glucose fed controls. Both fructose feeding, and fructose feeding plus intraperitoneal fructose injection increased the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. Liver PDH activity was increased by fructose feeding, and was increased even more by fructose feeding and injection of fructose, but this was not associated with any changes in hepatic ATP concentrations.

  6. Insights into the interplay of Lewis and Brønsted acid catalysts in glucose and fructose conversion to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural and levulinic acid in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Vinit; Mushrif, Samir H; Ho, Christopher; Anderko, Andrzej; Nikolakis, Vladimiros; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Sandler, Stanley I; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2013-03-13

    5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) and levulinic acid production from glucose in a cascade of reactions using a Lewis acid (CrCl3) catalyst together with a Brønsted acid (HCl) catalyst in aqueous media is investigated. It is shown that CrCl3 is an active Lewis acid catalyst in glucose isomerization to fructose, and the combined Lewis and Brønsted acid catalysts perform the isomerization and dehydration/rehydration reactions. A CrCl3 speciation model in conjunction with kinetics results indicates that the hydrolyzed Cr(III) complex [Cr(H2O)5OH](2+) is the most active Cr species in glucose isomerization and probably acts as a Lewis acid-Brønsted base bifunctional site. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations indicate a strong interaction between the Cr cation and the glucose molecule whereby some water molecules are displaced from the first coordination sphere of Cr by the glucose to enable ring-opening and isomerization of glucose. Additionally, complex interactions between the two catalysts are revealed: Brønsted acidity retards aldose-to-ketose isomerization by decreasing the equilibrium concentration of [Cr(H2O)5OH](2+). In contrast, Lewis acidity increases the overall rate of consumption of fructose and HMF compared to Brønsted acid catalysis by promoting side reactions. Even in the absence of HCl, hydrolysis of Cr(III) decreases the solution pH, and this intrinsic Brønsted acidity drives the dehydration and rehydration reactions. Yields of 46% levulinic acid in a single phase and 59% HMF in a biphasic system have been achieved at moderate temperatures by combining CrCl3 and HCl.

  7. Combination of erythritol and fructose increases gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Park, Sonhee C; Wolf, Bryan W; Hertzler, Steven R

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of a large amount of dietary fructose induces gastrointestinal intolerance, and glucose has been known as an enhancer of fructose absorption. Erythritol is a nonglycemic sugar alcohol, and it has been suggested that erythritol is absorbed paracellularly. It was hypothesized that paracellular absorption of erythritol could also enhance paracellular absorption of fructose in healthy adults. This is one of the proposed pathways for how additional glucose enhances the absorption of fructose. Thirty-seven nondiabetic, healthy adults participated in a randomized, double-masked, controlled crossover study. After an overnight fast, participants consumed beverages containing either 50 g fructose and 50 g glucose, 50 g fructose and 33.3 g erythritol (an equimolar concentration of fructose), or 50 g fructose alone. Breath hydrogen response was determined for 8 hours postprandially. Gastrointestinal intolerance symptoms and the number and consistency of bowel movements were recorded for 24 hours postprandially. The breath hydrogen area under the curve (AUC) of the fructose and erythritol beverage was 2 times the AUC of the fructose beverage and 8.75 times the AUC of the fructose and glucose beverage (P fructose and glucose beverage and fructose alone, frequency of watery stools increased (P fructose and erythritol. These data suggest that coingestion of equimolar concentrations of fructose and erythritol increased carbohydrate malabsorption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fructose; is that a public health problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan SARI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available High fructose corn syrup used in many products on the market is occured through a series of chemical processes. Long shelf life, and food softness because of the moisture-retaining properties, being more sweeter than other sugars have rendered preferred this product. Possible side effects of high fructose corn syrup with animal and human studies have been investigated but no evidence related serious adverse effect could be found with physiologic consumption. However this type of food and drink intake is accompanied by the consumption of hypercaloric energy and is believed to cause metabolic complications. Therefore, the appropriate amounts of natural fructose has indisputable benefits if consumed excessively adverse effects are inevitabl [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 401-404

  9. Identification of feeding stimulants in corn roots for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    2008-04-01

    Using a bioassay-driven approach, we have isolated and identified a blend of compounds from the roots of germinating corn, Zea mays L., that serve as feeding stimulants for neonate western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The active blend is a combination of simple sugars (30:4:4 mg/ml glucose:fructose:sucrose in the corn root) plus at least one of the free fatty acids in germinating corn roots (2:5 mg/ml oleic acid:linoleic acid in the corn root). When an extract of germinating corn was partitioned into an ethyl acetate fraction and an aqueous fraction, full feeding occurred only when the two fractions were recombined, indicating that the phagostimulant was comprised of both polar and nonpolar components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of root extracts from germinating corn seedlings revealed a blend of 20 compounds from a variety of chemical classes, including small sugars, diacids, amino acids, inorganic compounds, and free fatty acids. When the major components were tested in feeding bioassays, the sugars and lipids were shown to be essential for feeding by larvae, but the two classes of compounds were only effective when combined. The sugars alone elicited feeding by only 40% of larvae, but the percentage of larvae feeding was increased significantly with the addition of linoleic acid (91.7% larvae feeding) or oleic acid (85.8% larvae feeding). The amino acids alone were not essential elements for feeding by western corn rootworm larvae.

  10. SGLT5 reabsorbs fructose in the kidney but its deficiency paradoxically exacerbates hepatic steatosis induced by fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Taku; Fukazawa, Masanori; Ueda, Otoya; Shimada, Hideaki; Kito, Aki; Kakefuda, Mami; Kawase, Yosuke; Wada, Naoko A; Goto, Chisato; Fukushima, Naoshi; Jishage, Kou-Ichi; Honda, Kiyofumi; King, George L; Kawabe, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Although excessive fructose intake is epidemiologically linked with dyslipidemia, obesity, and diabetes, the mechanisms regulating plasma fructose are not well known. Cells transfected with sodium/glucose cotransporter 5 (SGLT5), which is expressed exclusively in the kidney, transport fructose in vitro; however, the physiological role of this transporter in fructose metabolism remains unclear. To determine whether SGLT5 functions as a fructose transporter in vivo, we established a line of mice lacking the gene encoding SGLT5. Sodium-dependent fructose uptake disappeared in renal brush border membrane vesicles from SGLT5-deficient mice, and the increased urinary fructose in SGLT5-deficient mice indicated that SGLT5 was the major fructose reabsorption transporter in the kidney. From this, we hypothesized that urinary fructose excretion induced by SGLT5 deficiency would ameliorate fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. To test this hypothesis we compared SGLT5-deficient mice with wild-type mice under conditions of long-term fructose consumption. Paradoxically, however, fructose-induced hepatic steatosis was exacerbated in the SGLT5-deficient mice, and the massive urinary fructose excretion was accompanied by reduced levels of plasma triglycerides and epididymal fat but fasting hyperinsulinemia compared with fructose-fed wild-type mice. There was no difference in food consumption, water intake, or plasma fructose between the two types of mice. No compensatory effect by other transporters reportedly involved in fructose uptake in the liver and kidney were indicated at the mRNA level. These surprising findings indicated a previously unrecognized link through SGLT5 between renal fructose reabsorption and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  11. Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Horst, Kasper W; Serlie, Mireille J

    2017-09-06

    Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be used for gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Fructose-derived precursors also act as nutritional regulators of the transcription factors, including ChREBP and SREBP1c, that regulate the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL genes. In support of these mechanisms, fructose intake increases hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL and raises plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in humans. However, epidemiological and fructose-intervention studies have had inconclusive results with respect to liver fat, and there is currently no good human evidence that fructose, when consumed in isocaloric amounts, causes more liver fat accumulation than other energy-dense nutrients. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the seemingly contradicting literature on fructose and NAFLD. We outline fructose physiology, the mechanisms that link fructose to NAFLD, and the available evidence from human studies. From this framework, we conclude that the cellular mechanisms underlying hepatic fructose metabolism will likely reveal novel targets for the treatment of NAFLD, dyslipidemia, and hepatic insulin resistance. Finally, fructose-containing sugars are a major source of excess calories, suggesting that a reduction of their intake has potential for the prevention of NAFLD and other obesity-related diseases.

  12. In situ formation of the amino sugars 1-amino-1-deoxy-fructose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-glucose under Maillard reaction conditions in the absence of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashalian, Ossanna; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2016-04-15

    Replacing amino acids with their binary metal complexes during the Maillard reaction can initiate various processes, including the oxidative degradation of their glucose conjugates, generating 1-amino-1-deoxy-fructose and its derivatives. These reactive amino sugars are not easily accessible under Maillard reaction conditions and are only formed in the presence of ammonia. To explore the generality of this observation and to study in particular the ability of fructose to generate glucosamine, the amino acid-metal complexes were heated in aqueous solutions with three aldohexoses and two ketohexoses at 110°C for 2 h and the dry residues were analysed by ESI/qTOF/MS/MS. All the sugars generated relatively intense ions at [M+H](+) 180 (C6H14NO5); those ions originating from ketohexoses exhibited MS/MS fragmentations identical to glucosamine and those originating form aldohexoses showed ions identical to fructosamine. Furthermore, the amino sugars were found to form fructosazine, react with other sugars and undergo dehydration reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hereditaire fructose-intolerantie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumping, Lynne; Waterham, Hans R.; Kok, Irene; van Hasselt, Peter M.; Visser, Gepke

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a rare metabolic disease affecting fructose metabolism. After ingestion of fructose, patients may present with clinical symptoms varying from indefinite gastrointestinal symptoms to life-threatening hypoglycaemia and hepatic failure. A 13-year-old boy was

  14. Isolated fructose malabsorption.

    OpenAIRE

    Wales, J K; Primhak, R A; Rattenbury, J; Taylor, C J

    1990-01-01

    A patient with isolated fructose malabsorption presented with diarrhoea and colic during the first year of life and subsequently responded to a fructose free diet. Fructose malabsorption has been implicated in some cases of irritable bowel syndrome in adults and may also be an infrequently recognised cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in children.

  15. Isolated fructose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, J K; Primhak, R A; Rattenbury, J; Taylor, C J

    1990-01-01

    A patient with isolated fructose malabsorption presented with diarrhoea and colic during the first year of life and subsequently responded to a fructose free diet. Fructose malabsorption has been implicated in some cases of irritable bowel syndrome in adults and may also be an infrequently recognised cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in children. PMID:2317071

  16. Effect of Papaya Seed Extract (Carica papaya Linn. on Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT 4 Expression of Skeletal Muscle Tissue in Diabetic Mice Induced by High Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyani Diah Wulansari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotany surveys show that papaya seeds are widely used as herbs for the management of some diseases such as abdominal discomfort, pain, malaria, diabetes, obesity, and infection. This research was conducted to analyze the effect of papaya seed extract on GLUT4 expression on skeletal muscle tissue of DM type II model induced by high fructose diet. This study used 24 animals, divided into 4 groups of negative control group, treated with papaya seed extract 100 mg / kgBB, 200 mg / kgBW and 300 mg / kgBW, was adapted for 14 days then induced by fructose solution 20% Orally with a dose of 1.86 grams / kgBB for 56 days. The treatment group was given papaya seed extract in accordance with the dose of each group for 14 days. GDP levels was measured using a spectrophotometer. Skeletal muscle tissue is used on the gastrocnemius part. GLUT4 expression was measured through a Immunoreactive Score (IRS method with immunohistochemical staining using GLUT4 polyclonal antibodies. Comparative test results showed that there were significant differences between groups (p <0.05 in final GDP variables and GLUT4 expression. Pearson correlation test results show that the value p = 0.001, meaning there is a significant relationship between GLUT4 expression with final GDP levels. The result of simple linear regression analysis showed that p = 0,000 (<0,05, meaning that dose of papaya seed extract had a significant influence on GLUT4 expression.

  17. Fructose and related food carbohydrates. Sources, intake, absorption, and clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    of hydrogen breath tests, a very low absorption capacity for fructose given as the free monosaccharide has been found in humans. Fructose given as sucrose or in equimolar combinations with glucose is well absorbed, and only fructose in excess of glucose is malabsorbed. On this basis it is hypothesized...... interest. Fructans are not absorbed in the small intestine but are strongly fermented in the large bowel. Fructans may be of potential benefit for large-bowel function and blood glucose regulation....

  18. Effect of commercial breakfast fibre cereals compared with corn flakes on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized blinded crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almér Lars-Olof

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibre food intake is related to a reduced risk of developing diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism of this effect is still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fibre cereals on the rate of gastric emptying, postprandial glucose response and satiety in healthy subjects. Methods Gastric emptying rate (GER was measured by standardized real time ultrasonography. Twelve healthy subjects were assessed using a randomized crossover blinded trial. The subjects were examined after an 8 hour fast and after assessment of normal fasting blood glucose level. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose measurements were taken before and at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 min after ingestion of sour milk with corn flakes (GER1, cereal bran flakes (GER2 or wholemeal oat flakes (GER3. Results The median value was, respectively, 42% for GER1, 33 % for GER2 and 51% for GER3. The difference between the GER after ingestion of bran flakes compared to wholemeal oat flakes was statistically significant (p = 0.023. The postprandial delta blood glucose level was statistically significantly lower at 40 min (p = 0.045 and 120 min (p = 0.023 after the cereal bran flakes meal. There was no statistical significance between the areas under the curve (AUCs of the cereals as far as blood glucose and satiety were concerned. Conclusion The result of this study demonstrates that the intake of either bran flakes or wholemeal oat flakes has no effect on the total postprandial blood glucose response or satiety when compared to corn flakes. However, the study does show that the intake of cereal bran flakes slows the GER when compared to oat flakes and corn flakes, probably due to a higher fibre content. Since these products do not differ in terms of glucose response and satiety on healthy

  19. Early Life Exposure to Fructose and Offspring Phenotype: Implications for Long Term Metabolic Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Sloboda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of artificially sweetened processed foods, particularly high in fructose or high fructose corn syrup, has increased significantly in the past few decades. As such, interest into the long term outcomes of consuming high levels of fructose has increased significantly, particularly when the exposure is early in life. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked fructose consumption to the metabolic syndrome and associated comorbidities—implicating fructose as a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Yet, despite the widespread consumption of fructose-containing foods and beverages and the rising incidence of maternal obesity, little attention has been paid to the possible adverse effects of maternal fructose consumption on the developing fetus and long term effects on offspring. In this paper we review studies investigating the effects of fructose intake on metabolic outcomes in both mother and offspring using human and experimental studies.

  20. Kefir peptides prevent high-fructose corn syrup-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a murine model by modulation of inflammation and the JAK2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H L; Tsai, T C; Tsai, Y C; Liao, J W; Yen, C C; Chen, C M

    2016-12-12

    In recent years, people have changed their eating habits, and high-fructose-containing bubble tea has become very popular. High-fructose intake has been suggested to be a key factor that induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Kefir, a fermented milk product composed of microbial symbionts, has demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antibacterial, antioxidant and immunostimulating effects. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of kefir peptides on high-fructose-induced hepatic steatosis and the possible molecular mechanism. An animal model of 30% high-fructose-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice was established. The experiment is divided into the following six groups: (1) normal: H 2 O drinking water; (2) mock: H 2 O+30% fructose; (3) KL: low-dose kefir peptides (50 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; (4) KM: medium-dose kefir peptides (100 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; (5) KH: high-dose kefir peptides (150 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; and (6) CFM: commercial fermented milk (100 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose. The results show that kefir peptides improve fatty liver syndrome by decreasing body weight, serum alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, insulin and hepatic triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids as well as the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) that had been elevated in fructose-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, kefir peptides markedly increased phosphorylation of AMPK to downregulate its targeted enzymes, ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1), and inhibited de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, kefir peptides activated JAK2 to stimulate STAT3 phosphorylation, which can translocate to the nucleus, and upregulated several genes, including the CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) involved in fatty acid oxidation. Our data have demonstrated that kefir peptides can improve the symptoms of NAFLD, including body weight, energy intake, inflammatory reaction and the

  1. Production of glucose and fructose syrups from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz starch using enzymes produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil Produção de xaropes de glicose e de fructose a partir de amido de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantzusando enzimas produzidas por microorganismos isolados do solo de Cerrado Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto do Nascimento Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The high demands for sugars and the development of enzymatic technology have increased the production of sweeteners, especially for glucose and fructose syrups. This work describe a technology for glucose and fructose syrups from Brazilian cassava starch using enzymes produced by soil microrganisms isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado soil. Firstly, Aspergillus niger and Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the soil and used as glucoamylase (GA and glucose isomerase (GI producer sources. After characterization, GA and GI exhibited optimum pH 4.5 and 8.0, respectively. GA showed maximum activity at 60 ºC and GI at 85 ºC. GA and GI retained 65 and 80%, respectively, of initial activity after 180 minutes of incubation at 60 ºC. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmáx were 0.476 (mg.mL-1 and 8.58 (µmol/minute for GA and 0.082 (M and 48.20 (µmol/minute for GI. The maximum glucose syrups production occurred after 24 hours of reaction with a 98% yield. The production of fructose syrups with 42% (w/v was reached after 96 hours of reaction.A alta demanda por açúcares e o desenvolvimento da tecnologia enzimática têm aumentado a produção de adoçantes, principalmente xaropes de glicose e frutose. Este trabalho descreve uma tecnologia para a produção de xaropes de glicose e frutose a partir de amido de mandioca usando enzimas produzidas por microrganismos isolados do solo do Cerrado Brasileiro. Primeiramente, Aspergillus niger e Strepotmyces sp. foram isolados a partir do solo e usados como fontes produtoras de glicoamilase (GA e glicose isomerase (GI. Após caracterização GA e GI exibiram pH ótimo de 4,5 e 8,0, respectivamente. GA apresentou uma atividade máxima a 60 ºC enquanto que GI a 80 ºC. GA e GI mantiveram 65 e 80%, respectivamente, da atividade inicial, após 180 minutos de incubação a 60 ºC. Os parâmetros cinéticos Km e Vmáx foram 0,476 (mg mL-1 e 8,58 (µmol min-1 para GA e 0,082 (M e 48,20 (µmol min-1 para GI. A máxima produ

  2. Glucose Isomerization by Enzymes and Chemo-catalysts: Status and Current Advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Yang, Song; Saravanamurugan, Shunmugavel

    2017-01-01

    of isomerization of aldoses in terms of yields, catalysts, solvents, catalytic systems, etc., by both enzymatic and chemo-catalytic approaches. Among aldose ketose interconversion reactions, fructose production by glucose isomerization to make high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an industrially important and large....... Isomerization of glucose is also a central reaction for making renewable platform chemicals, such as lactic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and levulinic acid. In these other applications, thermally stable catalysts are required, thus making use of enzymatic catalysis inadequate, since enzymes generally...... possess a limited temperature operating window, typically less than 80 ºC. From this viewpoint, the chemo-catalysts especially solid heterogeneous catalysts-are playing a key role for the development of not only making HFCS, but also making chemicals and fuels from glucose via the isomerized product...

  3. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humar, Miha; Amartey, Sam A.; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes

  4. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  5. Produção de concentrados de frutose por inulinases de Penicillium janczewskii e atividade sobre o nível de glicose plasmática em ratos diabéticos Fructose syrups produced by inulinases from Penicillium janczewskii and activity on plasma glucose level in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire A. Bom Pessoni

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A frutose é utilizada atualmente como adoçante para diabéticos, sendo produzida comercialmente por hidrólise do amido, sob um processo de alto custo que envolve três etapas enzimáticas usando alfa-amilase, amiloglicosidase e glicose isomerase. Uma alternativa para a produção de concentrados de frutose é a hidrólise enzimática da inulina, polímero de frutose encontrado em Asteráceas, incluindo espécies nativas do cerrado. Nesse caso, através de uma única etapa enzimática obtêm-se concentrados com até 95% de frutose. Embora baixos níveis desse açúcar possam ser metabolizados na ausência de insulina, seu efeito sobre a redução do nível de glicose plasmática ainda não está completamente esclarecido. No presente trabalho foi avaliada a ação da frutose produzida por hidrólise da inulina de Vernonia herbacea (Asteraceae por inulinases de Penicillium janczewskii no nível de glicose plasmática de ratos diabéticos. Dentre os animais diabéticos tratados não foi verificada mortalidade, havendo redução de 46% em média (pFructose has been used as sweetener by patients with diabetes. This sugar is usually produced from starch by a high-cost enzymatic process, which envolves the utilization of alpha-amylase, amyloglucosidase and glucose isomerase. Fructose can be alternatively produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin, a polymer of fructose stored as reserve in a number of Asteraceae species. Using only one enzymatic step, inulin can be converted into syrups containing up to 95% fructose. In the present work, fructose syrup was produced from inulin of Vernonia herbacea by hydrolysis with extracellular inulinases from Penicillium janczewskii and evaluated with respect to the effect on plasma glucose level in diabetic rats. Reduction of ca. 46% (p<1% Tukey test of glucose levels in the plasma and no mortality were observed when rats were treated with hydrolysate of inulin. The high amounts of inulin stored by V

  6. Symptomatic fructose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Chloé; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Leroi, Anne-Marie; Ducrotté, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Fructose can trigger or worsen symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptomatic fructose malabsorption in IBS patients and to test whether the patient's characteristics can help to detect a fructose malabsorption. Ninety Rome III IBS patients (predominant diarrhoea (IBS-D): 31%, predominant constipation (IBS-C): 18%, mixed type (IBS-M): 51%) were included prospectively. After exclusion of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth by a glucose breath test, fructose malabsorption was assessed by a five-hour breath test, with symptom monitoring, after a 25 g load of fructose. An increase of more than 20 ppm of hydrogen (H2) or methane (CH4) levels in the exhaled air led to the diagnosis of malabsorption. Fructose test was abnormal in 20/90 patients among whom only 35% were intolerant, with a simultaneous rise of H2/CH4 levels and the onset of abdominal discomfort or diarrhoea. IBS characteristics were not predictive even if young (p = 0.031) and male IBS patients (p = 0.029) were at higher risk of malabsorption. At variance, 18 additional patients experienced intestinal symptoms during the test despite normal fructose absorption. After a 25 g fructose load, symptomatic fructose malabsorption and intolerance without malabsorption were detected in 22% and 28% of IBS patients respectively.

  7. The effects of soluble corn fibre and isomaltooligosacharides on blood glucose, insulin, digestion and fermentation in healthy young males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Lowery

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibre refers to nutrients in the diet that gastrointestinal enzymes do not digest. If properly labelled, dietary fibres should not significantly elevate blood glucose or insulin and should ferment in the large intestine. Because of the recent rise in low-carbohydrate products on the market, consumers use these various fibres without adequate knowledge concerning whether or not these ingredients affect any blood parameters and constitute a dietary fibre. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO as compared to soluble corn fibre (SCF consumption on blood glucose, insulin and breath hydrogen responses in healthy young men and women. After an overnight fast, nine individuals consumed 25 g of either placebo (PLA, IMO or SCF. Breath hydrogen was significantly higher in the SCF condition than in the IMO and PLA at 90, 120, 150 and 180 min (p < 0.0001. Blood glucose and insulin were higher in the IMO condition (p < 0.0001 at 30 min compared to the SCF or PLA conditions, which were not significantly different from each other. These data suggest that IMO does not constitute a dietary fibre and instead should be explored as a slow-digesting carbohydrate.

  8. Effects of roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on postprandial fructose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowska, Anna; De Giorgi, Sara; Theytaz, Fanny; Campos, Vanessa; Hodson, Leanne; Stefanoni, Nathalie; Rey, Valentine; Schneiter, Philippe; Laville, Martine; Giusti, Vittorio; Gabert, Laure; Tappy, Luc

    2016-03-01

    Fructose is partly metabolized in small bowel enterocytes, where it can be converted into glucose or fatty acids. It was therefore hypothesized that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may significantly alter fructose metabolism. We performed a randomized clinical study in eight patients 12-17 months after RYGB and eight control (Ctrl) subjects. Each participant was studied after ingestion of a protein and lipid meal (PL) and after ingestion of a protein+lipid+fructose+glucose meal labeled with (13) C-fructose (PLFG). Postprandial blood glucose, fructose, lactate, apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48), and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, (13) C-palmitate concentrations in chylomicron-TG and VLDL-TG, fructose oxidation ((13) CO2 production), and gluconeogenesis from fructose (GNGf) were measured over 6 hours. After ingestion of PLFG, postprandial plasma fructose, glucose, insulin, and lactate concentrations increased earlier and reached higher peak values in RYGB than in Ctrl. GNGf was 33% lower in RYGB than Ctrl (P = 0.041), while fructose oxidation was unchanged. Postprandial incremental areas under the curves for total TG and chylomicrons-TG were 72% and 91% lower in RYGB than Ctrl (P = 0.064 and P = 0.024, respectively). ApoB48 and (13) C-palmitate concentrations were not significantly different. Postprandial fructose metabolism was not grossly altered, but postprandial lipid concentrations were markedly decreased in subjects having had RYGB surgery. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. Fructose-sorbitol malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Esteve, Maria; Viver, Josep M

    2009-10-01

    Important dietary carbohydrates such as fructose and sorbitol are incompletely absorbed in the normal small intestine. This malabsorption is sometimes associated with abdominal complaints and diarrhea development, symptoms indistinguishable from those of functional bowel disease. Recently, polymerized forms of fructose (fructans) also were implicated in symptom production in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Evidence from uncontrolled and controlled challenge studies suggests that malabsorbed sugars (fructose, sorbitol, lactose) and fructans may act as dietary triggers for clinical symptoms suggestive of IBS. Further placebo-controlled studies are needed to obtain definite conclusions about the role of dietary sugar malabsorption in functional bowel disease.

  10. Circulating concentrations of monocyte chemoattranctant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, & soluble leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 in overweight/obese men/women consuming fructose-or glucose-sweetened beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from animal studies suggest that consumption of large amounts of fructose can promote inflammation and impair fibrinolysis. Data describing the effects of fructose consumption on levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic markers in humans are unavailable. The objective of this study was ...

  11. Absorption capacity of fructose in healthy adults. Comparison with sucrose and its constituent monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1986-01-01

    state the absorption capacity of fructose given alone ranges from less than 5 g to more than 50 g. The absorption capacity of fructose given as sucrose is much higher. Glucose stimulates fructose uptake in a dose dependent fashion. The possible existence of more than one intestinal transport system......The capacity to absorb fructose in 10 healthy adults was investigated by means of hydrogen breath analysis. Fructose absorption was quantified with lactulose standards. Significant hydrogen production (greater than or equal to 20 ppm rise of breath hydrogen) was found after challenge with 10...

  12. Suppressive effect of nobiletin and epicatechin gallate on fructose uptake in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsu, Hideo; Awara, Sohei; Unno, Tomonori; Shimizu, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Inhibition of excessive fructose intake in the small intestine could alleviate fructose-induced diseases such as hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We examined the effect of phytochemicals on fructose uptake using human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells which express the fructose transporter, GLUT5. Among 35 phytochemicals tested, five, including nobiletin and epicatechin gallate (ECg), markedly inhibited fructose uptake. Nobiletin and ECg also inhibited the uptake of glucose but not of L-leucine or Gly-Sar, suggesting an inhibitory effect specific to monosaccharide transporters. Kinetic analysis further suggested that this reduction in fructose uptake was associated with a decrease in the apparent number of cell-surface GLUT5 molecules, and not with a change in the affinity of GLUT5 for fructose. Lastly, nobiletin and ECg suppressed the permeation of fructose across Caco-2 cell monolayers. These findings suggest that nobiletin and ECg are good candidates for preventing diseases caused by excessive fructose intake.

  13. Oral Fructose Absorption in Obese Children with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jillian S; Le, MyPhuong T; Pan, Zhaoxing; Rivard, Christopher; Love-Osborne, Kathryn; Robbins, Kristen; Johnson, Richard J; Sokol, Ronald J; Sundaram, Shikha S

    2014-01-01

    Background Fructose intake is associated with NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease) development. Objective To measure fructose absorption/metabolism in pediatric NAFLD compared to obese and lean controls. Methods Children with histologically proven NAFLD, and obese and lean controls received oral fructose (1 gm/kg ideal body weight). Serum glucose, insulin, uric acid, and fructose, urine uric acid, urine fructose, and breath hydrogen levels were measured at baseline and multiple points until 360 minutes after fructose ingestion. Results Nine NAFLD (89% Hispanic, mean age 14.3 years, mean BMI 35.3 kg/m2), 6 Obese Controls (67% Hispanic, mean age 12.7 years, mean BMI 31.0 kg/m2), and 9 Lean Controls (44% Hispanic, mean age 14.3 years, mean BMI 19.4 kg/m2) were enrolled. Following fructose ingestion, NAFLD vs. Lean Controls had elevated serum glucose, insulin, and uric acid (pfructose excretion (p=0.002) and lower breath hydrogen 180-min AUC (p=0.04). NAFLD vs. Obese Controls had similar post-fructose serum glucose, insulin, urine uric acid, and breath hydrogen, but elevated serum uric acid (pfructose excretion (p=0.02). Conclusions Children with NAFLD absorb and metabolize fructose more effectively than lean subjects, associated with an exacerbated metabolic profile following fructose ingestion. PMID:24961681

  14. Production and Partial Characterization of Alpha-Amylase from Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn pomace, a by-product of corn from “ogi” production was used as a substrate for the production of alpha-amylase by a corn fermenting strain of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 4527. The corn pomace was fortified with potassium phosphate, magnesium sulphate and 2% w/v glucose to produce corn pomace basal medium, ...

  15. The Role of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Intestinal and Hepatic Fructose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Katsumi

    2017-02-22

    Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a glucose-activated transcription factor that controls approximately 50% of de novo lipogenesis in the liver. ChREBP target genes are involved in glycolysis (Glut2, liver pyruvate kinase), fructolysis (Glut5, ketohexokinase), and lipogenesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase). ChREBP gene deletion protects against high sucrose diet-induced and leptin-deficient obesity, because Chrebp -/- mice cannot consume fructose or sucrose. Moreover, ChREBP contributes to some of the physiological effects of fructose on sweet taste preference and glucose production through regulation of ChREBP target genes, such as fibroblast growth factor-21 and glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunits. Thus, ChREBP might play roles in fructose metabolism. Restriction of excess fructose intake will be beneficial for preventing not only metabolic syndrome but also irritable bowl syndrome.

  16. The Role of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Intestinal and Hepatic Fructose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Iizuka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP is a glucose-activated transcription factor that controls approximately 50% of de novo lipogenesis in the liver. ChREBP target genes are involved in glycolysis (Glut2, liver pyruvate kinase, fructolysis (Glut5, ketohexokinase, and lipogenesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase. ChREBP gene deletion protects against high sucrose diet-induced and leptin-deficient obesity, because Chrebp−/− mice cannot consume fructose or sucrose. Moreover, ChREBP contributes to some of the physiological effects of fructose on sweet taste preference and glucose production through regulation of ChREBP target genes, such as fibroblast growth factor-21 and glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunits. Thus, ChREBP might play roles in fructose metabolism. Restriction of excess fructose intake will be beneficial for preventing not only metabolic syndrome but also irritable bowl syndrome.

  17. Fructose malabsorption in children with functional digestive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Boé, Cristiane; Palmero, Ricardo; Fagundes-Neto, Ulysses

    2013-01-01

    Fructose is a monosaccharide frequently present in natural and artificial juice fruits. When the concentration of fructose in certain food is present in excess of glucose concentration some individuals may develop fructose malabsorption. To report the frequency of fructose malabsorption utilizing the hydrogen breath test in children with gastrointestinal and/or nutritional disorders. Between July 2011 and July 2012, 43 patients with gastrointestinal and/or nutritional disorders, from both sexes, were consecutively studied, utilizing the hydrogen breath test with loads of the following carbohydrates: lactose, glucose, fructose and lactulose. Fructose was offered in a 10% aqueous solution in the dose of 1 g/kg body weight. Samples were collected fasting and at every 15 minutes after the intake of the aqueous solution for a 2 hour period. Malabsorption was considered when there was an increase of >20 ppm of hydrogen over the fasting level, and intolerance was diagnosed if gastrointestinal symptoms would appear. The age of the patients varied from 3 months to 16 years, 24 were boys. The following diagnosis were established: irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea in 16, functional abdominal pain in 8, short stature in 10, lactose intolerance in 3, celiac disease in 1, food allergy in 1 and giardiasis in 1 patient. Fructose malabsorption was characterized in 13 (30.2%) patients, and intolerance in 1 (2.3%) patient. The most frequent fructose malabsorption was characterized in 7 (16.3%) patients with irritable bowel syndrome and in 4 (9.3%) patients with functional abdominal pain. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain were the main cause of fructose malabsorption.

  18. FRUCTOSE MALABSORPTION IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL DIGESTIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar LOZINSKY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Fructose is a monosaccharide frequently present in natural and artificial juice fruits. When the concentration of fructose in certain food is present in excess of glucose concentration some individuals may develop fructose malabsorption. Objectives To report the frequency of fructose malabsorption utilizing the hydrogen breath test in children with gastrointestinal and/or nutritional disorders. Methods Between July 2011 and July 2012, 43 patients with gastrointestinal and/or nutritional disorders, from both sexes, were consecutively studied, utilizing the hydrogen breath test with loads of the following carbohydrates: lactose, glucose, fructose and lactulose. Fructose was offered in a 10% aqueous solution in the dose of 1 g/kg body weight. Samples were collected fasting and at every 15 minutes after the intake of the aqueous solution for a 2 hour period. Malabsorption was considered when there was an increase of >20 ppm of hydrogen over the fasting level, and intolerance was diagnosed if gastrointestinal symptoms would appear. Results The age of the patients varied from 3 months to 16 years, 24 were boys. The following diagnosis were established: irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea in 16, functional abdominal pain in 8, short stature in 10, lactose intolerance in 3, celiac disease in 1, food allergy in 1 and giardiasis in 1 patient. Fructose malabsorption was characterized in 13 (30.2% patients, and intolerance in 1 (2.3% patient. The most frequent fructose malabsorption was characterized in 7 (16.3% patients with irritable bowel syndrome and in 4 (9.3% patients with functional abdominal pain. Conclusions Patients with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain were the main cause of fructose malabsorption.

