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Sample records for frozen rigid glasses

  1. Polymer glass transition occurs at the marginal rigidity point with connectivity z* = 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappala, Anna; Zaccone, Alessio; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2016-09-21

    We re-examine the physical origin of the polymer glass transition from the point of view of marginal rigidity, which is achieved at a certain average number of mechanically active intermolecular contacts per monomer. In the case of polymer chains in a melt/poor solvent, each monomer has two neighbors bound by covalent bonds and also a number of central-force contacts modelled by the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. We find that when the average number of contacts per monomer (covalent and non-covalent) exceeds the critical value z* ≈ 4, the system becomes solid and the dynamics arrested - a state that we declare the glass. Coarse-grained Brownian dynamics simulations show that at sufficient strength of LJ attraction (which effectively represents the depth of quenching, or the quality of solvent) the polymer globule indeed crosses the threshold of z*, and becomes a glass with a finite zero-frequency shear modulus, G∝ (z-z*). We verify this by showing the distinction between the 'liquid' polymer droplet at z z*, which changes shape and adopts the spherical conformation in equilibrium, and the glassy 'solid' droplet at z > z*, which retains its shape frozen at the moment of z* crossover. These results provide a robust microscopic criterion to tell the liquid apart from the glass for the linear polymers.

  2. Study of rigidity of semiconducting vanadate glasses and its importance in use of coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yasser B Saddeek; M S Gaafar

    2014-05-01

    The elastic moduli of some multicomponent vanadate based glasses were analysed in terms of the bond compression model by some physical parameters such as, the density, average stretching force constant and average atomic ring size. These parameters were calculated for all the glass series and for all the glass composition to estimate the rigidity of these glasses. The results showed that the average force constant and the elastic moduli of these glasses are sensitive to the decrease in PbO content. This behaviour was attributed to the increase in the molar volume and the role of different modifiers. These parameters along with the coordination number of the glasses affect the glass transition temperature. The correlation between the elastic moduli and thermal properties of these samples showed that 0.25MoO3–0.25PbO–0.5V2O5 glass is the most rigid and has an applicable glass transition temperature for coating.

  3. Differential scanning calorimetry study of glass transition in frozen starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananuwong, Kanitha; Reid, David S

    2004-06-30

    The effects of initial water content, maximum heating temperature, amylopectin crystallinity type, and annealing on the glass transition of starch gels were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The glass transition temperatures of the frozen gels measured as the onset (T(g,onset)) or midpoint temperature (T(g,midpoint)), heat capacity change during the glass transition (deltaC(p)), unfrozen water of starch gels, and additional unfrozen water (AUW) arising from gelatinization were reported. The results show that T(g,onset) and T(g,midpoint) of the partially gelatinized gels are independent of the initial water content, while both of the T(g) values of the fully gelatinized gel increase as the initial water content increases. These observations might result from the difference in the level of structural disruption associated with different heating conditions, resulting in different gel structures as well as different concentrations of the sub-T(g) unfrozen matrix. The amylopectin crystallinity type does not greatly affect T(g,onset) and T(g,midpoint) of the gels. Annealing at a temperature near T(g,onset) increases both T(g,onset) and T(g,midpoint) of the gels, possibly due to an increase in the extent of the freeze concentration as evidenced by a decrease in AUW. Annealing results in an increase in the deltaC(p) value of the gels, presumably due to structural relaxation. A devitrification exotherm may be related to AUW. The annealing process decreases AUW, thus also decreasing the size of the exotherm.

  4. Rigid bonded glass ceramic seals for high temperature membrane reactors and solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, Ove

    2009-05-15

    Solid Oxide Fuel cells (SOFC) and dense gas separation membranes based on mixed ionic and electronic conductors have gained increased interest the resent years due the search for new technologies for clean energy generation. These technologies can be utilized to produce electricity from fossil fuel with low CO{sub 2} emission compared to conventional gas or coal based energy plants. One crucial challenge with high temperature membrane reactors and SOFCs is the sealing of the active membranes/electrolytes to prevent leakage of air to fuel side or vice versa. Due to the high operating temperatures of typical 800-1000 degrees Celsius the selection of reliable sealing materials is limited. The seals have to remain gas tight during the life time of the reactor/SOFC, they need to be chemical compatible with the sealed materials and stable in reducing and oxidizing atmospheres containing water vapour and CO{sub 2}, and finally they should be cheap, readily available and easy to process. The main purpose of the present work was to evaluate rigid bonded glass ceramic seals for dense oxygen ion and proton conducting membranes and electrolytes for SOFCs and high temperature (HT) membrane reactors. First, a review of sealing technologies has been carried out with emphasis on SOFC and ceramic membranes technologies applicable for zero emission power plants. Regarding sealing, the best and cheapest materials at the present time are based on silicate glass and glass ceramics. In the present work aluminate glass without silica is introduced as a new class of seals expanding the material selection for HT membrane sealing technologies. The main reason for studying silica free systems is that silica is known to be unstable in humid atmospheres and/or reducing conditions at elevated temperatures. Two glass systems have been evaluated. The first was based on aluminate glasses in the system RO-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R=Mg, Ba, Sr) with special focus on the CaO-MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3

  5. Comportement comparé de conduites rigides et flexibles ensouillées au voisinage de sols gelés Comparative Behavior of Rigid and Flexible Pipes Buried in the Vicinity of Frozen Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putot C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des dernières années, les activités pétrolières à terre comme en mer, tant en Alaska qu'au Canada, se sont maintenues à un niveau raisonnable. En octobre 1987, le premier champ pétrolier offshore a été mis en exploitation en mer de Beaufort (Endicott. Bien que l'industrie soit principalement dans une phase d'exploration, des besoins vont progressivement se manifester en matière de lignes de collecte et d'injection. La détermination du tracé de conduites en offshore arctique ainsi que leur dimensionnement nécessite la prise en compte de facteurs très spécifiques : le raclage des glaces dérivantes impose une profondeur minimum d'ensouillage, ce qui accroît, malgré l'isolation des conduites, la proportion de chaleur communiquée au pergélisol (ou permafrost en dégel : les tassements différentiels résultant de la variabilité de composition des sols peuvent provoquer des déformations, voire des instabilités des conduites tout à fait inacceptables. Il est assez intuitif de penser que les conduites flexibles accommoderont plus facilement les mouvements de sol que les rigides. L'objet de cet article est de proposer une méthode d'analyse assez souple permettant de jauger facilement cet avantage. In recent years, onshore and offshore petroleum activities, in both Alaska and Canada, have continued on a reasonable level. In October 1987 the first offshore oil field began production in the Beaufort Sea (Endicott. Although the industry is mainly in an exploration phase, needs will steadily appear with regard to gathering and injection line. . The determination to lay flowlines in offshore arctic areas as well as their sizing require that very specific factors be taken into consideration. Scouring by drifting ice requires a minimum depth of burial. Despite the insulation of pipes, this burial increases the proportion of heat communicated to melting permafrost. The differential compaction resulting from the variability of

  6. Frozen Frozen CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    2 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of frozen carbon dioxide in the south polar residual cap of Mars. Much of the south polar residual cap exhibits terrain that resembles stacks of sliced Swiss cheese, but this portion of the cap lacks the typical, circular depressions that characterize much of the region. Carbon dioxide on Mars freezes at a temperature of around 148 Kelvins, which is -125oC or about -193oF. Location near: 87.2oS, 28.4oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  7. CO2 laser cutting of ultra thin (75 μm) glass based rigid optical solar reflector (OSR) for spacecraft application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shubham; Sridhara, N.; Mitra, Avijit; Yougandar, B.; Dash, Sarat Kumar; Agarwal, Sanjay; Dey, Arjun

    2017-03-01

    Present study reports for the first time laser cutting of multilayered coatings on both side of ultra thin (i.e., 75 μm) glass substrate based rigid optical solar reflector (OSR) for spacecraft thermal control application. The optimization of cutting parameters was carried out as a function of laser power, cutting speed and number of cutting passes and their effect on cutting edge quality. Systematic and in-detail microstructural characterizations were carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques to study the laser affected zone and cutting edge quality. Sheet resistance and water contact angle experiments were also conducted locally both prior and after laser cut to investigate the changes of electrical and surface properties, if any.

  8. Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  9. Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  10. 季节冻土区刚柔混合衬砌梯形渠道冻胀机理试验%Test for frost heaving damage mechanism of rigid-soften composite trapezoidal canal in seasonally frozen ground region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海波; 田艳

    2015-01-01

    输水渠道冻胀破坏是寒冷地区渠道破坏的主要表现。为了探明刚柔混合衬砌渠道的冻胀机理,分析复合衬砌渠道的冻胀变形规律和冻胀过程中的水分变化规律,以及柔性复合土工膜的变形特征,该研究借助季节冻融条件下刚柔混合衬砌梯形渠道的原型观测成果,分析了刚柔混合衬砌渠道的最低地温变化规律、冻深变化规律和冻胀量与冻胀力的变化规律,重点研究了冻融条件下渠基土壤的水分迁移规律,以及复合土工膜的变形特征和强度变化。结果显示:刚柔混合衬砌渠道的冻胀变形最大值位于渠底和阴坡1/3处,最大冻胀量为11.2和13.1 cm,衬砌结构向上隆起。冻结期,渠基土壤0~60 cm深度范围内含水率随深度增加而增大,>60~120 cm深度范围内的含水率随深度增大而逐渐减小。水分迁移最大值发生在渠道底部,迁移率为13.2%。经过一个冻融周期的循环,复合土工膜的强度和变形量仍然保持在90%以上,强度和变形损失值较小,可充分发挥复合土工膜防渗抗冻胀和适应变形的特性。该研究为刚柔混合衬砌渠道的设计、推广应用提供了理论依据。%In the area of seasonal frozen soil in North China and Northwest, there exists massive and serious frost-heave damage of concrete lining canal. Frost-heave damage is the main reason for the channels. In this paper, the prototype experiments were conducted in order to explore the frost-heave mechanism of rigid-soften composite canal in the irrigation area of high-cold region. The frost deformation the soil moisture variation of the trapezoidal canal lined with concrete and composite geo-membrane, and especially the rules of frost-heave deformation and the deformation features of composite geo-membrane were further systematically studied. The experiment followed the leading thought of suiting and reducing the frost-heave destruction

  11. Frozen Shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frozen shoulder occurs in about 2% of the general population. It most commonly affects people between the ages of 40 and 60, and occurs in women more o en than men. Anatomy Your shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint ...

  12. Frozen assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-02

    In June this year, delegates from more than 30 Antarctic Treaty nations met and agreed on a set of rules under the 'Convention on the Regulation of Antartic Mineral Resource Activities'. The convention presents a legal basis for mining which previously did not exist but it requires the two-third approval of a regulatory committee comprising countries both with and without territorial claims. However, the environment of the Antarctic is so harsh that very few in the international mining industry consider mining in the frozen continent a viable proposition.

  13. ULTRATHIN FROZEN SECTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, W.; Leduc, Elizabeth H.

    1967-01-01

    A relatively simple method for obtaining ultrathin, frozen sections for electron microscopy has been developed. Tissues, cultured cells, and bacteria may be employed. They are fixed in 1.25–4% glutaraldehyde for 1–4 hr, are washed overnight in buffer at 3°C, and are embedded in 20% thiolated gelatin or pure gelatin. Before sectioning they are partially dehydrated in 50% glycerol, frozen in liquid nitrogen on a modified tissue holder, and subsequently maintained at -70°C with dry ice. Finally, they are sectioned very rapidly with glass knives on a slightly modified Porter-Blum MT-1 microtome in a commercial deep-freeze maintained at -35°C and are floated in the trough of the knife on a 40% solution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The sections are picked up in plastic loops and transferred to distilled water at room temperature for thawing and removal of the DMSO, placed on grids coated with Formvar and carbon, air-dried, and stained with phosphotungstic acid, sodium silicotungstate, or a triple stain of osmium tetroxide, uranyl acetate, and lead. Large flat sections are obtained in which ultrastructural preservation is good. They are particularly useful for cytochemical studies. PMID:4167504

  14. Rigidity and soft percolation in the glass transition of an atomistic model of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium nitrate, from molecular dynamics simulations—Existence of infinite overlapping networks in a fragile ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habasaki, Junko, E-mail: habasaki.j.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Ngai, K. L. [CNR-IPCF Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-04-28

    The typical ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium nitrate (EMIM-NO{sub 3}), was examined by molecular dynamics simulations of an all-atomistic model to show the characteristics of networks of cages and/or bonds in the course of vitrification of this fragile glass-former. The system shows changes of dynamics at two characteristic temperatures, T{sub B} (or T{sub c}) and the glass transition temperature T{sub g}, found in other fragile glass forming liquids [K. L. Ngai and J. Habasaki, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 114502 (2014)]. On decreasing temperature, the number of neighboring cation-anion pairs, N{sub B}, within the first minimum of the pair correlation function, g(r){sub min}, increases. On crossing T{sub B} (>T{sub g}), the system volume and diffusion coefficient both show changes in temperature dependence, and as usual at T{sub g}. The glass transition temperature, T{sub g}, is characterized by the saturation of the total number of “bonds,” N{sub B} and the corresponding decrease in degree of freedom, F = [(3N − 6) − N{sub B}], of the system consisting of N particles. Similar behavior holds for the other ion-ion pairs. Therefore, as an alternative, the dynamics of glass transition can be interpreted conceptually by rigidity percolation. Before saturation occurring at T{sub g}, the number of bonds shows a remarkable change at around T{sub B}. This temperature is associated with the disappearance of the loosely packed coordination polyhedra of anions around cation (or vice versa), related to the loss of geometrical freedom of the polyhedra, f{sub g}, of each coordination polyhedron, which can be defined by f{sub g} = [(3N{sub V} − 6) − N{sub b}]. Here, 3N{sub v} is the degree of freedom of N{sub V} vertices of the polyhedron, and N{sub b} is number of fictive bonds. The packing of polyhedra is characterized by the soft percolation of cages, which allows further changes with decreasing temperature. The power spectrum of displacement of the central ion

  15. 基于粘刚塑性模型非球面透镜三维模压成型模拟%Simulation of 3D molding of aspheric optical glass lens based on viscous-rigid model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小兵

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of flow stress model and glass material parameters at high temperature was analyzed and discussed. The three⁃dimensional finite element model of compression molding of aspheric lens at high temperature was established using viscous⁃rigid model based on DEFORM 3D. The whole process of optical glass spherical L⁃BAL42 preform being molded into aspheric lens was studied by numerical simulation. It is found that maximum stress is at lens edge and stresses increase rapidly when mold is closed,leading to the lens edge most easily being broken,the result is validated by experiments. Residual stress will increase with increasing compression rate and the cooling rate,and the rules of aspheric lens deviation were analyzed. Finally aspheric surface deviation was compensated during the mold design stage. It is found that the aspheric surface deviation will decrease,deviation changes from positive to negative.%分析与探讨了高温玻璃的应力流动模型及其材料参数的温度相关性。利用粘刚塑性力学模型,基于三维有限元软件DEFORM 3D建立非球面透镜高温模压有限元模型,对光学玻璃L-BAL42球形预制件模压成非球面透镜的整个过程进行了数值仿真,发现非球面透镜应力分布规律:透镜边缘处应力最大,在和模阶段应力快速增加,导致透镜边缘处最易破碎,结果得到实验的验证。采用较大的模压速度及冷却速度将导致残余应力增加,同时分析了透镜非球面偏差变化规律。最后在模具设计时将非球面偏差补偿进去,发现非球面透镜偏差减少,由正偏差变为负偏差。

  16. On affine rigidity

    CERN Document Server

    Gortler, Steven J; Liu, Ligang; Thurston, Dylan P

    2010-01-01

    We study the properties of affine rigidity of a hypergraph and prove a variety of fundamental results. First, we show that affine rigidity is a generic property (i.e., depends only on the hypergraph, not the particular embedding). Then we prove that a graph is generically neighborhood affinely rigid in d-dimensional space if it is (d+1)-vertex-connected. We also show neighborhood affine rigidity of a graph implies universal rigidity of its squared graph. Our results, and affine rigidity more generally, have natural applications in point registration and localization, as well as connections to manifold learning.

  17. On affine rigidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Gortler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the properties of affine rigidity of a hypergraph and prove a variety of fundamental results. First, we show that affine rigidity is a generic property (i.e., depends only on the hypergraph, not the particular embedding. Then we prove that a graph is generically neighborhood affinely rigid in d-dimensional space if it is (d+1-vertex-connected. We also show neighborhood affine rigidity of a graph implies universal rigidity of its squared graph.  Our results, and affine rigidity more generally, have natural applications in point registration and localization, as well as connections to manifold learning.

  18. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...

  19. Effect of frozen storage on the foaming properties of wheat gliadin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Tao, Han; Wu, Fengfeng; Yang, Na; Chen, Feng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of frozen storage on the foaming properties of wheat gliadin was investigated and further elucidated by evaluating its physicochemical changes. The foaming volumes of gliadin solution decreased while the foaming stability increased during the frozen storage. This was directly attributed to decreased gliadin content and increased foam density and protein concentration involved in the foams. A more rigid conformation was observed when the frozen storage time increased: the α-helix structure increased at the cost of β-sheet and unordered structure with the decreased surface hydrophobicity and increased surface tension of gliadin aqueous solutions. The percentage of γ-gliadin within gliadin foams gradually decreased, indicating that γ-gliadin was the most sensitive to freezing and the main contributor to the weakened foaming properties during the frozen storage. This study extended the knowledge of gliadin deterioration upon frozen storage and might contribute to the better understanding of frozen dough quality loss.

  20. Rigid monomial ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Timothy B P

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the class of rigid monomial ideals. We give a characterization of the minimal free resolutions of certain classes of these ideals. Specifically, we show that the ideals in a particular subclass of rigid monomial ideals are lattice-linear and thus their minimal resolution can be constructed as a poset resolution. We then use this result to give a description of the minimal free resolution of a larger class of rigid monomial ideals by using $\\mathcal{L}(n)$, the lattice of all lcm-lattices of monomial ideals with $n$ generators. By fixing a stratum in $\\mathcal{L}(n)$ where all ideals have the same total Betti numbers we show that rigidity is a property which is upward closed in $\\mathcal{L}(n)$. Furthermore, the minimal resolution of all rigid ideals contained in a fixed stratum is shown to be isomorphic to the constructed minimal resolution.

  1. Topology and glass structure evolution in (BaO){sub x}((B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 32}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 68}){sub 100−x} ternary—Evidence of rigid, intermediate, and flexible phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, C. [AFRL/RYDP, 2241 Avionics Circle, B620, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States); Chakraborty, Shibalik; Ravindren, S.; Boolchand, P. [Department of Electrical and Computing Systems, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0030 (United States); Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Stutz, C. E. [AFRL/RXAN, 3005 Hobson Way, B651, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    We examine variations in the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}(x)), molar volume (V{sub m}(x)), and Raman scattering of titled glasses as a function of modifier (BaO) content in the 25% < x < 48% range. Three distinct regimes of behavior are observed; at low x, 24% < x < 29% range, the modifier largely polymerizes the backbone, T{sub g}(x) increase, features that we identify with the stressed-rigid elastic phase. At high x, 32% < x < 48% range, the modifier depolymerizes the network by creating non-bridging oxygen (NBO) atoms; in this regime T{sub g}(x) decreases, and networks are viewed to be in the flexible elastic phase. In the narrow intermediate x regime, 29% < x < 32% range, T{sub g}(x) shows a broad global maximum almost independent of x, and Raman mode scattering strengths and mode frequencies become relatively x-independent, V{sub m}(x) show a global minimum, features that we associate with the isostatically rigid elastic phase, also called the intermediate phase. In this phase, medium range structures adapt as revealed by the count of Lagrangian bonding constraints and Raman mode scattering strengths.

  2. Texture of Frozen Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Kohmei

    Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.

  3. Curation of Frozen Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, L. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bastien, R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Astromaterials Curator are charged by NPD 7100.10D with the curation of all of NASA s extraterrestrial samples, including those from future missions. This responsibility includes the development of new sample handling and preparation techniques; therefore, the Astromaterials Curator must begin developing procedures to preserve, prepare and ship samples at sub-freezing temperatures in order to enable future sample return missions. Such missions might include the return of future frozen samples from permanently-shadowed lunar craters, the nuclei of comets, the surface of Mars, etc. We are demonstrating the ability to curate samples under cold conditions by designing, installing and testing a cold curation glovebox. This glovebox will allow us to store, document, manipulate and subdivide frozen samples while quantifying and minimizing contamination throughout the curation process.

  4. HOMOLOGY RIGIDITY OF GRASSMANNIANS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fang; Duan Haibao

    2009-01-01

    Applying the theory of GrSbner basis to the Schubert presentation for the cohomology of Grassmannians [2], we extend the homology rigidity results known for the classical Grassmaniaas to the exceptional cases.

  5. Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of frozen aqueous solutions of Fe3+ salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Knudsen, J. E.; Nielsen, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Frozen aqueous solutions (FAS) of Fe3+ salts have been investigated by use of Mössbauer spectroscopy in order to study the conditions for formation of glasses. A general discussion of spin–spin relaxation in glasses is given, and we discuss how changes in the spin–spin relaxation time can...... concentration of the solution increases. At low temperatures the crystallization terminates and the remaining liquid solidifies into a glass. During exposure at 200 K, the dilute samples change irreversibly. This is discussed in terms of a metastable phase diagram. The properties of frozen solutions with other...

  6. Creep Behavior of Frozen Sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    temperature and stress range. There was a 2strong stress dependance to S (r =0.95) for saturated Manchester Fine Sand which does not agree with RPT. The...Curves at High Stress 161 Ratio D/Du = 0.505 for Frozen HF’S at w=10% IV-20 Minimum Strain Rate Dependance on Stress 162 Ratio for Frozen MFS IV-21 Minimum...Strain Rate Dependance on Relative 163 Density for Frozen MFS IV-22 Temperature Stage Test on Frozen Saturated 164 MFS under a Load of D=9.24MPa Fig

  7. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  8. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  9. Rigidity of melting DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Tanmoy; Bhattacharjee, Somendra M.

    2016-05-01

    The temperature dependence of DNA flexibility is studied in the presence of stretching and unzipping forces. Two classes of models are considered. In one case the origin of elasticity is entropic due to the polymeric correlations, and in the other the double-stranded DNA is taken to have an intrinsic rigidity for bending. In both cases single strands are completely flexible. The change in the elastic constant for the flexible case due to thermally generated bubbles is obtained exactly. For the case of intrinsic rigidity, the elastic constant is found to be proportional to the square root of the bubble number fluctuation.

  10. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape-changing inte......Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape...

  11. Building Cosmological Frozen Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kastor, David

    2016-01-01

    Janis-Newman-Winicour (JNW) spacetimes generalize the Schwarzschild solution to include a massless scalar field. Although suffering from naked singularities, they share the `frozen star' features of Schwarzschild black holes. Cosmological versions of the JNW spacetimes were discovered some time ago by Husain, Martinez and Nunez and by Fonarev. Unlike Schwarzschild-deSitter black holes, these solutions are dynamical, and the scarcity of exact solutions for dynamical black holes in cosmological backgrounds motivates their further study. Here we show how the cosmological JNW spacetimes can be built, starting from simpler, static, higher dimensional, vacuum `JNW brane' solutions via two different generalized dimensional reduction schemes that together cover the full range of JNW parameter space. Cosmological versions of a BPS limit of charged dilaton black holes are also known. JNW spacetimes represent a different limiting case of the charged, dilaton black hole family. We expect that understanding this second da...

  12. Frozen waves: experimental generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Tarcio A; Gesualdi, Marcos R R; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2012-06-01

    Frozen waves (FWs) are very interesting particular cases of nondiffracting beams whose envelopes are static and whose longitudinal intensity patterns can be chosen a priori. We present here for the first time (that we know of) the experimental generation of FWs. The experimental realization of these FWs was obtained using a holographic setup for the optical reconstruction of computer generated holograms (CGH), based on a 4-f Fourier filtering system and a nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), where FW CGHs were first computationally implemented, and later electronically implemented, on the LC-SLM for optical reconstruction. The experimental results are in agreement with the corresponding theoretical analytical solutions and hold excellent prospects for implementation in scientific and technological applications.

  13. On Multifractal Rigidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meson, Alejandro M., E-mail: meson@iflysib.unlp.edu.ar; Vericat, Fernando, E-mail: vericat@iflysib.unlp.edu.ar [CONICET-UNLP, Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos (IFLYSIB) (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    We analyze when a multifractal spectrum can be used to recover the potential. This phenomenon is known as multifractal rigidity. We prove that for a certain class of potentials the multifractal spectrum of local entropies uniquely determines their equilibrium states. This leads to a classification which identifies two systems up to a change of variables.

  14. Electrostatics of Rigid Polyelectrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, G.C.L.

    2009-06-04

    The organization of rigid biological polyelectrolytes by multivalent ions and macroions are important for many fundamental problems in biology and biomedicine, such as cytoskeletal regulation and antimicrobial sequestration in cystic fibrosis. These polyelectrolytes have been used as model systems for understanding electrostatics in complex fluids. Here, we review some recent results in theory, simulations, and experiments.

  15. Electoral Stability and Rigidity

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    Some argue that political stability is best served through a two-party system. This study refutes this. The author mathematically defines the stability and rigidity of electoral systems comprised of any quantity of electors and parties. In fact, stability is a function of the quantity of electors - i.e., the number of occupied seats at the table. As the number of electors increases, the properties of an electorate are increasingly well resolved, and well described by those of an electorate that is least excessive -- that is to say an electorate that is closest to equilibrium. Further, electoral rigidity is a function of the quantity of parties and their probabilities of representation. An absolutely rigid system admits no fluctuations -- whatever happens to one elector will happen to all electors. As the quantity of parties increases so does the number of party lines, and with it the quantity of alternatives with which to respond to an external stimulus. Rigidity is significant in a social system that places ...

  16. The equine frozen semen industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, P R

    2001-12-03

    Recent acceptance of frozen semen as a method to produce registered foals by two of the worlds largest breed associations, the American Quarter Horse and American Paint Horse, has stimulated new interest in frozen semen technology. This review will: (a) attempt to identify the major impediments to the development of the frozen semen industry, (b) suggest alternative methods for marketing and application of frozen semen, and (c) present the results of a recent study in our laboratory. The objective of which was to compare pregnancy rates of insemination with cooled and frozen semen. Major impediments to the development of the frozen semen industry include 1. Lower fertility with frozen semen as compared to cooled semen for many stallions. 2. Increased costs associated with management of mares for AI with frozen semen using current insemination protocols. 3. Unfavorable marketing practices for frozen semen. Reports of fertility with cooled transported semen in commercial breeding programs indicate seasonal pregnancy rates ranging from 60 to 90%. We compiled data from three commercial transported cooled semen programs in which semen from 16 stallions was used for insemination of 850 mares throughout North America by local veterinarians. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons, first cycle and seasonal pregnancy rates of 59.4 and 74.7% were obtained. During that same period, first cycle and seasonal pregnancy rates of 51.3 and 75.6% were obtained following insemination of 876 mares with frozen semen from 106 different stallions processed by our laboratory and distributed through our commercial distribution program. First cycle and seasonal pregnancy rates were higher for mares bred outside of North America than for mares bred within North America (53.5 and 81.9 versus 49.4 and 65.6%, respectively). Seasonal pregnancy rates were higher presumably because of the better mare management employed for mares bred with exported semen and the fact that some of the domestic

  17. Obituary--rigid contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Nathan

    2010-10-01

    Scleral and corneal rigid lenses represented 100 per cent of the contact lens market immediately prior to the invention of soft lenses in the mid-1960s. In the United Kingdom today, rigid lenses comprise 2 per cent of all new lens fits. Low rates of rigid lens fitting are also apparent in 27 other countries which have recently been surveyed. Thus, the 1998 prediction of the author that rigid lenses--also referred to as 'rigid gas permeable' (RGP) lenses or 'gas permeable' (GP) lenses--would be obsolete by the year 2010 has essentially turned out to be correct. In this obituary, the author offers 10 reasons for the demise of rigid lens fitting: initial rigid lens discomfort; intractable rigid lens-induced corneal and lid pathology; extensive soft lens advertising; superior soft lens fitting logistics; lack of rigid lens training opportunities; redundancy of the rigid lens 'problem solver' function; improved soft toric and bifocal/varifocal lenses; limited uptake of orthokeratology; lack of investment in rigid lenses; and the emergence of aberration control soft lenses. Rigid lenses are now being fitted by a minority of practitioners with specialist skills/training. Certainly, rigid lenses can no longer be considered as a mainstream form of contact lens correction. May their dear souls (bulk properties) rest in peace.

  18. Clinical Features Associated with Frozen Shoulder Syndrome in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Wen-Neng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Cheng, Kuei-Yueh; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Kung, Chia-Te; Su, Yu-Jih; Lin, Wei-Che; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Su, Chih-Min; Chiang, Yi-Fang; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Background. Frozen shoulder syndrome is a common musculoskeletal disease of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) that causes long-term pain and physical disability. A better understanding of the associated factors can help identify PD patients who will require prevention to improve their quality of life. Methodology. This prospective study evaluated 60 shoulders of 30 PD patients. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between clinical factors and shoulder sonography findings. Results. Frozen shoulder syndrome was found in 14 of 30 PD patients affecting 19 shoulders, including bilateral involvement in five and unilateral involvement in nine. There was a significant positive correlation between the parameters of sonography findings and frozen shoulder syndrome (i.e., thickness of bicipital effusion and tendon thickness of the subscapularis and supraspinatus) and mean ipsilateral Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and its subscores (tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia scores). Conclusions. Higher ipsilateral UPDRS and subscores are associated with increased effusion around the biceps tendon, with increased tendon thickness of subscapularis and supraspinatus. Preventing frozen shoulder syndrome in the high-risk PD group is an important safety issue and highly relevant for their quality of life.

  19. Warped product rigidity

    CERN Document Server

    He, Chenxu; Wylie, William

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the space of solutions to an overdetermined linear system involving the Hessian of functions. We show that if the solution space has dimension greater than one, then the underlying manifold has a very rigid warped product structure. This warped product structure will be used to study warped product Einstein structures in our paper "The space of virtual solutions to the warped product Einstein equation".

  20. Rheological properties and bread quality of frozen sweet dough with added xanthan and different freezing rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, Mina; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Milani, Elnaz

    2016-10-01

    In this paper the effects of frozen storage time, xanthan gum and rate of freezing on frozen sweet dough properties and unfermented bread quality was investigated. Results revealed that the water holding capacity, WHC, K1 (stress decay rate) and K2 (residual stress at the end of the stress relaxation experiment) values of frozen dough decreased with increasing frozen storage time and decreasing freezing rate; while the lowest values for these parameters were obtained for samples without xanthan gum. The amount of unfreezable water increased and freezable water decreased with addition of xanthan gum. Glass transition temperature for fresh or frozen sweet were around -37 and -39 °C, respectively. Addition of xanthan gum increased the glass transition temperature of fresh and fozen sweet dough. Firmness and gumminess of sweet bread increased during frozen storage which led to lower specific volume of frozen sweet bread. Increasing freezing rate and addition of xanthan gum to dough formulation improved the texture and specific volume of the final bread.

  1. Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...... for the torsional rigidity are actually attained and give conditions under which the geometric average of the stochastic mean exit time for Brownian motion at infinity is finite....

  2. Rigid collapsible dish structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, William B. (Inventor); Giebler, Martin M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A collapsible dish structure composed of a plurality of rows of rigid radial petal assemblies concentric with the axis of the dish. The petal assemblies consist of a center petal and two side petals, the center petal hinged on an axis tangent to a circle concentric with the axis of the dish and the side petals hinged to the center petal at their mating edge. The center petal is foldable inwardly and the side petals rotate about their hinges such that the collapsed dish structure occupies a much smaller volume than the deployed dish. Means of controlling the shape of the dish to compensate for differential expansion of the deployed dish are also provided.

  3. Rigid Quasilocal Frames

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I examine in detail the properties of rigid quasilocal frames (RQF), which have been proposed as a geometrically natural way to define spatially extended reference frames in general relativity. I also explore their usefulness, in particular, as a tool for constructing completely general conservation laws that do not rely on the presence of spacetime symmetries and include both matter and gravitational contributions without the need for any ad hoc structures such as pseudotensors. In doing so, I show how the RQF approach affords a deeper understanding of the nature of gravitational fluxes via the equivalence principle. Finally, I apply the RQF formalism to explore Ehrenfest's rotating disk paradox, a generalization of Archimedes' law to curved spacetime, tidal interactions for Earth's and Jupiter's moons, and more.

  4. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    to convey particular information (e.g., big-isurgent, loud-is-up). The second work presents a large-scale analysis of 340 Sci-Fi movies that identifies instances of shape-changing interfaces. Results from the analysis reveals emergent behavioral patterns of shape change, namely Reconfiguration......Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape......-changing interfaces can reconfigure their shape dynamically, providing users with new affordances and output modalities. This thesis contributes to both the field of deformable interfaces and shape-changing interfaces through empirical research. In the area of deformable interfaces, this thesis presents two studies...

  5. Rigid analogs of DMPP as probes for the nicotinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Luca; Martini, Elisabetta; Martelli, Cecilia; Romanelli, M Novella; Varani, Katia

    2005-02-01

    Chemical manipulation of the nicotinic agonist DMPP, endowed with modest activity on the central receptors, definitely improved its affinity and pharmacokinetic properties. Although their pharmacophore is somehow different from that of classical nicotinic ligands, some DMPP derivatives show low nanomolar affinity for the central nicotinic receptors. Introduction of rigidity in the structure of DMPP and in that of its analogue 1-(3-pyridyl)piperazine, resulted in molecules with lower or null affinity for the central nicotinic receptors. This suggests that the frozen structures chosen either do not represent the bioactive conformation, or their volume is not compatible with the space available within the interaction site.

  6. Development of Hermetic Sealing Glasses for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sealing glasses, either rigid glass-ceramics or viscous, non-crystallizing compositions, will be developed and sealing processes will be optimized based on NASA's...

  7. Frozen Scope and Grammatical Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The literature on quantifier scope has repeatedly observed that some otherwise expected permutations of scope taking elements are unavailable. Various methods have been proffered explaining these facts. This thesis aims to unify three disparate areas where the scope of operators seems to be frozen: the interaction of universal quantifiers with…

  8. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  9. Rigidly connected magnetic lines: twisting and winding of magnetic lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G.

    2017-10-01

    The dynamical process of magnetic flux variation in a fluid's stream tube is described by constructing 1+1+ (2) decomposition of the gradient of fluid's 4-velocity. The necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for a spacelike congruence to be a congruence of rigidly connected spacelike curves. The evolution of magnetic flux in a magnetic tube is explored under the assumptions that magnetic lines are rigidly connected and the chemical potential of the fluid is constant along a magnetic tube. The interplay between magnetic and stream tubes is demonstrated. It is shown that the growth of magnetic energy in a magnetic tube cannot exceed to that of a stream tube. It is found that the proper time variation of twist of magnetic lines is caused by gravitation inside a neutron star if magnetic lines are rigidly connected and charge neutrality condition holds. Helmholtz-like magnetic vorticity flux conservation in a magnetic tube constituted by rigidly connected geodetic magnetic lines is derived under the assumption that the charge neutrality condition holds. It is shown that the winding of frozen-in poloidal magnetic field due to differential rotation requires meridional circulation in an axisymmetric stationary hydromagnetic configuration.

  10. International rigid contact lens prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Helland, Magne; Itoi, Motozumi; Jones, Deborah; Nichols, Jason J; van der Worp, Eef; Woods, Craig A

    2010-06-01

    Rigid lenses have been fitted less since the introduction of soft lenses nearly 40 years ago. Data that we have gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK and the USA between 2000 and 2008 facilitate an accurate characterization of the pattern of the decline of rigid lens fitting during the first decade of this century. There is a trend for rigid lenses to be utilized primarily for refitting those patients who are already successful rigid lens wearers-most typically older females being refit with higher Dk materials. Rigid lenses are generally fitted on a full-time basis (four or more days of wear per week) without a planned replacement schedule. Orthokeratology is especially popular in the Netherlands, but is seldom prescribed in the other countries surveyed.

  11. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream acceptable for the manufacture of U.S. Grade AA...

  12. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry si...... reserved....

  13. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  14. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero, Ruben; Rojas, Efrain

    2010-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We show thus that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  15. Glycerol in micellar confinement with tunable rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannert, Michael; Müller, Allyn; Gouirand, Emmanuel; Talluto, Vincenzo; Rosenstihl, Markus; Walther, Thomas; Stühn, Bernd; Blochowicz, Thomas; Vogel, Michael

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the glassy dynamics of glycerol in the confinement of a microemulsion system, which is stable on cooling down to the glass transition of its components. By changing the composition, we vary the viscosity of the matrix, while keeping the confining geometry intact, as is demonstrated by small angle X-ray scattering. By means of 2H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry, and triplet solvation dynamics we, thus, probe the dynamics of glycerol in confinements of varying rigidity. 2H NMR results show that, at higher temperatures, the dynamics of confined glycerol is unchanged compared to bulk behavior, while the reorientation of glycerol molecules becomes significantly faster than in the bulk in the deeply supercooled regime. However, comparison of different 2H NMR findings with data from calorimetry and solvation dynamics reveals that this acceleration is not due to the changed structural relaxation of glycerol, but rather due to the rotational motion of essentially rigid glycerol droplets or of aggregates of such droplets in a more fluid matrix. Thus, independent of the matrix mobility, the glycerol dynamics remains unchanged except for the smallest droplets, where an increase of Tg and, thus, a slowdown of the structural relaxation is observed even in a fluid matrix.

  16. Experimental study on settlement of model piles in frozen soil under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建明; 朱元林; 张家懿

    1999-01-01

    Test results show that the settlement process of model piles is mainly the rheological process of frozen soil under shear loading. The settlement rate of model piles increases with increasing temperature of frozen soil, decreasing roughness of pile surface and increasing rigidity of pile foundation. As the water content of frozen soil reaches its saturation value, the settlement rate is the least. When the level of loading is higher, the settlement rate under dynamic loading is less than that under static loading. With the level of loading lowering, the effect between dynamic and static loading on the settlement rate becomes close gradually. Under the present test conditions, the settlement rate of model piles is independent of the frequency of dynamic loads.