  19. Molecular and industrial aspects of glucose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, S H; Rao, M B; Deshpande, V V

    1996-06-01

    Glucose isomerase (GI) (D-xylose ketol-isomerase; EC. 5.3.1.5) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-glucose and D-xylose to D-fructose and D-xylulose, respectively. The enzyme has the largest market in the food industry because of its application in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS, an equilibrium mixture of glucose and fructose, is 1.3 times sweeter than sucrose and serves as a sweetener for use by diabetics. Interconversion of xylose to xylulose by GI serves a nutritional requirement in saprophytic bacteria and has a potential application in the bioconversion of hemicellulose to ethanol. The enzyme is widely distributed in prokaryotes. Intensive research efforts are directed toward improving its suitability for industrial application. Development of microbial strains capable of utilizing xylan-containing raw materials for growth or screening for constitutive mutants of GI is expected to lead to discontinuation of the use of xylose as an inducer for the production of the enzyme. Elimination of Co2+ from the fermentation medium is desirable for avoiding health problems arising from human consumption of HFCS. Immobilization of GI provides an efficient means for its easy recovery and reuse and lowers the cost of its use. X-ray crystallographic and genetic engineering studies support a hydride shift mechanism for the action of GI. Cloning of GI in homologous as well as heterologous hosts has been carried out, with the prime aim of overproducing the enzyme and deciphering the genetic organization of individual genes (xylA, xylB, and xylR) in the xyl operon of different microorganisms. The organization of xylA and xylB seems to be highly conserved in all bacteria. The two genes are transcribed from the same strand in Escherichia coli and Bacillus and Lactobacillus species, whereas they are transcribed divergently on different strands in Streptomyces species. A comparison of the xylA sequences from several bacterial sources revealed the

  20. Fructose Malabsorption in Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Isabelle; Leroi, Anne-Marie; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Levesque, Hervé; Ménard, Jean-François; Ducrotte, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    The deleterious effect of fructose, which is increasingly incorporated in many beverages, dairy products, and processed foods, has been described; fructose malabsorption has thus been reported in up to 2.4% of healthy subjects, leading to digestive clinical symptoms (eg, pain, distension, diarrhea). Because digestive involvement is frequent in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), we hypothesized that fructose malabsorption could be responsible for intestinal manifestations in these patients. The aims of this prospective study were to: determine the prevalence of fructose malabsorption, in SSc; predict which SSc patients are at risk of developing fructose malabsorption; and assess the outcome of digestive symptoms in SSc patients after initiation of standardized low-fructose diet. Eighty consecutive patients with SSc underwent fructose breath test. All SSc patients also completed a questionnaire on digestive symptoms, and a global symptom score (GSS) was calculated. The prevalence of fructose malabsorption was as high as 40% in SSc patients. We also observed a marked correlation between the presence of fructose malabsorption and: higher values of GSS score of digestive symptoms (P = 0.000004); and absence of delayed gastric emptying (P = 0.007). Furthermore, in SSc patients with fructose malabsorption, the median value of GSS score of digestive symptoms was lower after initiation of standardized low-fructose diet (4 before vs. 1 after; P = 0.0009). Our study underscores that fructose malabsorption often occurs in SSc patients. Our findings are thus relevant for clinical practice, highlighting that fructose breath test is a helpful, noninvasive method by: demonstrating fructose intolerance in patients with SSc; and identifying the group of SSc patients with fructose intolerance who may benefit from low-fructose diet. Interestingly, because the present series also shows that low-fructose diet resulted in a marked decrease of gastrointestinal clinical manifestations

  1. Fructose malabsorption: how much fructose can a healthy subject tolerate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, T; Kuhlbusch-Zicklam, R; Kalde, S; Heise, J; Hülsdonk, A; Kreysel, C

    2011-01-01

    In a prospective study, we evaluated fructose absorption capacity in 17 healthy female volunteers aged 16-27 years. All volunteers underwent analysis of their daily food intake diary and standardized breath tests. The volunteers were challenged consecutively with oral intake of 50, 25 and 15 g of fructose. The average daily ingestion of fructose (19.54 ± 14.95 g) was not different between volunteers with positive and negative breath tests. On day 1, 53% of subjects exhibited a significant (≥20 ppm) increase in breath hydrogen and gastrointestinal symptoms upon challenge with 50 g of fructose. Moreover, 37.5% of the volunteers with a negative breath test became positive upon a second challenge with 50 g of fructose but remained asymptomatic. On day 2, 1 of the 9 volunteers (12.5%) with a positive breath test on day 1 exhibited an asymptomatic positive breath test upon exposure to 25 and 15 g of fructose on day 3. The 8 volunteers with a negative test (25 g of fructose) remained negative after a second exposure to 25 g of fructose. The results of this study indicate that hydrogen breath tests with fructose challenge of 50 g of fructose are inappropriate to characterize clinically significant fructose malabsorption. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Fructose and glucose signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    All life on earth depends on photosynthesis, a process by which energy from sunlight is used to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and oxygen. In plants, sugars are used as building blocks for growth, energy and transport. Sugars have an important role as signaling molecule as well, and

  3. Fructose synthesis and transport at the uterine-placental interface of pigs: cell-specific localization of SLC2A5, SLC2A8, and components of the polyol pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fetal fluids and uterine flushings of pigs contain higher concentrations of fructose than glucose, but fructose is not detected in maternal blood. Fructose can be synthesized from glucose via enzymes of the polyol pathway, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD), transported ...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  5. Lack of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in a range of higher plants that store starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, G; ap Rees, T A

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work was to discover whether fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is present in higher-plant cells that synthesize storage starch. The following were examined: suspension cultures of soybean (Glycine max), tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum), florets of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), developing endosperm of maize and of sweet corn (Zea mays), roots of pea (Pisum sativum), and the developing embryos of round and wrinkled varieties of pea. Unfractionated extracts of each tissue readily converted fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in assays for both plastidic and cytosolic FBPase. These conversions were not inhibited by 20 microM-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Except in extracts of pea embryos and sweet-corn endosperm, treatment with affinity-purified antibodies to pyrophosphate: fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase reduced the above fructose 6-phosphate production to the rate found with boiled extracts. The antibody-resistant activity from sweet corn was slight. In immunoblot analyses, antibody to plastidic FBPase did not react positively with any protein in extracts of soybean cells, potato tuber, cauliflower florets, maize endosperm and pea roots. Positive reactions were found for extracts of embryos of both round and wrinkled varieties of peas and endosperm of sweet corn. For pea embryos, but not for sweet-corn endosperm, the Mr of the recognized protein corresponded to that of plastidic FBPase. It is argued that soybean cells, potato tuber, cauliflower florets, maize (var. White Horse Tooth) endosperm and pea roots lack significant activity of plastidic FBPase, but that this enzyme is present in developing embryos of pea. The data for sweet corn (var. Golden Bantam) are not decisive. It is also argued that, where FBPase is absent, carbon for starch synthesis does not enter the amyloplast as triose phosphate. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2173563

  6. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

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    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  7. Optimization of Fermentation Medium for the Production of Glucose Isomerase Using Streptomyces sp. SB-P1

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    Sheetal Bhasin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of medium ingredients has a profound influence on the metabolic pathways running in the microorganism which regulates the production of numerous metabolites. Glucose isomerase (GI, an enzyme with huge potential in the market, can isomerise glucose into fructose. GI is used widely for the production of High-Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS. HFCS is used as a sweetener in food and pharmaceutical industries. Streptomyces are well-known producers of numerous enzymes including glucose isomerase. An array of 75 isolates was screened for the production of glucose isomerase. The isolate Streptomyces sp. SB-P1 was found to produce maximum amount of extracellular GI. Sucrose and raffinose among pure carbon sources and corn cob and wheat husk among crude agro residues were found to yield high enzyme titers. Potassium nitrate among pure nitrogen sources and soy residues among crude sources gave maximum production. Quantitative effect of carbon, nitrogen, and inducer on GI was also determined. Plackett-Burman design was used to study the effect of different medium ingredients. Sucrose and xylose as carbon sources and peptone and soy residues as nitrogen sources proved to be beneficial for GI production.

  8. Optimization of Fermentation Medium for the Production of Glucose Isomerase Using Streptomyces sp. SB-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Sheetal; Modi, H A

    2012-01-01

    The combination of medium ingredients has a profound influence on the metabolic pathways running in the microorganism which regulates the production of numerous metabolites. Glucose isomerase (GI), an enzyme with huge potential in the market, can isomerise glucose into fructose. GI is used widely for the production of High-Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS). HFCS is used as a sweetener in food and pharmaceutical industries. Streptomyces are well-known producers of numerous enzymes including glucose isomerase. An array of 75 isolates was screened for the production of glucose isomerase. The isolate Streptomyces sp. SB-P1 was found to produce maximum amount of extracellular GI. Sucrose and raffinose among pure carbon sources and corn cob and wheat husk among crude agro residues were found to yield high enzyme titers. Potassium nitrate among pure nitrogen sources and soy residues among crude sources gave maximum production. Quantitative effect of carbon, nitrogen, and inducer on GI was also determined. Plackett-Burman design was used to study the effect of different medium ingredients. Sucrose and xylose as carbon sources and peptone and soy residues as nitrogen sources proved to be beneficial for GI production.

  9. Fructose malabsorption and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: guidelines for effective dietary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Susan J; Gibson, Peter R

    2006-10-01

    Dietary fructose induces abdominal symptoms in patients with fructose malabsorption, but there are no published guidelines on its dietary management. The objective was to retrospectively evaluate a potentially successful diet therapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and fructose malabsorption. Tables detailing the content of fructose and fructans in foods were constructed. A dietary strategy comprising avoidance of foods containing substantial free fructose and short-chain fructans, limitation of the total dietary fructose load, encouragement of foods in which glucose was balanced with fructose, and co-ingestion of free glucose to balance excess free fructose was devised. Sixty-two consecutively referred patients with irritable bowel syndrome and fructose malabsorption on breath hydrogen testing underwent dietary instruction. Dietary adherence and effect on abdominal symptoms were evaluated via telephone interview 2 to 40 months (median 14 months) later. Response to the diet was defined as improvement of all symptoms by at least 5 points on a -10- to 10-point scale. Forty-eight patients (77%) adhered to the diet always or frequently. Forty-six (74%) of all patients responded positively in all abdominal symptoms. Positive response overall was significantly better in those adherent than nonadherent (85% vs 36%; Pfructose malabsorption dietary therapy achieves a high level of sustained adherence and good symptomatic response.

  10. ChREBP-Knockout Mice Show Sucrose Intolerance and Fructose Malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takehiro; Iizuka, Katsumi; Takao, Ken; Horikawa, Yukio; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Takeda, Jun

    2018-03-12

    We have previously reported that 60% sucrose diet-fed ChREBP knockout mice (KO) showed body weight loss resulting in lethality. We aimed to elucidate whether sucrose and fructose metabolism are impaired in KO. Wild-type mice (WT) and KO were fed a diet containing 30% sucrose with/without 0.08% miglitol, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, and these effects on phenotypes were tested. Furthermore, we compared metabolic changes of oral and peritoneal fructose injection. A thirty percent sucrose diet feeding did not affect phenotypes in KO. However, miglitol induced lethality in 30% sucrose-fed KO. Thirty percent sucrose plus miglitol diet-fed KO showed increased cecal contents, increased fecal lactate contents, increased growth of lactobacillales and Bifidobacterium and decreased growth of clostridium cluster XIVa. ChREBP gene deletion suppressed the mRNA levels of sucrose and fructose related genes. Next, oral fructose injection did not affect plasma glucose levels and liver fructose contents; however, intestinal sucrose and fructose related mRNA levels were increased only in WT. In contrast, peritoneal fructose injection increased plasma glucose levels in both mice; however, the hepatic fructose content in KO was much higher owing to decreased hepatic Khk mRNA expression. Taken together, KO showed sucrose intolerance and fructose malabsorption owing to decreased gene expression.

  11. ChREBP-Knockout Mice Show Sucrose Intolerance and Fructose Malabsorption

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    Takehiro Kato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that 60% sucrose diet-fed ChREBP knockout mice (KO showed body weight loss resulting in lethality. We aimed to elucidate whether sucrose and fructose metabolism are impaired in KO. Wild-type mice (WT and KO were fed a diet containing 30% sucrose with/without 0.08% miglitol, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, and these effects on phenotypes were tested. Furthermore, we compared metabolic changes of oral and peritoneal fructose injection. A thirty percent sucrose diet feeding did not affect phenotypes in KO. However, miglitol induced lethality in 30% sucrose-fed KO. Thirty percent sucrose plus miglitol diet-fed KO showed increased cecal contents, increased fecal lactate contents, increased growth of lactobacillales and Bifidobacterium and decreased growth of clostridium cluster XIVa. ChREBP gene deletion suppressed the mRNA levels of sucrose and fructose related genes. Next, oral fructose injection did not affect plasma glucose levels and liver fructose contents; however, intestinal sucrose and fructose related mRNA levels were increased only in WT. In contrast, peritoneal fructose injection increased plasma glucose levels in both mice; however, the hepatic fructose content in KO was much higher owing to decreased hepatic Khk mRNA expression. Taken together, KO showed sucrose intolerance and fructose malabsorption owing to decreased gene expression.

  12. Effect of Long-Term Dietary Arginyl-Fructose (AF on Hyperglycemia and HbA1c in Diabetic db/db Mice

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    Kwang-Hyoung Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that Amadori compounds exert anti-diabetic effects by lowering sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. In the present study we extended our recent findings to evaluate whether α-glucosidase inhibitor arginyl-fructose (AF lowers blood glucose level in diabetic db/db mice, a genetic model for type 2 diabetes. The db/db mice were randomly assigned to high-carbohydrate diets (66.1% corn starch with and without AF (4% in the diet for 6 weeks. Changes in body weight, blood glucose level, and food intake were measured daily for 42 days. Dietary supplementation of AF resulted in a significant decrease of blood glucose level (p < 0.001 and body weight (p < 0.001. The level of HbA1c, a better indicator of plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time, was also significantly decreased for 6-week period (p < 0.001. Dietary treatment of acarbose® (0.04% in diet, a positive control, also significantly alleviated the level of blood glucose, HbA1c, and body weight. These results indicate that AF Maillard reaction product improves postprandial hyperglycemia by suppressing glucose absorption as well as decreasing HbA1c level.

  13. Fructose Induced Endotoxemia in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Ran Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In preclinical studies of fructose-induced NAFLD, endotoxin appears to play an important role. We retrospectively examined samples from three pediatric cohorts (1 to investigate whether endotoxemia is associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis; (2 to evaluate postprandial endotoxin levels in response to fructose beverage in an acute 24-hour feeding challenge, and (3 to determine the change of fasting endotoxin amounts in a 4-week randomized controlled trial comparing fructose to glucose beverages in NAFLD. We found that adolescents with hepatic steatosis had elevated endotoxin levels compared to obese controls and that the endotoxin level correlated with insulin resistance and several inflammatory cytokines. In a 24-hour feeding study, endotoxin levels in NAFLD adolescents increased after fructose beverages (consumed with meals as compared to healthy children. Similarly, endotoxin was significantly increased after adolescents consumed fructose beverages for 2 weeks and remained high although not significantly at 4 weeks. In conclusion, these data provide support for the concept of low level endotoxemia contributing to pediatric NAFLD and the possible role of fructose in this process. Further studies are needed to determine if manipulation of the microbiome or other methods of endotoxin reduction would be useful as a therapy for pediatric NAFLD.

  14. Fructose and cardiometabolic disorders: the controversy will, and must, continue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Wiernsperger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review updates the current knowledge on the question of whether high fructose consumption is harmful or not and details new findings which further pushes this old debate. Due to large differences in its metabolic handling when compared to glucose, fructose was indeed suggested to be beneficial for the diet of diabetic patients. However its growing industrial use as a sweetener, especially in soft drinks, has focused attention on its potential harmfulness, possibly leading to dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome and even diabetes. Many new data have been generated over the last years, confirming the lipogenic effect of fructose as well as risks of vascular dysfunction and hypertension. Fructose exerts various direct effects in the liver, affecting both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells and resulting in non-alcoholic steatotic hepatitis, a well known precursor of the metabolic syndrome. Hepatic metabolic abnormalities underlie indirect peripheral metabolic and vascular disturbances, for which uric acid is possibly the culprit. Nevertheless major caveats exist (species, gender, source of fructose, study protocols which are detailed in this review and presently prevent any firm conclusion. New studies taking into account these confounding factors should be undertaken in order to ascertain whether or not high fructose diet is harmful.

  15. Fructose Malabsorption in Systemic Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marie, Isabelle; Leroi, Anne-Marie; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Levesque, Herv?; M?nard, Jean-Fran?ois; Ducrotte, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The deleterious effect of fructose, which is increasingly incorporated in many beverages, dairy products, and processed foods, has been described; fructose malabsorption has thus been reported in up to 2.4% of healthy subjects, leading to digestive clinical symptoms (eg, pain, distension, diarrhea). Because digestive involvement is frequent in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), we hypothesized that fructose malabsorption could be responsible for intestinal manifestations in thes...

  16. Biomateriais à base de Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 preparados com serragem e com glucose de milho: influência na porosidade e na cristalinidade Biomaterials based on Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 prepared with sawdust or corn glucose: effects on porosity and crystallinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. de Campos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho biomateriais à base de Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 foram obtidos pelo método clássico de fusão e os biovidros submetidos ao tratamento térmico a diferentes temperaturas. A porosidade das peças foi controlada pela adição de serragem e/ou glucose de milho.A porosidade e a cristalinidade das amostras sintetizadas foram acompanhadas com auxílio das técnicas de Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura e difração de raios X, respectivamente. Amostras tratadas termicamente a 800 °C mostraram uma reorganização estrutural e conseqüente aumento da dureza. Observou-se que em ambas as cerâmicas tanto a adição de serragem quanto de glucose de milho aumentou a porosidade das peças. Contudo, a estrutura mais organizada e poros mais homogêneos foram obtidos para a mistura vidro/glucose de milho.In this work, biomaterials constituted of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 were obtained by the classic method of melt and the bioglasses submitted to the thermal treatment at different temperatures, where the porosity of the pieces were controlled by the addition of sawdust and/ or corn glucose. Samples submitted to temperatures above 800 °C became completely opaque, indicating a reorganization of the structure and consequent increase of the hardness of the material. The influence of the sawdust in the process of crystallization of the glass was observed. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used in both ceramics and results showed the increase of the porosity as so much the sawdust or corn glucose was added. However the most organized structure and more homogeneous pores were obtained for the glass/corn glucose mixture.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary fructose intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Hereditary fructose intolerance Hereditary fructose intolerance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary fructose intolerance is a condition that affects a person's ability ...

  18. Effects of high fructose diets on central appetite signaling and cognitive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien eLowette

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fructose has increased tremendously over the last five decades, which is to a large extent due to the development of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, a commercial sugar additive that contains high amounts of free fructose. HFCS is often added to processed food and beverages partly because it is a powerful sweetener but even more so because the production is cheap. Although fructose in combination with fiber, vitamins and minerals, as present in fruits, is a healthy source of energy, isolated fructose, in processed food products has been associated with several health disorders such as insulin resistance and hypertension. Apart from its metabolic consequences, a growing body of literature suggests that free fructose can also affect neuronal systems. High fructose intake may on the one hand affect central appetite regulation by altering specific components of the endocannabinoid system. On the other hand it appears to impact on cognitive function by affecting phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor, synapsin 1 and synaptophysin. The present report reviews the recent evidence showing a negative effect of free fructose consumption on central appetite control, as well as cognitive function.

  19. High-conversion hydrolysates and corn sweetener production in dry-grind corn process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most corn is processed to fuel ethanol and distillers’ grain animal feed using the dry grind process. However, wet milling is needed to refine corn starch. Corn starch is in turn processed to numerous products, including glucose and syrup. However, wet milling is a capital, labor, and energy intensi...

  20. Fructose Containing Sugars at Normal Levels of Consumption Do Not Effect Adversely Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore J. Angelopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to explore our hypothesis that average consumption of fructose and fructose containing sugars would not increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD and the metabolic syndrome (MetS. A randomized, double blind, parallel group study was conducted where 267 individuals with BMI between 23 and 35 kg/m2 consumed low fat sugar sweetened milk, daily for ten weeks as part of usual weight-maintenance diet. One group consumed 18% of calories from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, another group consumed 18% of calories from sucrose, a third group consumed 9% of calories from fructose, and the fourth group consumed 9% of calories from glucose. There was a small change in waist circumference (80.9 ± 9.5 vs. 81.5 ± 9.5 cm in the entire cohort, as well as in total cholesterol (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.0 mmol/L, p < 0.01, triglycerides (TGs (11.5 ± 6.4 vs. 12.6 ± 8.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01, and systolic (109.2 ± 10.2 vs. 106.1 ± 10.4 mmHg, p < 0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (69.8 ± 8.7 vs. 68.1 ± 9.7 mmHg, p < 0.01. The effects of commonly consumed sugars on components of the MetS and CVD risk factors are minimal, mixed and not clinically significant.

  1. Simvastatin-induced cardiac autonomic control improvement in fructose-fed female rats

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    Renata Juliana da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because autonomic dysfunction has been found to lead to cardiometabolic disorders and because studies have reported that simvastatin treatment has neuroprotective effects, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin treatment on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in fructose-fed female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls (n=8, fructose (n=8, and fructose+ simvastatin (n=8. Fructose overload was induced by supplementing the drinking water with fructose (100 mg/L, 18 wks. Simvastatin treatment (5 mg/kg/day for 2 wks was performed by gavage. The arterial pressure was recorded using a data acquisition system. Autonomic control was evaluated by pharmacological blockade. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced an increase in the fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels and insulin resistance. The constant rate of glucose disappearance during the insulin intolerance test was reduced in the fructose group (3.4+ 0.32%/min relative to that in the control group (4.4+ 0.29%/min. Fructose+simvastatin rats exhibited increased insulin sensitivity (5.4+0.66%/min. The fructose and fructose+simvastatin groups demonstrated an increase in the mean arterial pressure compared with controls rats (fructose: 124+2 mmHg and fructose+simvastatin: 126 + 3 mmHg vs. controls: 112 + 2 mmHg. The sympathetic effect was enhanced in the fructose group (73 + 7 bpm compared with that in the control (48 + 7 bpm and fructose+simvastatin groups (31+8 bpm. The vagal effect was increased in fructose+simvastatin animals (84 + 7 bpm compared with that in control (49 + 9 bpm and fructose animals (46+5 bpm. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin treatment improved insulin sensitivity and cardiac autonomic control in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in female rats. These effects were independent of the improvements in the classical plasma lipid profile and of reductions in arterial pressure. These results

  2. Maternal Fructose Intake Induces Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Male, but Not Female, Offspring

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    Lourdes Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. However, consumption of beverages containing fructose is allowed during gestation. Recently, we found that an intake of fructose (10% wt/vol throughout gestation produces an impaired fetal leptin signalling. Therefore, we have investigated whether maternal fructose intake produces subsequent changes in their progeny. Methods. Blood samples from fed and 24 h fasted female and male 90-day-old rats born from fructose-fed, glucose-fed, or control mothers were used. Results. After fasting, HOMA-IR and ISI (estimates of insulin sensitivity were worse in male descendents from fructose-fed mothers in comparison to the other two groups, and these findings were also accompanied by a higher leptinemia. Interestingly, plasma AOPP and uricemia (oxidative stress markers were augmented in male rats from fructose-fed mothers compared to the animals from control or glucose-fed mothers. In contrast, female rats did not show any differences in leptinemia between the three groups. Further, insulin sensitivity was significantly improved in fasted female rats from carbohydrate-fed mothers. In addition, plasma AOPP levels tended to be diminished in female rats from carbohydrate-fed mothers. Conclusion. Maternal fructose intake induces insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, and plasma oxidative stress in male, but not female, progeny.

  3. High fructose diet feeding accelerates diabetic nephropathy in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kaoru; Suzuki, Yusuke; Muta, Kyotaka; Masuyama, Taku; Kakimoto, Kochi; Kobayashi, Akio; Shoda, Toshiyuki; Sugai, Shoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the complications of diabetes and is now the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Fructose is a simple carbohydrate that is present in fruits and honey and is used as a sweetener because of its sweet taste. Fructose has been reported to have the potential to progress diabetes and DN in humans even though fructose itself does not increase postprandial plasma glucose levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of high fructose intake on the kidney of the Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats which have renal lesions similar to those in DN patients and compared these with the effects in normal SD rats. This study revealed that a 4-week feeding of the high fructose diet increased urinary excretion of kidney injury makers for tubular injury and accelerated mainly renal tubular and interstitial lesions in the SDT rats but not in normal rats. The progression of the nephropathy in the SDT rats was considered to be related to increased internal uric acid and blood glucose levels due to the high fructose intake. In conclusion, high fructose intake exaggerated the renal lesions in the SDT rats probably due to effects on the tubules and interstitium through metabolic implications for uric acid and glucose.

  4. Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension Resulting from Fructose Enriched Diet in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Julie; Feray, Annie; Goanvec, Christelle; Guernec, Anthony; Samson, Nolwenn; Bougaran, Pauline; Guerrero, François; Mansourati, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Increased sugar consumption, especially fructose, is strongly related to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate long term effects of fructose supplementation on Wistar rats. Three-week-old male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 14) and fructose fed (FF; n = 18), with a fructose enriched drink (20-25% w/v fructose in water) for 21 weeks. Systolic blood pressure, fasting glycemia, and bodyweight were regularly measured. Glucose tolerance was evaluated three times using an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin levels were measured concomitantly and insulin resistance markers were evaluated (HOMA 2-IR, Insulin Sensitivity Index for glycemia (ISI-gly)). Lipids profile was evaluated on plasma. This fructose supplementation resulted in the early induction of hypertension without renal failure (stable theoretical creatinine clearance) and in the progressive development of fasting hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (higher HOMA 2-IR, lower ISI-gly) without modification of glucose tolerance. FF rats presented dyslipidemia (higher plasma triglycerides) and early sign of liver malfunction (higher liver weight). Although abdominal fat weight was increased in FF rats, no significant overweight was found. In Wistar rats, 21 weeks of fructose supplementation induced a metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia) but not T2D.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension Resulting from Fructose Enriched Diet in Wistar Rats

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    Julie Dupas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased sugar consumption, especially fructose, is strongly related to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate long term effects of fructose supplementation on Wistar rats. Three-week-old male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control (C; n=14 and fructose fed (FF; n=18, with a fructose enriched drink (20–25% w/v fructose in water for 21 weeks. Systolic blood pressure, fasting glycemia, and bodyweight were regularly measured. Glucose tolerance was evaluated three times using an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin levels were measured concomitantly and insulin resistance markers were evaluated (HOMA 2-IR, Insulin Sensitivity Index for glycemia (ISI-gly. Lipids profile was evaluated on plasma. This fructose supplementation resulted in the early induction of hypertension without renal failure (stable theoretical creatinine clearance and in the progressive development of fasting hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (higher HOMA 2-IR, lower ISI-gly without modification of glucose tolerance. FF rats presented dyslipidemia (higher plasma triglycerides and early sign of liver malfunction (higher liver weight. Although abdominal fat weight was increased in FF rats, no significant overweight was found. In Wistar rats, 21 weeks of fructose supplementation induced a metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia but not T2D.

  6. Three months of high-fructose feeding fails to induce excessive weight gain or leptin resistance in mice.

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    Erik J Tillman

    Full Text Available High-fructose diets have been implicated in obesity via impairment of leptin signaling in humans and rodents. We investigated whether fructose-induced leptin resistance in mice could be used to study the metabolic consequences of fructose consumption in humans, particularly in children and adolescents. Male C57Bl/6 mice were weaned to a randomly assigned diet: high fructose, high sucrose, high fat, or control (sugar-free, low-fat. Mice were maintained on their diets for at least 14 weeks. While fructose-fed mice regularly consumed more kcal and expended more energy, there was no difference in body weight compared to control by the end of the study. Additionally, after 14 weeks, both fructose-fed and control mice displayed similar leptin sensitivity. Fructose-feeding also did not change circulating glucose, triglycerides, or free fatty acids. Though fructose has been linked to obesity in several animal models, our data fail to support a role for fructose intake through food lasting 3 months in altering of body weight and leptin signaling in mice. The lack of impact of fructose in the food of growing mice on either body weight or leptin sensitivity over this time frame was surprising, and important information for researchers interested in fructose and body weight regulation.

  7. Added fructose as a principal driver of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a public health crisis

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Subramonian, Ashwin M; O’Keefe, James H

    2017-01-01

    Fatty liver disease affects up to one out of every two adults in the western world. Data from animal and human studies implicate added sugars (eg, sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) in the development of fatty liver disease and its consequences. Added fructose in particular, as a component of added sugars, may pose the greatest risk for fatty liver disease. Considering that there is no requirement for added sugars in the diet, dietary guidelines should recommend reducing the intake of adde...

  8. Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment.

  9. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of corn stover: effects of biomass, peroxide, and enzyme loading and composition on yields of glucose and xylose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodge David B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is a critical step in the conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars. Although many pretreatment processes are currently under investigation, none of them are entirely satisfactory in regard to effectiveness, cost, or environmental impact. The use of hydrogen peroxide at pH 11.5 (alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP was shown by Gould and coworkers to be an effective pretreatment of grass stovers and other plant materials in the context of animal nutrition and ethanol production. Our earlier experiments indicated that AHP performed well when compared against two other alkaline pretreatments. Here, we explored several key parameters to test the potential of AHP for further improvement relevant to lignocellulosic ethanol production. Results The effects of biomass loading, hydrogen peroxide loading, residence time, and pH control were tested in combination with subsequent digestion with a commercial enzyme preparation, optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes, or optimized synthetic mixtures of pure enzymes. AHP pretreatment was performed at room temperature (23°C and atmospheric pressure, and after AHP pretreatment the biomass was neutralized with HCl but not washed before enzyme digestion. Standard enzyme digestion conditions were 0.2% glucan loading, 15 mg protein/g glucan, and 48 h digestion at 50°C. Higher pretreatment biomass loadings (10% to 20% gave higher monomeric glucose (Glc and xylose (Xyl yields than the 2% loading used in earlier studies. An H2O2 loading of 0.25 g/g biomass was almost as effective as 0.5 g/g, but 0.125 g/g was significantly less effective. Optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes substantially increased post-AHP-pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis yields at all H2O2 concentrations compared to any single commercial enzyme. At a pretreatment biomass loading of 10% and an H2O2 loading of 0.5 g/g biomass, an optimized commercial mixture at total protein loadings of 8 or 15 mg

  10. Regulation of dual glycolytic pathways for fructose metabolism in heterofermentative Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 belongs to the group III heterofermentative lactobacilli that use the 6-phosphogluconate/phosphoketolase (6-PG/PK) pathway as their central metabolic pathway and are reportedly unable to grow on fructose as a sole carbon source. We isolated a variant PM1 strain capable of sporadic growth on fructose medium and observed its distinctive characteristics of fructose metabolism. The end product pattern was different from what is expected in typical group III lactobacilli using the 6-PG/PK pathway (i.e., more lactate, less acetate, and no mannitol). In addition, in silico analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding most of critical enzymes in the Embden-Meyerhof (EM) pathway. These observations indicated that fructose was metabolized via two pathways. Fructose metabolism in the PM1 strain was influenced by the activities of two enzymes, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (PGI). A lack of TPI resulted in the intracellular accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) in PM1, the toxicity of which caused early growth cessation during fructose fermentation. The activity of PGI was enhanced by the presence of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP), which allowed additional fructose to enter into the 6-PG/PK pathway to avoid toxicity by DHAP. Exogenous TPI gene expression shifted fructose metabolism from heterolactic to homolactic fermentation, indicating that TPI enabled the PM1 strain to mainly use the EM pathway for fructose fermentation. These findings clearly demonstrate that the balance in the accumulation of GAP and DHAP determines the fate of fructose metabolism and the activity of TPI plays a critical role during fructose fermentation via the EM pathway in L. panis PM1.

  11. The Effect of D-Tagatose on Fructose Absorption in a Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jarrod; Spitnale, Michael; Lodder, Robert

    2013-01-01

    D-tagatose is in development as a medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The effect of oral D-tagatose on the absorption of D-fructose was assessed when co-administered in this study. In the pilot study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed C14 labeled fructose and glucose concomitantly to establish dose levels for the treatment group of rats fed C14 labeled fructose together with D-tagatose. Rats were administered 0, 600, 2000, 6000, or 12000 mg/kg of D-tagatose along with 2000 mg/kg ...

  12. Maternal fructose drives placental uric acid production leading to adverse fetal outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Zeenat A.; Thompson, Alysha; Chi, Maggie; Cusumano, Andrew; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Saben, Jessica L.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal metabolic diseases increase offspring risk for low birth weight and cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. Excess fructose consumption may confer metabolic risks for both women and their offspring. However, the direct consequences of fructose intake per se are unknown. We assessed the impact of a maternal high-fructose diet on the fetal-placental unit in mice in the absence of metabolic syndrome and determined the association between maternal serum fructose and placental uric acid levels in humans. In mice, maternal fructose consumption led to placental inefficiency, fetal growth restriction, elevated fetal serum glucose and triglyceride levels. In the placenta, fructose induced de novo uric acid synthesis by activating the activities of the enzymes AMP deaminase and xanthine oxidase. Moreover, the placentas had increased lipids and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress. Treatment of mothers with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol reduced placental uric acid levels, prevented placental inefficiency, and improved fetal weights and serum triglycerides. Finally, in 18 women delivering at term, maternal serum fructose levels significantly correlated with placental uric acid levels. These findings suggest that in mice, excess maternal fructose consumption impairs placental function via a xanthine oxidase/uric acid-dependent mechanism, and similar effects may occur in humans. PMID:27125896

  13. The Effect of D-Tagatose on Fructose Absorption in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jarrod; Spitnale, Michael; Lodder, Robert

    D-tagatose is in development as a medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The effect of oral D-tagatose on the absorption of D-fructose was assessed when co-administered in this study. In the pilot study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed C14 labeled fructose and glucose concomitantly to establish dose levels for the treatment group of rats fed C14 labeled fructose together with D-tagatose. Rats were administered 0, 600, 2000, 6000, or 12000 mg/kg of D-tagatose along with 2000 mg/kg of fructose. Blood samples were taken over 60 minutes and were assessed using scintillation counting. 600, 2000, and 6000 mg/kg of D-tagatose decreased fructose absorption by 1%, 26%, and 30% respectively (12000 mg/kg group was stopped short of completion due to intolerance) as measured by AUC of scintillation counts. The 600 and 2000 mg/kg of D-tagatose groups showed no difference in plasma glucose concentrations compared to placebo while a rise in glucose was seen in the 6000 mg/kg of D-tagatose groups. The results indicate that D-tagatose may be useful in reducing fructose absorption, which could lead to a beneficial outcome.

  14. Characterization of a mutant glucose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Shen, Dong; Wu, Xue-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Qi-He

    2014-10-01

    A series of site-directed mutant glucose isomerase at tryptophan 139 from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain B6A were purified to gel electrophoretic homogeneity, and the biochemical properties were determined. W139F mutation is the most efficient mutant derivative with a tenfold increase in its catalytic efficiency toward glucose compared with the native GI. With a maximal activity at 80 °C of 59.58 U/mg on glucose, this mutant derivative is the most active type ever reported. The enzyme activity was maximal at 90 °C and like other glucose isomerase, this mutant enzyme required Co(2+) or Mg(2+) for enzyme activity and thermal stability (stable for 20 h at 80 °C in the absence of substrate). Its optimum pH was around 7.0, and it had 86 % of its maximum activity at pH 6.0 incubated for 12 h at 60 °C. This enzyme was determined as thermostable and weak-acid stable. These findings indicated that the mutant GI W139F from T. saccharolyticum strain B6A is appropriate for use as a potential candidate for high-fructose corn syrup producing enzyme.

  15. Wintervoer, High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) en Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Inwinteren is het slotstuk van het bijenjaar, een soort “Grande Finale” na een seizoen hard werken met de bijen. We geven onze bijen voldoende voedsel om de winter goed door te komen en in het voorjaar weer fris en vrolijk aan de slag te kunnen gaan. Gelukkig is het eenvoudig mits er aan enkele

  16. Doctor, my son is so tired... about a case of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guery, M J; Douillard, C; Marcelli-Tourvieille, S; Dobbelaere, D; Wemeau, J L; Vantyghem, M C

    2007-12-01

    We present the case of a 17-year-old male who was diagnosed at birth with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI). The patient complained of morning-time asthenia and post-prandial drowsiness despite a correct sleep pattern. The physical examination and biological check-up only showed severe vitamin C deficiency (supplementation in vitamin C was advised, with an increase in vegetable intake, principally avoiding carrots, onions, leaks and tinned sweet-corn. This case offers the opportunity for a review of this rare disease. Two kinds of fructose metabolism disorders (both autosomal recessive) are recognized: 1) essential fructosuria caused by a deficiency of fructokinase, which has no clinical consequence and requires no dietary treatment; 2) HFI, linked to three main mutations identified in aldolase B gene that may be confirmed by fructose breath test, intravenous fructose tolerance test, and genetic testing. In HFI, fructose ingestion generally induces gastro-intestinal (nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, meteorism) and hypoglycemic symptoms. Fasting is well tolerated. If the condition remains undiagnosed, it leads to liver disease with hepatomegaly, proximal tubular dysfunction, and slow growth and weight gain. In conclusion, endocrinologists should be aware of this rare metabolic disease in order to provide careful follow-up, particularly important when the patient reaches adulthood. Moreover, hypoglycemia induced by fructose absorption, unexplained liver disease, irritable bowel syndrome or familial gout in an adult is suggestive of the diagnosis.

  17. The Role of Salt in the Pathogenesis of Fructose-Induced Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoocher Soleimani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, as manifested by visceral obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, is reaching epidemic proportions in the Western World, specifically the United States. Epidemiologic studies suggest that the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome directly correlates with an increase in the consumption of fructose, mainly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup. This inexpensive alternative to traditional sugar has been increasingly utilized by the food industry as a sweetener since the 1960s. While augmented caloric intake and sedentary lifestyles play important roles in the increasing prevalence of obesity, the pathogenesis of hypertension in metabolic syndrome remains controversial. One intriguing observation points to the role of salt in fructose-induced hypertension. Recent studies in rodents demonstrate that increased dietary fructose intake stimulates salt absorption in the small intestine and kidney tubules, resulting in a state of salt overload, thus setting in motion a cascade of events that will lead to hypertension. These studies point to a novel interaction between the fructose-absorbing transporter, Glut5, and the salt transporters, NHE3 and PAT1, in the intestine and kidney proximal tubule. This paper will focus on synergistic roles of fructose and salt in the pathogenesis of hypertension resulting from salt overload.

  18. Effect of nonabsorbed amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture on small intestinal transit in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L; Linnet, Jan; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    transit rate. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind crossover investigation. In random order, the subjects ingested 30 g glucose or a mixture of 25 g fructose and 5 g sorbitol as 10% solutions. As a radiolabeled marker, (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was added to each test...... ingestion of glucose did not differ from that after ingestion of the fructose-sorbitol mixture (P = 0.7897). However, the mouth-to-cecum transit of the radiolabeled marker was faster (P = 0.0033) and the percentage content of the marker in colon was higher after ingestion of the fructose-sorbitol mixture...... than after ingestion of glucose (P = 0.0128). In healthy humans, malabsorption of small amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture accelerates small bowel transit....

  19. Growth, 14C-sucrose uptake, and metabolites of starch synthesis in apical and basal kernels of corn (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Developing field-grown kernels of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Cornell 175) from the base and apex of the ear were sampled from seven to 70 days after pollination (DAP) an compared with respect to dry weight, ability to take up 14 C-sucrose from solution in vitro, and content of sucrose, glucose, starch, glucose-1-P (G1P), glucose-6-P (G6P), fructose-6-P (F6P), ADP-glucose (ADPG), and UDP-glucose (UDPG). ADPG and UDPG were analyzed by HPLC. All other metabolites were analyzed enzymatically. Simultaneous hand-pollination of all ovaries in an ear did not reduce the difference between apical and basal kernels in dry weight, indicating that the latter fertilization of apical kernels was not responsible for their lesser mature dry weight. Detached kernels took up 14 C-sucrose (0.3-400 mM) and glucose (5-100 mM) at rates linearly proportional to the sugar concentration. Glucose, fructose, and sorbitol did not inhibit uptake of 14 C-sucrose. Uptake was not stimulated by 5 mM CaCl 2 or the addition of buffers (pH 4.5-6.7) to the medium. Sulfhydryl reagents (PCMBS, NEM) and metabolic inhibitors (TNBS, DNP, NaF) did not reduce uptake. These observations suggest that sucrose is taken up by a non-saturable, non-energy-requiring mechanism. Sucrose uptake increased throughout development, especially at the stage when basal kernels began to accumulate more dry weight than apical kernels (10-20 DAP in freely pollinated ears; 25 DAP in synchronously pollinated ears). Hydrolysis of incorporated sucrose increased from 87% at 14 DAP to 99% by 57 DAP

  20. Cardiovascular kinin-generating capability in hypertensive fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miatello, R M; Damiani, M T; Nolly, H L

    1998-09-01

    The hypertensive state is often associated with metabolic abnormalities, including glucose intolerance. Tissue kallikrein, a potent kinin-generating enzyme, is present in the vascular wall and heart tissue. High dietary fructose consumption is reported to induce hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension. The objective of the present study was to examine the status of kallikrein in vascular and cardiac tissue from highly fructose-fed rats and to delineate the effect of kinins and the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in this animal model of glucose intolerance. Male Wistar rats (350 g body weight) were divided into four groups of 10 rats each: (1) controls; (2) oral ramipril at 500 microg/kg per day for the last 2 study weeks; (3) fructose in drinking water as a 10% (w/v) solution for 4 weeks; and (4) fructose + ramipril, with fructose administered as in group 3 plus the administration of ramipril for the last 2 study weeks. Systolic blood pressure (tail-cuff method), glucose tolerance (2 g/kg body weight intraperitoneally) and metabolic parameters were recorded. Kallikrein activity in tail artery and heart tissue homogenates was estimated at the end of the 4th study week from measurements of kininogenase activity and kinins generated by a radioimmunoassay. The area under the curve for the glucose tolerance test increased from 1265 +/- 103 mmol/l after 120 min in the control and 1152 +/- 36 mmol/l in the ramipril group (NS) to 2628 +/- 143 mmol/l in the fructose group (Pdrinking water induced glucose intolerance and increased blood pressure. Treatment with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril improved glucose tolerance and significantly diminished blood pressure. Cardiovascular kinin-generating capability increased in treated animals and this increase was even higher when rats were treated with ramipril, suggesting that kinins, acting as a paracrine hormonal system, can exert cardiovascular protection and contribute to

  1. Fructose, high fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and non-alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), formerly called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is characterized by hepatic steatosis and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in liver cells. Its etiology, pathophysiology, and pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Some have suggested that the increased in...

  2. The protective role of low-concentration alcohol in high-fructose induced adverse cardiovascular events in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqi; Pan, Bo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Lingjuan; Huang, Xupei; Tian, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a worldwide public health issue. As fructose consumption is dramatically increasing, it has been demonstrated that a fructose-rich intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, emerging evidences suggest that low concentration alcohol intake may exert a protective effect on cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate whether low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the adverse effects on cardiovascular events induced by high fructose in mice. From the results of hematoxylin-eosin staining, echocardiography, heart weight/body weight ratio and the expression of hypertrophic marker ANP, we found high-fructose result in myocardial hypertrophy and the low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy from happening. In addition, we observed low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit mitochondria swollen induced by high-fructose. The elevated levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol in high-fructose group were reduced by low concentration alcohol. Low expression levels of SIRT1 and PPAR-γ induced by high-fructose were significantly elevated when fed with low-concentration alcohol. The histone lysine 9 acetylation (acH3K9) level was decreased in PPAR-γ promoter in high-fructose group but elevated when intake with low concentration alcohol. The binding levels of histone deacetylase SIRT1 were increased in the same region in high-fructose group, while the low concentration alcohol can prevent the increased binding levels. Overall, our study indicates that low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit high-fructose related myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac mitochondria damaged and disorders of glucose-lipid metabolism. Furthermore, these findings also provide new insights into histone acetylation-deacetylation mechanisms of low-concentration alcohol treatment that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease induced by high-fructose

  3. Thermoinactivation Mechanism of Glucose Isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leng Hong; Saville, Bradley A.

    In this article, the mechanisms of thermoinactivation of glucose isomerase (GI) from Streptomyces rubiginosus (in soluble and immobilized forms) were investigated, particularly the contributions of thiol oxidation of the enzyme's cysteine residue and a "Maillard-like" reaction between the enzyme and sugars in high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Soluble GI (SGI) was successfully immobilized on silica gel (13.5 μm particle size), with an activity yield between 20 and 40%. The immobilized GI (IGI) has high enzyme retention on the support during the glucose isomerization process. In batch reactors, SGI (half-life =145 h) was more stable than IGI (half-life=27 h) at 60°C in HFCS, whereas at 80°C, IGI (half-life=12 h) was more stable than SGI (half-life=5.2 h). IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 60°C, which contributed to the enzyme's deactivation. IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 80°C, but this did not contribute to the deactivation of the enzyme. SGI did not undergo thiol oxidation at 60°C, but at 80°C SGI underwent severe precipitation and thiol oxidation, which caused the enzyme to deactivate. Experimental results show that immobilization suppresses the destablizing effect of thiol oxidation on GI. A "Maillard-like" reaction between SGI and the sugars also caused SGI thermoinactivation at 60, 70, and 80°C, but had minimal effect on IGI. At 60 and 80°C, IGI had higher thermostability in continuous reactors than in batch reactors, possibily because of reduced contact with deleterious compounds in HFCS.

  4. High fat, high fructose, high cholesterol feeding causes severe NASH and cecal microbiota dysbiosis in juvenile Ossabaw swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female Ossabaw swine (5 weeks old) were fed WD (43.0% fat; 17.8% high fructose corn syrup; 2% cholesterol) or low-fat diet (CON/lean; 10.5% fat) for 16 wks (n=6 each) or 36 wks (n=4 each). WD-fed pigs developed obesity, dyslipidemia, and systemic insulin resistance compared with CON pigs. In additio...

  5. High Dietary Fructose: Direct or Indirect Dangerous Factors Disturbing Tissue and Organ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High dietary fructose is a major contributor to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, disturbing tissue and organ functions. Fructose is mainly absorbed into systemic circulation by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 and GLUT5, and metabolized in liver to produce glucose, lactate, triglyceride (TG, free fatty acid (FFA, uric acid (UA and methylglyoxal (MG. Its extrahepatic absorption and metabolism also take place. High levels of these metabolites are the direct dangerous factors. During fructose metabolism, ATP depletion occurs and induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, disturbing functions of local tissues and organs to overproduce inflammatory cytokine, adiponectin, leptin and endotoxin, which act as indirect dangerous factors. Fructose and its metabolites directly and/or indirectly cause oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, autophagy and increased intestinal permeability, and then further aggravate the metabolic syndrome with tissue and organ dysfunctions. Therefore, this review addresses fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, and the disturbance effects of direct and/or indirect dangerous factors on the functions of liver, adipose, pancreas islet, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart, brain and small intestine. It is important to find the potential correlations between direct and/or indirect risk factors and healthy problems under excess dietary fructose consumption.

  6. Fructose and sorbitol malabsorption in ambulatory patients with functional dyspepsia: comparison with lactose maldigestion/malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, D; Sablauskas, L; Yalovsky, M; Mishkin, S

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to study sugar maldigestion/malabsorption in patients with functional dyspepsia using H2 breath testing. End-expiratory breath H2 after separate challenges with lactose (25 g), fructose (25 g), and sorbitol (5 g) were used to determine malabsorption, as well as small bowel transit time (SBTT). Five hundred twenty patients with functional dyspepsia received all three challenges. Smaller groups were also tested after lactulose (10 g, N = 36) and glucose (50 g, N = 90) challenges. Fructose and sorbitol were closely linked with respect to absorption and malabsorption status. Only in the case of lactose maldigestion/malabsorption was there a greater than random prevalence of malabsorption (P fructose and sorbitol. In contrast to lactose, ethnic origin did not influence fructose or sorbitol malabsorption, and females predominated among fructose and sorbitol malabsorbers. In Jews, the prevalence of lactose maldigestion/malabsorption decreased in the age group of 25-55 and subsequently rose after 55, while fructose and sorbitol malabsorption decreased progressively with advancing age. With respect to small bowel transit time (SBTT), in the case of sorbitol and lactulose, it was significantly greater (P fructose and lactose. Multiple sugar malabsorptions are common when lactose maldigestion/malabsorption is present.

  7. Effect of nonabsorbed amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture on small intestinal transit in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jan L; Linnet, Jan; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Although malabsorption of small amounts of fructose-sorbitol mixtures occurs frequently in healthy humans, insights into their effects on gastrointestinal motility are poor. The present study addresses the hypothesis that malabsorption of a fructose-sorbitol challenge changes the small intestinal transit rate. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind crossover investigation. In random order, the subjects ingested 30 g glucose or a mixture of 25 g fructose and 5 g sorbitol as 10% solutions. As a radiolabeled marker, (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was added to each test solution. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations and gastrointestinal progress of the radiolabeled marker were followed for the next 6-hr period. Malabsorption of small amounts of the fructose-sorbitol mixture was evident in all subjects. The area under the gastric radioactivity-time curve after ingestion of glucose did not differ from that after ingestion of the fructose-sorbitol mixture (P = 0.7897). However, the mouth-to-cecum transit of the radiolabeled marker was faster (P = 0.0033) and the percentage content of the marker in colon was higher after ingestion of the fructose-sorbitol mixture than after ingestion of glucose (P = 0.0128). In healthy humans, malabsorption of small amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture accelerates small bowel transit.

  8. Protective Effects of Withania somnifera Root on Inflammatory Markers and Insulin Resistance in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Samadi Noshahr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera root (WS on insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in fructose-fed rats. Methods: Forty-eight Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12; Group I as control, Group II as sham-treated with WS by 62.5mg/g per diet, Group III fructose-fed rats received 10%W/V fructose, and Group IV fructose- and WS-fed rats. After eight weeks blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in sera. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were all significantly greater in the fructose-fed rats than in the controls. Treatment with WS significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited the fructose-induced increases in glucose, insulin, HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α. Conclusion: Our data suggest that WS normalizes hyperglycemia in fructose-fed rats by reducing inflammatory markers and improving insulin sensitivity.

  9. Post-Gastric Bypass Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia: Fructose is a Carbohydrate Which Can Be Safely Consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantle, Anne E; Wang, Qi; Bantle, John P

    2015-08-01

    Postprandial hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery is a serious problem. Available treatments are often ineffective. The objective was to test the hypotheses that injection of rapid-acting insulin before a high-carbohydrate meal or replacement of other carbohydrates with fructose in the meal would prevent hypoglycemia. This was a randomized, crossover trial comparing a high-carbohydrate meal with premeal saline injection (control), a high-carbohydrate meal with premeal insulin injection, and a high-fructose meal with total carbohydrate content similar to the control meal. The setting was an academic medical center. Ten patients with post-gastric bypass hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia participated. Interventions included lispro insulin injected before test meals and replacement of other carbohydrates with fructose in test meals. The main outcome measure was plasma glucose meals. After the control meal, mean peak glucose and insulin were 173 ± 47 mg/dL and 134 ± 55 mU/L, respectively; mean glucose nadir was 44 ± 15 mg/dL; and eight of 10 subjects demonstrated glucose meal, mean peak postprandial glucose and insulin were 117 ± 20 mg/dL and 45 ± 31 mU/L, respectively (both P meal sweetened with fructose with little risk of hypoglycemia. Treatment with rapid-acting insulin before a carbohydrate-containing meal did not prevent hypoglycemia.

  10. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose and surcose in types I and II diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bantle, J.P.; Laine, D.C.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    To learn more about the metabolic effects of dietary fructose and sucrose, 12 type 1 and 12 type II diabetic subjects were fed three isocaloric (or isoenergic) diets for eight days each according to a randomized, crossover design. The three diets provided, respectively, 21% of the energy as fructose, 23% of the energy as sucrose, and almost all carbohydrate energy as starch. The fructose diet resulted in significantly lower one- and two-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels, overall mean plasma glucose levels, and urinary glucose excretion in both type I and type II subjects than did the starch diet. There were no significant differences between the sucrose and starch diets in any of the measures of glycemic control in either subject group. The fructose and sucrose diets did not significantly increase serum triglyceride values when compared with the starch diet, but both increased postprandial serum lactate levels. The authors conclude that short-term replacement of other carbohydrate sources in the diabetic diet with fructose will improve glycemic control, whereas replacement with sucrose will not aggravate glycemic control

  11. Co-expression of D-glucose isomerase and D-psicose 3-epimerase: development of an efficient one-step production of D-psicose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Yan; Zhu, Yueming; Zeng, Yan; Izumori, Ken; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-10-01

    D-Psicose has been attracting attention in recent years because of its alimentary activities and is used as an ingredient in a range of foods and dietary supplements. To develop a one-step enzymatic process of D-psicose production, thermoactive D-glucose isomerase and the D-psicose 3-epimerase obtained from Bacillus sp. and Ruminococcus sp., respectively, were successfully co-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The substrate of one-step enzymatic process was D-glucose. The co-expression system exhibited maximum activity at 65 °C and pH 7.0. Mg(2+) could enhance the output of D-psicose by 2.32 fold to 1.6 g/L from 10 g/L of D-glucose. When using high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as substrate, 135 g/L D-psicose was produced under optimum conditions. The mass ratio of D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-psicose was almost 3.0:2.7:1.0, when the reaction reached equilibrium after an 8h incubation time. This co-expression system approaching to produce D-psicose has potential application in food and beverage products, especially softdrinks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of high-fructose intake in rats with nitric oxide deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemančíková Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of nitric oxide (NO system damage in the deleterious effects of high-fructose intake in rats. Fructose was administered as 10% solution in drinking water to twelve-week-old male Wistar rats for the period of 8 weeks. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. After sacrificing the rats at the end of the treatment, relative weights of heart and liver and biochemical parameters in blood plasma were determined. Reactivity of isolated conduit arteries was measured using a force-displacement transducer for recording isometric tension. Fructose drinking rats had increased blood pressure and impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the thoracic aorta in comparison with control rats drinking just tap water. Relative liver weight and plasma concentrations of glucose and triglycerides were also elevated after fructose administration. In a further group of Wistar rats, inhibition of NO production by administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day was performed throughout fructose intake. L-NAME treatment itself induces increase in blood pressure and relative heart weight as well as impairment in arterial relaxation and contractility. However, in these rats, fructose administration did not cause further elevation of blood pressure and other abnormalities observed in rats receiving fructose without L-NAME. Our results showed that in the state of NO deficiency (induced by L-NAME administration fructose does not induce cardiovascular and metabolic alterations which develop in rats with a functional NO system. This indicates that impairment of the NO system may participate in many of the adverse effects induced by high-fructose intake.

  13. Docosahexaenoic Acid Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hepatic Steatosis Involving ER Stress Response in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

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    Jinying Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in fructose consumption is considered to be a risk factor for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on hepatic lipid metabolism in fructose-treated primary mouse hepatocytes, and the changes of Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress pathways in response to DHA treatment. The hepatocytes were treated with fructose, DHA, fructose plus DHA, tunicamycin (TM or fructose plus 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA for 24 h. Intracellular triglyceride (TG accumulation was assessed by Oil Red O staining. The mRNA expression levels and protein levels related to lipid metabolism and ER stress response were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. Fructose treatment led to obvious TG accumulation in primary hepatocytes through increasing expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, two key enzymes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. DHA ameliorates fructose-induced TG accumulation by upregulating the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT-1α and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1. DHA treatment or pretreatment with the ER stress inhibitor PBA significantly decreased TG accumulation and reduced the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, total inositol-requiring kinase 1 (IRE1α and p-IRE1α. The present results suggest that DHA protects against high fructose-induced hepatocellular lipid accumulation. The current findings also suggest that alleviating the ER stress response seems to play a role in the prevention of fructose-induced hepatic steatosis by DHA.

  14. Progressive Induction of Type 2 Diabetes: Effects of a Reality-Like Fructose Enriched Diet in Young Wistar Rats.

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    Julie Dupas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize short and medium-lasting effects of fructose supplementation on young Wistar rats. The diet was similar to actual human consumption.Three week old male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 16, fructose fed (FF; n = 16 with a fructose enriched drink for 6 or 12 weeks. Bodyweight, fasting glycemia and systolic blood pressure were monitored. Glucose tolerance was evaluated using an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulinemia was measured concomitantly and enable us to calculate insulin resistance markers (HOMA-IR, Insulin Sensitivity Index for glycemia: ISI-gly. Blood chemistry analyses were performed.After six weeks of fructose supplementation, rats were not overweight but presented increased fasting glycemia, reduced glucose tolerance, and lower insulin sensitivity compared to control group. Systolic blood pressure and heart weight were also increased without any change in renal function (theoretical creatinine clearance. After twelve weeks of fructose supplementation, FF rats had increased bodyweight and presented insulin resistance (higher HOMA-IR, lower ISI-gly. Rats also presented higher heart volume and lower ASAT/ALAT ratio (presumed liver lesion. Surprisingly, the Total Cholesterol/Triglycerides ratio was increased only after six weeks of fructose supplementation, predicting a higher LDL presence and thus a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This risk was no longer present after twelve weeks of a fructose enriched diet.On young Wistar rats, six weeks of fructose supplementation is sufficient to induce signs of metabolic syndrome. After twelve weeks of fructose enriched diet, rats are insulin resistant. This model enabled us to study longitudinally the early development of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Fructose, trehalose and sorbitol malabsorption.

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    Montalto, M; Gallo, A; Ojetti, V; Gasbarrini, A

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate malabsorption is a frequent clinical condition, often associated with abdominal symptoms. Although lactose represents the most commonly malabsorbed sugar, also other carbohydrates, such as fructose, trehalose and sorbitol may be incorrectly absorbed in the small intestine. Fructose malabsorption seems more common in patients with functional bowel disease, even if randomized and controlled studies on these topic were few and on small samples. Interpretation of breath hydrogen testing is difficult. In particular, neither studies comparing this test with a gold standard, nor validated doses and concentrations to be used, are available. Trehalose malabsorption due to trehalase deficiency represents a very rare condition and available studies do not support its relevance in clinical practice. Sorbitol absorption is dose and concentration related, and depends on the entity of intestinal absorption surface. Nevertheless, the finding of its malabsorption is not expression of a specific cause of intestinal bowel damage. From available data, it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about clinical relevance of fructose, trehalose and sorbitol malabsorption, as well as, about diagnostic accuracy of commonly used tests to detect all these conditions. On the other hand, in patients who refer abdominal discomfort after ingestion of different carbohydrate-containing foods, a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, should be promptly considered. This is because the large amount of intestinal bacteria may unspecifically ferment sugars, causing an abnormal H2 production and consequently a misleading diagnosis of sugar malabsorption.

  16. Spirulina vesicolor Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Attenuates Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

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    Walaa Hozayen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina vesicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. vesicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. vesicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 57-64

  17. Ffz1, a new transporter specific for fructose from Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

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    Pina, Carlos; Gonçalves, Paula; Prista, Catarina; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C

    2004-07-01

    The basis of fructophily in the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii has been shown to reside in the performance of transport systems for hexoses. In this study, a gene encoding a fructose-specific transporter was characterized. The strategy involved the functional complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that does not take up hexoses (hxt-null strain). This strain was transformed with a genomic library of Z. bailii. One transformant capable of growing on fructose, but not on glucose, was obtained. This transformant did not transport d-[(14)C]glucose, and the kinetic parameters for d-[(14)C]fructose were V(max)=3.3 mmol h(-1) g(-1) and K(m)=80.4 mM. As in the original strain of Z. bailii, fructose uptake was not inhibited by the presence of other hexoses or uranyl. The plasmid responsible for the observed phenotype was found to carry an ORF encoding a 616 amino acid protein with the characteristics of a membrane transporter, which was designated FFZ1 (fructose facilitator Zygosaccharomyces). The impairment in function observed in an S. cerevisiae transformant expressing a truncated Ffz1 protein lacking 67 amino acids at the C-terminus suggests an important role for this terminal part in the proper structure of the transporter.

  18. Promotion by phosphate of Fe(III)- and Cu(II)-catalyzed autoxidation of fructose.

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    Lawrence, Glen D; Mavi, Ahmet; Meral, Kadem

    2008-03-17

    Although the oxidative destruction of glucose and fructose has been studied by several investigators over the past century, the mechanism by which phosphate promotes these oxidation reactions is not known. A wide range of oxidation products have been used to monitor the oxidation of sugars and free radicals have been shown to be involved. The influence of phosphate concentration on the rate of production of free radicals and several sugar oxidation products has been studied. It was found that fructose is much more susceptible to autoxidation than glucose, galactose, or sucrose. The promotion of sugar oxidation by phosphate was found to be iron dependent. Addition of the iron chelators, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and desferrioxamine completely suppressed the oxidation reactions, even at high concentrations of phosphate. Formaldehyde was positively identified as a product of fructose oxidation by HPLC analysis of its acetylacetone adduct. A mechanism is proposed in which phosphate cleaves the oxo bridges of the iron(III)-fructose complex, based on UV spectral analysis and magnetic susceptibility measurements, and thereby catalyzes the autoxidation of fructose.

  19. Exercise Training Prevents Cardiovascular Derangements Induced by Fructose Overload in Developing Rats.

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    Daniela Farah

    Full Text Available The risks of chronic diseases associated with the increasing consumption of fructose-laden foods are amplified by the lack of regular physical activity and have become a serious public health issue worldwide. Moreover, childhood eating habits are strongly related to metabolic syndrome in adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the preventive role of exercise training undertaken concurrently with a high fructose diet on cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in male rats after weaning. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group: Sedentary control (SC, Trained control (TC, Sedentary Fructose (SF and Trained Fructose (TF. Training was performed on a treadmill (8 weeks, 40-60% of maximum exercise test. Evaluations of cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in plasma and in left ventricle (LV were performed. Chronic fructose overload induced glucose intolerance and an increase in white adipose tissue (WAT weight, in myocardial performance index (MPI (SF:0.42±0.04 vs. SC:0.24±0.05 and in arterial pressure (SF:122±3 vs. SC:113±1 mmHg associated with increased cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. Fructose also induced unfavorable changes in oxidative stress profile (plasmatic protein oxidation- SF:3.30±0.09 vs. SC:1.45±0.08 nmol/mg prot; and LV total antioxidant capacity (TRAP- SF: 2.5±0.5 vs. SC:12.7±1.7 uM trolox. The TF group showed reduced WAT, glucose intolerance, MPI (0.35±0.04, arterial pressure (118±2mmHg, sympathetic modulation, plasmatic protein oxidation and increased TRAP when compared to SF group. Therefore, our findings indicate that cardiometabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose overload early in life may be prevented by moderate aerobic exercise training.

  20. Exercise Training Prevents Cardiovascular Derangements Induced by Fructose Overload in Developing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Daniela; Nunes, Jonas; Sartori, Michelle; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Sirvente, Raquel; Silva, Maikon B.; Fiorino, Patrícia; Morris, Mariana; Llesuy, Susana; Farah, Vera; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2016-01-01

    The risks of chronic diseases associated with the increasing consumption of fructose-laden foods are amplified by the lack of regular physical activity and have become a serious public health issue worldwide. Moreover, childhood eating habits are strongly related to metabolic syndrome in adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the preventive role of exercise training undertaken concurrently with a high fructose diet on cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in male rats after weaning. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group): Sedentary control (SC), Trained control (TC), Sedentary Fructose (SF) and Trained Fructose (TF). Training was performed on a treadmill (8 weeks, 40–60% of maximum exercise test). Evaluations of cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in plasma and in left ventricle (LV) were performed. Chronic fructose overload induced glucose intolerance and an increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, in myocardial performance index (MPI) (SF:0.42±0.04 vs. SC:0.24±0.05) and in arterial pressure (SF:122±3 vs. SC:113±1 mmHg) associated with increased cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. Fructose also induced unfavorable changes in oxidative stress profile (plasmatic protein oxidation- SF:3.30±0.09 vs. SC:1.45±0.08 nmol/mg prot; and LV total antioxidant capacity (TRAP)- SF: 2.5±0.5 vs. SC:12.7±1.7 uM trolox). The TF group showed reduced WAT, glucose intolerance, MPI (0.35±0.04), arterial pressure (118±2mmHg), sympathetic modulation, plasmatic protein oxidation and increased TRAP when compared to SF group. Therefore, our findings indicate that cardiometabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose overload early in life may be prevented by moderate aerobic exercise training. PMID:27930685

  1. Free radical scavenging reverses fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension

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    Zenner ZP

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary P Zenner, Kevin L Gordish, William H Beierwaltes Department of Internal Medicine, Hypertension and Vascular Research Division, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: We have previously reported that a moderate dietary supplementation of 20% fructose but not glucose leads to a salt-sensitive hypertension related to increased proximal sodium–hydrogen exchanger activity and increased renal sodium retention. We also found that while high salt increased renal nitric oxide formation, this was retarded in the presence of fructose intake. We hypothesized that at least part of the pathway leading to fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension could be due to fructose-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and inappropriate stimulation of renin secretion, all of which would contribute to an increase in blood pressure. We found that both 20% fructose intake and a high-salt diet stimulated 8-isoprostane excretion. The superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic tempol significantly reduced this elevated excretion. Next, we placed rats on a high-salt diet (4% for 1 week in combination with normal rat chow or 20% fructose with or without chronic tempol administration. A fructose plus high-salt diet induced a rapid increase (15 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and reversed high salt suppression of plasma renin activity. Tempol treatment reversed the pressor response and restored high salt suppression of renin. We conclude that fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension is driven by increased renal reactive oxygen species formation associated with salt retention and an enhanced renin–angiotensin system. Keywords: reactive oxygen species, tempol, sodium, renin, oxidative stress

  2. Produção de xaropes de glicose e de fructose a partir de amido de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)usando enzimas produzidas por microorganismos isolados do solo de Cerrado Brasileiro

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    Silva, Roberto do Nascimento; Quintino, Fábio Pereira; Monteiro, Valdirene Neves; Asquieri, Eduardo Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    The high demands for sugars and the development of enzymatic technology have increased the production of sweeteners, especially for glucose and fructose syrups. This work describe a technology for glucose and fructose syrups from Brazilian cassava starch using enzymes produced by soil microrganisms isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado soil. Firstly, Aspergillus niger and Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the soil and used as glucoamylase (GA) and glucose isomerase (GI) producer sources. Afte...

  3. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age

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    Michael I. Goran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother–infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively. Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02, 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01, 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05, and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03. In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  4. Effects of fructose and graded levels of vanadate on insulin action and lipogenesis in fasted and refed rats

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    Pointer, R.H.; Mislo, B.S.; Basi, N.S.; Blakely, S.R. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States) Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study investigated the effects of fructose and vanadate on the conversion of glucose to CO{sub 2} and to lipid in fasted and refed rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 150 g were fasted three days and refed three days a diet containing either glucose (GLU) or fructose (FRU) at 27% (w/w) with sodium orthovanadate at 0 (control), 25 (VO{sub 4}1) and 50 (VO{sub 4}2) mg/kg of diet. Glucose oxidation was measured by incubating epididymal adipocytes in buffer, pH 2.4, containing 0.5 mM D(U-{sup 14}C)glucose and entrapping the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} on hyamine hydroxide impregnated filter paper. {sup 14}C-Lipids were extracted with Dole's Mixture. FRU caused a higher rate of basal glucose oxidation to CO{sub 2} than GLU feeding. Basal glucose oxidation to CO{sub 2} was enhanced in a dose-related fashion by GLU-VO{sub 4}, but greatly inhibited by FRU-VO{sub 4} treatments. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose conversion to lipid was inhibited by VO{sub 4} irrespective of fructose. VO{sub 4} also resulted in the inhibition of hepatic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme activities. These results suggest that the insulin-mimetic aspect of vanadate in stimulating glucose oxidation to CO{sub 2} is removed by fructose and that vanadate inhibits lipogenesis irrespective of fructose.

  5. Reduced susceptibility of tomato stem to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is associated with a specific adjustment of fructose content in the host sugar pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, François; Nicot, Philippe C; Ripoll, Julie; Abro, Manzoor A; Raimbault, Astrid K; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Bertin, Nadia

    2017-03-01

    Plant soluble sugars, as main components of primary metabolism, are thought to be implicated in defence against pathogenic fungi. However, the function of sucrose and hexoses remains unclear. This study aimed to identify robust patterns in the dynamics of soluble sugars in sink tissues of tomato plants during the course of infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea . Distinct roles for glucose and fructose in defence against B. cinerea were hypothesized. We examined sugar contents and defence hormonal markers in tomato stem tissues before and after infection by B. cinerea , in a range of abiotic environments created by various nitrogen and water supplies. Limited nitrogen or water supplies increased tomato stem susceptibility to B. cinerea . Glucose and fructose contents of tissues surrounding infection sites evolved differently after inoculation. The fructose content never decreased after inoculation with B. cinerea , while that of glucose showed either positive or negative variation, depending on the abiotic environment. An increase in the relative fructose content (defined as the proportion of fructose in the soluble sugar pool) was observed in the absence of glucose accumulation and was associated with lower susceptibility. A lower expression of the salicylic acid marker PR1a , and a lower repression of a jasmonate marker COI1 were associated with reduced susceptibility. Accordingly, COI1 expression was positively correlated with the relative fructose contents 7 d after infection. Small variations of fructose content among the sugar pool are unlikely to affect intrinsic pathogen growth. Our results highlight distinct use of host glucose and fructose after infection by B. cinerea and suggest strongly that adjustment of the relative fructose content is required for enhanced plant defence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  6. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

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    Akram Ahangarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI, serum triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, alanin trasaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.