  17. Management of the frozen shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Laar SM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne Margaretha van de Laar, Peer van der Zwaal Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague, the Netherlands Abstract: Frozen shoulder is a very common condition with a prevalence of 2%–5% in the general population. Decrease in joint volume as a result of fibrosis and hyperplasia of the joint capsule leads to painful and restricted glenohumeral motion. Frozen shoulder is a self-limiting disease with a chronic character, and is mostly treated in a primary care setting. In this review, we set out to address the current evidence-based literature on management of this disabling disease using a PubMed search. Many non-surgical and surgical therapeutic options are described, including supervised neglect, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, physical therapy, manipulation under anesthesia, capsular distension, and arthroscopic capsular release. In the literature, the long-term outcome shows a significant decrease in pain and improvement of shoulder function for all treatment modalities without clear evidence of superiority of one over the other. This possibly indicates that a self-limiting character is the most important factor in the course of the disease. Management of frozen shoulder is primarily conservative. Supervised neglect is combined with analgesia and stretching exercises as the pain subsides. In the early painful phase, intra-articular corticosteroid injections are recommended for pain relief. When the patient has persistent pain and glenohumeral stiffness after adequate conservative treatment, invasive options can be considered, like arthroscopic capsular release, manipulation under anesthesia, or capsular distension. Keywords: frozen shoulder, adhesive capsulitis, treatment, pathophysiology

  18. Akinetic rigid syndrome: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Praveen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Akinetic-rigid syndromes can be caused by diverse etiologies. It is vital to separate idiopathic Parkinson′s disease from other neurodegenerative diseases and causes of secondary parkinsonism as it has significant therapeutic implications. However even specialists may misdiagnose nonidiopathic parkinsonism as Parkinson′s disease in a quarter of cases. Often the history may be nonspecific and all investigations may be normal. The diagnosis may thus rest entirely on clinical features. The etiological diagnosis of Akinetic rigid syndrome has critical therapeutic and prognostic implications. Therefore we will review the various etiologies of akinetic rigid syndrome and highlight critical clinical features to aid in differential diagnosis.

  19. Glass sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  20. Skeletal Rigidity of Phylogenetic Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Howard; Li, Brian; Risteski, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by geometric origami and the straight skeleton construction, we outline a map between spaces of phylogenetic trees and spaces of planar polygons. The limitations of this map is studied through explicit examples, culminating in proving a structural rigidity result.

  1. Wage rigidity and job creation

    OpenAIRE

    Haefke, Christian; Sonntag, Marcus; Rens, Thijs van

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in macroeconomics emphasizes the role of wage rigidity in accounting for the volatility of unemployment fluctuations. We use worker-level data from the CPS to measure the sensitivity of wages of newly hired workers to changes in aggregate labor market conditions. The wage of new hires, unlike the aggregate wage, is volatile and responds almost one-to-one to changes in labor productivity. We conclude that there is little evidence for wage rigidity in the data.

  2. Effect of sodium tetraborate (borax) on the thermal properties of frozen aqueous sugar and polyol solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Rimando, Annie; Aoyagi, Nobuo; Kojima, Shigeo

    2003-06-01

    The effect of sodium tetraborate (Na(2)B(4)O(7), borax) on the thermal property of frozen aqueous sugar and polyol solutions was studied through thermal analysis. Addition of borax raised the thermal transition temperature (glass transition temperature of maximally freeze-concentrated solutes; T(g)') of frozen sucrose solutions depending on the borax/sucrose concentration ratios. Changes in the T(g)' of frozen mono- and disaccharide solutions suggested various forms of complexes, including those of a borate ion and two saccharide molecules. Borax exerted the maximum effect to raise the oligosaccharide and dextran T(g)'s at borax/saccharide molar ratios of approximately 1-2 (maltose and maltooligosaccharides), 2 (dextran 1060), 5 (dextran 4900), and 10 (dextran 10200). Further addition of borax lowered T(g)'s of the saccharide solutions. Borax also raised T(g) and T(g)' temperatures of frozen aqueous glycerol solutions. The decreased solute mobility in frozen solutions by the borate-polyol complexes suggested higher collapse temperature in the freeze-drying process and improved stability of biological systems in frozen solutions.

  3. Rigid multibody system dynamics with uncertain rigid bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr; Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS (France)

    2012-03-15

    This paper is devoted to the construction of a probabilistic model of uncertain rigid bodies for multibody system dynamics. We first construct a stochastic model of an uncertain rigid body by replacing the mass, the center of mass, and the tensor of inertia by random variables. The prior probability distributions of the stochastic model are constructed using the maximum entropy principle under the constraints defined by the available information. The generators of independent realizations corresponding to the prior probability distribution of these random quantities are further developed. Then several uncertain rigid bodies can be linked to each other in order to calculate the random response of a multibody dynamical system. An application is proposed to illustrate the theoretical development.

  4. Retrogradation of Waxy Rice Starch Gel in the Vicinity of the Glass Transition Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Udomrati, Sunsanee

    2013-01-01

    The retrogradation rate of waxy rice starch gel was investigated during storage at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of a maximally concentrated system (Tg′), as it was hypothesized that such temperatures might cause different effects on retrogradation. The Tg′ value of fully gelatinized waxy rice starch gel with 50% water content and the enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin in the gels were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Starch gels were frozen to −30°C and stored at 4, 0, −3, −5, and −8°C for 5 days. The results indicated that the Tg′ value of gelatinized starch gel annealed at −7°C for 15 min was −3.5°C. Waxy rice starch gels retrograded significantly when stored at 4°C with a decrease in the enthalpy of melting retrograded starch in samples stored for 5 days at −3, −5, and −8°C, respectively, perhaps due to the more rigid glass matrix and less molecular mobility facilitating starch chain recrystallization at temperatures below Tg′. This suggests that retardation of retrogradation of waxy rice starch gel can be achieved at temperature below Tg′. PMID:26904602

  5. Retrogradation of Waxy Rice Starch Gel in the Vicinity of the Glass Transition Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguansri Charoenrein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrogradation rate of waxy rice starch gel was investigated during storage at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of a maximally concentrated system (, as it was hypothesized that such temperatures might cause different effects on retrogradation. The value of fully gelatinized waxy rice starch gel with 50% water content and the enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin in the gels were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Starch gels were frozen to −30°C and stored at 4, 0, −3, −5, and −8°C for 5 days. The results indicated that the value of gelatinized starch gel annealed at −7°C for 15 min was −3.5°C. Waxy rice starch gels retrograded significantly when stored at 4°C with a decrease in the enthalpy of melting retrograded starch in samples stored for 5 days at −3, −5, and −8°C, respectively, perhaps due to the more rigid glass matrix and less molecular mobility facilitating starch chain recrystallization at temperatures below . This suggests that retardation of retrogradation of waxy rice starch gel can be achieved at temperature below .

  6. Retrogradation of Waxy Rice Starch Gel in the Vicinity of the Glass Transition Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Udomrati, Sunsanee

    2013-01-01

    The retrogradation rate of waxy rice starch gel was investigated during storage at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of a maximally concentrated system (T g '), as it was hypothesized that such temperatures might cause different effects on retrogradation. The T g ' value of fully gelatinized waxy rice starch gel with 50% water content and the enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin in the gels were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Starch gels were frozen to -30°C and stored at 4, 0, -3, -5, and -8°C for 5 days. The results indicated that the T g ' value of gelatinized starch gel annealed at -7°C for 15 min was -3.5°C. Waxy rice starch gels retrograded significantly when stored at 4°C with a decrease in the enthalpy of melting retrograded starch in samples stored for 5 days at -3, -5, and -8°C, respectively, perhaps due to the more rigid glass matrix and less molecular mobility facilitating starch chain recrystallization at temperatures below T g '. This suggests that retardation of retrogradation of waxy rice starch gel can be achieved at temperature below T g '.

  7. Rigidity and retention of ceramic root canal posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purton, D G; Love, R M; Chandler, N P

    2000-01-01

    Ceramic root-canal posts offer potential advantages over other types with respect to aesthetics and biocompatibility. Any post must be sufficiently rigid and retentive to withstand functional forces. Ceraposts (1.2 mm coronal diameter, ceramic, tapering, smooth posts) and Paraposts (1.25 mm, stainless-steel, parallel, serrated posts) were tested for rigidity by means of a three-point bending test. To test retention in roots, ceramic posts were cemented using one of three protocols: (1) glass-ionomer cement, (2) silane coupling agent and resin cement, or (3) sandblasted post surface, silane coupling agent, and resin cement. Stainless-steel posts were cemented with resin. The tensile force required to dislodge the posts, following four weeks of storage in water, was recorded. Data were compared using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U analysis. Ceraposts were significantly more rigid than Paraposts (p < 0.001). Paraposts cemented with resin were significantly more strongly retained than Ceraposts following any cementation protocol (p < 0.001). Retention of the ceramic posts was significantly greater with a silane coupling agent and resin cement than with glass-ionomer cement (p < 0.001). Sandblasting the ceramic posts produced variable results and needs further investigation before it could be recommended.

  8. Rigidly foldable origami gadgets and tessellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas A; Lang, Robert J; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L

    2015-09-01

    Rigidly foldable origami allows for motion where all deflection occurs at the crease lines and facilitates the application of origami in materials other than paper. In this paper, we use a recently discovered method for determining rigid foldability to identify existing flat-foldable rigidly foldable tessellations, which are also categorized. We introduce rigidly foldable origami gadgets which may be used to modify existing tessellations or to create new tessellations. Several modified and new rigidly foldable tessellations are presented.

  9. Rigidly foldable origami gadgets and tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas A.; Lang, Robert J.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Rigidly foldable origami allows for motion where all deflection occurs at the crease lines and facilitates the application of origami in materials other than paper. In this paper, we use a recently discovered method for determining rigid foldability to identify existing flat-foldable rigidly foldable tessellations, which are also categorized. We introduce rigidly foldable origami gadgets which may be used to modify existing tessellations or to create new tessellations. Several modified and new rigidly foldable tessellations are presented. PMID:26473037

  10. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  11. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and.... (a) Identity—(1) Product definition. Frozen peas is the food in “package” form as that term is... the words “frozen” or “quick frozen”. The name of the food shall include a declaration of...

  12. Chronology of the Frozen Dumpling Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    January 30:Japan informed China that some consumers in Tokushima prefecture got food poisoning after they ate frozen dumplings produced by Hebei Tianyang Food Company.According to the Japanese,the food inspection test results showed traces of the pesticides dichlorvos and methamidophos in frozen dumpling samples.

  13. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    , Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...

  14. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...

  15. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.

  16. Rigid coupling is also flexible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleberry, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    Spring-loaded coupling is rigid under light loads and swivels under higher loads. Break-out point can be set at any desired value by selecting appropriate preload springs. Coupling requires no cushions or elastomeric joints that limit temperature range.

  17. Frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen section diagnosis is extensively used in various branches of pathology, but its application in ophthalmic pathology was recognised only in the 1970s. We studied 10 sections of ocular and adenexal lesions by frozen section diagnosis, which included orbital lesions (4 cases, lid lesions (3 cases, and intraocular tissue (1 case. The time taken for processing ranged between 10 to 15 minutes. Diagnoses based on frozen section evaluation included lymphoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, solar keratosis, compound naevus, silicone oil globules in cataractous lens, neurofibromatosis, pseudotumour, retinoblastoma, and chronic blepharitis. Although further histopathologic examination correlated well with the frozen section (100% observations, the diagnosis was deferred in the case of naevus and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Our study shows that frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic surgery is quite reliable and is particularly useful in ocular adenexal lesions

  18. A density-independent rigidity transition in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dapeng; Lopez, J. H.; Schwarz, J. M.; Manning, M. Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Cell migration is important in many biological processes, including embryonic development, cancer metastasis and wound healing. In these tissues, a cell’s motion is often strongly constrained by its neighbours, leading to glassy dynamics. Although self-propelled particle models exhibit a density-driven glass transition, this does not explain liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues, where there are no gaps between cells and therefore the density is constant. Here we demonstrate the existence of a new type of rigidity transition that occurs in the well-studied vertex model for confluent tissue monolayers at constant density. We find that the onset of rigidity is governed by a model parameter that encodes single-cell properties such as cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension, providing an explanation for liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues and making testable predictions about how these transitions differ from those in particulate matter.

  19. Interactive Perception of Rigid and Non-Rigid Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Willimon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the concept of interactive perception, in which sensing guides manipulation, in the context of extracting and classifying unknown objects within a cluttered environment. In the proposed approach, a pile of objects lies on a flat background, and the goal of the robot is to isolate, interact with, and classify each object so that its properties can be obtained. The algorithm considers each object to be classified using color, shape, and flexibility. The approach works with a variety of objects relevant to service robot applications, including both rigid objects such as bottles, cans, and pliers as well as non‐rigid objects such as soft toy animals, socks, and shoes. Experiments on a number of different piles of objects demonstrate the ability of efficiently isolating and classifying each item through interaction.

  20. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... fresh,” when used on the label or in labeling of a food, mean that the food was quickly frozen while still fresh (i.e., the food had been recently harvested when frozen). Blanching of the food...

  1. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  2. FROZEN SHOULDER TREATMENT: TRIAMCENALONE OR METHYLPREDNISOLONE INJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of Triamcinolone acetonide [40mg] and Methylprednisolone acetate [40mg] in 210 patients attending the Outpatient Department of Orthopedics of FAAMCH Barpeta with primary and secondary frozen shoulder. METHODS: A total number o f 210 patients with frozen shoulder who attended the Outpatient clinic of Orthopedics at FAAMCH from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015 were enrolled in our study. The diagnosis of frozen shoulder was made using the guidelines for shoulder complain issued by the Dutch C ollege of General Practitioners. Intra - articular injections of Triamcinolone acetonide [40mg] was used in 110 patients [ M ale - 50, female - 60] and 40mg Methylprednisolone was given to 100 patients [M ale - 35, female 65]. Injection was repeated every 3 weeks [ N o t more than 3 injections] by the posterior route. RESULTS: Triamcinolone acetonide was found to be more effective in diabetic patients with frozen shoulder in comparison to Methyprednisolone acetate. Triamcinolone acetonide was found to be more effective i n those patients presenting with severe grades of frozen shoulder and also these patients required lesser number of injections compared to Methylprednisolone acetate. However both Triamcinolone acatonide and Methyprednisolone were equally effective in prim ary frozen shoulder. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Triamcinolone acetonide and Methylprednisolone acetate are effective in the treatment of painful stiff shoulder; however injection Triamcinolone acetonide is a superior alternative in the treatment of diabe tics with frozen shoulder & resistant cases, with less number of injections.

  3. Cosmos & Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1996-01-01

    The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne.......The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne....

  4. Rigid subsets of symplectic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Entov, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We show that there is an hierarchy of intersection rigidity properties of sets in a closed symplectic manifold: some sets cannot be displaced by symplectomorphisms from more sets than the others. We also find new examples of rigidity of intersections involving, in particular, specific fibers of moment maps of Hamiltonian torus actions, monotone Lagrangian submanifolds (following the previous work of P.Albers) as well as certain, possibly singular, sets defined in terms of Poisson-commutative subalgebras of smooth functions. In addition, we get some geometric obstructions to semi-simplicity of the quantum homology of symplectic manifolds. The proofs are based on the Floer-theoretical machinery of partial symplectic quasi-states.

  5. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups Hard Fd and Soft Fd according to size of Fd at Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable for the present purpose than that of power-exponential type or of power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd.

  6. Rigid body dynamics of mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    The second volume of Rigid Body Dynamics of Mechanisms covers applications via a systematic method for deriving model equations of planar and spatial mechanisms. The necessary theoretical foundations have been laid in the first volume that introduces the theoretical mechanical aspects of mechatronic systems. Here the focus is on the application of the modeling methodology to various examples of rigid-body mechanisms, simple planar ones as well as more challenging spatial problems. A rich variety of joint models, active constraints, plus active and passive force elements is treated. The book is intended for self-study by working engineers and students concerned with the control of mechanical systems, i.e. robotics, mechatronics, vehicles, and machine tools. The examples included are a likely source from which to choose models for university lectures.

  7. Clinical Features Associated with Frozen Shoulder Syndrome in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Frozen shoulder syndrome is a common musculoskeletal disease of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD that causes long-term pain and physical disability. A better understanding of the associated factors can help identify PD patients who will require prevention to improve their quality of life. Methodology. This prospective study evaluated 60 shoulders of 30 PD patients. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between clinical factors and shoulder sonography findings. Results. Frozen shoulder syndrome was found in 14 of 30 PD patients affecting 19 shoulders, including bilateral involvement in five and unilateral involvement in nine. There was a significant positive correlation between the parameters of sonography findings and frozen shoulder syndrome (i.e., thickness of bicipital effusion and tendon thickness of the subscapularis and supraspinatus and mean ipsilateral Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III and its subscores (tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia scores. Conclusions. Higher ipsilateral UPDRS and subscores are associated with increased effusion around the biceps tendon, with increased tendon thickness of subscapularis and supraspinatus. Preventing frozen shoulder syndrome in the high-risk PD group is an important safety issue and highly relevant for their quality of life.

  8. Glass Glimpsed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology.......Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology....

  9. Use of frozen section in genitourinary pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Steven S; Truong, Luan D; Ro, Jae Y; Ayala, Alberto G

    2012-08-01

    Frozen section diagnosis provides critical information for immediate surgical management decision making. Over the last several years, there have been some significant advances in treatment of genitourinary cancer, particularly with regard to surgical techniques. These changes in turn impact the type and frequency of intraoperative frozen section requests. In this review, we describe the main indications and diagnostic challenges of frozen section diagnosis during surgeries of each genitourinary organ system including prostate, kidney, bladder, testis, and penis. The pitfalls and approaches to different diagnostic situations are discussed. It is also stressed that pathologists must not only be familiar with the histological diagnosis, but also understand the limitations of frozen section diagnosis and communicate with urologists during the intraoperative treatment decision making process.

  10. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  11. Acupuncture Relieves 10 years Frozen Hands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoJiaNadia

    2001-01-01

    The electric acupuncture (EA) treatment is successful in relieving frozen hands in a patient who had sufferred from severe brain damaged. EA is effective in reducing spasms and improving motor function.

  12. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  13. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.; Lewis, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  14. Magnetic resonance of field-frozen and zero-field-frozen magnetic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.R. E-mail: anarita@fis.ufg.br; Pelegrini, F.; Neto, K. Skeff; Buske, N.; Morais, P.C. E-mail: pcmor@unb.br

    2004-05-01

    In this study magnetic resonance was used to investigate magnetic fluid samples frozen under zero and non-zero (15 kG) external fields. The magnetite-based sample containing 2x10{sup 17} particle/cm{sup 3} was investigated from 100 to 400 K. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the resonance field revealed bigger magnetic structures in the frozen state than in the liquid phase. Also, differences in the mesoscopic organization in the frozen state may explain the data obtained from samples frozen under zero and non-zero fields.

  15. Simple Riemannian surfaces are scattering rigid

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Haomin

    2015-01-01

    Scattering rigidity of a Riemannian manifold allows one to tell the metric of a manifold with boundary by looking at the directions of geodesics at the boundary. Lens rigidity allows one to tell the metric of a manifold with boundary from the same information plus the length of geodesics. There are a variety of results about lens rigidity but very little is known for scattering rigidity. We will discuss the subtle difference between these two types of rigidities and prove that they are equiva...

  16. [Scientific ethics and frozen embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, C Y

    2001-05-01

    Scientific Ethics is the theory and praxis of decisions. Philosophical Ethics is presented as the theory and praxis of the good. As the good differs among cultures, Philosophical Ethics is dependent on the endo-cultural good conception. The decision (included that one of adhesion or not to a world vision) depends on neuro-psychic specific factors: i) cognitive factors that include mostly the knowledge of the alternatives and their consequences and the ideological or religious conception of good in relation to the alternatives; ii) affective factors that make alternatives pleasant, unpleasant or neutral, attractive, repulsive or neutral; iii) emotional factors that associate to alternatives anger, peace or neutrality, sadness, happiness or neutrality; iv) value factors that assign importance, triviality or neutrality to alternatives, or assign them significance, irrelevancy or neutrality. There are unspecific factors such as the psychic energy, desire or others. Mixed factors such as attitude, motivation, intention and others. Scientific Ethics deals with the mind as a materio-energetic process which is different from the soul, eggs and embryos of any species are full individuals of that species, because, they have initiated a copy of their genome that specify, give autonomy and define them as individuals. For Scientific Ethics to leave frozen embryos like that for ever, to defrost and get rid of them or to use their cells for science are synonymous of killing them. To defrost them to use their cells as stem cells for somatic cell therapy or to implant them into uteri to continue their development is to maintain alive their cells, but only the implantation allows their maintenance as individuals, thus, being the only compatible with the Christian ethics. The compatibility of these alternatives with other ethics is discussed.

  17. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  18. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  19. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared by... ingredients as prescribed by paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The finished food is frozen. (2) The...

  20. Geometry, rigidity, and group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Farb, Benson; Zimmer, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The study of group actions is more than a hundred years old but remains to this day a vibrant and widely studied topic in a variety of mathematic fields. A central development in the last fifty years is the phenomenon of rigidity, whereby one can classify actions of certain groups, such as lattices in semi-simple Lie groups. This provides a way to classify all possible symmetries of important spaces and all spaces admitting given symmetries. Paradigmatic results can be found in the seminal work of George Mostow, Gergory Margulis, and Robert J. Zimmer, among others.The p

  1. Wage rigidity and job creation

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Haefke; Marcus Sonntag; Thijs van Rens

    2007-01-01

    Recent research in macroeconomics emphasizes the role of wage rigidity in accounting for the volatility of unemployment fluctuations. We use worker-level data from the CPS to measure the sensitivity of wages of newly hired workers to changes in aggregate labor market conditions. The wage of new hires, unlike the aggregate wage, is volatile and responds almost one-to-one to changes in labor productivity. We conclude that there is little evidence for wage stickiness in the data. We also show, h...

  2. Wage Rigidity and Job Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Haefke, Christian; Sonntag, Marcus; Rens, Thijs van

    2012-01-01

    Recent research in macroeconomics emphasizes the role of wage rigidity in accounting for the volatility of unemployment fluctuations. We use worker-level data from the CPS to measure the sensitivity of wages of newly hired workers to changes in aggregate labor market conditions. The wage of new hires, unlike the aggregate wage, is volatile and responds almost one-to-one to changes in labor productivity. We conclude that there is little evidence for wage stickiness in the data. We also show, h...

  3. Wage Rigidity and Job Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Haefke; Marcus Sonntag; Thijs van Rens

    2012-01-01

    Recent research in macroeconomics emphasizes the role of wage rigidity in ac- counting for the volatility of unemployment fluctuations. We use worker-level data from the CPS to measure the sensitivity of wages of newly hired workers to changes in aggregate labor market conditions. The wage of new hires, unlike the aggregate wage, is volatile and responds almost one-to-one to changes in labor productivity. We conclude that there is little evidence for wage stickiness in the data. We also show,...

  4. Self-organized criticality in the intermediate phase of rigidity percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brière, M-A; Chubynsky, M V; Mousseau, Normand

    2007-05-01

    Experimental results for covalent glasses have highlighted the existence of a self-organized phase due to the tendency of glass networks to minimize internal stress. Recently, we have shown that an equilibrated self-organized two-dimensional lattice-based model also possesses an intermediate phase in which a percolating rigid cluster exists with a probability between zero and one, depending on the average coordination of the network. In this paper, we study the properties of this intermediate phase in more detail. We find that microscopic perturbations, such as the addition or removal of a single bond, can affect the rigidity of macroscopic regions of the network, in particular, creating or destroying percolation. This, together with a power-law distribution of rigid cluster sizes, suggests that the system is maintained in a critical state on the rigid-floppy boundary throughout the intermediate phase, a behavior similar to self-organized criticality, but, remarkably, in a thermodynamically equilibrated state. The distinction between percolating and nonpercolating networks appears physically meaningless, even though the percolating cluster, when it exists, takes up a finite fraction of the network. We point out both similarities and differences between the intermediate phase and the critical point of ordinary percolation models without self-organization. Our results are consistent with an interpretation of recent experiments on the pressure dependence of Raman frequencies in chalcogenide glasses in terms of network homogeneity.

  5. Mineralization of cellulose in frozen boreal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquist, Mats G.; Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon. In boreal forests, the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, soluble monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances ultimately depends on whether soil microorganisms can utilize and grow the more complex, polymeric constituents of SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). Freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.52 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.01 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming that cellulose can sustain also anabolic activity of the microbial populations under frozen conditions. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero, which involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of

  6. Complications of rigid internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chris A; Lin, Kant Y

    2009-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, there have been many advances in the development of bone fixation systems used in the practice of craniomaxillofacial surgery. As surgical practices have evolved, the complications of each technologic advance have changed accordingly. Interfragmentary instability of interosseous wiring has been replaced by the risk of exposure, infection, and palpability of plate and screw fixation systems. The improved rigidity of plate fixation requires anatomic alignment of fracture fragments. Failure to obtain proper alignment has led to the phenomenon known as "open internal fixation" of fracture fragments without proper reduction. The size of the plates has decreased to minimize palpability and exposure. However limitations in their application have been encountered due to the physiologic forces of the muscles of mastication and bone healing. In the pediatric population, the long-standing presence of plates in the cranial vault resulted in reports of transcranial migration and growth restriction. These findings led to the development of resorbable plating systems, which are associated with self-limited plate palpability and soft tissue inflammatory reactions. Any rigid system including these produces growth restriction in varying amounts. In this discussion, we review the reported complication rates of miniplating and microplating systems as well as absorptive plating systems in elective and traumatic craniofacial surgery.

  7. Quality assesment of a lot of frozen mackerel, respective frozen handcut mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruenner, K.K.

    2003-01-01

    At the request of Van Ameyde Marine in Amsterdam, RIVO BV assessed the quality of a number of blocks of frozen mackerel and a number of blocks of frozen handcut mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus) by means of sensorial and chemical analysis. The samples were taken from a lot, which was partial "dama

  8. Comment on the frozen QCD coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I

    2012-01-01

    The frozen QCD coupling is a parameter often used as an effective fixed coupling. It is supposed to mimic both the running coupling effects and the lack of knowledge of alpha_s in the infrared region. Usually the value of the frozen coupling is fixed from the analysis of the experimental data. We present a novel way to define such coupling(s) independently of the experiments. We argue that there are different frozen couplings which are used in the double- and single- logarithmic approximations. We introduce three kinds of the frozen couplings: the coupling used in DLA with a time-like argument (i.e. the coupling present in the non-singlet scattering amplitudes and DIS structure functions) which we find 0.24 approximately; the DLA coupling with a space-like argument (in e+e- -annihilation, in DY processes and in any scattering amplitude in the hard or backward kinematics) which is a factor two larger, namely 0.48. We also show that the frozen coupling in the single-logarithmic evolution equations like BFKL has...

  9. Effect of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzammil, Hafiz Shehzad; Rasco, Barbara; Sablani, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt. Frozen yogurt was prepared with different types of probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis) along with yogurt starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus). The frozen yogurt mixture was supplemented with inulin (2%, 4%, and 6%) and glycerol (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). The results showed that inulin 4% and 6% supplementation increased the overrun by 3% and 5% and the glass transition temperature by 3.3% and 2.8%, and decreased the hardness by 7% and 11%, respectively. Inulin supplementation did not have a significant effect on ice crystal size (p > 0.05). Glycerol supplementation increased the stickiness from 2.4% to 18.7%, and decreased the hardness from 8.0% to 14.5% and the glass transition temperature from 2.4% to 34.5%, respectively. Glycerol supplementation did not have a significant effect on overrun or melting rate (p > 0.05).

  10. Effect of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzammil, Hafiz Shehzad; Rasco, Barbara; Sablani, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate the effects of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt. Frozen yogurt was prepared with different types of probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis) along with yogurt starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus). The frozen yogurt mixture was supplemented with inulin (2%, 4%, and 6%) and glycerol (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). The results showed that inulin 4% and 6% supplementation increased the overrun by 3% and 5% and the glass transition temperature by 3.3% and 2.8%, and decreased the hardness by 7% and 11%, respectively. Inulin supplementation did not have a significant effect on ice crystal size (p > 0.05). Glycerol supplementation increased the stickiness from 2.4% to 18.7%, and decreased the hardness from 8.0% to 14.5% and the glass transition temperature from 2.4% to 34.5%, respectively. Glycerol supplementation did not have a significant effect on overrun or melting rate (p > 0.05). PMID:28326004

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING BENDING RIGIDITY OF SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long-hua; YANG Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The bending rigidity of submerged vegetation is closely related with vegetative drag force.This work aims at determining the effects of flow conditions and characteristics of vegetation on the bending rigidity of submerged vegetation.Based on the dimensional analysis method,the factors influencing the bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation were analyzed.The relationship between the relative bending rigidity and its influencing factors was investigated by experimental observation,and a relative bending rigidity expression for submerged vegetation was obtained by means of multiple linear regression method.The results show that the submerged vegetation has three states under different inflow conditions,and the each critical relative bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation was determined for the different states of submerged vegetation.

  12. Rigid Ideals and Radicals of Ore Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan Yong Hong; Tai Keun Kwak; S. Tariq Rizvi

    2005-01-01

    For an endomorphism σ of a ring R, Krempa called σ a rigid endomorphism if aσ(a) = 0 implies a= 0 for a ∈ R. A ring R is called rigid if there exists a rigid endomorphism of R. In this paper, we extend the σ-rigid property of a ring R to an ideal of R. For a σ-ideal Ⅰ of a ring R, we call Ⅰ a σ-rigid ideal if aσ(a) ∈Ⅰ implies a ∈Ⅰ for a ∈ R. We characterize σ-rigid ideals and study related properties. The connections of the prime radical and the upper nil radical of R with the prime radical and the upper nil radical of the Ore extension R[x; σ, δ], respectively, are also investigated.

  13. A Novel Conversion Process for Waste Slag: The Preparation of Aluminosilicate Glass with Evaluation of the Dielectric Properties from Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Huang, Sanxi; Liu, Hongting; Wu, Fengnian; Chang, Ziyuan; Yue, Yunlong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, aluminosilicate glass was prepared from blast furnace slag and quartz sand. Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry and density measurements were carried out to investigate the effects of SiO2 on the aluminosilicate glass network rigidity. The results indicate that glass structure would be enhanced if more SiO2 was introduced into the glass system. Meanwhile, both the glass transition temperature ( T g) and the glass crystallization temperature ( T c) increase slightly; the increase in density of the glass being further evidence of the enhancement in glass network rigidity. Dielectric measurements show that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease with more SiO2. The properties of the prepared aluminosilicate glasses are comparable to those of E glass, indicating that blast furnace slags are suitable for producing aluminosilicate glass with low dielectric constant and dielectric loss.

  14. Towards understanding of heat effects in metallic glasses on the basis of macroscopic shear elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Y. P.; Wang, D. P.; Makarov, A. S.; Wang, W. H.; Khonik, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    It is shown that all heat effects taking place upon annealing of a metallic glass within the glassy and supercooled liquid states, i.e. heat release below the glass transition temperature and heat absorption above it, as well as crystallization-induced heat release, are related to the macroscopic shear elasticity. The underlying physical reason can be understood as relaxation in the system of interstitialcy-type ”defects” (elastic dipoles) frozen-in from the melt upon glass production.

  15. Frozen steady states in active systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Volker; Hammerich, Benjamin; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R

    2011-01-01

    Even simple active systems can show a plethora of intriguing phenomena and often we find complexity were we would have expected simplicity. One striking example is the occurrence of a quiescent or absorbing state with frozen fluctuations that at first sight seems to be impossible for active matter driven by the incessant input of energy. While such states were reported for externally driven systems through macroscopic shear or agitation, the investigation of frozen active states in inherently active systems like cytoskeletal suspensions or active gels is still at large. Using high density motility assay experiments, we demonstrate that frozen steady states can arise in active systems if active transport is coupled to growth processes. The experiments are complemented by agent-based simulations which identify the coupling between self-organization, growth and mechanical properties to be responsible for the pattern formation process.

  16. Rigidity and flexibility of biological networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Merse E

    2012-01-01

    The network approach became a widely used tool to understand the behaviour of complex systems in the last decade. We start from a short description of structural rigidity theory. A detailed account on the combinatorial rigidity analysis of protein structures, as well as local flexibility measures of proteins and their applications in explaining allostery and thermostability is given. We also briefly discuss the network aspects of cytoskeletal tensegrity. Finally, we show the importance of the balance between functional flexibility and rigidity in protein-protein interaction, metabolic, gene regulatory and neuronal networks. Our summary raises the possibility that the concepts of flexibility and rigidity can be generalized to all networks.

  17. Rigidizing Inflatable Deployable Dwelling (RIDD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By combining thin thermoplastic films, woven Vectran reinforcements, and heat a reliable, deployable, rigidizing space habitat can be created. Although much research...

  18. Portable crushers resolve frozen coal problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, P.; Fuller, L.; Buckley, T. [Public Services of Indiana (PSI), IN (United States)

    2001-11-01

    In 2002, PSI contracted XMS Equipment to design a pair of modularized and portable crushers to overcome the problem of frozen coal during winter months. The rollers of the crusher can be removed during non-winter months, reducing wear. The article describes the design, construction and installation of the system which takes care of the frozen coal in the hoppers and the coal feed systems in the 1000 W Cayuga plant and overcomes the problem of coal freezing in the reclaim hoppers and the open coal storage areas. 4 figs.

  19. Some more Non-arithmetic Rigid groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lubotzky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    In "Non arithmetic super rigid groups: counter examples to Platonov's conjecture" Bass and Lubotzky gave a counter example to Platonov's conjecture by presenting an example of a linear group with super-rigidity which is not an arithmetic lattice. In this note, a much richer class of such groups is presented with a somewhat simpler proof.

  20. Exclusion of Nitrate from Frozen Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, H. A.; Michelsen, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reactions occurring at the surface of ice, sea ice, and snow in Earth's cryosphere have an impact on the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and model their contributions to atmospheric processes, the morphology of frozen aqueous surfaces and amounts of reactants contained therein must be determined. To this end, the exclusion of nitrate ions to the surface of frozen aqueous solutions has been studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). In this technique the near-surface region of the frozen films are interrogated to a depth of a few hundred nanometers from the film-crystal interface. Aqueous solutions (0.001 to 0.01 M) of sodium nitrate (NaNO3), magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2), and nitric acid (HNO3) were quickly frozen on the germanium ATR crystal and observed at a constant temperature of about -18°C. In addition to ice and the solutes, liquid water in varying amounts was observed in the spectra. The amount of nitrate in the surface liquid is three to four orders of magnitude higher than in the unfrozen solution. While all the nitrate salts exhibit exclusion to the unfrozen surface, the dynamics are different for different counter-ions. Results are compared to freezing point depression data and the predictions of equilibrium thermodynamics.

  1. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat.

  2. SMOKED AND FROZEN FISH CONSUMPTION AND MARKETING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apusigah

    consumers preferred smoked fish while 14% preferred frozen fish. ... hormone thus making people feel satisfied on smaller and more nutritious amounts of food. .... Cost was an important factor in consumer preference by fish type. ... Consumers attributed their choice of smoked fish to the fact that they had nice flavour, good.

  3. Fresh frozen plasma: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, L J

    1989-12-01

    Fresh frozen plasma has been transfused for decades. However, the dramatic increase in its use has caused concern that much of it is transfused without the proper indications. Because of this, the National Institutes of Health held a Consensus Conference to clarify its genuine indications and contraindications.

  4. Frozen shoulder and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma B; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frozen shoulder might be a complication or a presenting symptom of cancer. We examined the risk of a cancer diagnosis after an incident diagnosis of frozen shoulder. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data from Danish registries to identify patients with frozen shoulder during...... 1995-2013 and followed them for the development of cancer. RESULTS: We observed 2572 incident cancers among 29 098 frozen shoulder patients. The expected number of incident cancers in the general population was 2434. The 6-month cumulative incidence of any cancer was 0.70%, corresponding...... to a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.38 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-1.58). Risk increases were highest for lung cancer (SIR=2.19, 95% CI: 1.48-3.13), breast cancer (SIR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.15), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.09-4.20). The cumulative incidence of any cancer during...

  5. Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing in Port ... the effects of the marketer's socioeconomic variables on the volume of sales. ... policies that would enhance frozen fish marketers' access to loans in order to increase ...

  6. Compliant mechanism road bicycle brake: a rigid-body replacement case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, Larry L [NON LANL; Magleby, Spencer P [NON LANL

    2011-01-19

    The design of high-performance bicycle brakes is complicated by the competing design objectives of increased performance and low weight. But this challenge also provides a good case study to demonstrate the design of compliant mechanisms to replace current rigid-link mechanisms. This paper briefly reviews current road brake designs, demonstrates the use of rigid-body replacement synthesis to design a compliant mechanism, and illustrates the combination of compliant mechanism design tools. The resulting concept was generated from the modified dual-pivot brake design and is a partially compliant mechanism where one pin has the dual role of a joint and a mounting pin. The pseudo-rigid-body model, finite element analysis, and optimization algorithms are used to generate design dimensions, and designs are considered for both titanium and E-glass flexures. The resulting design has the potential of reducing the part count and overall weight while maintaining a performance similar to the benchmark.

  7. Rigidity, Secondary Structure, and the Universality of the Boson Peak in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perticaroli, Stefania; Nickels, Jonathan D.; Ehlers, Georg; Sokolov, Alexei P.

    2014-01-01

    Complementary neutron- and light-scattering results on nine proteins and amino acids reveal the role of rigidity and secondary structure in determining the time- and lengthscales of low-frequency collective vibrational dynamics in proteins. These dynamics manifest in a spectral feature, known as the boson peak (BP), which is common to all disordered materials. We demonstrate that BP position scales systematically with structural motifs, reflecting local rigidity: disordered proteins appear softer than α-helical proteins; which are softer than β-sheet proteins. Our analysis also reveals a universal spectral shape of the BP in proteins and amino acid mixtures; superimposable on the shape observed in typical glasses. Uniformity in the underlying physical mechanism, independent of the specific chemical composition, connects the BP vibrations to nanometer-scale heterogeneities, providing an experimental benchmark for coarse-grained simulations, structure/rigidity relationships, and engineering of proteins for novel applications. PMID:24940784

  8. Bistable electroactive polymer with sharp rigid-to-rubbery phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu; Ren, Zhi; Hu, Wei; Liu, Chao; Pei, Qibing

    2016-04-01

    Bistable electroactive polymers (BSEP) usually exhibit glass transition that spans a rather broad temperature range and are normally actuated above 70 °C. High actuation temperature limits the BSEP for wearable and personal assistive applications. A phase-changing polymer is synthesized and employed as BSEP having a narrow rigid-to-rubbery transition temperature range. Shape memory effect with both fixation and recovery rate close to 100% was observed. Diaphragm actuators of the BSEP can be electrically actuated at 50 °C up to 70% strain, and the deformed shape was fixed after cooling the BSEP below the transition temperature. The rigid-to-rigid actuation can be repeated for at least 10,000 cycles.