  7. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

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    Ahangarpour, Akram; Mohammadian, Maryam; Dianat, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanin trasaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined. Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP. Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:23115450

  8. Activation of Kupffer Cells Is Associated with a Specific Dysbiosis Induced by Fructose or High Fat Diet in Mice.

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    Ferrere, Gladys; Leroux, Anne; Wrzosek, Laura; Puchois, Virginie; Gaudin, Françoise; Ciocan, Dragos; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Naveau, Sylvie; Perlemuter, Gabriel; Cassard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The increase consumption of fructose in diet is associated with liver inflammation. As a specific fructan substrate, fructose may modify the gut microbiota which is involved in obesity-induced liver disease. Here, we aimed to assess whether fructose-induced liver damage was associated with a specific dysbiosis, especially in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). To this end, four groups of mice were fed with normal and HFD added or not with fructose. Body weight and glucose sensitivity, liver inflammation, dysbiosis and the phenotype of Kupffer cells were determined after 16 weeks of diet. Food intake was increased in the two groups of mice fed with the HFD. Mice fed with HFD and fructose showed a higher infiltration of lymphocytes into the liver and a lower inflammatory profile of Kupffer cells than mice fed with the HFD without fructose. The dysbiosis associated with diets showed that fructose specifically prevented the decrease of Mouse intestinal bacteria in HFD fed mice and increased Erysipelotrichi in mice fed with fructose, independently of the amount of fat. In conclusion, fructose, used as a sweetener, induced a dysbiosis which is different in presence of fat in the diet. Consequently, the activation of Kupffer cells involved in mice model of HFD-induced liver inflammation was not observed in an HFD/fructose combined diet. These data highlight that the complexity of diet composition could highly impact the development of liver lesions during obesity. Specific dysbiosis associated with the diet could explain that the progressions of liver damage are different.

  9. Effect of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) in diet on some biochemical parameters and essential elements in blood of high fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bartoń, Henryk; Chłopicka, Joanna; Gorinstein, Shela

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Chenopodium quinoa seeds on lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) level was determined in high-fructose fed male Wistar rats. Fructose decreased significantly LDL [42%, pquinoa indicated, that these seeds effectively reduced serum total cholesterol [26%, pQuinoa seeds also significantly reduced the level of glucose [10%, pquinoa seeds were added into the diet the decrease of HDL level was inhibited. Quinoa seeds did not prevent any adverse effect of increasing triglyceride level caused by fructose. It was shown in this study that quinoa seeds can reduce most of the adverse effects exerted by fructose on lipid profile and glucose level.

  10. Dual probiotic strains suppress high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Young; Ahn, Young-Tae; Huh, Chul-Sung; McGregor, Robin A; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2013-01-14

    To investigate the effect of novel probiotics on the clinical characteristics of high-fructose induced metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats aged 4 wk were fed a 70% w/w high-fructose diet (n = 27) or chow diet (n = 9) for 3 wk to induce metabolic syndrome, the rats were then randomized into groups and administered probiotic [Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KY1032] at 10(9) cfu/d or 10(10) cfu/d or placebo by oral gavage for 3 wk. Food intake and body weight were measured once a week. After 6 wk, the rats were fasted for 12 h, then anesthetized with diethyl ether and sacrificed. Blood samples were taken from the inferior vena cava for plasma analysis of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, total-cholesterol, triglycerides and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed using mouse-specific Taqman probe sets to assess genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation, lipogenesis and cholesterol metabolism in the liver. Target gene expression was normalized to the housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Rodents fed a high-fructose diet developed clinical characteristics of the metabolic syndrome including increased plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and oxidative stress levels, as well as increased liver mass and liver lipids compared to chow fed controls. Probiotic treatment (L. curvatus HY7601 and L. plantarum KY1032) at high (10(10) cfu/d) or low dosage (10(9) cfu/d) lowered plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides and oxidative stress levels. Only high-dose probiotic treatment reduced liver mass and liver cholesterol. Probiotic treatment reduced lipogenesis via down-regulation of SREBP1, FAS and SCD1 mRNA levels and increased β-oxidation via up-regulation of PPARα and CPT2 mRNA levels. Probiotic L. curvatus HY7601 and L. plantarum KY1032 combined suppressed the clinical characteristics of high-fructose-induced metabolic syndrome

  11. High liver glycogen in hereditary fructose intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, A. R. R.; Ryman, Brenda E.

    1971-01-01

    A case of hereditary fructose intolerance is reported in a girl aged 2 years at the time of her death. She had apparently progressed normally until the age of 14 months. At 19 months she was admitted to hospital with failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, and superficial infections. Investigations revealed hypoglycaemia, persistent acidosis, aminoaciduria, and a high liver glycogen level which suggested that she had glycogen storage disease. There was also some evidence of malabsorption. At necropsy the liver enzyme estimations showed that fructose 1-phosphate aldolase activity was absent and that fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase activity was reduced. Hereditary fructose intolerance and glycogen storage disease have been confused in the past on clinical grounds, but a high liver glycogen level has not previously been reported in hereditary fructose intolerance. PMID:5289293

  12. Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards. Design: A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R2>0.99), accuracy (94–104% recovery) and precision (RSDbeverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The difference in fructose measurements between laboratories was significant but small (0.1%), and lacked relevance. Differences in fructose by product category or by product age were not statistically significant. Total sugars content of carbonated beverages showed close agreement within product categories (95% confidence interval=0.01–0.54%). Conclusions: Using verified analytical methodology for HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages, this study confirmed the hypothesis that fructose as a percentage of total sugars is in close agreement with published specifications in industry technical data sheets, published literature values and governmental standards and requirements. Furthermore, total sugars content of commercial beverages is consistent with common industry practices for canned and bottled products and met the US Federal requirements for nutritional labeling and nutrient claims. Prior concerns about composition were likely owing to use of improper and unverified methodology. PMID

  13. Selective fermentation of pitted dates by S. cerevisiae for the production of concentrated fructose syrups and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putra, Meilana Dharma; Abasaeed, Ahmed E; Zeinelabdeen, Mohamed A; Gaily, Mohamed H; Sulieman, Ashraf K

    2014-01-01

    About half of worldwide production of dates is unconsumed. Dates contain over 75 % reduced sugars (mostly glucose and fructose with nearly equal amount). Compared to the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild strain, the strains ATCC 36858 and 36859 could produce high concentration fructose syrups. The fructose fractions obtained were 95.9 and 97.4% for ATCC 36858 and 86.5 and 91.4% for ATCC 36859 at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Fructose yields higher than 90% were obtained using ATCC 36858 compared to those obtained using ATCC 36859 which were 87.3 and 66.1% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. The ethanol yield using ATCC 36858 was higher than that using ATCC 36859 by 16 and 9% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Through this finding, the production of fructose and ethanol from date extract is a promising process. Moreover, the fructose fractions obtained here (about 90%) are much higher than those obtained with the commercial process, i.e. 55 % fructose syrups.

  14. Selective fermentation of pitted dates by S. cerevisiae for the production of concentrated fructose syrups and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma Putra, Meilana; Abasaeed, Ahmed E.; Zeinelabdeen, Mohamed A.; Gaily, Mohamed H.; Sulieman, Ashraf K.

    2014-04-01

    About half of worldwide production of dates is unconsumed. Dates contain over 75 % reduced sugars (mostly glucose and fructose with nearly equal amount). Compared to the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild strain, the strains ATCC 36858 and 36859 could produce high concentration fructose syrups. The fructose fractions obtained were 95.9 and 97.4% for ATCC 36858 and 86.5 and 91.4% for ATCC 36859 at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Fructose yields higher than 90% were obtained using ATCC 36858 compared to those obtained using ATCC 36859 which were 87.3 and 66.1% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. The ethanol yield using ATCC 36858 was higher than that using ATCC 36859 by 16 and 9% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Through this finding, the production of fructose and ethanol from date extract is a promising process. Moreover, the fructose fractions obtained here (about 90%) are much higher than those obtained with the commercial process, i.e. 55 % fructose syrups.

  15. ZrFsy1, a high-affinity fructose/H+ symporter from fructophilic yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Leandro

    Full Text Available Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a fructophilic yeast than can grow at very high sugar concentrations. We have identified an ORF encoding a putative fructose/H(+ symporter in the Z. rouxii CBS 732 genome database. Heterologous expression of this ORF in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking its own hexose transporters (hxt-null and subsequent kinetic characterization of its sugar transport activity showed it is a high-affinity low-capacity fructose/H(+ symporter, with Km 0.45 ± 0.07 mM and Vmax 0.57 ± 0.02 mmol h(-1 (gdw(-1. We named it ZrFsy1. This protein also weakly transports xylitol and sorbose, but not glucose or other hexoses. The expression of ZrFSY1 in Z. rouxii is higher when the cells are cultivated at extremely low fructose concentrations (<0.2% and on non-fermentable carbon sources such as mannitol and xylitol, where the cells have a prolonged lag phase, longer duplication times and change their microscopic morphology. A clear phenotype was determined for the first time for the deletion of a fructose/H(+ symporter in the genome where it occurs naturally. The effect of the deletion of ZrFSY1 in Z. rouxii cells is only evident when the cells are cultivated at very low fructose concentrations, when the ZrFsy1 fructose symporter is the main active fructose transporter system.

  16. Urinary fructose: a potential biomarker for dietary fructose intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, S A; Libuda, L; Shi, L; Retzlaff, A; Joslowski, G; Remer, T

    2010-11-01

    Recently, urinary fructose and sucrose excretion in 24-h urine have been established experimentally as new biomarkers for dietary sugar intake in adults. Our objective was to investigate 1) whether the fructose biomarker is also applicable in free-living children and 2) for what kind of sugar it is standing for. Intakes of added and total sugar (including additional sugar from fruit and fruit juices) were assessed by 3-day weighed dietary records in 114 healthy prepubertal children; corresponding 24-h urinary fructose excretion was measured photometrically. The associations between dietary sugar intakes and urinary fructose excretion were examined using linear regression models. To determine whether one of the two sugar variables may be better associated with the urinary biomarker, the statistical Pitman's test was used. Added and total sugar correlated significantly with urinary fructose, but the linear regression indicated a weak association between intake of added sugar and urinary log-fructose excretion (β=0.0026, R(2)=0.055, P=0.01). The association between total sugar intake and log-urinary fructose (β=0.0040, R(2)=0.181, Pestimation of total sugar intake than for the estimation of added dietary sugar intake in children. However, as excreted fructose stems almost exclusively from the diet (both from food-intrinsic and added intakes), it can be assumed that urinary fructose represents a potential biomarker for total dietary fructose intake, irrespective of its source.

  17. Effect of nonabsorbed amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture on small intestinal transit in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L; Linnet, Jan; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Although malabsorption of small amounts of fructose-sorbitol mixtures occurs frequently in healthy humans, insights into their effects on gastrointestinal motility are poor. The present study addresses the hypothesis that malabsorption of a fructose-sorbitol challenge changes the small intestinal...... solution. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations and gastrointestinal progress of the radiolabeled marker were followed for the next 6-hr period. Malabsorption of small amounts of the fructose-sorbitol mixture was evident in all subjects. The area under the gastric radioactivity-time curve after...... than after ingestion of glucose (P = 0.0128). In healthy humans, malabsorption of small amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture accelerates small bowel transit....

  18. Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: Are Fructose-Containing Sugars More Involved Than Other Dietary Calories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Robin; Surowska, Anna; Tappy, Luc

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing concern that sugar consumption may be linked to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. There is indeed strong evidence that consumption of energy-dense sugary beverages and foods is associated with increased energy intake and body weight gain over time. It is further proposed that the fructose component of sugars may exert specific deleterious effects due to its propension to stimulate hepatic glucose production and de novo lipogenesis. Excess fructose and energy intake may be associated with visceral obesity, intrahepatic fat accumulation, and high fasting and postprandial blood triglyceride concentrations. Additional effects of fructose on blood uric acid and sympathetic nervous system activity have also been reported, but their link with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases remains hypothetical. There is growing evidence that fructose at physiologically consumed doses may exert important effects on kidney function. Whether this is related to the development of high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases remains to be further assessed.

  19. Production of 5-ketofructose from fructose or sucrose using genetically modified Gluconobacter oxydans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemen, Anna; Kosciow, Konrad; Schweiger, Paul; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2018-02-01

    The growing consumer demand for low-calorie, sugar-free foodstuff motivated us to search for alternative non-nutritive sweeteners. A promising sweet-tasting compound is 5-keto-D-fructose (5-KF), which is formed by membrane-bound fructose dehydrogenases (Fdh) in some Gluconobacter strains. The plasmid-based expression of the fdh genes in Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans resulted in a much higher Fdh activity in comparison to the native host G. japonicus. Growth experiments with G. oxydans fdh in fructose-containing media indicated that 5-KF was rapidly formed with a conversion efficiency of 90%. 5-KF production from fructose was also observed using resting cells with a yield of about 100%. In addition, a new approach was tested for the production of the sweetener 5-KF by using sucrose as a substrate. To this end, a two-strain system composed of the fdh-expressing strain and a G. oxydans strain that produced the sucrose hydrolyzing SacC was developed. The strains were co-cultured in sucrose medium and converted 92.5% of the available fructose units into 5-KF. The glucose moiety of sucrose was converted to 2-ketogluconate and acetate. With regard to the development of a sustainable and resource-saving process for the production of 5-KF, sugar beet extract was used as substrate for the two-strain system. Fructose as product from sucrose cleavage was mainly oxidized to 5-KF which was detected in a concentration of over 200 mM at the end of the fermentation process. In summary, the two-strain system was able to convert fructose units of sugar beet extract to 5-KF with an efficiency of 82 ± 5%.

  20. Insulin Resistance Induced by a High Fructose Diet in Rats Due to Hepatic Disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A.; Kelada, N.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    High consumption of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Therefore, this experiment was designed to evaluate the role of high fructose diet on metabolic syndrome in rats. The experimental animals were divided into two batches. The control batch received a control diet; the second batch was given a high-fructose diet as the sole source of carbohydrate. The rats were continued on the dietary regimen for 1, 2 and 3 months. After the experimental periods, fructose fed rats groups showed significant elevations in the levels of glucose, insulin sensitivity, liver function tests, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α when compared to their corresponding values in the rats fed normal diet. Moreover, liver lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxide concentrations were remarkably increased in high-fructose-fed rats according to the time of administration (1, 2 and 3 months). On the other hand, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase I and II were significantly declined in this group. In conclusion, high fructose feeding raises liver dysfunction and causes the features of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance) in rats dependent on the time of administration due to different mechanisms which were discussed in this work according to available recent researches

  1. HEREDITARY FRUCTOSE INTOLERANCE – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Brecelj

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism that presents with hypoglicemia, metabolic acidosis and liver decompensation when the patient is exposed to fructose. Diagnosis was established by fructose tolerance test in the past and nowadays mostly by determination of deficient enzyme fructose-1phosphate aldolase (aldolase B activity in hepatic tissue or by molecular genetic means if the mutation is known. Treatment involves elimination (in infants or reduction of fructose and sucrose from the diet and results in improvement in the patient’s clinical status and liver disease.Results. This article presents a patient with hereditary fructose intolerance who was diagnosed 18 years ago on the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Ljubljana Children’s Hospital. At that time oral fructose tolerance test was used to diagnose the disorder. When she was 17 we performed liver biopsy. The enzyme determination showed the absence of aldolase B activity.Conclusions. Only cooperation of different experts enables recognition of rare metabolic disorders which must be prompt to prevent further damage.

  2. Proteomic changes associated with metabolic syndrome in a fructose-fed rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Chu; Liao, Chen-Chung; Liao, Yi-Chun; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Wu, Liang-Yi; Hsieh, Shu-Chen

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by a constellation of disorders such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, is becoming a major global public health problem. Fructose consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades and with it the incidence of MetS. However, its molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we used male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to study the pathological mechanism of fructose induced MetS. The SD rats were fed a 60% high-fructose diet for 16 weeks to induce MetS. The induction of MetS was confirmed by blood biochemistry examination. Proteomics were used to investigate the differential hepatic protein expression patterns between the normal group and the MetS group. Proteomic results revealed that fructose-induced MetS induced changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins were modulated by high-fructose feeding. In summary, our results identify many new targets for future investigation. Further characterization of these proteins and their involvement in the link between insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia may bring new insights into MetS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Proteomic changes associated with metabolic syndrome in a fructose-fed rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chu Hsieh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS, characterized by a constellation of disorders such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, is becoming a major global public health problem. Fructose consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades and with it the incidence of MetS. However, its molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we used male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats to study the pathological mechanism of fructose induced MetS. The SD rats were fed a 60% high-fructose diet for 16 weeks to induce MetS. The induction of MetS was confirmed by blood biochemistry examination. Proteomics were used to investigate the differential hepatic protein expression patterns between the normal group and the MetS group. Proteomic results revealed that fructose-induced MetS induced changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins were modulated by high-fructose feeding. In summary, our results identify many new targets for future investigation. Further characterization of these proteins and their involvement in the link between insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia may bring new insights into MetS.

  4. The effect of high-fat--high-fructose diet on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cigliano, Luisa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect of isoenergetic administration to adult rats of high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet for 2 weeks on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic. Body and skeletal muscle composition, energy balance, plasma lipid profile and glucose tolerance were measured, together with mitochondrial functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. Rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, together with significantly higher plasma glucose and insulin response to glucose load. Skeletal muscle triglycerides and ceramide were significantly higher in rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency and uncoupling protein 3 content were significantly higher, while adenine nucleotide translocase content was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet. The results suggest that a high-fat--high-fructose diet even without hyperphagia is able to increase lipid flow to skeletal muscle and mitochondrial energetic efficiency, with two detrimental effects: (a) energy sparing that contributes to the early onset of obesity and (b) reduced oxidation of fatty acids and lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, which could generate insulin resistance.

  5. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fructose, glucose, and water. It is produced by bees. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and corn syrup ... water, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks. Eat less candy and sweet desserts such as ice ...

  6. Identification of a phosphoenolpyruvate:fructose phosphotransferase system (fructose-1-phosphate forming) in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W J; Reizer, J; Herring, C; Hoischen, C; Saier, M H

    1993-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacterium whose carbohydrate metabolic pathways are poorly understood. We provide evidence for an inducible phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):fructose phosphotransferase system (PTS) in this pathogen. The system consists of enzyme I, HPr, and a fructose-specific enzyme II complex which generates fructose-1-phosphate as the cytoplasmic product of the PTS-catalyzed vectorial phosphorylation reaction. Fructose-1-phosphate kinase then converts the product of the PTS reaction to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. HPr was shown to be phosphorylated by [32P]PEP and enzyme I as well as by [32P]ATP and a fructose-1,6-bisphosphate-activated HPr kinase like those found in other gram-positive bacteria. Enzyme I, HPr, and the enzyme II complex of the Listeria PTS exhibit enzymatic cross-reactivity with PTS enzyme constituents from Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. Genetically Engineered Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Synbiotics Reduce Metabolic Effects Induced by Chronic Consumption of Dietary Fructose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Archana Somabhai

    Full Text Available To assess protective efficacy of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN on metabolic effects induced by chronic consumption of dietary fructose.EcN was genetically modified with fructose dehydrogenase (fdh gene for conversion of fructose to 5-keto-D-fructose and mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (mtlK gene for conversion to mannitol, a prebiotic. Charles foster rats weighing 150-200 g were fed with 20% fructose in drinking water for two months. Probiotic treatment of EcN (pqq, EcN (pqq-glf-mtlK, EcN (pqq-fdh was given once per week 109 cells for two months. Furthermore, blood and liver parameters for oxidative stress, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia were estimated. Fecal samples were collected to determine the production of short chain fatty acids and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ production.EcN (pqq-glf-mtlK, EcN (pqq-fdh transformants were confirmed by restriction digestion and functionality was checked by PQQ estimation and HPLC analysis. There was significant increase in body weight, serum glucose, liver injury markers, lipid profile in serum and liver, and decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity in high-fructose-fed rats. However the rats treated with EcN (pqq-glf-mtlK and EcN (pqq-fdh showed significant reduction in lipid peroxidation along with increase in serum and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities. Restoration of liver injury marker enzymes was also seen. Increase in short chain fatty acids (SCFA demonstrated the prebiotic effects of mannitol and gluconic acid.Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of probiotic EcN producing PQQ and fructose metabolizing enzymes against the fructose induced hepatic steatosis suggesting that its potential for use in treating fructose induced metabolic syndrome.

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fructose and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 558) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    the claim, glucose or sucrose should be replaced by fructose in sugar sweetened foods or beverages. The target population is individuals who wish to reduce their post-prandial glycaemic responses. The Panel notes that high intakes of fructose may lead to metabolic complications such as dyslipidaemia...... which fructose should replace in foods or beverages in order to obtain the claimed effect, sucrose and glucose, are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “carbohydrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity”. The Panel assumes that the target population is individuals who wish to reduce...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is fructose. From the information provided, the Panel assumes that fructose should replace sucrose or glucose in foods or beverages in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that fructose, and the food constituents...

  9. Dietary Fructose Reduction Improves Markers of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Hispanic-American Adolescents with NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Jin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is now thought to be the most common liver disease worldwide. Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in NAFLD. Fructose, a common nutrient in the westernized diet, has been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but its impact on adolescents with NAFLD is not well understood. We designed a 4-week randomized, controlled, double-blinded beverage intervention study. Twenty-four overweight Hispanic-American adolescents who had hepatic fat >8% on imaging and who were regular consumers of sweet beverages were enrolled and randomized to calorie-matched study-provided fructose only or glucose only beverages. After 4 weeks, there was no significant change in hepatic fat or body weight in either group. In the glucose beverage group there was significantly improved adipose insulin sensitivity, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation. These findings demonstrate that reduction of fructose improves several important factors related to cardiovascular disease despite a lack of measurable improvement in hepatic steatosis. Reducing dietary fructose may be an effective intervention to blunt atherosclerosis progression among NAFLD patients and should be evaluated in longer term clinical trials.

  10. Therapeutic effects of tender coconut water on oxidative stress in fructose fed insulin resistant hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagya, D; Prema, L; Rajamohan, T

    2012-04-01

    To investigate whether tender coconut water (TCW) mitigates oxidative stress in fructose fed hypertensive rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with fructose rich diet and treated with TCW (4 mL/100 g of body weight) for 3 subsequent weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured every three days using the indirect tail cuff method. At the end of the experimental period, plasma glucose and insulin, serum triglycerides and free fatty acids, lipid peroxidation markers (MDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in all the groups. Treatment with TCW significantly lowered the systolic blood pressure and reduced serum triglycerides and free fatty acids. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and lipid peroxidation markers such as MDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were significantly reduced in fructose fed rats treated with TCW. Activities of antioxidant enzymes are up regulated significantly in TCW treated rats. Histopathological analysis of liver showed that TCW treatment reduced the lipid accumulation and inflammatory infiltration without any significant hepatocellular damage. The overall results suggest that, TCW treatment could prevent and reverse high blood pressure induced by high fructose diet probably by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, upregulation of antioxidant status and improved insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of fructose transporters in diseases linked to excessive fructose intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Veronique; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2013-01-15

    Fructose intake has increased dramatically since humans were hunter-gatherers, probably outpacing the capacity of human evolution to make physiologically healthy adaptations. Epidemiological data indicate that this increasing trend continued until recently. Excessive intakes that chronically increase portal and peripheral blood fructose concentrations to >1 and 0.1 mm, respectively, are now associated with numerous diseases and syndromes. The role of the fructose transporters GLUT5 and GLUT2 in causing, contributing to or exacerbating these diseases is not well known. GLUT5 expression seems extremely low in neonatal intestines, and limited absorptive capacities for fructose may explain the high incidence of malabsorption in infants and cause problems in adults unable to upregulate GLUT5 levels to match fructose concentrations in the diet. GLUT5- and GLUT2-mediated fructose effects on intestinal electrolyte transporters, hepatic uric acid metabolism, as well as renal and cardiomyocyte function, may play a role in fructose-induced hypertension. Likewise, GLUT2 may contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by facilitating the uptake of fructose. Finally, GLUT5 may play a role in the atypical growth of certain cancers and fat tissues. We also highlight research areas that should yield information needed to better understand the role of these GLUTs in fructose-induced diseases.

  12. A relationship between reduced nucleus accumbens shell and enhanced lateral hypothalamic orexin neuronal activation in long-term fructose bingeing behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacki M Rorabaugh

    Full Text Available Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day exposure to the IAM, rats given 8-12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR. This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF, a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p. equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  13. Unravelling the kinetics of the formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction of fructose and asparagine by multiresponse modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J.J.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    A kinetic model for the formation of acrylamide in a fructose–asparagine reaction system at initial pH 5.5 is proposed, based on an approach called multiresponse kinetic modelling. The formation of acetic acid and formic acid from the degradation of fructose and its isomer glucose was included in

  14. Fructose increases corticosterone production in association with NADPH metabolism alterations in rat epididymal white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Paula D; Santander, Yanina A; Gerez, Estefania M; Höcht, Christian; Polizio, Ariel H; Mayer, Marcos A; Taira, Carlos A; Fraga, Cesar G; Galleano, Monica; Carranza, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an array of closely metabolic disorders that includes glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Fructose, a highly lipogenic sugar, has profound metabolic effects in adipose tissue, and has been associated with the etiopathology of many components of the metabolic syndrome. In adipocytes, the enzyme 11 β-HSD1 amplifies local glucocorticoid production, being a key player in the pathogenesis of central obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by H6PD inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Our focus was to explore the effect of fructose overload on epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) machinery involved in glucocorticoid production and NADPH and oxidants metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a fructose solution (10% (w/v) in tap water) during 9 weeks developed some characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. In addition, high levels of plasma and EWAT corticosterone were detected. Activities and expressions of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, NAPDH content, superoxide anion production, expression of NADPH oxidase 2 subunits, and indicators of oxidative metabolism were measured. Fructose overloaded rats showed an increased potential in oxidant production respect to control rats. In parallel, in EWAT from fructose overloaded rats we found higher expression/activity of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, and NADPH/NADP + ratio. Our in vivo results support that fructose overload installs in EWAT conditions favoring glucocorticoid production through higher H6PD expression/activity supplying NADPH for enhanced 11 β-HSD1 expression/activity, becoming this tissue a potential extra-adrenal source of corticosterone under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Fructose Malabsorption in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome After Excluding Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kee Wook; Seo, Myeognsook; Cho, Young Hwan; Park, Young-Ok; Yoon, So-Yoon; Lee, Jungbok; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Yoon, In Ja; Seo, So Young; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Park, Sang Hyoung; Kim, Kyung Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2018-04-30

    Fructose malabsorption (FM) mimics symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and its prevalence has increased. Diagnosing FM in IBS is challenging because of its overlap with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). We assessed the prevalence of FM by comparing patients with IBS with asymptomatic control individuals after excluding SIBO using the glucose hydrogen breath test (HBT). Patients diagnosed with IBS and asymptomatic control individuals were enrolled prospectively. Dietary habits were assessed with the Food Frequency Questionnaire. After excluding SIBO, participants underwent HBTs with both 15 g and 25 g of fructose. Thirty-five patients with IBS and 35 age- and sex-matched asymptomatic control individuals were enrolled. The 15-g fructose HBT yielded positive results in 7 of the 35 (20.0%) patients with IBS and in 2 of 35 (5.7%) controls ( P = 0.070). The 25-g fructose HBT was positive in 16 of the 35 (45.7%) patients with IBS and in 8 of the 35 (22.9%) controls ( P = 0.040). Analysis of the Food Frequency Questionnaire responses showed no significant differences between the 2 groups in dietary intake, although patients with IBS showed a significantly higher mean fiber intake than controls (21.24 ± 11.35 g vs 15.87 ± 7.07 g, respectively, P = 0.040). The 25-g fructose HBT identified FM in a significantly higher percentage of SIBO-negative patients with IBS than in asymptomatic control individuals, suggesting that FM may correlate with IBS. Education regarding dietary control of foods containing fructose may be useful for the management of patients with IBS.

  16. Stochastic Corn Yield Response Functions to Nitrogen for Corn after Corn, Corn after Cotton, and Corn after Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Christopher N.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; McClure, Angela T.; Tyler, Donald D.; Zhou, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Deterministic and stochastic yield response plateau functions were estimated to determine the expected profit-maximizing nitrogen rates, yields, and net returns for corn grown after corn, cotton, and soybeans. The stochastic response functions were more appropriate than their deterministic counterparts, and the linear response stochastic plateau described the data the best. The profit-maximizing nitrogen rates were similar for corn after corn, cotton, and soybeans, but relative to corn after ...

  17. Effect of specific amino acids on hepatic lipid metabolism in fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; Beutheu, Stéphanie; Ventura, Gabrielle; Sarfati, Gilles; Nubret, Esther; Kapel, Nathalie; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Bergheim, Ina; Cynober, Luc; De-Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Fructose diets have been shown to induce insulin resistance and to alter liver metabolism and gut barrier function, ultimately leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Citrulline, Glutamine and Arginine may improve insulin sensitivity and have beneficial effects on gut trophicity. Our aim was to evaluate their effects on liver and gut functions in a rat model of fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 58) received a 4-week fructose (60%) diet or standard chow with or without Citrulline (0.15 g/d) or an isomolar amount of Arginine or Glutamine. All diets were made isonitrogenous by addition of non-essential amino acids. At week 4, nutritional and metabolic status (plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and amino acids, net intestinal absorption) was determined; steatosis (hepatic triglycerides content, histological examination) and hepatic function (plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin) were assessed; and gut barrier integrity (myeloperoxidase activity, portal endotoxemia, tight junction protein expression and localization) and intestinal and hepatic inflammation were evaluated. We also assessed diets effects on caecal microbiota. In these experimental isonitrogenous fructose diet conditions, fructose led to steatosis with dyslipidemia but without altering glucose homeostasis, liver function or gut permeability. Fructose significantly decreased Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and tended to increase endotoxemia. Arginine and Glutamine supplements were ineffective but Citrulline supplementation prevented hypertriglyceridemia and attenuated liver fat accumulation. While nitrogen supply alone can attenuate fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Citrulline appears to act directly on hepatic lipid metabolism by partially preventing hypertriglyceridemia and steatosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition

  18. Automated synthesis system for production of 11C-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monma, Minoru; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Iwata, Ren; Ido, Tatsuo

    1984-01-01

    A fully automated synthesis system of 11 C-glucose by the photosynthesis method has been developed for clinical use. This system has been designed to be as convenient as possible for routine use, and the full automation of the whole procedure from the target gas recovery to collection of the final 11 C-glucose/fructose mixture has been accomplished by microcomputer control. A mixture of 11 C-glucose/fructose (1:1) was obtained with 20--35% of radiochemical yield within 60 min. (author)

  19. Enzymatic isomerization of glucose and xylose in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Tim Johannes Bjarki; Woodley, John; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Glucose isomerase has been found for the first time to catalyze the isomerization of glucose to fructose in the ionic liquid N, N-dibutylethanolammonium octanoate (DBAO). Isomerization was achieved at temperatures of 60-80 degrees C although a substantial amount of mannose was formed at elevated...

  20. Intra- and intercellular mechanisms regulating glucose metabolism in the liver.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Casteleijn (Eric)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe regulation of glucose metabolism in the liver by intraand intercellular mechanisms was studied. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, an enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of glucose was found to be stimulated by glucagon in isolated parenchym~l liver cells. Glucagon increased the Vmax

  1. Metabolic and cardiac changes in high cholesterol-fructose-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Pedersen, Henrik D; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague......-Dawley rats received a HCF diet for 16 to 17weeks. Body weight was measured weekly and mean arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin, glucose tolerance, and blood lipid levels were measured following 15weeks of feeding. One to 2weeks later, while still on the HCF diet, cardiac...... on metabolic and cardiovascular disease progression associated with intake of a westernized diet....

  2. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  3. Antihyperglycemic effect of short-term arginyl-fructose supplementation in subjects with prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Eun; Kim, Ok-Hwan; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Hyoung; Kwon, Young-In; Chung, Kwang Hoe; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-14

    A previous study reported that arginyl-fructose may have great value as a functional food with antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. However, there have been few clinical studies on the efficacy of arginyl-fructose supplementation for blood glucose control. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 Korean subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to placebo or test groups. The test group subjects received 1500 mg/day arginyl-fructose. Fasting serum levels of glucose, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and free fatty acids were measured by 2-hour oral glucose tolerance tests at baseline and after the 6-week intervention. Eleven subjects dropped out or were excluded during the trial. The data for the remaining 49 were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test and paired t-test. After the 6-week intervention, the test group showed significant reductions in serum glucose levels at 30 minutes (-19.4 ± 5.62 mg/dL) and 60 minutes (-15.4 ± 7.01 mg/dL) and reduced glucose area under the curve (-27.4 ± 8.59 mg/dL) compared with those of the placebo control group. The changes (differences from baseline) in serum glucose levels at 60 minutes and glucose area under the curve in the test group differed significantly from those in the control group even after adjusting for baseline values. In contrast, glucose-related biomarkers including hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and C-peptide levels were not significantly improved by the dietary intervention with arginyl-fructose. Arginyl-fructose supplementation (1500 mg/day) may be beneficial for reducing postprandial blood glucose levels in patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02285231 . Registered 11 May 2014.

  4. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerols as Host Recognition Cues for Western Corn Rootworm Larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Hibbard, B E; Dick, D L; Rithner, C D; Bjostad, L B

    2015-04-01

    Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) was identified as a host recognition cue for larvae of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. An active glycolipid fraction obtained from an extract of germinating maize roots was isolated with thin layer chromatography using a bioassay-driven approach. When analyzed with LC-MS (positive ion scanning), the assay-active spot was found to contain four different MGDG species: 18:3-18:3 (1,2-dilinolenoyl), 18:2-18:3 (1-linoleoyl, 2-linolenoyl), 18:2-18:2 (1,2-dilinoleoyl), and 18:2-16:0 (1-linoleoyl, 2-palmitoyl). A polar fraction was also needed for activity. When combined with a polar fraction containing a blend of sugars (glucose:fructose:sucrose:myoinositol), the isolated MGDG elicited a unique tight-turning behavior by neonate western corn rootworm larvae that is indicative of host recognition. In behavioral bioassays where disks treated with the active blend were exposed to successive sets of rootworm larvae, the activity of MGDG increased over four exposures, suggesting that larvae may be responding to compounds produced after enzymatic breakdown of MGDG. In subsequent tests with synthetic blends composed of theoretical MGDG-breakdown products, larval responses to four synthetic blends were not significantly different (P<0.5) than the response to isolated MGDG. GC-MS analysis showed modest increases in the amounts of the 16:0, 18:0, and 18:3 free fatty acids released from MGDG after a 30-min exposure to rootworm larvae, which is consistent with the enzymatic breakdown hypothesis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Fructose malabsorption is associated with early signs of mental depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledochowski, M; Sperner-Unterweger, B; Widner, B; Fuchs, D

    1998-06-17

    Fructose malabsorption is characterized by the inability to absorb fructose efficiently. As a consequence fructose reaches the colon were it is broken down by bacteria to short fatty acids, CO2 and H2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can be seen in about 50% of fructose malabsorbers. Having made the observation that persons with fructose malabsorption very often seem to present not only with signs of irritable bowel syndrome but also with signs of pre-menstrual syndrome and mental depression, it was of interest to establish whether such an association could be demonstrated in patients. Fifty-five adults with gastrointestinal complaints of unknown origin (12 males, 43 females) were analyzed by measuring breath hydrogen concentrations after an oral dose of 50 g fructose and were classified as normals or fructose malabsorbers according to their breath H2 concentrations. All patients filled out a Beck s depression inventory - questionnaire. Fructose malabsorption was detected in 36 of 55 individuals (65.5%). Subjects with fructose malabsorption (DeltaH2 concentrations >10 p.p.m. after fructose load) showed a significantly higher score in the Beck s depression inventory than normal fructose absorbers. This was true especially for females. Fructose malabsorption may play a role in the development of depressed mood. Fructose malabsorption should be considered in patients with symptoms of major depression or pre-menstrual syndrome. Further studies are needed to clarify the background of this association.

  6. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Igor Ying; Fu, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2011-06-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  7. Science for Everyone; Fructose and Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Korkmaz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity have been widely affecting the communities. Impressive changes in daily life-style and nutritional habits are well known factors in the etiopathogenesis of those diseases. Fructose (fruit sugar that we were only able to consume via some natural products such as fruits and honey one century ago, today it has become nearly the main carbohydrate source of human daily energy need. However, it is hard to say that fructose is well known by human metabolism. Therefore, it is thought that elevated consumption ratio of fructose may have impact on the incidence of above-mentioned diseases. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 1-4

  8. 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose: biocatalytic and chemical synthetic methods for the preparation, transformation and derivatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundt, Inge; Yu, Shukun

    2010-01-01

    1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose (1,5AnFru) is a monoketosaccharide that can be prepared enzymatically from starch by a-1,4-glucan lyase or chemically from D-glucose or D-fructose in a few steps with high yields. The formed 1,5AnFru can be derivatized both enzymatically and chemically to interesting new ca...... like 1-deoxymannonojirimycin and Clavulazine. 1,5AnFru disaccharides (glycosyl 1?4 1,5AnFru) have been prepared as well as glycosyl 1?4 1,5-anhydro-D-tagatose....

  9. Glucocorticoid Antagonism Reduces Insulin Resistance and Associated Lipid Abnormalities in High-Fructose-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-02-01

    High intake of dietary fructose causes perturbation in lipid metabolism and provokes lipid-induced insulin resistance. A rise in glucocorticoids (GCs) has recently been suggested to be involved in fructose-induced insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of GC blockade on lipid abnormalities in insulin-resistant mice. Insulin resistance was induced in mice by administering a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 60 days. Mifepristone (RU486), a GC antagonist, was administered to HFrD-fed mice for the last 18 days, and the intracellular and extracellular GC levels, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and the expression of GC-regulated genes involved in lipid metabolism were examined. HFrD elevated the intracellular GC content in both liver and adipose tissue and enhanced the GR nuclear translocation. The plasma GC level remained unchanged. The levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in plasma were elevated, accompanied by increased plasma insulin and glucose levels and decreased hepatic glycogen content. Treatment with RU486 reduced plasma lipid levels, tissue GC levels and the expression of GC-targeted genes involved in lipid accumulation, and it improved insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrated that HFrD-induced lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are mediated by enhanced GC in liver and adipose tissue and that GC antagonism might reduce fructose-induced lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of tempol on altered metabolism and renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Mohammed H; Sattar, Munavvar A; Johns, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tempol (a superoxide dismutase mimetic) on renal vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists in fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (a model of metabolic syndrome). Rats were fed 20% fructose in drinking water (F) for 8 weeks. One fructose-fed group received tempol (FT) at 1 mmol·L(-1) in drinking water for 8 weeks or as an infusion (1.5 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) intrarenally. At the end of the treatment regimen, the renal responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, methoxamine, and Ang II were determined. F rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia, hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Tempol reduced blood glucose and insulin levels (all p tempol infusion blunted responses to noradrenaline, methoxamine, and Ang II in control rats by 32%, 33%, and 62%, while it blunted responses to noradrenaline and Ang II in F rats by 26% and 32%, respectively (all p tempol treatment enhances renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats.

  11. Our Mother Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  12. Influence of twin-screw extrusion on soluble arabinoxylans and corn fiber gum from corn fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkhornart, Sasathorn; Lee, Seul Gi; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-09-01

    The effect of feed moisture content and screw speed in the extrusion process with and without chemical pretreatment of corn fiber was investigated. Different chemical pretreatment methods (NaOH and H2 SO4 solution) were compared. The improvement of reducing sugar, soluble arabinoxylans (SAX) content and the yield of corn fiber gum was measured. A high reducing sugar content was obtained in the filtrate fraction from the extruded destarched corn fiber (EDCF) with H₂SO₄ pretreatment. Feed moisture content most effectively improved both reducing sugar and SAX content of filtrate. Increasing feed moisture content and screw speed resulted in a higher SAX content in the filtrate of the EDCF with NaOH pretreatment. The SAX content of the residual solid from the EDCF with NaOH pretreatment was higher compared to H₂SO₄ pretreated and unpretreated samples and significantly increased with decreasing feed moisture content. The screw speed did not have a major impact after enzyme hydrolysis. The yield of corn fiber gum was increased by 12% using NaOH pretreatment combined with extrusion process as compared to the destarched corn fiber. The results show the great potential of the extrusion process as an effective pretreatment for disruption the lignocelluloses of corn fiber, leading to conversion of cellulose to glucose and hemicelluloses to SAX and isolation of corn fiber gum. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Kasper W.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2017-01-01

    Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be

  14. Chronic Fructose Consumption As a Model of Polycystic Ovary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group 2 served as Chronic fructose group and was fed ad libitum on a special diet containing 25% fructose mixed with 75% normal rat chow weight/weight for 4 weeks ... This study shows that chronic fructose consumption in pregnant rat recapitulates ovarian and some metabolic features of PCOS including polycystic ovary ...

  15. A selective glucose sensor: the cooperative effect of monoboronic acid-modified poly(amidoamine) dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Hua; Tang, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Hui-Ting; Yao, Yi-Wen; Chien, Tun-Cheng; Kao, Chai-Lin

    2018-04-18

    Selective glucose binding was identified through five generations of monoboronic acid-functionalized PAMAM dendrimers. The best selectivity obtained when using G3 dendrimers (1b) generated 71.1, 94.9, and 1309 times stronger binding than when using galactose, fructose, and lactose, respectively. Further experiments using dendrimer analogues and glucose derivatives suggested that two nearby monoboronic acids cooperatively bound one glucose.

  16. Antioxidant and anti hyperglycemic role of wine grape powder in rats fed with a high fructose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Hernández-Salinas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a growing worldwide health problem. We evaluated the effects of wine grape powder (WGP, rich in antioxidants and fiber, in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high fructose diet. We tested whether WGP supplementation may prevent glucose intolerance and decrease oxidative stress in rats fed with a high fructose diet. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 g were divided into four groups according to their feeding protocols. Rats were fed with control diet (C, control plus 20 % WGP (C + WGP, 50 % high fructose (HF or 50 % fructose plus 20 % WGP (HF + WGP for 16 weeks. Blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides, weight, and arterial blood pressure were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index was calculated using insulin and glucose values. A glucose tolerance test was performed 2 days before the end of the experiment. As an index of oxidative stress, thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level was measured in plasma and kidney, and superoxide dismutase was measured in the kidney. RESULTS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma and renal tissue were significantly higher when compared to the control group. In addition, the area under the curve of the glucose tolerance test was higher in HF fed animals. Furthermore, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, and the HOMA index, were also increased. WGP supplementation prevented these alterations in rats fed with the HF diet. We did not find any significant difference in body weight or systolic blood pressure in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that WGP supplementation prevented hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and reduced oxidative stress in rats fed with HF diet. We propose that WGP may be used as a supplement in human food as well.

  17. Learning the Fructose Metabolism by Hypermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai et al

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Learning of biochemistry among other factors depends on create an educational environment favorable to the reality of the students and offer better educational tools for the teachers. Objective: The goal of this hypermedia is to motivate and strengthen the students learning about the metabolism of fructose. Materials And Methods:This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the fructose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of three pathways of the fructose metabolism (principal route-fructokinase, sorbitol and hexokinase pathways.There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of fructose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion:This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC. Its use allowed to users to reach the goal of understanding of the subject independently of their agility or background, since it was possible to each student navigate through the hypermedia according with his individual rhythm and as many times as needed. Interactive hypermedia is proving to be

  18. La consommation du fructose vers le syndrome métabolique : bénéfique ou délétère ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gninou, Amandine

    2017-01-01

    Le fructose est un sucre simple encore appelé le « sucre des fruits ». Il est apporté en faible quantité par l’alimentation naturelle. Longtemps, le fructose a été considéré comme le « sucre des diabétiques » car il augmente peu la sécrétion d’insuline, hormone régulant le taux de glucose sanguin. Durant ces dernières années, la consommation du fructose a augmenté, plus particulièrement aux Etats Unis avec la fabrication industrielle de fructose à partir d’amidons de maïs. Dans la même périod...

  19. Coordinated Regulation of the EIIMan and fruRKI Operons of Streptococcus mutans by Global and Fructose-Specific Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Chakraborty, Brinta; Farivar, Tanaz; Burne, Robert A

    2017-11-01

    The glucose/mannose-phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease EII Man encoded by manLMN in the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans has a dominant influence on sugar-specific, CcpA-independent catabolite repression (CR). Mutations in manL affect energy metabolism and virulence-associated traits, including biofilm formation, acid tolerance, and competence. Using promoter::reporter fusions, expression of the manLMN and the fruRKI operons, encoding a transcriptional regulator, a fructose-1-phosphate kinase and a fructose-PTS permease EII Fru , respectively, was monitored in response to carbohydrate source and in mutants lacking CcpA, FruR, and components of EII Man Expression of genes for EII Man and EII Fru was directly regulated by CcpA and CR, as evinced by in vivo and in vitro methods. Unexpectedly, not only was the fruRKI operon negatively regulated by FruR, but also so was manLMN Carbohydrate transport by EII Man had a negative influence on expression of manLMN but not fruRKI In agreement with the proposed role of FruR in regulating these PTS operons, loss of fruR or fruK substantially altered growth on a number of carbohydrates, including fructose. RNA deep sequencing revealed profound changes in gene regulation caused by deletion of fruK or fruR Collectively, these findings demonstrate intimate interconnection of the regulation of two major PTS permeases in S. mutans and reveal novel and important contributions of fructose metabolism to global regulation of gene expression. IMPORTANCE The ability of Streptococcus mutans and other streptococcal pathogens to survive and cause human diseases is directly dependent upon their capacity to metabolize a variety of carbohydrates, including glucose and fructose. Our research reveals that metabolism of fructose has broad influences on the regulation of utilization of glucose and other sugars, and mutants with changes in certain genes involved in fructose metabolism display profoundly different abilities to grow and

  20. Moderate (20%) fructose-enriched diet stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordish, Kevin L; Kassem, Kamal M; Ortiz, Pablo A; Beierwaltes, William H

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose + high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg ( P  salt than either high salt, or glucose + high salt (114.2 ± 4.4 vs. 103.6 ± 2.2 and 98.6 ± 5.6 mEq/Day19; P  salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33 ± 0.21 versus 7.67 ± 0.31 mmol/24 h; P  salt-fed rats, but reduced by 40% in the 20% fructose + high salt group (2139 ± 178  μ mol /24 hrs P  salt-sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  1. Effect of taurine supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia and markers of oxidative stress in high fructose diet induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mesallamy Hala O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Methods Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were carried out, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA was calculated, homocysteine (Hcy, lipid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress were measured in male Wistar rats weighing 170-190 g. The rats were divided into four groups, kept on either control diet or high fructose diet (HFD, and simultaneously supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine via intra-peritoneal (i.p. route for 35 days. Results Fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lower paraoxonase (PON activity, and higher nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration, when compared to rats fed on control diet. Supplementing the fructose-fed rats with taurine has ameliorated the rise in HOMA by 56%, triglycerides (TGs by 22.5%, total cholesterol (T-Chol by 11%, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C by 21.4%. Taurine also abolished any significant difference of TAC, PON activity and NOx concentration among treated and control groups. TAC positively correlated with PON in both rats fed on the HFD and those received taurine in addition to the HFD. Fructose-fed rats showed 34.7% increase in Hcy level. Taurine administration failed to prevent the observed HHcy in the current dosage and duration. Conclusion Our results indicate that HFD could induce IR which could further result in metabolic syndrome (MS, and that taurine has a protective role against

  2. Fructose-induced symptoms beyond malabsorption in FGID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiekierski, Jessica R

    2014-02-01

    The dietary carbohydrate fructose can be incompletely absorbed in the small intestine and is sometimes associated with gastrointestinal symptoms that include motility disturbances and abdominal pain. Fructose malabsorption has been well documented in variable but similar proportions of healthy and populations with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Recent work into the expression of the main intestinal fructose transporter proteins highlight that our understanding of the mechanistic basis for fructose malabsorption and how it differentiates in gastrointestinal patients is incomplete. Until we have further mechanistic insight, restricting dietary fructose intake and other poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates and polyols remains an efficacious approach for managing functional gastrointestinal symptoms.

  3. Fructose diet-induced skin collagen abnormalities are prevented by lipoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, V; Nandhini, A T Anitha; Anuradha, C V

    2004-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, leading to chemical modification and cross-linking are of importance in the pathology of diabetic complications. We studied the effect alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on the content and characteristics of the protein collagen from skin of high-fructose fed rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each. Two groups of rats were fed with a high fructose diet (60 g/100 g diet) and administered either LA (35 mg/kg b.w., i.p) (FRU+LA) or 0.2 ml vehicle (saline) (FRU) for 45 days. The other 2 groups were fed with control diet containing starch (60 g/100 g diet) and administered either saline (CON) or lipoic acid (CON+LA). The rats were maintained for 45 days and then sacrificed. Plasma glucose, insulin, fructosamine, protein glycation, and blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were measured. Collagen was isolated from skin and the physicochemical properties of collagen were studied. Fructose administration caused accumulation of collagen in skin. Extensive cross-linking was evidenced by enhanced glycation and AGE-linked fluorescence. Increased peroxidation and changes in physicochemical properties such as shrinkage temperature, aldehyde content, solubililty pattern, susceptibility to denaturing agents were observed in fructose-fed rats. SDS gel pattern of collagen from these rats showed elevated beta component of type I collagen. These changes were alleviated by the simultaneous administration of LA. Administration of LA to fructose-fed rats had a positive influence on both quantitative and qualitative properties of collagen. The results suggest a mechanism for the ability of LA to delay diabetic complications.

  4. Effect of L-Carnitine on Skeletal Muscle Lipids and Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchamoorthy Rajasekar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance, alterations in lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in rat tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (CAR on lipid accumulation and peroxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats fed high-fructose diet. Fructose-fed animals (60 g/100 g diet displayed decreased glucose/insulin (G/I ratio and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120 indicating the development of insulin resistance. Rats showed alterations in the levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids in skeletal muscle. The condition was associated with oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and aldehydes along with depletion of both enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of CAR (300 mg/kg/day to fructose-fed rats alleviated the effects of fructose. These rats showed near-normal levels of the parameters studied. The effects of CAR in this model suggest that CAR supplementation may have some benefits in patients suffering from insulin resistance.

  5. Fructose malabsorption: true condition or a variance from normality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, Moe Htet; Mayberry, John Francis

    2011-01-01

    Fructose exists in food naturally or as a sweetening additive. It has been thought that fructose malabsorption may cause the gastrointestinal symptoms seen in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. However, fructose malabsorption is still poorly understood, and clinicians are still uncertain of its role. This review attempts to clarify the relation between fructose malabsorption and symptoms in normal individuals and patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The main problem lies in the diagnosis. First, there is no definite cut off value for the breath tests. Second, we are unsure of the normal absorptive capacity of fructose in normal individuals. Normal individuals will have a degree of fructose malabsorption with or without symptoms depending on the dose of fructose used. From earlier studies, 25 g of fructose seems to be the cut-off dose to investigate fructose malabsorption, with a positive breath test at this dose suggesting abnormally low capacity to absorb fructose. This low level may be difficult to exclude from the daily diet, resulting in symptoms of fructose malabsorption.

  6. Fructose malabsorption is associated with decreased plasma tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledochowski, M; Widner, B; Murr, C; Sperner-Unterweger, B; Fuchs, D

    2001-04-01

    Fructose malabsorption is characterized by the inability to absorb fructose efficiently. As a consequence fructose reaches the colon where it is broken down by bacteria to short fatty acids, CO2, H2, CH4 and lactic acid. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can be seen in about 50% of fructose malabsorbers. Recently it was found that fructose malabsorption was associated with early signs of depressive disorders. Therefore, it was investigated whether fructose malabsorption is associated with abnormal tryptophan metabolism. Fifty adults (16 men, 34 women) with gastrointestinal discomfort were analyzed by measuring breath hydrogen concentrations after an oral dose of 50 g fructose after an overnight fast. They were classified as normals or fructose malabsorbers according to their breath H2 concentrations. All patients filled out a Beck depression inventory questionnaire. Blood samples were taken for plasma tryptophan and kynurenine measurements. Fructose malabsorption (breath deltaH2 production >20 ppm) was detected in 35 of 50 individuals (70%). Subjects with fructose malabsorption showed significantly lower plasma tryptophan concentrations and significantly higher scores in the Beck depression inventory compared to those with normal fructose absorption. Fructose malabsorption is associated with lower tryptophan levels that may play a role in the development of depressive disorders. High intestinal fructose concentration seems to interfere with L-tryptophan metabolism, and it may reduce availability of tryptophan for the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Fructose malabsorption should be considered in patients with symptoms of depression and disturbances of tryptophan metabolism.

  7. Fructose intolerance/malabsorption and recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Mauricio A; Lustig, Daniel; Pflugeisen, Bethann M; Amoroso, Paul J; Sherif, Dalia; Saeed, Rasha; Shamdeen, Shaza; Tuider, Judith; Abdullah, Bisher

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain had concurrent fructose intolerance as determined by a standardized dose breath hydrogen test (BHT), and whether symptoms would improve with a low-fructose diet. The fructose BHT test was administered to patients evaluated in clinic with unexplained chronic abdominal pain alone or associated with constipation, gas or bloating, and/or diarrhea. The patients were given a standard dose of 1 g/kg fructose to maximum of 25 g. Hydrogen and methane were measured at 8 time points. The test was presumed positive if breath hydrogen exceeded 20 ppm above baseline. If positive, patients were given a dietitian-prescribed low-fructose diet. A total of 222 patients were part of the study. Ages ranged from 2 to 19 years with a mean of 10.5. BHT for fructose was performed in all of the patients and it was positive for fructose intolerance in 121 of 222 patients (54.5%). A total of 101 of 222 (45.5%) patients had negative BHT for fructose intolerance. All BHT-positive patients had a nutrition consult with a registered dietitian and were placed on a low-fructose diet. Using a standard pain scale for children, 93 of 121 patients (76.9%) reported resolution of symptoms on a low-fructose diet (P fructose reported resolution of symptoms without a low-fructose diet (P = 0.37). Fructose intolerance/malabsorption is common in children with recurrent/functional abdominal pain and a low-fructose diet is an effective treatment.

  8. Technology and economics of conversion of cellulose (wood) and corn starch to sugars, alcohol and yeast. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolnak, B.

    1978-08-01

    The present status of the technology and economics for the production of glucose, alcohol, and yeast from cellulose (wood), corn starch, and molasses is analyzed. The basic processes for producing glucose and the factors affecting the economics of its production are reviewed. The costs of producing ethanol and yeast from the glucose are derived. Market availability of glucose, ethanol, and yeast is surveyed. (JSR)

  9. A case of neonatal diarrhoea caused by congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W S; Tay, C G; Nazrul, N; Paed, M; Chai, P F

    2009-03-01

    A five-month-old Indian girl, product of consanguineous marriage, presented with diarrhoea with an onset within two days after birth, severe malnutrition and metabolic acidosis. The diarrhoea persisted even with lactose-free formula, amino acid-based formula and glucose-containing oral rehydration solution, but stopped when fasted. She required prolonged parenteral nutrition. Fructose and glucose tolerance tests were performed, confirming the child was able to absorb and metabolize fructose but not glucose, indicating a diagnosis of glucose-galactose malabsorption. This case illustrate how simple and pertinent clinical observations and laboratory investigations is sufficient to allow a firm diagnosis to be made.

  10. beta-D(+) glucose-glucose oxidase-catalase for use as an antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppoor, R; Niebergall, P J

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of beta-D(+) glucose-glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4)-catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) (BDG-GO-CAT) as a new antioxidant system in solutions. A novel method for estimation of activity of the system was developed using a dissolved oxygen (DO) meter and an oxygen probe. The method can be used to determine the enzymatic activity of the system at GO concentrations of 0.005 to 0.030 unit/ml, with an r2 of 0.995 for the linearity of the standard curve, and can be adapted for analysis in any solution. At room temperature of 23.0 degrees +/- 2.0 degrees C, the maximum activity of the BDG-GO-CAT system was found to occur at pH 5.40. The half-life values for the stability of GO-CAT in 0.10 M phosphate buffer solutions of pH 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0 were 9.78, 49.43, 53.46, 36.51, 12.68, 1.84, and 0.80 weeks, respectively. Dextrose was used in place of beta-D(+) glucose for cost-saving purposes, and a standard curve for the activity of GO-CAT was obtained using 20 mg/ml dextrose. The BDG-GO-CAT was effective as a DO-scavenger in closed containers, when the containers were opened and exposed to atmosphere for 2 days between tests, and upon reclosing them. Pharmaceutical excipients such as ethanol, glycerin, propylene glycol, methylparaben, propylparaben, artificial strawberry flavor, and sodium benzoate did not show any adverse effect on the activity of BDG-GO-CAT. Sorbitol, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and polyethylene glycol 3350 increased the rate of DO removal. Sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) at 2.0% w/v decreased the rate of DO removal. These studies indicate that the BDG(dextrose)-GO-CAT system warrants serious consideration for use an antioxidant system in aqueous formulations.

  11. Glucose(xylose isomerase production by Streptomyces sp. CH7 grown on agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankiya Chanitnun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. CH7 was found to efficiently produce glucose(xylose isomerase when grown on either xylan or agricultural residues. This strain produced a glucose(xylose isomerase activity of roughly 1.8 U/mg of protein when it was grown in medium containing 1% xylose as a carbon source. Maximal enzymatic activities of about 5 and 3 U/mg were obtained when 1% xylan and 2.5% corn husks were used, respectively. The enzyme was purified from a mycelial extract to 16-fold purity with only two consecutive column chromatography steps using Macro-prep DEAE and Sephacryl-300, respectively. The approximate molecular weight of the purified enzyme is 170 kDa, and it has four identical subunits of 43.6 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Its Km values for glucose and xylose were found to be 258.96 and 82.77 mM, respectively, and its Vmax values are 32.42 and 63.64 μM/min/mg, respectively. The purified enzyme is optimally active at 85ºC and pH 7.0. It is stable at pH 5.5-8.5 and at temperatures up to 60ºC after 30 min. These findings indicate that glucose(xylose isomerase from Streptomyces sp. CH7 has the potential for industrial applications, especially for high-fructose syrup production and bioethanol fermentation from hemicellulosic hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  12. pH catalyzed pretreatment of corn bran for enhanced enzymatic arabinoxylan degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Corn bran is mainly made up of the pericarp of corn kernels and is a byproduct stream resulting from the wet milling step in corn starch processing. Through statistic modeling this study examined the optimization of pretreatment of corn bran for enzymatic hydrolysis. A low pH pretreatment (pH 2......, 150°C, 65min) boosted the enzymatic release of xylose and glucose and maximized biomass solubilization. With more acidic pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis the total xylose release was maximized (at pH 1.3) reaching ∼50% by weight of the original amount present in destarched corn bran......, but the enzyme catalyzed xylose release was maximal after pretreatment at approx. pH 2. The total glucose release peaked after pretreatment of approx. pH 1.5 with an enzymatic release of approx. 68% by weight of the original amounts present in destarched corn bran. For arabinose the enzymatic release...

  13. Effects of dietary education, followed by a tailored fructose-restricted diet in adults with fructose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Krawczyk, Marcin; Lembo, Antony; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Lammert, Frank; Portincasa, Piero

    2015-07-01

    Fructose is absorbed by GLUT transporters in the small intestine. If this process is inadequate, abdominal symptoms because of fructose intolerance may arise. The effect of a tailored fructose-restricted diet on gastrointestinal complaints was assessed in patients with fructose intolerance. Following an abnormal fructose breath test (50 g), 107 patients (64 also with lactose intolerance) entered three study periods: weeks 0-32 (free diet), weeks 32-36 (progressive increasing amount of fructose up to quantity inducing symptoms, 'trigger dose'), and weeks 36-48 (tailored fructose-restricted diet according to the 'trigger dose'). A subgroup of 15 patients underwent additional fructose breath tests (35, 25 g) to compare three different doses. At baseline, the most frequent symptoms were bloating and abdominal pain, and were more severe with combined fructose and lactose intolerance. During the free diet, patients reported eliminating (48%) or reducing (52%) fructose-containing foods, with a significant improvement in symptoms (abdominal pain from 79.7 ± 1.3 to 19.3 ± 1.8 mm; bloating from 83.1 ± 1.3 to 19.4 ± 1.8 mm; number of evacuations/day from 3.9 ± 0.16 to 1.1 ± 0.04; Bristol score from 5.1 ± 0.14 to 3.8 ± 0.1, P fructose-restricted diet, the consistent improvement in symptoms persisted and was similar to the improvement on free diet (abdominal pain 23.6 ± 1.9 mm; bloating 19.4 ± 1.8 mm; number of evacuations/day 1.7 ± 0.07; Bristol score 3.5 ± 0.06, Pfructose was observed on symptoms during the fructose breath test. In our setting, individuals with fructose intolerance show an inappropriate dietary self-management. By contrast, a tailored fructose-restricted diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms without senseless food deprivation.

  14. Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, A. Hope; Schubert, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Several issues, ranging from sustainability to health, may interest the consumers in the corn content of their food. However, because restaurants are excluded from the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, national chain restaurants provide nonspecific ingredient information and small businesses supply none. We measured the carbon isotope composition of fry oil in French fries purchased from 68 (67%) of the 101 national chain fast food restaurants on Oahu (i.e., McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s, Arby’s, and Jack in the Box), and paired this with a similar number of small businesses (n = 66) to calculate minimum percent contribution of corn to total fry oil. We found that the majority (69%) of the national chain restaurants served fries containing corn oil, whereas this was true for only a minority (20%) of the small businesses. Corn oil is more expensive than soybean oil (for example) when purchased from a small business supplier, suggesting that large-scale corporate agreements are necessary to make corn oil frying cost-effective. When considering French fry oil along with corn-fed beef and chicken, as well as high-fructose corn syrup–sweetened soda, we see the pervasive influence of corn as an ingredient in national chain fast food. PMID:20133856

  15. Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, A Hope; Schubert, Brian A

    2010-02-02

    Several issues, ranging from sustainability to health, may interest the consumers in the corn content of their food. However, because restaurants are excluded from the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, national chain restaurants provide nonspecific ingredient information and small businesses supply none. We measured the carbon isotope composition of fry oil in French fries purchased from 68 (67%) of the 101 national chain fast food restaurants on Oahu (i.e., McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Arby's, and Jack in the Box), and paired this with a similar number of small businesses (n = 66) to calculate minimum percent contribution of corn to total fry oil. We found that the majority (69%) of the national chain restaurants served fries containing corn oil, whereas this was true for only a minority (20%) of the small businesses. Corn oil is more expensive than soybean oil (for example) when purchased from a small business supplier, suggesting that large-scale corporate agreements are necessary to make corn oil frying cost-effective. When considering French fry oil along with corn-fed beef and chicken, as well as high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened soda, we see the pervasive influence of corn as an ingredient in national chain fast food.

  16. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa [UNESP; Ribeiro, Carla [UNESP; Botezelli, Jose Diego [UNESP; Ghezzi, Ana Carolina [UNESP; Mello, Maria Alice Rostom de [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.Methods: The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Bal...

  17. Ratiometric glucose sensing based on fluorescent oxygen films and glucose oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyu Su

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new two-layer sensor film was constructed for sensing glucose based on glucose oxidase and oxygen sensing material. The first layer of film containing the oxygen sensor and intra-reference material was polymerized, then the second layer of glucose oxidase and glutaraldehyde was formed on the oxygen sensor layer. The two-layer sensor film has a resolution up to 0.05 mM and a detection range from 0 to 5 mM to glucose. The effects of pH and temperature on the sensing performance were systematically investigated. The selective detection of glucose among other monosaccharides, such as fructose, mannose and galactose indicated that the sensing film has excellent selectivity. The prepared sensor was successfully applied for glucose sample detection of glucose concentration in artificial tears.

  18. Effects of telmisartan and pioglitazone on high fructose induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahataa, Mary Girgis; Mostafa-Hedeab, Gomaa; Ali, Esam Fouaad; Mahdi, Emad Ahmed; Mahmoud, Fatma Abd Elhaleem

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and hyperuricemia. This study was designed to assess the effect of telmisartan and pioglitazone on high fructose induced MS. Thirty-five male albino rats were classified into 5 groups: A, normal diet; B, high-fructose diet (HFD) subdivided into B1 (HFD only), B2 (telmisartan, 5 mg/kg), B3 (pioglitazone, 10 mg/kg), and B4 (telmisartan + pioglitazone). Administration of the drugs was started after the rats had been on HFD for 4 weeks and continued for 4 weeks. Body mass (BM), blood pressure (BP), uric acid (UA), total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and nitric oxide (NO) were measured and the levels of fasting glucose and fasting insulin were estimated. Compared with group B1, telmisartan treatment significantly decreased BP, BM, serum glucose, insulin, UA, urea, cholesterol, TGA, and LDL and significantly increased HDL, whereas pioglitazone treatment significantly decreased BP, serum glucose, insulin, UA, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, TGA, and LDL and significantly increased HDL. Co-administration of pioglitazone + telmisartan significantly decreased insulin, urea, and creatinine compared with telmisartan alone. Combined telmisartan + pioglitazone allowed better control of BP, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, and the amelioration of BM increase that may be associated with pioglitazone treatment.

  19. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  20. Conservação pós-colheita de espigas de milho verde minimamente processado sob diferentes temperaturas Post-harvest conservation of fresh-cut corn on the cob (Zea maiz L. under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mara Goulart Nunes Mamede

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito de três temperaturas (5ºC, 8ºC e 11ºC, na qualidade de híbridos de milho verde (Zea maiz L. com endosperma normal, minimamente processado, durante oito dias de armazenamento, com avaliações a cada dois dias. Foram utilizadas espigas de dois híbridos, sendo um comercial da Sementes Agroceres (Ag 1051 e outro do programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo (Embrapa HT1. A temperatura de 5ºC foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade das espigas dos híbridos de milho verde estudados, por proporcionar perda de massa reduzida e manutenção dos teores de sólidos solúveis, frutose e glicose. O híbrido Ag 1051 apresentou menor perda de massa, maiores valores de umidade e maior teor de frutose. O Embrapa HT1 apresentou maiores valores iniciais e finais para os teores de sólidos solúveis e maior valor para a coloração b*. O valor L*, que indica quãoclaro e escuro é produto, também diminuiu ao longo do armazenamento, indicando escurecimento das espigas ao longo do armazenamento.This work had the aim of evaluating the effect of three temperatures (5ºC, 8ºC and 11ºC on the quality of fresh-cut corn on the cob (Zea maiz L. with normal endosperm, for 8 days, with analyses taken every two days. Corn on the cob of two hybrids was used, a commercial common type from Sementes Agroceres (Ag 1051 and the other from the breeding program Embrapa Milho e Sorgo (Embrapa HT1. The temperature of 5ºC was more efficient to preserve the quality of normal corn by promoting reduced mass loss and higher contents of soluble solids, fructose and glucose. The hybrid Ag 1051 presented lower mass loss, higher contents of moisture and higher content of fructose. The hybrid Embrapa HT1 presented higher initial and final values for soluble solids and higher b* value. The L* value also decreased along storage, indicating browning of the corns along the storage.

  1. The mechanisms underlying fructose-induced hypertension: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alice Victoria; Kiat, Hosen

    2015-01-01

    We are currently in the midst of an epidemic of metabolic disorders, which may, in part, be explained by excess fructose intake. This theory is supported by epidemiological observations as well as experimental studies in animals and humans. Rising consumption of fructose has been matched with growing rates of hypertension, leading to concern from public health experts. At this stage, the mechanisms underlying fructose-induced hypertension have not been fully characterized and the bulk of our knowledge is derived from animal models. Animal studies have shown that high-fructose diets up-regulate sodium and chloride transporters, resulting in a state of salt overload that increases blood pressure. Excess fructose has also been found to activate vasoconstrictors, inactivate vasodilators, and over-stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. Further work is required to determine the relevance of these findings to humans and to establish the level at which dietary fructose increases the risk of developing hypertension PMID:25715094

  2. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Linna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Methods Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic β-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. Results After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p 0.05. Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05. Conclusion Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured β-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  3. Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Pozo, S E; Schold, J; Nakagawa, T; Sánchez-Lozada, L G; Johnson, R J; Lillo, J López

    2010-03-01

    Excessive fructose intake causes metabolic syndrome in animals and can be partially prevented by lowering the uric acid level. We tested the hypothesis that fructose might induce features of metabolic syndrome in adult men and whether this is protected by allopurinol. A randomized, controlled trial of 74 adult men who were administered 200 g fructose daily for 2 weeks with or without allopurinol. Primary measures included changes in ambulatory blood pressure (BP), fasting lipids, glucose and insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, body mass index and criteria for metabolic syndrome. The ingestion of fructose resulted in an increase in ambulatory BP (7+/-2 and 5+/-2 mm Hg for systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), Pmetabolic syndrome increased by 25-33% depending on the criteria. Allopurinol lowered the serum uric acid level (Pmetabolic syndrome (0-2%, P=0.009). High doses of fructose raise the BP and cause the features of metabolic syndrome. Lowering the uric acid level prevents the increase in mean arterial blood pressure. Excessive intake of fructose may have a role in the current epidemics of obesity and diabetes.