  9. Are better conductors more rigid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Jeong, Hawoong; Orland, Henri; Yi, Juyeon

    2006-10-01

    The variation of the bending stiffness of various materials is studied from the point of view of the electronic band characteristics. As far as the electronically generated bending stiffness κe (which we refer to as electro-stiffness) is concerned, the relevant factors are the orbital overlap t, the gap width u between the valence band and the conduction band, and the electron filling fraction γ. A perturbative calculation leads to the approximate expression κe ~ t2/√u2 + t2. This shows that materials with a large overlap and narrow band gap should be stiffer. The electro-stiffness also depends on the electron filling-fraction. We find that κe(γ) <= κe(1/2). These kinds of behavior are confirmed by numerical calculations. In addition, we study the variation in the projected length of flexible molecules under a voltage bias. The nonlinear variation of the bending rigidity is shown to give rise to a length contraction or dilation, depending on the voltage bias.

  10. ELASTO-PLASTIC BACK ANALYSIS OF FROZEN SOIL WALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭; 翁家杰

    1994-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the range and methods of the research on the stability of frozen wall. Using the Back Analysis Method combining with the model test of frozen wall, the comprchcnsire study on the stability of frozen wall is firstly carried out by the authors. Finally, a new viewpointof adopting limited strain as the major criteria of stability in frozen soil cngincertng is proposed.

  11. Primary classification on drillability of frozen soil using neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jiang-hua(方江华); ZHANG Zhi-hong(张志红); MA Qin-yong(马芹永)

    2003-01-01

    Through analysis on drillability of frozen soil, it is concluded that the main factors affecting the drillability of frozen soil are temperature, wave velocity, impact inductility and chiseling specific work. Based on the foundation it is discussed that applying the neural networks method to classify the drillability of frozen soil is simple and feasible, and the inputted vectors quantity of networks don't be restricted, which make the classification on drillability of frozen soil rather well match the objective practice.

  12. Optimizing Frozen Sample Preparation for Laser Microdissection: Assessment of CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena G Golubeva

    Full Text Available Laser microdissection is an invaluable tool in medical research that facilitates collecting specific cell populations for molecular analysis. Diversity of research targets (e.g., cancerous and precancerous lesions in clinical and animal research, cell pellets, rodent embryos, etc. and varied scientific objectives, however, present challenges toward establishing standard laser microdissection protocols. Sample preparation is crucial for quality RNA, DNA and protein retrieval, where it often determines the feasibility of a laser microdissection project. The majority of microdissection studies in clinical and animal model research are conducted on frozen tissues containing native nucleic acids, unmodified by fixation. However, the variable morphological quality of frozen sections from tissues containing fat, collagen or delicate cell structures can limit or prevent successful harvest of the desired cell population via laser dissection. The CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®, a commercial device that improves cryosectioning outcomes on glass slides has been reported superior for slide preparation and isolation of high quality osteocyte RNA (frozen bone during laser dissection. Considering the reported advantages of CryoJane for laser dissection on glass slides, we asked whether the system could also work with the plastic membrane slides used by UV laser based microdissection instruments, as these are better suited for collection of larger target areas. In an attempt to optimize laser microdissection slide preparation for tissues of different RNA stability and cryosectioning difficulty, we evaluated the CryoJane system for use with both glass (laser capture microdissection and membrane (laser cutting microdissection slides. We have established a sample preparation protocol for glass and membrane slides including manual coating of membrane slides with CryoJane solutions, cryosectioning, slide staining and dissection procedure, lysis and RNA extraction

  13. Use of fresh versus frozen or blast-frozen grapes for small-scale fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Frank Schmid, Vladimir Jiranek School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide; and Wine Innovation Cluster, The Waite Campus, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia Background: This paper firstly examines the validity of using laboratory-scale fermentations as a means of correlating winemaking outcomes with larger industrial scale fermentations. Secondly, conventional and blast-freezing of whole bunches were investigated for their relative suitability as methods of preservation as determined by the nature of the resulting wines. Methods: Red must fermentations were compared at the laboratory 80 kg scale, and the more industrially representative 500 kg pilot scale. Fermentation profiles and duration for both scales were found to be very similar. Whole bunches were either slow/conventionally frozen (−20°C, or quickly/blast-frozen (−25°C. Results: Wines made from frozen grapes compared well with the wine made from the fresh must. Color and chemical analyses of the wines revealed few differences. A duo-trio sensory evaluation showed that wine from blast-frozen grapes was more similar to the fresh wines than wines from conventional frozen grapes. Conclusion: The findings of this research suggest that whole-bunch blast-freezing of grapes is preferable to conventional freezing. Keywords: wine color, research winemaking, frozen grapes

  14. Fibrillar Organic Phases And Their Roles In Rigid Biological Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Park, John J.; Mayer, George

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on determining the presence of organic phases in the siliceous components of rigid marine composites ("glass" sponge spicules), and thereby to clarify how those composites dissipate significant mechanical energy. Through the use of imaging by helium ion microscopy in the examination of the spicules, the organic phase that is present between the layers of hydrated silica was also detected within the silica cylinders of the composite, indicating the existence therein of a network, scaffolding, or other pattern that has not yet been determined. It was concluded that the presence of an interpenetrating network of some kind, and tenacious fibrillar interfaces are responsible for the large energy dissipation in these siliceous composites by viscoelastic processes. This discovery means that future mechanics analyses of such composites, extending to large deformations must consider such interpenetrating phases.

  15. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one of the optional forms of shrimp specified in paragraph (c) of this section with safe and suitable...

  16. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  17. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange...

  18. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  19. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  20. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  1. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  2. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  3. Dynamics and thermodynamics of polymer glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangialosi, D

    2014-04-16

    The fate of matter when decreasing the temperature at constant pressure is that of passing from gas to liquid and, subsequently, from liquid to crystal. However, a class of materials can exist in an amorphous phase below the melting temperature. On cooling such materials, a glass is formed; that is, a material with the rigidity of a solid but exhibiting no long-range order. The study of the thermodynamics and dynamics of glass-forming systems is the subject of continuous research. Within the wide variety of glass formers, an important sub-class is represented by glass forming polymers. The presence of chain connectivity and, in some cases, conformational disorder are unfavourable factors from the point of view of crystallization. Furthermore, many of them, such as amorphous thermoplastics, thermosets and rubbers, are widely employed in many applications. In this review, the peculiarities of the thermodynamics and dynamics of glass-forming polymers are discussed, with particular emphasis on those topics currently the subject of debate. In particular, the following aspects will be reviewed in the present work: (i) the connection between the pronounced slowing down of glassy dynamics on cooling towards the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the thermodynamics; and, (ii) the fate of the dynamics and thermodynamics below Tg. Both aspects are reviewed in light of the possible presence of a singularity at a finite temperature with diverging relaxation time and zero configurational entropy. In this context, the specificity of glass-forming polymers is emphasized.

  4. Optical and mechanical anisotropy of oxide glass fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, J.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Upon fiber drawing, glass forming oxide melts are thermally quenched and mechanically stretched. High cooling rates (up to 106 K/min) of quenched glass fibres lead to higher enthalpy state of liquids, thereby, to higher fictive temperature than regular quenching (e.g. 20 K/min) of bulk glass...... products [1], whereas stretching (frozen-in strain) results in optical and mechanical anisotropy of glass fibers, which is quantified inter alia by the specific birefringence [2]. The paper will stress the later effects by combining previous results on the structural origins of birefringence...... and anisotropic shrinkage in silica and phosphate fibers with recent studies on relaxation of optical anisotropy in E-glass fibers [3,4]....

  5. Properties of Water Blown Rigid Polyurethane Foams with Different Functionality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaobin; CAO Hongbin; ZHANG Yi

    2008-01-01

    Water blown rigid polyurethane foams with different functionality were prepared.The physical properties of rigid foams were measured with rotational viscometer(NDJ-1),universal testing machine(lnstron3365),scanning electron microscope(SEM)and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC).The results show that the viscosity of polyether polyol increases exponentially from 62 mPa s to 6 000 mPa s with theincrease of functionality from 2 to 5.6,respectively.The overall density of foam increases slightly from 31.7kg/m3 to 37.4 kg/m3 with increasing functionality while core density exhibited little difference.Compressive strength of foam shows the similar behavior with density except for 2-functional sample.At the same time,dimensional stability becomes better with increasing functionality except for 5.6-functional foam that has worse stability than 4.8-functional foam.From the SEM results,the functionality is not an important factor in determining distribution of cell size of foam.According to the results of thermal analysis,the glass transition temperature(T)shifts to a higher temperature from 128.9℃ to 166.3℃ for the 2 to 5.6 functional foam,respectively.

  6. Algorithms for Graph Rigidity and Scene Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Alex Rune; Jordán, Tibor

    2003-01-01

    We investigate algorithmic questions and structural problems concerning graph families defined by `edge-counts'. Motivated by recent developments in the unique realization problem of graphs, we give an efficient algorithm to compute the rigid, redundantly rigid, M-connected, and globally rigid...... by showing that 2d-connected bipartite graphs are d-tight. We give a new algorithm for finding a maximal d-sharp subgraph. We also answer a question of Imai and show that finding a maximum size d-sharp subgraph is NP-hard....

  7. Utilization of Frozen Semen of Wild Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎萍

    2005-01-01

    After domestication of wild yak and utilization of its frozen semen was successful in 1983, frozen semen of wild yak was used to improve domestic yak and local yellow cattle by artificial insemination(AI). Hybrid vigor of their F1 was obvious, i. e. , productive performance of F1 was significantly increased. Their offspring did not only have significant heterosis in performance but also can rejuvenate effectively their adaptability and survival, and can use alpine grassland more efficiently. This resulted in significant social and economic benefits.Compared with dairy cattle, beef cattle and yellow cattle, AI of yak was more difficult. Using AI to improve yak performance was difficult and significant in yak production areas of our country. It is necessary to invest more technique and fund to extend AI.

  8. Frozen shoulder - an effective method of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, L E

    1970-09-01

    Although there has been a considerable amount of material published on the pathology and the probable aetiology of the frozen shoulder, the same cannot be said of suggestions for an effective method of physical treatment for all stages of the condition. Some authors claim that exercises mar the recovery process (Cyriax, 1957). Others have found that the condition runs a self-limiting course of anything up to three years, and any physical treatment is "notoriously unsuccessful" in altering this pattern (Crisp and Hume Kendall, 1955). However, all agree that the recovery of frozen shoulders, treated or untreated, is prolonged, and in the acute phase of the condition, physiotherapy plays no part in the treatment of pain (Cyriax, Ibid., Crisp and Hume Kendall, Ibid., Stening, 1961).

  9. The Jefferson Lab frozen spin target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, C.D., E-mail: ckeith@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Brock, J.; Carlin, C.; Comer, S.A.; Kashy, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); McAndrew, J. [School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Meekins, D.G.; Pasyuk, E.; Pierce, J.J.; Seely, M.L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2012-08-21

    A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin-lattice relaxation times as high as 4000 h were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

  10. The Jefferson Lab Frozen Spin Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Keith, James Brock, Christopher Carlin, Sara Comer, David Kashy, Josephine McAndrew, David Meekins, Eugene Pasyuk, Joshua Pierce, Mikell Seely

    2012-08-01

    A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin relaxation times as high as 4000 hours were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

  11. The Perfect Glass Paradigm: Disordered Hyperuniform Glasses Down to Absolute Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2016-11-01

    Rapid cooling of liquids below a certain temperature range can result in a transition to glassy states. The traditional understanding of glasses includes their thermodynamic metastability with respect to crystals. However, here we present specific examples of interactions that eliminate the possibilities of crystalline and quasicrystalline phases, while creating mechanically stable amorphous glasses down to absolute zero temperature. We show that this can be accomplished by introducing a new ideal state of matter called a “perfect glass”. A perfect glass represents a soft-interaction analog of the maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings of hard particles. These latter states can be regarded as the epitome of a glass since they are out of equilibrium, maximally disordered, hyperuniform, mechanically rigid with infinite bulk and shear moduli, and can never crystallize due to configuration-space trapping. Our model perfect glass utilizes two-, three-, and four-body soft interactions while simultaneously retaining the salient attributes of the MRJ state. These models constitute a theoretical proof of concept for perfect glasses and broaden our fundamental understanding of glass physics. A novel feature of equilibrium systems of identical particles interacting with the perfect-glass potential at positive temperature is that they have a non-relativistic speed of sound that is infinite.

  12. Ideal glass transitions by random pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Chiara; Biroli, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of freezing the positions of a fraction c of particles from an equilibrium configuration of a supercooled liquid at a temperature T. We show that within the random first-order transition theory pinning particles leads to an ideal glass transition for a critical fraction c = cK(T) even for moderate supercooling; e.g., close to the Mode-Coupling transition temperature. First we derive the phase diagram in the T - c plane by mean field approximations. Then, by applying a real-space renormalization group method, we obtain the critical properties for |c - cK(T)| → 0, in particular the divergence of length and time scales, which are dominated by two zero-temperature fixed points. We also show that for c = cK(T) the typical distance between frozen particles is related to the static point-to-set length scale of the unconstrained liquid. We discuss what are the main differences when particles are frozen in other geometries and not from an equilibrium configuration. Finally, we explain why the glass transition induced by freezing particles provides a new and very promising avenue of research to probe the glassy state and ascertain, or disprove, the validity of the theories of the glass transition. PMID:22623524

  13. Safety of frozen liver for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada A.K. Kirrella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to ensure and evaluate the safety of imported frozen beef liver traded in supermarkets of Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, through detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidies, Escherichia coli O157:H7, antibiotic residues, and aflatoxin B1 residue. Fifty samples of imported frozen liver were randomly collected from different shops at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate for isolation of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidies, and E. coli O157:H7. The results revealed that for both microorganisms 4% of the examined samples presumed to contain Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 organisms, according to the colonial character on Harlequin Salmonella ABC agar media and Harlequin SMAC-BCIG agar media. According to biochemical and serological identifications, both organisms could not be detected in the examined samples. A total of 29 (58% samples were positive for antibiotic residues, using the Premi test (a broad-spectrum screening test for the detection of antibiotic residues in meat at or below the maximum residue limits. In addition, aflatoxin B1 was detected in one (2% samples with a concentration of 1.1 μg/kg. The results reflect that there was good hygiene practice for handling and preparation of frozen liver while selling to consumers. However, a high percentage of antibiotic residues reflect ignorance of withdrawal time before slaughtering of animals as well as misuse of antibiotics in veterinary fields. Furthermore, aflatoxin B1 residue was detected in examined frozen liver samples at a concentration below the maximum residual level, which is not enough to cause threat to humans, but it is enough to cause problem if it is eaten regularly reflect contamination of animal feed with aflatoxins.

  14. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Fu, H.Y. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies.

  15. Creep of frozen soil by damage mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗天德; 魏雪霞; 张长庆

    1995-01-01

    A microstructure damage theory for creep of frozen soil under the frame of damage mechan-ics is presented.Based on the test study and microscope observation,several internal variables are chosen tocharacterize the microstructure changes and the evolution equations of these internal variables are developed.The theory can describe both the "hardening" and "softening" behavior in the creep process.A detailed analysis hasbeen made for the uniaxial compressure and compared with the test data.

  16. Focal rigidity of flat tori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Kwakkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g, i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ∪iΣi called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets Σi are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g, i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that flat n-tori, n > 2, are focally rigid in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent then the tori are isometric up to rescaling. The case n = 2 was considered before by F. Kwakkel.Dada uma variedade Riemanniana (M, g fechada, isto é, compacta e sem bordo, existe uma partição de seu fibrado tangente TM = ∪iΣi chamada decomposição focal de TM. Os conjuntos Σi estão intimamente associados ao modo como focalizam as geodésicas de (M,g, isto é, à situação em que existem exatamente i arcos de geodésica de mesmo comprimento unindo pontos p e q em M. Nesta nota, estudamos a estrutura topológica da decomposição focal de uma variedade Riemanniana fechada e sua relação com a estrutura métrica de M. Nosso principal resultado é que n-toros planos, n > 2, são focalmente rigidos, isto é, se dois toros planos são focalmente equivalentes, então os dois toros são isométricos módulo mudança de escala. O caso n = 2 foi considerado anteriormente por F. Kwakkel.

  17. Existence of frozen-in coordinate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertkov, A. D.

    1995-01-01

    The 'frozen-in' coordinate systems were first introduced in the works on 'reconnection' and 'magnetic barrier' theories (see review by M.l.Pudovkin and V.S.Semenov, Space Sci. Rev. 41,1 1985). The idea was to utilize the mathematical apparatus developed for 'general relativity' theory to simplify obtaining solutions to the ideal MHD equations set. Magnetic field (B), plasma velocity (v), and their vector product were used as coordinate vectors. But there exist no stationary solutions of ideal MHD set that satisfies the required boundary conditions at infinity (A.D.Chertkov, Solar Wind Seven Conf.,Pergamon Press,1992,165) having non-zero vector product of v and B where v and B originate from the same sphere. The existence of a solution is the hidden mine of the mentioned theories. The solution is constructed in the coordinate system, which is unknown and indeterminate before obtaining this solution. A substitution of the final solution must be done directly into the initial MHD set in order to check the method. One can demonstrate that 'solutions' of Petschek's problem, obtained by 'frozen-in' coordinate systems, does not satisfy just the 'frozen-in' equation, i.e. induction equation. It stems from the fact that Petschek's 're-connection' model, treated as a boundary problem, is over determined. This problem was incorrectly formulated.

  18. Transition to coarsening for confined one-dimensional interfaces with bending rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Thomas; Politi, Paolo; Pierre-Louis, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the nonlinear dynamics and fluctuations of interfaces with bending rigidity under the competing attractions of two walls with arbitrary permeabilities. This system mimics the dynamics of confined membranes. We use a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, where membranes are effectively one-dimensional objects. In a previous work [T. Le Goff et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 032114 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.032114], we have shown that this model predicts frozen states caused by bending rigidity-induced oscillatory interactions between kinks (or domain walls). We here demonstrate that in the presence of tension, potential asymmetry, or thermal noise, there is a finite threshold above which frozen states disappear, and perpetual coarsening is restored. Depending on the driving force, the transition to coarsening exhibits different scenarios. First, for membranes under tension, small tensions can only lead to transient coarsening or partial disordering, while above a finite threshold, membrane oscillations disappear and perpetual coarsening is found. Second, potential asymmetry is relevant in the nonconserved case only, i.e., for permeable walls, where it induces a drift force on the kinks, leading to a fast coarsening process via kink-antikink annihilation. However, below some threshold, the drift force can be balanced by the oscillatory interactions between kinks, and frozen adhesion patches can still be observed. Finally, at long times, noise restores coarsening with standard exponents depending on the permeability of the walls. However, the typical time for the appearance of coarsening exhibits an Arrhenius form. As a consequence, a finite noise amplitude is needed in order to observe coarsening in observable time.

  19. Analysis of Switched-Rigid Floating Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar R. Marur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In explicit finite element simulations, a technique called deformable-to-rigid (D2R switching is used routinely to reduce the computation time. Using the D2R option, the deformable parts in the model can be switched to rigid and reverted back to deformable when needed during the analysis. The time of activation of D2R however influences the overall dynamics of the system being analyzed. In this paper, a theoretical basis for the selection of time of rigid switching based on system energy is established. A floating oscillator problem is investigated for this purpose and closed-form analytical expressions are derived for different phases in rigid switching. The analytical expressions are validated by comparing the theoretical results with numerical computations.

  20. Public policies targeting labour market rigidities

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN

    2013-01-01

    Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies tar...

  1. Dynamical heterogeneity in aging colloidal glasses of Laponite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbari-Farouji, S.; Zargar, R.; Wegdam, G.H.; Bonn, D.

    2012-01-01

    Glasses behave as solids due to their long relaxation time; however the origin of this slow response remains a puzzle. Growing dynamic length scales due to cooperative motion of particles are believed to be central to the understanding of both the slow dynamics and the emergence of rigidity. Here, w

  2. Using Elimination Theory to construct Rigid Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Abhinav; Patankar, Vijay M; N, Jayalal Sarma M

    2009-01-01

    The rigidity of a matrix A for target rank r is the minimum number of entries of A that must be changed to ensure that the rank of the altered matrix is at most r. Since its introduction by Valiant (1977), rigidity and similar rank-robustness functions of matrices have found numerous applications in circuit complexity, communication complexity, and learning complexity. Almost all nxn matrices over an infinite field have a rigidity of (n-r)^2. It is a long-standing open question to construct infinite families of explicit matrices even with superlinear rigidity when r=Omega(n). In this paper, we construct an infinite family of complex matrices with the largest possible, i.e., (n-r)^2, rigidity. The entries of an nxn matrix in this family are distinct primitive roots of unity of orders roughly exp(n^4 log n). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first family of concrete (but not entirely explicit) matrices having maximal rigidity and a succinct algebraic description. Our construction is based on elimination...

  3. Comparative study of radiation shielding parameters for bismuth borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaundal, Rajinder Singh, E-mail: rajinder_apd@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab (India)

    2016-07-15

    Melt and quench technique was used for the preparation of glassy samples of the composition x Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3-}(1-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} where x= .05 to .040. XCOM computer program is used for the evaluation of gamma-ray shielding parameters of the prepared glass samples. Further the values of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and half value layer for the glassy samples have been calculated in the energy range from 1KeV to 100GeV. Rigidity of the glass samples have been analyzed by molar volume of the prepared glass samples. (author)

  4. Reversibility windows in selenide-based chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska Street, Lviv, UA 79031 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15, al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa, PL 42200 (Poland); Hyla, M. [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15, al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa, PL 42200 (Poland); Boyko, V. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska Street, Lviv, UA 79031 (Ukraine); Lviv National Polytechnic University, 12, Bandera Street, Lviv, UA 79013 (Ukraine); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska Street, Lviv, UA 79031 (Ukraine)], E-mail: golovchak@novas.lviv.ua

    2008-10-01

    A simple route for the estimation of the reversibility windows in the sense of non-ageing ability is developed for chalcogenide glasses obeying '8-N' rule at the example of As-Se, Ge-Se and Ge-As-Se glass systems. The low limit of their reversibility windows is determined at the average coordination number Z=2.4 in full agreement with rigidity percolation theory, while the upper limit is shown to be related to the glass preparation conditions and samples prehistory.

  5. Quality Evaluation of Some Fresh and Imported Frozen Seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Hassan Mohamed Ali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was done to evaluate the quality parameters of fresh and imported frozen seafood (fillets and shrimp. A total of 120 seafood samples, fillets and shrimp (fresh and imported frozen 30 each, collected from fish markets at Giza Governorate were sensory, bacteriological, chemical investigated. Panelists rejected 5.0 (16.6% and 0.0 (0.0% of fresh fillets and shrimp samples, while the number raised up to 12.0 (40.0% and 15.0 (50.0% of frozen fillets and shrimp samples respectively. Fresh seafood had a significant lower (p<0.05 pH values in compared to frozen products. There were observed significant difference (p<0.05 in the TBA and TVB-N values between the fresh and frozen seafood samples. All fresh and frozen seafood samples were judge as safe food from microbiological point of view. The total proteolytic, lipolytic, psychrotrophic and pseudomonas/aeromonas counts for all examined seafood samples were lie within the standard permissible limits. L. monocytogenes could not be detected from fresh or frozen fillets. Few freqyency of L. monocytogenes found in fresh and imported frozen shrimp. As well as V. parahaemolyticus and Y. enterocolitica were recovered from examined fresh and frozen seafood samples. The public health significance of the isolated organisms was also discussed. The quality of fresh fillets and shrimp were better than that of imported frozen one.

  6. Out-of-equilibrium dynamics in superspin glass state of strongly interacting magnetic nanoparticle assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamae, Sawako, E-mail: Sawako.nakamae@cea.fr

    2014-04-15

    Interacting magnetic nanoparticles display a wide variety of magnetic behaviors ranging from modified superparamagnetism, superspin glass to possibly, superferromagnetism. The superspin glass state is described by its slow and out-of-equilibrium magnetic behaviors akin to those found in atomic spin glasses. In this article, recent experimental findings on superspin correlation length growth and the violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem obtained in concentrated frozen ferrofluids are presented to illustrate certain out-of-equilibrium dynamics behavior in superspin glasses. - Highlights: • Recent experimental findings on superspin glass dynamics in magnetic nanoparticle systems. • Advantages of magnetic nanoparticles for the study of spin glass physics. • Open questions and future directions in superspin glass research.

  7. Glass Fibers: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Mäder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1930s, the process of melting glass and subsequently forming fibers, in particular discontinuous fiber glass or continuous glass filaments, evolved into commercial-scale manufacturing.[...

  8. Extracting Physics from Topologically Frozen Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Urs; Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Mejía-Díaz, Héctor; Hofmann, Christoph P

    2014-01-01

    In Monte Carlo simulations with a local update algorithm, the auto-correlation with respect to the topological charge tends to become very long. In the extreme case one can only perform reliable measurements within fixed sectors. We investigate approaches to extract physical information from such topologically frozen simulations. Recent results in a set of sigma-models and gauge theories are encouraging. In a suitable regime, the correct value of some observable can be evaluated to a good accuracy. In addition there are ways to estimate the value of the topological susceptibility.

  9. Optimal use of fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DomBourian, Melkon; Holland, Lorne

    2012-01-01

    Fresh frozen plasma contains a number of therapeutically useful substances, most notably coagulation factors. As with any transfusion, there are risks associated with plasma transfusion. Ironically, the risk of viral transmission (human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis), although widely publicized, is extremely small. On the other hand, less well-known, noninfectious complications are common. Indeed, these noninfectious complications are the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality following transfusion. Although certain patients undeniably benefit from plasma transfusion, the benefit for many patients is less clear. This review will discuss indications for plasma transfusion, the associated risks, and special considerations for plasma administration.

  10. 21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a) Identification. A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in...

  11. 49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... PACKAGINGS IBC Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic...

  12. The rigidity transition in random graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kasiviswanathan, Shiva Prasad; Theran, Louis

    2010-01-01

    As we add rigid bars between points in the plane, at what point is there a giant (linear-sized) rigid component, which can be rotated and translated, but which has no internal flexibility? If the points are generic, this depends only on the combinatorics of the graph formed by the bars. We show that if this graph is an Erdos-Renyi random graph G(n,c/n), then there exists a sharp threshold for a giant rigid component to emerge. For c c_2, w.h.p. there is a giant rigid component. The constant c_2 \\approx 3.588 is the threshold for 2-orientability, discovered independently by Fernholz and Ramachandran and Cain, Sanders, and Wormald in SODA'07. We also give quantitative bounds on the size of the giant rigid component when it emerges, proving that it spans a (1-o(1))-fraction of the vertices in the (3+2)-core. Informally, the (3+2)-core is maximal induced subgraph obtained by starting from the 3-core and then inductively adding vertices with 2 neighbors in the graph obtained so far.

  13. Flexible implementation of rigid solar cell technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, Andrew E.

    2010-08-01

    As a source of clean, remote energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems are an important area of research. The majority of solar cells are rigid materials with negligible flexibility. Flexible PV systems possess many advantages, such as being transportable and incorporable on diverse structures. Amorphous silicon and organic PV systems are flexible; however, they lack the efficiency and lifetime of rigid cells. There is also a need for PV systems that are light weight, especially in space and flight applications. We propose a solution to this problem by arranging rigid cells onto a flexible substrate creating efficient, light weight, and flexible devices. To date, we have created a working prototype of our design using the 1.1cm x 1cm Emcore cells. We have achieved a better power to weight ratio than commercially available PowerFilm{reg_sign}, which uses thin film silicon yielding .034W/gram. We have also tested our concept with other types of cells and verified that our methods are able to be adapted to any rigid solar cell technology. This allows us to use the highest efficiency devices despite their physical characteristics. Depending on the cell size we use, we can rival the curvature of most available flexible PV devices. We have shown how the benefits of rigid solar cells can be integrated into flexible applications, allowing performance that surpasses alternative technologies.

  14. Rigidity loss in disordered network materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbroek, Wouter G.; Hagh, Varda F.; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, M. F.; van Hecke, Martin

    Weakly jammed sphere packings show a very peculiar elasticity, with a ratio of compression modulus to shear modulus that diverges as the number of contacts approaches the minimum required for rigidity. Creating artificial isotropic network materials with this property is a challenge: so far, the least elaborate way to generate them is to actually simulate weakly compressed repulsive spheres. The next steps in designing such networks hinge upon a solid understanding of what properties of the sphere-packing derived network are essential for its elasticity. We elucidate the topological aspects of this question by comparing the rigidity transition in these networks to that in other random spring network models, including the common bond-diluted triangular net and a self-stress-free variant of that. We use the pebble game algorithm for identifying rigid clusters in mechanical networks to demonstrate that the marginally rigid state in sphere packings is perfectly isostatic everywhere, and the addition or removal of a single bond creates a globally stressed or globally floppy network, respectively. By contrast, the other classes of random network random networks show a more localized response to addition and removal of bonds, and, correspondingly, a more gradual rigidity transition.

  15. Frozen Landweber Iteration for Nonlinear Ill-Posed Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Xu; B.Han; L.Li

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose a modification of the Landweber iteration termed frozen Landweber iteration for nonlinear ill-posed problems.A convergence analysis for this iteration is presented.The numerical performance of this frozen Landweber iteration for a nonlinear Hammerstein integral equation is compared with that of the Landweber iteration.We obtain a shorter running time of the frozen Landweber iteration based on the same convergence accuracy.

  16. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  17. Torsional rigidity of submanifolds with controlled geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado, Ana; Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We prove explicit upper and lower bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of submanifolds ^m$ with controlled radial mean curvature in ambient Riemannian manifolds ^n$ with a pole $ and with sectional curvatures bounded from above and from below, respectively. These bounds are given...... in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped product model spaces. Our main results are obtained using methods from previously established isoperimetric inequalities, as found in e.g. [MP4] and [MP5]. As in [MP4] we also characterize the geometry...... of those situations in which the bounds for the torsional rigidity are actually attained and study the behavior at infinity of the so-called geometric average of the mean exit time for Brownian motion....

  18. Measuring the Acceleration of a Rigid Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Martin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods to measure the six-degree-of-freedom acceleration of a point on a rigid body are presented. The first, referred to as the periphery scheme, makes use of three clusters of accelerometers mounted orthogonal to each other and coincident with the axes of the point. One of the clusters consists of the three accelerometers attached to a cube-shaped triaxial angular rate sensor (ARS. The second method, called the compact cube scheme, uses a single 3-accelerometer/ARS cluster that may be mounted anywhere on the rigid body. During impact tests with an instrumented rigid body, both methods produced measurements that were highly correlated near the time of peak acceleration. Whereas the compact cube scheme was more economical and easier to implement, the periphery scheme produced results that were less disrupted by instrument signal errors and noisy environments.

  19. STRENGTH AND WAVE VELOCITY TEST ON ARTIFICIALLY FROZEN SOILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马芹永

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical analysis conducted of uniaxial compressive strength and tensile strength ofartificially frozen soil and P waves and S waves and of the relationship between the two. Experi-ments are made on frozen sand and frozen clay respectively at the temperature of - 7 ℃, - 12 ℃and - 17 ℃. Of the data obtained, regression analysis and gray-system correlation are conduct-ed. As indicated by the results, the frozen soil tensile strength is closely correlated with the Pwave velocity and the compressive with the S wave, hence the former is well described by thelatter.

  20. Constitutive theories on viscoelastoplasticity and damage of frozen soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 程国栋; 朱元林

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive theory on the viscoelastoplasticity and damage of frozen soil is based on the continuous mechanics and thermodynamics. The basic principles of the theory, dissipation potential function and damage model are presented. The constitutive theory explains the mechanical properties of frozen soils under complicated stresses, especially under high confining pressures which make frozen soil harden and soften. The agreement between the calculated results by the constitutive theory and the experimental results of triaxial creep of frozen soil is seen to be very good.

  1. Order parameter and barrier height in LaSrMnO cluster glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okunev, V.D., E-mail: okunev@mail.fti.ac.donetsk.u [Donetsk Physico-Technical Institute, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Samoilenko, Z.A. [Donetsk Physico-Technical Institute, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Szymczak, H.; Lewandowski, S.J.; Szymczak, R. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-10-19

    Using the results of magnetization measurements of LaSrMnO cluster glasses, it is shown that the concentration of frozen magnetic moments exponentially decreases with the increase of temperature. We find that temperature dependence of the order parameter q, of the form q-q(T)approxT{sup -5/2}, is universal characteristic of the investigated cluster glasses and that the barrier height DELTA closely follows the quadratic relation to the temperature, DELTAapproxBT{sup 2}.

  2. Frozen Chemistry Effects on Nozzle Performance Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Dennis A.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; O'Gara, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Simulations of exhaust nozzle flows are typically conducted assuming the gas is calorically perfect, and typically modeled as air. However the gas inside a real nozzle is generally composed of combustion products whose thermodynamic properties may differ. In this study, the effect of gas model assumption on exhaust nozzle simulations is examined. The three methods considered model the nozzle exhaust gas as calorically perfect air, a calorically perfect exhaust gas mixture, and a frozen exhaust gas mixture. In the latter case the individual non-reacting species are tracked and modeled as a gas which is only thermally perfect. Performance parameters such as mass flow rate, gross thrust, and thrust coefficient are compared as are mean flow and turbulence profiles in the jet plume region. Nozzles which operate at low temperatures or have low subsonic exit Mach numbers experience relatively minor temperature variations inside the nozzle, and may be modeled as a calorically perfect gas. In those which operate at the opposite extreme conditions, variations in the thermodynamic properties can lead to different expansion behavior within the nozzle. Modeling these cases as a perfect exhaust gas flow rather than air captures much of the flow features of the frozen chemistry simulations. Use of the exhaust gas reduces the nozzle mass flow rate, but has little effect on the gross thrust. When reporting nozzle thrust coefficient results, however, it is important to use the appropriate gas model assumptions to compute the ideal exit velocity. Otherwise the values obtained may be an overly optimistic estimate of nozzle performance.

  3. Stability of Frozen Orbits Around Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso Dos Santos, Josué; Vilhena de Moraes, R.; Carvalho, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): A planetary satellite of interest at the present moment for the scientific community is Europa, one of the four largest moons of Jupiter. There are some missions planned to visit Europa in the next years, for example, Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO, NASA) and Jupiter IcyMoon Explorer (JUICE, ESA). In this work we are formulating theories and constructing computer programs to be used in the design of aerospace tasks as regards the stability of artificial satellite orbits around planetary satellites. The studies are related to translational motion of orbits around planetary satellites considering polygenic perturbations due to forces, such as the nonspherical shape of the central body and the perturbation of the third body. The equations of motion will be developed in closed form to avoid expansions in eccentricity and inclination. For a description of canonical formalism are used the Delaunay canonical variables. The canonical set of equations, which are nonlinear differential equations, will be used to study the stability of orbits around Europa. We will use a simplified dynamic model, which considers the effects caused by non-uniform distribution of mass of Europa (J2, J3 and C22) and the gravitational attraction of Jupiter. Emphasis will be given to the case of frozen orbits, defined as having almost constant values of eccentricity, inclination, and argument of pericentre. An approach will be used to search for frozen orbits around planetary satellites and study their stability by applying a process of normalization of Hamiltonian. Acknowledges: FAPESP

  4. Searching for Frozen Super Earth via Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Microlensing planet hunt is a unique method to probe efficiently for frozen Super Earth orbiting the most common stars of our galaxy. It is nicely complementing the parameter space probed by very high accuracy radial velocity measurements and future space based detections of low mass transiting planets. In order to maximize the planet catch, the microlensing community is engaged in a total cooperation among the different groups (OGLE, MicroFUN, MOA, PLANET/RoboNET) by making the real time data available, and mutual informing/reporting about modeling efforts. Eight planets have been published so far by combinations of the different groups, 4 Jovian analogues, one Neptune and two Super Earth. Given the microlensing detection efficiency, it suggests that these Neptunes/Super Earths may be quite common. Using networks of dedicated 1-2m class telescopes, the microlensing community has entered a new phase of planet discoveries, and will be able to provide constraints on the abundance of frozen Super-Earths in the near future. Statistics about Mars to Earth mass planets, extending to the habitable zone will be achieved with space based wide field imagers (EUCLID) at the horizon 2017.

  5. On Saturnian cosmic ray cutoff rigidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, H. H.

    1980-03-01

    It has been determined that Saturn possesses a relatively pure dipolar magnetic field through magnetometer measurements made by Ness et al. (1979, private comm.) and Smith et al. (1979). The paper briefly outlines the dipole geomagnetic cutoff theory and demonstrates the scaling required for its applicability to energetic particle measurements in the vicinity of Saturn. Since the cutoff rigidity is a function of viewing direction, the effective cutoff rigidity must be determined as an integration over the finite viewing angle of a physical detector.

  6. Generic Rigidity Matroids with Dilworth Truncations

    CERN Document Server

    Tanigawa, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the linear matroid that defines generic rigidity of $d$-dimensional body-rod-bar frameworks (i.e., structures consisting of disjoint bodies and rods mutually linked by bars) can be obtained from the union of ${d+1 \\choose 2}$ graphic matroids by applying variants of Dilworth truncation $n_r$ times, where $n_r$ denotes the number of rods. This leads to an alternative proof of Tay's combinatorial characterizations of generic rigidity of rod-bar frameworks and that of identified body-hinge frameworks.

  7. Rigidity Constraints for Large Mesh Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhao; Xin-Guo Liu; Qun-Sheng Peng; Hu-Jun Bao

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenging problem of surface-based deformation to avoid apparent volumetric distortions around largely deformed areas. In this paper, we propose a new rigidity constraint for gradient domain mesh deformation to address this problem. Intuitively the proposed constraint can be regarded as several small cubes defined by the mesh vertices through mean value coordinates. The user interactively specifies the cubes in the regions which are prone to volumetric distortions, and the rigidity constraints could make the mesh behave like a solid object during deformation. The experimental results demonstrate that our constraint is intuitive, easy to use and very effective.

  8. Rigid origami vertices: conditions and forcing sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Abel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an intrinsic necessary and sufficient condition for single-vertex origami crease patterns to be able to fold rigidly.  We classify such patterns in the case where the creases are pre-assigned to be mountains and valleys as well as in the unassigned case.  We also illustrate the utility of this result by applying it to the new concept of minimal forcing sets for rigid origami models, which are the smallest collection of creases that, when folded, will force all the other creases to fold in a prescribed way.