  4. Fructose-induced symptoms beyond malabsorption in FGID

    OpenAIRE

    Biesiekierski, Jessica R

    2014-01-01

    The dietary carbohydrate fructose can be incompletely absorbed in the small intestine and is sometimes associated with gastrointestinal symptoms that include motility disturbances and abdominal pain. Fructose malabsorption has been well documented in variable but similar proportions of healthy and populations with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Recent work into the expression of the main intestinal fructose transporter proteins highlight that our understanding of the mechanistic basis...

  5. Effect of Xylitol on Growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Presence of Fructose and Sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiainen, Terhi; Kontiokari, Tero; Sammalkivi, Laura; Ikäheimo, Irma; Koskela, Markku; Uhari, Matti

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol is effective in preventing acute otitis media by inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae. To clarify this inhibition we used fructose, which is known to block similar growth inhibition observed in Streptococcus mutans. In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of sorbitol in inhibiting the growth of pneumococci, as sorbitol is widely used for indications similar to those for which xylitol is used. The addition of 5% xylitol to the growth medium resulted in marked growth inhibition, an effect which was totally eliminated in the presence of 1, 2.5, or 5% fructose but not in the presence of 1 or 5% glucose, 1% galactose, or 1% sucrose. This finding implies that xylitol-induced inhibition of pneumococcal growth is mediated via the fructose phosphotransferase system in a way similar to that in which mutans group streptococcal growth is inhibited. The addition of sorbitol at concentrations of 1, 2.5, or 5% to the growth medium did not affect the growth of pneumococci and neither inhibited nor enhanced the xylitol-induced growth impairment. Thus, it seems that xylitol is the only commercially used sugar substitute proven to have an antimicrobial effect on pneumococci. PMID:11120960

  6. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Type II Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase GlpX from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.; Singer, A.; Lunin, V. V.; Proudfoot, M.; Skarina, T.; Flick, R.; Kochinyan, S.; Sanishvili, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Edwards, A. M.; Savchenko, A.; Yakunin, A. F.

    2009-02-06

    Gluconeogenesis is an important metabolic pathway, which produces glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors such as organic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, or glycerol. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, is found in all organisms, and five different classes of these enzymes have been identified. Here we demonstrate that Escherichia coli has two class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases, GlpX and YggF, which show different catalytic properties. We present the first crystal structure of a class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (GlpX) determined in a free state and in the complex with a substrate (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate) or inhibitor (phosphate). The crystal structure of the ligand-free GlpX revealed a compact, globular shape with two {alpha}/{beta}-sandwich domains. The core fold of GlpX is structurally similar to that of Li{sup +}-sensitive phosphatases implying that they have a common evolutionary origin and catalytic mechanism. The structure of the GlpX complex with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate revealed that the active site is located between two domains and accommodates several conserved residues coordinating two metal ions and the substrate. The third metal ion is bound to phosphate 6 of the substrate. Inorganic phosphate strongly inhibited activity of both GlpX and YggF, and the crystal structure of the GlpX complex with phosphate demonstrated that the inhibitor molecule binds to the active site. Alanine replacement mutagenesis of GlpX identified 12 conserved residues important for activity and suggested that Thr{sup 90} is the primary catalytic residue. Our data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of the substrate specificity and catalysis of GlpX and other class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases.

  7. The osmotolerant fructophilic yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii employs two plasma-membrane fructose uptake systems belonging to a new family of yeast sugar transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Maria José; Sychrová, Hana; Prista, Catarina; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C

    2011-02-01

    Owing to its high resistance to weak-acid preservatives and extreme osmotolerance, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is one of the main spoilage yeasts of sweet foods and beverages. In contrast with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Z. rouxii is a fructophilic yeast; it consumes fructose faster than glucose. So far, to our knowledge, no specific Z. rouxii proteins responsible for this fructophilic behaviour have been characterized. We have identified two genes encoding putative fructose transporters in the Z. rouxii CBS 732 genome. Heterologous expression of these two Z. rouxii ORFs in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking its own hexose transporters (hxt-null) and subsequent kinetic analysis of sugar transport showed that both proteins are functionally expressed at the plasma membrane: ZrFfz1 is a high-capacity fructose-specific facilitator (K(m)∼400 mM and V(max)∼13 mmol h(-1) g(-1)) and ZrFfz2 is a facilitator transporting glucose and fructose with similar capacity and affinity (K(m)∼200 mM and V(max)∼4 mmol h(-1) g(-1)). These two proteins together with the Zygosaccharomyces bailii Ffz1 fructose-specific transporter belong to a new family of sugar transport systems mediating the uptake of hexoses via the facilitated diffusion mechanism, and are more homologous to drug/H(+) antiporters (regarding their primary protein structure) than to other yeast sugar transporters of the Sugar Porter family.

  8. Beneficial effects of co-enzyme Q10 and rosiglitazone in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased fructose consumption is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome (MS. This study was performed to elucidate the role of co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ and/or rosiglitazone (Rosi in fructose induced MS. Four groups of rats (n = 8–10 were fed on fructose-enriched diet (FED for 16 weeks. One served as FED-control while the remaining groups were treated with CoQ (10 mg/kg/day, Rosi (4 mg/kg/day or their combination during the last 6 weeks. Another group was fed on normal laboratory chow (normal control. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for estimation of markers related to MS. In addition, histological examination of liver, kidney and pancreas samples was done. Induction of the MS was associated with increased body weight gain (34% coupled with elevated levels of blood glucose (48%, insulin (86%, insulin resistance (270%, uric acid (69%, urea (155%, creatinine (129% and blood lipids with different degrees. Fructose-induced MS also reduced plasma catalase (62% and glutathione peroxidase (89% activities parallel to increased serum leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels. These changes were coupled by marked histological changes in the examined tissues. Treatment with CoQ or Rosi attenuated most of MS-induced changes. Besides, the combination of both agents further reduced blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and urea levels, as well as, normalized serum levels of leptin and TNF-α. In addition, combined therapy of both agents elevated HDL-cholesterol level and glutathione peroxidase activity. In conclusion, the present study proves the benefits of co-supplementation of CoQ and Rosi in a fructose-induced model of insulin resistance.

  9. Fructose 1-phosphate is the one and only physiological effector of the Cra (FruR regulator of Pseudomonas putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chavarría

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose-1-phosphate (F1P is the preferred effector of the catabolite repressor/activator (Cra protein of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida but its ability to bind other metabolic intermediates in vivo is unclear. The Cra protein of this microorganism (CraPP was submitted to mobility shift assays with target DNA sequences (the PfruB promoter and candidate effectors fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP, glucose 6-phosphate (G6P, and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P. 1 mM F1P was sufficient to release most of the Cra protein from its operators but more than 10 mM of FBP or G6P was required to free the same complex. However, isothermal titration microcalorimetry failed to expose any specific interaction between CraPP and FBP or G6P. To solve this paradox, transcriptional activity of a PfruB-lacZ fusion was measured in wild-type and ΔfruB cells growing on substrates that change the intracellular concentrations of F1P and FBP. The data indicated that PfruB activity was stimulated by fructose but not by glucose or succinate. This suggested that CraPP represses expression in vivo of the cognate fruBKA operon in a fashion dependent just on F1P, ruling out any other physiological effector. Molecular docking and dynamic simulations of the Cra-agonist interaction indicated that both metabolites can bind the repressor, but the breach in the relative affinity of CraPP for F1P vs FBP is three orders of magnitude larger than the equivalent distance in the Escherichia coli protein. This assigns the Cra protein of P. putida the sole role of transducing the presence of fructose in the medium into a variety of direct and indirect physiological responses.

  10. Fructose 1-phosphate is the one and only physiological effector of the Cra (FruR) regulator of Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, Max; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Krell, Tino; Santiago, César; Brezovsky, Jan; Damborsky, Jiri; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-1-phosphate (F1P) is the preferred effector of the catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida but its ability to bind other metabolic intermediates in vivo is unclear. The Cra protein of this microorganism (Cra(PP)) was submitted to mobility shift assays with target DNA sequences (the PfruB promoter) and candidate effectors fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P). 1 mM F1P was sufficient to release most of the Cra protein from its operators but more than 10 mM of FBP or G6P was required to free the same complex. However, isothermal titration microcalorimetry failed to expose any specific interaction between Cra(PP) and FBP or G6P. To solve this paradox, transcriptional activity of a PfruB-lacZ fusion was measured in wild-type and ΔfruB cells growing on substrates that change the intracellular concentrations of F1P and FBP. The data indicated that PfruB activity was stimulated by fructose but not by glucose or succinate. This suggested that Cra(PP) represses expression in vivo of the cognate fruBKA operon in a fashion dependent just on F1P, ruling out any other physiological effector. Molecular docking and dynamic simulations of the Cra-agonist interaction indicated that both metabolites can bind the repressor, but the breach in the relative affinity of Cra(PP) for F1P vs FBP is three orders of magnitude larger than the equivalent distance in the Escherichia coli protein. This assigns the Cra protein of P. putida the sole role of transducing the presence of fructose in the medium into a variety of direct and indirect physiological responses.

  11. Cloning and expression of the Clostridium thermosulfurogenes glucose isomerase gene in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C Y; Bhatnagar, L; Saha, B C; Lee, Y E; Takagi, M; Imanaka, T; Bagdasarian, M; Zeikus, J G

    1990-01-01

    The gene that encodes thermostable glucose isomerase in Clostridium thermosulfurogenes was cloned by complementation of glucose isomerase activity in a xylA mutant of Escherichia coli. A new assay method for thermostable glucose isomerase activity on agar plates, using a top agar mixture containing fructose, glucose oxidase, peroxidase, and benzidine, was developed. One positive clone, carrying plasmid pCGI38, was isolated from a cosmid library of C. thermosulfurogenes DNA. The plasmid was fu...

  12. Effects of D-allulose on glucose metabolism after the administration of sugar or food in healthy dogs

    OpenAIRE

    NISHII, Naohito; NOMIZO, Toru; TAKASHIMA, Satoshi; MATSUBARA, Tatsuya; TOKUDA, Masaaki; KITAGAWA, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    D-allulose is a C-3 epimer of D-fructose and has recently been investigated for its hypoglycemic effects. In the present study, the effects of D-allulose on glucose metabolism were evaluated in healthy dogs administrated sugar or food. The oral administrations of D-allulose decreased plasma glucose concentrations after oral glucose or maltose administration, with a diminished plasma insulin rise. The glucose suppressive effect of D-allulose was also observed after intravenous glucose administ...

  13. High fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome: Pathophysiological mechanism and treatment by traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2018-02-19

    Fructose is a natural monosaccharide broadly used in modern society. Over the past few decades, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high fructose intake is an etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This review highlights research advances on fructose-induced MetS, especially the underlying pathophysiological mechanism as well as pharmacotherapy by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), using the PubMed, Web of science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal and Wanfang Data. This review focuses on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and uric acid (UA) production, two unique features of fructolysis different from glucose glycolysis. High level of DNL and UA production can result in insulin resistance, the key pathological event in developing MetS, mostly through oxidative stress and inflammation. Some other pathologies like the disturbance in brain and gut microbiota in the development of fructose-induced MetS in the past years, are also discussed. In management of MetS, TCM is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicine with a complete theory system and substantial herbal remedies. TCMs against MetS or MetS components, including Chinese patent medicines, TCM compound formulas, single TCM herbs and active compounds of TCM herbs, are reviewed on their effects and molecular mechanisms. TCMs with hypouricemic activity, which specially target fructose-induced MetS, are highlighted. And new technologies and strategies (such as high-throughput assay and systems biology) in this field are further discussed. In summary, fructose-induced MetS is a multifactorial disorder with the underlying complex mechanisms. Current clinical and pre-clinical evidence supports the potential of TCMs in management of MetS. Additionally, TCMs may show some advantages against complex MetS as their holistic feature through multiple target actions. However, further work is needed to confirm the effectivity and safety of TCMs

  14. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie R. Wilburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1 EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2 (~600 kcal and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2 EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3 CON: no exercise control. Results The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes, respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL x 360 minutes ( P < 0.05. Conclusions A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  15. Kinetic studies of cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis from pretreated corn cob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanie, Jeannie; Kartawiria, Irvan; Abimanyu, Haznan

    2017-01-01

    Successful utilization of corn cob biomass as raw material in bioethanol production is depending on the hydrolysis process where high level of β-cellulose is converted into glucose. Enzymatic hydrolysis is the common process for this purpose. This study is focusing on the evaluation of hydrolysis of pre-treated corn cob using Novozymes Cellic ® C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes to obtain the optimum reaction condition and its general reaction kinetics. The corn cob used was pretreated using 10% of NaOH solution. Hydrolysis reactions were conducted in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask for 72 hour using mixture of C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes at the fixed ratio of 5:1 and glucose concentration were measured using HPLC. Reaction temperature of 40°C and quantity of 0.5 ml enzyme solution per gram substrate gives the highest reaction rate (0.0123 gram of glucose/gram sample.h) with the glucose yield being 0.089 g glucose/ g substrate. Total conversion of cellulose observed was 11.91 %. Corn cob hydrolysis using C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes also result in xylose (0.0202 g/g substrate), which can also contribute to bioethanol productivity in further fermentation process. The reaction is following zero order kinetics for the first 8 hours and reaches maximum yield within 10 hours; significantly shorter compared to previous studies of cellulosic material hydrolysis that may take up to 72 hour to complete. Prolonging the hydrolysis of pre-treated corn cob more than 24 hour gives no significant increase in glucose conversion and yield. Hydrolysis temperature range of 40°C to 60°C is in accordance with the manufacturer recommendation for the purpose; however the decrease of reaction rate is observable at temperature 50°C or higher.

  16. High-fructose diet in pregnancy leads to fetal programming of hypertension, insulin resistance, and obesity in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Antonio F; Dickerson, Joshua; Kechichian, Talar B; Yin, Huaizhi; Gamble, Phyllis; Salazar, Ashley; Patrikeev, Igor; Motamedi, Massoud; Saade, George R; Costantine, Maged M

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of fructose-rich diets in the United States is on the rise and thought to be associated with obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. We sought to determine the effects of antenatal exposure to high-fructose diet on offspring's development of metabolic syndrome-like phenotype and other cardiovascular disease risk factors later in life. Pregnant C57BL/6J dams were randomly allocated to fructose solution (10% wt/vol, n = 10) or water (n = 10) as the only drinking fluid from day 1 of pregnancy until delivery. After weaning, pups were started on regular chow, and evaluated at 1 year of life. We measured percent visceral adipose tissue and liver fat infiltrates using computed tomography, and blood pressure using CODA nonivasive monitor. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing with corresponding insulin concentrations were obtained. Serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, leptin, and adiponectin were measured in duplicate using standardized assays. Fasting homeostatic model assessment was also calculated to assess insulin resistance. P values curve compared with control, and higher mean arterial pressure compared to control. Female fructose group offspring were heavier and had higher percent visceral adipose tissue, liver fat infiltrates, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance scores, insulin area under the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing curve, and serum concentrations of leptin, and lower concentrations of adiponectin compared to female control offspring. No significant differences in these parameters were noted in male offspring. Serum concentrations of triglycerides or total cholesterol were not different between the 2 groups for either gender. Maternal intake of high fructose leads to fetal programming of adult obesity, hypertension, and metabolic dysfunction, all risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This fetal programming is more pronounced in female offspring. Limiting intake of high

  17. Increased serum amylase and lipase in fructose malabsorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledochowski, M; Murr, C; Lass-Flörl, C; Fuchs, D

    2001-09-25

    Fructose malabsorption is frequently seen in the general population and is characterised by the inability to absorb fructose efficiently. Due to fructose malabsorption, fructose reaches the colon where it is broken down by bacteria to short fatty acids, CO(2) and H(2). Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are the consequence. We recently found that fructose malabsorption is associated with low plasma folic acid concentrations and low serum tryptophan and zinc. Because fructose malabsorption apparently is associated not only with malabsorption of other nutrients, but also with abdominal discomfort, it was of interest to examine whether mild pancreatitis may be involved. We retrospectively examined our data in 159 otherwise healthy adults (110 females, 49 males) aged 14-84 years (mean 45.6+/-14.4 S.D.) with gastrointestinal complaints for serum amylase and serum lipase concentrations. The patients have been tested earlier for fructose malabsorption and lactose maldigestion by measuring breath H(2) concentrations after an oral dose of 25 g fructose and 50 g lactose, respectively, 1 week apart. Fructose malabsorption (H(2) concentrations > or =20 ppm over baseline values) was detected in 107 of 159 individuals (67.3%). These subjects with fructose malabsorption presented with significantly higher serum amylase concentrations (73.1 U/l+/-25.7 S.D.) compared to individuals with normal fructose absorption (59.6 U/l+17.9 S.D; p=0.0009). Fructose malabsorbers also presented with higher serum lipase concentrations (122.0 U/l+/-100.3 S.D.) compared to normals (89.5 U/l+/-46.5 S.D.; pmalabsorption syndrome or whether it is specific for fructose malabsorption, all subjects were screened for lactose maldigestion. Lactose maldigestion (H(2) concentrations>20 ppm over baseline after lactose loading) was found in 50 of 159 individuals (31.4%). There were no significant differences in either amylase or lipase concentrations in lactose

  18. Automated photosynthesis of 11C-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, K.; Monma, M.; Iwata, R.; Ido, T.

    1982-01-01

    Glucose and fructose, labelled with 11 C, were produced by passing 11 CO 2 into an evacuated chamber containing spinach leaves. Photosynthesis was carried out by day light lamp illumination. 75-95% of the 11 CO 2 was absorbed by the leaves and the radioactivity in the leaves was extracted in ethanol as sugars. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC. The automated system was controlled by timers. (U.K.)

  19. Glucose reactions with acid and base catalysts in hot compressed water at 473 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masaru; Aizawa, Yuichi; Iida, Toru; Aida, Taku M; Levy, Caroline; Sue, Kiwamu; Inomata, Hiroshi

    2005-09-05

    The effects of the homogeneous catalysts (H(2)SO(4) and NaOH) and heterogeneous catalysts (TiO(2) and ZrO(2)) on glucose reactions were examined in hot compressed water (473 K) by a batch-type reactor. From the homogeneous catalyst studies, we confirmed that the acid catalyst promoted dehydration, while isomerization of glucose to fructose was catalyzed by alkali. Anatase TiO(2) was found to act as an acid catalyst to promote formation of 5-hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (HMF). Zirconia (ZrO(2)) was a base catalyst to promote the isomerization of glucose. The effects of the additives were also confirmed through fructose reactions.

  20. Production of lactic acid from corn cobs hydrolysate through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes several essential factors for indirect and effective lactic acid production from food wastes by strains of. Lactobaccillus delbrukii using corn cob hydrolysates. The fermentation conditions considered were glucose concentration (1 - 5%), temperature (34 - 40oC), time (0 - 8 days) and pH (5 - 6).

  1. Fructans of chicory: intestinal transport and fermentation of different chain lengths and relation to fructose and sorbitol malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1998-08-01

    Fructans (fructooligosaccharides and inulin) are of increasing interest to clinical nutritionists as functional food additives. The chemically closely related food carbohydrates fructose and sorbitol are implicated in functional bowel disease. Intestinal handling of these carbohydrates is incompletely understood. Intestinal absorption, transit, and fermentation (breath hydrogen and methane, venous acetate, blood glucose, and urine fructans) after ingestion of 10-30 g short- and long-chain fructans from chicory were studied by single-blind, crossover randomization in 10 healthy adults. Responses were compared with responses after ingestion of lactulose, fructose, and sorbitol. Breath hydrogen and venous acetate production increased in proportion to increasing fructan dose and were similar to responses to lactulose. The transit times of long-chain fructans were longer than those of short-chain fructans (75 compared with 30 min, Pmalabsorption than were breath-hydrogen curves (Pmalabsorption of 50 g fructose, resulting in significantly more symptoms than 20 g fructose (Pmalabsorption or abdominal distress. Abdominal symptoms after fructans increased with increasing dose and decreasing chain length. The overall gastrointestinal effects of short-chain fructans seem similar to those of lactulose. Fructans with different chain lengths may have different physiologic properties and further studies of fructans in disease states are warranted.

  2. Effect of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae) ethyl acetate and acetone fractions on insulin resistance in fructose drinking mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoma, Batomayena; Berké, Bénédicte; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amegnona; Aklikokou, Kodjo; Gbeassor, Messanvi; Moore, Nicholas

    2014-05-14

    The root of Bridelia ferruginea is traditionally used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effect of Bridelia ferruginea root bark fractions on some markers of type 2 diabetes on fructose drinking mice. Mice received a solution of fructose 15% during 42 days ad libitum; at the 15th day to the 42nd day, they received distilled water for fructose drinking control group, metformin 50 mg/kg per day or fractions 50 mg/kg per day for treatment groups. The normal control group received only distilled water during the experiment. After 6 weeks of experiment, OGTT, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, AST and ALT levels were measured. Fructose drinking control group (F) showed significant (pethyl acetate fraction, acetone fraction and metformin at the same dose of 50 mg/kg per day during 4 weeks administration. In ethyl acetate fraction and metformin treated groups, biochemical parameters and insulin index were significantly (pethyl acetate fraction improved insulin resistance as metformin significantly in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toward a Kinetic Model for Acrylamide Formation in a Glucose-Asparagine Reaction System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J.J.; Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Ruck, A.L.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2005-01-01

    A kinetic model for the formation of acrylamide in a glucose-asparagine reaction system is pro-posed. Equimolar solutions (0.2 M) of glucose and asparagine were heated at different tempera-tures (120-200 C) at pH 6.8. Besides the reactants, acrylamide, fructose, and melanoidins were quantified after

  4. Influence of fructose on the mechanisms for ethanol-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve adult albino rabbits with an average weight of 1.42kg were purchased and divided equally into the normal saline, ethanol and ethanol+fructose-treated groups. The ethanol-treated group orally received 1.5g (40%) ethanol/kg body weight as single daily dose, while the ethanol +fructose-treated animals also received ...

  5. influence of fructose on the mechanisms for ethanol- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    TAG production. Table 1, shows that ethanol + fructose consumption increased plasma VLDL- and. HDL- but decreased LDL- components. These data suggest that in the presence of fructose, ethanol may produce accelerated clearance of LDL, decreased conversion of. VLDL to LDL or increased hepatic synthesis of VLDL.

  6. Insulin Resistance Induced by Short term Fructose Feeding may not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fructose feeding causes insulin resistance and invariably Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) in rats and genetically predisposed humans. The effect of insulin resistance induced by short term fructose feeding on fertility in female rats was investigated using the following parameters: oestrous phase and ...

  7. Silymarin ameliorates fructose induced insulin resistance syndrome by reducing de novo hepatic lipogenesis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Prem; Singh, Vishal; Jain, Manish; Rana, Minakshi; Khanna, Vivek; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu

    2014-03-15

    High dietary fructose causes insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), primarily due to simultaneous induction of genes involved in glucose, lipid and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. The present study evaluates effect of a hepatoprotective agent, silymarin (SYM) on fructose-induced metabolic abnormalities in the rat and also assessed the associated thrombotic complications. Wistar rats were kept on high fructose (HFr) diet throughout the 12-week study duration (9 weeks of HFr feeding and subsequently 3 weeks of HFr plus SYM oral administration [once daily]). SYM treatment significantly reduced the HFr diet-induced increase expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α/β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, liver X receptor (LXR)-β, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and PPARγ genes in rat liver. SYM also reduced HFr diet mediated increase in plasma triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), uric acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), total nitrite and pro-inflammatory cytokines (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], interferon-gamma [IFN-γ] and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]) levels. Moreover, SYM ameliorated HFr diet induced reduction in glucose utilization and endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, SYM significantly reduced platelet activation (adhesion and aggregation), prolonged ferric chloride-induced blood vessel occlusion time and protected against exacerbated myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI-RP) injury. SYM treatment prevented HFr induced mRNA expression of hepatic PGC-1α/β and also its target transcription factors which was accompanied with recovery in insulin sensitivity and reduced propensity towards thrombotic complications and aggravated MI-RP injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Method for converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Blake A [San Francisco, CA; Volponi, Joanne V [Livermore, CA; Ingersoll, David [Albuquerque, NM; Walker, Andrew [Woodinville, WA

    2009-07-07

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for continuously converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose. The method comprises a three-stage enzymatic reactor in which an aqueous solution of sucrose is first converted into a solution of fructose and .alpha.-D-glucose by passing it through a porous, packed column containing an inert media on which invertase is immobilized. This solution is then sent through a second packed column containing glucose isomerase and finally a third packed column containing mutarotase. Solution temperature and pH are adjusted to maximize glucose output.

  9. Malabsorption of fructose-sorbitol mixtures. Interactions causing abdominal distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests were performed on 10 healthy adults after they had ingested a mixture of sorbitol and fructose, in which these substances were present in amounts corresponding to the individual absorption capacities. A significant malabsorption of this mixture was evident in 7 of 10 subjects......, but given as sucrose, and a similar amount of sorbitol was further given to four of the seven subjects showing malabsorption of the fructose-sorbitol mixture. Malabsorption now failed to appear, and symptoms were absent. These findings are of potential importance for the understanding of the physiologic...... processes involved in fructose absorption and suggest that in healthy adults the presence of sorbitol interferes with fructose absorption and/or vice versa. An interaction between small amounts of fructose and sorbitol causing malabsorption and abdominal distress has not been demonstrated previously...

  10. Gastrodia elata Ameliorates High-Fructose Diet-Induced Lipid Metabolism and Endothelial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chul Kho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overconsumption of fructose results in dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance, which have documented correlation with metabolic syndrome. Gastrodia elata, a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and antidiabetes activities. Thus, this study examined whether ethanol extract of Gastrodia elata Blume (EGB attenuate lipid metabolism and endothelial dysfunction in a high-fructose (HF diet animal model. Rats were fed the 65% HF diet with/without EGB 100 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Treatment with EGB significantly suppressed the increments of epididymal fat weight, blood pressure, plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol levels, and oral glucose tolerance, respectively. In addition, EGB markedly prevented increase of adipocyte size and hepatic accumulation of triglycerides. EGB ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and adhesion molecules in the aorta. Moreover, EGB significantly recovered the impairment of vasorelaxation to acetylcholine and levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression and induced markedly upregulation of phosphorylation AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα in the liver, muscle, and fat. These results indicate that EGB ameliorates dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance as well as impaired vascular endothelial function in HF diet rats. Taken together, EGB may be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome.

  11. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous  Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorn Trommelen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g∙min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co‐ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co‐ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL∙kg−1∙min−1 cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g∙min−1 of glucose (GLU, 1.2 g∙min−1 glucose + 0.6 g∙min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU, 0.6 g∙min−1 glucose + 1.2 g∙min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC, or water (WAT. Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g∙min−1, respectively, p = 0.999, but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g∙min−1: p < 0.05. In line, exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g∙min−1, respectively, p < 0.05. We conclude that fructose co‐ingestion (0.6 g∙min−1 with glucose (1.2 g∙min−1 provided either as a monosaccharide or as sucrose strongly increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists.

  12. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli T; Ribeiro, Carla; Botezelli, José D; Ghezzi, Ana C; Mello, Maria Ar

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity. The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Balanced (LB): low-protein diet in utero and balanced diet after birth; Low protein/Fructose (LF): low protein diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth. Acute physical exercise reduced the muscle glycogen concentrations in all groups, although the LF group showed higher concentrations at rest. There was no difference among the groups in the glucose uptake and oxidation rates in the isolated soleus muscle neither at rest nor after acute exercise. However, glycogen synthesis was higher in the LF muscle than in the others at rest. Acute physical exercise increased glycogen synthesis in all groups, and the LF group showed the highest values. The fructose-rich diet administered in rats after fetal protein malnutrition alters muscle glycogen concentrations and glycogen synthesis in the rest and after acute exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

  13. Portal Vein Glucose Entry Triggers a Coordinated Cellular Response That Potentiates Hepatic Glucose Uptake and Storage in Normal but Not High-Fat/High-Fructose–Fed Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Coate, Katie C.; Kraft, Guillaume; Irimia, Jose M.; Smith, Marta S.; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss W.; Roach, Peter J.; Shiota, Masakazu; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular events mediating the pleiotropic actions of portal vein glucose (PoG) delivery on hepatic glucose disposition have not been clearly defined. Likewise, the molecular defects associated with postprandial hyperglycemia and impaired hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) following consumption of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD) are unknown. Our goal was to identify hepatocellular changes elicited by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and PoG signaling in normal chow-fed (CTR) and HFFD-fed d...

  14. Insulin Resistance Promotes Early Atherosclerosis via Increased Proinflammatory Proteins and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed ApoE-KO Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Cannizzo

    2012-01-01

    Mice were fed with either a normal chow or a 10% w/v fructose (HF in drinking water over a period of 8 weeks. Thereafter, plasma metabolic parameters, vascular remodeling, atheroma lesion size, inflammatory markers, and NAD(PH oxidase activity in the arteries were determined. HF diet induced a marked increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides in ApoE-KO mice, provoked vascular remodeling, enhanced expression of vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9 and enlarged atherosclerotic lesion in aortic and carotid arteries. NAD(PH oxidase activity was enhanced by fructose intake, and this effect was attenuated by tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, and losartan, an Angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Our study results show that high-fructose-induced insulin resistance promotes a proinflammatory and prooxidant state which accelerates atherosclerotic plaque formation in ApoE-KO mice.

  15. Chronic Fructose Ingestion as a Major Health Concern: Is a Sedentary Lifestyle Making It Worse? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Bidwell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity contributes to metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, all of which are risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. The growing prevelance of metabolic syndrome seems to be an end result of our current lifestyle which promotes high caloric, high-fat foods and minimal physical activity, resulting in a state of positive energy balance. Increased adiposity and physical inactivity may represent the beginning of the appearance of these risk factors. Understanding the metabolic and cardiovascular disturbances associated with diet and exercise habits is a crucial step towards reducing the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Although considerable research has been conducted linking chronic fructose ingestion to the increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome risk factors, these studies have mainly been performed on animals, and/or in a post-absorptive state. Further, the magnitude of the effect of fructose may depend on other aspects of the diet, including the total amount of carbohydrates and fats in the diet and the overall consumption of meals. Therefore, the overall aim of this review paper is to examine the effects of a diet high in fructose on postprandial lipidemia, inflammatory markers and glucose tolerance, all risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, an objective is to investigate whether increased physical activity can alter such effects.

  16. Treating fructose-induced metabolic changes in mice with high-intensity interval training: insights in the liver, white adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Victor F; Bargut, Thereza L; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2017-10-01

    Fructose-rich caloric sweeteners induce adverse changes in the metabolism of humans. The study evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on a fructose feeding model, focusing on the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and their interplay. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed for 18 wk one of the following diets: control (C; 5% of total energy from fructose) or fructose (F; 55% of total energy from fructose). In the 10th week, for an additional 8-wk period, the groups were divided into nontrained (NT) or HIIT groups, totaling four groups: C-NT, C-HIIT, F-NT, and F-HIIT. At the end of the experiment, fructose consumption in the F-NT group led to a high systolic blood pressure, high plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance with glucose intolerance, and lower insulin sensitivity. We also observed liver steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, and diminished gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α and fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5; irisin) in this F-NT group. These results were accompanied by decreased gene expressions of nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (markers of mitochondrial biogenesis), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (markers of β-oxidation). HIIT improved all of these data in the C-HIIT and F-HIIT groups. In conclusion, in mice fed a fructose diet, HIIT improved body mass, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and plasma triglycerides. Liver, WAT, and skeletal muscle were positively modulated by HIIT, indicating HIIT as a coadjutant treatment for diseases affecting these tissues. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in mice fed a fructose-rich diet and the resulting severe negative effect on the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and skeletal muscle, which reduced the expression of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5, irisin) and

  17. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  18. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  19. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  20. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  1. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions.

  2. Primary epiploic appendagitis and fructose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, W J; Lipp, R W; Wallner-Liebmann, S J; Kalmar, P; Szolar, D H; Mangge, H

    2014-12-01

    Primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA) is a rare cause of abdominal acute or subacute complaints. Diagnosis of PEA is made when computed tomography (CT) reveals a characteristic lesion. We report on contrast-enhanced CT images of a patient with PEA and regression of inflammation and the reduction in size of the inflamed appendage over the time period of 4 months. Patients with PEA usually recover without medication or surgical treatment within a few weeks. However, due to continuing bloating and irregular bowel movements we investigated carbohydrate malabsorption and diagnosed a fructose malabsorption. Bloating and irregular bowel movements in this patient with PEA were correlated to carbohydrate malabsorption and were treated successfully with a diet free of culprit carbohydrates.

  3. Structure of fructose bisphosphate aldolase from Bartonella henselae bound to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardberg, Anna; Abendroth, Jan; Bhandari, Janhavi; Sankaran, Banumathi; Staker, Bart

    2011-01-01

    While other aldolases crystallize readily in the apo form, diffraction-quality crystals of B. henselae aldolase could only be obtained in the presence of the native substrate. The quaternary structure is tetrameric, as is typical of aldolases. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) enzymes have been found in a broad range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. FBPA catalyses the cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. The SSGCID has reported several FBPA structures from pathogenic sources, including the bacterium Brucella melitensis and the protozoan Babesia bovis. Bioinformatic analysis of the Bartonella henselae genome revealed an FBPA homolog. The B. henselae FBPA enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme crystallized in the apo form but failed to diffract; however, well diffracting crystals could be obtained by cocrystallization in the presence of the native substrate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A data set to 2.35 Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 72.39, b = 127.71, c = 157.63 Å. The structure was refined to a final free R factor of 22.2%. The structure shares the typical barrel tertiary structure and tetrameric quaternary structure reported for previous FBPA structures and exhibits the same Schiff base in the active site

  4. Impact of Gentamicin Coadministration along with High Fructose Feeding on Progression of Renal Failure and Metabolic Syndrome in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid O. Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the impact of high fructose feeding in rat model of gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180–200 g were randomized into four groups; (C received standard rodents chow with free access to ad libitum drinking water for 8 weeks and was considered as control, (F received standard rodents chow with free access to drinking water supplemented with 20% (W/V fructose for the same abovementioned period, (FG was fed as group F and was given 80 mg/kg (body weight/day gentamicin sulphate intraperitoneally during the last 20 days of the feeding period, and (G was given gentamicin as above and fed as group C. Renal function was assessed at the end of the treatment period through measuring serum creatinine, uric acid and albumin, creatinine clearance, absolute and fractional excretion of both sodium and potassium, twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of albumin, and renal histology. For metabolic syndrome assessment, fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured and oral glucose tolerance test was performed throughout the treatment period. Results showed that gentamicin enhances progression of fructose induced metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, fructose pretreatment before gentamicin injection produced a comparable degree of renal dysfunction to those which were given fructose-free water but the picture of nephrotoxicity was somewhat altered as it was characterized by higher extent of glomerular congestion and protein urea. Overall, more vigilance is required when nephrotoxic drugs are prescribed for patients with fructose induced metabolic syndrome.

  5. Fructose diet alleviates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjoon Cho

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic that can cause hepatotoxicity due to production of toxic metabolites via cytochrome P450 (Cyp 1a2 and Cyp2e1. Previous studies have shown conflicting effects of fructose (the major component in Western diet on the susceptibility to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To evaluate the role of fructose-supplemented diet in modulating the extent of APAP-induced liver injury, male C57BL/6J mice were given 30% (w/v fructose in water (or regular water for 8 weeks, followed by oral administration of APAP. APAP-induced liver injury (determined by serum levels of liver enzymes was decreased by two-fold in mice pretreated with fructose. Fructose-treated mice exhibited (~1.5 fold higher basal glutathione levels and (~2 fold lower basal (mRNA and activity levels of Cyp1a2 and Cyp2e1, suggesting decreased bioactivation of APAP and increased detoxification of toxic metabolite in fructose-fed mice. Hepatic mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 was also found increased in fructose-fed mice. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the cecal samples of vehicle groups showed that the fructose diet altered gut bacterial community, leading to increased α-diversity. The abundance of several bacterial taxa including the genus Anaerostipes was found to be significantly correlated with the levels of hepatic Cyp2e1, Cyp1a2 mRNA, and glutathione. Together, these results suggest that the fructose-supplemented diet decreases APAP-induced liver injury in mice, in part by reducing metabolic activation of APAP and inducing detoxification of toxic metabolites, potentially through altered composition of gut microbiota.

  6. Lipocalin-2 in Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Lambertz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The intake of excess dietary fructose most often leads to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Fructose is metabolized mainly in the liver and its chronic consumption results in lipogenic gene expression in this organ. However, precisely how fructose is involved in NAFLD progression is still not fully understood, limiting therapy. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2 is a small secreted transport protein that binds to fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids, retinol, and pheromones. LCN2 regulates lipid and energy metabolism in obesity and is upregulated in response to insulin. We previously discovered that LCN2 has a hepatoprotective effect during hepatic insult, and that its upregulation is a marker of liver damage and inflammation. To investigate if LCN2 has impact on the metabolism of fructose and thereby arising liver damage, we fed wild type and Lcn2−/− mice for 4 or 8 weeks on diets that were enriched in fructose either by adding this sugar to the drinking water (30% w/v, or by feeding a chow containing 60% (w/w fructose. Body weight and daily intake of food and water of these mice was then measured. Fat content in liver sections was visualized using Oil Red O stain, and expression levels of genes involved in fat and sugar metabolism were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We found that fructose-induced steatosis and liver damage was more prominent in female than in male mice, but that the most severe hepatic damage occurred in female mice lacking LCN2. Unexpectedly, consumption of elevated fructose did not induce de novo lipogenesis or fat accumulation. We conclude that LCN2 acts in a lipid-independent manner to protect the liver against fructose-induced damage.

  7. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-06-16

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group ( n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain.

  8. Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii (Stapf) Diels leaves halt high-fructose induced metabolic syndrome: Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, T O; Aliyu, H; Tanimu, M A; Muhammad, R M; Ibitoye, O B

    2016-11-04

    Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii is widely used in the management and treatment of diabetes and obesity in Nigeria. This study evaluates the effect of aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii on high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Seventy male rats were randomized into seven groups. All rats were fed with high-fructose diet for 9 weeks except groups A and C rats, which received control diet. In addition to the diet treatment, groups A and B rats received distilled water for 3 weeks starting from the seventh week of the experimental period. Rats in groups C-F orally received 400, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii respectively, while group G received 300mg/kg bodyweight of metformin for 3 weeks starting from the seventh week. There was significant (pinsulin, leptin and insulin resistance by aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii. Conversely, high-fructose diet-mediated decrease in adiponectin was reversed by the extract. Increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiac index and coronary artery index were significantly lowered by the extract, while high-fructose diet mediated decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by the extract. Tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels increased significantly in high-fructose diet-fed rats, which were significantly reversed by the extract. High-fructose mediated-decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reduced were significantly reversed by aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii. Conversely, elevated levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl and fragmented DNA were significantly lowered by the extract. Data generated in this study further laid credence to the hypoglycemic activity of aqueous leaf extract

  9. Combination of alcohol and fructose exacerbates metabolic imbalance in terms of hepatic damage, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamah Mohammad Alwahsh

    Full Text Available Although both alcohol and fructose are particularly steatogenic, their long-term effect in the development of a metabolic syndrome has not been studied in vivo. Consumption of fructose generally leads to obesity, whereas ethanol can induce liver damage in the absence of overweight. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum for 28 days on five diets: chow (control, liquid Lieber-DeCarli (LDC diet, LDC +30%J of ethanol (L-Et or fructose (L-Fr, and LDC combined with 30%J ethanol and 30%J fructose (L-EF. Body weight (BW and liver weight (LW were measured. Blood and liver samples were harvested and subjected to biochemical tests, histopathological examinations, and RT-PCR. Alcohol-containing diets substantially reduced the food intake and BW (≤3rd week, whereas fructose-fed animals had higher LW than controls (P<0.05. Additionally, leukocytes, plasma AST and leptin levels were the highest in the fructose-administered rats. Compared to the chow and LDC diets, the L-EF diet significantly elevated blood glucose, insulin, and total-cholesterol levels (also vs. the L-Et group. The albumin and Quick-test levels were the lowest, whereas ALT activity was the highest in the L-EF group. Moreover, the L-EF diet aggravated plasma triglyceride and reduced HDL-cholesterol levels more than 2.7-fold compared to the sum of the effects of the L-Et and L-Fr diets. The decreased hepatic insulin clearance in the L-EF group vs. control and LDC groups was reflected by a significantly decreased C-peptide:insulin ratio. All diets except the control caused hepatosteatosis, as evidenced by Nile red and H&E staining. Hepatic transcription of insulin receptor substrate-1/2 was mainly suppressed by the L-Fr and L-EF diets. The L-EF diet did not enhance the mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids (Cpt1α and Ppar-α expressions compared to the L-Et or L-Fr diet. Together, our data provide evidence for the coaction of ethanol and fructose with a high-fat-diet on

  10. Bioaugmentation for Electricity Generation from Corn Stover Biomass Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin

    2009-08-01

    Corn stover is usually treated by an energy-intensive or expensive process to extract sugars for bioenergy production. However, it is possible to directly generate electricity from corn stover in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) through the addition of microbial consortia specifically acclimated for biomass breakdown. A mixed culture that was developed to have a high saccharification rate with corn stover was added to singlechamber, air-cathode MFCs acclimated for power production using glucose. The MFC produced a maximum power of 331 mW/ m 2 with the bioaugmented mixed culture and corn stover, compared to 510 mW/m2 using glucose. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed the communities continued to evolve on both the anode and corn stover biomass over 60 days, with several bacteria identified including Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The use of residual solids from the steam exploded corn stover produced 8% more power (406 mW/m2) than the raw corn stover. These results show that it is possible to directly generate electricity from waste corn stover in MFCs through bioaugmentation using naturally occurring bacteria. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. Promotion or suppression of glucose isomerization in subcritical aqueous straight- and branched-chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The influence of water-miscible alcohols (methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and t-butyl alcohol) on the isomerization of glucose to fructose and mannose was investigated under subcritical aqueous conditions (180-200 °C). Primary and secondary alcohols promoted the conversion and isomerization of glucose to afford fructose and mannose with high and low selectivity, respectively. On the other hand, the decomposition (side-reaction) of glucose was suppressed in the presence of the primary and secondary alcohols compared with that in subcritical water. The yield of fructose increased with increasing concentration of the primary and secondary alcohols, and the species of the primary and secondary alcohols tested had little effect on the isomerization behavior of glucose. In contrast, the isomerization of glucose was suppressed in subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol. Both the conversion of glucose and the yield of fructose decreased with increasing concentration of t-butyl alcohol. In addition, mannose was not detected in reactions using subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol.

  12. Fluctuations of extracellular glucose and lactate in the mouse primary visual cortex during visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland-Millar, Alexandria; Messier, Claude

    2018-02-16

    We measured the extracellular glucose and lactate in the primary visual cortex in the CD-1 mouse using electrochemical electrodes. To gain some additional information on brain metabolism, we examined the impact of systemic injections of lactate and fructose on the brain extracellular glucose and lactate changes observed during visual stimulation. We found that simple stimulation using a flashlight produced a decrease in visual cortex extracellular glucose and an increase in extracellular lactate. Similar results were observed following visual stimulation with an animated movie without soundtrack or the presentation of a novel object. Specificity of these observations was confirmed by the absence of extracellular glucose and lactate changes when the mice were presented a second time with the same object. Previous experiments have shown that systemic injections of fructose and lactate lead to an increase in blood lactate but no change in blood glucose while they both increase brain extracellular glucose but they do not increase brain extracellular lactate. When mice were visually stimulated after they had received these injections, we found that lactate, and to a slightly lesser degree fructose, both reduced the amplitude of the changes in extracellular glucose and lactate that accompanied visual stimulation. Thus, neural activation leads to an increase in extracellular lactate and a decrease in extracellular glucose. Novelty, attentional resources and availability of metabolic fuels modulate these fluctuations. The observations are consistent with a modified view of brain metabolism that takes into account the blood and brain glucose availability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  14. BIOFUEL FROM CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  15. Fructose toxicity: is the science ready for public health actions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappy, Luc; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2012-07-01

    The assumption that fructose may be toxic and involved in the pathogenesis of noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and even cancer has resulted in the call for public health action, such as introducing taxes on sweetened beverages. This review evaluates the scientific basis for such action. Although some studies hint towards some potential adverse effects of excessive fructose consumption especially when combined with excess energy intake, the results from clinical trials do not support a significant detrimental effect of fructose on metabolic health when consumed as part of a weight-maintaining diet in amounts consistent with the average-estimated fructose consumption in Western countries. However, definitive studies are missing. Public health policies to eliminate or limit fructose in the diet should be considered premature. Instead, efforts should be made to promote a healthy lifestyle that includes physical activity and nutritious foods while avoiding intake of excess calories until solid evidence to support action against fructose is available. Public health is almost certainly to benefit more from policies that are aimed at promoting what is known to be good than from policies that are prohibiting what is not (yet) known to be bad.

  16. Cardiac and metabolic changes in long-term high fructose-fat fed rats with severe obesity and extensive intramyocardial lipid accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Lademann, Jacob B; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and obesity-related diseases are affecting more and more people in the Western world. The basis for an effective treatment of these patients is a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Here, we characterize fructose- and fat-fed rats (FFFRs) as a new animal model...... of metabolic syndrome. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 60 kcal/100 kcal fat diet with 10% fructose in the drinking water. After 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 wk of feeding, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, glucose, and lipid levels were measured. Cardiac function was examined by in vivo pressure...... AMPK at 6 wk of feeding. This study characterizes a new animal model of the metabolic syndrome that could be beneficial in future studies of metabolic syndrome and cardiac complications....

  17. Alteration of de novo glucose production contributes to fasting hypoglycaemia in Fyn deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjuan Yang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that glucose disposal is increased in the Fyn knockout (FynKO mice due to increased insulin sensitivity. FynKO mice also display fasting hypoglycaemia despite decreased insulin levels, which suggested that hepatic glucose production was unable to compensate for the increased basal glucose utilization. The present study investigates the basis for the reduction in plasma glucose levels and the reduced ability for the liver to produce glucose in response to gluconeogenic substrates. FynKO mice had a 5-fold reduction in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK gene and protein expression and a marked reduction in pyruvate, pyruvate/lactate-stimulated glucose output. Remarkably, de novo glucose production was also blunted using gluconeogenic substrates that bypass the PEPCK step. Impaired conversion of glycerol to glucose was observed in both glycerol tolerance test and determination of the conversion of (13C-glycerol to glucose in the fasted state. α-glycerol phosphate levels were reduced but glycerol kinase protein expression levels were not changed. Fructose-driven glucose production was also diminished without alteration of fructokinase expression levels. The normal levels of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate observed in the FynKO liver extracts suggested normal triose kinase function. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase mRNA or protein levels were normal in the Fyn-deficient livers, however, there was a large reduction in liver fructose-6-phosphate (30-fold and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (7-fold levels as well as a reduction in glucose-6-phosphate (2-fold levels. These data suggest a mechanistic defect in the allosteric regulation of aldolase activity.

  18. The Effects of Fructose-Containing Sugars on Weight, Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors When Consumed at up to the 90th Percentile Population Consumption Level for Fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA and World Health Organization (WHO have recommended restricting calories from added sugars at lower levels than the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations, which are incorporated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (DGAs 2010. Sucrose (SUC and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS have been singled out for particular concern, because of their fructose content, which has been specifically implicated for its atherogenic potential and possible role in elevating blood pressure through uric acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction. This study explored the effects when these sugars are consumed at typical population levels up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose. Three hundred fifty five overweight or obese individuals aged 20–60 years old were placed on a eucaloric diet for 10 weeks, which incorporated SUC- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 8%, 18% or 30% of calories. There was a slight change in body weight in the entire cohort (169.1 ± 30.6 vs. 171.6 ± 31.8 lbs, p < 0.01, a decrease in HDL (52.9 ± 12.2 vs. 52.0 ± 13.9 mg/dL, p < 0.05 and an increase in triglycerides (104.1 ± 51.8 vs. 114.1 ± 64.7 mg/dL, p < 0.001. However, total cholesterol (183.5 ± 42.8 vs. 184.4 mg/dL, p > 0.05, LDL (110.3 ± 32.0 vs. 110.5 ± 38.9 mg/dL, p > 0.05, SBP (109.4 ± 10.9 vs. 108.3 ± 10.9 mmHg, p > 0.05 and DBP (72.1 ± 8.0 vs. 71.3 ± 8.0 mmHg, p > 0.05 were all unchanged. In no instance did the amount or type of sugar consumed affect the response to the intervention (interaction p > 0.05. These data suggest that: (1 when consumed as part of a normal diet, common fructose-containing sugars do not raise blood pressure, even when consumed at the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose (five times the upper level recommended by the AHA and three times the upper level recommended by WHO; (2 changes in the lipid profile are mixed, but modest.

  19. Blackcurrant Suppresses Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Fructose Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased fructose ingestion has been linked to obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome. Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum; BC is a horticultural crop in Europe. To induce metabolic syndrome, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 60% high-fructose diet. Treatment with BC (100 or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks significantly suppressed increased liver weight, epididymal fat weight, C-reactive protein (CRP, total bilirubin, leptin, and insulin in rats with induced metabolic syndrome. BC markedly prevented increased adipocyte size and hepatic triglyceride accumulation in rats with induced metabolic syndrome. BC suppressed oral glucose tolerance and protein expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK in muscle. BC significantly suppressed plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL content. BC suppressed endothelial dysfunction by inducing downregulation of endothelin-1 and adhesion molecules in the aorta. Vascular relaxation of thoracic aortic rings by sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine was improved by BC. The present study provides evidence of the potential protective effect of BC against metabolic syndrome by demonstrating improvements in dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and obesity in vivo.

  20. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Priebe, Marion G; Heimweg, Janneke A J

    2006-01-01

    of the factors determining the metabolic quality of different types of carbohydrates. We analyzed the correlation between the rate of intestinal absorption of (starch-derived) glucose and plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP after ingestion of glucose and starchy foods with a different content of rapidly...... and slowly available glucose. In a crossover study, glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were monitored for 6 h after consumption of glucose, uncooked cornstarch (UCCS) or corn pasta in 7 healthy men. All test meals were naturally labeled with 13C. Using a primed, continuous D-[6,6-2H2]glucose...... infusion, the rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaEx) was estimated, reflecting the rate of intestinal glucose absorption. GLP-1 concentrations increased significantly from 180 to 300 min after ingestion of UCCS, the starch product with a high content of slowly available glucose. A high GIP response...

  1. A mass spectrometric study of the acid-catalysed d-fructose dehydration in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Federico; Ricci, Andreina; Garzoli, Stefania; Troiani, Anna; Salvitti, Chiara; Di Rienzo, Brunella; Giacomello, Pierluigi

    2015-09-02

    5-hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (5-HMF) and simpler compounds, such as levulinic acid (LA) and glyceraldehyde, are platform molecules produced by the thermal acid-catalyzed dehydration of carbohydrates coming from biomass. Understanding sugar degradation pathways on a molecular level is necessary to increase selectivity, reduce degradation by-products yields and optimize catalytic strategies, fundamental knowledge for the development of a sustainable renewable industry. In this work gaseous protonated d-fructose ions, generated in the ESI source of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, were allowed to undergo Collisionally Activated Decomposition (CAD) into the quadrupole collision cell. The ionic intermediates and products derived from protonated d-fructose dehydration were structurally characterized by their fragmentation patterns and the relative water-loss dehydration energies measured by energy-resolved CAD mass spectra. The data were compared with those obtained from protonated d-glucose decomposition in the same experimental conditions. In the gas phase, d-fructose dehydration leads to the formation of a mixed population of isomeric [C6H6O3]H(+) ions, whose structures do not correspond exclusively to 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde protonated at the more basic aldehydic group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ilex paraguariensis and its main component chlorogenic acid inhibit fructose formation of advanced glycation endproducts with amino acids at conditions compatible with those in the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Yasmin; Gugliucci, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    We have previously shown that Ilex paraguariensis extracts have potent antiglycation actions. Associations of excess free fructose consumption with inflammatory diseases have been proposed to be mediated through in situ enteral formation of fructose AGEs, which, after being absorbed may contribute to inflammatory diseases via engagement of RAGE. In this proof of principle investigation we show fluorescent AGE formation between amino acids (Arg, Lys, Gly at 10-50mM) and fructose (10-50mM) under time, temperature, pH and concentrations compatible with the digestive system lumen and its inhibition by Ilex paraguariensis extracts. Incubation of amino acids with fructose (but not glucose) leads to a time dependent formation of AGE fluorescence, already apparent after just 1h incubation, a time frame well compatible with the digestive process. Ilex paraguariensis (mate tea) inhibited AGE formation by 83% at 50μl/ml (pacid and cholorogenic acid were as potent as aminoguanidine-a specific antiglycation agent: IC50 of 0.9mM (pacids at times and concentrations plausibly found in the intestines. The reaction is inhibited by mate tea and its individual phenolics (caffeic acid and chlorogenic acids). The study provides the first evidence for the proposed mechanism to explain epidemiological correlations between excess fructose consumption and inflammatory diseases. Enteral fructose-AGE formation would be inhibited by co-intake of Ilex paraguariensis, and potentially other beverages, fruits and vegetables that contain comparable concentrations of phenolics as in IP (mate tea). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral xylose isomerase decreases breath hydrogen excretion and improves gastrointestinal symptoms in fructose malabsorption - a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komericki, P; Akkilic-Materna, M; Strimitzer, T; Weyermair, K; Hammer, H F; Aberer, W

    2012-11-01

    Incomplete resorption of fructose results in increased colonic hydrogen production and is a frequent cause of abdominal symptoms. The only treatment available is diet. To study whether orally administered xylose isomerase (XI), an enzyme that catalyses the reversible isomerisation of glucose and fructose, can decrease breath hydrogen excretion in patients with fructose malabsorption. Patients received 25 g fructose in 100 mL water together with either placebo or XI capsules. Primary endpoint was the reduction in breath hydrogen excretion, as assessed by the area under the breath hydrogen curve over 4 h (AUC). A secondary endpoint was the reduction in abdominal pain, bloating and nausea assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS, range: 0-10). A P value fructose malabsorption had been diagnosed by positive breath hydrogen test within the previous year, were included in the study [15 males, 50 females; mean age 43.3 (s.d. = 14.4), range: 21-73 years]. The median AUC was 885 ppm/240 min in the XI group compared to 2071 ppm/240 min in the placebo group (P = 0.00). Median scores for abdominal pain (0.7 vs. 1.3) and nausea (0.2 vs. 0.6), but not for bloating (P = 0.053), were significantly improved after XI (P = 0.009 and P = 0.005) as compared with placebo. Oral administration of xylose isomerase significantly decreased breath hydrogen excretion after ingestion of a watery fructose solution. Nausea and abdominal pain were significantly improved by xylose isomerase. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The Addition of Liquid Fructose to a Western-Type Diet in LDL-R-/-Mice Induces Liver Inflammation and Fibrogenesis Markers without Disrupting Insulin Receptor Signalling after an Insulin Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangüesa, Gemma; Baena, Miguel; Hutter, Natalia; Montañés, José Carlos; Sánchez, Rosa María; Roglans, Núria; Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta

    2017-03-15

    A high consumption of fat and simple sugars, especially fructose, has been related to the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms involved in the effects of these nutrients are not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of a Western-type diet and liquid fructose supplementation, alone and combined, on insulin signalling and inflammation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient mice (LDL-R -/- ). LDL-R -/- mice were fed chow or Western diet ±15% fructose solution for 12 weeks. Plasma glucose and insulin, and the expression of genes related to inflammation in the liver and visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT), were analysed. V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog-2 (Akt) activation was measured in the liver of the mice after a single injection of saline or insulin. None of the dietary interventions caused inflammation in vWAT, whereas the Western diet induced hepatic inflammation, which was further enhanced by liquid fructose, leading also to a significant increase in fibrogenesis markers. However, there was no change in plasma glucose or insulin, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis markers induced by a Western diet supplemented with liquid fructose in LDL-R -/- mice are not associated with a significant impairment of hepatic insulin signalling.

  5. Production of d-allulose from d-glucose by Escherichia coli transformant cells co-expressing d-glucose isomerase and d-psicose 3-epimerase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Li, Hao; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Mu, Wanmeng

    2017-08-01

    d-Allulose is a novel and low-calorie rare monosaccharide that is a C-3 epimer of d-fructose. Because of its excellent physiological properties and commercial potential, d-allulose has attracted researchers' interests. Based on the Izumoring strategy, d-allulose is converted from d-fructose by d-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase), while d-fructose is converted from d-glucose by d-glucose isomerase (GIase). In this study, we created a cellular system capable of converting d-glucose to d-allulose in a one-step process that co-expressed the GIase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and the DPEase from Dorea sp. CAG. The co-expression plasmid pETDuet-Dosp-DPE/Acce-GI was generated and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. The recombinant co-expression cells exhibited maximum catalytic activity at pH 6.5 and 75 °C. These cells were thermostable at less than 60 °C. The addition of Co 2+ significantly increased the catalytic activity by 10.8-fold. When the reaction equilibrium was reached, the ratio of d-glucose, d-fructose and d-allulose was approximately 6.5:7:3, respectively. A recombinant co-expression strain that catalysed the bioconversion of d-allulose from d-glucose in a one-step process was created and characterised. When adding 500 g L -1 d-glucose as a substrate, 204.3 g L -1 d-fructose and 89.1 g L -1 d-allulose were produced. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonamjot Deol

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has led to extensive research into potential contributing dietary factors, especially fat and fructose. Recently, increased consumption of soybean oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, has been proposed to play a causal role in the epidemic. Here, we designed a series of four isocaloric diets (HFD, SO-HFD, F-HFD, F-SO-HFD to investigate the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fat, as well as fructose, on obesity and diabetes. C57/BL6 male mice fed a diet moderately high in fat from coconut oil and soybean oil (SO-HFD, 40% kcal total fat showed statistically significant increases in weight gain, adiposity, diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance compared to mice on a diet consisting primarily of coconut oil (HFD. They also had fatty livers with hepatocyte ballooning and very large lipid droplets as well as shorter colonic crypt length. While the high fructose diet (F-HFD did not cause as much obesity or diabetes as SO-HFD, it did cause rectal prolapse and a very fatty liver, but no balloon injury. The coconut oil diet (with or without fructose increased spleen weight while fructose in the presence of soybean oil increased kidney weight. Metabolomics analysis of the liver showed an increased accumulation of PUFAs and their metabolites as well as γ-tocopherol, but a decrease in cholesterol in SO-HFD. Liver transcriptomics analysis revealed a global dysregulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp genes in SO-HFD versus HFD livers, most notably in the Cyp3a and Cyp2c families. Other genes involved in obesity (e.g., Cidec, Cd36, diabetes (Igfbp1, inflammation (Cd63, mitochondrial function (Pdk4 and cancer (H19 were also upregulated by the soybean oil diet. Taken together, our results indicate that in mice a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose or coconut oil.

  7. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deol, Poonamjot; Evans, Jane R; Dhahbi, Joseph; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Han, Diana S; Spindler, Stephen; Sladek, Frances M

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has led to extensive research into potential contributing dietary factors, especially fat and fructose. Recently, increased consumption of soybean oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been proposed to play a causal role in the epidemic. Here, we designed a series of four isocaloric diets (HFD, SO-HFD, F-HFD, F-SO-HFD) to investigate the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fat, as well as fructose, on obesity and diabetes. C57/BL6 male mice fed a diet moderately high in fat from coconut oil and soybean oil (SO-HFD, 40% kcal total fat) showed statistically significant increases in weight gain, adiposity, diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance compared to mice on a diet consisting primarily of coconut oil (HFD). They also had fatty livers with hepatocyte ballooning and very large lipid droplets as well as shorter colonic crypt length. While the high fructose diet (F-HFD) did not cause as much obesity or diabetes as SO-HFD, it did cause rectal prolapse and a very fatty liver, but no balloon injury. The coconut oil diet (with or without fructose) increased spleen weight while fructose in the presence of soybean oil increased kidney weight. Metabolomics analysis of the liver showed an increased accumulation of PUFAs and their metabolites as well as γ-tocopherol, but a decrease in cholesterol in SO-HFD. Liver transcriptomics analysis revealed a global dysregulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes in SO-HFD versus HFD livers, most notably in the Cyp3a and Cyp2c families. Other genes involved in obesity (e.g., Cidec, Cd36), diabetes (Igfbp1), inflammation (Cd63), mitochondrial function (Pdk4) and cancer (H19) were also upregulated by the soybean oil diet. Taken together, our results indicate that in mice a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose or coconut oil.

  8. Densification characteristics of corn cobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Corn cobs are potential feedstocks for producing heat, power, fuels, and chemicals. Densification of corn cobs into briquettes/pellets would improve their bulk handling, transportation, and storage properties. In this study, densification characteristics of corn cobs were studied using a uniaxial piston-cylinder densification apparatus. With a maximum compression pressure of 150 MPa, effects of particle size (0.85 and 2.81 mm), moisture content (10 and 20% w.b.), and preheating temperature (25 and 85 C) on the density and durability of the corn cob briquettes (with diameter of about 19.0 mm) were studied. It was found that the durability (measured using ASABE tumbling can method) of corn cob briquettes made at 25 C was 0%. At both particle sizes, preheating of corn cob grinds with about 10% (w.b.) moisture content to 85 C produced briquettes with a unit density of > 1100 kg m{sup -3} and durability of about 90%. (author)

  9. Induction of differentiation in psoriatic keratinocytes by propylthiouracil and fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Arul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and poor differentiation. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1 a class III deacetylase, crucial for differentiation in normal keratinocytes, is reduced in psoriasis. Down regulated SIRT1 levels may contribute to poor differentiation in psoriasis. In addition, the levels of early differentiation factors Keratin1 (K1 and Keratin10 (K10 are depleted in psoriasis. We attempted to study a possible effect of fructose, a SIRT1 upregulator and Propylthiouracil (PTU to augment differentiation in psoriatic keratinocytes. Keratinocytes were cultured from lesional biopsies obtained from psoriatic patients and control cells were obtained from patients undergoing abdominoplasty. Cells were treated with fructose and PTU individually. K1 and K10 transcript levels were measured to evaluate early differentiation; SIRT1 protein expression was also studied to decipher its role in the mechanism of differentiation. The K1, K10 transcript levels, SIRT1 protein and transcript levels in fructose treated psoriatic keratinocytes were improved. This suggests keratinocyte differentiation was induced by fructose through SIRT1 upregulation. Whereas PTU induced differentiation, as confirmed by improved K1, K10 transcript levels followed a non-SIRT1 mechanism. We conclude that the use of fructose and PTU may be an adjunct to the existing therapies for psoriasis.

  10. Review article: fructose malabsorption and the bigger picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P R; Newnham, E; Barrett, J S; Shepherd, S J; Muir, J G

    2007-02-15

    Fructose is found widely in the diet as a free hexose, as the disaccharide, sucrose and in a polymerized form (fructans). Free fructose has limited absorption in the small intestine, with up to one half of the population unable to completely absorb a load of 25 g. Average daily intake of fructose varies from 11 to 54 g around the world. Fructans are not hydrolysed or absorbed in the small intestine. The physiological consequences of their malabsorption include increasing osmotic load, providing substrate for rapid bacterial fermentation, changing gastrointestinal motility, promoting mucosal biofilm and altering the profile of bacteria. These effects are additive with other short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates such as sorbitol. The clinical significance of these events depends upon the response of the bowel to such changes; they have a higher chance of inducing symptoms in patients with functional gut disorders than asymptomatic subjects. Restricting dietary intake of free fructose and/or fructans may have durable symptomatic benefits in a high proportion of patients with functional gut disorders, but high quality evidence is lacking. It is proposed that confusion over the clinical relevance of fructose malabsorption may be reduced by regarding it not as an abnormality but as a physiological process offering an opportunity to improve functional gastrointestinal symptoms by dietary change.

  11. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose...... concentration assumed to remain constant along the hyperbola. Conceivably, glucose is one of the signals stimulating AIR in response to decreasing M. Hypothetically, as with any normally functioning feed-forward system, AIR should not fully compensate for worsening M, since this would remove the stimulus...

  12. Elevated serum triglyceride and retinol-binding protein 4 levels associated with fructose-sweetened beverages in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA production. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 among Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl. The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (≥24 interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r = 0.253 to 0.404, but not among non-drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4.

  13. Maximization of fructose esters synthesis by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair Sampaio; Peres, António M; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of fructose fatty acid ester was performed in organic solvent media, using a purified lipase from Candida antartica B immobilized in acrylic resin. Response surface methodology with a central composite rotatable design based on five levels was implemented to optimize three experimental operating conditions (temperature, agitation and reaction time). A statistical significant cubic model was established. Temperature and reaction time were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum operational conditions for maximizing the synthesis of fructose esters were 57.1°C, 100 rpm and 37.8 h. The model was validated in the identified optimal conditions to check its adequacy and accuracy, and an experimental esterification percentage of 88.4% (±0.3%) was obtained. These results showed that an improvement of the enzymatic synthesis of fructose esters was obtained under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fermentation of Glucose, Lactose, Galactose, Mannitol, and Xylose by Bifidobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Wytske; Stouthamer, A. H.

    1968-01-01

    For six strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum (Lactobacillus bifidus), fermentation balances of glucose, lactose, galactose, mannitol, and xylose were determined. Products formed were acetate, l(+)-lactate, ethyl alcohol, and formate. l(+)-Lactate dehydrogenase of all strains studied was found to have an absolute requirement for fructose-1,6-diphosphate. The phosphoroclastic enzyme could not be demonstrated in cell-free extracts. Cell suspensions fermented pyruvate to equimolar amounts of acetate and formate. Alcohol dehydrogenase was shown in cell-free extracts. Possible explanations have been suggested for the differences in fermentation balances found for different strains and carbon sources. By enzyme determinations, it was shown that bifidobacteria convert mannitol to fructose-6-phosphate by an inducible polyol dehydrogenase and fructokinase. For one strain of B. bifidum, molar growth yields of glucose, lactose, galactose, and mannitol were determined. The mean value of Y (ATP), calculated from molar growth yields and fermentation balances, was 11.3. PMID:5674058

  15. Fructose consumption enhances glucocorticoid action in rat visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać, Biljana N; Djordjevic, Ana D; Vasiljević, Ana D; Milutinović, Danijela D Vojnović; Veličković, Nataša A; Nestorović, Nataša M; Matić, Gordana M

    2013-06-01

    The rise in consumption of refined sugars high in fructose appears to be an important factor for the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Fructose has been shown to be involved in genesis and progression of the syndrome through deregulation of metabolic pathways in adipose tissue. There is evidence that enhanced glucocorticoid regeneration within adipose tissue, mediated by the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 (11βHSD1), may contribute to adiposity and metabolic disease. 11βHSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH). We hypothesized that harmful effects of long-term high fructose consumption could be mediated by alterations in prereceptor glucocorticoid metabolism and glucocorticoid signaling in the adipose tissue of male Wistar rats. We analyzed the effects of 9-week drinking of 10% fructose solution on dyslipidemia, adipose tissue histology and both plasma and tissue corticosterone level. Prereceptor metabolism of glucocorticoids was characterized by determining 11βHSD1 and H6PDH mRNA and protein levels. Glucocorticoid signaling was examined at the level of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and compartmental redistribution, as well as at the level of expression of its target genes (GR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyl kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase). Fructose diet led to increased 11βHSD1 and H6PDH expression and elevated corticosterone level within the adipose tissue, which was paralleled with enhanced GR nuclear accumulation. Although the animals did not develop obesity, nonesterified fatty acid and plasma triglyceride levels were elevated, indicating that fructose, through enhanced prereceptor metabolism of glucocorticoids, could set the environment for possible later onset of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment with Ginger Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver and Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats: Modulation of the Hepatic Carbohydrate Response Element-Binding Protein-Mediated Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanqing Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger has been demonstrated to improve lipid derangements. However, its underlying triglyceride-lowering mechanisms remain unclear. Fructose overconsumption is associated with increase in hepatic de novo lipogenesis, thereby resulting in lipid derangements. Here we found that coadministration of the alcoholic extract of ginger (50 mg/kg/day, oral gavage, once daily over 5 weeks reversed liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma triglyceride and glucose concentrations and hepatic triglyceride content in rats. Plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was also decreased. Attenuation of the increased vacuolization and Oil Red O staining area was evident on histological examination of liver in ginger-treated rats. However, ginger treatment did not affect chow intake and body weight. Further, ginger treatment suppressed fructose-stimulated overexpression of carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP at the mRNA and protein levels in the liver. Consequently, hepatic expression of the ChREBP-targeted lipogenic genes responsible for fatty acid biosynthesis was also downregulated. In contrast, expression of neither peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR- alpha and its downstream genes, nor PPAR-gamma and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c was altered. Thus the present findings suggest that in rats, amelioration of fructose-induced fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia by ginger treatment involves modulation of the hepatic ChREBP-mediated pathway.