  9. Thin structured rigid body for acoustic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, T. A.; Smith, J. D.; Hibbins, A. P.; Sambles, J. R.; Rance, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a thin acoustic metamaterial absorber, comprised of only rigid metal and air, that gives rise to near unity absorption of airborne sound on resonance. This simple, easily fabricated, robust structure comprising a perforated metal plate separated from a rigid wall by a deeply subwavelength channel of air is an ideal candidate for a sound absorbing panel. The strong absorption in the system is attributed to the thermo-viscous losses arising from a sound wave guided between the plate and the wall, defining the subwavelength channel.

  10. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production......Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  11. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  12. Evaluation of panoramic digital images using Panoptiq for frozen section diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Whole slide imaging (WSI permits intraoperative consultations (frozen sections to be performed remotely. However, WSI files are large and can be problematic if there are tissue artifacts (e.g., tissue folds or when slides are scanned without multiplanes (Z-stacks to permit focusing. The Panoptiq dynamic imaging system allows users to create their own digital files that combine low power panoramic digital images with regions of interest that can be imaged using high power Z-stacks. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of the Panoptiq dynamic imaging system for frozen section telepathology. Materials and Methods: Twenty archival randomly selected genitourinary surgical pathology frozen sectional cases were evaluated using conventional light microscopy (glass slides, panoramic images, and whole slide images. To create panoramic images glass slides were digitized using a Prosilica GT camera (model GT1920C, Allied Vision Technologies attached to an Olympus B × 45 microscope and Dell Precision Tower 810 computer (Dell. Panoptiq 3 version 3.1.2 software was used for image acquisition and Panoptiq View version 3.1.2 to view images (ViewsIQ, Richmond, BC, Canada. Image acquisition using Panoptiq software involved a pathology resident, who manually created digital maps (×4 objective and then selected representative regions of interest to generate Z-stacks at higher magnification (×40 objective. Whole slide images were generated using an Aperio XT Scanscope (Leica and viewed using ImageScope Software (Aperio ePathology, Leica. Three pathologists were asked to render diagnoses and rate image quality (1-10 and their diagnostic confidence (1-10 for each modality. Results: The diagnostic concordance with glass slides was 98.3% for panoramic images and 100% for WSI. Panoptiq images were comparable to the glass slide viewing experience in terms of image quality and diagnostic confidence. Complaints regarding WSI included poor focus

  13. Delayed Equation for Charged Rigid Nonrelativistic Ball

    CERN Document Server

    Vlasov, A A

    2002-01-01

    Simple expression for self-force acting on radiating rigid charged ball is derived (Sommerfeld ball). It is shown that appropriate delayed equation of motion has solutions in general differ from that for Sommerfeld sphere - there are no "radiationless" solutions, but there are oscillating without damping solutions though self-force has nonzero value.

  14. Rigid body dynamics on the Poisson torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Peter H.

    2008-11-01

    The theory of rigid body motion with emphasis on the modifications introduced by a Cardan suspension is outlined. The configuration space is no longer SO(3) but a 3-torus; the equivalent of the Poisson sphere, after separation of an angular variable, is a Poisson torus. Iso-energy surfaces and their bifurcations are discussed. A universal Poincaré section method is proposed.

  15. Viscoelasticity of suspensions of long, rigid rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, Jan K.G.; Briels, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    A microscopic theory for the viscoelastic behaviour of suspensions of rigid rods with excluded volume interactions is presented, which is valid in the asymptotic limit of very long and thin rods. Stresses arising from translational and rotational Brownian motion and direct interactions are calculate

  16. The rigid orthogonal Procrustes rotation problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, JMF

    2006-01-01

    The problem of rotating a matrix orthogonally to a best least squares fit with another matrix of the same order has a closed-form solution based on a singular value decomposition. The optimal rotation matrix is not necessarily rigid, but may also involve a reflection. In some applications, only rigi

  17. Rigid rod anchored to infinite membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunkun; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the shape deformation of an infinite membrane anchored by a rigid rod. The density profile of the rod is calculated by the self-consistent-field theory and the shape of the membrane is predicted by the Helfrich membrane elasticity theory [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. 28c, 693 (1973)]. It is found that the membrane bends away from the rigid rod when the interaction between the rod and the membrane is repulsive or weakly attractive (adsorption). However, the pulled height of the membrane at first increases and then decreases with the increase of the adsorption strength. Compared to a Gaussian chain with the same length, the rigid rod covers much larger area of the membrane, whereas exerts less local entropic pressure on the membrane. An evident gap is found between the membrane and the rigid rod because the membrane's curvature has to be continuous. These behaviors are compared with that of the flexible-polymer-anchored membranes studied by previous Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicated and real biological systems, such as infinite membrane/multiple chains, protein inclusion, or systems with phase separation.

  18. Quantification of the UPDRS Rigidity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, S K; Denington, A A; Gauthier, M J; Gillard, D M; Prochazka, A

    2001-03-01

    In the clinical setting, parkinsonian rigidity is assessed using subjective rating scales such as that of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating System (UPDRS). However, such scales are susceptible to problems of sensitivity and reliability. Here, we evaluate the reliability and validity of a device designed to quantify parkinsonian rigidity at the elbow and the wrist. The method essentially quantifies the clinical examination and employs small sensors to monitor forces and angular displacements imposed by the clinician onto the limb segment distal to the joint being evaluated. Force and displacement data are used to calculate elastic and viscous stiffnesses and their vectorial sum, mechanical impedance. Interexaminer agreement of measures of mechanical impedance in subjects with Parkinson's disease was comparable to that of clinical UPDRS scores. Examiners tended to overrate rigidity on the UPDRS scale during reinforcement manoeuvres. Mechanical impedance was nonlinearly related to UPDRS ratings of rigidity at the elbow and wrist; characterization of such relationships allows interpretation of impedance measurements in terms of the clinical rating scales.

  19. Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Tretyakov, Mikhail

    2016-01-05

    Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.

  20. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Chatarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  1. On the possible existence of crystallites in glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    We speculate that glass-forming liquids may contain fairly large and well-defined crystallites. This is based on arguing that the slowly relaxing "frozen-in" stresses characterizing ultraviscous liquids increase the barrier for nucleation, thus allowing for larger unstable crystallites than other...

  2. Glass-silicon column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  3. Rigid Spine Syndrome among Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Koul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rigidity of the spine is common in adults but is rarely observed in children. The aim of this study was to report on rigid spine syndrome (RSS among children in Oman. Methods: Data on children diagnosed with RSS were collected consecutively at presentation between 1996 and 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. A diagnosis of RSS was based on the patient’s history, clinical examination, biochemical investigations, electrophysiological findings, neuro-imaging and muscle biopsy. Atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, particularly the erector spinae, was the diagnostic feature; this was noted using magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Children with disease onset in the paraspinal muscles were labelled as having primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy. Secondary RSS was classified as RSS due to the late involvement of other muscle diseases. Results: Over the 18-year period, 12 children were included in the study, with a maleto- female ratio of 9:3. A total of 10 children were found to have primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome while two had secondary RSS. Onset of the disease ranged from birth to 18 months of age. A family history was noted, with two siblings from one family and three siblings from another (n = 5. On examination, children with primary RSS had typical features of severe spine rigidity at onset, with the rest of the neurological examination being normal. Conclusion: RSS is a rare disease with only 12 reported cases found at SQUH during the study period. Cases of primary RSS should be differentiated from the secondary type.

  4. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice cream and frozen custard. 135.110 Section 135....110 Ice cream and frozen custard. (a) Description. (1) Ice cream is a food produced by freezing, while... accomplish specific functions. Ice cream is sweetened with safe and suitable sweeteners and may...

  5. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for lemonade. 146.120 Section 146.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in...

  6. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126 Section 146.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... section 721 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen...

  7. Vibration characteristics of frozen soil under moving track loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AiPing Tang; AnPing Zhao; AiHua Wen

    2015-01-01

    Vibration due to moving traffic loads is an important factor which induces frozen soil damage; this paper analyzed these vibration characteristics of frozen soil foundation under track loads. Firstly, seismic observation array (SOA) technology was applied to monitor the three dimensional dynamic characteristics of frozen soil under movable track load in a per-mafrost region and seasonal frozen soil area. Secondly, a numerical simulation for the response of frozen soil under movable track load was performed based on finite element analysis (FEA). The results show that dynamic characteristics of frozen soil in perpendicular and parallel direction of the track are obviously different. In the direction perpendicular to the track, the vertical acceleration amplitude had an abrupt increase in the 9–10 m from the track line. In the direction parallel to the track, the acceleration in vertical and horizontal direction had a quick attenuation compared to the other direction. Lastly, various parameters were analyzed for the purpose of controlling the dynamic response of frozen soil and the vibration attenuation in frozen soil layer.

  8. Status and prospects of frozen soil studies using CT technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiJie Chen; ShuPing Zhao; Wei Ma; QianTao Zhu; LiLi Xing

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of Computed Tomography (CT) technology and reviews its history, current situation, representative achievements, and use of using CT technology on frozen soil study, including auxiliary equipment specially de-signed for frozen soil studies. CT numbers are used to analyze frozen soil internal structure change, defining and exploring dam-age evolution, and use of CT images on observing soil mesostructure. Finally, this paper presents existing problems confronted by using CT in frozen soil studies, possible solutions and challenges, among which, we introduce high quality CT image processing for frozen soils, and relations between CT number change and each component change on frozen soil samples within the region of interest. It is shown that present CT technology is one of the most ideal and effective technology to study frozen soil mesostructure using non-destructive testing. CT technology will play a key role in the study and development in the field of frozen soil by means of auxiliary equipment and the digital imaging processing.

  9. Quality Changes of Frozen Meat During Storage and Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jiangping

    2010-01-01

    The frozen is a common method of meat storage, generally applications in meat industrial. However, the quality of meat still have taken place changes even in the low temperature, This article discussion on the changes of frozen meat quality during freezing storage, and give the corresponding control measures.

  10. Producing Acoustic 'Frozen Waves': Simulated experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Prego, Jose' L; Recami, Erasmo; Hernandez-Figueroa, Hugo E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show how appropriate superpositions of Bessel beams can be successfully used to obtain arbitrary longitudinal intensity patterns of nondiffracting ultrasonic wavefields with very high transverse localization. More precisely, the method here described allows generating longitudinal acoustic pressure fields, whose longitudinal intensity patterns can assume, in principle, any desired shape within a freely chosen interval 0Frozen Waves(FW). The paper presents various cases of FWs in water, and investigates the characteristics of their aperture, such as minimum required size and ring dimensioning, as well as the influence...

  11. Title: Characterizing a Frozen Extrasolar World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents our first opportunity to study an object outside the Solar System that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs-near infrared spectroscopy-is not currently feasible as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5-5.2 micrometers spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter's deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter. The spectrum is high enough quality to allow the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter's atmosphere, but this time on an extrasolar world.

  12. The two-body problem of a pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Vereshchagin, M.; Gózdziewski, K.;

    2012-01-01

    n this paper we consider the two-body problem of a spherical pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere. Due to the rotational and "re-labelling" symmetries, the system is shown to possess conservation of angular momentum and circulation. We follow a reduction procedure similar to that undertaken...... in the study of the two-body problem of a rigid body and a sphere so that the computed reduced non-canonical Hamiltonian takes a similar form. We then consider relative equilibria and show that the notions of locally central and planar equilibria coincide. Finally, we show that Riemann's theorem on pseudo......-rigid bodies has an extension to this system for planar relative equilibria....

  13. Antiplane SH-deformations near a surface rigid foundation above a subsurface rigid circular tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V. W.; Manoogian, M. E.; Chen, S.

    2002-06-01

    The problem on the dynamic response of a rigid embedded foundation in the presence of an underground rigid tunnel and subjected to excitation of incident anti-plane SH waves is analyzed. By using the exact analytical solution for the two-dimensional SH-wave propagation in and around both the surface rigid foundation and subsurface rigid tunnel, those aspects of the resulting ground motions that are of special interest and importance for seismic resistant design in earthquake analyses have been examined. The computed amplitudes of the resulting periodic ground motions display a very complicated wave-interference between the surface foundation and underground tunnel that lead to observed standing wave patterns, together with abrupt changes in the wave amplitudes and large amplification of the incident motions.

  14. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  15. Circumferential thoracolumbar corrective fusion with an anterior interbody fresh-frozen femoral head allograft for osteoporotic lower acute kyphosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyakoshi Naohisa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lower acute kyphosis (LAK is a postural deformity caused by severe osteoporotic vertebral collapse at the thoracolumbar junction. Corrective surgery is indicated for severe cases, but no case report using a fresh-frozen femoral head allograft was found in the English literature. Case presentation A 69-year-old Japanese woman with severe LAK with osteoporotic vertebral fractures from T11 to L2 complained of severe back pain and difficulty in walking. The rigid kyphosis measured 74° from T10 to L3. The patient underwent an anterior release and interbody fusion using a fresh-frozen femoral head allograft (T11-L3 and a posterior instrumented fusion (T10-L3. Postoperatively, kyphosis was corrected to 28°, and the patient's symptoms were alleviated. The allograft bone was fully incorporated 1 year postoperatively. A new vertebral fracture at T10 occurred after 2 years, resulting in a slight loss of correction. A kyphosis angle of 35° at 2 years was maintained at 12 years (age, 81 years. She remained free of back pain and able to walk without a cane over the 12-year follow-up. Conclusion For treatment of severe osteoporotic LAK, anterior reconstruction is essential to obtain good spinal alignment and prevent recurrence. A fresh-frozen femoral head allograft, in combination with rigid posterior instrumented fixation, fulfills this function.

  16. Development of laser ruler in rigid laryngoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Ok; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Jin-Choon; Lee, Byung-Joo; Wang, Soo-Geun; Ro, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Gye-Rok; Shin, Bum-Joo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new device that provides a simple, noninvasive method of measuring accurate lesion size while using an endoscope. We developed a rigid laryngoscope with a built-in laser-ruler using a one-light emitting diode and an acrylic plate. The invention incorporates a built-in laser diode that projects an auto-parallel beam into the optical path of the rigid laryngoscope to form two spots in the field of view. While the interspot distance remains consistent despite changes in focal plane, magnification, or viewing angle of the laryngoscope, projection to an uneven surface introduces certain variations in the shape, and size of the spots, and the distance between the two spots. The device enables a laryngologist to easily measure the distance between landmarks, as well as the change in real size, and the progressive change of vocal fold lesions in an outpatient setting.

  17. Financial Constraints and Nominal Price Rigidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menno, Dominik Francesco; Balleer, Almut; Hristov, Nikolay

    This paper investigates how financial market imperfections and the frequency of price adjustment interact. Based on new firm-level evidence for Germany, we document that financially constrained firms adjust prices more often than their unconstrained counterparts, both upwards and downwards. We show...... that these empirical patterns are consistent with a partial equilibrium menu-cost model with a working capital constraint. We then use the model to show how the presence of financial frictions changes profits and the price distribution of firms compared to a model without financial frictions. Our results suggest...... that tighter financial constraints are associated with higher nominal rigidities, higher prices and lower output. Moreover, in response to aggregate shocks, aggregate price rigidity moves substantially, the response of inflation is dampened, while output reacts more in the presence of financial frictions...

  18. Rigid cohomology over Laurent series fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazda, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors develop a new theory of p-adic cohomology for varieties over Laurent series fields in positive characteristic, based on Berthelot's theory of rigid cohomology. Many major fundamental properties of these cohomology groups are proven, such as finite dimensionality and cohomological descent, as well as interpretations in terms of Monsky-Washnitzer cohomology and Le Stum's overconvergent site. Applications of this new theory to arithmetic questions, such as l-independence and the weight monodromy conjecture, are also discussed. The construction of these cohomology groups, analogous to the Galois representations associated to varieties over local fields in mixed characteristic, fills a major gap in the study of arithmetic cohomology theories over function fields. By extending the scope of existing methods, the results presented here also serve as a first step towards a more general theory of p-adic cohomology over non-perfect ground fields. Rigid Cohomology over Laurent Series Fields...

  19. Adaptive Control of Rigid Body Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thawar T. Arif

    2008-01-01

    The minimal controller synthesis (MCS) is an extension of the hyperstable model reference adaptive control algorithm. The aim of minimal controller synthesis is to achieve excellent closed-loop control despite the presence of plant parameter variations, external disturbances, dynamic coupling within the plant and plant nonlinearities. The minimal controller synthesis algorithm was successfully applied to the problem of decentralized adaptive schemes. The decentralized minimal controller synthesis adaptive control strategy for controlling the attitude of a rigid body satellite is adopted in this paper. A model reference adaptive control strategy which uses one single three-axis slew is proposed for the purpose of controlling the attitude of a rigid body satellite. The simulation results are excellent and show that the controlled system is robust against disturbances.

  20. Quantum mechanics of a generalised rigid body

    CERN Document Server

    Gripaios, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We consider the quantum version of Arnold's generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of Type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. As examples, we consider all connected and simply-connected Lie groups up to dimension 3. This includes the universal cover of the archetypical rigid body, along with a number of new exactly-solvable models. We also discuss a possible application to the topical problem of quantising a perfect fluid.

  1. Lectures on formal and rigid geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    A first version of this work appeared in 2005 as a Preprint of the Collaborative Research Center "Geometrical Structures in Mathematics" at the University of Münster. Its aim was to offer a concise and self-contained 'lecture-style' introduction to the theory of classical rigid geometry established by John Tate, together with the formal algebraic geometry approach launched by Michel Raynaud. These Lectures are now viewed commonly as an ideal means of learning advanced rigid geometry, regardless of the reader's level of background. Despite its parsimonious style, the presentation illustrates a number of key facts even more extensively than any other previous work. This Lecture Notes Volume is a revised and slightly expanded version of the original preprint and has been published at the suggestion of several experts in the field.

  2. Clinical effects of using rigid gas permeable contact lens for refractoriness amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore the clinical effects of using rigid gas permeable contact lens(RGPfor refractoriness amblyopia patients. METHODS: Ninety-eight cases(98 eyeswere voluntarily divided into RGP group and frame glasses group, and the two groups were received the regularity combined training to treat amblyopia for 6mo. We overviewed the corrected vision(on that day, 1, 3, 6moand the complication in RGP group. RESULTS: The corrected vision in RGP group was obviously better than that in control group during the same time. The therapeutic efficacy in RGP group was better than that in frame glasses group, without serious complications at 6mo after treatment.CONCLUSION: RGP groups could get better corrected visual acuity. It is safe and effective to improve corrected vision for refractoriness amblyopia patients.

  3. Design of Overlays for Rigid Airport Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Renture, A., and Mindess , S. 1986. "The Effect of Concrete Strength on Crack Patterns," Cement and Concrete Research,_ Vol 16, Pergamon Press Ltd...34 Miscellaneous Paper S-74-30, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss. 22. Harr, M. E. 1977 . Mechanics of Particulate Media...of Civil -. Engineers, New York. 33. Hutchinson, R., and Vedros, P. 1977 . "Performance of Heavy-Load Port- land Cement Concrete (Rigid) Airfield

  4. Criteria for Hull-Machinery Rigidity Compatibility,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    articulated double-reduction gear design permits a * greater variety of arrangements with essentially the same rotating parts by rolling the pinion and...Additional intercostal girders are to be fitted within the double bottom to ensure the satisfactory distribution of the weight and the rigidity of the...and 124 arranged to distribute the loads effectively into the adjacent structure. Extra intercostal girders, effect- ively attached, are to be fitted

  5. Rigidity of contractions on Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Eisner, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    We study the asymptotic behaviour of contractive operators and strongly continuous semigroups on separable Hilbert spaces using the notion of rigidity. In particular, we show that a "typical" contraction $T$ contains the unit circle times the identity operator in the strong limit set of its powers, while $T^{n_j}$ converges weakly to zero along a sequence $\\{n_j\\}$ with density one. The continuous analogue is presented for isometric ang unitary $C_0$-(semi)groups.

  6. Effectiveness of transverse grooves in rigid pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, G. F.; Bryden, J. E.

    1982-10-01

    Transverse grooves were installed at 11 intersection approaches on worn rigid pavement to reduce a high rate of wet road accidents. In most cases, accident reductions were experienced only at intersections with multiple negative operational characteristics, including higher approach speeds, limited sight distances, and frequent vehicle stopping for turns or stop signs. Intersections with no more than one negative characteristic generally did not benefit from grooving.

  7. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazez, Amro; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao; Abdelmotaal, Heba; Sami, Rokayya; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548) were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044) for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at -18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only.

  8. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abdelazez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548 were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044 for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at −18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only.

  9. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  10. Rigid geometry of curves and their Jacobians

    CERN Document Server

    Lütkebohmert, Werner

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some of the most important aspects of rigid geometry, namely its applications to the study of smooth algebraic curves, of their Jacobians, and of abelian varieties - all of them defined over a complete non-archimedean valued field. The text starts with a survey of the foundation of rigid geometry, and then focuses on a detailed treatment of the applications. In the case of curves with split rational reduction there is a complete analogue to the fascinating theory of Riemann surfaces. In the case of proper smooth group varieties the uniformization and the construction of abelian varieties are treated in detail. Rigid geometry was established by John Tate and was enriched by a formal algebraic approach launched by Michel Raynaud. It has proved as a means to illustrate the geometric ideas behind the abstract methods of formal algebraic geometry as used by Mumford and Faltings. This book should be of great use to students wishing to enter this field, as well as those already working in it.

  11. Origin of Rigidity in Dry Granular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sumantra; Bi, Dapeng; Zhang, Jie; Behringer, R. P.; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2013-08-01

    Solids are distinguished from fluids by their ability to resist shear. In traditional solids, the resistance to shear is associated with the emergence of broken translational symmetry as exhibited by a nonuniform density pattern. In this work, we focus on the emergence of shear rigidity in a class of solids where this paradigm is challenged. Dry granular materials have no energetically or entropically preferred density modulations. We show that, in contrast to traditional solids, the emergence of shear rigidity in these granular solids is a collective process, which is controlled solely by boundary forces, the constraints of force and torque balance, and the positivity of the contact forces. We develop a theoretical framework based on these constraints, which connects rigidity to broken translational symmetry in the space of forces, not positions of grains. We apply our theory to experimentally generated shear-jammed states and show that these states are indeed characterized by a persistent, non-uniform density modulation in force space, which emerges at the shear-jamming transition.

  12. Pulling rigid bodies through granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Ryan; Dressaire, Emilie

    2016-11-01

    The need for anchoring systems in granular materials such as sand is present in the marine transportation industry, e.g. to layout moorings, keep vessels and docks fixed in bodies of water, build oil rigs, etc. The holding power of an anchor is associated with the force exerted by the granular media. Empirical evidence indicates that the holding power depends on the size and shape of the anchoring structure. In this model study, we use a two-dimensional geometry in which a rigid body is pulled through a granular media at constant velocity to determine the drag and lift forces exerted by a granular medium on a moving object. The method allows measuring the drag force and recording the trajectory of the rigid object through the sand. We systematically vary the size and geometry of the rigid body, the properties of the granular medium and the extraction speed. For different initial positions of a cylindrical object pulled horizontally through the medium, we record large variations in magnitude of the drag and a significant lift force that pulls the object out of the sand.

  13. DGP cosmology from rigid geodetic brane gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero, Rubén; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2011-01-01

    We explore the cosmological implications provided by an effective geometrical action describing a codimension-one rigid brane embedded in a 5D fixed Minkowski spacetime, i.e., allowing for a term added to the geodetic brane action which depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume. In the geodetic brane gravity action we accommodate the rigidity of the brane through a linear term in the extrinsic curvature swept out by the brane. We study the resulting geodetic type equation of motion. Within a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker framework, we obtain a generalized Friedmann equation describing the associated cosmological evolution which in turn allowed us to illustrate explicitly the linkage between the geodetic brane theory and the rigidity content of this sort of branelike universes. We observe that, when the radiation-like energy contribution from the extra dimension is vanishing, this effective model leads to a self-(non-self)-accelerated expansion of the universe in dependence on the nature of the rigidi...

  14. A new secondary relaxation in the rigid and planar 1-methylindole: Evidence from binary mixture studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Li, Xiangqian; Guo, Yuxing; Wu, Tao; Liu, Ying Dan; Ngai, K. L.; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-12-01

    Found in our recent dielectric study of a planar and rigid glass-former, 1-methylindole (1MID), is an unusual secondary relaxation unrelated in its dynamic properties to the structural α-relaxation. We speculated that it originates from the in-plane motion of the molecules, and the supposedly universal Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation with strong connection to the structural α-relaxation in rigid glass-formers is not resolved [X. Q. Li et al. J. Chem. Phys. 143, 104505 (2015)]. In this work, dielectric measurements are performed in binary mixtures of 1MID with two aromatics of weak polarity, ethylbenzene (EB) and triphenylethylene (TPE), in the highly viscous regimes near glass transition. EB and TPE have smaller and larger molecular sizes and glass transition temperatures Tg than 1MID, respectively. Strikingly, the results show that the resolved secondary relaxations of 1MID in the two mixtures share the same relaxation time and their temperature dependence as pure 1MID, independent of the mode and degree of dilution. The results indicate that the unusual secondary relaxation is not directly coupled with the α-relaxation, and support the in-plane-rotation interpretation of its origin. On the other hand, the supposedly universal and intermolecular JG β-relaxation coming from the out-of-plane motion of the planar molecule has weaker dielectric strength, and it cannot be resolved from the more intense in-plane-rotation secondary relaxation because the dipole moment of 1MID lies on the plane.

  15. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5916 Rigid gas permeable contact lens. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  16. A Cognitive Developmental Model of Rigidity in Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Enright, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    The rigidity construct is reinterpreted in terms of the cognitive developmental approach. A review reveals both cognitive and developmental themes, with an emphasis on the structural and operational properties of rigidity. Notes weaknesses of previous approaches to rigidity and discusses implications and predictions from the proposed model.…

  17. Reprint of: Out-of-equilibrium dynamics in superspin glass state of strongly interacting magnetic nanoparticle assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamae, Sawako, E-mail: Sawako.nakamae@cea.fr

    2014-11-15

    Interacting magnetic nanoparticles display a wide variety of magnetic behaviors ranging from modified superparamagnetism, superspin glass to possibly, superferromagnetism. The superspin glass state is described by its slow and out-of-equilibrium magnetic behaviors akin to those found in atomic spin glasses. In this article, recent experimental findings on superspin correlation length growth and the violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem obtained in concentrated frozen ferrofluids are presented to illustrate certain out-of-equilibrium dynamics behavior in superspin glasses. - Highlights: • Recent experimental findings on superspin glass dynamics in magnetic nanoparticle systems. • Advantages of magnetic nanoparticles for the study of spin glass physics. • Open questions and future directions in superspin glass research.

  18. Differential effect of buffering agents on the crystallization of gemcitabine hydrochloride in frozen solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehulkumar; Munjal, Bhushan; Bansal, Arvind K

    2014-08-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential effect of buffering agents on the crystallization of gemcitabine hydrochloride (GHCl) in frozen solutions. Four buffering agents, viz. citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA), succinic acid (SA) and tartaric acid (TA) were selected and their effect on GHCl crystallization was monitored using standard DSC and low temperature XRD. Onset of GHCl crystallization during heating run in DSC was measured to compare the differential effect of buffering agents. Glass transition temperature (Tg'), unfrozen water content in the freeze concentrate and crystallization propensity of the buffering agents was also determined for mechanistic understanding of the underlying effects. CA and MA inhibited while SA facilitated crystallization of GHCl even at 25 mM concentration. Increasing the concentration enhanced their effect. However, TA inhibited GHCl crystallization at concentrations crystallization could be explained by consideration of two opposing factors: (i) their own crystallization tendency and (ii) unfrozen water content in the freeze concentrate. In conclusion, it was established that API crystallization in frozen solution is affected by the type and concentration of the buffering agents.

  19. Using quartzofeldspathic waste to obtain foamed glass material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Kazmina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a method for the processing of mine refuse non-ferrous metal ore in the production of foamed glass. The subject of this research is a low-temperature frit synthesis (<900 °C, allowing for the high-temperature glass melting process to be avoided. The technology for the production of frit without complete melting of the batch and without using glass-making units offers a considerable reduction in energy consumption and air pollution. It was found that material samples obtained with a density of up to 250 kg/m3 are of rigidity (up to 1.7 MPa in comparison with the conventional foamed glass (1 MPa. This increased rigidity was due to the presence of crystalline phase particles in its interpore partition of less than 2 µm in size. Material with a density of 300 kg/cm3 is recommended for thermal insulation for the industrial and construction sectors. At densities above 300 kg/cm3 and a strength of 2.5 MPa, the purpose becomes heat-insulating construction material. The proposed method for obtaining a porous material from waste widens our choice of raw materials for foamed glass, whilst saving resources and energy.

  20. Frozen delivery of brushite calcium phosphate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Liam M; Hofmann, Michael P; Gbureck, Uwe; Kumarasami, Balamurgan; Barralet, Jake E

    2008-11-01

    Calcium phosphate cements typically harden following the combination of a calcium phosphate powder component with an aqueous solution to form a matrix consisting of hydroxyapatite or brushite. The mixing process can be very important to the mechanical properties exhibited by cement materials and consequently when used clinically, since they are usually hand-mixed their mechanical properties are prone to operator-induced variability. It is possible to reduce this variability by pre-mixing the cement, e.g. by replacing the aqueous liquid component with non-reactive glycerol. Here, for the first time, we report the formation of three different pre-mixed brushite cement formulations formed by freezing the cement pastes following combination of the powder and liquid components. When frozen and stored at -80 degrees C or less, significant degradation in compression strength did not occur for the duration of the study (28 days). Interestingly, in the case of the brushite cement formed from the combination of beta-tricalcium phosphate with 2 M orthophosphoric acid solution, freezing the cement paste had the effect of increasing mean compressive strength fivefold (from 4 to 20 MPa). The increase in compression strength was accompanied by a reduction in the setting rate of the cement. As no differences in porosity or degree of reaction were observed, strength improvement was attributed to a modification of crystal morphology and a reduction in damage caused to the cement matrix during manipulation.

  1. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  2. Perioperative coagulation management--fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Daryl J; Stubbs, James R; Gajic, Ognjen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies support the use of perioperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are actively bleeding with multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and for the prevention of dilutional coagulopathy in patients with major trauma and/or massive haemorrhage. In these settings, current FFP dosing recommendations may be inadequate. However, a substantial proportion of FFP is transfused in non-bleeding patients with mild elevations in coagulation screening tests. This practice is not supported by the literature, is unlikely to be of benefit and unnecessarily exposes patients to the risks of FFP. The role of FFP in reversing the effects of warfarin anticoagulation is dependent on the clinical context and availability of alternative agents. Although FFP is commonly transfused in patients with liver disease, this practice needs broad reconsideration. Adverse effects of FFP include febrile and allergic reactions, transfusion-associated circulatory overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The latter is the most serious complication, being less common with the preferential use of non-alloimmunised, male-donor predominant plasma. FP24 and thawed plasma are alternatives to FFP with similar indications for administration. Both provide an opportunity for increasing the safe plasma donor pool. Although prothrombin complex concentrates and factor VIIa may be used as alternatives to FFP in a variety of specific clinical contexts, additional study is needed.

  3. Storing natural gas as frozen hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, J.S.; Khokhar, A.A. (Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)); Parlaktuna, M. (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey))

    1994-02-01

    The formation of natural gas hydrates is a well-known problem in the petroleum and natural gas industries. Hydrates are solid materials that form when liquid water and natural gas are brought in contact under pressure. Hydrate formation need not be a problem. On the contrary, it can be an advantage. The volume of hydrates is much less than that of natural gas. At standard conditions, hydrates occupy 150 to 170 times less volume than the corresponding gas. Typically, natural gas hydrates contain 15% gas and 85% water by mass. It follows that hydrates can be used for large-scale storage of natural gas. Benesh proposed using hydrates to improve the load factor of natural gas supply systems. The author suggested that hydrates could be produced by bringing liquid water into contact with natural gas at the appropriate temperature and high pressure. The hydrate then would be stored at a temperature and pressure where it was stable. When gas was needed for the supply system, the hydrate would be melted at low pressure. The stability of a natural gas hydrate during storage at atmospheric pressure and below-freezing temperatures was studied in the laboratory. The gas hydrate was produced in a stirred vessel at 2- to 6-MPa pressure and temperatures from 0 to 20 C. The hydrate was refrigerated and stored in deep freezers at [minus]5, [minus]10, and [minus]18 C for up to 10 days. The natural gas hydrate remained stable when kept frozen at atmospheric pressure.

  4. Microstructuring of glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Hülsenberg, Dagmar; Bismarck, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    As microstructured glass becomes increasingly important for microsystems technology, the main application fields include micro-fluidic systems, micro-analysis systems, sensors, micro-actuators and implants. And, because glass has quite distinct properties from silicon, PMMA and metals, applications exist where only glass devices meet the requirements. The main advantages of glass derive from its amorphous nature, the precondition for its - theoretically - direction-independent geometric structurability. Microstructuring of Glasses deals with the amorphous state, various glass compositions and their properties, the interactions between glasses and the electromagnetic waves used to modify it. Also treated in detail are methods for influencing the geometrical microstructure of glasses by mechanical, chemical, thermal, optical, and electrical treatment, and the methods and equipment required to produce actual microdevices.

  5. Infrared Transparent Selenide Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-14

    crystalline halides, silica and fluoride glasses, and chalcogenide glasses. Crystalline halides undergo plastic deformation and are hygroscopic...mainly for applications operating at wavelengths less than 3 microns. Silicate and fluoride glasses have been developed as optical fiber amplifiers...activity. Preferred rare earths includes praseodymium, neodymium, erbium, cerium , dysprosium, holmium, thulium, terbium, ytterbium or mixtures of

  6. Role of frozen section in surgery of benign thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Štupnik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy can very reliably discriminate between benign and malignant thyroid tumors. The role of additional intraoperative frozen section to guide intraoperative management was questioned.Methods: A retrospective analysis of all thyroid resections at our department between 2000 and 2004 was performed.Results: 420 patients with benign thyroid lesions underwent surgical resections. 169 lobectomies and 251 total thyroidectomies were performed and 57 (13.5 % thyroid cancers discovered (mostly papillary carcinomas. 54 frozen sections were performed and sensitivity rate of 11.1 % and specificity rate of 97.8 % was estimated.Conclusions: Our data supports the fact that intraoperative frozen section is not sensitive enough to substantially add to preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy, even with more selective use. We conclude that routine use of frozen section is not cost-effective in surgery of the benign thyroid and can therefore be abandoned.

  7. Effect of frozen period on the chemical, microbiological and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN

    Key words: Frozen period, chemical, microbiological, sensory quality, tilapia fish. ... rate of loss of quality and shelf life of fish (Whittle, 1997). ... Proximate composition (dry weight basis) of Nile Tilapia (Sarotherudun galiaenus) subjected to ...

  8. Evaluating model of frozen soil environment change under engineering actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingbai(吴青柏); ZHU; Yuanlin(朱元林); LIU; Yongzhi(刘永智)

    2002-01-01

    The change of frozen soil environment is evaluated by permafrost thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability and the quantitatively evaluating model of frozen soil environment is proposed in this paper. The evaluating model of frozen soil environment is calculated by 28 ground temperature measurements along Qinghai-Xizang Highway. The relationships of thermal thaw sensibility and freezing and thawing processes and seasonally thawing depth, thermal stability and permafrost table temperature, mean annual ground temperature and seasonally thawing depth, and surface landscape stability and freezing and thawing hazards and their forming possibility are analyzed. The results show that thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability can be used to evaluate and predict the change of frozen soil environment under human engineering action.

  9. A frozen spin polarized target for S134

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The CERN-ETH, Zurich-Helsinki-Imperial College-Southampton Collaboration used a frozen spin polarized target together with the ETH spectrometer magnet to study spin effects (S134). Beam was d31 in South Hall

  10. Exploring the outcomes in studies of primary frozen shoulder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, Sara; Brealey, Stephen; Jefferson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: In our study we explored the need to define a core outcome set for primary frozen shoulder. METHODS: We investigated the outcomes used by studies included in a systematic review of the management of primary frozen shoulder; surveyed which primary outcome measures health care professionals...... considered important; and re-examined papers previously obtained for a systematic review of patients' views of interventions for frozen shoulder to investigate their views on outcomes. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies investigated the outcomes range of movement (28 studies), pain (22), function and disability (22...... in modification of activities) and the emotional impact of frozen shoulder. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a diverse range of outcomes that have been used or are considered to be important. The development of a core outcome set would improve the design and reporting of studies and availability of data for evidence...

  11. Processing metallic glasses by selective laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Pauly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic glasses and their descendants, the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs, can be regarded as frozen liquids with a high resistance to crystallization. The lack of a conventional structure turns them into a material exhibiting near-theoretical strength, low Young's modulus and large elasticity. These unique mechanical properties can be only obtained when the metallic melts are rapidly cooled to bypass the nucleation and growth of crystals. Most of the commonly known and used processing routes, such as casting, melt spinning or gas atomization, have intrinsic limitations regarding the complexity and dimensions of the geometries. Here, it is shown that selective laser melting (SLM, which is usually used to process conventional metallic alloys and polymers, can be applied to implement complex geometries and components from an Fe-base metallic glass. This approach is in principle viable for a large variety of metallic alloys and paves the way for the novel synthesis of materials and the development of parts with advanced functional and structural properties without limitations in size and intricacy.

  12. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid

  13. Antiplane SH-deformations near a surface rigid foundation above a subsurface rigid circular tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The problem on the dynamic response of a rigid embedded foundation in the presence of an underground rigidtunnel and subjected to excitation of incident anti-plane SH waves is analyzed. By using the exact analytical solution for thetwo-dimensional SH-wave propagation in and around both the surface rigid foundation and subsurface rigid tunnel, thoseaspects of the resulting ground motions that are of special interest and importance for seismic resistant design in earthquakeanalyses have been examined. The computed amplitudes of the resulting periodic ground motions display a very complicatedwave-interference between the surface foundation and underground tunnel that lead to observed standing wave patterns,together with abrupt changes in the wave amplitudes and large amplification of the incident motions.

  14. Rigid-only versus combined rigid and flexible percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cracco, Cecilia M; knoll, thomas; Liatsikos, Evangelos N

    2017-01-01

    . Appraisal of reliable outcomes of such PNL techniques would better guide intraoperative choices and optimize surgical results. Therefore our objective was to systematically review relevant literature comparing the outcomes of rigid-only PNL and combined flexible PNLs (adding flexible nephroscopy and......INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is usually performed worldwide with a rigid-only antegrade approach. Daily practice suggests that adding flexible nephroscopy and/or ureteroscopy to conventional rigid PNL might improve its efficacy and safety, but available evidence is weak....../or flexible ureteroscopy) for the treatment of large and/or complex upper urinary tract calculi, with regard to efficacy and safety. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Ovid MedLine (R), PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched in August 2016 to identify relevant studies. Article selection was performed...

  15. Revealing the mechanisms and significance of frozen soil infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähli, Manfred; Hayashi, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    Frozen soil is one of the most characteristic features of Nordic hydrology. Depending on climate, snow cover and soil properties it can slow down or even inhibit the water's journey from the soil surface to the stream, or it can speed up the journey by generating overland flow. When Harald Grip's and Allan Rhode's book came out in the mid-eighties, state-of-the-art knowledge on frozen soil hydrology was based on numerous cold-chamber experiments and only few field measurements, especially from Alaska. It was already then recognized that frozen soil is not impermeable per se, but its permeability depends on the amount and connectivity of air-filled pores, which in turn depends on ice content. How has our understanding of frozen soil hydrology further developed since then? One important innovation was the application of dye tracers to frozen field plots and soil columns uncovering the flow paths of infiltrating water. A second crucial advance was the development of numerical models to calculate water transfer from the snow cover into soil profiles. These models made researchers aware of the high sensitivity of frozen soil infiltration to boundary conditions (e.g. depth to groundwater) and winter history (e.g. evolution of snow cover, number of mid-winter melt events). A further important insight was that local effects of frozen ground on water flow may vanish at the scale of catchments due to the highly variable topography, vegetation and soil of a landscape. Nevertheless, studies showing the impact of frozen soil on large scale ground-water recharge or stream runoff are still scarce. A recent analysis of long-term runoff data from Switzerland sheds new light on the response of small catchments to frozen ground. Finally, it can be concluded that the Nordic lessons on frozen soil hydrology have been noted by the worldwide research community and are receiving increased attention in the context of climate change and its impacts on seasonally and permanently frozen soil.

  16. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  17. Preparation of slides for microscopy from frozen tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Freezing tissue is a convenient method for long-term storage. In addition, sectioning tissue under frozen conditions or embedded within a frozen matrix allows for stabilization of tissue during the sectioning process. This is advantageous for small and/or delicate tissue (e.g., rodent brains younger than postnatal day 7) and tissue that will be sectioned very thin (usually <150 μm).

  18. A retrospective study of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yong Soo; Ryu, Eun Kyung; Song, Seung Hyun; Yoon, San Hyun; Lim, Kyung Sil; Lee, Won Don; Lim, Jin Ho

    2016-06-01

    To study the clinical outcomes of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles according to the hatching status of frozen-thawed blastocysts. Frozen-thawed blastocysts were divided into three groups according to their hatching status as follows: less-than-expanded blastocyst (≤EdB), hatching blastocyst (HgB), and hatched blastocyst (HdB). The female age and infertility factors of each group were evaluated. The quality of the single frozen-thawed blastocyst was also graded as grade A, tightly packed inner cell mass (ICM) and many cells organized in the trophectoderm epithelium (TE); grade B, several and loose ICM and TE; and grade C, very few ICM and a few cells in the TE. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were compared between each group. The data were analyzed by either t-test or chi-square analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in average female ages, infertility factors, or the distribution of blastocyst grades A, B, and C in each group. There was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate of each group according to their blastocyst grade. However, there was a significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate between each group. In the HdB group, the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were similar regardless of the blastocyst quality. There was an effect on the clinical outcomes depending on whether the blastocyst hatched during single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer. When performing single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, the hatching status of the frozen-thawed blastocyst may be a more important parameter for clinical outcomes than the quality of the frozen-thawed blastocyst.

  19. Research Progress on Technique of Frozen Embryo Transfer in Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Qiu-sheng; HU Jian-ye; LOU Peng-yan; TAO Jing; XIE Zhao-hui

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the research progress on the technique of frozen embryo transfer in sheep, illustrated selection of donors and receptors, superovulation, synchronization of estrus, embryo cryopreservation and embryo transplantation. Frozen embryo transfer in sheep is another breakthrough in the high-quality sheep raising, and this technique in China is in its infancy recommendation stage, but it will be comprehensively popularized in the future.

  20. Brownian dynamics of confined rigid bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delong, Steven; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Donev, Aleksandar, E-mail: donev@courant.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    We introduce numerical methods for simulating the diffusive motion of rigid bodies of arbitrary shape immersed in a viscous fluid. We parameterize the orientation of the bodies using normalized quaternions, which are numerically robust, space efficient, and easy to accumulate. We construct a system of overdamped Langevin equations in the quaternion representation that accounts for hydrodynamic effects, preserves the unit-norm constraint on the quaternion, and is time reversible with respect to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution at equilibrium. We introduce two schemes for temporal integration of the overdamped Langevin equations of motion, one based on the Fixman midpoint method and the other based on a random finite difference approach, both of which ensure that the correct stochastic drift term is captured in a computationally efficient way. We study several examples of rigid colloidal particles diffusing near a no-slip boundary and demonstrate the importance of the choice of tracking point on the measured translational mean square displacement (MSD). We examine the average short-time as well as the long-time quasi-two-dimensional diffusion coefficient of a rigid particle sedimented near a bottom wall due to gravity. For several particle shapes, we find a choice of tracking point that makes the MSD essentially linear with time, allowing us to estimate the long-time diffusion coefficient efficiently using a Monte Carlo method. However, in general, such a special choice of tracking point does not exist, and numerical techniques for simulating long trajectories, such as the ones we introduce here, are necessary to study diffusion on long time scales.

  1. Structures and physical properties of rigid polyurethane foams with water as the sole blowing agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiaobin; CAO; Hongbin

    2006-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams blown by varying water level were prepared in this study. The structures and physical properties of rigid polyurethane foams blown by water were measured with FT-IR, universal testing machine (Instron3365), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results show that polyurea and polybiuret were the typical characteristics, and the cream time and gel time were shorter for the fully water blown rigid foams than that for the fully cyclopentane blown foams. The density of foam samples decreased from 45.0 kg/m3 to 27.4 kg/m3 with the increase of water level from 3 pph to 7 pph. Compressive strength exhibited the similar behavior with density. The average cell size of foam samples ranged from 241цm to 356цm with the increase of water level from 3 pph to 7 pph, respectively. At the same time, poorer dimensional stability was encountered with the increase of average cell size due to fast diffusion rate of CO2 out of the foam. The results of thermal analysis show that the glass transition temperature (Tg) shifted to a higher temperature with the increase of isocyanate level when more water was used as chemical blowing agent.

  2. Evidence for indications of fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanworth, S J; Hyde, C J; Murphy, M F

    2007-12-01

    There continues to be a general but unfounded enthusiasm for fresh frozen plasma (FFP) usage across a range of clinical specialties in hospital practice. Clinical use of plasma has grown steadily over the last two decades in many countries. In England and Wales, there has not been a significant reduction in the use of FFP over the last few years, unlike red cells. There is also evidence of variation in usage among countries--use in England and Wales may be proportionately less per patient than current levels of usage in other European countries and the United States. Plasma for transfusion is most often used where there is abnormal coagulation screening tests, either therapeutically in the face of bleeding, or prophylactically in non-bleeding subjects prior to invasive procedures or surgery. Little evidence exists to inform best therapeutic plasma transfusion practice. Most studies have described plasma use in a prophylactic setting, in which laboratory abnormalities of coagulation tests are considered a predictive risk factor for bleeding prior to invasive procedures. The strongest randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence indicates that prophylactic plasma for transfusion is not effective across a range of different clinical settings and this is supported by data from non-randomised studies in patients with mild to moderate abnormalities in coagulation tests. There are also uncertainties whether plasma consistently improves the laboratory results for patients with mild to moderate abnormalities in coagulation tests. There is a need to undertake new trials evaluating the efficacy and adverse effects of plasma, both in bleeding and non-bleeding patients, to understand whether the "presumed" benefits outweigh the "real risks". In addition, new haemostatic tests should be validated which better define risk of bleeding.

  3. Characterization of low density rigid urethane foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, F.N.

    1978-10-01

    The chemical and mechanical properties of a low density, rigid polyurethane foam material taken from a Joint Test Assembly (JTA) after 13 years of storage were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the composition to be Bendix Rigifoam 6003-1.5, a pentaerythritol/epsilon-caprolactone/tolyene diisocyanate polyurethane foam. Comparison of data from testing thermal and mechanical characteristics with data from a currently manufactured foam of identical composition indicates no degradation of properties had occurred. This information gives added confidence to the stockpile lifetime integrity of the Rigifoam 6003-2 foam system designated for use in other programs.

  4. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  5. Rigid Body Mechanics Mathematics, Physics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Heard, William B

    2005-01-01

    This textbook is a modern, concise and focused treatment of the mathematical techniques, physical theories and applications of rigid body mechanics, bridging the gap between the geometric and more classical approaches to the topic. It emphasizes the fundamentals of the subject, stresses the importance of notation, integrates the modern geometric view of mechanics and offers a wide variety of examples -- ranging from molecular dynamics to mechanics of robots and planetary rotational dynamics. The author has unified his presentation such that applied mathematicians, mechanical and astro-aerodyna

  6. Diffraction of sound by nearly rigid barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, W. J., Jr.; Pierce, A. D.

    1976-01-01

    The diffraction of sound by barriers with surfaces of large, but finite, acoustic impedance was analyzed. Idealized source-barrier-receiver configurations in which the barriers may be considered as semi-infinite wedges are discussed. Particular attention is given to situations in which the source and receiver are at large distances from the tip of the wedge. The expression for the acoustic pressure in this limiting case is compared with the results of Pierce's analysis of diffraction by a rigid wedge. An expression for the insertion loss of a finite impedance barrier is compared with insertion loss formulas which are used extensively in selecting or designing barriers for noise control.

  7. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  8. Effect of temperature and glassy states on the molecular mobility of solutes in frozen tuna muscle as studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy with spin probe detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlien, Vibeke; Andersen, Mogens L; Jouhtimäki, Saara; Risbo, Jens; Skibsted, Leif H

    2004-04-21

    The mobility of solutes in frozen food systems (tuna muscle, sarcoplasmic protein fraction of tuna muscle, and carbohydrate-water) has been studied using the temperature dependence of the shape of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of the spin probe 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL). The spin probe was incorporated into the tuna meat from an aqueous solution of TEMPOL or by contact with a layer of TEMPOL crystals. The melting/freezing of freeze-concentrated solutes in frozen tuna meat was observed to take place over a range of temperatures from -25 to -10 degrees C. Lower temperatures gave ESR powder spectra due to the decreased mobility of the spin probe, and the temperature dependence of the mobility of the spin probe did not show abrupt changes at the glass transition temperatures of the systems. The mobility of nonglass forming solutes is concluded to be decoupled from the glass forming components. Similar behavior was also observed for TEMPOL in frozen, aqueous carbohydrate systems. The temperature dependence of the mobility of TEMPOL in the frozen systems was analyzed using the Arrhenius equation, and the logarithm of the Arrhenius preexponential factor tau(a) was found to be linearly correlated with the activation energy for all of the tuna and carbohydrate samples, indicating a common molecular mechanism for the observed mobility of TEMPOL in all of the systems. The linear correlation also suggests that the observed mobility of TEMPOL in the frozen aqueous systems is dominated by enthalpy-entropy compensation effects, where the mobility of TEMPOL is thermodynamically strongly coupled to the closest surrounding molecules.

  9. 78 FR 15686 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Transport), Grobest Frozen Foods Co. (Grobest), Ltd., Lucky Union Foods Co., Ltd. (Lucky Union), Namprick..., the Department received no shipment certifications from two additional companies, C Y Frozen Food Co., Ltd. (C Y Frozen Food) and Kosamut Frozen Foods Co., Ltd. (Kosamut). We preliminarily find that...

  10. 76 FR 31575 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... from American Frozen Food Institute (AFFI), requesting the development of new standards for frozen... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Onions AGENCY: Agricultural... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Onions. USDA has received additional industry comments...

  11. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  12. Multiple Glass Ceilings

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Giovanni; Hassink, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Both vertical (between job levels) and horizontal (within job levels) mobility can be sources of wage growth. We find that the glass ceiling operates at both margins. The unexplained part of the wage gap grows across job levels (glass ceiling at the vertical margin) and across the deciles of the intra-job-level wage distribution (glass ceiling at the horizontal margin). This implies that women face many glass ceilings, one for each job level above the second, and that the glass ceiling is a p...

  13. Public policies targeting labour market rigidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.

  14. Understanding rigid body motion in arbitrary dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Leyvraz, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Why would anyone wish to generalize the already unappetizing subject of rigid body motion to an arbitrary number of dimensions? At first sight, the subject seems to be both repellent and superfluous. The author will try to argue that an approach involving no specifically three-dimensional constructs is actually easier to grasp than the traditional one and might thus be generally useful to understand rigid body motion both in three dimensions and in the general case. Specific differences between the viewpoint suggested here and the usual one include the following: here angular velocities are systematically treated as antisymmetric matrices, a symmetric tensor $I$ quite different from the moment of inertia tensor plays a central role, whereas the latter is shown to be a far more complex object, namely a tensor of rank four. A straightforward way to define it is given. The Euler equation is derived and the use of Noether's theorem to obtain conserved quantities is illustrated. Finally the equation of motion for ...

  15. Magnetic Control of Rigid Achiral Microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, U.; Meshkati, Farshad; Fu, Henry; Kim, Minjun

    2013-11-01

    We report control of rigid achiral microswimmers in low Reynolds number environments. A rotating magnetic field was used to actuate the microswimmers wirelessly by rotating the microswimmers, which produces propulsion. Previous magnetically actuated microswimmers in bulk fluids have been designed with either flexibility or chiral geometry; we show that simpler geometries with neither flexibility nor chirality can produce propulsion. The microswimmer consists of three magnetic beads conjugated using avidin-biotin linkages into an arc formation. We designed a magnetic field generator consisting of electromagnetic coils arranged in an approximate Helmholtz configuration. A highspeed camera provided realtime imaging of the microswimmers' motion in a PDMS chamber. The rigidity of the microswimmer was characterized by tracking the position of the individual beads and calculating their relative distances. As a function of field strength and rotation frequency, we observed changes in the rotational axis of the microswimmers and the corresponding effects on their velocities. The achiral microswimmers exhibited active propulsion and were controllable in both speed and direction, which demonstrates the possibility for future biomedical applications such as drug delivery.

  16. Shear-induced rigidity in athermal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Bulbul; Sarkar, Sumantra

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, we present a minimal model of rigidity and plastic failure in solids whose rigidity emerges directly as a result of applied stresses. Examples include shear-jamming (SJ) in dry grains and discontinuous shear thickening (DST) of dense non-Brownian suspensions. Both SJ and DST states are examples of non-equilibrium, self-assembled structures that have evolved to support the load that created them. These are strongly-interacting systems where the interactions arise primarily from the strict constraints of force and torque balance at the local and global scales. Our model is based on a reciprocal-space picture that strictly enforces the local and global constraints, and is, therefore, best suited to capturing the strong correlations in these non-equilibrium systems. The reciprocal space is a tiling whose edges represent contact forces, and whose faces represent grains. A separation of scale between force fluctuations and displacements of grains is used to represent the positional disorder as quenched randomness on variables in the reciprocal space. Comparing theoretical results to experiments, we will argue that the packing fraction controls the strength of the quenched disorder. Sumantra Sarkar et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 068301 (2013)

  17. Optimized imaging using non-rigid registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkels, Benjamin, E-mail: berkels@aices.rwth-aachen.de [Interdisciplinary Mathematics Institute, 1523 Greene Street, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Binev, Peter, E-mail: binev@math.sc.edu [Interdisciplinary Mathematics Institute, 1523 Greene Street, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Department of Mathematics, 1523 Greene Street, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Blom, Douglas A., E-mail: doug.blom@sc.edu [NanoCenter, 1212 Greene Street, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Dahmen, Wolfgang, E-mail: dahmen@igpm.rwth-aachen.de [Interdisciplinary Mathematics Institute, 1523 Greene Street, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Institut für Geometrie und Praktische Mathematik, RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Sharpley, Robert C., E-mail: rcsharpley@gmail.com [Interdisciplinary Mathematics Institute, 1523 Greene Street, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Department of Mathematics, 1523 Greene Street, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Vogt, Thomas, E-mail: tvogt@mailbox.sc.edu [Interdisciplinary Mathematics Institute, 1523 Greene Street, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); NanoCenter, 1212 Greene Street, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 631 Sumter Street, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The extraordinary improvements of modern imaging devices offer access to data with unprecedented information content. However, widely used image processing methodologies fall far short of exploiting the full breadth of information offered by numerous types of scanning probe, optical, and electron microscopies. In many applications, it is necessary to keep measurement intensities below a desired threshold. We propose a methodology for extracting an increased level of information by processing a series of data sets suffering, in particular, from high degree of spatial uncertainty caused by complex multiscale motion during the acquisition process. An important role is played by a non-rigid pixel-wise registration method that can cope with low signal-to-noise ratios. This is accompanied by formulating objective quality measures which replace human intervention and visual inspection in the processing chain. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of siliceous zeolite material exhibits the above-mentioned obstructions and therefore serves as orientation and a test of our procedures. - Highlights: • Developed a new process for extracting more information from a series of STEM images. • An objective non-rigid registration process copes with distortions. • Images of zeolite Y show retrieval of all information available from the data set. • Quantitative measures of registration quality were implemented. • Applicable to any serially acquired data, e.g. STM, AFM, STXM, etc.

  18. Parkinson's disease rigidity: relation to brain connectivity and motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin eBaradaran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1 To determine the brain connectivity pattern associated with clinical rigidity scores in Parkinson's disease (PD and 2 to determine the relation between clinically-assessed rigidity and quantitative metrics of motor performance.Background: Rigidity, the resistance to passive movement, is exacerbated in PD by asking the subject to move the contralateral limb, implying that rigidity involves a distributed brain network. Rigidity mainly affects subjects when they attempt to move; yet the relation between clinical rigidity scores and quantitative aspects of motor performance are unknown.Methods: Ten clinically diagnosed PD patients (off medication and ten controls were recruited to perform an fMRI squeeze-bulb tracking task that included both visually guided and internally guided features. The direct functional connectivity between anatomically defined regions of interest was assessed with Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs. Tracking performance was assessed by fitting Linear Dynamical System (LDS models to the motor performance, and was compared to the clinical rigidity scores. A cross-validated Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO regression method was used to determine the brain connectivity network that best predicted clinical rigidity scores.Results: The damping ratio of the LDS models significantly correlated with clinical rigidity scores (p < 10-4. An fMRI connectivity network in subcortical and primary and premotor cortical regions accurately predicted clinical rigidity scores (p < 10-5. Conclusions: A widely distributed cortical/subcortical network is associated with rigidity observed in PD patients, which reinforces the importance of altered functional connectivity in the pathophysiology of PD. PD subjects with higher rigidity scores tend to have less overshoot in their tracking performance, and damping ratio may represent a robust, quantitative marker of the motoric effects of increasing rigidity.

  19. Glass and glass-ceramic photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Lidia; Thi Ngoc Tran, Lam; Meneghetti, Marcello; Varas, Stefano; Armellini, Cristina; Ristic, Davor; Chiasera, Alessandro; Scotognella, Francesco; Pelli, Stefano; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Boulard, Brigitte; Zonta, Daniele; Dorosz, Dominik; Lukowiak, Anna; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ramponi, Roberta; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    The development of optically confined structure is a major topic in both basic and applied physics not solely ICT oriented but also concerning lighting, laser, sensing, energy, environment, biological and medical sciences, and quantum optics. Glasses and glass-ceramics activated by rare earth ions are the bricks of such structures. Glass-ceramics are nanocomposite systems that exhibit specific morphologic, structural and spectroscopic properties allowing developing new physical concepts, for instance the mechanism related to the transparency, as well as novel photonic devices based on the enhancement of the luminescence. The dependence of the final product on the specific parent glass and on the fabrication protocol still remain an important task of the research in material science. Looking to application, the enhanced spectroscopic properties typical of glass ceramic in respect to those of the amorphous structures constitute an important point for the development of integrated optics devices, including optical amplifiers, monolithic waveguide laser, novel sensors, coating of spherical microresonators, and up and down converters. This paper presents some results obtained by our consortium regarding glass-based photonics systems. We will comment the energy transfer mechanism in transparent glass ceramics taking as examples the up and down conversion systems and the role of SnO2 nanocrystals as sensitizers. Coating of spherical resonators by glass ceramics, 1D-Photonic Crystals for luminescence enhancement, laser action and disordered 1-D photonic structures will be also discussed. Finally, RF-Sputtered rare earth doped P2O5- SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-Er2O3 planar waveguides, will be presented.

  20. Soil Microbial Mineralization of Cellulose in Frozen Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J.; Haei, M.; Sparrman, T.; Nilsson, M. B.; Schleucher, J.; Oquist, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon pool. In boreal forests, the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter by soil heterotrophic activity can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances depend on whether soil microorganisms can utilize the more complex, polymeric substrates in SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.524 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.008 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. Thus, freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming microbial growth also in the frozen soil matrix. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero. This also involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of soils of high-latitude ecosystems.

  1. Freeze-drying of proteins with glass-forming oligosaccharide-derived sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Saori; Fujii, Kahori; Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide; Yomota, Chikako; Kawanishi, Toru

    2010-04-15

    Physical properties and protein-stabilizing effects of sugar alcohols in frozen aqueous solutions and freeze-dried solids were studied. Various frozen sugar alcohol solutions showed a glass transition of the maximally freeze-concentrated phase at temperatures (T(g)'s) that depended largely on the solute molecular weights. Some oligosaccharide-derived sugar alcohols (e.g., maltitol, lactitol, maltotriitol) formed glass-state amorphous cake-structure freeze-dried solids. Microscopic observation of frozen maltitol and lactitol solutions under vacuum (FDM) indicated onset of physical collapse at temperatures (T(c)) several degrees higher than their T(g)'s. Freeze-drying of pentitols (e.g., xylitol) and hexitols (e.g., sorbitol, mannitol) resulted in collapsed or crystallized solids. The glass-forming sugar alcohols prevented activity loss of a model protein (LDH: lactate dehydrogenase) during freeze-drying and subsequent storage at 50 degrees C. They also protected bovine serum albumin (BSA) from lyophilization-induced secondary structure perturbation. The glass-forming sugar alcohols showed lower susceptibility to Maillard reaction with co-lyophilized L-lysine compared to reducing and non-reducing disaccharides during storage at elevated temperature. Application of the oligosaccharide-derived sugar alcohols as alternative stabilizers in lyophilized protein formulations was discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquid Glass: A Facile Soft Replication Method for Structuring Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Frederik; Plewa, Klaus; Bauer, Werner; Schneider, Norbert; Keller, Nico; Nargang, Tobias; Helmer, Dorothea; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Schäfer, Michael; Worgull, Matthias; Greiner, Christian; Richter, Christiane; Rapp, Bastian E

    2016-06-01

    Liquid glass is a photocurable amorphous silica nanocomposite that can be structured using soft replication molds and turned into glass via thermal debinding and sintering. Simple polymer bonding techniques allow the fabrication of complex microsystems in glass like microfluidic chips. Liquid glass is a step toward prototyping of glass microstructures at low cost without requiring cleanroom facilities or hazardous chemicals.

  3. Weak rigidity in almost-thermodynamic material schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Olmo, V.; Olivert, J.

    1985-06-01

    To avoid the restrictions that the Born rigidity supposes for the motions in relativity, the definition of a weakly rigid almost-thermodynamic material scheme is proposed. From it the relativistic incompressibility condition given by Ferrando and Olivert is obtained. Moreover, it is proved that, for the weakly rigid irrotational and geodesic almost-thermodynamic material schemes, the scalar curvature of the Landau manifolds is constant along the streamlines.

  4. Regulation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Tissue Rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    alignment by second harmonic generation imaging (SHG) and used it as a surrogate marker for tissue rigidity. In agreement with previous publications6–8,44,45...AD ____________ __ Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0133 TITLE: Regulation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Tissue Rigidity PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Adam J...CONTRACT NUMBER Regulation of Breast Cancer Stem Cell by Tissue Rigidity W81XWH-13-1-0133 Sb. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  5. Dual Quaternion Variational Integrator for Rigid Body Dynamic Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    XU, JIAFENG; Halse, Karl Henning

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a symplectic dual quaternion variational integrator(DQVI) for simulating single rigid body motion in all six degrees of freedom. Dual quaternion is used to represent rigid body kinematics and one-step Lie group variational integrator is used to conserve the geometric structure, energy and momentum of the system during the simulation. The combination of these two becomes the first Lie group variational integrator for rigid body simulation without decoupling translations and rotati...

  6. Rigid curves on $\\bar M_{0,n}$ and arithmetic breaks

    CERN Document Server

    Castravet, Ana-Maria

    2011-01-01

    A result of Keel and McKernan states that a hypothetical counterexample to the F-conjecture must come from rigid curves on $\\bar {M}_{0,n}$ that intersect the interior. We exhibit several ways of constructing rigid curves. In all our examples, a reduction mod p argument shows that the classes of the rigid curves that we construct can be decomposed as sums of F-curves.

  7. Use of Hydrocolloids as Cryoprotectant for Frozen Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Tanushree; Saxena, Alok

    2016-05-12

    Freezing is one of the widely used preservation methods to preserve the quality of food products but it also results in deteriorative changes in textural properties of food which in turn affects its marketability. Different foodstuffs undergo different types of changes in texture, taste and overall acceptability upon freezing and subsequent frozen storage. Freezing and thawing of pre-cut or whole fruits and vegetables causes many deleterious effects including texture and drip losses. The major problem in stability of ice-cream is re-crystallization phenomena which happens due to temperature fluctuations during storage and finally impairs the quality of ice-cream. Frozen storage for longer periods causes rubbery texture in meat and fish products. To overcome these problems, hydrocolloids which are polysaccharides of high molecular weight, are used in numerous food applications involving gelling, thickening, stabilizing, emulsifying etc. They could improve the rheological and textural characteristics of food systems by changing the viscosity. They play a major role in retaining texture of fruits and vegetables after freezing. They provide thermodynamic stability to ice cream to control the process of re-crystallization. Hydrocolloids find application in frozen surimi, minced fish and meat products due to their water binding ability. They are also added to frozen bakery products to improve shelf-stability by retaining sufficient moisture and retarding staling. Various hydrocolloids impart different cryoprotective effects to food products depending upon their solubility, water holding capacity, rheological properties, and synergistic effect with other ingredients during freezing and frozen storage.

  8. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    The use of glass as a load carrying material in structural elements is rarely seen even though glass is a popular material for many architects. This is owed to the unreliable and low tensile strength, which is due to surface flaws and high brittleness of the material. These properties lead...... to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  9. Radiation effects in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrt, D.; Vogel, W. (Otto-Schott-Inst., Chemische Fakultaet, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena (Germany))

    1992-03-01

    Glass was produced by man about 4000 years ago. The scientific exploration of glass is very young and closely connected with Jena. Fraunhofer, Goethe, Dobereiner, Abbe, Zeiss and Schott are famous names on this field. Both crystals and glasses are solids. However, there are fundamental differences in their properties and behavior. Glass is a thermodynamically unstable state and has a defect structure compared to the crystal. Glass and its properties are subject to a variety of changes under the influence of high energy radiation. In general, effects extend from the reduction of specific ions to the collapse of the entire network. Ultraviolet and X-ray radiation effects on UV-transmitting glasses will be discussed. (orig.).

  10. Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf;

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...... the dimension and the intensity is used to quantify and rank the homogeneity of glass products. Compared with the refractive index method, the image processing method has a wider detection range and a lower statistical uncertainty....

  11. Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...... the dimension and the intensity is used to quantify and rank the homogeneity of glass products. Compared with the refractive index method, the image processing method has a wider detection range and a lower statistical uncertainty....

  12. Discrete Time Crystals: Rigidity, Criticality, and Realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, N. Y.; Potter, A. C.; Potirniche, I.-D.; Vishwanath, A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being forbidden in equilibrium, spontaneous breaking of time translation symmetry can occur in periodically driven, Floquet systems with discrete time-translation symmetry. The period of the resulting discrete time crystal is quantized to an integer multiple of the drive period, arising from a combination of collective synchronization and many body localization. Here, we consider a simple model for a one-dimensional discrete time crystal which explicitly reveals the rigidity of the emergent oscillations as the drive is varied. We numerically map out its phase diagram and compute the properties of the dynamical phase transition where the time crystal melts into a trivial Floquet insulator. Moreover, we demonstrate that the model can be realized with current experimental technologies and propose a blueprint based upon a one dimensional chain of trapped ions. Using experimental parameters (featuring long-range interactions), we identify the phase boundaries of the ion-time-crystal and propose a measurable signature of the symmetry breaking phase transition.

  13. Modeling Decomposition of Unconfined Rigid Polyurethane Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOBBS,MICHAEL L.; ERICKSON,KENNETH L.; CHU,TZE YAO

    1999-11-08

    The decomposition of unconfined rigid polyurethane foam has been modeled by a kinetic bond-breaking scheme describing degradation of a primary polymer and formation of a thermally stable secondary polymer. The bond-breaking scheme is resolved using percolation theory to describe evolving polymer fragments. The polymer fragments vaporize according to individual vapor pressures. Kinetic parameters for the model were obtained from Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The chemical structure of the foam was determined from the preparation techniques and ingredients used to synthesize the foam. Scale-up effects were investigated by simulating the response of an incident heat flux of 25 W/cm{sup 2} on a partially confined 8.8-cm diameter by 15-cm long right circular cylinder of foam that contained an encapsulated component. Predictions of center, midradial, and component temperatures, as well as regression of the foam surface, were in agreement with measurements using thermocouples and X-ray imaging.

  14. Modeling Decomposition of Unconfined Rigid Polyurethane Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHU,TZE YAO; ERICKSON,KENNETH L.; HOBBS,MICHAEL L.

    1999-11-01

    The decomposition of unconfined rigid polyurethane foam has been modeled by a kinetic bond-breaking scheme describing degradation of a primary polymer and formation of a thermally stable secondary polymer. The bond-breaking scheme is resolved using percolation theory to describe evolving polymer fragments. The polymer fragments vaporize according to individual vapor pressures. Kinetic parameters for the model were obtained from Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The chemical structure of the foam was determined from the preparation techniques and ingredients used to synthesize the foam. Scale-up effects were investigated by simulating the response of an incident heat flux of 25 W/cm{sup 2} on a partially confined 8.8-cm diameter by 15-cm long right circular cylinder of foam which contained an encapsulated component. Predictions of center, midradial, and component temperatures, as well as regression of the foam surface, were in agreement with measurements using thermocouples and X-ray imaging.

  15. Discrete Time Crystals: Rigidity, Criticality, and Realizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, N Y; Potter, A C; Potirniche, I-D; Vishwanath, A

    2017-01-20

    Despite being forbidden in equilibrium, spontaneous breaking of time translation symmetry can occur in periodically driven, Floquet systems with discrete time-translation symmetry. The period of the resulting discrete time crystal is quantized to an integer multiple of the drive period, arising from a combination of collective synchronization and many body localization. Here, we consider a simple model for a one-dimensional discrete time crystal which explicitly reveals the rigidity of the emergent oscillations as the drive is varied. We numerically map out its phase diagram and compute the properties of the dynamical phase transition where the time crystal melts into a trivial Floquet insulator. Moreover, we demonstrate that the model can be realized with current experimental technologies and propose a blueprint based upon a one dimensional chain of trapped ions. Using experimental parameters (featuring long-range interactions), we identify the phase boundaries of the ion-time-crystal and propose a measurable signature of the symmetry breaking phase transition.

  16. Rigidity of marginally outer trapped 2-spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    In a matter-filled spacetime, perhaps with positive cosmological constant, a stable marginally outer trapped 2-sphere must satisfy a certain area inequality. Namely, as discussed in the paper, its area must be bounded above by $4\\pi/c$, where $c > 0$ is a lower bound on a natural energy-momentum term. We then consider the rigidity that results for stable, or weakly outermost, marginally outer trapped 2-spheres that achieve this upper bound on the area. In particular, we prove a splitting result for 3-dimensional initial data sets analogous to a result of Bray, Brendle and Neves [10] concerning area minimizing 2-spheres in Riemannian 3-manifolds with positive scalar curvature. We further show that these initial data sets locally embed as spacelike hypersurfaces into the Nariai spacetime. Connections to the Vaidya spacetime and dynamical horizons are also discussed.

  17. Foam inflated rigidized structures for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D. M.; Warner, M. J.; Blair, M.

    1993-11-01

    Large lightweight stowable structures that can be deployed in space without astronaut extra vehicular activity are vital to expanding space exploration and utilization. To meet this challenge Foam Inflated Rigidized (FIR) structures have been developed by Thiokol Corporation on the Air Forces's Gossamer Baggie Torus program. In this paper the development, proof of concept demonstration of an eight foot diameter octagonal torus, and design application of this technology for structural elements to stabilize the solar collector of a solar thermal rocket are discussed. A FIR structure uses foam to inflate and pre-stress a resin impregnated fabric skin. The predeployed foam used was a solvent swelled polymer that foams immediately when exposed to vacuum due to rapid solvent loss. This property allows a very simple deployment mechanism to be used in erecting these structures. Once inflated, the skin resin is cured using the available ultraviolet radiation. By using high strength and stiffness fiber materials a stiff, strong lightweight structure was produced.

  18. Non-rigid precession of magnetic stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lander, S K

    2016-01-01

    Stars are, generically, rotating and magnetised objects with a misalignment between their magnetic and rotation axes. Since a magnetic field induces a permanent distortion to its host, it provides effective rigidity even to a fluid star, leading to bulk stellar motion which resembles free precession. This bulk motion is however accompanied by induced interior velocity and magnetic field perturbations, which are oscillatory on the precession timescale. Extending previous work, we show that these quantities are described by a set of second-order perturbation equations featuring cross-terms scaling with the product of the magnetic and centrifugal distortions to the star. For the case of a background toroidal field, we reduce these to a set of differential equations in radial functions, and find a method for their solution. The resulting magnetic-field and velocity perturbations show complex multipolar structure and are strongest towards the centre of the star.

  19. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, Vik S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kharlamov, V M [Institut de Recherche Matematique Avanee Universite Louis Pasteur et CNRS 7 rue Rene Descartes (France)

    2002-02-28

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p{sub g}=q=0 and K{sup 2}=9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem.

  20. Water dynamics in rigid ionomer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, N. C.; Etampawala, T. N.; Shrestha, U. M.; Aryal, D.; Tyagi, M.; Diallo, S. O.; Mamontov, E.; Cornelius, C. J.; Perahia, D.

    2016-12-01

    The dynamics of water within ionic polymer networks formed by sulfonated poly(phenylene) (SPP), as revealed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), is presented. These polymers are distinguished from other ionic macromolecules by their rigidity and therefore in their network structure. QENS measurements as a function of temperature as the fraction of ionic groups and humidity were varied have shown that the polymer molecules are immobile while absorbed water molecules remain dynamic. The water molecules occupy multiple sites, either bound or loosely constrained, and bounce between the two. With increasing temperature and hydration levels, the system becomes more dynamic. Water molecules remain mobile even at subzero temperatures, illustrating the applicability of the SPP membrane for selective transport over a broad temperature range.

  1. Observational properties of rigidly rotating dust configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyas, Batyr; Yang, Jinye

    2016-01-01

    We study the observational properties of a class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations describing stationary, axially symmetric, rigidly rotating dust. We ask the question whether such solutions can describe astrophysical rotating dark matter clouds and we probe the possibility that they may constitute an alternative to supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. We show that light emission from accretion disks in this space-time has several differences with respect to the emission of light from accretion disks around black holes. The shape of the iron K{\\alpha} line in the reflection spectrum of accretion disks can potentially distinguish this class of solution from the Kerr metric, but this may not be possible with current X-ray missions.

  2. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Flores-Johnson, E A; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  3. Acoustic propagation in a rigid torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.

    1982-01-01

    The acoustic propagation in a rigid torus is analyzed using a Green's function method. Three types of surface elements are developed; a flat quadrilateral element used in modeling polygonal cavities, a curved conical element appropriate for surfaces with one curvature, and a toroidal element developed for such doubly curved surfaces as the torus. Curved elements are necessary since the acoustic pressure is sensitive to slope discontinuities between consecutive surface elements especially near cavity resonances. The acoustic characteristics of the torus are compared to those of a bend of square cross section for a frequency range that includes the transverse acoustic resonance. Two equivalences between the different sections are tested; the first conserves curvature and cross-sectional dimension while the second matches transverse resonance and duct volume. The second equivalence accurately matches the acoustic characteristics of the torus up to the cutoff frequency corresponding to a mode with two circumferential waves.

  4. Field cracking performance of airfield rigid pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Mehta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cracking in airport pavements as studied in Construction Cycle 6 of testing carried out at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility by the Federal Aviation Administration. Pavements of three different flexural strengths as well as two different subgrades, a soft bituminous layer and a more rigid layer known as econocrete, were tested. In addition to this, cracking near two types of isolated transition joints, a reinforced edge joint and a thickened edge joint, was considered. The pavement sections were tested using a moving load simulating that of an aircraft. It has been determined that the degree of cracking was reduced as the flexural strength of the pavement was increased and that fewer cracks formed over the econocrete base than over the bituminous base. In addition, the thickened edge transition joint was more effective in preventing cracking at the edges compared to the reinforced edge joint.

  5. Raman Spectra of Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-30

    17), Raman spectra, plus a , . theoretical treatment of the data, f complex fluorozirconate 14 I anions in ZBLAN glasses and melts (16), and...based ZBLAN glasses ) 17. ICORS (International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy) Proceedings, London, England. Conferencf 5-9 Sep 88. (Molten silica...RESEARCH FINAL REPORT DTIC CONTRACT N00014-81-K-0501 &JELECTE 1 MAY 81 -- 30 NOV 86 EJJAN041989 V "RAMAN SPECTRA OF GLASSES " 0 During the five years of the

  6. Diamond turning of glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  7. Metal Halide Optical Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    while some of the multi- component "modified" glasses (e.g., ZBLAN ) could easily be cast into pieces several mm thick. 23 The difference between the...energy. 7-1 0 Typical plots pf 24 of log Iqi versus ]/Tf for ZB-I, ZBL, ZBLA, ZBLAN and ZBLALi glasses are presented in Fig. 3. These plots are linear... ZBLAN glasses are more resistant to devitrification than the corresponding ZBLLi or ZBLN glasses , although this does not appear to be manifested in

  8. Glass-forming ability and rigidity percolation in SeTePb lone-pair semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-04-01

    Correlating the various physical parameters of known semiconductors and pointing the properties of new ones, a number of parameters have been employed recently with different levels of success. Taking this into account an attempt has been made to correlate the physical properties of Pb-doped Se-Te lone-pair semiconductors. The small band gap and large Bohr radius of lead (Pb) containing lone-pair semiconductors assist them with specific optical, electrical and thermal properties. The various physical parameters like number of constraints, lone pair of electron, heat of atomization, density, compactness, free volume percentage have been analyzed in terms of mean coordination number for (Se90Te10)100- x Pb x (x = 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24). The band gap for the compositions has been determined theoretically, and the obtained results are very well explained in terms of cohesive energy, electronegativity and average single bond energy.

  9. Glass-forming ability and rigidity percolation in SeTePb lone-pair semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Pankaj [Jaypee University of Information Technology, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Waknaghat, Solan, H.P. (India)

    2016-04-15

    Correlating the various physical parameters of known semiconductors and pointing the properties of new ones, a number of parameters have been employed recently with different levels of success. Taking this into account an attempt has been made to correlate the physical properties of Pb-doped Se-Te lone-pair semiconductors. The small band gap and large Bohr radius of lead (Pb) containing lone-pair semiconductors assist them with specific optical, electrical and thermal properties. The various physical parameters like number of constraints, lone pair of electron, heat of atomization, density, compactness, free volume percentage have been analyzed in terms of mean coordination number for (Se{sub 90}Te{sub 10}){sub 100-x} Pb{sub x} (x=0,4,8,12,16,20,24). The band gap for the compositions has been determined theoretically, and the obtained results are very well explained in terms of cohesive energy, electronegativity and average single bond energy. (orig.)

  10. RIGID-PLASTIC/RIGID-VISCOPLASTIC FEM BASED ON LINEAR PROGRAMMING-THEORETICAL MODELING AND APPLICATION FOR PLANE-STRAIN PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new rigid-plastic/rigid-viscoplastic (RP/RVP) FEM based on linear programming (LP) for plane-strain metal forming simulation is proposed. Compared with the traditional RP/RVP FEM based on iteration solution, it has some remarkable advantages, such as it's free of convergence problem and its convenience in contact, incompressibility constraint and rigid zone treatment. Two solution examples are provided to validate its accuracy and efficiency.

  11. Stiffness Evolution in Frozen Sands Subjected to Stress Changes

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2017-04-21

    Sampling affects all soils, including frozen soils and hydrate-bearing sediments. The authors monitor the stiffness evolution of frozen sands subjected to various temperature and stress conditions using an oedometer cell instrumented with P-wave transducers. Experimental results show the stress-dependent stiffness of freshly remolded sands, the dominant stiffening effect of ice, creep after unloading, and the associated exponential decrease in stiffness with time. The characteristic time for stiffness loss during creep is of the order of tens of minutes; therefore it is inevitable that frozen soils experience sampling disturbances attributable to unloading. Slow unloading minimizes stiffness loss; conversely, fast unloading causes a pronounced reduction in stiffness probably attributable to the brittle failure of ice or ice-mineral bonding.

  12. Histological study of fresh versus frozen semitendinous muscle tendon allografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Carneiro Bitar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to histologically analyze allografts from cadaveric semitendinous muscle after cryopreservation at -80°C in comparison to a control group kept at only -4°C to test the hypothesis that the histological characteristics of the tissue are maintained when the tendons are kept at lower temperatures. METHODS: In a tissue bank, 10 semitendinous tendons from 10 cadavers were frozen at -80ºC as a storage method for tissue preservation. They were kept frozen for 40 days, and then a histological study was carried out. Another 10 tendon samples were analyzed while still "fresh". RESULTS: There was no histological difference between the fresh and frozen samples in relation to seven variables. CONCLUSIONS: Semitendinous muscle tendon allografts can be submitted to cryopreservation at -80ºC without suffering histological modifications.

  13. Statistics of modifier distributions in mixed network glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, John C

    2013-03-28

    The constituents of any network glass can be broadly classified as either network formers or network modifiers. Network formers, such as SiO2, Al2O3, B2O3, P2O5, etc., provide the backbone of the glass network and are the primary source of its rigid constraints. Network modifiers play a supporting role, such as charge stabilization of the network formers or alteration of the network topology through rupture of bridging bonds and introduction of floppy modes. The specific role of the modifiers depends on which network formers are present in the glass and the relative free energies of modifier interactions with each type of network former site. This variation of free energy with modifier speciation is responsible for the so-called mixed network former effect, i.e., the nonlinear scaling of property values in glasses having fixed modifier concentration but a varying ratio of network formers. In this paper, a general theoretical framework is presented describing the statistical mechanics of modifier speciation in mixed network glasses. The model provides a natural explanation for the mixed network former effect and also accounts for the impact of thermal history and relaxation on glass network topology.

  14. Studies of Rigid Rotor-Rigid Surface Scattering in Dynamical Lie Algebraic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Yan; DING Shi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical Lie algebraic method is used for the description of statistical mechanics of rotationally inelastic molecule-surface scattering. It can give the time-evolution operators about the low power of a+ and a by solving a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. For considering the contribution of the high power of a+ and a, we use the Magnus formula. Thus, with the time-evolution operators we can get the statistical average values of the measurable quantities in terms of the density operator formalism in statistical mechanics. The method is applied to the scattering of N2 (rigid rotor) by a flat, rigid surface to illustrate its general procedure. The results demonstrate that the method is useful for describing the statistical dynamics of gas-surface scattering.

  15. Integrated power and attitude control of a rigid satellite with onboard magnetic bearing suspended rigid flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonkyu

    2003-10-01

    A system of differential equations governing the translational and rotational motion of a system model consisting of a rigid satellite and multiple MB suspended rigid flywheels in general configuration is developed. Flywheel modules are contained in a housing rigidly mounted on the satellite and floated by an active MB suspension system, therefore each flywheel module has six degrees of freedom (DOF) as well as the satellite module. Equations of motion for the satellite and flywheels are naturally coupled and the satellite rotational motion and translational motion are coupled. A nonlinear state feedback tracking control law, which is globally asymptotically stable, is developed following a Lyapunov stability theory for integrated power and attitude control using the MB suspended flywheels. The stability, robustness, and tracking and disturbance rejection performance of the present control law with respect to initial attitude error, system modeling error, an imbalance disturbance, is demonstrated by case studies. The satellite departure motion equation derived from the definition of the angular velocity error and the system dynamics equations is presented. Application study of existing power tracking algorithm with this control law shows perfect power tracking for both power charging from and power delivery to the satellite operations and the power tracking can be performed simultaneously with and independent of the attitude control function.

  16. Cryoelectrolysis—electrolytic processes in a frozen physiological saline medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugnani, Franco; Macchioro, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Background Cryoelectrolysis is a new minimally invasive tissue ablation surgical technique that combines the ablation techniques of electrolytic ablation with cryosurgery. The goal of this study is to examine the hypothesis that electrolysis can take place in a frozen aqueous saline solution. Method To examine the hypothesis we performed a cryoelectrolytic ablation protocol in which electrolysis and cryosurgery are delivered simultaneously in a tissue simulant made of physiological saline gel with a pH dye. We measured current flow, voltage and extents of freezing and pH dye staining. Results Using optical measurements and measurements of currents, we have shown that electrolysis can occur in frozen physiological saline, at high subzero freezing temperatures, above the eutectic temperature of the frozen salt solution. It was observed that electrolysis occurs when the tissue resides at high subzero temperatures during the freezing stage and essentially throughout the entire thawing stage. We also found that during thawing, the frozen lesion temperature raises rapidly to high subfreezing values and remains at those values throughout the thawing stage. Substantial electrolysis occurs during the thawing stage. Another interesting finding is that electro-osmotic flows affect the process of cryoelectrolysis at the anode and cathode, in different ways. Discussion The results showing that electrical current flow and electrolysis occur in frozen saline solutions imply a mechanism involving ionic movement in the fluid concentrated saline solution channels between ice crystals, at high subfreezing temperatures. Temperatures higher than the eutectic are required for the brine to be fluid. The particular pattern of temperature and electrical currents during the thawing stage of frozen tissue, can be explained by the large amounts of energy that must be removed at the outer edge of the frozen lesion because of the solid/liquid phase transformation on that interface. Conclusion

  17. REPLICA ORNSTEIN-ZERNIKE EQUATIONS FOR POSITIONALLY FROZEN HEISENBERG SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Lomba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the formulation of the Replica Ornstein-Zernike equations for a model of positionally frozen disordered Heisenberg spin system. The results are obtained for various models, one in which the particle positions correspond to a frozen hard sphere fluid, another system in which the configurations are generated by a random insertion of hard spheres, a system of randomly distributed spins, and finally a system corresponding to a soft sphere fluid quenched at high and low temperatures. We will see that the orientational structure of the spin system is fairly well reproduced by the integral equation which, however, does not correctly account for the critical behaviour.

  18. Cryoelectrolysis—electrolytic processes in a frozen physiological saline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Lugnani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Cryoelectrolysis is a new minimally invasive tissue ablation surgical technique that combines the ablation techniques of electrolytic ablation with cryosurgery. The goal of this study is to examine the hypothesis that electrolysis can take place in a frozen aqueous saline solution. Method To examine the hypothesis we performed a cryoelectrolytic ablation protocol in which electrolysis and cryosurgery are delivered simultaneously in a tissue simulant made of physiological saline gel with a pH dye. We measured current flow, voltage and extents of freezing and pH dye staining. Results Using optical measurements and measurements of currents, we have shown that electrolysis can occur in frozen physiological saline, at high subzero freezing temperatures, above the eutectic temperature of the frozen salt solution. It was observed that electrolysis occurs when the tissue resides at high subzero temperatures during the freezing stage and essentially throughout the entire thawing stage. We also found that during thawing, the frozen lesion temperature raises rapidly to high subfreezing values and remains at those values throughout the thawing stage. Substantial electrolysis occurs during the thawing stage. Another interesting finding is that electro-osmotic flows affect the process of cryoelectrolysis at the anode and cathode, in different ways. Discussion The results showing that electrical current flow and electrolysis occur in frozen saline solutions imply a mechanism involving ionic movement in the fluid concentrated saline solution channels between ice crystals, at high subfreezing temperatures. Temperatures higher than the eutectic are required for the brine to be fluid. The particular pattern of temperature and electrical currents during the thawing stage of frozen tissue, can be explained by the large amounts of energy that must be removed at the outer edge of the frozen lesion because of the solid/liquid phase transformation on that

  19. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore unequivo......The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...

  20. Biopsy of uterine leiomyomata and frozen sections before laparoscopic morcellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulandi, Togas; Ferenczy, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Uterine sarcoma is rare. However, its morcellation can be associated with spread of disease. The definitive diagnosis of uterine sarcomas is made via histology. To date, the only reliable preoperative test for determination of the types of myometrial tumors is analysis of either frozen sections or permanent formalin-fixed tissue sections of surgical specimens. We report 2 cases in which the feasibility of obtaining multiple biopsy specimens of uterine leiomyomas and frozen sections before laparoscopic morcellation is demonstrated. This procedure might reduce the risk of laparoscopic morcellation of unsuspected leiomyosarcomas while still offering the advantages of a minimally invasive technique.

  1. Lanthanoides in Glass and Glass Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Jürgen; Kilo, Martin; Somorowsky, Ferdinand; Hopp, Werner

    2017-03-01

    Many types of glass contain lanthanoides; among them, special glass for optical applications is the one with the highest content of lanthanoides. The precise determination of the lanthanoides' concentration is performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). However, up to now, there are no established standard processes guaranteeing a uniform approach to the lanthanoide analysis. The knowledge of the lanthanoides' concentrations is necessary on the microscale in some cases, especially if a suitable separation and recycling procedure is to be applied. Here, the analysis is performed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) or wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) analytics in the scanning electron microscope.

  2. Electric glass capturing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, K.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Electric glass has found its place on the construction market. In public buildings, electrically heatable windows are becoming the leading option for large glass walls. Studies on detached houses, both new and renovated, show that floor heating combined with electrically heatable windowpanes is the best choice with respect to resident`s comfort. (orig.)

  3. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    As well as accelerators to boost particles up to high energy, physicists need detectors to see what happens when those particles collide. This lead glass block is part of a CERN detector called OPAL. OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  4. Glasses for photonic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, K.; Krol, D.M.; Hirao, K.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the application of glassy materials in planar and fiber-based photonic structures have led to novel devices and components that go beyond the original thinking of the use of glass in the 1960s, when glass fibers were developed for low-loss, optical communication applications. Expl

  5. Getting Started with Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The metamorphosis of glass when heated is a magical process to students, yet teachers are often reluctant to try it in class. The biggest challenge in working with glass in the classroom is to simplify procedures just enough to ensure student success while maintaining strict safety practices so no students are injured. Project concepts and safety…

  6. Glass Sword of Damocles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A string of accidents draws attention to the safety of the gleaming glass-walled skyscrapers, now common in China’s major cities On July 8, as 19-year-old Zhu Yiyi was walking past a 23-story building in Hangzhou, east China’s Zhejiang Province, shards of glass falling

  7. Electric glass capturing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, K.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Electric glass has found its place on the construction market. In public buildings, electrically heatable windows are becoming the leading option for large glass walls. Studies on detached houses, both new and renovated, show that floor heating combined with electrically heatable windowpanes is the best choice with respect to resident`s comfort. (orig.)

  8. Degeneration, Rigidity and Irreducible Components of Hopf Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdenacer Makhlouf

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss the concepts of degeneration, deformation and rigidity of Hopf algebras and to apply them to the geometric study of the varieties of Hopf algebras. The main result is the description of the n-dimensional rigid Hopf algebras and the irreducible components for n < 14 and n = p2 with p a prime number.

  9. Non-rigid registration by geometry-constrained diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt; Nielsen, Mads

    2001-01-01

    Assume that only partial knowledge about a non-rigid registration is given: certain points, curves, or surfaces in one 3D image are known to map to certain points, curves, or surfaces in another 3D image. In trying to identify the non-rigid registration field, we face a generalized aperture problem...

  10. Non-rigid image registration using bone growth model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Gramkow, Claus; Kreiborg, Sven

    1997-01-01

    Non-rigid registration has traditionally used physical models like elasticity and fluids. These models are very seldom valid models of the difference between the registered images. This paper presents a non-rigid registration algorithm, which uses a model of bone growth as a model of the change b...

  11. Rigid Body Motion in Stereo 3D Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between…

  12. Reinforced molecular recognition as an alternative to rigid receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Sijbren

    2006-01-01

    In theory, a perfectly rigid receptor will probably be an unbeatable binder. However, rigidity may not be easy to achieve in practice and it is certainly not Nature’s method to realise high affinity. In many proteins binding affinity is increased through non-covalent interactions within the protein.

  13. Quadratic Twists of Rigid Calabi–Yau Threefolds Over

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouvêa, Fernando Q.; Kiming, Ian; Yui, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    We consider rigid Calabi–Yau threefolds defined over Q and the question of whether they admit quadratic twists. We give a precise geometric definition of the notion of a quadratic twists in this setting. Every rigid Calabi–Yau threefold over Q is modular so there is attached to it a certain newfo...

  14. Stability of rigid body rotation from a bond graph perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the history of the bond graph description of rigid body rotation dynamics and resolves a paradox that resulted from the common Euler Junction Structure (EJS) description of the exterior product in the Newton–Euler equation describing rigid body rotation [D.C. Karnopp, R.C. Rosen

  15. Spin- and Pair-Density-Wave Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Mross

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry, known as density-wave order, is common in nature. However, such states are strongly sensitive to impurities or other forms of frozen disorder leading to fascinating glassy phenomena. We analyze impurity effects on a particularly ubiquitous form of broken translation symmetry in solids: a spin-density wave (SDW with spatially modulated magnetic order. Related phenomena occur in pair-density-wave (PDW superconductors where the superconducting order is spatially modulated. For weak disorder, we find that the SDW or PDW order can generically give way to a SDW or PDW glass—new phases of matter with a number of striking properties, which we introduce and characterize here. In particular, they exhibit an interesting combination of conventional (symmetry-breaking and spin-glass (Edwards-Anderson order. This is reflected in the dynamic response of such a system, which—as expected for a glass—is extremely slow in certain variables, but, surprisingly, is fast in others. Our results apply to all uniaxial metallic SDW systems where the ordering vector is incommensurate with the crystalline lattice. In addition, the possibility of a PDW glass has important consequences for some recent theoretical and experimental work on La_{2−x}Ba_{x}Cu_{2}O_{4}.

  16. Electrotherapy modalities for adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Matthew J; Green, Sally; Kramer, Sharon; Johnston, Renea V; McBain, Brodwen; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-10-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (also termed frozen shoulder) is a common condition characterised by spontaneous onset of pain, progressive restriction of movement of the shoulder and disability that restricts activities of daily living, work and leisure. Electrotherapy modalities, which aim to reduce pain and improve function via an increase in energy (electrical, sound, light, thermal) into the body, are often delivered as components of a physical therapy intervention. This review is one in a series of reviews which form an update of the Cochrane review 'Physiotherapy interventions for shoulder pain'. To synthesise the available evidence regarding the benefits and harms of electrotherapy modalities, delivered alone or in combination with other interventions, for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus and the ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) clinical trials registries up to May 2014, unrestricted by language, and reviewed the reference lists of review articles and retrieved trials to identify any other potentially relevant trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials using a quasi-randomised method of allocation that included adults with adhesive capsulitis and compared any electrotherapy modality to placebo, no treatment, a different electrotherapy modality, or any other intervention. The two main questions of the review focused on whether electrotherapy modalities are effective compared to placebo or no treatment, or if they are an effective adjunct to manual therapy or exercise (or both). The main outcomes of interest were participant-reported pain relief of 30% or greater, overall pain, function, global assessment of treatment success, active shoulder abduction, quality of life, and the number of participants experiencing any adverse event. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion

  17. Glass-silicon anodic bonding for the reduction of structural distortion; Yugami no sukunai yokyoku setsugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Y.; Minami, K.; Esashi, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1995-11-20

    Glass-silicon anodic bonding has been used for the fabrication of silicon micro sensors. A structural distortion during the anodic bonding process is sometimes observed and leads to the difficulty in fabricating the sensors with narrow gaps. It is considered that the distortion is mainly caused by not only the deference of thermal expansion coefficient between glass and silicon but also the structural change with the movement of ions in glass plate. This paper describes the experimental results which shows the effects of the bonding temperature and the movement of the positive ion in glass plate. It is also demonstrated that the structural distortion can be reduced by using a thick glass plate having high rigidity. 6 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Tautochrone and Brachistochrone Shape Solutions for Rocking Rigid Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Glaschke, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rocking rigid bodies appear in several shapes in everyday life: As furniture like rocking chairs and rocking cradles or as toys like rocking horses or tilting dolls. The familiar rocking motion of these objects, a non-linear combination of a rigid rotation and a translation of the center of mass, gives rise to a number of interesting dynamical properties. However, their study has received little attention in the literature. This work presents a comprehensive introduction to the dynamics of rocking rigid bodies, including a concise derivation of the equations of motion as well as a general inversion procedure to construct rocking rigid body shapes with specified dynamical properties. Moreover, two novel rigid body shapes are derived - the tautochrone shape and the brachistochrone shape - which represent an intriguing generalization of the well-know tautochrone and brachistochrone curves. In particular, tautochrone shapes offer an alternative construction of a tautochrone pendulum, in addition to Huygens' cyclo...

  19. Rigidity-Preserving Team Partitions in Multiagent Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Daniela; Williams, Ryan K; Gasparri, Andrea; Ulivi, Giovanni; Sukhatme, Gaurav S

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the strong influence network rigidity has on collaborative systems, in this paper, we consider the problem of partitioning a multiagent network into two sub-teams, a bipartition, such that the resulting sub-teams are topologically rigid. In this direction, we determine the existence conditions for rigidity-preserving bipartitions, and provide an iterative algorithm that identifies such partitions in polynomial time. In particular, the relationship between rigid graph partitions and the previously identified Z-link edge structure is given, yielding a feasible direction for graph search. Adapting a supergraph search mechanism, we then detail a methodology for discerning graphs cuts that represent valid rigid bipartitions. Next, we extend our methods to a decentralized context by exploiting leader election and an improved graph search to evaluate feasible cuts using only local agent-to-agent communication. Finally, full algorithm details and pseudocode are provided, together with simulation results that verify correctness and demonstrate complexity.

  20. Rigidity sensing and adaptation through regulation of integrin types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosegui-Artola, Alberto; Bazellières, Elsa; Allen, Michael D.; Andreu, Ion; Oria, Roger; Sunyer, Raimon; Gomm, Jennifer J.; Marshall, John F.; Jones, J. Louise; Trepat, Xavier; Roca-Cusachs, Pere

    2014-06-01

    Tissue rigidity regulates processes in development, cancer and wound healing. However, how cells detect rigidity, and thereby modulate their behaviour, remains unknown. Here, we show that sensing and adaptation to matrix rigidity in breast myoepithelial cells is determined by the bond dynamics of different integrin types. Cell binding to fibronectin through either α5β1 integrins (constitutively expressed) or αvβ6 integrins (selectively expressed in cancer and development) adapts force generation, actin flow and integrin recruitment to rigidities associated with healthy or malignant tissue, respectively. In vitro experiments and theoretical modelling further demonstrate that this behaviour is explained by the different binding and unbinding rates of both integrin types to fibronectin. Moreover, rigidity sensing through differences in integrin bond dynamics applies both when integrins bind separately and when they compete for binding to fibronectin.

  1. Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Strachan

    2004-10-20

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

  2. Effects of cooling rates on the mechanical properties of a Ti-based bulk metallic glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical properties of the glassy specimens fabricated at different cooling rates with a composition of Ti40Zr25Cu12Ni3Be20 were systematically investigated. It was confirmed that faster cooling rates caused not only a larger amount of frozen-in free volume but also a higher glass transition temperature in the bulk glassy alloy. Increase in the free volume was found to favor plastic deformation and then to give rise to larger compressive plasticity, whilst the rise in the glass transition temperature seemed to be closely related to the higher yield strength. Moreover, the increase of yield strength and plasticity induced by fast cooling rates may also be associated with the residual stress generated during the fabrication process. Our results suggest that the deformation behavior of bulk metallic glasses is sensitive to various factors and influences from the other factors should be excluded as far as cooling-rate effects on bulk metallic glasses are considered.

  3. Modeling decomposition of rigid polyurethane foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams are used as encapsulants to isolate and support thermally sensitive components within weapon systems. When exposed to abnormal thermal environments, such as fire, the polyurethane foam decomposes to form products having a wide distribution of molecular weights and can dominate the overall thermal response of the system. Decomposing foams have either been ignored by assuming the foam is not present, or have been empirically modeled by changing physical properties, such as thermal conductivity or emissivity, based on a prescribed decomposition temperature. The hypothesis addressed in the current work is that improved predictions of polyurethane foam degradation can be realized by using a more fundamental decomposition model based on chemical structure and vapor-liquid equilibrium, rather than merely fitting the data by changing physical properties at a prescribed decomposition temperature. The polyurethane decomposition model is founded on bond breaking of the primary polymer and formation of a secondary polymer which subsequently decomposes at high temperature. The bond breaking scheme is resolved using percolation theory to describe evolving polymer fragments. The polymer fragments vaporize according to individual vapor pressures. Kinetic parameters for the model were obtained from Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) from a single nonisothermal experiment with a heating rate of 20 C/min. Model predictions compare reasonably well with a separate nonisothermal TGA weight loss experiment with a heating rate of 200 C/min.

  4. Flow past 2-D Hemispherical Rigid Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel

    2013-11-01

    The flow past a 2-dimensional rigid hemispherical shape is investigated using PIV. Flow field measurements and images were generated with the use of a Thermoflow® apparatus. Results of this study are compared to prior work (APS DFD 2012 Session E9.00003) which employed CFD to investigate the flow in the near wake of hemispherical parachutes. The various sized gaps/open areas were positioned at distinct locations. The work presented here is part of a larger research project to investigate flow fields in deceleration devices and parachutes. Understanding the pitch-stability of parachutes is essential for accurate design and implementation of these deceleration devices but they present a difficult system to analyze. The flexibility of the parachute fabric results in large variations in the parachute geometry leading to complex fluid-structure interactions. Such flow, combined with flow through gaps and open areas, has been postulated to shed alternating vortices causing pitching/oscillations of the canopy. The results presented provide some insight into which geometric features affect vortex shedding and may enable the redesign of the baseline parachute to minimize instabilities.

  5. The rigidity of three flavor quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rishi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mannarelli, Massimo [IEEC/CSIC

    2008-01-01

    Cold three flavor quark matter at large (but not asymptotically large) densities may exist in a crystalline color superconducting phase. These phases are characterized by a gap parameter {Delta} that varies periodieally in space, forming a crystal structure. A Ginzburg-Landau expansion in {Delta} shows that two crystal structures based on cubic symetry are particularly favorable, and may be the ground state of matter at densities present in neutron star cores. We derive the effective action for the phonon fields that describe space-and time-dependent fluctuations of the crystal structure formed by {Delta}, and obtain the shear modulus from the coefficients of the spatial derivative terms. Within a Ginzburg-Landau approximation, we find shear moduli which are 20 to 1000 times larger than those of neutron star crusts. This phase ofmatter is thus more rigid than any known material in the universe, but at the same time the crystalline color superconducting phase is also superftuid. These properties raise the possibility that the presence of this phase within neutron stars may have distinct implications for their phenomenology. For example, (some) pulsar glitches may originate in crystalline superconducting neutron star cores.

  6. The theory of pseudo-rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Harley

    1988-01-01

    This monograph concerns the development, analysis, and application of the theory of pseudo-rigid bodies. It collects together our work on that subject over the last five years. While some results have appeared else­ where, much of the work is new. Our objective in writing this mono­ graph has been to present a new theory of the deformation of bodies, one that has not only a firm theoretical basis, but also the simplicity to serve as an effective tool in practical problems. Consequently, the main body of the treatise is a multifaceted development of the theory, from foundations to explicit solutions to linearizations to methods of approximation. The fact that this variety of aspects, each examined in considerable detail, can be collected together in a single, unified treat­ ment gives this theory an elegance that we feel sets it apart from many others. While our goal has always been to give a complete treatment of the theory as it now stands, the work here is not meant to be definitive. Theories are not ent...

  7. Heat transfer in suspensions of rigid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Luca; Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi; Abouali, Omid

    2016-11-01

    We study the heat transfer in laminar Couette flow of suspensions of rigid neutrally buoyant particles by means of numerical simulations. An Immersed Boundary Method is coupled with a VOF approach to simulate the heat transfer in the fluid and solid phase, enabling us to fully resolve the heat diffusion. First, we consider spherical particles and show that the proposed algorithm is able to reproduce the correlations between heat flux across the channel, the particle volume fraction and the heat diffusivity obtained in laboratory experiments and recently proposed in the literature, results valid in the limit of vanishing inertia. We then investigate the role of inertia on the heat transfer and show an increase of the suspension diffusivity at finite particle Reynolds numbers. Finally, we vary the relativity diffusivity of the fluid and solid phase and investigate its effect on the effective heat flux across the channel. The data are analyzed by considering the ensemble averaged energy equation and decomposing the heat flux in 4 different contributions, related to diffusion in the solid and fluid phase, and the correlations between wall-normal velocity and temperature fluctuations. Results for non-spherical particles will be examined before the meeting. Supported by the European Research Council Grant No. ERC-2013- CoG-616186, TRITOS. The authors acknowledge computer time provided by SNIC (Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  8. Isoconfigurational elastic constants and liquid fragility of a bulk metallic glass forming alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Mary Laura; Duan, Gang; Johnson, William L

    2006-07-07

    Samples of Zr(46.25)Ti(8.25)Cu(7.5)Ni(10)Be(27.5) were isothermally annealed and quenched near the glass transition temperature and studied by the pulse-echo overlap technique. The shear modulus G of the samples shows a strong reversible dependence on annealing temperatures and, thus, on the specific configurational potential energy of the equilibrium liquid. The low-T dependence of G of the configurationally frozen glasses shows linear temperature dependence as expected by Debye-Grüneisen theory. The T dependence of G in the liquid state is directly related to the viscosity and fragility of the liquid.

  9. Direct evidence of entropy driven fluid-like - glass-like transition in microgel suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yun Xia; Liu, Ying Dan; Liu, Riping; Tian, Yongjun; Chen, Ke; Wang, Li-Min

    2017-02-01

    The phase transitions in poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel suspensions are studied using rheological and calorimetric measurements at various concentrations. Two transitions are resolved, one being the hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition imposed by the gain/release of H2O molecules in PNIPAM particles via H-bond interactions, the other the fluid-like - glass-like transition of the hydrated microgels. The relaxation behaviors in the frozen glass-like states are observed by monitoring the shear modulus upon aging. Nevertheless, no enthalpic signature is detected in the relaxation process, suggesting entropy-driven relaxation dynamics.

  10. Vibrational anomalies and marginal stability of glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Marruzzo, Alessia

    2013-01-01

    The experimentally measured vibrational spectrum of glasses strongly deviates from that expected in Debye\\'s elasticity theory: The density of states deviates from Debye\\'s ω2 law ("boson peak"), the sound velocity shows a negative dispersion in the boson-peak frequency regime, and there is a strong increase in the sound attenuation near the boson-peak frequency. A generalized elasticity theory is presented, based on the model assumption that the shear modulus of the disordered medium fluctuates randomly in space. The fluctuations are assumed to be uncorrelated and have a certain distribution (Gaussian or otherwise). Using field-theoretical techniques one is able to derive mean-field theories for the vibrational spectrum of a disordered system. The theory based on a Gaussian distribution uses a self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA),while the theory for non-Gaussian distributions is based on a coherent-potential approximation (CPA). Both approximate theories appear to be saddle-point approximations of effective replica field theories. The theory gives a satisfactory explanation of the vibrational anomalies in glasses. Excellent agreement of the SCBA theory with simulation data on a soft-sphere glass is reached. Since the SCBA is based on a Gaussian distribution of local shear moduli, including negative values, this theory describes a shear instability as a function of the variance of shear fluctuations. In the vicinity of this instability, a fractal frequency dependence of the density of states and the sound attenuation ∝ ω1+a is predicted with a ≲ 1/2. Such a frequency dependence is indeed observed both in simulations and in experimental data. We argue that the observed frequency dependence stems from marginally stable regions in a glass and discuss these findings in terms of rigidity percolation. © 2013 EDP Sciences and Springer.

  11. PamFreezer: a solution to enable frozen biopsy logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colijn, B.A.; Rios Cruellas, G.; Hashemi-Shabastari, M.; Janssen, X.; van der Leij, A.; Leyte-Gonzalez, R.; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Veldhuizen, P.; Verbiest, G.; Verhaagen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue samples that are taken during a biopsy need to be snap-frozen in order to preserve their properties and use the tissue for contemporary molecular biology technologies that may improve the treatment of the patient. There is currently a lack of (safe) methodologies or devices for snap- freezing

  12. Hematoxylin and safranin O staining of frozen sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D; Golick, M; Rabinovitz, H; Rivlin, D; Elgart, G; Nordlow, B

    2000-03-01

    Currently the hematoxylin and eosin staining procedure is the most popular among Mohs surgeons for histology. However, safranin O, a cheaper and relatively safer stain which is predominantly used for plant histology, should be considered as it offers similar or improved accuracy in the diagnosis of frozen sections of basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

  13. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish...

  14. Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.

    1987-09-01

    Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

  15. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  16. The effects of commercial fibres on frozen bread dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA FILIPOVIĆ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The daily intake of dietary fibres in highly industrialized countries is at a low level and, therefore, adversely affecting human health. The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of different commercial fibres (originating from sugar beet pulp fibrex, and Jerusalem artichoke inulin HPX and GR in yeast dough at a level of 5 %, on the rheological properties of dough and the quality of bread during frozen storage. Frozen dough characteristics were determined using a Brabender maturograph and test baking was followed according the AACC procedure. The dough was frozen at –18 °C and stored over a period of 60 days. The results concerning the dough (proving time and stability and bread quality (volume and crumb quality were statistically analyzed by multivariance Manova and discriminative analysis, which indicated that there was a significant difference between dough without fibres and dough with different fibres (fibrex, inulin HPX and GR. The discrimination coefficient points that the greatest influence of fibres on the final proof and proving stability is after 30 days (6.250 and after 0 days (6.158, respectively, but the greatest influence of fibres on bread volume and bread crumb quality (15.488 and 3.638, respectively can be expected on non frozen dough, due to above mention their adverse the effect on gluten network.

  17. Comparison of Different Telepathology Solutions for Primary Frozen Section Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hufnagl

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a retrospective study on a set of 125 cases we compared the following three telepathology solutions for primary frozen section diagnosis: ATM‐TP (connection via ATM, TPS 1.0 (connection via LAN and TELEMIC (connection via Internet, which represent different concepts of telepathological procedures.

  18. Cryoprotectant redistribution along the frozen straw probed by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpegina, Yu A; Okotrub, K A; Brusentsev, E Yu; Amstislavsky, S Ya; Surovtsev, N V

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of cryoprotectant (10% glycerol) and ice along the frozen plastic straw (the most useful container for freezing mammalian semen, oocytes and embryos) was studied by Raman scattering technique. Raman spectroscopy being a contactless, non-invasive tool was applied for the straws filled with the cryoprotectant solution and frozen by controlled rate programs commonly used for mammalian embryos freezing. Analysis of Raman spectra measured at different points along the straw reveals a non-uniform distribution of the cryoprotectant. The ratio between non-crystalline solution and ice was found to be increased by several times at the bottom side of the solution column frozen by the standard freezing program. The increase of the cryoprotectant fraction occurs in the area where embryos or oocytes are normally placed during their freezing. Possible effects of the cooling rate and the ice nucleation temperature on the cryoprotectant fraction at the bottom side of the solution column were considered. Our findings highlight that the ice fraction around cryopreserved embryos or oocytes can differ significantly from the averaged one in the frozen plastic straws.

  19. Microbiological deterioration of frozen parfried potatoes upon holding after thawing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michener, H D; Boyle, F P; Notter, G K; Guadagni, D G

    1968-01-01

    Frozen parfried potatoes were thawed and stored at 55, 45, and 34 F (12.8, 7.2, 1.1 C). Significant changes in flavor and texture did not occur at these temperatures until the total bacterial count exceeded 100 million per gram...

  20. PamFreezer: a solution to enable frozen biopsy logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colijn, B.A.; Rios Cruellas, G.; Hashemi-Shabastari, M.; Janssen, X.; Leij, van der A.; Leyte-Gonzalez, R.; Vanapalli, S.; Veldhuizen, P.; Verbiest, G.; Verhaagen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue samples that are taken during a biopsy need to be snap-frozen in order to preserve their properties and use the tissue for contemporary molecular biology technologies that may improve the treatment of the patient. There is currently a lack of (safe) methodologies or devices for snap- freezing

  1. Speakers' Sensitivity to Rules of Frozen Word Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Birdsong, David

    1979-01-01

    Two studies elicited native speaker and nonnative speaker judgments regarding preferred word order of the idioms known as "freezes." The results support the notion that rules of frozen word order are psychologically real and reflect universal language rules. (Author/AM)

  2. Structural relaxation time and cooling rate of a melt in the glass transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanditov, D. S.; Sydykov, B. S.

    2015-03-01

    The nature of the parameter involved in the Bartenev equation qτg = C relating the cooling rate of a glass-forming melt to its structural relaxation time in the glass transition region is discussed on the basis of the Volkenshtein-Ptitsyn theory using a number of known relationships. It is established that parameter C for amorphous substances with the same fragility is linearly temperature dependent. This parameter is shown to equal the narrow temperature range δ T g characterizing the liquid-glass transition region (by Nemilov); i.e., C = δ T g. It is concluded that δ T g for most glassy systems is only ˜0.7% of the glass transition temperature T g. The narrowness of temperature range δ T g is explained by the small fluctuation volume fraction f g "frozen" at the glass transition temperature. The concept of a close relationship between constant C and the structural order at T g (i.e., the characteristic of the inner state of a nonequilibrium "frozen" amorphous system) is developed.

  3. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  4. Perinatal outcomes of children born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Romundstad, Liv Bente;

    2013-01-01

    What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?......What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?...

  5. Redox State of Cytochromes in Frozen Yeast Cells Probed by Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okotrub, Konstantin A; Surovtsev, Nikolay V

    2015-01-01

    ...). Since most biological methods do not work in a low-temperature frozen environment, the mechanism and details of the depression of cellular activity in the frozen state remain largely uncharacterized...

  6. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of...

  7. Exchange bias effect in spin glass CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Changming; Tian, Zhaoming; Wang, Liguang; Yuan, Songliu, E-mail: yuansl@hust.edu.cn

    2015-11-01

    CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are about 5.4 nm in diameter synthesized by a hydrothermal technique. Magnetization measurements reveal that the nanoparticles exhibit a spin glass behavior below glass transition temperature. Signature of memory effect is clear in reheating curve where the step-like shape increasing with the increase of temperature is recovered after cooling process. Magnetic relaxation is performed to prove memory effect. Ageing effect is also detected in CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles to verify the spin glass behavior. As temperature decreases to 5 K, which is far below the glass transition temperature, exchange bias effect can be observed clearly accompanied with a shift in field-cooled hysteresis loop. As particle size decreases to 5.4 nm, spin glass behavior appears due to the increased spin disorder effect. The spin glass phase providing a pinning force from some frozen spins to the rotatable spins gives the key to explain the exchange bias effects. - Highlights: • Existence of spin glass phase is verified in CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Exchange bias effect with a shift in field-cooled loop is observed at 5 K. • It is proved that exchange bias effect is originated from the spin glass phase.

  8. On relaxation nature of glass transition in amorphous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanditov, Damba S.; Ojovan, Michael I.

    2017-10-01

    A short review on relaxation theories of glass transition is presented. The main attention is paid to modern aspects of the glass transition equation qτg = C, suggested by Bartenev in 1951 (q - cooling rate of the melt, τg - structural relaxation time at the glass transition temperature Tg). This equation represents a criterion of structural relaxation at transition from liquid to glass at T = Tg (analogous to the condition of mechanical relaxation ωτ = 1, where the maximum of mechanical loss is observed). The empirical parameter С = δTg has the meaning of temperature range δTg that characterizes the liquid-glass transition. Different approaches of δTg calculation are reviewed. In the framework of the model of delocalized atoms a modified kinetic criterion of glass transition is proposed (q/Tg)τg = Cg, where Cg ≅ 7·10-3 is a practically universal dimensionless constant. It depends on fraction of fluctuation volume fg, which is frozen at the glass transition temperature Cg = fg/ln(1/fg). The value of fg is approximately constant fg ≅ 0.025. At Tg the process of atom delocalization, i.e. its displacement from the equilibrium position, is frozen. In silicate glasses atom delocalization is reduced to critical displacement of bridge oxygen atom in Si-O-Si bridge necessary to switch a valence bond according to Muller and Nemilov. An equation is derived for the temperature dependence of viscosity of glass-forming liquids in the wide temperature range, including the liquid-glass transition and the region of higher temperatures. Notion of (bridge) atom delocalization is developed, which is related to necessity of local low activation deformation of structural network for realization of elementary act of viscous flow - activated switch of a valence (bridge) bond. Without atom delocalization (;trigger mechanism;) a switch of the valence bond is impossible and, consequently, the viscous flow. Thus the freezing of atom delocalization process at low temperatures

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Due to the increased focus on energy savings and waste recycling foam glass materials have gained increased attention. The production process of foam glass is a potential low-cost recycle option for challenging waste, e.g. CRT glass and industrial waste (fly ash and slags). Foam glass is used...... as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...

  10. Influence of pH on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of strawberry frozen yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Frozen yogurt is a frozen fermented dessert which presents structural characteristics similar to ice cream and nutritional and sensorial properties which resemble to yogurt. The acidification of ice cream mix by means of lactic bacteria can influence the properties of frozen yogurt. For that reason, the present work aimed to evaluate the influence of pH on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of strawberry frozen yogurt. The formulation consisted of 6 % of milk fat, 10 % of milk ...

  11. Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aza, P. N.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1960´s, a great interest in the use of bioceramic materials for biomedical applications has been developed. In a previous paper, the authors reviewed crystalline bioceramic materials “sensus stricto”, it is to say, those ceramic materials, constituted for non-metallic inorganic compounds, crystallines and consolidates by thermal treatment of powders at high temperature. In the present review, the authors deal with those called bioactive glasses and glassceramics. Although all of them are also obtained by thermal treatment at high temperature, the first are amorphous and the second are obtained by devitrification of a glass, although the vitreous phase normally prevails on the crystalline phases. After an introduction to the concept of bioactive materials, a short historical review of the bioactive glasses development is made. Its preparation, reactivity in physiological media, mechanism of bonding to living tissues and mechanical strength of the bone-implant interface is also reported. Next, the concept of glass-ceramic and the way of its preparation are exposed. The composition, physicochemical properties and biological behaviour of the principal types of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramic materials: Bioglass®, Ceravital®, Cerabone®, Ilmaplant® and Bioverit® are also reviewed. Finally, a short review on the bioactive-glass coatings and bioactive-composites and most common uses of bioactive-glasses and glass-ceramics are carried out too.

    Desde finales de los años sesenta, se ha despertado un gran interés por el uso de los materiales biocerámicos para aplicaciones biomédicas. En un trabajo previo, los autores hicieron una revisión de los denominados materiales biocerámicos cristalinos en sentido estricto, es decir, de aquellos materiales, constituidos por compuestos inorgánicos no metálicos, cristalinos y consolidados mediante tratamientos térmicos a altas temperaturas. En el presente trabajo, los autores

  12. Dynamic spindle reflexes and the rigidity of Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, D L

    1973-06-01

    The effects of stimulating the reflex arc from dynamic spindle endings were examined in patients with the rigidity of Parkinsonism and in control subjects. The arc was activated phasically by a tendon tap and by electrical stimulation in 15 patients. The effect of reinforcement by Jendrassik's manoeuvre was observed. The response to phasic activation indicated central facilitation of the reflex loop in the patients with Parkinsonism, with a concurrent decrease in fusimotor drive to dynamic spindles. These abnormalities could not be correlated with the severity of the patients' rigidity, and they did not alter when the rigidity was reduced by levodopa. The effect of activating dynamic spindle endings tonically by vibration at 50 Hz was also examined. The reflex contraction of the biceps and triceps muscles in response to vibration was found to be increased in 24 patients with rigidity compared with 24 control subjects. Patients with severe rigidity developed a more powerful contraction in response to vibration than patients with mild rigidity. The response to vibration was reduced by treatment with levodopa but the amount of this reduction could not be correlated with changes in the patients' rigidity.

  13. 78 FR 30272 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the... review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  14. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004) (Brazil... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, 70 FR 5143... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the...

  15. 77 FR 32498 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  16. 75 FR 32915 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 7, 2009, the Department published a...

  17. 78 FR 13324 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... the domestic like product to include dusted shrimp. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil... Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China:...

  18. 76 FR 38360 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 1, 2011, the Department published a...

  19. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  20. 76 FR 18157 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... and its affiliated subsidiaries (collectively, ``Pakfood''); \\1\\ and Thai Royal Frozen Food Co., Ltd... Adilakshmi Enterprises Allana Frozen Foods Pvt. Ltd Allansons Ltd AMI Enterprises Amulya Sea Foods Ananda... Trading Corporation Private Limited.\\2\\ Coastal Corporation Ltd Cochin Frozen Food Exports Pvt....

  1. 76 FR 64001 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... CFR part 36). Background AMS received a petition from the American Frozen Food Institute (AFFI... Service 7 CFR Part 52 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... of Agriculture (USDA) has revised the United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra. The...

  2. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries....

  3. 75 FR 22551 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ..., Agricultural Research Service and the other from the American Frozen Food Institute. Both commenters stated... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries AGENCY: Agricultural... proposed revision to the United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries. After considering...

  4. 77 FR 19612 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    .... Adilakshmi Enterprises Allana Frozen Foods Pvt. Ltd. Allanasons Ltd. AMI Enterprises Amulya Seafoods Anand... Marine Products Blue Fin Frozen Foods Pvt. Ltd. Blue Water Foods & Exports P. Ltd. Bluefin Enterprises... Frozen Food Exports Pvt. Ltd. Coreline Exports Corlim Marine Exports Pvt. Ltd. Damco India Private...

  5. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries....

  6. 78 FR 15696 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Produce Development Ltd. 44. Shenzhen Yudayuan Trade Ltd. 45. Thai Royal Frozen Food Zhanjiang Co., Ltd... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering...

  7. 78 FR 56209 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ...., Shenzhen Yudayuan Trade Ltd., Thai Royal Frozen Food Zhanjiang Co., Ltd., Xiamen Granda Import & Export Co... Anyang Food Co., Ltd., Yangjiang City Yelin Hoi Tat Quick Frozen Seafood Co., Ltd., Yangjiang Wanshida... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China:...

  8. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  9. 78 FR 18957 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...'') of the antidumping duty (``AD'') order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,...

  10. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... request was based.\\3\\ \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From...

  11. 78 FR 72635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Department'') initiated a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp... Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

  12. 75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...'') is extending the time limit for the preliminary results of the new shipper review of certain frozen... order on shrimp from Vietnam for Nhat Duc Co., Ltd. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...

  13. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1,...

  14. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  15. 77 FR 2958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... results of the sixth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam....

  16. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the... imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... Commission following notification of preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of frozen...

  17. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... concerning the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would...

  18. 76 FR 65178 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... preliminary results of the sixth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam....

  19. 78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... that a request for a new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen... Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...

  20. 76 FR 50718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period... duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the PRC. See Initiation of...

  1. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... determines that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of investigation...

  2. 75 FR 56988 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period... initiation of the administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on certain frozen shrimp from...

  3. 77 FR 20008 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... upon which the requests were based. \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen...

  4. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the... of the antidumping duty orders on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam and the...

  5. 78 FR 59915 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...'') of the antidumping duty (``AD'') order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the... received an NSR request from Thanh Hung Co., Ltd. D/B/A Thanh Hung Frozen Seafood Processing Import...

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-13 - Movement of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-13 Movement of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be certified for movement from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of frozen fruits and vegetables. 318.13-13...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be imported...

  8. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  9. Nematic order by elastic interactions and cellular rigidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, B. M.; Safran, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    We predict spontaneous nematic order in an ensemble of active force generators with elastic interactions as a minimal model for early nematic alignment of short stress fibers in non-motile, adhered cells. Mean-field theory is formally equivalent to Maier-Saupe theory for a nematic liquid. However, the elastic interactions are long-ranged (and thus depend on cell shape and matrix elasticity) and originate in cell activity. Depending on the density of force generators, we find two regimes of cellular rigidity sensing for which orientational, nematic order of stress fibers depends on matrix rigidity either in a step-like manner or with a maximum at an optimal rigidity.

  10. Stochastic modeling of uncertain mass characteristics in rigid body dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lanae A.; Mignolet, Marc P.

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on the formulation, assessment, and application of a modeling strategy of uncertainty on the mass characteristics of rigid bodies, i.e. mass, position of center of mass, and inertia tensor. These characteristics are regrouped into a 4×4 matrix the elements of which are represented as random variables with joint probability density function derived following the maximum entropy framework. This stochastic model is first shown to satisfy all properties expected of the mass and tensor of inertia of rigid bodies. Its usefulness and computational efficiency are next demonstrated on the behavior of a rigid body in pure rotation exhibiting significant uncertainty in mass distribution.

  11. Observations on the partial breaking of N=2 rigid supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrianopoli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the partial breaking of N=2 rigid supersymmetry for a generic rigid special geometry of n abelian vector multiplets in the presence of Fayet–Iliopoulos terms induced by the hyper-Kähler momentum map. By exhibiting the symplectic structure of the problem we give invariant conditions for the breaking to occur, which rely on a quartic invariant of the Fayet–Iliopoulos charges as well as on a modification of the N=2 rigid symmetry algebra by a vector central charge.

  12. Isoperimetric inequality fortorsional rigidity in the complex plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahudinov RG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose SZ is a simply connected domain in the complex plane. In (F.G. Avhadiev, Matem. Sborn., 189(12 (1998, 3–12 (Russian, Avhadiev introduced new geometrical functionals, which give two-sided estimates for the torsional rigidity of . In this paper we find sharp lower bounds for the ratio of the torsional rigidity to the new functionals. In particular, we prove that where is the torsional rigidity of , and is the conformal radius of at a point .

  13. STATISTICAL MODELS FOR SEMI-RIGID NEMATIC POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinjiu

    1995-01-01

    Semi-rigid liquid crystal polymer is a class of liquid crystal polymers different from long rigid rod liquid crystal polymer to which the well-known Onsager and Flory theories are applied. In this paper, three statistical models for the semi-rigid nematic polymer were addressed. They are the elastically jointed rod model, worm-like chain model, and non-homogeneous chain model.The nematic-isotropic transition temperature was examined. The pseudo-second transition temperature is expressed analytically. Comparisons with the experiments were made and the agreements were found.

  14. Relaxation and physical aging in network glasses: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaut, Matthieu

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in the description of glassy relaxation and aging are reviewed for the wide class of network-forming materials such as GeO2, Ge x Se1-x , silicates (SiO2-Na2O) or borates (B2O3-Li2O), all of which have an important usefulness in domestic, geological or optoelectronic applications. A brief introduction of the glass transition phenomenology is given, together with the salient features that are revealed both from theory and experiments. Standard experimental methods used for the characterization of the slowing down of the dynamics are reviewed. We then discuss the important role played by aspects of network topology and rigidity for the understanding of the relaxation of the glass transition, while also permitting analytical predictions of glass properties from simple and insightful models based on the network structure. We also emphasize the great utility of computer simulations which probe the dynamics at the molecular level, and permit the calculation of various structure-related functions in connection with glassy relaxation and the physics of aging which reveal the non-equilibrium nature of glasses. We discuss the notion of spatial variations of structure which leads to the concept of ‘dynamic heterogeneities’, and recent results in relation to this important topic for network glasses are also reviewed.

  15. Shattering the Glass Ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ "Shattering the Glass Ceiling: the Myths, Opportunities and Chal lenges of Women in Corporate China" was the theme of CEIBS'first Women in Management Forum held on December l 1 on the school's main campus in Shanghai.

  16. Glass Stronger than Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  17. Glass for Solar Concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    Report identifies four commercially available glasses as promising reflectors for solar concentrators. Have properties of high reflectance (80 to 96 percent), lower cost than first-surface silver metalization, and resistance to environmental forces.

  18. Optimisation of grolishing freeform surfaces with rigid and semi-rigid tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyu; Wu, Hsing-Yu; Walker, David; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Hongyu; Dunn, Christina; Gray, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    After the formal acceptance of our fabrication of E-ELT segments, we aim to further accelerate the mass production by introducing an intermediate grolishing procedure using industrial robots, reducing the total process time by this much faster and parallel link. In this paper, we have presented research outputs on tool design, tool path generation, study of mismatch between rigid, semi-rigid tool and aspheric surface. It is indicated that the generation of mid-spatial frequency is proportional to the grit size and misfit between work piece and tool surfaces. Using a Non-Newtonian material tool with a spindle speed of 30 rpm has successfully reduce the mid-spatial error. The optimization of process parameters involve the study the combination effects of the above factors. These optimized parameters will result in a lookup table for reference of given input surface quality. Future work may include the higher spindle speed for grolishing with non- Newtonian tool looking for potential applications regarding to form correction, higher removal rate and edge control.

  19. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... the mechanical behavior of the beam is explained. Finally, some design criterions for reinforced glass beams are discussed....

  20. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  1. Frozen-state storage stability of a monoclonal antibody: aggregation is impacted by freezing rate and solute distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Maria A; Rodrigues, Miguel A; Glass, Matthew A; Singh, Satish K; Johnston, Keith P; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2013-04-01

    Freezing of protein solutions perturbs protein conformation, potentially leading to aggregate formation during long-term storage in the frozen state. Macroscopic protein concentration profiles in small cylindrical vessels were determined for a monoclonal antibody frozen in a trehalose-based formulation for various freezing protocols. Slow cooling rates led to concentration differences between outer edges of the tank and the center, up to twice the initial concentration. Fast cooling rates resulted in much smaller differences in protein distribution, likely due to the formation of dendritic ice, which traps solutes in micropockets, limiting their transport by convection and diffusion. Analysis of protein stability after more than 6 months storage at either -10°C or -20°C [above glass transition temperature (T'g )] or -80°C (below T'g ) revealed that aggregation correlated with the cooling rate. Slow-cooled vessels stored above T'g exhibited increased aggregation with time. In contrast, fast-cooled vessels and those stored below T'g showed small to no increase in aggregation at any position. Rapid entrapment of protein in a solute matrix by fast freezing results in improved stability even when stored above T'g . © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1194-1208, 2013.

  2. Frozen Section Evaluation of Margin Status in Primary Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck: A Correlation Study of Frozen Section and Final Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layfield, Eleanor M; Schmidt, Robert L; Esebua, Magda; Layfield, Lester J

    2017-08-23

    Frozen section is routinely used for intraoperative margin evaluation in carcinomas of the head and neck. We studied a series of frozen sections performed for margin status of head and neck tumors to determine diagnostic accuracy. All frozen sections for margin control of squamous carcinomas of the head and neck were studied from a 66 month period. Frozen and permanent section diagnoses were classified as negative or malignant. Correlation of diagnoses was performed to determine accuracy. One thousand seven hundred and ninety-six pairs of frozen section and corresponding permanent section diagnoses were obtained. Discordances were found in 55 (3.1%) pairs. In 35 pairs (1.9%), frozen section was reported as benign, but permanent sections disclosed carcinoma. In 21 cases, the discrepancy was due to sampling and in the remaining cases it was an interpretive error. In 20 cases (1.1%), frozen section was malignant, but the permanent section was interpreted as negative. Frozen section is an accurate method for evaluation of operative margins for head and neck carcinomas with concordance between frozen and permanent results of 97%. Most errors are false negative results with the majority of these being due to sampling issues.

  3. RIGID-PLASTIC/RIGID-VISCOPLASTIC FEM BASED ON LINEAR PROGRAMMING—THEORETICAL MODELING AND APPLICATION FOR AXISYMMETRICAL PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Compared with the traditional rigid-plastic/rigid-viscoplastic(RP/RVP) FEM(based on iteration solution),RP/RVP FEM based on linear programming (LP) has some remarkable advantages,such as it's free of convergence problem and its convenience in contact,rigid zone,and friction force treatment.The numerical model of RP/RVP FEM based on LP for axisymmetrical metal forming simulation is studied,and some related key factors and its treatment methods in formulation of constraint condition are proposed.Some solution examples are provided to validate its accuracy and efficiency.

  4. Elastic phases of Ge(x)Sb(x)Se(100-2x) ternary glasses driven by topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Kapila; Boolchand, P; Micoulaut, M

    2013-08-29

    Topology offers a practical set of computational tools to accurately predict certain physical and chemical properties of materials including transformations under deformation. In network glasses with increased cross-linking three generic elastic phases are observed. We examine ternary Ge(x)Sb(x)Se(100-2x) glasses in Raman scattering, modulated DSC and volumetric measurements, and observe the rigidity transition, x = x(c)(1) = 14.9% that separates the flexible phase from the Intermediate phase, and the stress transition, x = x(c)(2) = 17.5% that separate the intermediate phase from the stressed rigid one. Raman scattering provides evidence of the structural motifs populated in these networks. Using size increasing cluster agglomeration, we have calculated the rigidity and stress transitions to occur near x(c)(1)(t) = 15.2% and x(c)(2)(t) = 17.5%, respectively. Theory predicts and experiments confirm that these two transitions will coalesce if edge-sharing Ge-tetrahedral motifs were absent in the structure, a circumstance that prevails in the Ge-deficient Ge7Sb(x)Se(93-x) ternary, underscoring the central role played by topology in network glasses. We have constructed a global elastic phase diagram of the Ge-Sb-Se ternary that provides a roadmap to network functionality. In this diagram, regions labeled A, B, and C comprise networks that are flexible, rigid but unstressed, and stressed-rigid, respectively.

  5. Optimal matrix rigidity for stress fiber polarization in stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeldt, F.; Brown, A. E. X.; Discher, D. E.; Safran, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    The shape and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells is especially sensitive to the rigidity of their environment; the physical mechanisms involved are unknown. A theoretical model and experiments demonstrate here that the polarization/alignment of stress-fibers within stem cells is a non-monotonic function of matrix rigidity. We treat the cell as an active elastic inclusion in a surrounding matrix whose polarizability, unlike dead matter, depends on the feedback of cellular forces that develop in response to matrix stresses. The theory correctly predicts the monotonic increase of the cellular forces with the matrix rigidity and the alignment of stress-fibers parallel to the long axis of cells. We show that the anisotropy of this alignment depends non-monotonically on matrix rigidity and demonstrate it experimentally by quantifying the orientational distribution of stress-fibers in stem cells. These findings offer a first physical insight for the dependence of stem cell differentiation on tissue elasticity. PMID:20563235

  6. A Concise Introduction to Mechanics of Rigid Bodies Multidisciplinary Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, L

    2012-01-01

    A Concise Introduction to Mechanics of Rigid Bodies: Multidisciplinary Engineering presents concise, key concepts of kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies. This compact volume bridges the steep gap between  introductory texts on engineering mechanics, which focus on one and two dimensional motions of particles and rigid bodies, and advanced texts on multi-body dynamics in high dimension spaces  found in multidisciplinary areas like mechatronics, robotics and biomechanics. In the book, rigid body motions in the spaces with different dimensions are described in addition to studies in a uniform framework supported by vector and matrix operations. Rigorous mathematic tools and explanations are provided to clarify the most complex concepts. This book also: Provides practical examples from different engineering areas, offering a link between theoretical fundamentals and everyday applications Offers simplified mathematical equations to clearly present essential theories in robotics and mechanics Presents statics...

  7. Dynamical Equation of Post Newtonian Quasi-rigid Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chong-Ming; TAO Jin-He; HUANG Tian-Yi; WU Xue-Jun

    2004-01-01

    We derive the dynamical equation ofa post Newtonian (PN) quasi-rigid body from the general rotational equation of motion, I.e. The PN rotational equation of motion for a quasi-rigid body. It is emphasized that a rotational angular velocity vector and a figure axis besides the first post Newtonian (1PN) spin vector can be defined and realized for the model of a PN quasi-rigid body model constructed recently. Actually, we have shown that the moment of inertia tensor of a quasi-rigid body can be transformed into a diagonal form by an orthogonal transformation, which defines the principal axes of inertia of the body. As an example, its torque-free motion is discussed and a PN Poinsot configuration, which is similar to the Newtonian one with a small 1PN correction, is solved.

  8. Crystal Frameworks, Matrix-valued Functions and Rigidity Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Power, S C

    2011-01-01

    An introduction and survey is given of some recent work on the infinitesimal dynamics of \\textit{crystal frameworks}, that is, of translationally periodic discrete bond-node structures in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, for $ d=2,3,...$. We discuss the rigidity matrix, a fundamental object from finite bar-joint framework theory, rigidity operators, matrix-function representations and low energy phonons. These phonons in material crystals, such as quartz and zeolites, are known as rigid unit modes, or RUMs, and are associated with the relative motions of rigid units, such as ~SiO$_4$ tetrahedra in the tetrahedral polyhedral bond-node model for quartz. We also introduce semi-infinite crystal frameworks, bi-crystal frameworks and associated multi-variable Toeplitz operators.

  9. The role of rigidity in controlling material failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Michelle M.; Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Beuman, Thomas H.; Ulrich, Stephan; Nagel, Sidney R.; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how material rigidity acts as a key control parameter for the failure of solids under stress. In both experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that material failure can be continuously tuned by varying the underlying rigidity of the material while holding the amount of disorder constant. As the rigidity transition is approached, failure due to the application of uniaxial stress evolves from brittle cracking to system-spanning diffuse breaking. This evolution in failure behavior can be parameterized by the width of the crack. As a system becomes more and more floppy, this crack width increases until it saturates at the system size. Thus, the spatial extent of the failure zone can be used as a direct probe for material rigidity. PMID:27621463

  10. Resin Infusion Rigidized Inflatable Concept Development and Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing resin infusion to rigidize an inflatable structure and form fiber-reinforced composites on-orbit is a novel concept that builds on current NASA technology...

  11. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2n vertices (n > 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2n - 1 vertices (n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  12. Sedimentation of Rigid Cylindrical Particles with Mechanical Contacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jian-Zhong; WANG Ye-Long; James A. Olsen

    2005-01-01

    @@ A collision model of two cylindrical particles is put forward. Based on the model the sedimentation of rigid cylindrical particles with mechanical contacts is simulated numerically by using the lattice Boltzmann method.

  13. Wastes based glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Actually, the inertization, recovery and valorisation of the wastes coming from municipal and industrial processes are the most important goals from the environmental and economical point of view. An alternative technology capable to overcome the problem of the dishomogeneity of the raw material chemical composition is the vitrification process that is able to increase the homogeneity and the constancy of the chemical composition of the system and to modulate the properties in order to address the reutilization of the waste. Moreover, the glasses obtained subjected to different controlled thermal treatments, can be transformed in semy-cristalline material (named glass-ceramics with improved properties with respect to the parent amorphous materials. In this review the tailoring, preparation and characterization of glasses and glass-ceramics obtained starting from municipal incinerator grate ash, coal and steel fly ashes and glass cullet are described.

    Realmente la inertización, recuperación y valorización de residuos que proceden de los procesos de incineración de residuos municipales y de residuos industriales son metas importantes desde el punto de vista ambiental y económico. Una tecnología alternativa capaz de superar el problema de la heterogeneidad de la composición química de los materiales de partida es el proceso de la vitrificación que es capaz de aumentar la homogeneidad y la constancia de la composición química del sistema y modular las propiedades a fin de la reutilización del residuo. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de vitrificación en que los vidrios fueron sometidos a tratamientos térmicos controlados diferentes, de manera que se transforman en materiales semicristalinos (también denominados vitrocerámicos con mejores propiedades respecto a los materiales amorfos originales. En esta revisión se muestra el diseño, preparación y caracterización de vidrios y vitrocerámicos partiendo de

  14. Sol–gel processing of carbidic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L M Manocha; E Yasuda; Y Tanabe; S Manocha; D Vashistha

    2000-02-01

    Carbon incorporation into the silicate network results in the formation of rigid carbidic glasses with improved physical, mechanical and thermal properties. This generated great interest in the development of these heteroatom structured materials through different processing routes. In the present studies, sol–gel processing has been used to prepare silicon based glasses, especially oxycarbides through organic–inorganic hybrid gels by hydrolysis–condensation reactions in silicon alkoxides, 1,4-butanediol and furfuryl alcohol with an aim to introduce Si–C linkages in the precursors at sol level. The incorporation of these linkages has been studied using IR and NMR spectroscopy. These bonds, so introduced, are maintained throughout the processing, especially during pyrolysis to high temperatures. In FFA–TEOS system, copolymerization with optimized mol ratio of the two results in resinous mass. This precursor on pyrolysis to 1000°C results in Si–O–C type amorphous solid black mass. XRD studies on the materials heated to 1400°C exhibit presence of crystalline Si–C and cristobalites in amorphous Si–O–C mass. In organic–inorganic gel system, the pyrolysed mass exhibits phase stability up to much higher temperatures. The carbidic materials so produced have been found to exhibit good resistance against oxidation at 1000°C.

  15. 21 CFR 874.4710 - Esophagoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the flexible foreign body claw, flexible biopsy forceps, rigid biopsy curette, flexible biopsy brush, rigid biopsy forceps and flexible biopsy curette, but excludes...

  16. Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation in frozen mAb formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedmonte, Deirdre Murphy; Hair, Alison; Baker, Priti; Brych, Lejla; Nagapudi, Karthik; Lin, Hong; Cao, Wenjin; Hershenson, Susan; Ratnaswamy, Gayathri

    2015-02-01

    Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation of mAbs in the frozen state was evaluated. The effect of protein aggregation resulting from sorbitol crystallization was measured as a function of formulation variables such as protein concentration and pH. Long-term studies were performed on both IgG1 and IgG2 mAbs over the protein concentration range of 0.1-120 mg/mL. Protein aggregation was measured by size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) and further characterized by capillary-electrophoresis SDS. Sorbitol crystallization was monitored and characterized by subambient differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Aggregation due to sorbitol crystallization is inversely proportional to both protein concentration and formulation pH. At high protein concentrations, sorbitol crystallization was suppressed, and minimal aggregation by SE-HPLC resulted, presumably because of self-stabilization of the mAbs. The glass transition temperature (Tg ') and fragility index measurements were made to assess the influence of molecular mobility on the crystallization of sorbitol. Tg ' increased with increasing protein concentration for both mAbs. The fragility index decreased with increasing protein concentration, suggesting that it is increasingly difficult for sorbitol to crystallize at high protein concentrations.

  17. Glass microsphere lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Michelle; Goode, Henry; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Sorrells, Cindy; Willette, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The harsh lunar environment eliminated the consideration of most lubricants used on earth. Considering that the majority of the surface of the moon consists of sand, the elements that make up this mixture were analyzed. According to previous space missions, a large portion of the moon's surface is made up of fine grained crystalline rock, about 0.02 to 0.05 mm in size. These fine grained particles can be divided into four groups: lunar rock fragments, glasses, agglutinates (rock particles, crystals, or glasses), and fragments of meteorite material (rare). Analysis of the soil obtained from the missions has given chemical compositions of its materials. It is about 53 to 63 percent oxygen, 16 to 22 percent silicon, 10 to 16 percent sulfur, 5 to 9 percent aluminum, and has lesser amounts of magnesium, carbon, and sodium. To be self-supporting, the lubricant must utilize one or more of the above elements. Considering that the element must be easy to extract and readily manipulated, silicon or glass was the most logical choice. Being a ceramic, glass has a high strength and excellent resistance to temperature. The glass would also not contaminate the environment as it comes directly from it. If sand entered a bearing lubricated with grease, the lubricant would eventually fail and the shaft would bind, causing damage to the system. In a bearing lubricated with a solid glass lubricant, sand would be ground up and have little effect on the system. The next issue was what shape to form the glass in. Solid glass spheres was the only logical choice. The strength of the glass and its endurance would be optimal in this form. To behave as an effective lubricant, the diameter of the spheres would have to be very small, on the order of hundreds of microns or less. This would allow smaller clearances between the bearing and the shaft, and less material would be needed. The production of glass microspheres was divided into two parts, production and sorting. Production includes the

  18. Lens rigidity with trapped geodesics in two dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Croke, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    We consider the scattering and lens rigidity of compact surfaces with boundary that have a trapped geodesic. In particular we show that the flat cylinder and the flat M\\"obius strip are determined by their lens data. We also see by example that the flat M\\"obius strip is not determined by it's scattering data. We then consider the case of negatively curved cylinders with convex boundary and show that they are lens rigid.

  19. Modeling the Collision with Friction of Rigid Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabuga, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    Different models of a perfectly inelastic collision of rigid bodies in plane motion are compared. Formulas for the impact impulses are derived for the Kane-Levinson-Whittaker model based on the kinematic restitution factor, the Routh model based on the kinetic restitution factor, and the Stronge model based on the energy restitution factor. It is shown that these formulas coincide if the collision of rough rigid bodies in plane motion is perfectly inelastic

  20. Flexible band versus rigid ring annuloplasty for functional tricuspid regurgitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Kawachi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We review and compare our experience with tricuspid ring annuloplasty between usage of the Cosgrove-Edwards flexible band and the MC3 rigid ring for repair of functional tricuspid regurgitation to determine the efficacy and mid-term durability of tricuspid annuloplasty. 117 patients with functional tricuspid regurgitation undergoing open heart surgery and tricuspid valve repair from May 2005 to December 2007 were reviewed. The flexible bands were used in thirty five patients before October 2006. Since then, the rigid rings were used in the next consecutive eighty two cases. Echocardiographic evaluation of tricuspid regurgitation was performed preoperatively and postoperatively in follow-up schedule. The degree of tricuspid regurgitation was reduced from 2.80±0.67 to 0.71±1.0 (regurgitation severity grade: 0 to 4 in the patients with flexible bands at discharge. It was from 2.68±0.70 to 0.22±0.60 in the patients with rigid rings. At thirty six months postoperative period, tricuspid regurgitation grades in patients with flexible bands and rigid rings were 0.80±0.95 and 0.36±0.77, respectively. Freedom from recurrent tricuspid regurgitation (grade 2 or 3 in patients with flexible bands and rigid rings were 68.6% and 87.8%, respectively. Recurrent tricuspid regurgitation was significantly lower in the patients with rigid rings. Although both flexible band and rigid ring annuloplasty provide low rate of recurrent tricuspid regurgitation, rigid ring annuloplasty might be more effective than flexible band annuloplasty for decreasing functional tricuspid regurgitation in immediate and mid-term postoperative periods.

  1. Plasticity-rigidity cycles: A general adaptation mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Csermely, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Successful adaptation helped the emergence of complexity. Alternating plastic- and rigid-like states were recurrently considered to play a role in adaptive processes. However, this extensive knowledge remained fragmented. In this paper I describe plasticity-rigidity cycles as a general adaptation mechanism operating in molecular assemblies, assisted protein folding, cellular differentiation, learning, memory formation, creative thinking, as well as the organization of social groups and ecosys...

  2. Stochastic finite element applications in rigid pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoh-Okine, Nii O.

    1999-05-01

    Rigid pavement structures have uncertainties and variability in their structural layers and components. These variations and uncertainties are seldomly included in performance assessment and evaluation in pavement systems. This paper proposes to use Stochastic Finite Element Method (SFEM) in rigid pavement faulting and load transfer efficiency. The SFEM uses random parameters, as stochastic process namely random fields. These random fields are characterized, quantitatively by spatial functions of statistical moment like the mean, variance and covariance.

  3. Frozen transitions to adulthood of young people in Slovenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhar Metka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews key-indicators of youth transitions in Slovenia over the last decades and highlights some of the inherent tensions. Against the background of the metaphor of ‘frozen transitions’, which tries to grasp some of the contradictions between the speed of societal change and the stagnating development of youth towards independence, the article describes and reflects the development of youth transitions in the three domains of employment, housing and parenthood. The basis is a selection of indicators available in international data sets and surveys that allow to trace the change at least over the last two decades after the breakdown of Yugoslavia. Our findings indicate that transitions in Slovenia are frozen in all three domains, which challenges the usefulness of the conventional life course framework for studying post-communist contexts.

  4. First frozen repository for the Great Barrier Reef coral created.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Carter, Virginia; Henley, Mike; Abrego, David; Puill-Stephan, Eneour; Negri, Andrew; Heyward, Andrew; MacFarlane, Doug; Spindler, Rebecca

    2012-10-01

    To build new tools for the continued protection and propagation of coral from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), an international group of coral and cryopreservation scientists known as the Reef Recovery Initiative joined forces during the November 2011 mass-spawning event. The outcome was the creation of the first frozen bank for Australian coral from two important GBR reef-building species, Acropora tenuis and Acropora millepora. Approximately 190 frozen samples each with billions of cells were placed into long-term storage. Sperm cells were successfully cryopreserved, and after thawing, samples were used to fertilize eggs, resulting in functioning larvae. Additionally, developing larvae were dissociated, and these pluripotent cells were cryopreserved and viable after thawing. Now, we are in a unique position to move our work from the laboratory to the reefs to develop collaborative, practical conservation management tools to help secure Australia's coral biodiversity.

  5. Quality changes during frozen storage and thawing of mixed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fik, M; Macura, R

    2001-04-01

    In the present work investigations of the dependence between frozen storage time, the method of thawing (air blast at 50 degrees C and microwave), organoleptic and physico-chemical changes in bread are reported. The quality of the thawed product was analysed directly after thawing and after two days of storage at room temperature. It was found that changes in quality of bread are more affected by frozen storage than by the employed thawing method. The thawing methods had a significant (p bread at room temperature rather than directly after thawing. The results obtained in the present study suggest that bread which underwent microwave thawing had generally better quality in comparison with air blast thawing.

  6. Classification of frozen soil blastability by using perceptron neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马芹永; 张志红

    2002-01-01

    Influence factors of frozen soil blastability are analyzed which mainly conclude the strain energy coefficient, tensile strength, compressive strength, longitudinal wave velocity and transverse wave velocity. According to the principle of perceptron neural network, at first the index factors are standardized by the aid of the efficient function theory, then the blastability of frozen sand at -7, -12 and -17 ℃ are classified three categories. Through adjusting the weight value and threshold value, we can obtain that the clay blastability at -7 ℃ is close to the sand blastability at -12 ℃, they belong to the second category, the clay blastability at -12 ℃ is close to the sand blastability at -17 ℃, thus they are divided into the third category.

  7. Intraoperative visualization, frozen section, and permanent pathology in endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Although the sample size of the studied population was small but our study results support the previous data and suggest that in early stages and low grade tumors, gross examination and frozen section diagnosis are conveniently predictive of lymph node metastasis. These data might be useful for prediction of tumor invasion using frozen section and gross examination in low grade tumors and early stages and for doing complete surgical staging and lymph node sampling. However the im-portance of surgical staging always must be considered in patients who need systemat-ic lymphadenectomy. In overall these data might help to come up with new guidelines for surgical risk assessment in endometrial cancer.

  8. Relativistic frozen core potential scheme with relaxation of core electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Hayami, Masao; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-10-01

    This letter proposes a relaxation scheme for core electrons based on the frozen core potential method at the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess level, called FCP-CR. The core electrons are self-consistently relaxed using frozen molecular valence potentials after the valence SCF calculation is performed. The efficiency of FCP-CR is confirmed by calculations of gold clusters. Furthermore, FCP-CR reproduces the results of the all-electron method for the energies of coinage metal dimers and the core ionization energies and core level shifts of vinyl acetate and three tungsten complexes at the Hartree-Fock and/or symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction levels.

  9. Optimized Synthesis of Foam Glass from Recycled CRT Panel Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Most of the panel glass from cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is landfilled today. Instead of landfilling, the panel glass can be turned into new environment-friendly foam glass. Low density foam glass is an effective heat insulating material and can be produced just by using recycle glass and foaming...... additives. In this work we recycle the CRT panel glass to synthesize the foam glass as a crucial component of building and insulating materials. The synthesis conditions such as foaming temperature, duration, glass particle size, type and concentrations of foaming agents, and so on are optimized...... by performing systematic experiments. In particular, the concentration of foaming agents is an important parameter that influences the size of bubbles and the distribution of bubbles throughout the sample. The foam glasses are characterised regarding density and open/closed porosity. Differential scanning...

  10. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  11. Spreading of an Oil-in-Water Emulsion on a Glass Plate: Phase Inversion and Pattern Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deblais, A.; Harich, R.; Bonn, D.; Colin, A.; Kellay, H.

    2015-01-01

    Rigid blade coating of glass plates by oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by surfactants is studied. Complete surface coverage is obtained only for speeds exceeding a threshold velocity dependent on the height between the blade end and the surface. Below this threshold, the emulsion can be inverted

  12. On the compressibility and temperature boundary of warm frozen soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jilin; Dang, Boxiang; Guo, Xueluan; Sun, Xiaoyu; Yan, Xu

    2017-04-01

    A silty-clay obtained along the Qinghai-Tibetan railway and a standard Chinese sand were taken as study objects. Saturated frozen soil samples were prepared for testing. Step-load was used and confined compression was carried out on the soils under different temperatures. Compression index and pseudo-preconsolidation pressure (PPC) were obtained. Unlike unfrozen soils, PPC is not associated with stress history. However, it is still the boundary of elastic and plastic deformations. Different compression indexes can be obtained from an individual compression curve under pressures before and after PPC. The parameters at different thermal and stress conditions were analyzed. It is found that temperature plays a critical role in mechanical behaviours of frozen soils. Efforts were then made on the silty-clay in order to suggest a convincing temperature boundary in defining warm frozen soil. Three groups of ice-rich samples with different ice contents were prepared and tested under confined compression. The samples were compressed under a constant load and with 5 stepped temperatures. Strain rates at different temperatures were examined. It was found that the strain rate at around -0.6°C increased abruptly. Analysis of compression index was performed on the data both from our own testing program and from the literature, which showed that at about -1°C was a turning point in the curves for compression index against temperature. Based on both our work and taking into account the unfrozen water content vs. temperature, the range of -1°C to -0.5°C seems to be the temperature where the mechanical properties change greatly. For convenience, -1.0°C can be defined as the boundary for warm frozen soils.

  13. Angular correlation of annihilation photons in frozen aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milosevic-Kvajic, M.; Mogensen, O. E.; Kvajic, G.

    1972-01-01

    Linear‐slit angular correlation curves were obtained at about −140°C for frozen aqueous solutions of HF, HCl, HBr, HI, NH3, FeCl2, FeCl3, NaI, H2SO4, NHO3, MnSO4, KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, NaOH, and LiOH. We found no appreciable influence of a 4% concentration of the last seven impurities. Only halide‐cont...

  14. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis on frozen tumour tissue sections.

    OpenAIRE

    Boultwood, J; Kaklamanis, L.; Gatter, K C; Wainscoat, J S

    1992-01-01

    The application of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the molecular genetic analysis of solid tumours has been restricted by the requirement for whole single cells as a DNA source. A simple technique which allows for the direct analysis of histologically characterised solid tumour material by pulsed field gel electrophoresis was developed. Single frozen tissue sections obtained from colonic carcinoma specimens were embedded without further manipulation in molten, low melting temperatu...

  15. Viewing the Disney Movie Frozen through a Psychodynamic Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Christopher; Bhalla, Ruchi

    2015-10-14

    The Disney movie Frozen is the fifth highest grossing movie of all time. In order to better understand this phenomenon and to hypothesize as to why the movie resonated so strongly with audiences, we have interpreted the movie using psychodynamic theory. We pay particular attention to the themes of puberty, adolescence and sibling relationships and discuss examples of ego defenses that are employed by the lead character in relation to these concepts.

  16. Functionality of Different Surfactants and Ingredients in Frozen Dough

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar, Ali; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Hussain, Shahzad

    2006-01-01

    Surfactants are widely used in bakeries as dough strengtheners and dough improvers but there is a wide range of compounds available according to their mode of action that could potentially improve the quality of not only the simple breads and doughs but also of frozen dough. These types of product usually have a short shelf-life when compared with normal bakery products. With the increase in modernization and new trends in food products, consumers are becoming more and more aware and consciou...

  17. The rigidity dependence of Forbush decreases observed at the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, J.A.; Webber, W.R. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA)); Debrunner, H. (Univ. of Bern (Switzerland))

    1991-04-01

    The rigidity dependence of the large Forbush decreases occurring on July 23, 1981, July 11, 1982, and February 6, 1986, has been determined using neutron monitor and IMP spacecraft data which cover the energy range from about 50 MeV to 30 GeV. The contribution of solar flare protons to the lower-energy data from the IMP cosmic ray telescopes was carefully removed. The authors found that the rigidity dependences of the magnitudes of the July 1981, July 1982, and February 1986 Forbush decreases for P {ge} 2 GV were given by exp ({minus}1/P{sup 0.75}), exp ({minus}1/P{sup 0.6}), and exp ({minus}1/P{sup 1.0}), respectively. For 0.5 {le} P {le} 2 GV the magnitude of the Forbush decreases in July 1981 and July 1982 was rigidity independent. The February 1986 event also appeared to be rigidity independent below {approximately}1 GV. The characteristic recovery time of these Forbush decreases was found to be not strongly rigidity dependent. These results on the rigidity dependence of Forbush decreases for 0.5 < P < 20 GV are discussed in the context of proposed models.

  18. Non-rigid registration using higher-order mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckert, D.; Clarkson, M. J.; Hill, D. L. G.; Hawkes, D. J.

    2000-03-01

    Non-rigid registration of multi-modality images is an important tool for assessing temporal and structural changesbetween images. For rigid registration, voxel similarity measures like mutual information have been shown to alignimages from different modalities accurately and robustly. For non-rigid registration, mutual information can besensitive to local variations of intensity which in MR images may be caused by RF inhomogeneity. The reasonfor the sensitivity of mutual information towards intensity variations stems from the fact that mutual informationignores any spatial information. In this paper we propose an extension of the mutual information framework whichincorporates spatial information about higher-order image structure into the registration process and has the potentialto improve the accuracy and robustness of non-rigid registration in the presence of intensity variations. We haveapplied the non-rigid registration algorithm to a number of simulated MR brain images of a digital phantom whichhave been degraded by a simulated intensity shading and a known deformation. In addition, we have applied thealgorithm for the non-rigid registration of eight pre- and post-operative brain MR images which were acquired withan interventional MR scanner and therefore have substantial intensity shading due to RF field inhomogeneities. Inall cases the second-order estimate of mutual information leads to robust and accurate registration.

  19. Effect of freezing time on the quality of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmisha, I P; Ravishankar, C N; Ninan, G; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K S

    2008-09-01

    The present study aims to find the effect of freezing methods on the quality of mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) in commercial plate and air blast freezers during freezing and subsequent frozen storage (-18 degrees C). Total time for freezing was significantly different (P frozen samples compared to plate freezer where protein content decreased in both the samples. Upon freezing and during frozen storage, lipid oxidation products (peroxide value, thiobarbutiric acid value, and free fatty acid value) and volatile bases (total volatile base nitrogen and trimethyl amine nitrogen) showed an increasing trend in both the samples with values slightly higher in air blast frozen samples compared to plate frozen samples. The total plate counts showed a significantly (P frozen samples compared to plate frozen samples. The taste and overall acceptability was significantly different (P frozen samples compared to air blast frozen samples on 3rd month. Both samples were in acceptable condition up to 3 mo but the plate frozen samples quality was slightly better than the air blast frozen samples.

  20. Dueling Mechanisms for Dry Zones around Frozen Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbano, Caitlin; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    Ice acts as a local humidity sink, due to its depressed saturation pressure relative to that of supercooled water. Hygroscopic chemicals typically exhibit annular dry zones of inhibited condensation; however, dry zones do not tend to form around ice because of inter-droplet frost growth to nearby liquid droplets that have already condensed on the chilled surface. Here, we use a humidity chamber with an embedded Peltier stage to initially suppress the growth of condensation on a chilled surface containing a single frozen droplet, in order to characterize the dry zone around ice for the first time. The length of the dry zone was observed to vary by at least two orders of magnitude as a function of surface temperature, ambient humidity, and the size of the frozen droplet. The surface temperature and ambient humidity govern the magnitudes of the in-plane and out-of-plane gradients in vapor pressure, while the size of the frozen droplet effects the local thickness of the concentration boundary layer. We develop an analytical model that reveals two different types of dry zones are possible: one in which nucleation is inhibited and one where the net growth of condensate is inhibited. Finally, a phase map was developed to predict the parameter space in which nucleation dry zones versus flux dry zones are dominant.

  1. PRESERVING QUALITY OF FROZEN GREEN PEAS DURING LONG TIME STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA DIMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the degree which fresh green peas maintain their technological properties and nutritional components during long-term storage, for a period of 24 months, in a defined condition of the air, at maximum -18°C. Peas were blanched, at four different durations of this operation and the same temperature of the blanching water, 95°C. The peas were frozen after end stored. In conditions of long-term storage of frozen peas, it has been found a considerable loss of the initial content of vitamin C and damage of chlorophyll (total, a and b, under the action of chlorophyllase, causing some gray compounds. The conditions of the storage in frozen stage produced a distortion of color and sensorial qualities, higher as the storage temperature was higher than prescribed. It was found that the best results in preserving quality of peas during long-term storage (24 months were obtained for the blanched samples at 4 minutes at 95°C. The reducing of the content of vitamin C, chlorophyll a and b, and sensorial qualities was the lowest, overall.

  2. Miniopen coracohumeral ligament release and manipulation for idiopathic frozen shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsalam Eid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the management of idiopathic frozen shoulder, manipulation under anaesthesia is known to have serious potential complications including fractures and intra-articular injuries. Arthroscopy is a safer treatment modality but requires special instruments, experience, and involves added cost. The aim of this work was to study the use of miniopen Coracohumeral ligament release and manipulation of the shoulder as a safe and simple method of treating idiopathic frozen shoulder that could be performed as a quick procedure under short duration anaesthesia obtaining a significant improvement of shoulder function while avoiding complications that are feared to occur with the use of manipulation under anaesthesia. Miniopen Coracohumeral ligament release is performed through a 3-cm incision. The Coracohumeral ligament is divided, and then the shoulder is manipulated without undue force. A case series including fifteen patients (19 shoulders with idiopathic frozen shoulder operated by this technique is described. Miniopen Coracohumeral ligament release and manipulation is a quick procedure that may be performed under short duration anaesthesia obtaining a significant improvement of shoulder function meanwhile avoiding complications that are feared to occur with the use of manipulation under anaesthesia.

  3. Xanthogranuloma of the sellar region diagnosed by frozen section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kun; Zhang, Liyan; Wang, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Xanthogranuloma (XG) of the sellar region is uncommon and is difficult to diagnose based on intraoperative frozen sections. This study is a case presentation and review of the literature, highlighting the need to explore underlying diseases in order to guarantee an accurate patient diagnosis. Herein, we presented the case of a 43-year-old woman who was afflicted with xanthogranuloma of the sellar region; the patient had a history of headache and lengthened menstrual cycles over the 6 months prior to presentation. Endocrinology tests revealed that the patient’s levels of prolactin were high and the MRI of the patient showed a clearly defined sellar mass. As a result, the patient was considered to have prolactinoma prior to undergoing surgery. The tumor was completely removed using a transsphenoidal approach, and intraoperative frozen section revealed histology similar to xanthogranuloma. When the tumor was removed by surgical operation, the patient’s visual field defects and headache were relieved. Although intraoperative frozen section should provide some guidance with regard to the diagnosis, a pathological study is conducted to confirm the actual diagnosis. PMID:28352831

  4. Xanthogranuloma of the sellar region diagnosed by frozen section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Kun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranuloma (XG of the sellar region is uncommon and is difficult to diagnose based on intraoperative frozen sections. This study is a case presentation and review of the literature, highlighting the need to explore underlying diseases in order to guarantee an accurate patient diagnosis. Herein, we presented the case of a 43-year-old woman who was afflicted with xanthogranuloma of the sellar region; the patient had a history of headache and lengthened menstrual cycles over the 6 months prior to presentation. Endocrinology tests revealed that the patient’s levels of prolactin were high and the MRI of the patient showed a clearly defined sellar mass. As a result, the patient was considered to have prolactinoma prior to undergoing surgery. The tumor was completely removed using a transsphenoidal approach, and intraoperative frozen section revealed histology similar to xanthogranuloma. When the tumor was removed by surgical operation, the patient’s visual field defects and headache were relieved. Although intraoperative frozen section should provide some guidance with regard to the diagnosis, a pathological study is conducted to confirm the actual diagnosis.

  5. Renormalization of the frozen Gaussian approximation to the quantum propagator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchen, Jörg; Pollak, Eli; Tao, Guohua; Miller, William H

    2011-04-07

    The frozen Gaussian approximation to the quantum propagator may be a viable method for obtaining "on the fly" quantum dynamical information on systems with many degrees of freedom. However, it has two severe limitations, it rapidly loses normalization and one needs to know the Gaussian averaged potential, hence it is not a purely local theory in the force field. These limitations are in principle remedied by using the Herman-Kluk (HK) form for the semiclassical propagator. The HK propagator approximately conserves unitarity for relatively long times and depends only locally on the bare potential and its second derivatives. However, the HK propagator involves a much more expensive computation due to the need for evaluating the monodromy matrix elements. In this paper, we (a) derive a new formula for the normalization integral based on a prefactor free HK propagator which is amenable to "on the fly" computations; (b) show that a frozen Gaussian version of the normalization integral is not readily computable "on the fly"; (c) provide a new insight into how the HK prefactor leads to approximate unitarity; and (d) how one may construct a prefactor free approximation which combines the advantages of the frozen Gaussian and the HK propagators. The theoretical developments are backed by numerical examples on a Morse oscillator and a quartic double well potential.

  6. Surgical Tips in Frozen Abdomen Management: Application of Coliseum Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis D. Kyriazanos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound dehiscence is a serious postoperative complication, with an incidence of 0.5–3% after primary closure of a laparotomy incision, and represents an acute mechanical failure of wound healing. Relatively recently the concept of “intentional open abdomen” was described and both clinical entities share common pathophysiological and clinical pathways (“postoperative open abdominal wall”. Although early reconstruction is the target, a significant proportion of patients will develop adhesions between abdominal viscera and the anterolateral abdominal wall, a condition widely recognized as “frozen abdomen,” where delayed wound closure appears as the only realistic alternative. We report our experience with a patient who presented with frozen abdomen after wound dehiscence due to surgical site infection and application of the “Coliseum technique” for its definitive surgical management. This novel technique represents an innovative alternative to abdominal exploration, for cases of “malignant” frozen abdomen due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. Lifting the edges of the surgical wound upwards and suspending them under traction by threads from a retractor positioned above the abdomen facilitates approach to the peritoneal cavity, optimizes exposure of intra-abdominal organs, and prevents operative injury to the innervation and blood supply of abdominal wall musculature, a crucial step for subsequent hernia repair.

  7. Repair and enumeration of injured coliforms in frozen foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warseck, M; Ray, B; Speck, M L

    1973-12-01

    Two strains of Escherichia coli manifested death and repairable injury after being frozen in water or sterile foods at -20 C. The injured survivors were inhibited from forming colonies on violet red bile agar (VRBA) or deoxycholate lactose agar; this inhibition was greater when enumeration was done by the pour plate method instead of the surface or surface-overlay method. Injured cells repaired rapidly in Trypticase soy broth (TSB), and the repair was about maximum after 1 h at 25 C. When the injured cells were added to different foods and incubated at 25 C, repair also occurred; however, recovery was better and more uniform when the samples were mixed with TSB and incubated 1 h at 25 C. Cell multiplication was not evident until after 90 to 120 min at 25 C. The enumeration of coliforms from commercially frozen foods was increased when the thawed samples were mixed with TSB and the cells were allowed to repair 1 h at 25 C. In some samples, the repair permitted at least a 20-fold increase in the coliform count. The associated flora in the commercially frozen foods gave no evidence of impairing the repair of coliforms, nor did they start multiplication prior to 90 min after being incubated in TSB at 25 C. Generally, the plating gave more reproducible recovery of coliforms than did the most probable number method. Also, a higher number of coliforms were obtained by the surface-overlay method of plating using VRBA.

  8. Platelet-Rich Plasma for Frozen Shoulder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Aslani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen shoulder is a glenohumeral joint disorder that perturbs movement because of adhesion and the existence of fibrosis in the shoulder capsule. Platelet-rich plasma can produce collagen and growth factors, which increases stem cells and consequently enhances the healing. To date, there is no evidence regarding the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma in frozen shoulder. A 45-year-old man with shoulder adhesive capsulitis volunteered for this treatment. He underwent two consecutive platelet-rich plasma injections at the seventh and eighth month after initiation of symptoms. We measured pain, function, and ROM by the visual analogue scale (VAS, and scores from the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaire and goniometer; respectively. After the first injection, the patient reported 60% improvement regarding diurnal shoulder pain, and no night pains. Also, two-fold improvement for ROM and more than 70% improvement for function were reported. This study suggests the use of platelet-rich plasma in frozen shoulder to be tested in randomized trials.

  9. Thermal history effects on electrical relaxation and conductivity for potassium silicate glass with low alkali concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.; Cooper, Alfred R.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical response measurements from 10 Hz to 100 kHz between 120 and 540 C were made on potassium-silicate glasses with alkali oxide contents of 2, 3, 5 and 10 mol percent. Low alkali content glasses were chosen in order to try to reduce the Coulombic interactions between alkali ions to the point that frozen structural effects from the glass could be observed. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Lower DC conductivity (sigma(sub DC)) activation energies were measured for the quenched compared to the annealed glasses. The two glasses with the lowest alkali contents exhibited a non-Arrhenius concave up curvature in the log(sigma(sub DC)) against 1/T plots, which decreased upon quenching. A sharp decrease in sigma(sub DC) was observed for glasses containing K2O concentrations of 5 mol percent or less. The log modulus loss peak (M'') maximum frequency plots against 1/T all showed Arrhenius behavior for both annealed and quenched samples. The activation energies for these plots closely agreed with the sigma(sub DC) activation energies. A sharp increase in activation energy was observed for both series as the potassium oxide concentration decreased. Changes in the electrical response are attributed to structural effects due to different alkali concentrations. Differences between the annealed and quenched response are linked to a change in the distribution of activation energies (DAE).

  10. Effect of PMMA impregnation on the fluorescence quantum yield of sol-gel glasses doped with quinine sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Díaz-Torres, L. A.; Chávez-Cerda, S.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; King, T. A.

    2001-08-01

    The fluorescence quantum yield of quinine sulfate in sol-gel and PMMA impregnated glasses is measured. The observed quantum yield improvement in the sol-gel matrix, compared to ethanol, is interpreted as a reduction of non-radiative relaxation channels by isolation of the molecules by the cage of the glass. PMMA impregnated sol-gel glasses show an extra improvement of the fluorescence yield, which is interpreted as a reduction of the free space and the rigid fixation of the molecules to the matrix.

  11. IXO glass mirrors development in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M. M.; Conconi, P.; Gallieni, D.; Ghigo, M.; Martelli, F.; Parodi, G.; Proserpio, L.; Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tintori, M.; Wille, E.; Zambra, A.

    2011-09-01

    The mirrors of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) were based on of a large number of high quality segments, aiming at achieving a global spatial resolution better than 5 arcsec (HEW). A study concerning the slumping of thin glass foils for the IXO mirrors is under development in Europe, funded by ESA and led by the Brera Observatory and is continuing even after that the programhas been descoped, in the perspective of using the technology under development for other future missions. After a preliminary trade-off study, we have focused our the effort on the "Direct" slumping approach, based on the use of convex moulds. In this case during the thermal cycle the optical surface of the glass is in direct contact with the mould surface. The thin plates are made of thin glass sheets (0.4 mm thick), with a reflecting area of 200 mm × 200 mm. The adopted integration process foresees the use of reinforcing ribs for bonding together the plates and forming in that way a rigid and stiff stack of segmented mirror shells; the stack is supported by a thick backplane. During the bonding process the plates are constrained to stay in close contact with the surface of the master (i.e. the same mould used for the hot slumping process) by the application of vacuum pump suction. In this way the spring-back deformations and low frequency errors still present on the foil profile after slumping can be corrected. In this paper we will give an overview and a status report of the project.

  12. Fast Heterogeneous Relaxation Near The Glass Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russina, Margarita

    2000-03-01

    More than a decade ago inelastic neutron scattering studies revealed a surprising characteristic feature in the atomic dynamics near the glass transition, which was often called the betta-process, with reference to predictions of the mode coupling theory (MCT). This process appears on the ps time scale, i.e. fast compared to the ordinary flow viscosity governed relaxation and slow compared to usual atomic vibrations, and its nature remained a puzzle over the years. Although inelastic neutron scattering is ideally suited to observe dynamics on microscopic time and length scales, experimental difficulties due to strong multiple scattering effects prevented the exploration of the spatial character of this process. By a new experimental approach to correct for these spurious contributions with a high precision, we were now able to extend the spatial domain of our observations from just about nearest neighbor atomic distances by close to an order of magnitude larger ones, which length scale includes that of the intermediate range order, which can be expected to reveal most sensitively collective, as opposed to the local, behavior. Our results in the fragile glass forming liquid Ca-K-NO3 show, that the betta-process is a first fast step of the structural relaxation, which confirms a most fundamental prediction of MCT. Furthermore, by investigating the Debye-Waller factor associated with this process, we found that its geometrical nature corresponds to quasi-rigid, correlated displacement of mobile groups of atoms, which move much faster than the ordinary flow of the bulk of the supercooled liquid. This is the first direct experimental evidence for the existence of heterogeneous fast flow processes similar to the string-flow motion recently observed in molecular dynamic simulations of model liquids close to the glass transition.

  13. Practical Considerations for Determination of Glass Transition Temperature of a Maximally Freeze Concentrated Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansare, Swapnil K; Patel, Sajal Manubhai

    2016-08-01

    Glass transition temperature is a unique thermal characteristic of amorphous systems and is associated with changes in physical properties such as heat capacity, viscosity, electrical resistance, and molecular mobility. Glass transition temperature for amorphous solids is referred as (T g), whereas for maximally freeze concentrated solution, the notation is (T g'). This article is focused on the factors affecting determination of T g' for application to lyophilization process design and frozen storage stability. Also, this review provides a perspective on use of various types of solutes in protein formulation and their effect on T g'. Although various analytical techniques are used for determination of T g' based on the changes in physical properties associated with glass transition, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most commonly used technique. In this article, an overview of DSC technique is provided along with brief discussion on the alternate analytical techniques for T g' determination. Additionally, challenges associated with T g' determination, using DSC for protein formulations, are discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical industry perspective on determination of T g' for protein formulations as it relates to design and development of lyophilization process and/or for frozen storage; however, a comprehensive review of glass transition temperature (T g, T g'), in general, is outside the scope of this work.

  14. Sol-Gel Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  15. Demonstration of a frozen sample aliquotter to prepare plasma and serum aliquots without thawing frozen parent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Helena Judge; Venturini, Deborah S

    2013-06-01

    Human biospecimens represent invaluable resources to advance molecular medicine, epidemiology, and biomarker discovery/validation, among other biomedical research. Biobanks typically cryopreserve biospecimens to safeguard their biochemical composition. However, exposing specimens repeatedly to freeze/thaw cycles can degrade their integrity in unforeseen ways. Those biobanks storing liquid samples, thus, regularly make a fundamental compromise at collection time between freezing samples in many small volumes (e.g., 0.5 mL or smaller) or in fewer, larger volumes (e.g., 1.8 mL). The former eliminates the need to expose samples to repeated freeze/thaw cycling, although increasing up-front labor costs, consumables used, and cold storage space requirements. The latter decreases up-front labor costs, consumables, and cold storage requirements, yet exposes samples repeatedly to damaging freeze/thaw cycles when smaller aliquots are needed for analysis. The Rhode Island BioBank at Brown University (RIBB) thoroughly evaluated the performance of an original technology that minimizes a sample's exposure to freeze/thaw cycling by enabling the automated extraction of frozen aliquots from one single frozen parent sample without thawing it. A technology that eliminates unnecessary sample exposures to freeze/thaw cycles could help protect sample integrity, extend its useful life, and effectively rectify and eliminate the aforementioned need to compromise. This report presents the results of the evaluation, and conclusively demonstrates the technology's ability to extract multiple uniform frozen aliquots from a single cryotube of never-thawed frozen human plasma, which faithfully represent the parent sample when analyzed for typical biochemical analytes, showing a coefficient of variability lower than 5.5%.

  16. A density-independent glass transition in biological tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Dapeng; Schwarz, J M; Manning, M Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Cells must move through tissues in many important biological processes, including embryonic development, cancer metastasis, and wound healing. In these tissues, a cell's motion is often strongly constrained by its neighbors, leading to glassy dynamics. Recent work has demonstrated the existence of a non-equilibrium glass transition in self-propelled particle models for active matter, where the transition is driven by changes in density. However, this may not explain liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues, where there are no gaps between cells and the packing fraction remains fixed and equal to unity. Here we demonstrate the existence of a different type of glass transition that occurs in the well-studied vertex model for confluent tissue monolayers. In this model, the onset of rigidity is governed by changes to single-cell properties such as cell-cell adhesion, cortical tension, and volume compressibility, providing an explanation for a liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues.

  17. Disentangling interatomic repulsion and anharmonicity in the viscosity and fragility of glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausser, J.; Lagogianni, A. E.; Samwer, K.; Zaccone, A.

    2017-03-01

    Within the shoving model of the glass transition, the relaxation time and the viscosity are related to the local cage rigidity. This approach can be extended down to the atomic level in terms of the interatomic interaction or potential of mean force. We applied this approach to both real metallic glass formers and model Lennard-Jones glasses. The main outcome of this analysis is that in metallic glasses the thermal expansion contribution is mostly independent of composition and is uncorrelated with the interatomic repulsion: As a consequence, the fragility increases upon increasing the interatomic repulsion steepness. In the Lennard-Jones glasses, the scenario is opposite: Thermal expansion and interatomic repulsion contributions are strongly correlated, and the fragility decreases upon increasing the repulsion steepness. This framework allows one to tell apart systems where "soft atoms make strong glasses" from those where, instead, "soft atoms make fragile glasses." Hence, it opens up the way for the rational, atomistic tuning of the fragility and viscosity of widely different glass-forming materials all the way from strong to fragile.

  18. The effect of pre-treatment, temperature and length of frozen storage on the retention of chlorophylls in frozen brassicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Kmiecik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation covered broccoli, green cauliflower and Brussels sprouts. The evaluation concerned the raw material; the material after blanching; the material after cooking; and frozen products from blanched (traditional method and cooked (modified method material, stored at –20°C and –30°C then prepared for consumption using water-cooking in the traditional method and thawing by microwave in the modified method after 0, 4, 8 and 12 months of frozen storage. Depending on the investigated sample, the vegetables prepared for consumption after 12 months of frozen storage retained total chlorophylls as follows: broccoli, 45-66% of the content in the raw material; green cauliflower, 30-45%; and Brussels sprouts, 66-78%. In comparison with the traditional method, the mean content of chlorophylls in Brussels sprouts obtained using the modified method was 16% higher; however, in broccoli the content was lower by 23% and in cauliflower by 21% on average. Lower storage temperature resulted in higher content of chlorophylls in all investigated vegetables.

  19. A Taphonomic Study Exploring the Differences in Decomposition Rate and Manner between Frozen and Never Frozen Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2015-05-01

    This research examined differences in decomposition rate and manner of domestic pig subjects (Sus scrofa) in never frozen (control) and previously frozen (experimental) research conditions. Eight control and experimental subjects were placed in an identical outdoor research environment. Daily quantitative and qualitative measurements were collected: abdominal circumference, total body score (TBS), temperature, photographs, descriptive decomposition stages, and visual observations. Field necropsies were performed at accumulated degree days (ADD) between 50 and 300 (Celsius). Paired samples t-tests of ADD to TBS >3.0, TBS >9.5, and TBS >16.0 indicate the rate of decomposition of experimental subjects was significantly slower than controls at both TBS >3 and >9.5 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). A suite of qualitative indicators of predecomposition freezing is also reported. The differences between experimental and control subjects suggest previously frozen subjects should not be used in taphonomic research, as results do not accurately reflect the "normal" taphonomic condition.

  20. Two-Level Solutions to Exponentially Complex Problems in Glass Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauro, John C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    Glass poses an especially challenging problem for physicists. The key to making progress in theoretical glass science is to extract the key physics governing properties of practical interest. In this spirit, we discuss several two-level solutions to exponentially complex problems in glass science....... Topological constraint theory, originally developed by J.C. Phillips, is based on a two-level description of rigid and floppy modes in a glass network and can be used to derive quantitatively accurate and analytically solvable models for a variety of macroscopic properties. The temperature dependence...... of the floppy mode density is used to derive the new MYEGA model of supercooled liquid viscosity, which offers improved descriptions for the temperature and composition dependence of relaxation time. The relaxation behavior of the glassy state can be further elucidated using a two-level energy landscape...

  1. 77 FR 27435 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final... order on certain frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam..., 2010, through January 31, 2011. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic...

  2. Bio-Glasses An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This new work is dedicated to glasses and their variants which can be used as biomaterials to repair diseased and damaged tissues. Bio-glasses are superior to other biomaterials in many applications, such as healing bone by signaling stem cells to become bone cells.   Key features:  First book on biomaterials to focus on bio-glassesEdited by a leading authority on bio-glasses trained by one of its inventors, Dr Larry HenchSupported by the International Commission on Glass (ICG)Authored by members of the ICG Biomedical Glass Committee, with the goal of creating a seamless textb

  3. Glass strengthening and patterning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David C; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Duty, Chad E

    2015-01-27

    High intensity plasma-arc heat sources, such as a plasma-arc lamp, are used to irradiate glass, glass ceramics and/or ceramic materials to strengthen the glass. The same high intensity plasma-arc heat source may also be used to form a permanent pattern on the glass surface--the pattern being raised above the glass surface and integral with the glass (formed of the same material) by use of, for example, a screen-printed ink composition having been irradiated by the heat source.

  4. Glass formation - A contemporary view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The process of glass formation is discussed from several perspectives. Particular attention is directed to kinetic treatments of glass formation and to the question of how fast a given liquid must be cooled in order to form a glass. Specific consideration is paid to the calculation of critical cooling rates for glass formation, to the effects of nucleating heterogeneities and transients in nucleation on the critical cooling rates, to crystallization on reheating a glass, to the experimental determination of nucleation rates and barriers to crystal nucleation, and to the characteristics of materials which are most conducive to glass formation.

  5. Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    i 2N E ihhhhh1112h MEmhhhhEEEohhhhE I.’....momo 111111111’-20 LA ’Ll2. AFWL-TR-86-37 AFWL-TR- 86-37 oT C ,l C ’-’ N HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 0nI...Secwrit CkasmfcationJ HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Reisfield, Renata; and Eyal, Mrek 13. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME COVERED 114...glasses containing about 50 mole% of ZrF4 [which can be replaced by HfF 4 or TIF 4 (Refs. 1-3) or heavy metal fluorides based on PbF2 and on 3d-group

  6. Perspectives on spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Contucci, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Presenting and developing the theory of spin glasses as a prototype for complex systems, this book is a rigorous and up-to-date introduction to their properties. The book combines a mathematical description with a physical insight of spin glass models. Topics covered include the physical origins of those models and their treatment with replica theory; mathematical properties like correlation inequalities and their use in the thermodynamic limit theory; main exact solutions of the mean field models and their probabilistic structures; and the theory of the structural properties of the spin glass phase such as stochastic stability and the overlap identities. Finally, a detailed account is given of the recent numerical simulation results and properties, including overlap equivalence, ultrametricity and decay of correlations. The book is ideal for mathematical physicists and probabilists working in disordered systems.

  7. The descent into glass formation in polymer fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Karl F

    2011-03-15

    Glassy materials have been fundamental to technology since the dawn of civilization and remain so to this day: novel glassy systems are currently being developed for applications in energy storage, electronics, food, drugs, and more. Glass-forming fluids exhibit a universal set of transitions beginning at temperatures often in excess of twice the glass transition temperature T(g) and extending down to T(g), below which relaxation becomes so slow that systems no longer equilibrate on experimental time scales. Despite the technological importance of glasses, no prior theory explains this universal behavior nor describes the huge variations in the properties of glass-forming fluids that result from differences in molecular structure. Not surprisingly, the glass transition is currently regarded by many as the deepest unsolved problem in solid state theory. In this Account, we describe our recently developed theory of glass formation in polymer fluids. Our theory explains the origin of four universal characteristic temperatures of glass formation and their dependence on monomer-monomer van der Waals energies, conformational energies, and pressure and, perhaps most importantly, on molecular details, such as monomer structure, molecular weight, size of side groups, and so forth. The theory also provides a molecular explanation for fragility, a parameter that quantifies the rate of change with temperature of the viscosity and other dynamic mechanical properties at T(g). The fragility reflects the fluid's thermal sensitivity and determines the manner in which glass-formers can be processed, such as by extrusion, casting, or inkjet spotting. Specifically, the theory describes the change in thermodynamic properties and fragility of polymer glasses with variations in the monomer structure, the rigidity of the backbone and side groups, the cohesive energy, and so forth. The dependence of the structural relaxation time at lower temperatures emerges from the theory as the Vogel

  8. Solubility and viscosity of herring (Clupea harengus) proteins as affected by freezing and frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsdottir, M; Hlynsdottir, H; Thorkelsson, G; Sigurgisladottir, S

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of freezing and frozen storage at -24 degrees C on the quality of Icelandic herring fillets, focusing on protein solubility and viscosity at pH 2.7 and 11 used for pH-aided protein isolation. The evaluation of quality was based on chemical analyses, protein degradation measurements, and changes in protein solubility and viscosity at pH 2.7 and 11 after up to 6-mo frozen storage of the herring fillets. Lipid oxidation measured as TBARS values increased significantly during the frozen storage (P frozen storage for 6 mo, where the solubility was about 10% lower after 6-mo frozen storage compared to the beginning (P frozen storage compared to initial solubility (P frozen storage (P frozen storage, compared to fresh herring fillets, but did not increase significantly with further storage (P frozen storage. SDS-PAGE analysis did not reveal any protein cross-linking or aggregation formation, either with frozen storage or due to exposure to low pH.

  9. Optical properties and weakening of elastic moduli with increasing glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) in (80-x)TeO{sub 2}-xBaO-20ZnO glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Muliana; Supardan, Siti Nurbaya; Yahya, Ahmad Kamal [Univ. Teknologi Mara (Malaysia). School of Physics and Materials Studies; Abd-Shukor, Roslan [Univ. Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia). School of Applied Physics

    2015-08-15

    BaO addition to ternary (80-x)TeO{sub 2}-20ZnO-xBaO (x = 0-20 mol.%) glasses resulted in a decrease in ultrasonic velocities and independent elastic moduli; this result indicated that the rigidity of the glass network weakened possibly because non-bridging oxygen increased. Thermal analysis results showed that glass transition temperature increased as BaO content increased because of the stabilizing effect of Ba{sup 2+} on the glass network. Additional analyses using bulk compression and ring deformation models revealed that the ratio between theoretical bulk modulus and experimental bulk modulus increased; this result indicated that the compression mechanism mainly involved isotropic ring compression. Furthermore, the increase in non-bridging oxygen formation with BaO addition caused a decrease in optical energy gap and an increase in refractive index. An increase in Urbach energy indicated that the degree of disorder in the glass system also increased.

  10. 21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products... contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a... rigid gas permeable contact lens. This includes all solutions and tablets used together with rigid...

  11. Barriers to cooperation aid ideological rigidity and threaten societal collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusup, Marko; Matsuo, Tadasu; Iwasa, Yoh

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the factors that promote, disrupt, or shape the nature of cooperation is one of the main tasks of evolutionary biology. Here, we focus on attitudes and beliefs supportive of in-group favoritism and strict adherence to moral consensus, collectively known as ideological rigidity, that have been linked with both ends of the political spectrum. The presence among the political right and the left is likely to make ideological rigidity a major determinant of the political discourse with an important social function. To better understand this function, we equip the indirect reciprocity framework--widely used to explain evaluation-mediated social cooperation--with multiple stylized value systems, each corresponding to the different degree of ideological rigidity. By running game theoretical simulations, we observe the competitive evolution of these systems, map conditions that lead to more ideologically rigid societies, and identify potentially disastrous outcomes. In particular, we uncover that barriers to cooperation aid ideological rigidity. The society may even polarize to the extent where social parasites overrun the population and cause the complete collapse of the social structure. These results have implications for lawmakers globally, warning against restrictive or protectionist policies.

  12. Structural Rigidity of Paranemic (PX) and Juxtapose (JX) DNA Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; 10.1016/j.bpj.2011.08.007

    2011-01-01

    Crossover motifs are integral components for designing DNA based nanostructures and nanomechanical devices due to their enhanced rigidity compared to the normal B-DNA. Although the structural rigidity of the double helix B-DNA has been investigated extensively using both experimental and theoretical tools, to date there is no quantitative information about structural rigidity and the mechanical strength of parallel crossover DNA motifs. We have used fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent to get the force-extension curve of parallel DNA nanostructures to characterize their mechanical rigidity. In the presence of mono-valent Na+ ions, we find that the stretch modulus (\\gamma_1) of the paranemic crossover (PX) and its topo-isomer JX DNA structure is significantly higher (~ 30%) compared to normal B-DNA of the same sequence and length. However, this is in contrast to the original expectation that these motifs are almost twice rigid compared to the double-stranded B-DNA. When the DNA mo...

  13. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinnerichs, Terry D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lo, Chi S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  14. Non-rigid, but not rigid, motion interferes with the processing of structural face information in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguinness, Corrina; Newell, Fiona N

    2015-04-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that facial motion is an important cue for face recognition. However, it is poorly understood whether motion is integrated with facial form information or whether it provides an independent cue to identity. To provide further insight into this issue, we compared the effect of motion on face perception in two developmental prosopagnosics and age-matched controls. Participants first learned faces presented dynamically (video), or in a sequence of static images, in which rigid (viewpoint) or non-rigid (expression) changes occurred. Immediately following learning, participants were required to match a static face image to the learned face. Test face images varied by viewpoint (Experiment 1) or expression (Experiment 2) and were learned or novel face images. We found similar performance across prosopagnosics and controls in matching facial identity across changes in viewpoint when the learned face was shown moving in a rigid manner. However, non-rigid motion interfered with face matching across changes in expression in both individuals with prosopagnosia compared to the performance of control participants. In contrast, non-rigid motion did not differentially affect the matching of facial expressions across changes in identity for either prosopagnosics (Experiment 3). Our results suggest that whilst the processing of rigid motion information of a face may be preserved in developmental prosopagnosia, non-rigid motion can specifically interfere with the representation of structural face information. Taken together, these results suggest that both form and motion cues are important in face perception and that these cues are likely integrated in the representation of facial identity.

  15. Foam Glass for Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund

    2016-01-01

    Foaming is commonly achieved by adding foaming agents such as metal oxides or metal carbonates to glass powder. At elevated temperature, the glass melt becomes viscous and the foaming agents decompose or react to form gas, causing a foamy glass melt. Subsequent cooling to room temperature, result...... in a solid foam glass. The foam glass industry employs a range of different melt precursors and foaming agents. Recycle glass is key melt precursors. Many parameters influence the foaming process and optimising the foaming conditions is very time consuming. The most challenging and attractive goal is to make...... low density foam glass for thermal insulation applications. In this thesis, it is argued that the use of metal carbonates as foaming agents is not suitable for low density foam glass. A reaction mechanism is proposed to justify this result. Furthermore, an in situ method is developed to optimise...

  16. Comparison of hexaminolevulinate based flexible and rigid fluorescence cystoscopy with rigid white light cystoscopy in bladder cancer: results of a prospective Phase II study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, J.A.; Moonen, P.M.J.; Heijden, A.G. van der

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown that rigid fluorescence cystoscopy (RFC) with hexaminolevulinate (HAL) is superior to standard rigid white light (RWLC) cystoscopy in diagnosing bladder tumours, with a clinically relevant impact on the patient's management. These studies, howev

  17. Shattering women's glass ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri Podesta, Marie Therese; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The role of women in academia has always greatly interested me. Several years ago, when I was asked to become Gender Issues Committee chairperson at the University of Malta, I readily accepted. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/shattering-womens-glass-ceiling/

  18. Glass as matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2000-01-01

    Refraiming the Moderns - Substitute Windows and Glass. In general terms, the seminar has contributed to the growing interest in the problems concerning the restoration of Modern Movement architecture. More particularly, it has of course drawn our attention to modern windows, which are increasingly...

  19. What Glass Ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Post, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    A recent study drawing on data from the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggests that the wage gap between men and women has virtually disappeared, and that the so-called "glass ceiling" results more from age and qualifications than from explicit discrimination. (SLD)

  20. Supercooled Liquids and Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    In these lectures, which were presented at "Soft and Fragile Matter, Nonequilibrium Dynamics, Metastability and Flow" University of St. Andrews, 8 July - 22 July, 1999, I give an introduction to the physics of supercooled liquids and glasses and discuss some computer simulations done to investigate these systems.