  17. Aegle marmelos impedes onset of insulin resistance syndrome in rats provided with drinking fructose from weaning to adulthood stages of development - a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Rajani; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Sharma, Shveta; Kumar, Rajesh; Mathur, Sandeep

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we explored the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (AM) on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism and insulin downstream signalling in rats given fructose (15%) in drinking water from weaning to adulthood. Wistar albino rats (4 weeks old) were randomly divided into normal control (NC), fructose control (FC), and treatment (AMT) groups and were fed for a period of 8 weeks the following diets: chow + water, chow + fructose (15%), and chow + fructose (15%) + AM (500 mg/kg per day, p.o.), respectively. Compared with the NC group, the FC group was found to have significantly (p insulin and leptin, glycogen, and gluconeogenesis enzyme but decreased glycolytic enzyme activity. Raised levels of glucose transporter 2 protein but decreased activity of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt) and Janus kinase - signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (JAK-STAT3) in hepatic tissue indicate a state of insulin and leptin resistance in the FC group. A significant (p insulin resistance syndrome is delineated here, along with the potential of A. marmelos to impede it.

  18. Fructose and related food carbohydrates. Sources, intake, absorption, and clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    that two different uptake mechanisms for fructose are present in the human intestine. One of these may be a disaccharidase-related uptake system. Sorbitol ingestion may aggravate malabsorption of fructose given as the monosaccharide; it is not known whether a specific mechanism is involved. In children...... and adults with functional bowel distress the absorption capacities for fructose may not differ from those of healthy individuals, but malabsorption of fructose and/or sorbitol may be the cause of or aggravate abdominal symptoms. Fructose polymers (fructans) are also subject to increasing nutritional......It is possible to point out subjects consuming considerable quantities of fructose and sorbitol, and the intake seems to be increasing both from added and natural sources. Studies of the absorption of fructose in animals are inconsistent, and the mechanisms of fructose uptake seem to vary...

  19. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  20. Potential protective effects of Nigella sativa and Allium sativum against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasheed, Nawal; Al-Rasheed, Nouf; Bassiouni, Yieldez; Faddah, Laila; Mohamad, Azza M

    2014-01-01

    Among famous medicinal plants with known antioxidant activity; black seed (Nigella sativa, NS) and garlic (Allium sativum) which have been used in traditional medicine. In recent years, rates of metabolic syndrome (MS) have been increasing globally. The present work was designed to study the potential protective effects of black seed and raw garlic homogenate against fructose-induced MS in rats and to assess the benefits gained from their combination. Fifty male albino Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups. A control group was allowed to feed on normal chow and drink tap water. MS group was fed the same diet plus 10% fructose in drinking water. Treated groups received NS or garlic either alone or in combination as oral supplements along with high fructose diet for 8 weeks. Results revealed that body weight, liver weight, fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly increased while high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the activities of Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose -6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PHD) and catalase in liver tissues were significantly decreased in MS group compared to the control group. Administration of NS or garlic either alone or in combination significantly ameliorated all the above-mentioned altered parameters. Treatment with both NS and garlic showed the utmost reduction in serum LDL-C and TG levels and could restore the activities of the studied enzymes in liver nearly to normal values. It was concluded that both NS and garlic were effective in attenuating multiple abnormalities of MS. Combination of these medicinal plants may have additional effectiveness in reducing serum TC, LDL-C and increasing HDL-C levels which could be a step in the prevention and management of MS.

  1. Glycolysis in the control of blood glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Guo; Honggui Li; Hang Xu; Shihlung Woo; Hui Dong; Fuer Lu; Alex J. Lange; Chaodong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Glycolysis, a simple pathway of glucose metabolism, critically regulates insulin secretion and metabolic functions of various cells. Depending on cell types, rates of glycolysis are determined at various steps of glycolysis that are subjected to the control of key metabolic and regulatory enzyme(s), which include glucokinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. These enzymes are regulated by both nutritional and hormonal signals at the levels of...

  2. Absorption capacity of fructose in healthy adults. Comparison with sucrose and its constituent monosaccharides.

    OpenAIRE

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1986-01-01

    The capacity to absorb fructose in 10 healthy adults was investigated by means of hydrogen breath analysis. Fructose absorption was quantified with lactulose standards. Significant hydrogen production (greater than or equal to 20 ppm rise of breath hydrogen) was found after challenge with 10% solutions of 50, 37.5, 25, 20, and 15 g fructose in eight, seven, five, four and one subjects, respectively. One subject showed malabsorption after a 10 g dose and possibly also 5 g fructose. In contrast...

  3. Methylglyoxal is associated with bacteriostatic activity of high fructose agave syrups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Gomez Ojeda, Armando; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Magana, Armando Alcazar; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2014-12-15

    Three α-ketoaldehydes, potentially present in high fructose agave syrups (HFASs) as intermediates of the Maillard reaction, were determined. A previously reported HPLC-FLD procedure based on pre-column derivatisation with 4-methoxy-o-phenylenediamine was adopted, yielding the method quantification limits 0.11 mg/kg, 0.10mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg for glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MGo) and diacetyl, respectively. The obtained results revealed high concentrations of methylglyoxal in HFASs (average 102 ± 91 mg/kg, range 15.6-315 mg/kg) as compared to commercial Mexican bee honeys or corn syrups. Hydrogen peroxide was generated in all HFASs upon dilution, yet to less extent than in bee honeys. HFASs presented bacteriostatic activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli; catalase addition had minimum effect on the assay results in syrups with elevated MGo. Principal component analysis revealed direct association between growth inhibition and MGo. It is concluded that elevated concentration of MGo in HFASs is at least in part responsible for their non-peroxide bacteriostatic activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Product evaluation : Dow Corning 888

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-10

    This report contains a product evaluation of Dow Corning 888 joint sealant. Dow Corning 888 is a one-part silicone material that cures to a low modulus silicone rubber upon exposure to atmospheric moisture. Its uses include transverse and longitudina...

  5. Multiresponse kinetic modelling of Maillard reaction and caramelisation in a heated glucose/wheat flour system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-11-15

    The study describes the kinetics of the formation and degradation of α-dicarbonyl compounds in glucose/wheat flour system heated under low moisture conditions. Changes in the concentrations of glucose, fructose, individual free amino acids, lysine and arginine residues, glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and diacetyl concentrations were determined to form a multiresponse kinetic model for isomerisation and degradation reactions of glucose. Degradation of Amadori product mainly produced 1-deoxyglucosone. Formation of 3-deoxyglucosone proceeded directly from glucose and also Amadori product degradation. Glyoxal formation was predominant from glucosone while methylglyoxal and diacetyl originated from 1-deoxyglucosone. Formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural from fructose was found to be a key step. Multi-response kinetic modelling of Maillard reaction and caramelisation simultaneously indicated quantitatively predominant parallel and consecutive pathways and rate limiting steps by estimating the reaction rate constants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of (CO2)-C-13 breath tests for the detection of fructose malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, JH; VandenAker, JHL; Kneepkens, CMF; Stellaard, F; Geypens, B; Ghoos, YF

    Breath hydrogen (H-2) studies have made clear that small intestinal absorption of fructose is limited, especially in toddlers. Malabsorption of fructose may be a cause of recurrent abdominal pain and chronic nonspecific diarrhea (toddler's diarrhea). Fructose absorption is facilitated by equimolar

  7. Fructose malabsorption in people with and without gout: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Caitlin; Fanning, Niamh; Drake, Jill; Frampton, Christopher; Gearry, Richard B; Stamp, Lisa K

    2017-10-01

    Higher fructose intake has been associated with hyperuricaemia and gout. Some individuals malabsorb fructose in the small intestine. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of fructose malabsorption and the effects of gout and fructose malabsorption on serum urate in people with and without gout. A total of 100 people with gout (cases) were age and gender matched with one control without gout. After a low fructose diet, fructose malabsorption was measured using a hydrogen and methane breath test with a 35g fructose load. In a subgroup of 35 cases and 35 controls, serum urate response to the fructose load over 240 minutes was measured. There was no significant difference in the rate of fructose malabsorption between cases and controls (48% vs. 52%; p = 0.67). Cases had a significantly lower mean (SEM) serum urate cumulative incremental concentration from baseline-240 minutes (iAUC 0-240 ) compared to controls 0.97 (0.56) vs. 4.78 (0.55); p fructose malabsorption are similar in people with and without gout. Allopurinol inhibits the increase in serum urate induced by a fructose load suggesting that people with gout receiving allopurinol may not need to restrict dietary intake of fructose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of fructose addition in skim milk based extender on semen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is designed to study the effect of fructose addition as energy source in skim milk extender on the quality fertility of white leghorn's spermatozoa stored at 4 °C. The treatments (T) in semen quality experiment were Tl (0% fructose + Modified Ringers Solution (MRS), T2 (5mM fructose + 1 % (w/v) skim milk ...

  9. Control analysis of the role of triosephosphate isomerase in glucose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Købmann, Brian Jensen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2008-01-01

    metabolites glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and DHAP in the IL1403 derivatives were essentially unchanged for TPI activities from 26% to 225%. At a TPI activity of 3%, the level of DHAP increased four times. The finding that an increased level of DHAP coincides with an increase in formate...

  10. Process integration for the conversion of glucose to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, A.; Christensen, T.B.; Fu, Wenjing

    2009-01-01

    The development of biorefineries means that a key feedstock for many new processes will be sugars in various forms, such as glucose or fructose. From these feedstocks a range of chemicals can be synthesized using heterogeneous catalysis, immobilized enzymes, homogeneous catalysts, soluble enzymes...

  11. A kinetic model for the glucose/glycine Maillard reaction pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, S.I.F.S.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive kinetic model for the glucose/glycine Maillard reaction is proposed based on an approach called multiresponse kinetic modelling. Special attention was paid to reactants, intermediates and end products: -fructose, N-(1-deoxy--fructos-1-yl)-glycine (DFG), 1-deoxy-2,3-hexodiulose and

  12. The functional properties of chitosan-glucose-asparagine Maillard reaction products and mitigation of acrylamide formation by chitosans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Wen-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chou, Yu-Hao; Hsiao, Hsin-I

    2018-03-15

    This research aims to clarify the interactions that occur in a food model system consisting of glucose, asparagine and chitosans. Low molecular weight chitosan exerted a potent inhibitory effect (46.8%) on acrylamide and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) (>52.6%), respectively. Compared to a previous study conducted using the fructose system, the novel findings of this research demonstrate that the formation of acrylamide and Maillard reaction products was lower with glucose than with fructose when they were used as reducing sugars in food model systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. influence of fructose on the mechanisms for ethanol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    capacity of the kidneys to excrete uric acid. (Vamvakas et al. 1998), and possibly causing hyperuricemia. Fructose has been reported to accelerate blood alcohol clearance rate by re-oxidising. NADH to NAD+ needed for further alcohol oxidation (Scholz & Nohl 1976, Mascord et al 1991) and so, minimizes the increase in.

  14. Structure of Toxoplasma gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Lauren E.; Bosch, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The structure of T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, a glycolytic enzyme and structural component of the invasion machinery, was determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii must invade host cells to continue its lifecycle. It invades different cell types using an actomyosin motor that is connected to extracellular adhesins via the bridging protein fructose-1,6-@@bisphosphate aldolase. During invasion, aldolase serves in the role of a structural bridging protein, as opposed to its normal enzymatic role in the glycolysis pathway. Crystal structures of the homologous Plasmodium falciparum fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been described previously. Here, T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase has been crystallized in space group P22 1 2 1 , with the biologically relevant tetramer in the asymmetric unit, and the structure has been determined via molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.0 Å. An analysis of the quality of the model and of the differences between the four chains in the asymmetric unit and a comparison between the T. gondii and P. falciparum aldolase structures is presented

  15. Morphological and functional changes in the enterocyte induced by fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Hansen, Gert Helge; Wetterberg, L L

    1991-01-01

    by the defective glycosylation. The microvilli of the brush-border membrane were markedly shortened (by about 40%) in the presence of fructose, and incorporation of newly made actin into the microvillar cytoskeleton was similarly decreased. By affecting membrane glycoprotein synthesis, the common dietary sugar...

  16. Effects of fructose feeding on maternal and amniotic fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    pregnancies using corticotrophin releasing hormone. (CRH), a stress marker produced by the placenta and C. - reactive protein (CRP) an inflammatory response marker by evaluating the effect of fructose-induced insulin resistance on maternal serum and amniotic fluid insulin, CRH, CRP, IGF-1 and IGF-2 on days 12, 15.

  17. Effects of fructose feeding on maternal and amniotic fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of fructose feeding on maternal and amniotic fluid corticotropin releasing hormone and C-reactive protein in pregnant female Sprague-dawley rats. ... The results suggest that stress and inflammatory mechanisms may be implicated in the role maternal nutrition plays in developmental plasticity. Keywords: Insulin ...

  18. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  19. Renal and intestinal hexose transport in familial glucose-galactose malabsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Louis J.; Hillman, Richard E.; Patterson, Joseph H.; Rosenberg, Leon E.

    1970-01-01

    Glucose transport by jejunal mucosa in vitro and kidney in vivo was investigated in a 3 yr old patient with congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption, her family, and 16 normal volunteers. Glucose transport by normal human jejunal mucosa was concentrative, saturable, sodium and energy dependent, and exhibited competitive inhibition. Biopsy specimens from six normal controls and an asymptomatic 5 yr old brother of the proband accumulated glucose to concentrations 16 times that in the incubation medium. The proband's mucosa was unable to concentrate glucose throughout a 60 min incubation period. Both of her parents and a half sister demonstrated impaired glucose transport. Their values fell between normal and those of the proband. Influx of glucose was impaired but efflux of glucose from the mucosa of these three heterozygotes was identical with that in three normal controls. A kinetic analysis indicated a reduced capacity (Vmax), but a normal affinity (Km) for glucose transport by their intestinal mucosa. All subjects accumulated fructose similarly. Renal glucose transport was investigated using renal glucose titration techniques. A partial defect in renal glucose reabsorption was found in the proband. Her brother's titration curve was similar to that of seven normal volunteers. We conclude that familial glucose-galactose malabsorption is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, that heterozygotes for this disorder are detectable and demonstrate a reduced capacity for glucose transport, and that absent intestinal glucose transport is accompanied by partial impairment of renal glucose transport. Images PMID:5415683

  20. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  1. Beneficial impact of Zingiber zerumbet on insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

    2012-03-01

    Zingiber zerumbet (L) Smith (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as the pinecone or shampoo ginger, is distributed in many parts of Asia. It has been demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Z. zerumbet exerted a potential blood glucose lowering effect in normoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether the ethanol extract of Zingiber zerumbet (EEZZ) is effective in improving insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was induced in rats by feeding a high-fructose diet for six weeks. Thereafter, rats were maintained on the same diet and treated with oral EEZZ or pioglitazone once daily for eight weeks. At the end of treatment, the degree of basal insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Insulin sensitivity was calculated using the composite whole body insulin sensitivity index (ISIcomp). Protein expression was evaluated by immunoblotting. Phytochemicals in EEZZ were determined through liquid chromatography-tandem mass. Not only curcumin but also quercetin and kaempferol were abundant in EEZZ. EEZZ (300 mg/kg/day) displayed similar characteristics to pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/day) in reducing HOMA-IR and elevating ISIcomp as well as enhancing hepatic glycogen accumulation. Elevated glycosylated hemoglobin levels and hyperinsulinemia were ameliorated by EEZZ. Further, EEZZ enhanced the action of insulin on muscle glucose transporter subtype 4 translocation and attenuated hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression. This study suggests that EEZZ may be an ethnomedicine for improving insulin sensitivity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mediates cellular responses to DNA damage and aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitanovic, Ana; Woelfl, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Response to DNA damage, lack of nutrients and other stress conditions is an essential property of living systems. The coordinate response includes DNA damage repair, activation of alternate biochemical pathways, adjustment of cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression as well as drastic measures like cellular suicide which prevents proliferation of severely damaged cells. Investigating the transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to low doses of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) we observed induction of genes involved in glucose metabolism. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the key enzyme in gluconeogenesis fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) was clearly up-regulated by MMS in glucose-rich medium. Interestingly, deletion of FBP1 led to reduced sensitivity to MMS, but not to other DNA-damaging agents, such as 4-NQO or phleomycin. Reintroduction of FBP1 in the knockout restored the wild-type phenotype while overexpression increased MMS sensitivity of wild-type, shortened life span and increased induction of RNR2 after treatment with MMS. Deletion of FBP1 reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to MMS treatment and in untreated aged cells, and increased the amount of cells able to propagate and to form colonies, but had no influence on the genotoxic effect of MMS. Our results indicate that FBP1 influences the connection between DNA damage, aging and oxidative stress through either direct signalling or an intricate adaptation in energy metabolism

  3. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  4. Production of lactic acid from corn cobs through fermentation lactobacillus delbruekii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.; Anjum, M.; Zahoor, T.

    2007-01-01

    Corn cobs were used as the source of reducing sugars for conversion into lactic acid through fermentation by a local strain of Lactobacillus delbruekii, under varying parameters of time, temperature, pH and glucose concentration, The production of lactic acid significantly increased with increase in Ph, fermentation time and glucose concentration (1-5%) and was significantly high (8.40 g/1) at pH 6, while significantly low (7.67 g/1) at pH 5. (author)

  5. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholestrol, and apolipoprotein-b in young men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee has recommended that added sugar consumption be limited to 100-150 kcal/d, it has been reported that long-term sugar intakes as high as 25-50% of energy do not have adverse effects on metabolic syndrome components in human subjects. The object...

  7. Intestinal fructose malabsorption is associated with increased lactulose fermentation in the intestinal lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Speridião, Patrícia da Graça Leite; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Morais, Mauro Batista de

    2017-10-28

    To study fructose malabsorption in children and adolescents with abdominal pain associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders. As an additional objective, the association between intestinal fructose malabsorption and food intake, including the estimated fructose consumption, weight, height, and lactulose fermentability were also studied. The study included 31 patients with abdominal pain (11 with functional dyspepsia, 10 with irritable bowel syndrome, and 10 with functional abdominal pain). The hydrogen breath test was used to investigate fructose malabsorption and lactulose fermentation in the intestinal lumen. Food consumption was assessed by food registry. Weight and height were measured. Fructose malabsorption was characterized in 21 (67.7%) patients (nine with irritable bowel syndrome, seven with functional abdominal pain, and five with functional dyspepsia). Intolerance after fructose administration was observed in six (28.6%) of the 21 patients with fructose malabsorption. Fructose malabsorption was associated with higher (pfructose intake by patients with and without fructose malabsorption were, respectively, 16.1 and 10.5g/day (p=0.087). Fructose malabsorption is associated with increased lactulose fermentability in the intestinal lumen. Body mass index was higher in patients with fructose malabsorption. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Ability of the normal human small intestine to absorb fructose: evaluation by breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish S C; Attaluri, Ashok; Anderson, Leslie; Stumbo, Phyllis

    2007-08-01

    Fructose consumption is increasing, and its malabsorption causes common gastrointestinal symptoms. Because its absorption capacity is poorly understood, there is no standard method of assessing fructose absorption. We performed a dose-response study of fructose absorption in healthy subjects to develop a breath test to distinguish normal from abnormal fructose absorption capacity. In a double-blind study, 20 healthy subjects received 10% solutions of 15, 25, and 50 g of fructose and 33% solution of 50-g fructose on 4 separate days at weekly intervals. Breath samples were assessed for hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) during a period of 5 hours, and symptoms were recorded. No subject tested positive with 15 g. Two (10%) tested positive with 25 g fructose but were asymptomatic. Sixteen (80%) tested positive with 50 g (10% solution), and 11 (55%) had symptoms. Breath H2 was elevated in 13 (65%), CH4 in 1 (5%), and both in 2 (10%). Twelve (60%) tested positive with 50 g (33% solution), and 9 (45%) experienced symptoms. The area under the curve for H2 and CH4 was higher (P fructose, whereas many exhibit malabsorption and intolerance with 50 g fructose. Hence, we recommend 25 g as the dose for testing subjects with suspected fructose malabsorption. Breath samples measured for H2 and CH4 concentration at 30-minute intervals and for 3 hours will detect most subjects with fructose malabsorption.

  9. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  10. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    (insulin resistance), we propose to use the term "glucose allostasis." Allostasis (stability through change) ensures the continued homeostatic response (stability through staying the same) to acute stress at some cumulative costs to the system. With increasing severity and over time, the allostatic load......In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...

  11. Corning lightweight core fabrication technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBrocklin, Randy R.; Edwards, Mary J.; Hobbs, Thomas W.

    2003-12-01

    Fabrication of lightweight mirrors from low expansion glasses can be achieved using various core and faceplate lightweighting techniques. Lightweighting can be achieved using abrasive waterjet cutting, CNC milling and a new approach that Corning is developing to produce lightweight cores based on Corning's patented ceramic extrusion process. The selection of which lightweighting technology to use is dependent on customer design considerations of the lightweight mirror. These lightweighting techniques are reviewed and discussed, along with advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Corning will also introduce and discuss their new core lightweighting process.

  12. Effect of acid pretreatment on different parts of corn stalk for second generation ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Cai, Di; Luo, Zhangfeng; Qin, Peiyong; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Changwei; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of different parts of corn stalk, including stem, leaf, flower, cob and husk on second generation ethanol production were evaluated. FTIR, XRD and SEM were performed to investigate the effect of dilute acid pretreatment. The bagasse obtained after pretreatment were further hydrolyzed by cellulase and used as the substrate for ethanol fermentation. As results, hemicelluloses fractions in different parts of corn stalk were dramatically removed and the solid fractions showed vivid compositions and crystallinities. Compared with other parts of corn stalk, the cob had higher sugar content and better enzymatic digestibility. The highest glucose yield of 94.2% and ethanol production of 24.0 g L(-1) were achieved when the cob was used as feedstock, while the glucose yield and the ethanol production were only 86.0% and 17.1 g L(-1) in the case of flower. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and...

  14. Risk and the Value of Bt Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance M. Hurley; Paul D. Mitchell; Marlin E. Rice

    2004-01-01

    A conceptual model is developed to evaluate the effect of Bt corn on risk. Results highlight the importance of distinguishing between marginal and aggregate risk effects and demonstrate that the effect of Bt corn on risk depends crucially on the price paid for the technology. Empirical results show that, depending on the price, Bt corn can be marginally risk increasing or decreasing and can either increase or decrease corn acreage. Also, depending on the price, Bt corn can provide a risk bene...

  15. Early adaptive response of the retina to a pro-diabetogenic diet: Impairment of cone response and gene expression changes in high-fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Magalie; Pasquis, Bruno; Buteau, Bénédicte; Fourgeux, Cynthia; Dembele, Doulaye; Leclere, Laurent; Gambert-Nicot, Ségolène; Acar, Niyazi; Bron, Alain M; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P; Bretillon, Lionel

    2015-06-01

    The lack of plasticity of neurons to respond to dietary changes, such as high fat and high fructose diets, by modulating gene and protein expression has been associated with functional and behavioral impairments that can have detrimental consequences. The inhibition of high fat-induced rewiring of hypothalamic neurons induced obesity. Feeding rodents with high fructose is a recognized and widely used model to trigger obesity and metabolic syndrome. However the adaptive response of the retina to short term feeding with high fructose is poorly documented. We therefore aimed to characterize both the functional and gene expression changes in the neurosensory retina of Brown Norway rats fed during 3 and 8 days with a 60%-rich fructose diet (n = 16 per diet and per time point). Glucose, insulin, leptin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fructosamine were quantified in plasma (n = 8 in each group). Functionality of the inner retina was studied using scotopic single flash electroretinography (n = 8 in each group) and the individual response of rod and cone photoreceptors was determined using 8.02 Hz Flicker electroretinography (n = 8 in each group). Analysis of gene expression in the neurosensory retina was performed by Affymetrix genechips, and confirmed by RT-qPCR (n = 6 in each group). Elevated glycemia (+13%), insulinemia (+83%), and leptinemia (+172%) was observed after 8 days of fructose feeding. The cone photoreceptor response was altered at day 8 in high fructose fed rats (Δ = 0.5 log unit of light stimulus intensity). Affymetrix analysis of gene expression highlighted significant modulation of the pathways of eIF2 signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress, regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling, as well as mTOR signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed the down regulation of Crystallins, Npy, Nid1 and Optc genes after 3 days of fructose feeding, and up regulation of End2. Meanwhile, a trend

  16. Mangiferin treatment inhibits hepatic expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rats: a link to amelioration of fatty liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Xiaomang; Li, Danyang; Chen, Dilong; Zhou, Liang [Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 China (China); Chonan, Ritsu [Koei Kogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 101-0063 Japan (Japan); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto, 602-8136 Japan (Japan); Wang, Jianwei, E-mail: wangjianwei1968@gmail.com [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 China (China); Li, Yuhao, E-mail: yuhao@sitcm.edu.au [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences/Sydney Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Mangiferin, a xanthone glucoside, and its associated traditional herbs have been demonstrated to improve abnormalities of lipid metabolism. However, its underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study investigated the anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)s that have a mutation in sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1. The results showed that co-administration of mangiferin (15 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 7 weeks dramatically diminished fructose-induced increases in hepatic triglyceride content and Oil Red O-stained area in SHRs. However, blood pressure, fructose and chow intakes, white adipose tissue weight and metabolic parameters (plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids) were unaffected by mangiferin treatment. Mechanistically, mangiferin treatment suppressed acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in the liver. In contrast, mangiferin treatment was without effect on hepatic mRNA and/or protein expression of SREBP-1/1c, carbohydrate response element binding protein, liver pyruvate kinase, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, DGAT-1, monoacyglycerol acyltransferase-2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Collectively, our results suggest that mangiferin treatment ameliorates fatty liver in fructose-fed SHRs by inhibiting hepatic DGAT-2 that catalyzes the final step in triglyceride biosynthesis. The anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin may occur independently of the hepatic signals associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. - Highlights: • We investigated the anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin (MA) in fructose-fed SHR. • MA (15 mg/kg/day for 7 weeks) ameliorated fructose-induced fatty liver in

  17. Mangiferin treatment inhibits hepatic expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rats: a link to amelioration of fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Xiaomang; Li, Danyang; Chen, Dilong; Zhou, Liang; Chonan, Ritsu; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2014-01-01

    Mangiferin, a xanthone glucoside, and its associated traditional herbs have been demonstrated to improve abnormalities of lipid metabolism. However, its underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study investigated the anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)s that have a mutation in sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1. The results showed that co-administration of mangiferin (15 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 7 weeks dramatically diminished fructose-induced increases in hepatic triglyceride content and Oil Red O-stained area in SHRs. However, blood pressure, fructose and chow intakes, white adipose tissue weight and metabolic parameters (plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids) were unaffected by mangiferin treatment. Mechanistically, mangiferin treatment suppressed acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in the liver. In contrast, mangiferin treatment was without effect on hepatic mRNA and/or protein expression of SREBP-1/1c, carbohydrate response element binding protein, liver pyruvate kinase, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, DGAT-1, monoacyglycerol acyltransferase-2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Collectively, our results suggest that mangiferin treatment ameliorates fatty liver in fructose-fed SHRs by inhibiting hepatic DGAT-2 that catalyzes the final step in triglyceride biosynthesis. The anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin may occur independently of the hepatic signals associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. - Highlights: • We investigated the anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin (MA) in fructose-fed SHR. • MA (15 mg/kg/day for 7 weeks) ameliorated fructose-induced fatty liver in

  18. Lysine 356 is a critical residue for binding the C-6 phospho group of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate to the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Lin, K; Correia, J J; Pilkis, S J

    1992-08-15

    Lysine 356 has been implicated by protein modification studies as a fructose-2,6-bisphosphate binding site residue in the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase domain of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (Kitajima, S., Thomas, H., and Uyeda, K. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 13995-14002). However, Lys-356 is found in the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain (Bazan, F., Fletterick, R., and Pilkis, S. J. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9642-9646). In order to ascertain whether Lys-356 is involved in fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase catalysis and/or domain/domain interactions of the bifunctional enzyme, Lys-356 was mutated to Ala, expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified to homogeneity. Circular dichroism experiments indicated that the secondary structure of the Lys-356-Ala mutant was not significantly different from that of the wild-type enzyme. The Km for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and the Ki for the noncompetitive inhibitor, fructose 6-phosphate, for the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase of the Lys-356-Ala mutant were 2700- and 2200-fold higher, respectively, than those of the wild-type enzyme. However, the maximal velocity and the Ki for the competitive product inhibitor, inorganic phosphate, were unchanged compared to the corresponding values of the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, in contrast to the wild-type enzyme, which exhibits substrate inhibition, there was no inhibition by substrate of the Lys-356-Ala mutant. In the presence of saturating substrate, inorganic phosphate, which acts by relieving fructose-6-phosphate and substrate inhibition, is an activator of the bisphosphatase. The Ka for inorganic phosphate of the Lys-356-Ala mutant was 1300-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. The kinetic properties of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase of the Lys-356-Ala mutant were essentially identical with that of the wild-type enzyme. The results demonstrate that: 1) Lys-356 is a critical residue in fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase for binding the 6

  19. Integrated bioethanol production from mixtures of corn and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sitong; Xu, Zhaoxian; Li, Xiujuan; Yu, Jianming; Cai, Mufeng; Jin, Mingjie

    2018-02-27

    Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, such as corn stover (CS), to ethanol has encountered issues of inhibition from degradation products, low ethanol titer and low ethanol productivity. This work integrated CS into corn ethanol process for effective conversion. CS was pretreated using either dilute alkali or dilute acid pretreatment. The pretreated CS was enzymatically hydrolyzed and then mixed with liquefied corn for ethanol fermentation. Fermentation strains, substrate mixing ratios and fed-batch strategy were investigated. The mixture of alkali pretreated CS and corn at solids loadings of 10% and 20%, respectively, resulted in 92.30 g/L ethanol. Ethanol titer was further improved to 96.43 g/L with a fed-batch strategy. The mixture of dilute acid pretreated CS and corn achieved a better performance, leading to 104.9 g/L ethanol with 80.47% ethanol yield and a productivity as high as 2.19 g/L/h. This work demonstrated effective conversion of CS and corn together to ethanol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on alcohol production from corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.W.; Cho, Y.K.; Ciegler, A.

    1983-01-01

    Cracked corn was irradiated with γ rays at 0-100 Mrad and the effects of the irradiation on sugar yield, susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, yeast growth, and alcohol production were studied. Gamma irradiation at 50 Mrad or greater produced a considerable amount of reducing sugar but little glucose. At lower dosages, γ irradiation significantly increased the susceptibility of corn starch to enzymatic hydrolysis, but dosages of 50 Mrad or greater decomposed the starch molecules as indicated by the reduction in iodine uptake. About 12.5% reducing sugar was produced by amylase treatment of uncooked, irradiated corn. This amount exceeded the level of sugar produced from cooked (gelatinized) corn by the same enzyme treatment. The yeast numbers in submerged cultivation were lower on a corn substrate that was irradiated at 50 Mrad or greater compared to that on an unirradiated control. About the same level of alcohol was produced on uncooked, irradiated (10 5 - 10 6 rad) corn as from cooked (121 degrees C for 30 min) corn. Therefore, the conventional cooking process for gelatinization of starch prior to its saccharification can be eliminated by irradiation. Irradiation also eliminated the necessity of sterilization of the medium and reduced the viscosity of high levels of substrate in the fermentation broth. (Refs. 10)

  1. Xylitol production from DEO hydrolysate of corn stover by Pichia stipitis YS-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; William R. Kenealy; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Corn stover that had been treated with vapor-phase diethyl oxalate released a mixture of mono-and oligosaccharides consisting mainly of xylose and glucose. Following overliming and neutralization, a D-xylulokinase mutant of Pichia stipitis, FPL-YS30 (xyl3 -Ä1), converted the stover hydrolysate into xylitol. This research examined the effects of phosphoric or gluconic...

  2. Ethanol production from corn cobs by co-culture of Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger were used in a co-culture for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of 1% and 10% (w/v) dry pre-treated corn cobs to ethanol. Positive controls of glucose of same concentrations in a synthetic medium were also fermented. At 1% substrate concentration, ...

  3. Comparative methodologies for measuring metabolizable energy of various types of resistant high amylose corn starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulley, R.T.; Appel, M.J.; Enos, T.G.; Hegsted, M.; Mccutcheon, K.L.; Zhou, J.; Raggio, A.M.; Jeffcoat, R.; Birkett, A.; Martin, R.J.; Keenan, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Energy values of high amylose corn starches high in resistant starch (RS) were determined in vivo by two different methodologies. In one study, energy values were determined according to growth relative to glucose-based diets in rats fed diets containing RS2, heat-treated RS2 (RS2-HT), RS3, and

  4. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Ethanol and Glucose Concentrations in Yeast Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudy, Amy A

    2017-09-01

    Fermentative growth on glucose is one of the most widely studied conditions of yeast growth in the laboratory. The production of ethanol from sugars is relevant to the wine, beer, and bread industries and to production of biofuels. Assaying the levels of glucose and ethanol in yeast growth medium allows the experimenter to determine the consumption of the carbon source glucose and the production of ethanol. This protocol describes enzyme-coupled assays for determination of glucose and ethanol concentrations in a sample of cell-free culture medium. Enzymes convert glucose or ethanol into other compounds through chemical reactions that reduce NAD(P) + to NAD(P)H, and the production of NAD(P)H is measured using a spectrophotometer. The methods presented are highly sensitive, with a detection limit of ∼0.4 mg/L of glucose and 50 mg/L of ethanol, and also have the advantage of high specificity. For example, glucose and fructose have identical chemical formulas and thus cannot be distinguished by a mass spectrometer, but the enzyme assay presented here is specific for glucose. The glucose assay can be coupled to other assays to determine the quantity of additional carbohydrates such as fructose, trehalose, and glycogen. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Mechanocatalytic Production of Lactic Acid from Glucose by Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free process was developed for the direct production of lactic acid from glucose in a mechanocatalytic process in the presence of Ba(OH2, and a moderate lactic acid yield of 35.6% was obtained. Glucose conversion and lactic acid formation were favorable at higher catalyst/glucose mass ratios. However, at relatively lower catalyst/glucose mass ratios, they were greatly inhibited, and the promotion of fructose formation was observed. The mechanocatalytic process was applicable for various carbohydrates such as C5 sugars, C6 sugars, and disaccharides with 20–36% lactic acid yields achieved. This work provides a new pathway for the production of value-added chemicals from biomass resources.

  6. Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Land Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.; Fiegel, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper first develops a partial equilibrium (PE) model to examine impacts of converting corn stover to biofuel on markets for corn and soybeans at the national market level. The PE model links gasoline, corn ethanol, dried distiller grains, corn, soybeans, and soybean meal markets in the presence and absence of a viable market for corn stover. The model also includes a technology which converts corn stover to bio-gasoline (a drop-in biofuel). The model evaluates profitability of the ethan...

  7. Corn in consortium with forages

    OpenAIRE

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia; Marcelo Andreotti; Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho; Keny Samejima Mascarenha Lopes; Ciniro Costa; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana

    2013-01-01

    The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS) throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was c...

  8. New Products from 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose