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Sample records for frontonia leucas ehrenberg

  1. Feeding behavior of Frontonia leucas (Ehrenberg (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hymenostomatida under different environmental conditions in a lotic system Comportamento alimentar de Frontonia leucas (Ehrenberg (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hymenostomatida sob diferentes condições ambientais em um sistema lótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Júnio P. Dias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to record and describe the morphological changes and the ingestion mechanisms of Frontonia leucas (Ehrenberg, 1833 according to the food type and to relate the food ingested with the different environmental conditions in a lotic system, namely São Pedro stream, located in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We sampled three points on a monthly basis from August 2002 to June 2003, each of which receiving different levels of untreated sewage. We prepared culture media for the ciliate specimens containing filtered water from each point and the types of food observed inside F. leucas (cyanobacteria, diatoms, desmids and testate amoebas. We observed the ingestion mechanisms of F. leucas in vivo, under a phase contrast optical microscope, using instantaneous sampling and sequence sampling as behavior observation methods, noting the following parameters: dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, conductivity and water temperature. We noted the F. leucas ciliates ingesting diatoms and desmids at collection point 1 and filamentous cyanobacteria, testate amoebas (Arcella and Centropyxis and rotifers at points 2 and 3. The present work records for the first time the ingestion of testate amoebas of the genus Centropyxis by F. leucas. We noted five ingestion mechanisms by F. leucas while feeding on cyanobacteria and testate amoebas of the genus Centropyxis, three of these related to the ciliary action and two involving physical changes in the cytoplasm. For ingestion of diatoms, desmid (Closterium and Arcella, the mechanisms involving ciliary action alone were sufficient for ingestion, since these preys are smaller than the ciliate under study. The autecological data registered for F. leucas were 1.98-8.01 mg l-1 O2, pH 6.9-8.73, 58-390 µS/cm and 19.5-26.2ºC, confirming its ample ecological valence.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi registrar e descrever as alterações morfológicas e os mecanismos de ingest

  2. 78 FR 26739 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... filed by S and H Broadcasting, LLC, proposing the substitution of Channel 228C2 for vacant Channel 286C2... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa...

  3. @iGlobigerina pachyderma@@ (Ehrenberg) in the shelf-slope sediments of northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G

    resulting in the occurrence of this species in the northern Indian Ocean sediments, it is proposed that the forms which occur in the low latitudes (upto 25~'N) in the norhern Indian Ocean be referred to henceforth as (1) (a) @iG. pachyderma@@ (Ehrenberg...

  4. 77 FR 2242 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First Mesa, Kachina Village, Wickenburg, and Williams, AZ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 08-85; RM-11427, RM-11517, RM-11518, RM-11519; DA 11- 2059] Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First Mesa, Kachina Village, Wickenburg, and Williams, AZ, and Needles, CA... Radio, Inc. (RM-11517) and Univision Radio License Corporation (RM-11518), which are mutually...

  5. 77 FR 2241 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First Mesa, Kachina Village, Wickenburg, and Williams, AZ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First Mesa, Kachina Village, Wickenburg, and Williams, AZ; and Application of Univision Radio License Corporation, KHOV-FM, Wickenburg, AZ... by Rocket Radio, Inc., proposes the allotment of FM Channel 287C2 at Williams, Arizona, as...

  6. 78 FR 16816 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First Mesa, Kachina Village, Munds Park, Wickenburg, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First Mesa, Kachina Village, Munds Park... filed by Univision Radio License Corporation for an increase in existing service by Station KHOV-FM, Wickenburg, Arizona. The Bureau also dismisses a Petition for Rule Making filed by Rocket Radio, Inc. for...

  7. Anti-microbial activity of Leucas clarkei

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    Surya Narayan Das

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial potency of the whole plant of Leucas clarkei have been studied using the soxhlet extracts of petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and ethanol extract against Gram-positive bacteria (two strains, Gram-negative bacteria (two strains and two fungi strains by disc diffusion method. Micro-dilution methods, for the determination of minimal inhibition concentration (MIC and the minimal bactericidal and fungicidal concentration (MBC, MFC. The ethanol extract at a concentration of 30 to 60 µg/disc and chloroform extract at a concentration 60 µg/disc showed significant activity against all the bacteria and fungus. All the extracts of L. clarkei have got moderate action but chloroform and ethanol extracts have got significant activity against Candida krusei, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. This may be due to phytochemicals such as phytosterols, alkaloid, tannins, phenolic compounds and flavonoids present in the extracts.

  8. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and invitro cytotoxic studies of ethanolic extract of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Ramani; Sushruthi Sudini; Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli; Ravinder Nath Anisetti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main focus of the study is to determine antioxidant, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana using various in vitro assay methods as well as to estimate the amount of total phenol and flavonoid contents. Methods: Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana were collected in February 2008 from Thirumala hills and standard procedure from the literature were used to estimate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Results: The results suggest that both the extracts can be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants products as the obtained values are more or less near to the used standard compound. Conclusions: The characterization of leucas for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities are new to literature in this context this extensive in vitro study of the selected two species of leucas for antioxidant activity will be a valuable study for further in vivo activities.

  9. Zum Verhältnis Charles Darwins zu Alexander v. Humboldt und Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg

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    Petra Werner

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and German.While it is well known that Charles Darwin and Alexander von Humboldt appreciated each other's work, Humboldt's influence on Darwin has not yet been thoroughly examined. The following paper shows to what extent Darwin was inspired by Humboldt's publications while writing his Origin of Species.Darwin paid special attention to Humboldt's observations on plant migration and throughout his whole scientific career he used Humboldt's books as a major source of information. In fact, Darwin's last annotations in his copy of the Personal Narrative of travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New continent during the Years 1799-1804 date back to the last weeks of his life.On the other hand, Darwin rejected many of Humboldt's scientific conclusions. The two authors differed in their assessment of Heinrich Bronn's biological research. Finally, Darwin was dissatisfied with Humboldtís last work Cosmos because it did not contain the information he expected. Darwinís collaboration with Humboldt's travel companion Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg proved to be similarly disappointing. Darwin sent 183 samples of infusoria to Berlin, but the results of Ehrenberg's analysis did not support Darwin's theory on evolution.

  10. Ampullary organs and electroreception in freshwater Carcharhinus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Darryl L

    2002-01-01

    The ampulla of Lorenzini of juvenile Carcharhlinus leucas differ histologically from those previously described for other elasmobranchs. The wall of the ampullary canal consists of protruding hillock-shaped epidermal cells that appear to secrete large quantities of a mucopolysaccharide gel. The ampullary organs comprise a long canal sheathed in collagen terminating in an ampulla. Each ampulla contains six alveolar sacs, with each sac containing hundreds of receptor cells. The receptor cells are characteristic of others described for elasmobranchs being pear-shaped cells with a central nucleus and bearing a single kinocilium in the exposed apical region of the cell. The supportive cells differ from general elasmobranch ampullary histology in that some have an apical nucleus. These ampullary structures allow Carcharhinus leucas to detect and respond to artificial electrical fields. Carcharhinus leucas from freshwater habitats respond to electrical signals supplied in freshwater aquaria by abruptly turning towards low voltage stimuli (< or = 10 microA) and either swimming over or biting at the origin of the stimulus.

  11. True hermaphroditism in a St. Lawrence beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guise, S; Lagacé, A; Béland, P

    1994-04-01

    A hermaphrodite beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) was found in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. This animal had two testicles, two separate ovaries, and the complete ducts of each sex; cervix, vagina and vulva were absent. Mature spermatozoa were found in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in the testicles, and numerous involuted corpora lutea were recognized in the ovaries. This represents the first case of true hermaphroditism in a cetacean, and is the fourth hermaphrodite mammal with two testicles and two separate ovaries.

  12. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEUCAS URTICIFOLIA (VAHL BENTH

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    KALSOOM AKHTAR, SHER BAHADAR KHAN ABDUL MALIK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Many medicinal plants are used as traditional medicine in various countries for long time. A large number of secondary metabolites with various biological activities have been discovered from various medicinal plants and some bioactive substances derived from plants have diverse functional roles as secondary metabolites and these properties can be applied to the developments of novel pharmaceuticals. Leucas Urticifolia (family- Lamiaceae is an annual herbaceous plant and has various activities. Chemical studies have underlined the presence of various classes of compounds, the main being triterpenes, diterpene, flavonoids and fatty acids. The extract of this plant as well as pure compounds isolated from this plant, have been demonstrated to posses multiple pharmacological activities. In this review, we have explored the phytochemistry and pharmacological activites of Leucas Urticifolia in order to collate existing information on this plant as well as highlight its multi-activity properties as a medicinal agent.

  13. Anti-bacterial activity of the methanolic extract of leucas hyssopifolia (Benth.

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    Devendra Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Methanolic extract of Leucas hyssopifolia roots was investigated for its anti-bacterial property. Aim: Evaluation of anti-bacterial activity of Leucas hyssopifolia Benth. Settings and Design: Roots of the plant were collected, extracted and finally evaluated for their anti-bacterial activity. Materials and Methods: Paper disc diffusion method and microdilution technique were employed for the determination of zone of inhibition and minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively. Results: The extract showed anti-bacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains except Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Anti-bacterial activity of extract of Leucas hyssopifolia roots may be due to the presence of secondary plant metabolites like terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids, which are present in the extract. The extract can be further studied for the isolation of chemical compounds and their biological activity.

  14. Central nervous system activity of Leucas inflata Benth. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yousuf, M H; Ali, B H; Bashir, A K; Tanira, M O M; Blunden, G

    2002-09-01

    The analgesic activity of the methanol and acetone extracts of Leucas inflata L. (family Labiatae) was evaluated in mice using different experimental models. The effect of the two extracts on pentobarbitone-sleeping time, motor activity, sensorimotor coordination, carrageen induced inflammation, and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia has also been investigated. The two crude extracts have been phytochemically analyzed and some constituents isolated and characterized. These included stigmasterols, a chromone and coumarins. Extracts of L. inflata L., given at single oral doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg, significantly and dose-dependently, reduced formalin-induced pain, acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions and increased the reaction time in the hot-plate test. Both extracts caused significant and dose-related impairment in the sensorimotor control and ambulatory and total motor activity of treated mice. Both extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory action by reducing paw edema of treated mice. The extracts did not significantly affect the rectal temperature of normothermic mice. However, they were effective in preventing Brewers yeast induced pyrexia. It is concluded that the crude methanol and acetone extract of L. inflata has CNS depressant properties, manifested as antinociception and sedation. Both extracts have anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions.

  15. Passive acoustic monitoring of Cook Inlet beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Marc O; Castellote, Manuel; Small, Robert J; Atkinson, Shannon; Jenniges, Justin; Rosinski, Anne; Oswald, Julie N; Garner, Chris

    2013-09-01

    The endangered beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) population in Cook Inlet, AK faces threats from a variety of anthropogenic factors, including coastal development, oil and gas exploration, vessel traffic, and military activities. To address existing gaps in understanding about the occurrence of belugas in Cook Inlet, a project was developed to use passive acoustic monitoring to document the year-round distribution of belugas, as well as killer whales (Orcinus orca), which prey on belugas. Beginning in June 2009, ten moorings were deployed throughout the Inlet and refurbished every two to eight months. Despite challenging conditions consisting of strong tidal currents carrying debris and seasonal ice cover, 83% of mooring deployments were successfully recovered. Noise from water flow, vessel traffic, and/or industrial activities was present at several sites, potentially masking some signals. However, belugas were successfully detected at multiple locations. Detections were relatively common in the upper inlet and less common or absent at middle and lower inlet locations. Killer whale signals were also recorded. Some seasonal variability in the occurrence of both belugas and killer whales was evident.

  16. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different parts of Leucas aspera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Lan Chew; Jeyanthi James Antony Jessica; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different parts (root, flower, leaf and stem) of Leucas aspera (L. aspera) (Labiatae). Methods: Different parts of L. aspera were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol. The methanol extracts were subjected to antioxidant, antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: All the extracts showed moderate to potent antioxidant activity, among which the root extract demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 6.552 μg/mL. Methanol extract of root possessed antioxidant activity near the range of vitamin E and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of root, flower, leaf and stem showed notable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. The root extract showed the highest mean zone of inhibition ranging from 9.0-11.0 mm against tested microorganisms, at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, it was evident that the methanol root extract did not show significant toxicity. The LC50 value for 12 h and 24 h observation was 2.890 mg/mL and 1.417 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The present finding suggests that the methanol root extract of L. aspera could be developed as pharmaceutical products.

  17. Tumors in St. Lawrence beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guise, S; Lagacé, A; Béland, P

    1994-07-01

    A population of 450-500 belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) resides in the polluted estuary of the St. Lawrence River. Stranded carcasses of this endangered population were recovered and necropsied. High concentrations of organochlorines, heavy metals, and benzo-a-pyrene exposure were demonstrated in tissues of these whales. Between 1988 and 1990, 21 tumors were found in 12 out of 24 carcasses. Among these tumors, six were malignant and 15 were benign. The animals were between 1.5 and > 29 years of age, and the ages of animals with and without tumors did not differ when two juvenile animals (1.5 and 3.5 years of age) were excluded. Seven other neoplasms had been reported previously in six out of 21 well-preserved carcasses examined in the same laboratory between 1982 and 1987. Overall, 28 of the 75 confirmed tumors reported so far in cetaceans (37%) were from this small population of beluga whales in the St. Lawrence Estuary. Such a high prevalence of tumors would suggest an influence of contaminants through a direct carcinogenic effect and/or a decreased resistance to the development of tumors in this population.

  18. Phytochemical and antibacterial studies on Leucas vestita Wall ex Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salem Varadharajan Rajesh; Thiruppathi Senthil Kumar; Mandali Venkateswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In search of alternative herbal medicine for pathogenic microorganism variety of plant species have been identified. However, search of new species are still in progress to reduce the pressure on biological diversity and increase availability of organic compound. In the light of this the present work identified phytochemical property and antibacterial activity of Leucas vestita.Methods:The ethanol extract of L. vestita was used for this study. The phytochemicals present in the extract was identified and the antibacterial activity was tested through disc diffusion method. Results: The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of primary and secondary metabolites which ensuring their herbal properties. Antimicrobial activity showed increasing zone of inhibition with increasing concentration of the extract with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis among the other microorganism. Larger zone of inhibition of 14mm was recorded for K. pneumoniae. Conclusions:The study suggests that this extract can be used as a medicine to control some of these pathogenic bacteria.

  19. To Madagascar and back: long-distance, return migration across open ocean by a pregnant female bull shark Carcharhinus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, J S E; Humphries, N E; Clarke, C R; Sims, D W

    2015-12-01

    A large, pregnant, female bull shark Carcharhinus leucas was tracked migrating from Seychelles across open ocean to south-east Madagascar, c. 2000 km away, and back again. In Madagascar, the shark spent a prolonged period shallower than 5 m, consistent with entering estuarine habitat to pup, and upon return to Seychelles the shark was slender and no longer gravid. This represents an unprecedented return migration across the open ocean for a C. leucas and highlights the need for international collaboration to manage the regional C. leucas population sustainably.

  20. Young Belugas Diversify Adult Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas Behavior

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    Heather Hill

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Across the animal kingdom, immature animals are characterized by their playfulness and diversity of behavior, but are their actions enriching to adult conspecifics? The purpose of this study was to assess if beluga (Delphinapterus leucas calves influenced the behavioral repertoire of adult conspecifics, specifically with regard to play behaviors, social interactions, and solitary swimming. Video recordings made between 2012 and 2015 (200+ hrs were randomly selected using the following social groupings: adults only (n = 13, adults with juvenile (n = 28, mother-calf pairs (n = 24, mother-calf pairs with juvenile (n = 26, and mixed groups (n = 84 that included different ages and sexes. Each recording was coded using a 1-min instantaneous sampling method for 7 behavioral categories that were grouped into 4 major categories: mother-calf swim, social interactions, play, and solitary swims. Results indicated that the social grouping influenced the behavioral categories even when number of animals in the social grouping was controlled. Adults displayed solitary swims significantly (p < 0.001 more often when grouped with each other (adjusted M = 86% or with juvenile belugas (adjusted M = 85% than any other combination in which calves were present (adjusted M ranged between 42% – 64%. The presence of calves also significantly (p = 0.002 increased the number of play activities observed for adults (Adults only: adjusted M < 0%; Mixed: adjusted M = 11%. The percent of social interactions did not significantly (p = 0.196 change across the different social groupings. The results demonstrate that the presence of beluga calves decreased the percent of time adults spent in solitary swims and increased the percent of time adults spent in other activities, including play behaviors and social interactions. The presence of beluga calves is associated with increased diversity of the behavioral repertoires of adult conspecifics.

  1. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Leucas cephalotes (Roxb.ex Roth Spreng

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    Bhukya Baburao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The whole plant of the methanolic extract from Leucas cephalotes was screened for invitro antioxidant (using the DPPH method, invivo analgesic (using hot plate test in mice and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test activities. The methanolic extract of Leucas cephalotes (MELC scavenged the DPPH radicals in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value to scavenge DPPH radicals was found to be 421.3µg/ml. A significant (pO extrato metanólico total de Leucas cephalotes foi submetido à triagem para as atividades antioxidante in vitro (utilizando o método DPPH, analgésica (utilizando teste da placa quente, em camundongos e antiinflamatória (utilizando teste de edema da pata de rato, nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. O extrato metanólico de Leucas cephalotes (MELC inativou radicais difenil picril hidrazila (DPPH de forma dose-dependente. O IC50 para essa atividade foi de 421,3 µg/mL. Observou-se atividade analgésica significativa (p<0,0005 a 60 minutos, com 200 mg/kg, e, com 400 mg/kg, observou-se atividade máxima. A resposta antiinflamatória máxima foi produzida, respectivamente, em 3 h e 2 h, com doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. Estes resultados sugerem que o extrato metanólico de Leucas cephalotes apresenta efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório significativos, comparáveis aos fármacos padrão.

  2. Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas of the Barents, Kara and Laptev seas

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    Andrei N Boltunov

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews published information on the white whale or beluga (Delphinapterus leucas inhabiting the Barents, Kara and Laptev seas. Some data obtained during multi-year aerial reconnaissance of sea ice in the Russian Arctic are also included. Ice conditions, considered one of the major factors affecting distribution of belugas, are described. The number of belugas inhabiting the Russian Arctic is unknown. Based on analysis of published and unpublished information we believe that the primary summer habitats of belugas in the Western Russian Arctic lie in the area of Frants-Josef Land, in the Kara Sea and in the western Laptev Sea. Apparently most belugas winter in the Barents Sea. Although it has been suggested that a considerable number of animals winter in the Kara Sea, there is no direct evidence for this. Apparent migrations of animals are regularly observed at several sites: the straits of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, the waters north of the archipelago, and Vilkitskiy Strait between the Kara and Laptev seas. Calving and mating take place in summer, and the beluga mother feeds a calf for at least a year. Females mature earlier than males, and about 30% of mature females in a population are barren. Sex ratio is apparently close to 1:1. The diet of the beluga in the region includes fish and crustaceans and shows considerable spatial and temporal variations. However, polar cod (Boreogadus saida is the main prey most of the year, and whitefish (Coregonidae contribute in coastal waters in summer. Usually belugas form groups of up to 10 related individuals of different ages, while large aggregations are common during seasonal migrations or in areas with abundant and easily available food. Beluga whaling in Russia has a history of several centuries. The highest catches were taken in the 1950s and 1960s, when about 1,500 animals were caught annually in the Western Russian Arctic. In the 1990s, few belugas were

  3. Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) vocalizations and call classification from the eastern Beaufort Sea population

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Funding was provided by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management under InterAgency Agreement M09PG00016. E.C.G. was supported by a National Research Council (National Academy of Sciences) Postdoctoral Fellowship. Beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, have a graded call system; call types exist on a continuum making classification challenging. A description of vocalizations from the eastern Beaufort Sea beluga population during its spring migration are presented here, using both a non-parametr...

  4. Possible mechanisms of action of environmental contaminants on St. Lawrence beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    OpenAIRE

    de Guise, S.; Martineau, D.; Béland, P; Fournier, M.

    1995-01-01

    A small isolated population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) that are highly contaminated by pollutants, mostly of industrial origin, resides in the St. Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada. Overhunting in the first half of the century was the probable cause for this population to dwindle from several thousand animals to the current estimate of 500. The failure of the population to recover might be due to contamination by organochlorine compounds, which are known to lead to reproductive f...

  5. Dermatophilus-like infection in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, from the St. Lawrence estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelian, I; Lapointe, J M; Labelle, P; Higgins, R; Paradis, M; Martineau, D

    2001-02-01

    Six beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) found dead on the shores of the St. Lawrence estuary had multiple slightly depressed greyish round areas randomly distributed over the whole body. Histologically, the surface of these areas was covered with a thick layer of Dermatophilus-like organisms which invaded the stratum corneum. The underlying stratum spinosum had marked spongiosis and vacuolar degeneration. Minimal neutrophilic infiltration was present within the underlying dermal papillae. To the authors' knowledge, dermatophilosis in cetaceans has not been reported previously.

  6. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N

    2012-12-01

    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible

  7. Exchange of “signature” calls in captive belugas (Delphinapterus leucas)

    OpenAIRE

    Morisaka, Tadamichi; Yoshida, Yayoi; Akune, Yuichiro; Mishima, Hideki; Nishimoto, Sayo

    2013-01-01

    Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) produce echolocation clicks, burst pulses, and whistles. The sounds of 3 captive belugas were recorded using 2 hydrophones at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium. There were stable individual differences in the pulse patterning of one type of pulsed sounds (PS1 call), suggesting that belugas use these as “signature” calls. Eighty-eight percent of PS1 calls initiated PS1 calls from other animals within 1 s. PS1 calls repeated by the same individual occurred prima...

  8. The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Laidre, K.L.; Simon, Malene Juul

    2009-01-01

    An aerial survey was conducted to estimate the abundance of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) on their wintering ground in West Greenland in March-April 2006 and 2008. The survey was conducted as a double platform aerial line transect survey, and sampled approximately 17% of the total survey area o...

  9. Habitat use and movement patterns of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas determined using pop-up satellite archival tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J K; Ribera, M M; Conrath, C L; Heupel, M R; Burgess, G H

    2010-08-01

    Habitat use, movement and residency of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas were determined using satellite pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags throughout coastal areas in the U.S., Gulf of Mexico and waters off the south-east U.S. From 2005 to 2007, 18 fish (mean size = 164 cm fork length, L(F)) were tagged over all seasons. Fish retained tags for up to 85 days (median = 30 days). Based on geolocation data from initial tagging location to pop-off location, C. leucas generally travelled c. 5-6 km day(-1) and travelled an average of 143.6 km. Overall, mean proportions of time at depth revealed C. leucas spent the majority of their time in waters up the east coast of the U.S. to South Carolina. Data on C. leucas movements indicated that they are found primarily in shallower waters and tend to remain in the same location over long periods. While some individuals made large-scale movements over open ocean areas, the results emphasize the importance of the coastal zone for this species as potential essential habitat, particularly in areas of high freshwater inflow.

  10. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) inhabiting a wastewater-impacted river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsleichter, James; Szabo, Nancy J

    2013-07-01

    The presence of human pharmaceuticals in sewage-impacted ecosystems is a growing concern that poses health risks to aquatic wildlife. Despite this, few studies have investigated the uptake of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in aquatic organisms. In this study, the uptake of 9 APIs from human drugs was examined and compared in neonate bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) residing in pristine (Myakka River) and wastewater-impacted (Caloosahatchee River) tributaries of Florida's Charlotte Harbor estuary. The synthetic estrogen used in human contraceptives (17α-ethynylestradiol) and 6 of the selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine) used in human antidepressants were observed at detectable and, in some cases, quantifiable levels in plasma of Caloosahatchee River sharks. Comparatively, only venlafaxine was detected in the plasma of a single Myakka River shark at a level below the limit of quantitation. These results suggest that sharks residing in wastewater-impacted habitats accumulate APIs, a factor that may pose special risks to C. leucas since it is one of few shark species to regularly occupy freshwater systems. Further research is needed to determine if the low levels of API uptake observed in Caloosahatchee River bull sharks pose health risks to these animals.

  11. The 2015, Mw 6.5, Leucas (Ionian Sea, Greece) earthquake: Seismological and Geodetic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Taymaz, Tuncay; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Eken, Tuna; Moschas, Fanis; Stiros, Stathis

    2016-04-01

    A cluster of earthquakes (6Greece, in the last 30 years. The most recent earthquake was the 2015 (Mw 6.5) Leucas (Lefkada) earthquake. The modelling of these earthquakes, some of which are double events (2003 Leucas; 2014 Cephalonia) is a challenge for two main reasons. First, the geography of the area limits the distribution of the available seismological and GNSS stations and the correlations of INSAR data. Second, the structural pattern of the area indicates distributed thrusting but recent earthquakes are confined to the west margin of the Aegean Arc, usually assigned to the Cephalonia Transform Fault (CTF), and are dominated by strike slip faulting. In order to contribute to the understanding active tectonics along this critical region, our study was based on the independent analysis of the seismological and geodetic signature of the 2015 earthquake and the on the joint evaluation of the inferred models on the basis of the fault pattern of the area and of previous earthquakes. First, based on teleseismic long-period P- and SH- and broad-band P-waveforms a point-source solution at the SW part of Leucas yielded dominantly right-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms (strike: 23o, dip: 68o, rake: -170o) with a shallow focal depth (h: 9 km) and with seismic moment of Mo: 10.4x1018 Nm. Furthermore, the rupture history of the earthquake was obtained by applying a new back-projection method that uses teleseismic P-waveforms to integrate the direct P-phase with reflected phases from structural discontinuities near the source. In the slip inversion the faulting occurs on a single fault plane (strike and dip are obtained from the best fitting point-source solution) and slip (rake) angle varied during the whole rupture process. Second, co-seismic displacements were derived from eight permanent and one campaign GPS stations spread in the near and far field of the meizoseismal area. Significant horizontal slip was recognized, with a maximum dislocation of 36 cm in the SW

  12. Inhibition of Naja naja venom enzymes by the methanolic extract of Leucas aspera and its chemical profile by GC–MS

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    Kadiyala Gopi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results obtained demonstrate for the first time that the methanolic extract of Leucas aspera possesses anti-venom activity and could be considered as a potential source for the anti-ophidian metabolites.

  13. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic ultra-violet (photo diode array quantification of oleanolic acid and its isomer ursolic acid for phytochemical comparison and pharmacological evaluation of four Leucas species used in ayurveda

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    Pushpendra Kumar Shukla

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Physicochemical parameters are within the limit as per the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of IndiaMaximum concentration of oleanolic acid was found in Leucas cristata; however, ursolic acid was highest in Leucas mollissimaIn vitro antidiabetic activity of Leucas aspera and L. mollissima was found tobe heighest as compared to other species. However, antioxidant capacity is almost similar in targeted species.Promising activities were observed in all the species, thus L. mollissima, Leucas biflora, and L. cristata can be used alternatively as a substitute to L. aspera.

  14. Micro Chemical (Elemental Analysis of Leucas aspera (Willd Link Employing SEM-EDAX

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    Sunkara Yashvanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant, Leucas aspera (Willd Link is well known for its varied medicinal uses. Present study deals with its micro chemical (elemental characterization using Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX detector fitted to Scanning Electron Microscope. The plant has very interesting morphology. Crystals of varied shape and inclusions/exudates were noticed within and on the leaf & stem surfaces. Various plant parts analysed were, stem surface, stem sections, stem inclusions, blebs on stem hairs, crystals of varied shape, root sections, abaxial and adaxial surfaces, flower, seed and seed caruncle. Lot of variation in elemental composition was observed in various plant parts. Major elements detected were Carbon, Oxygen, Calcium, Silica, and Aluminum. Other elements found were Iron, Sodium, potassium, Phosphorus and Chlorine.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE EXTRACTS OF LEUCAS ASPERA ON BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF DIABETES MELLITUS (TYPE- I IN RATS

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    T.Tukaram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Leucas aspera leaves on experimental diabetes mellitus (type I in rats in terms of alterations in biochemical profiles. Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups of 5 rats in each. Group-I were fed on basal diet without any treatment, group-II induced diabetic models (type-I (Alloxan monohydrate dissolved in sterile normal saline (150 mg/kgBW, ip, group-III, IV, V and VI were induced diabetics and treated with extract of Leucas aspera (30,100,150 and 300mg/kg BW respectively, PO twice daily in the morning and evening post prandially for thirty days respectively. The blood samples were collected on day 0, 10, 20 and 30 and were used for the analysis of biochemical profiles.The blood glucose (mg% were consistently increased significantly (P<0.01 in groups II,III, IV V and VI till day 20 while in groups V and VI there was a significant (P<0.01 decline in the values on day 30. There was found to have profound effect in lowering the blood glucose levels in dose dependent manner. The study revealed that experimental diabetes mellitus (type-I induced patho-biochemical changes were ameliorated more effectively by ethanolic extract of Leucas aspera in dose dependent manner.

  16. Driving factors of the potentially toxic and harmful species of Prorocentrum Ehrenberg in a semi-enclosed Mediterranean lagoon (Tunisia, SW Mediterranean

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    I. SAHRAOUI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the dynamics of the potentially toxic and harmful species of Prorocentrum Ehrenberg in Bizerte lagoon (important aquaculture area, Northern Tunisia, substantiating the possible driving forces (temperature, salinity and nutrients, based on a two years database. We revealed that Prorocentrum spp. blooms of high magnitude (104 - 105 cells l-1 occurred mostly during the period of late winter to early spring. We found five species of Prorocentrum, two of which, P. lima and P. cordatum, the most common during the field, are confirmed agents of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning in various regions of the world ocean. Prorocentrum sp., P. micans, and P. gracile were however present only sporadically but with high cell abundances, exemplifying bloom densities. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that P. minimum and P. lima were much more abundant in eutrophied waters characterized here by high Chl a biomass, while P. gracile species occurred principally in warm waters. Furthermore, Prorocentrum sp. and P. micans seemed more likely to proliferate in saline waters with high concentrations of inorganic nutrients (nitrate, ammonia and phosphate. Our study calls attention to a possible intensification of DSP events in the Bizerte lagoon, given the propensity of Prorocentrum spp. to proliferate in a eutrophied system.

  17. Beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, vocalizations and their relation to behaviour in the Churchill River, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelnitsky, Elly Golda

    The investigation of a species' repertoire and the contexts in which different calls are used is central to understanding vocal communication among animals. Beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, calls were classified and described in association with behaviours, from recordings collected in the Churchill River, Manitoba, during the summers of 2006-2008. Calls were subjectively classified based on sound and visual analysis into whistles (64.2% of total calls; 22 call types), pulsed or noisy calls (25.9%; 15 call types), and combined calls (9.9%; seven types). A hierarchical cluster analysis, using six call measurements as variables, separated whistles into 12 groups and results were compared to subjective classification. Beluga calls associated with social interactions, travelling, feeding, and interactions with the boat were described. Call type percentages, relative proportions of different whistle contours (shapes), average frequency, and call duration varied with behaviour. Generally, higher percentages of whistles, more broadband pulsed and noisy calls, and shorter calls (<0.49s) were produced during behaviours associated with higher levels of activity and/or apparent arousal. Information on call types, call characteristics, and behavioural context of calls can be used for automated detection and classification methods and in future studies on call meaning and function.

  18. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from 3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts.

  19. Relative quantity judgments in the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have documented the ability of many species to make relative quantity judgments using an analogue magnitude system. We investigated whether one beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, and three bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, were capable of selecting the larger of two sets of quantities, and analyzed if their performance matched predictions from the object file model versus the analog accumulator model. In Experiment 1, the two sets were presented simultaneously, under water, and they were visually (condition 1) or echoically (condition 2) available at the time of choice. In experiment 2, the two sets were presented above the water, successively (condition 1) or sequentially, item-by-item (condition 2), so that they were not visually available at the time of choice (condition 1) or at any time throughout the experiment (condition 2). We analyzed the effect of the ratio between quantities, the difference between quantities, and the total number of items presented on the subjects' choices. All subjects selected the larger of the two sets of quantities above chance levels in all conditions. However, unlike most previous studies, the subjects' choices did not match the predictions from the accumulator model. Whether these findings reflect interspecies differences in the mechanisms which underpin relative quantity judgments remains to be determined.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of CD4 in an aquatic mammal, the white whale Delphinapterus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, T A; Ridgway, S H; Felten, D L; Quaranta, V

    1999-05-01

    Given the importance of the cell surface recognition protein, CD4, in immune function, the cloning and characterization of CD4 at the molecular level from an odontocete cetacean, the white whale (Delphinapterus leucas), was carried out. Whale CD4 cDNA contains 2662 base pairs and translates into a protein containing 455 amino acids. Whale CD4 shares 64% and 51% identity with the human and mouse CD4 protein, respectively, and is organized in a similar manner. Unlike human and mouse, however, the cytoplasmic domain, which is highly conserved, contains amino acid substitutions unique to whale. Moreover, only one of the seven potential N-linked glycosylation sites present in whale is shared with human and mouse. Evolutionarily, the whale CD4 sequence is most similar to pig and structurally similar to dog and cat, in that all lack the cysteine pair in the V2 domain. These differences suggest that CD4 may have a different secondary structure in these species, which may affect binding of class II and subsequent T-cell activation, as well as binding of viral pathogens. Interestingly, as a group, species with these CD4 characteristics all have high constitutive expression of class II molecules on T lymphocytes, suggesting potential uniqueness in the interaction of CD4, class II molecules, and the immune response. Molecular characterization of CD4 in an aquatic mammal provides information on the CD4 molecule itself and may provide insight into adaptive evolutionary changes of the immune system.

  1. PCBs are associated with altered gene transcript profiles in arctic Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marie; Loseto, Lisa L; Helbing, Caren C; Veldhoen, Nik; Dangerfield, Neil J; Ross, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    High trophic level arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POP) originating primarily from southern latitudes. We collected samples from 43 male beluga harvested by Inuvialuit hunters (2008-2010) in the Beaufort Sea to evaluate the effects of POPs on the levels of 13 health-related gene transcripts using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Consistent with their role in detoxification, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) (r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.045 for 2008 and 2009) and cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1a1) (r(2) = 0.20, p development. Factor 1 explained 56% of gene profiles, with these latter 11 gene transcripts displaying greater abundance in years coinciding with periods of low sea ice extent (2008 and 2010). δ(13)C results suggested a shift in feeding ecology and/or change in condition of these ice edge-associated beluga whales during these two years. While this provides insight into the legacy of PCBs in a remote environment, the possible impacts of a changing ice climate on the health of beluga underscores the need for long-term studies.

  2. Leucas aspera mediated multifunctional CeO2 nanoparticles: Structural, photoluminescent, photocatalytic and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleshappa, J; Nagabhushana, H; Sharma, S C; Vidya, Y S; Anantharaju, K S; Prashantha, S C; Daruka Prasad, B; Raja Naika, H; Lingaraju, K; Surendra, B S

    2015-01-01

    Spherical shaped cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via bio mediated route using Leucas aspera (LA) leaf extract. The NPs were characterized by PXRD, SEM, UV-Visible techniques. Photoluminescence (PL), photocatalysis and antibacterial properties of NPs were studied. PXRD patterns and Rietveld analysis confirm cubic fluorite structure with space group Fm-3m. SEM results evident that morphology of the NPs was greatly influenced by the concentration of LA leaf extract in the reaction mixture. The band gap energy of the NPs was found to be in the range of 2.98-3.4 eV. The photocatalytic activity of NPs was evaluated by decolorization of Rhodamine-B (RhB) under UVA and Sun light irradiation. CeO2 NPs show intense blue emission with CIE coordinates (0.14, 0.22) and average color coordinated temperature value ∼148,953 K. Therefore the present NPs quite useful for cool LEDs. The superior photocatalytic activity was observed for CeO2 NPs with 20 ml LA under both UVA and Sunlight irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and photoluminescent properties were attributed to defect induced band gap engineered CeO2 NPs. Further, CeO2 with 20 ml LA exhibit significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (EC) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA). These findings show great promise of CeO2 NPs as multifunctional material for various applications.

  3. Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) vocalizations and call classification from the eastern Beaufort Sea population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Castellote, Manuel; Berchok, Catherine L

    2015-06-01

    Beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, have a graded call system; call types exist on a continuum making classification challenging. A description of vocalizations from the eastern Beaufort Sea beluga population during its spring migration are presented here, using both a non-parametric classification tree analysis (CART), and a Random Forest analysis. Twelve frequency and duration measurements were made on 1019 calls recorded over 14 days off Icy Cape, Alaska, resulting in 34 identifiable call types with 83% agreement in classification for both CART and Random Forest analyses. This high level of agreement in classification, with an initial subjective classification of calls into 36 categories, demonstrates that the methods applied here provide a quantitative analysis of a graded call dataset. Further, as calls cannot be attributed to individuals using single sensor passive acoustic monitoring efforts, these methods provide a comprehensive analysis of data where the influence of pseudo-replication of calls from individuals is unknown. This study is the first to describe the vocal repertoire of a beluga population using a robust and repeatable methodology. A baseline eastern Beaufort Sea beluga population repertoire is presented here, against which the call repertoire of other seasonally sympatric Alaskan beluga populations can be compared.

  4. Matriarchal genetic population structure of North American beluga whales Delphinapterus leucas (Cetacea: Monodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Gladden, J G; Ferguson, M M; Clayton, J W

    1997-11-01

    The North American beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas population has been divided into a number of putative geographical stocks based upon migration routes and areas of summer concentration. Nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were used to assess whether these geographical stocks are genetically distinct. Beluga whale samples from 25 sites were collected primarily from aboriginal subsistence hunts across North America from 1984 to 1994. Thirty-nine mtDNA haplotypes were identified in 628 beluga samples. No differences were found in the distribution of haplotypes between male and female beluga whales at any sampling site. These haplotypes segregated into two distinct assemblages in both a haplotype network and a neighbour-joining tree. The haplotype assemblages and a geographically disjunct distribution that suggests postglacial recolonization of the North American Arctic from two different refugia. An analysis of molecular variance based on haplotype relationships and frequency indicated genetic heterogeneity among beluga whale summering groups (P St Lawrence River and the western or central Arctic. The results of this study show a high degree of philopatry to specific summering areas by this highly mobile animal.

  5. Identification of a novel herpesvirus associated with a penile proliferative lesion in a beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellehumeur, Christian; Lair, Stéphane; Romero, Carlos H; Provost, Chantale; Nielsen, Ole; Gagnon, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    The carcass of an adult male beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) was found beach cast in 2008 on the shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary at Rivière-Ouelle, Quebec, Canada. The carcass was transported to the Faculté de médecine vétérinaire of the Université de Montréal for postmortem examination. Aspiration pneumonia was the probable cause of death. Necropsy revealed a focal papilloma-like penile lesion, characterized by focal mucosal thickening with disorganization of the epithelial layers and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. A pan-herpesvirus nested PCR assay on frozen tissue from the penile lesion was positive. The PCR product sequencing revealed a partial herpesvirus DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene sequence of 600 nucleotides. Its nearest nucleotide identity was with the partial DPOL gene of an alphaherpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 5 (79.5% identity). It also shared high identity with several other marine mammal herpesviruses (50.2 to 77.3% identity). This new herpesvirus was tentatively named beluga whale herpesvirus (BWHV). Virus isolation was unsuccessful. The pathogenic potential of BWHV is unknown, but the evaluation of archived tissues suggests that the virus is endemic in the St. Lawrence Estuary beluga population.

  6. Ulcer protective effect of Leucas aspera in various experimental ulcer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibin Baby Augustine

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the ulcer protective effect of Leucas aspera (L. aspera aerial parts in various experimental ulcer models. Methods: Aerial parts of L. aspera were collected and extracted with methanol (70% v/v. Preliminary phytochemical screening and toxicity evaluation of methanolic extract of L. aspera were performed. Ulcer protective effect of methanolic extract of L. aspera was checked using various in vivo experimental ulcer models (indomethacin plus restraint model, swimming induced stress ulcer, serotonin induced gastric ulcer, cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer, ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Antioxidant and histopathological studies of gastric mucosa were conducted in ethanol induced ulcer model. Results: Methanolic extract of L. aspera did not show any toxic reactions in both acute and short term toxicity studies. Moreover, methanolic extract of L. aspera showed powerful antisecretory and ulcer protective effect in all the tested ulcer models. Results of antioxidant and histopathological studies further confirmed the ulcer protective effect of methanolic extract of L. aspera. Conclusions: The present study justifies the folkloric use of L. aspera in various gastric disorders. Further studies should be conducted to find the mechanism of action.

  7. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrototaro, F.; D'Onghia, G.; Corriero, G.; Matarrese, A.; Maiorano, P.; Panetta, P.; Gherardi, M.; Longo, C.; Rosso, A.; Sciuto, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gravili, C.; Boero, F.; Taviani, M.; Tursi, A.

    2010-03-01

    The biodiversity of the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) coral bank is summarized and its description is updated using data collected by means of underwater video systems, benthic samplers and fishing gears. A total of 222 living species have been recorded within the coral bank area in the depth range 280-1121 m. The most abundant benthic taxa recorded are Porifera (36 species) followed by Mollusca (35) and Cnidaria (31). The scleractinian corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are the main colonial species in the structure of the SML bank. Annelida, Crustacea and Bryozoa have been found with 24, 23 and 19 species, respectively. A total of 40 species of demersal fish have been recorded. Other faunal taxa were found with small numbers of species. One hundred and thirty-five species are new for the SML bank, 31 of which represent new records for the north-western Ionian Sea (2 Porifera, 17 Cnidaria, 1 Mollusca, 3 Annelida, 2 Crustacea, 4 Bryozoa and 4 Echinodermata). The finding of the annelid Harmothoë vesiculosa represents the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. The SML coral bank represents a biodiversity "hot-spot" on the bathyal bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Studies on larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Leucas aspera Willd. (Lamiaceae) and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus, against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of whole plant ethanolic extracts of Leucas aspera and of Bacillus sphaericus was determined for larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. When larvae were exposed to one of five concentrations of plant extract (6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14%) for 24 h, mortality in 4th instars ranged from 1...

  9. Teeth as biomonitors of selenium concentrations in tissues of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinghorn, April [Centre for Indigenous Peoples Nutrition and Environment, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21-111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada); Humphries, Murray M. [Centre for Indigenous Peoples Nutrition and Environment, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21-111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada); Department of Natural Resource Science, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21-111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada); Outridge, Peter [Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E8 (Canada); Chan, Hing Man [Community Health Sciences Program, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9 (Canada)], E-mail: lchan@unbc.ca

    2008-08-25

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element which has been shown to play an important role in protecting marine mammals against the toxic effects of mercury (Hg) and other metals. It has been suggested that metal concentration in marine mammal teeth can potentially be used as bioindicators for body burden. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Se concentrations in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) teeth and those previously measured in soft tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and muktuk). Tooth Hg concentrations are also measured, and the relationships between Se and Hg in teeth and soft tissues are examined. Se in the teeth of beluga was measured using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) and Hg in beluga teeth was measured by cold-vapour atomic absorption. Tooth Se concentrations ranged from 108 ng/g to 245 ng/g dry weight, and tooth Hg concentrations ranged from 10 to 189 ng/g dry weight. In the soft tissues, Se concentrations were highest in the liver, followed by kidney, muktuk, and muscle. There were significant correlations between tooth Se concentrations and animal age, tooth Se and liver and muscle Se, and between liver Se and animal age. The molar ratio of Hg:Se in the liver was found to be 0.70. This study is the first to measure Se in the teeth of a marine mammal species, and HG-AFS is found to be an effective technique for determining Se in beluga teeth. Tooth Se can be used as predictor for liver and muscle Se, although these relationships may be strongly influenced by the association of Se with Hg in marine mammal tissues. This study contributes to an increased understanding of the storage and metabolism of Se in marine mammals.

  10. Natural or artificial? Habitat-use by the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Werry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite accelerated global population declines due to targeted and illegal fishing pressure for many top-level shark species, the impacts of coastal habitat modification have been largely overlooked. We present the first direct comparison of the use of natural versus artificial habitats for the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, an IUCN 'Near-threatened' species--one of the few truly euryhaline sharks that utilises natural rivers and estuaries as nursery grounds before migrating offshore as adults. Understanding the value of alternate artificial coastal habitats to the lifecycle of the bull shark is crucial for determining the impact of coastal development on this threatened but potentially dangerous species. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We used longline surveys and long-term passive acoustic tracking of neonate and juvenile bull sharks to determine the ontogenetic value of natural and artificial habitats to bull sharks associated with the Nerang River and adjoining canals on the Gold Coast, Australia. Long-term movements of tagged sharks suggested a preference for the natural river over artificial habitat (canals. Neonates and juveniles spent the majority of their time in the upper tidal reaches of the Nerang River and undertook excursions into adjoining canals. Larger bull sharks ranged further and frequented the canals closer to the river mouth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work suggests with increased destruction of natural habitats, artificial coastal habitat may become increasingly important to large juvenile bull sharks with associated risk of attack on humans. In this system, neonate and juvenile bull sharks utilised the natural and artificial habitats, but the latter was not the preferred habitat of neonates. The upper reaches of tidal rivers, often under significant modification pressure, serve as nursery sites for neonates. Analogous studies are needed in similar systems elsewhere to assess the spatial and temporal generality of

  11. Morphology of the ampullae of Lorenzini in juvenile freshwater Carcharhinus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Darryl L; Gauthier, Arnault R G; Mu, Erica W H; Bennett, Mike B; Tibbetts, Ian R

    2015-05-01

    Ampullae of Lorenzini were examined from juvenile Carcharhinus leucas (831-1,045 mm total length) captured from freshwater regions of the Brisbane River. The ampullary organ structure differs from all other previously described ampullae in the canal wall structure, the general shape of the ampullary canal, and the apically nucleated supportive cells. Ampullary pores of 140-205 µm in diameter are distributed over the surface of the head region with 2,681 and 2,913 pores present in two sharks that were studied in detail. The primary variation of the ampullary organs appears in the canal epithelial cells which occur as either flattened squamous epithelial cells or a second form of pseudostratified contour-ridged epithelial cells; both cell types appear to release material into the ampullary lumen. Secondarily, this ampullary canal varies due to involuted walls that form a clover-like canal wall structure. At the proximal end of the canal, contour-ridged cells abut a narrow region of cuboidal epithelial cells that verge on the constant, six alveolar sacs of the ampulla. The alveolar sacs contain numerous receptor and supportive cells bound by tight junctions and desmosomes. Pear-shaped receptor cells that possess a single apical kinocilium are connected basally by unmyelinated neural boutons. Opposed to previously described ampullae of Lorenzini, the supportive cells have an apical nucleus, possess a low number of microvilli, and form a unique, jagged alveolar wall. A centrally positioned centrum cap of cuboidal epithelial cells overlies a primary afferent lateral line nerve. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Levels of toxaphene congeners in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, G; Føreid, S; Skaare, J U; Jenssen, B M; Lydersen, C; Kovacs, K M

    2006-03-15

    This study reports concentrations of three pesticide toxaphene congeners (CHBs; CHB-26, -50 and -62) from the blubber of ten adult, male white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway. The CHB congeners that occurred at the highest levels in the blubber of the white whales were, as expected, CHB-26 (4636+/-1992 (SD) ng/g l.w.) and CHB-50 (6579+/-2214 ng/g l.w.); CHB-62 (232+/-231 ng/g l.w.) was also present, but at much lower concentrations. The mean level of the sum of the three CHBs (SigmaCHBs = 11,447+/-4208 ng/g l.w.) in this study is more than twice the mean concentrations of the well-known organochlorine (OC) pollutants SigmaDDTs (sum of pp'-DDT, pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD) and SigmaPCBs (sum of 27 PCB congeners) previously reported from the same individual white whales. The concentrations of CHBs in white whales from Svalbard are at the high end of the range for concentrations of these compounds compared to other Arctic white whale populations. Additionally, the contribution of CHBs to the overall OC burden is larger in white whales from Svalbard compared with their counterparts from other areas in the Arctic. Male white whales from Svalbard have several orders of magnitude higher concentrations of SigmaCHBs compared to seals and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the same area. The high levels of CHBs in these whales, and their dominance in the OC pattern, suggests that white whales in Svalbard are exposed to high levels of this group of contaminants. Further studies are needed to investigate possible effects of CHBs and other OC contaminants on the white whale population in Svalbard.

  13. Antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of the phytochemicals of whole Leucas aspera extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Atiar; Islam, Md Saiful

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of whole Leucas aspera (Labiatae) (L. aspera) alcoholic extract. Methods Whole L. aspera powder was extracted by absolute ethanol (99.50%). The ethanolic extract was subjected to antioxidant, antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality assay. Results The extract showed potent radical scavenging effect (antioxidant) with IC50 value of (99.58±1.22) µg/mL which was significant (P<0.01) in comparison to ascorbic acid with IC50 value of (1.25±0.95) µg/mL. In case of antibacterial screening, the extract showed notable antibacterial effect against the tested microbial strains. Significant (P<0.05) zone of inhibitions against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis [(12.00±1.32) mm] and Bacillus megaterium [(13.00±1.50) mm], Staphylococcus aureus [(8.00±0.50) mm] and Gram negative Salmonella typhi [(6.00±0.50) mm], Salmonella paratyphi [(8.00±1.00) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(9.00±1.32) mm] and Vibrio cholerae [(9.00±0.66) mm] was observed. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the extract showed the LC50 value as (181.68±2.15) µg/mL which was statistically significant (P<0.01) compared to positive control vincristine sulfate [LC50=(0.76±0.04) µg/mL]. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the ethanolic extract of L. aspera could be used as antibacterial, pesticidal and various pharmacologic actives. PMID:23620850

  14. Blow collection as a non-invasive method for measuring cortisol in the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Thompson

    Full Text Available Non-invasive sampling techniques are increasingly being used to monitor glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, as indicators of stressor load and fitness in zoo and wildlife conservation, research and medicine. For cetaceans, exhaled breath condensate (blow provides a unique sampling matrix for such purposes. The purpose of this work was to develop an appropriate collection methodology and validate the use of a commercially available EIA for measuring cortisol in blow samples collected from belugas (Delphinapterus leucas. Nitex membrane stretched over a petri dish provided the optimal method for collecting blow. A commercially available cortisol EIA for measuring human cortisol (detection limit 35 pg ml-1 was adapted and validated for beluga cortisol using tests of parallelism, accuracy and recovery. Blow samples were collected from aquarium belugas during monthly health checks and during out of water examination, as well as from wild belugas. Two aquarium belugas showed increased blow cortisol between baseline samples and 30 minutes out of water (Baseline, 0.21 and 0.04 µg dl-1; 30 minutes, 0.95 and 0.14 µg dl-1. Six wild belugas also showed increases in blow cortisol between pre and post 1.5 hour examination (Pre 0.03, 0.23, 0.13, 0.19, 0.13, 0.04 µg dl-1, Post 0.60, 0.31, 0.36, 0.24, 0.14, 0.16 µg dl-1. Though this methodology needs further investigation, this study suggests that blow sampling is a good candidate for non-invasive monitoring of cortisol in belugas. It can be collected from both wild and aquarium animals efficiently for the purposes of health monitoring and research, and may ultimately be useful in obtaining data on wild populations, including endangered species, which are difficult to handle directly.

  15. Possible mechanisms of action of environmental contaminants on St. Lawrence beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guise, S; Martineau, D; Béland, P; Fournier, M

    1995-05-01

    A small isolated population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) that are highly contaminated by pollutants, mostly of industrial origin, resides in the St. Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada. Overhunting in the first half of the century was the probable cause for this population to dwindle from several thousand animals to the current estimate of 500. The failure of the population to recover might be due to contamination by organochlorine compounds, which are known to lead to reproductive failure and immunosuppression in domestic and laboratory animals and seals. Functional and morphological changes have been demonstrated in thyroid gland and adrenal cortex in many species exposed to organochlorinated compounds, including seals. Morphological lesions, although different, were also found in belugas. Functional evaluation of thyroid and adrenal glands of contaminated (St. Lawrence) versus much less contaminated (Arctic) belugas is currently under way. Necropsy of St. Lawrence belugas showed numerous severe and disseminated infections with rather mildly pathogenic bacteria, which suggests immunosuppression. Organochlorine compounds and other contaminants found in beluga whales cause immunosuppression in a variety of animal species including seals. Thirty-seven percent of all the tumors reported in cetaceans were observed in St. Lawrence beluga whales. This could be explained by two different mechanisms: high exposure to environmental carcinogens and suppression of immunosurveillance against tumors. Overall, St. Lawrence belugas might well represent the risk associated with long-term exposure to pollutants present in their environment and might be a good model to predict health problems that could emerge in highly exposed human populations over time.

  16. Sequence variation at the major histocompatibility complex locus DQ beta in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, B W; Malik, S; White, B N

    1995-07-01

    Genetic variation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex locus DQ beta was analyzed in 233 beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from seven populations: St. Lawrence Estuary, eastern Beaufort Sea, eastern Chukchi Sea, western Hudson Bay, eastern Hudson Bay, southeastern Baffin Island, and High Arctic and in 12 narwhals (Monodon monoceros) sympatric with the High Arctic beluga population. Variation was assessed by amplification of the exon coding for the peptide binding region via the polymerase chain reaction, followed by either cloning and DNA sequencing or single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. Five alleles were found across the beluga populations and one in the narwhal. Pairwise comparisons of these alleles showed a 5:1 ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions per site leading to eight amino acid differences, five of which were nonconservative substitutions, centered around positions previously shown to be important for peptide binding. Although the amount of allelic variation is low when compared with terrestrial mammals, the nature of the substitutions in the peptide binding sites indicates an important role for the DQ beta locus in the cellular immune response of beluga whales. Comparisons of allele frequencies among populations show the High Arctic population to be different (P < or = .005) from the other beluga populations surveyed. In these other populations an allele, Dele-DQ beta*0101-2, was found in 98% of the animals, while in the High Arctic it was found in only 52% of the animals. Two other alleles were found at high frequencies in the High Arctic population, one being very similar to the single allele found in narwhal.

  17. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine contaminants in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, G; Kovacs, K M; Lydersen, C; Skaare, J U; Gjertz, I; Jenssen, B M

    2001-01-17

    Blubber was collected from live-captured, adult male white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway, and analysed for levels and patterns of organochlorine (OC) contaminants. The OC compounds analysed were HCB, dieldrin, sigmaHCH (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH and gamma-HCH), sigmaChl (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, and cis-nonachlor), sigmaDDT (pp'-DDT, pp'-DDE and pp'-DDD) and sigmaPCB (27 PCB congeners). The major OC compounds detected in the blubber were sigmaPCB (5103+/-1874 ng/g l.w.) and sigmaDDT (5108+/-1089 ng/g l.w.), which made up 70% of the sigmaOC. These compounds were followed in prevalence by sigmaChl (2872+/-1177 ng/g l.w.), which contributed 20% of the sigmaOC burden. SigmaHCH, HCB and dieldrin were present, but at low concentrations. This OC pattern is typical of top predators in Arctic marine food chains. OC levels in white whales from Svalbard are lower than white whales from the St Lawrence River in Canada and are generally similar to values reported previously for other Arctic white whale stocks. Some geographic patterns in relative prevalence of various OC compounds appear to be quite consistent among various marine mammal species in the Arctic. PCB and DDT concentrations in Svalbard's white whales are below the levels that are thought to have negative effects on reproduction or the immune system.

  18. First harmful algal bloom record of tycoplanktonic dinolfagellate Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) F. Stein, 1878 in the Dardanelles (Turkish Straits System, Turkey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammet Turkoglu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on daily variations and harmful algal bloom features of toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) F. Stein (P. lima), 1878 in middle summer period (9th July–6th August 2013) in the Dardanelles. Harmful algal bloom of P. lima was recorded for the first time in the Turkish Straits System. Density of P. lima reached to 2.40 × 106 cells/L and exhibited four excessive blooms over 1.0 × 106 cells/L during the study. The contribution of P. lima to both Prorocentrum spp. and dinoflagellates reached to 100%, particularly at the moment of the harmful algal bloom attested by regresion (R≥0.70) and correlation findings (R≥0.80). Nutrient concentrations were lower than previous levels due to excessive blooms. Concentrations of NO-2+NO-3, PO-34 and SiO4 varied between 0.20 and 0.78 µmol/L [(0.44 ± 0.17) µmol/L], 0.08 and 0.18 µmol/L [(0.12 ± 0.03) µmol/L] and 0.25 and 0.65 µmol/L [(0.41 ± 0.09) µmol/L] respectively. During the bloom, nutrient ratios were more different than redfield ratios due to eutrophication (NO-2+NO-3/PO-34=4.04 ± 1.74;SiO4/PO-34=3.79 ± 1.24;SiO4/NO-2+NO-3=1.04 ± 0.36). Chlorophyll a concentration reached to 8.52 µg/L (average:4.82 ± 2.29 mg/L) in the bloom period. Temperature [(24.70 ± 0.44) °C], salinity [(22.9 ± 0.49) ppt], pH (8.23 ± 0.15) and dissolved oxygen levels (7.35 ± 0.60 mg/L) were approximately constant. The compact bloom of P. lima, similar to excessive blooms of other dinoflagellates and diatoms, was associated not only with eutrophication, but also with ocean warming interactions. Results revealed that it will be possible to reach to millions of cell number of P. lima (2.40 × 106 cells/L) in eutrophied waters characterized by high chlorophyll a biomass (8.52 µg/L).

  19. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H.; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera ...

  20. Antioxidant,antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of the phytochemicals of whole Leucas aspera extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md; Atiar; Rahman; Md; Saiful; Islam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antioxidant,antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of whole Leucas aspera(Labiatae)(L.aspera)alcoholic extract.Methods:Whole L.aspera powder was extracted by absolute ethanol(99.50%).The ethanolic extract was subjected to antioxidant,antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality assay.Results:The extract showed potent radical scavenging effect(antioxidant)with IC50value of(99.58±1.22)μg/mL which was significant(P<0.01)in comparison to ascorbic acid with IC50value of(1.25±0.95)μg/mL.In case of antibacterial screening,the extract showed notable antibacterial effect against the tested microbial strains.Significant(P<0.05)zone of inhibitions against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis[(12.00±1.32)mm]and Bacillus megaterium[(13.00±1.50)mm],Staphylococcus aureus[(8.00±0.50)mm]and Gram negative Salmonella typhi[(6.00±0.50)mm],Salmonella paratyphi[(8.00±1.00)mm],Shigella dysenteriae[(9.00±1.32)mm]and Vibrio cholerae[(9.00±0.66)mm]was observed.In brine shrimp lethality bioassay,the extract showed the LC50value as(181.68±2.15)μg/mL which was statistically significant(P<0.01)compared to positive control vincristine sulfate[LC50=(0.76±0.04)μg/mL].Conclusions:The results demonstrate that the ethanolic extract of L.aspera could be used as antibacterial,pesticidal and various pharmacologic actives.

  1. Organohalogen contaminants and metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) liver from two Canadian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; De Guise, Sylvain; Martineau, Daniel; Béland, Pierre; Lebeuf, Michel; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-05-01

    Contaminants described as organochlorines (OCs; e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) are present in tissues of marine mammals, including beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), but the complexity of contaminant exposure often is not fully known. The PCBs, OC pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, methylsulfonyl (MeSO2)- and hydroxy (OH)-PCB metabolites, and OH-PBDEs and methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs were determined in the liver of beluga whales from two Canadian populations: the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLB; n=6), and western Hudson Bay in the Canadian Arctic (CAB; n=11). The sigmaPCB, sigmaDDT, and sigmaPBDE concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in SLB versus CAB. Of 18 detectable OH-PCBs in SLB (mainly 4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB112, and 4'-OH-CB120), only 4'-OH-CB120 was found in CAB. The sigmaOH-PCB concentrations were less than 0.2% of the sigmaPCBs in both populations but were higher (p < 0.05) in SLB (65 +/- 22 ng/g lipid wt) than in CAB (3.1 +/- 0.5 ng/g lipid wt). The sigmaMeSO2-PCB concentrations were higher in SLB (3801 +/- 1322 ng/g lipid wt) relative to CAB (77 +/- 23 ng/g lipid wt) and were 11 and 4%, respectively, of the sigmaPCB concentrations. Of the 15 OH-PBDEs, only two congeners were detectable, but not quantifiable (notably 2'-OH-BDE 68 and 6-OH-BDE 47), in animals from both populations. Of the 15 MeO-PBDEs, 4'-MeO-BDE 17 and 6-MeO-BDE 47 in the SLB (n=2) and 2'-MeO-BDE 68 and 6-MeO-BDE 47 in the CAB (n=2) had concentrations from 20 to 100 ng/g lipid weight. The OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs most likely are of natural origin and accumulated in beluga whales, whereas the OH-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs are metabolites derived from accumulated PCBs. Canadian beluga whale liver contains previously unidentified organohalogen contaminants and metabolites and, thus, a complexity of contaminant exposure that may be impacting the health of Canadian beluga whale populations.

  2. The first year of behavioral development and maternal care of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) calves in human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather M; Campbell, Carolyn; Dalton, Les; Osborn, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The current study provides additional information for the behavioral development and maternal care of belugas or white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the care of humans. The behaviors and mother-calf interactions of two female beluga calves were recorded from birth to 12 months as part of a longitudinal study of beluga behavioral development. As expected, the primary calf activity for both calves involved swimming with their mothers. The calves initiated the majority of the separations from and reunions with their mothers and exhibited early bouts of independence. Both mothers bonded with their calves and displayed similar maternal care behaviors but exhibited different behavioral patterns. Despite differences in social groupings, housing, and physical health, the two female belugas followed the behavioral development of beluga calves observed previously.

  3. Morphological and molecular descriptions of Moniliformis saudi sp. n. (Acanthocephala: Moniliformidae) from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg) in Saudi Arabia, with a key to species and notes on histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Osama, Mohammed; Evans, R Paul

    2016-04-26

    A new acanthocepohalan species, Moniliformis saudi sp. n. is described from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg), in central Saudi Arabia. Fourteen other valid species of Moniliformis Travassos, 1915 are recognised. The new species of Moniliformis is distinguished by having a small proboscis (315-520 µm long and 130-208 µm wide) with two apical pores, 14 rows of 8 hooks each and small hooks, thre largest being 25-31 µm long anteriorly. Distinguishing features are incorporated in a dichotomous key to the species of Moniliformis. The description is augmented by scanning electron microscopical (SEM) observation and DNA analysis of nuclear (18S rRNA) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1; cox1) gene sequences. Attached worms cause extensive damage to the immediate area of attachment in the host intestine. This includes tissue necrosis and blood loss due to damage to capillary beds. Worms also obstruct essential absorbing surfaces.

  4. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Leucas aspera leaf extract against mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sivapriyajothi; P. Mahesh Kumar; K. Kovendan; Subramaniam, J; K Murugan

    2014-01-01

    Mosquitoes are one of the most medically significant groups of vectors, having an ability to transmit parasites and pathogens that can have devastating impacts on humans. The development of reliable and ecofriendly processes for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. In this study, we address the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Leucas aspera leaf extract, and evaluate its lethal concentration (LC50 and LC9...

  5. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB’s), Chlorinated Pesticides, and Heavy Metals and Other Elements in Tissues of Belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, from Cook Inlet

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Paul R.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Mackey, Elizabeth A.; Demiralp, Rabia; Schantz, Michele M.; Epstein, Michael S.; Donais, Mary Kate; Porter, Barbara J.; Derek C G Muir; Wise, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    Tissues from Cook Inlet beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, that were collected as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals and other elements. Concentrations of total PCB’s (ΣPCB’s), total DDT (ΣDDT), chlordane compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, mirex, toxaphene, and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) measured in Cook Inlet beluga blubber were compared with those reported for b...

  6. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, Sonja K., E-mail: ostertag@unbc.ca [Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Stern, Gary A., E-mail: Gary.Stern@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Wang, Feiyue, E-mail: feiyue.wang@ad.umanitoba.ca [Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Lemes, Marcos, E-mail: Marcos.lemes@ad.umanitoba.ca [Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, 1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg{sup −1} wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mg kg{sup −1} ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p < 0.05). Between 35 and 45% of HgT was water-soluble, of which, 32 to 41% was methyl mercury (MeHg) and 59 to 68% was labile inorganic Hg. The concentration of MeHg (range: 0.03 to 1.05 mg kg{sup −1} ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p < 0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. - Highlights:

  7. Acoustic development of a neonatal beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) at the John G. Shedd Aquarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Brooke Elizabeth

    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) were one of the first marine mammals to be in captivity and currently, nine zoological institutions in North America house belugas (Robeck et al., 2005). Despite their accessibility within these facilities, very little research has been done on the beluga whale that is related to their acoustic development or communication sounds. A male beluga calf named "Nunavik" was born at the John G. Shedd Aquarium on 14 December 2009, which provided an opportunity to examine the ontogeny of underwater sounds by a neonatal beluga from the birth throughout the first year of life. The objectives of the study were to: 1) collect underwater sound recordings of the beluga pod prior to the birth of the calf, 2) collect underwater sound recordings of the neonate during the first year of life, 3) document when and what types of sounds were produced by the calf, 4) compare sounds produced by the calf during agonistic and non-agonistic interactions, and 5) compare the acoustic features of sounds produced by the calf to sounds from the mother, a male beluga calf born at the Vancouver Aquarium in 2002, and other belugas at the John G. Shedd Aquarium. The first recordings of the beluga calf took place six hours following the birth for a two hour period. Subsequent recordings were made daily for one hour for the first two weeks of the calf's life and then twice per week until the calf was about six months of age. Later recordings were done less frequently; about once every other week, with no recordings during a 2-month period due to equipment failure. In total, sixty hours of underwater recordings of the belugas were collected from 26 September 2009 to 27 December 2010. Sounds were audibly and visually examined using Raven Pro version 1.4, a real-time sound analysis software application (Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology), and categorized into three categories (tones, noise, and noise with tones) based on the characteristics of underwater sounds from

  8. Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leucas aspera leaf extracts against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Ganesan; Karthi, Sengodan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2014-05-01

    Vector-borne diseases caused by mosquitoes are one of the major economic and health problems in many countries. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of several diseases in humans like yellow fever and dengue. Vector control methods involving the use of chemical insecticides are becoming less effective due to development of insecticides resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and non-target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has wide-ranging application vector control programs. The present study investigates the larvicidal potential of solvent leaf extracts of Leucas aspera and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectra, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and were used to characterize and support the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with Bragg reflections can be indexed to the (111) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FT-IR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,447.77; 2,923.30; and 1,618.66 cm(-1). The spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 1,618.66 cm(-1) assigned to the stretching vibration of (NH) C═O group. The band 1,383 developed for C═C and C═N stretching, respectively, and was commonly found in the proteins. SEM

  9. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in blood of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hua Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is used for research in gene expression, and it is vital to choose appropriate housekeeping genes (HKGs as reference genes to obtain correct results. The purpose of this study is to determine stably expressed HKGs in blood of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas that can be the appropriate reference genes in relative quantification in gene expression research. Sixty blood samples were taken from four beluga whales. Thirteen candidate HKGs (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, LDHB, PGK1, RPL4, RPL8, RPL18, RPS9, RPS18, TFRC, YWHAZ were tested using RT-qPCR. The stability values of the HKGs were determined by four different algorithms. Comprehensive analysis of the results revealed that RPL4, PGK1 and ACTB are strongly recommended for use in future RT-qPCR studies in beluga blood samples. This research provides recommendation of reference gene selection, which may contribute to further mRNA relative quantification research in the peripheral blood leukocytes in captive cetaceans. The gene expression assessment of the immune components in blood have the potential to serve as an important approach to evaluating cetacean health influenced by environmental insults.

  10. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antimicrobial, Free-Radical-Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Leucas inflata Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi A. Mothana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Leucas inflata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae, collected in Yemen, was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. Forty-three components were recognized, representing 89.2% of the total oil. The L. inflata volatile oil was found to contain a high percentage of aliphatic acids (51.1%. Hexadecanoic acid (32.8% and n-dodecanoic acid (7.8% were identified as the major compounds. Oxygenated monoterpenes were distinguished as the second significant group of constituents (16.0%. Camphor (6.1% and linalool (3.2% were found to be the main components among the oxygenated monoterpenes. In addition, the volatile oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity against four bacterial strains and one yeast species using broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. In addition, antioxidant activity was measured utilizing the anti-radical activity of the sable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-Carotene-linoleic acid assays. The oil of L. inflata showed an excellent antibacterial activity against only the tested Gram-positive bacteria with a MIC-value of 0.81 mg/mL. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, a weak to moderate antiradical and antioxidant activity of 38% and 32%, respectively.

  11. Spatiotemporal bioerosion patterns in deep-water scleractinians from off Santa Maria di Leuca (Apulia, Ionian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuck, L.; Freiwald, A.; Taviani, M.

    2010-03-01

    This study focuses on the carbonate biodegradation processes of deep-water scleractinians from off Apulia at Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) in the Ionian Sea, including living colonies of Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and Desmophyllum dianthus. The corallites were grouped into three zones: the live zone, edge zone and dead zone. In total, 13 trace types were encountered and are attributed to borings of sponges (3), fungi (6), foraminifers (2), bacteria (1) and annelids (1). Their relative spatial appearance within the host skeletons led to the distinction between six succession stages of bioerosion. The first endobiontic traces are exclusively produced by bacteria and fungi and are already present in the edge zone, which could be attributed to their fast growth rates and/or temporal exposure of the bare skeleton to the water column. In D. dianthus the entire ichnospecies assemblage has been documented within the first 1.9 cm below the live zone and represents the most condensed bioerosion succession amongst the coral species studied. The strongest degradation of corallites at SML is made by boring sponges, which can excavate 70% or more of the skeleton. The finding of a unilateral condensed succession of bioerosion stages may be linked to prevailing unidirectional strong currents. A comparison of the present ichnocoenosis with bioerosion studies from the Eastern Atlantic evidences a reduced ichnodiversity in Ionian Sea bathyal corals.

  12. Amplification and Analysis of Partial Ribosomal RNA Large Subnunit Genes Sequences of Heterosigma akashiwo Hada and Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg%赤潮异弯藻和海洋原甲藻LSU Rdna扩增及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云伟; 董双林

    2004-01-01

    利用引物D1R和D2C扩增并测定了赤潮异弯藻(Heterosigma akashiwo Hada)和海洋原甲藻(Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg)的LSU rDNA D1与D2序列,并与GenBank中相关序列进行比较分析.结果表明:在种内水平,所测的H.akashiwo 6个株系之间共有5个变异位点,序列H.k与H.k-2,H.k-4均存在碱基替换;原甲藻属不同种内各株系之间的遗传距离为0.002~0.023之间,所测序列P.mi与P.micans其他株系之间均存在碱基替换.在种间水平上,原甲藻属不同种之间的遗传距离在0.045~0.139之间,大于种内遗传距离,每个种都具有特定的保守序列.根据序列间的遗传变异,可设计特异性的探针对不同株系和物种进行检测和计数.

  13. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the thyroid gland in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary and Hudson Bay, Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelian, I; Labelle, P; Kopal, M; De Guise, S; Martineau, D

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated thyroid gland lesions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (n = 16) and Hudson Bay (n = 14). Follicular cysts and nodules of adenomatous hyperplasia of the thyroid gland were found in eight and nine adults from the St. Lawrence Estuary (n = 10), respectively, and in four and six adults from Hudson Bay (n = 14), respectively. The total volume of the lesions of thyroid adenomatous hyperplasia was positively correlated with age in both populations. Comparison between populations could not be performed because of differences in age structures of sample groups. Beluga whales from both populations have unique thyroid lesions among marine mammals.

  14. Residency patterns and migration dynamics of adult bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) on the east coast of southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ryan; Smale, Malcolm J; Cowley, Paul D; Froneman, Pierre W

    2014-01-01

    Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195-283 cm total length) tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16) exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km) with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km x d(-1) (mean = 17.58 km x d(-1)) and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean = 1163 km). Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales.

  15. Persistent organochlorines in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St Lawrence River estuary--II. Temporal trends, 1982-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D C; Koczanski, K; Rosenberg, B; Béland, P

    1996-01-01

    Blubber samples from 16 dead beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) collected during 1993-1994 in the St Lawrence River estuary were analysed for PCB congeners and other persistent organochlorines (DDT-group, chlorinated bornanes (toxaphene, CHB), chlordane SigmaCHL), hexachloro-cyclohexanes (SigmaHCH), chlorobenzenes (SigmaCBz), tris(p-chlorophenyl methane (TPMe) and mirex). Concentrations and relative proportions of major individual organochlorine components were within the same range as previous results for this population. Temporal trends were studied by combining the results with data from the analysis of 44 samples (1986-1990) and (for DDT and Aroclor PCBs only) with 20 samples (1982-1985) reported by Martineau et al., 1987. Results were lipid normalized and then age-adjusted by an ANCOVA model. Significant relationships between age and concentrations of most organochlorine groups were found for females but not for males. Significant declines were observed in SigmaDDT, and Aroclor PCBs (1.5- and 1.9-fold, respectively) in males between the 1982-1985 and 1993-1994 collection periods. Significant declines were also observed for SigmaHCH and SigmaCBz in males between 1986-1988 and 1993-1994. Mean concentrations of CHBs were significantly higher in 1993-1994 than in earlier years while dieldrin, SigmaCHL, mirex, and TPMe showed no trend. Declines in concentrations of major organochlorine groups were not observed in females possibly because of higher year to year, and within year, variation. The temporal trend in DDT and PCB concentrations in male beluga blubber paralleled trends in seals, eels, and seabirds in the St Lawrence estuary observed during the 1980s.

  16. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymon, J Marcus; Ajemian, Matthew J; Powers, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010) and spatially (upper vs lower bay). Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C), moderate salinities (10-11 psu) and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l), although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks.

  17. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marcus Drymon

    Full Text Available Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas, habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010 and spatially (upper vs lower bay. Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C, moderate salinities (10-11 psu and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l, although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks.

  18. A comparison of spatial and movement patterns between sympatric predators: bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas and Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hammerschlag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators can impact ecosystems through trophic cascades such that differential patterns in habitat use can lead to spatiotemporal variation in top down forcing on community dynamics. Thus, improved understanding of predator movements is important for evaluating the potential ecosystem effects of their declines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We satellite-tagged an apex predator (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas and a sympatric mesopredator (Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus in southern Florida waters to describe their habitat use, abundance and movement patterns. We asked four questions: (1 How do the seasonal abundance patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare? (2 How do the movement patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare, and what proportion of time do their respective primary ranges overlap? (3 Do tarpon movement patterns (e.g., straight versus convoluted paths and/or their rates of movement (ROM differ in areas of low versus high bull shark abundance? and (4 Can any general conclusions be reached concerning whether tarpon may mitigate risk of predation by sharks when they are in areas of high bull shark abundance? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite similarities in diet, bull sharks and tarpon showed little overlap in habitat use. Bull shark abundance was high year-round, but peaked in winter; while tarpon abundance and fishery catches were highest in late spring. However, presence of the largest sharks (>230 cm coincided with peak tarpon abundance. When moving over deep open waters (areas of high shark abundance and high food availability tarpon maintained relatively high ROM in directed lines until reaching shallow structurally-complex areas. At such locations, tarpon exhibited slow tortuous movements over relatively long time periods indicative of foraging. Tarpon periodically concentrated up rivers, where tracked bull sharks were absent. We propose that tarpon trade-off energetic costs of both food assimilation and

  19. Analysis of mitochondrial control region nucleotide sequences from Baffin Bay beluga, (Delphinapterus leucas: detecting pods or sub-populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Jakob Palsbøll

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of an analysis of the variation in the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial control region obtained in 218 samples collected from belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, around the Baffin Bay. We detected multiple instances of significant heterogeneity in the distribution of genetic variation among the analyzed mitochondrial control region sequences on a spatial as well as temporal scale indicating a high degree of maternal population structure. The detection of significant levels of heterogeneity between samples collected in different years but within the same area and season was unexpected. Re-examination of earlier results presented by Brown Gladden and coworkers also revealed temporal genetic heterogeneity within the one area where sufficient (n>15 samples were collected in multiple years. These findings suggest that non-random breeding and maternally directed site-fidelity are not the sole causes of genetic heterogeneity among belugas but that a matrilineal pod structure might cause significant levels of genetic heterogeneity as well, even within the same area. We propose that a maternal pod structure, which has been shown to be the cause of significant genetic heterogeneity in other odontocetes, may add to the overall level of heterogeneity in the maternally inherited DNA and hence that much of the spatial heterogeneity observed in this and previous studies might be attributed to pod rather than population structure. Our findings suggest that it is important to estimate the contribution of pod structure to overall heterogeneity before defining populations or management units in order to avoid interpreting heterogeneity due to sampling of different pods as different populations/management units.

  20. Synthesis of Leucas Aspera Extract Loaded Gold-PLA-PEG-PLA Amphiphilic Copolymer Nanoconjugates: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-Inflammatory Activity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, K; Balashanmugam, P; Gajendiran, M; Antony, S Arul

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are synthesized using the medicinal plant Leucas Aspera extract (LAE) and poly lactic acid-co-poly ethylene glycol-co-poly lactic acid (PLA-PEG-PLA) copolymer by water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion method. The proposed method of W/O emulsion technique involves synthesis of GNPs and loading of Leucas Aspera extract on to the PLA-PEG-PLA copolymer matrix simultaneously. The synthesized GNPs are characterized by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The GNPs-LAE loaded polymer NPs are examined for the in vitro cytotoxicity on South African green monkey's kidney cells. The GNPs-LAE loaded polymer nanoconjugates exhibit maximum up to 95% of cell viability with 100 μg concentration of GNPs in the sample. The GNPs-LAE loaded polymer NPs exhibit better anti-inflammatory activity when compared to the pure LAE.

  1. Vitamin A and E profiles as biomarkers of PCB exposure in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W. [University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, Canada V8P 5C2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, Canada V8L 4B2 (Canada); Ross, Peter S., E-mail: peter.s.ross@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, Canada V8P 5C2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, Canada V8L 4B2 (Canada); Dangerfield, Neil [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, Canada V8L 4B2 (Canada); Palace, Vince P. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N6 (Canada); Whiticar, Michael [University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, Canada V8P 5C2 (Canada); Loseto, Lisa L. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We examine the influence of biology, ecology and contaminant exposure on vitamin A and E profiles in Arctic beluga whales. •PCBs altered vitamin profiles after accounting for sex, age, condition and feeding ecology. •We propose a toxicity reference value for the disruption of vitamin A and E profiles in beluga of 1.6 mg/kg PCBs. •The use of vitamins as biomarkers of contaminant effects is contingent upon an understanding of wildlife biology. -- Abstract: We evaluated the utility of vitamin A and E profiles as biomarkers of contaminant exposure in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas; n = 66) harvested by the Inuvialuit in the Beaufort Sea. Blubber was an important repository for these vitamins, accounting for 76.8 ± 2.6% of the total body store of vitamin A, and 98.5 ± 0.4% of total vitamin E. While the free alcohol form of vitamin A (retinol) appeared highly regulated, the vitamin A esters were influenced by several biological factors including age, body condition and length. Vitamin E concentrations in liver and blubber were related to age, condition, length and feeding ecology, as described δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C. Despite the influence of these factors, collective results from univariate statistics, best fit multiple regressions, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as important determinants of vitamin concentrations and profiles in beluga tissues. Blubber PCB concentrations best explained variation of the first principal component in a PCA of hepatic vitamins (r{sup 2} = 0.13, p = 0.014), and regression models found that vitamin A concentrations were negatively correlated with PCB levels in liver (esters: r{sup 2} = 0.19, p = 0.001), but positively in plasma (retinol: r{sup 2} = 0.20, p = 0.06) and blubber (retinol: r{sup 2} = 0.22, p = 0.001, esters: r{sup 2} = 0.43, p < 0.001). Our analyses provide a basis to propose an integrated toxicity reference value for disruption of vitamin A and

  2. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

  3. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera (Wild.), Leucas aspera ethanolic extract (LAEE), Plumbago zeylanica L., Plumbago zeylanica ethanolic extract (PZEE), and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Tridax procumbens ethanolic extract (TPEE) were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE, and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization, blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study.

  4. The limits of applicability of the sound exposure level (SEL) metric to temporal threshold shifts (TTS) in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V

    2014-05-15

    The influence of fatiguing sound level and duration on post-exposure temporary threshold shift (TTS) was investigated in two beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The fatiguing sound was half-octave noise with a center frequency of 22.5 kHz. TTS was measured at a test frequency of 32 kHz. Thresholds were measured by recording rhythmic evoked potentials (the envelope following response) to a test series of short (eight cycles) tone pips with a pip rate of 1000 s(-1). TTS increased approximately proportionally to the dB measure of both sound pressure (sound pressure level, SPL) and duration of the fatiguing noise, as a product of these two variables. In particular, when the noise parameters varied in a manner that maintained the product of squared sound pressure and time (sound exposure level, SEL, which is equivalent to the overall noise energy) at a constant level, TTS was not constant. Keeping SEL constant, the highest TTS appeared at an intermediate ratio of SPL to sound duration and decreased at both higher and lower ratios. Multiplication (SPL multiplied by log duration) better described the experimental data than an equal-energy (equal SEL) model. The use of SEL as a sole universal metric may result in an implausible assessment of the impact of a fatiguing sound on hearing thresholds in odontocetes, including under-evaluation of potential risks.

  5. Isolation and characterization of eight microsatellite loci from Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger shark) and cross-amplification in Carcharhinus leucas, Carcharhinus brevipinna, Carcharhinus plumbeus and Sphyrna lewini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirog, Agathe; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Blaison, Antonin; Soria, Marc; Magalon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier (Carcharhinidae) is a large elasmobranch suspected to have, as other apex predators, a keystone function in marine ecosystems and is currently considered Near Threatened (Red list IUCN). Knowledge on its ecology, which is crucial to design proper conservation and management plans, is very scarce. Here we describe the isolation of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of enriched DNA libraries. Their characteristics were tested on a population of tiger shark (n = 101) from Reunion Island (South-Western Indian Ocean). All loci were polymorphic with a number of alleles ranging from two to eight. No null alleles were detected and no linkage disequilibrium was detected after Bonferroni correction. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.03 to 0.76 and from 0.03 to 0.77, respectively. No locus deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the global F IS of the population was of 0.04 (NS) . Some of the eight loci developed here successfully cross-amplified in the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (one locus), the spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna (four loci), the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus (five loci) and the scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini (two loci). We also designed primers to amplify and sequence a mitochondrial marker, the control region. We sequenced 862 bp and found a low genetic diversity, with four polymorphic sites, a haplotype diversity of 0.15 and a nucleotide diversity of 2 × 10(-4).

  6. Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity: antioxidant and histological study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanian, G; Thomas, John; Balachander, V; Babu, V Sarath; Bilal, S Mohammed Yusuf; Majeed, S Abdul; Madan, N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Nambi, K S N; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-04-01

    The isolated and identified triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera Linn. was explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (L. aspera Linn.) extract significantly antagonized the spectacled cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. It was compared with commercial antiserum obtained from King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India). N. naja naja venom induced a significant decrease in antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, catalase, reduced GSH and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increased lipid peroxidase (LPO) activity in different organs such as heart, liver, kidney and lungs. The histological changes following the antivenom treatment were also evaluated in all these organs. There were significant alterations in the histology. Triterpenoid from methanol extract of L. aspera Linn. at a dose level of 75 mg per mouse significantly attenuated (neutralized) the venom-induced antioxidant status and also the LPO activity in different organs.

  7. Isolation of apigenin-7-O-(6’’-O-E-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside from Leucas aspera L. with anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam Manivannan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Leucas aspera L. (Labiatae is a common aromatic herb and grows generously in South India and in the broad area of South Asia. Traditionally, this species is taken orally for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and wound healing treatments. Aims: To isolate compounds from L. aspera with anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities. Methods: The chloroform extract was subjected to a column chromatography on silica gel 60 and their structures were established by spectral analysis (UV, IR, and NMR. The anti-inflammatory activity of the test compounds was evaluated in male albino rats. The acute inflammation was induced by the subplantar administration of 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan in the right paw. The excision wound model was used to study the rate of wound contraction and the time required for complete epithelization of the injuries in rabbits. Results: A flavonoid apigenin-7-O-(6”-O-E-caffeoyl-β-D–glucopyrano-side (1 was isolated from a chloroform fraction of L. aspera. The hydrolysis of compound 1 yield an apigenin (aglycone, caffeic acid and β-D-glucose. Assuming caffeoyl glucose linked to the 7-OH group of apigenin. Conclusions: Compound 1 exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with standard diclofenac sodium. The wound healing study revealed that decreased wound area and significant increase in epithelialization in treatment groups was observed.

  8. Investigation into the response of the auditory and acoustic communications systems in the Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) of the St. Lawrence River Estuary to noise, using vocal classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, Peter Martin

    2003-06-01

    Noise pollution has only recently become recognized as a potential danger to marine mammals in general, and to the Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in particular. These small gregarious Odontocetes make extensive use of sound for social communication and pod cohesion. The St. Lawrence River Estuary is habitat to a small, critically endangered population of about 700 Beluga whales who congregate in four different sites in its upper estuary. The population is believed to be threatened by the stress of high-intensity, low frequency noise. One way to determine whether noise is having an effect on an animal's auditory ability might be to observe a natural and repeatable response of the auditory and vocal systems to varying noise levels. This can be accomplished by observing changes in animal vocalizations in response to auditory feedback. A response such as this observed in humans and some animals is known as the Lombard Vocal Response, which represents a reaction of the auditory system directly manifested by changes in vocalization level. In this research this population of Beluga Whales was tested to determine whether a vocalization-as-a-function-of-noise phenomenon existed by using Hidden Markhov "classified" vocalizations as targets for acoustical analyses. Correlation and regression analyses indicated that the phenomenon does exist and results of a human subjects experiment along with results from other animal species known to exhibit the response strongly implicate the Lombard Vocal Response in the Beluga.

  9. Pathologic Findings and Trends in Mortality in the Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) Population of the St Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada, From 1983 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lair, S; Measures, L N; Martineau, D

    2016-01-01

    An isolated population of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabits the St Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. This population has failed to recover despite the prohibition of hunting >30 years ago, suggesting the presence of other limiting factors. The authors summarize the reported causes of death and propose risk factors to explain the lack of recovery of this population. From 1983 to 2012, a total of 472 beluga were found stranded. Complete necropsies were carried out on 222 beluga, including 178 adults, 25 juveniles, and 19 newborn calves. Infectious diseases, the most prevalent cause of mortality in this population, accounted for the death of one-third of all beluga (32%). Verminous pneumonia was the cause of mortality of 13 juvenile beluga (52% of juvenile beluga). A total of 39 malignant neoplasms, diagnosed in 35 beluga, caused the death of 31 beluga (20% of beluga >19 years old). Median age at diagnosis of cancer was 48 years (range, 30-61 years). Dystocia and postpartum complications were the cause of death in 18 beluga, accounting for 19% of the females >19 years old examined. The occurrence of parturition-associated complications, as well as mortality of calves <1 year old, have increased recently in this population and may be the probable cause of the recent decrease in the size of this population. One of the hypotheses proposed to explain the unusually high occurrence of some of the pathologic conditions observed in this population is chronic exposure to environmental contaminants.

  10. Allelic and haplotype variation of major histocompatibility complex class II DRB1 and DQB loci in the St Lawrence beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    In order to assess levels of major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) variation within the St Lawrence beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) the variation at the beluga Mhc DRB1 class II locus was assessed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the peptide-binding region for 313 whales collected from 13 sampling locations across North America. In addition, samples from west Greenland and the St Lawrence were also typed at the DQB locus, allowing comparison to a previous study and assessment of linkage disequilibrium of alleles at the two loci. Comparisons of DRB1 and DQB allele frequencies among all sampling locations indicated genetic structure (alpha St Lawrence, Hudson Strait, Bering Sea, Cunningham Inlet, and Davis Strait (minus Cunningham Inlet), except the St Lawrence and Hudson Strait for the DQB locus. In the St Lawrence population, six of the eight DRB1 alleles are present representing all five known allelic lineages. Evidence of linkage disequilibrium between the DRB1 and DQB is present in two sampling locations, the St Lawrence and Nuussuaq (alpha = 0.05). Analysis of probable DRB1-DQB haplotypes among groups of beluga suggests a haplotype reduction in the St Lawrence.

  11. Comparative feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the coastal waters of the southwest Indian Ocean inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ryan; Froneman, Pierre W; Smale, Malcolm J

    2013-01-01

    As apex predators, sharks play an important role shaping their respective marine communities through predation and associated risk effects. Understanding the predatory dynamics of sharks within communities is, therefore, necessary to establish effective ecologically based conservation strategies. We employed non-lethal sampling methods to investigate the feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) using stable isotope analysis within a subtropical marine community in the southwest Indian Ocean. The main objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the predatory role that sub-adult and adult bull sharks play within a top predatory teleost fish community. Bull sharks had significantly broader niche widths compared to top predatory teleost assemblages with a wide and relatively enriched range of δ(13)C values relative to the local marine community. This suggests that bull sharks forage from a more diverse range of δ(13)C sources over a wider geographical range than the predatory teleost community. Adult bull sharks appeared to exhibit a shift towards consistently higher trophic level prey from an expanded foraging range compared to sub-adults, possibly due to increased mobility linked with size. Although predatory teleost fish are also capable of substantial migrations, bull sharks may have the ability to exploit a more diverse range of habitats and appeared to prey on a wider diversity of larger prey. This suggests that bull sharks play an important predatory role within their respective marine communities and adult sharks in particular may shape and link ecological processes of a variety of marine communities over a broad range.

  12. Concentrations and chromatographic profile of DDT metabolites and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) residues in stranded Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R.; Martineau, D.; Tremblay, L.; Beland, P.

    1986-09-01

    The concentrations and high resolution gas chromatographic profiles of DDT metabolites and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in blubber, liver, kidney and lung tissue and milk samples of stranded beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) collected at localities along the coasts of the Saint Lawrence Estuary, Canada from November 1983 through December 1984. The analyses indicate that the major PCB components of the tissues were 2,2',5,5'-tetra-, 2,2',4,4',5-penta-, 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexa-, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexa-, 2,2',3,3',4,5-hexa-, 2,3,3',5,5',6-hexa-, 2,2',3,4,5,5',6-hepta- and 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyls. Although the highest organochlorine chemical concentrations were found primarily in the blubber, concentrations of 1.72 ..mu..g/g for PCB and 2.04 ..mu..g/g for ..sigma..DDT were determined in one milk sample. No correlation was established between PCB, p,p-DDE and ..sigma..DDT concentrations and the fat content of the kidney, liver and lung tissues. The chromatographic patterns of the PCB congeners were similar from one tissue to another with the exception of the kidney; the profile indicates the retention of PCB congeners which are minor components in the other tissues. Relations of residue concentrations between tissue are described and the significance of congener-specific PCB analysis is discussed in terms of the structure-activity effects on PCB persistence and toxicity.

  13. Population structure of North American beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) based on nuclear DNA microsatellite variation and contrasted with the population structure revealed by mitochondrial DNA variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden; Ferguson; Friesen; Clayton

    1999-03-01

    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in North American waters migrate seasonally between wintering areas in broken pack ice and summering locations in estuaries and other open water areas in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. Results from our previous investigation of beluga whale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) revealed genetic heterogeneity among beluga from different summering locations that was interpreted as representing a high degree of summering site philopatry. However, mtDNA is maternally inherited and does not reflect mating that may occur among beluga from different summering locations in wintering areas or during annual migrations. To test the possibility that breeding occurs among beluga from different summering locations, genetic variability at five nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci was examined in the same animals tested in the mtDNA study. Beluga samples (n = 640) were collected between 1984 and 1994 from 24 sites across North America, mostly during the summer. Whales from the various sites were categorized into eight summering locations as identified by mtDNA analysis, as well as four hypothesized wintering areas: Bering Sea, Hudson Strait (Hudson Strait, Labrador Sea, southwest Davis Strait), Baffin Bay (North Water, east Davis Strait), and St Lawrence River. Microsatellite allele frequencies indicated genetic homogeneity among animals from summering sites believed to winter together but differentiation among whales from some of the wintering areas. In particular, beluga from western North America (Bering Sea) were clearly distinguished from beluga from eastern North America (Hudson Strait, Baffin Bay, and St Lawrence River). Based upon the combined data set, the population of North American beluga whales was divided into two evolutionarily significant units. However, the population may be further subdivided into management units to reflect distinct groups of beluga at summering locations.

  14. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild., Plumbago zeylanica L and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongari eSaritha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild., Plumbago zeylanica L and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine.Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult (HIEE, Leucas aspera (Wild.(Wild.(LAEE, Plumbago zeylanica L (PZEE and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult. (TPEE were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization , blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study.

  15. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Leucas aspera leaf extract against mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivapriyajothi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are one of the most medically significant groups of vectors, having an ability to transmit parasites and pathogens that can have devastating impacts on humans. The development of reliable and ecofriendly processes for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. In this study, we address the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Leucas aspera leaf extract, and evaluate its lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90 values against first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis. Larvae and pupae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extracts of synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The maximum mortality was observed from synthesized AgNPs, with LC50 values for I-IV instars and pupae ranging from 13.06 to 25.54, and LC90 values ranging from 24.11 to 47.34 for A. aegypti; for A. stephensi, the corresponding LC50 values ranged from 12.45 to 22.26, and the LC90 values ranged from 23.50 to 42.95. With methanol leaf extract of L. aspera against A. aegypti, the LC50 values ranged from 174.89 to 462.96 and the LC90 values ranged from 488.16 to 963.74; for A. stephensi, the corresponding LC50 values ranged from 148.93 to 417.07 and the LC90 values ranged from 449.72 to 912.94. The study suggests that nanoparticles could be a preferred alternative to the most hazardous existing chemical pesticides, contributing to a more healthy environment by providing an ideal ecological and user-friendly vector control strategy for managing malaria and dengue, and contributing to their eventual elimination in the near future.

  16. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in blubber biopsies from free-ranging St. Lawrence River Estuary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), 1994-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, K.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Michaud, Robert; Beland, Pierre; Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J

    2003-04-01

    Measuring contaminants only in stranded whales may result in overestimation of organochlorines. - For the first time, organochlorine (OC) contaminants were measured in blubber biopsies from free-ranging St. Lawrence River Estuary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), to compare contaminant levels to those previously measured in dead stranded belugas. PCBs, DDTs, toxaphene and chlordane-related compounds were the major OC contaminants detected in 44 belugas biopsied in 1994-1998. {sigma}PCB (the sum of 104 congeners) ranged from 2080 to 128,000 ng/g lipid in males (n=34; minimum estimated ages 8-22 years), and from 148 to 44,100 ng/g lipid in females (n=10; minimum estimated ages 7-22 years). The concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides in the blubber of these whales overlapped those observed in stranded belugas from an earlier study, and demonstrated comparable age and sex-related trends. However, lower proportions of mirex, HCB, DDTs, and many of the highly chlorinated PCBs occurred in the biopsy samples compared to results for blubber from stranded carcasses. Most major OC compounds were present at lower concentrations in the biopsies, but this does not appear to be solely related to age differences between the two groups, or to emaciation in the stranded whales. Nor does it appear to be associated with the use of superficial biopsies, and the possible stratification of lipids and OCs in the blubber layer. Nevertheless, given these possible confounding factors, and the uncertainty in age estimates for the biopsied whales, the results point to the need for careful interpretation of biopsy results when comparing with data taken from the full depth of the blubber mantle in stranded whales. Taken together, results from both biopsied whales and previously studied stranded belugas indicate that PCB and OC pesticide contamination of St. Lawrence beluga whales may occur across a broader range of levels than previously thought, at least for males which formed the largest

  17. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in blubber biopsies from free-ranging St. Lawrence River Estuary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), 1994-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Karen E; Muir, Derek C G; Michaud, Robert; Béland, Pierre; Letcher, Robert J; Norstrom, Ross J

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, organochlorine (OC) contaminants were measured in blubber biopsies from free-ranging St. Lawrence River Estuary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), to compare contaminant levels to those previously measured in dead stranded belugas. PCBs, DDTs, toxaphene and chlordane-related compounds were the major OC contaminants detected in 44 belugas biopsied in 1994-1998. SigmaPCB (the sum of 104 congeners) ranged from 2080 to 128,000 ng/g lipid in males (n=34; minimum estimated ages 8-22 years), and from 148 to 44,100 ng/g lipid in females (n=10; minimum estimated ages 7-22 years). The concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides in the blubber of these whales overlapped those observed in stranded belugas from an earlier study, and demonstrated comparable age and sex-related trends. However, lower proportions of mirex, HCB, DDTs, and many of the highly chlorinated PCBs occurred in the biopsy samples compared to results for blubber from stranded carcasses. Most major OC compounds were present at lower concentrations in the biopsies, but this does not appear to be solely related to age differences between the two groups, or to emaciation in the stranded whales. Nor does it appear to be associated with the use of superficial biopsies, and the possible stratification of lipids and OCs in the blubber layer. Nevertheless, given these possible confounding factors, and the uncertainty in age estimates for the biopsied whales, the results point to the need for careful interpretation of biopsy results when comparing with data taken from the full depth of the blubber mantle in stranded whales. Taken together, results from both biopsied whales and previously studied stranded belugas indicate that PCB and OC pesticide contamination of St. Lawrence beluga whales may occur across a broader range of levels than previously thought, at least for males which formed the largest group in this study, possibly due to different degrees of dietary exposure. It also appears that

  18. Temporal trends (1987-2002) of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Michel; Noël, Michelle; Trottier, Steve; Measures, Lena

    2007-09-20

    Temporal trends of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals were examined in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Canada. Blubber samples of 86 adult belugas were collected from animals stranded on the shore of the SLE between 1987 and 2002 and analyzed for several regulated PBTs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, chlordane (CHL) and related compounds, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Mirex. In addition, time trends of tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), two compounds that may origin from DDT formulations, were also examined. Concentrations of most of the PBTs examined had exponentially decreased by at least a factor of two (half-life time (t(1/2))<15 years) in beluga between 1987 and 2002 while no increasing trends were observed for any of the PBTs measured. The decreasing trends of PBT concentrations in SLE beluga may be due to a decline in contamination of its diet following North American and international regulations on the use and production of these compounds or by a change in its diet itself or by a combination of both. Some PBTs did not exhibit any significant trends in beluga possibly because the most intense elimination phase subsequent to legislative regulations occurred prior to the 1987-2002 time period. Other chemicals, such gamma-HCH, did not significantly decrease likely because they are still currently used in some restricted applications. Conversely, alpha-HCH showed a significant decreasing trend indicating that SigmaHCHs is not representative of all HCHs. Both TCPMe and TCPMOH exhibited no trends in beluga during the time period examined. The metabolic capacity of SLE beluga has apparently accelerated the depletion of at least one PBT, namely CB-28/31. A significant relationship between the half-life of PBTs in beluga and log Kow was observed for

  19. Revision of the Genus Heterometrus Hemprich & Ehrenberg (Scorpionidae, Arachnidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couzijn, H.W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The author deals with taxonomy, character variation, phylogeny and biogeography of Heterometrus, a scorpion genus occurring in Southeast Asia. The taxonomic value of 131 characters is studied, including 75 biometric ones; 72 characters are selected to be used in the present revision for purposes of

  20. Persistent organochlorines in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St Lawrence River estuary--I. Concentrations and patterns of specific PCBs, chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D C; Ford, C A; Rosenberg, B; Norstrom, R J; Simon, M; Béland, P

    1996-01-01

    Blubber samples from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the St Lawrence River estuary were analysed for PCB congeners (ortho- and non-ortho-substituted) and other persistent organochlorines as well as chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). Major individual components (mean concentrations > 1 microg g(-1)) were 4,4'-DDE, -DDD and -DDT, T12 (a toxaphene-related compound), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, mirex, HCB, tris(p-chlorophenyl) methane and dieldrin. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs (8.3-412 microg g(-1)), SigmaDDT (3.36-389 microg g(-1)) and mirex (0.18-6.8 microg g(-1)) were particularly elevated relative to other odontocetes in Canadian waters. SigmaDDT, PCBs (as Aroclor), mirex and T12 concentrations were positively correlated with age of adult females (> 10 years) but only weakly, or not significantly, correlated with age of adult males. PCDD/Fs were present at low ng kg(-1) levels and consisted mainly of penta- and hexachlorofurans, and hepta- and octachlorodioxin. CB126 (3,3',4,4',5-PCB) was the most prominent non-ortho-substituted PCB congener in beluga blubber. Total TCDD toxic equivalents averaged 330 ng kg(-1) in females and 1400 ng kg(-1) in males and were dominated by CB126, and the mono-ortho-substituted congeners CB105 and CB118. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) for mirex and SigmaPCB from fish to beluga ranged from 11 to 16, and were similar to BMFs in Arctic animals, indicating that elevated levels in St Lawrence animals are a consequence of relatively high levels of recalcitrant organochlorines in prey of the beluga in the St Lawrence river system.

  1. Characterization and profiling of hepatic cytochromes P450 and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River Estuary and the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Arukwe, Augustine; De Guise, Sylvain; Martineau, Daniel; Béland, Pierre; Dallaire, André; Lair, Stéphane; Lebeuf, Michel; Letcher, Robert J

    2004-07-30

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP, phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes can be induced by and influence the toxicokinetics (metabolism) and toxicity of xenobiotic contaminants in exposed organisms. Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the endangered St. Lawrence (SL) River Estuary population exhibit deleterious health effects and various severe pathologies that have been associated with contaminant exposure. In contrast, such effects (e.g. reproductive and immunological impairment) are generally less frequent in less exposed populations in the Canadian Arctic (CA). In the present study, opportunistic sampling resulted in the collection immediately after death of liver tissue from a single female neonate SL beluga (SL6) and male and female CA beluga (n=10) from the Arviat region of western Hudson Bay, in addition to sampling of stranded carcasses of male and female SL beluga (n=5) at least 12 h postmortem. We immunologically characterized cross-reactive proteins of hepatic microsomal CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A, CYP2E, epoxide hydrolase (EH) and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) isozymes. Cross-reactive proteins were found in all SL and CA beluga using anti-rat CYP1A1, anti-rainbow trout CYP3A, anti-human CYP2E1, anti-rabbit EH and anti-human UDPGT1A1 polyclonal antibodies (Abs), whereas faintly cross-reactive CYP2B proteins were only found in SL6 and the CA samples using an anti-rabbit CYP2B1 Ab. In corresponding catalytic activity assessments, only SL6 and all CA beluga microsomal samples exhibited CYP1A-mediated 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity (51-260 pmol/mg/min), CYP3A-mediated activity (113-899 pmol/mg/min) based on the formation of 6beta-hydroxytestosterone using a testosterone hydroxylase assay, and UDPGT activity (830-4956 pmol/mg/min) based on 1-naphthylglucuronide formation. The marginal cross-reactivity with the anti-CYP2B1 Ab and lack of catalytically measurable hydroxytestosterone isomers associated with CYP2B-type activity in

  2. Methylsulfone polychlorinated biphenyl and 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River estuary and western Hudson Bay, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; Sandau, C.D.; Koczanski, K.; Michaud, R.; De Guise, S.; Beland, P.

    2000-05-01

    Knowledge is limited regarding methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2})-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and especially MeSo{sub 2}-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), metabolites in cetacean species. The authors hypothesized that the ability of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to biotransform PCB and DDE compounds, and to form and degrade their MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE metabolites, is related to the capacity for xenobiotic metabolism. Adipose biopsies were collected from male and female beluga whale from distinct populations in the St. Lawrence River estuary (STL) and western Hudson Bay (WHB), Canada, which are contrasted by the exposure to different levels of cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing, chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants. The PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, 28 MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 14 meta-para chlorine-unsubstituted PCBs, and four MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 4,4{prime}- and 2,4{prime}-DDE were determined. The mean concentrations of total ({Sigma}-) MeSO{sub 2}-PCB in male STL beluga (230 ng/g), and ratios of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB (0.05) and {Sigma}-precursor-PCB (0.17) were approximately twofold higher, whereas the {Sigma}-precursor-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB ratio was approximately twofold lower, than in male WHB beluga. Both populations had a low formation capacity for MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs with {le} six chlorines (<4% of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs). The congener patterns were dominated by trichloro- and tetrachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs, and tetrachloro- and pentachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in WHB and STL animals, respectively. In addition to 2- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, two unknown MeSO{sub 2}-2,4{prime}-DDEs were detected. The mean 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE concentration in STL beluga (1.2 ng/g) was much greater than in WHB animals. The concentrations of 4,4{prime}-DDE, and not 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, increased with age in male STL animals. The authors demonstrated that sulfone formation and clearance is related to metabolic capacity, and thus

  3. Stable isotopes (δ 18O and δ 13C), trace and minor element compositions of Recent scleractinians and Last Glacial bivalves at the Santa Maria di Leuca deep-water coral province, Ionian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Matthias López; Montagna, Paolo; Vendrell-Simón, Begoña; McCulloch, Malcolm; Taviani, Marco

    2010-03-01

    The aragonitic skeletons of bathyal cold-water corals have a high potential as geochemical in situ archives for paleoceanography. Oxygen isotopes and stable carbon isotopes (δ 18O and δ 13C) have been analyzed, as well as trace and minor element compositions (e.g. Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, U/Ca, B/Ca and P/Ca) in Lophelia pertusa, one of the most important frame-builders at the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) deep-water coral hotspot in the Central Mediterranean. The Apulian Bank is swept by strong currents of the Adriatic Deep Water Outflow. The temperature of 13.9 °C is the highest temperature recorded for L. pertusa and provides an important end-member of environmental conditions for geochemical analyses on living Atlantic and Mediterranean cold-water corals. Temperature and salinity (38.77 PSU) are stable throughout the year, and thus virtually no changes should be observed in the stable oxygen isotope signal—if the coral precipitates its skeleton in equilibrium with seawater. We measured various marine properties, such as the seawater oxygen isotope composition (δ 18O sw), stable carbon isotope composition (δ 13C DIC) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations (PO 4, NO 3, NO 2, NH 3 and SiO 2). Bottom water at the coral sites shows a mean oxygen isotope composition of 1.47‰ δ 18O sw-VSMOW, and δ 13C DIC showed a mean of 1.1‰ VPDB. A section of a living L. pertusa with a thick theca calcification was probed with a Merchantek MicroMill at a high spatial sampling resolution with 10 samples per 1 mm. This reduced the signal-smoothing inherent to conventional sampling. The δ 18O ag of coral aragonite ranges between -2.0‰ and +2.8‰ VPDB and the δ 13C ag ranges between -7.77‰ and +1.47‰ VPDB. The Gaussian data distribution for both parameters, including heavy equilibrium values, suggests the completeness of the captured isotopic variability. The strict linear correlation of δ 13C and δ 18O displays a strong 'kinetic

  4. Fungi and their biomass in detritus of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenberg) Ascherson

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, V.; Raghukumar, S.

    Kalpeni Island revealed different kinds of hyphae and unicellular thraustochytrid fungi, particularly in later stages of decomposition. Highest values of biomass estimatEd. by direct observations were 31840 x 10-6 g mycelial fungi per g dry wt. detritus...

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Glossodoris (Ehrenberg, 1831) nudibranchs and related genera reveals cryptic and pseudocryptic species complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuda, Shayle B.

    2017-03-01

    Chromodorid nudibranchs (Chromodorididae) are brightly coloured sea slugs that live in some of the most biodiverse and threatened coral reefs on the planet. However, the evolutionary relationships within this family have not been well understood, especially in the genus Glossodoris. Members of Glossodoris have experienced large-scale taxonomic instability over the last century and have been the subject of repeated taxonomic changes, in part due to morphological characters being the sole traditional taxonomic sources of data. Changing concepts of traditional generic boundaries based on morphology also have contributed to this instability. Despite recent advances in molecular systematics, many aspects of chromodorid taxonomy remain poorly understood, particularly at the traditional species and generic levels. In this study, 77 individuals comprising 32 previously defined species were used to build the most robust phylogenetic tree of Glossodoris and related genera using mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S, and the nuclear gene 28S. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses verify the most recent hypothesized evolutionary relationships within Glossodoris. Additionally, a pseudocryptic and cryptic species complex within Glossodoris cincta and a pseudocryptic complex within Glossodoris pallida emerged, and three new species of Doriprismatica are identified.

  6. Novos registros de Eunotia Ehrenberg (Eunotiaceae-Bacillariophyta para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e Brasil New reports of Eunotia Ehrenberg (Eunotiaceae-Bacillariophyta for Rio Grande do Sul State and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Brugalli Bicca

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar as características morfológicas, e/ou estruturais e métricas de 12 espécies de Eunotia (E. batavica A. Berg, E. deficiens Metz., Lange-Bert & García-Rodr., E. genuflexa Nörpel-Sch., E. hepaticola Lang-Bert. & Wydrz., E. herzogii Krasske, E. mucophila (Lange-Bert., Nörpel-Sch. & Alles Lange-Bert., E. pileus Ehr., E. pirla Carter & Flower, E. schwabei Krasske, E. subarcuatoides Alles, Nörpel-Sch. & Lange-Bert., E. transfuga Metz. & Lange-Bert. e E. yanomami Metz. & Lange-Bert. encontradas nas áreas da Lagoa do Casamento e dos Butiazais de Tapes, entre as coordenadas 30º10'-30º40'S e 50º30'-51º30'W, na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. São incluídos comentários sobre a distribuição e os ambientes onde os táxons foram encontrados.This paper presents the morphological and/or structural and mensurable characteristics of 12 Eunotia species (E. batavica A. Berg, E. deficiens Metz., Lange-Bert. & García-Rodr., E. genuflexa Nörpel-Sch., E. hepaticola Lang-Bert. & Wydrz., E. herzogii Krasske, E. mucophila (Lange-Bert., Nörpel-Sch. & Alles Lange-Bert., E. pileus Ehr., E. pirla Carter & Flower, E. schwabei Krasske, E. subarcuatoides Alles, Nörpel-Sch. & Lange-Bert., E. transfuga Metz. & Lange-Bert. and E. yanomami Metz. & Lange-Bert. found in the Lagoa do Casamento and Butiazais de Tapes areas, between 30º10'-30º40'S and 50º30'-51º30'W, on the Rio Grande do Sul State Coastal Plain. Comments on distribution and habitats where the taxons are found are included.

  7. A prolonged red tide of Heterocapsa triquetra (Ehrenberg F. Stein (Dinophyceae and phytoplankton succession in a eutrophic estuary in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A prolonged red tide of Heterocapsa triquetra and phytoplankton succession were investigated in a eutrophic estuary (Golden Horn for a year. Runoff following the rainfall in winter supplied high amounts of nutrients and also created a mesohaline frontal zone in the middle and upper estuary. Red tide of H. triquetra was first observed with an orange-brownish water discoloration at the upper estuary in January. Highest cell density of H. triquetra was 2.7×106 cells l-1 in January and reached to 19.2×106 cells l-1 in April. Successive blooms continued with dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in May and phytoflagellates Eutreptiella marina and Fibrocapsa sp. in summer. High chl-a and dissolved oxygen were measured in the spring depending on algal biomass. Findings indicate that H. triquetra might be adapted to moderate salinity and low temperatures and red tide events should be considered as a response to increasing eutrophication due to high amounts of nutrients. Eutrophication can lead to harmful algal blooms for this area in the near future.

  8. Checklist and distribution of ciliates from the family Euplotidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (Protista: Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirjaková, Eva; Botlíková, Simona; Vďačný, Peter

    2015-02-20

    A checklist of ciliates from the family Euplotidae recorded in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe was assembled. Altogether, 11 species belonging to three genera of the family Euplotidae have been reported there: Euplotes alatus, Euplotes charon, Euplotes moebiusi, Euplotoides aediculatus, Euplotoides eurystomus, Euplotoides patella, Euplotoides woodruffi, Euplotopsis affinis, Euplotopsis finki, Euplotopsis muscicola, and Euplotopsis novemcarinata. However, records of the marine species E. alatus and E. charon are doubtful and very likely represent misidentifications of E. moebiusi. Since the euryhaline species E. woodruffi was found for the first time in Slovakia, its morphology is described. Based on the literature data and our own observations, the present checklist is also accompanied with distribution data on the 11 aforementioned species. As concerns ecology, Slovak euplotids typically occurred in freshwater bodies having higher trophic levels. Only two species, E. finki and E. muscicola, were isolated from terrestrial habitats, especially, from mosses, leaf-litter, and decaying wood mass.

  9. Antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of the phytochemicals of whole Leucas aspera extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Atiar Rahman; Md Saiful Islam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of whole Leucasaspera (Labiatae) (L. aspera) alcoholic extract. Methods: Whole L. aspera powder was extracted by absolute ethanol (99.50%). The ethanolic extract was subjected to antioxidant, antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The extract showed potent radical scavenging effect (antioxidant) with IC50 value of (99.58±1.22) µg/mL which was significant (P<0.01) in comparison to ascorbic acid with IC50 value of (1.25±0.95) µg/mL. In case of antibacterial screening, the extract showed notable antibacterial effect against the tested microbial strains. Significant (P<0.05) zone of inhibitions against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis [(12.00±1.32) mm] and Bacillus megaterium [(13.00±1.50) mm], Staphylococcus aureus [(8.00±0.50) mm] and Gram negative Salmonella typhi [(6.00±0.50) mm], Salmonella paratyphi [(8.00±1.00) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(9.00±1.32) mm] and Vibrio cholerae [(9.00±0.66) mm] was observed. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the extract showed the LC50 value as (181.68±2.15) µg/mL which was statistically significant (P<0.01) compared to positive control vincristine sulfate [LC50=(0.76±0.04) µg/mL]. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the ethanolic extract of L. aspera could be used as antibacterial, pesticidal and various pharmacologic actives.

  10. Immune functions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): Evaluation of natural killer cell activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. De Guise (Sylvain); P.S. Ross (Peter); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D. Martineau (Daniel); P. Beland; M. Fournier (Michel)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractNatural killer (NK) activity, an important non-specific defense mechanism against viral infections and tumors, was demonstrated in beluga whales using two different methods: 51Cr release and flow cytometry. Using the 51Cr release assay, NK activity in belugas was shown to be higher again

  11. Ameliorative effect of Leucas cephalotes extract on isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhini Bais; Payal Saiju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate ameliorative effect of alcoholic extract of whole herb of Lucas cephalotes (L. cephalotes) on isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Hepatoprotective potential of alcoholic extract of L. cephalotes was ascertained at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were intoxicated with isoniazid and rifampicin (100 mg/kg each, i.p.) for 21 d. Assessment was done on the basis of liver function test (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin);effect on enzymes involved in oxidative stress (lipid peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase) and histology of liver were assessed as well. Comparison among different treatment group was done using One way ANOVA followed by Benferroni’s t test. Results: It was observed that at both of the selected doses extract exhibited significant ameliorative effect. In animals treated with the extract at both doses, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and lipid peroxidase level was found to be significantly less (P Conclusions:From the present study it can be concluded that alcoholic extract of L. cephalotes possesses significant hepatoprotective potential against isoniazid and rifampicin induced heptoxicity.

  12. Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas granulocytes and monocytes display variable responses to in vitro pressure exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Thompson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is widely known that marine mammals possess adaptations which allow them to make repetitive and extended dives to great depths without suffering ill effects seen in humans, the response of marine mammal immune cells to diving is unknown. Renewed interest in marine mammal dive physiology has arisen due to reports of decompression sickness-like symptoms and embolic damage in stranded and by-caught animals, and there is concern over whether anthropogenic activities can impact marine mammal health by disrupting adaptive dive responses and behavior. This work addresses the need for information concerning marine mammal immune function during diving by evaluating granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, and granulocyte activation in belugas (n=4 in comparison with humans (n=4, with and without in vitro pressure exposures. In addition, the potential for additional stressors to impact immune function was investigated by comparing the response of beluga cells to pressure between baseline and stressor conditions. Granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, as well as granulocyte activation, were compared between pressure exposed and non-exposed cells for each condition, between different pressure profiles and between conditions using mixed generalized linear models (α=0.05. The effects of pressure varied between species as well by depth, compression/decompression rates, and length of exposures, and condition for belugas. Pressure induced changes in granulocyte and monocyte function in belugas could serve a protective function against dive-related pathologies and differences in the response between humans and belugas could reflect degrees of dive adaptation. The alteration of these responses during physiologically challenging conditions may increase the potential for dive-related in jury and disease in marine mammals.

  13. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in a Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, D; Lagacé, A; Massé, R; Morin, M; Béland, P

    1985-10-01

    A transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder was found in a beluga whale stranded in the St. Lawrence middle estuary. Various organs of this animal were submitted to high resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. High frequency of urinary bladder cancer in the human population of the same area and the presence of carcinogenic compounds in the marine environment of this animal are discussed.Concurrent isolation of Edwardsiella tarda from various organs of this whale is also reported.

  14. Immune functions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): Evaluation of natural killer cell activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Guise, Sylvain De; Ross, Peter; Osterhaus, Albert; Martineau, Daniel; Beland, P; Fournier, Michel

    1997-01-01

    textabstractNatural killer (NK) activity, an important non-specific defense mechanism against viral infections and tumors, was demonstrated in beluga whales using two different methods: 51Cr release and flow cytometry. Using the 51Cr release assay, NK activity in belugas was shown to be higher against K-562 than against YAC-1 cell lines. Moreover, it was enhanced by the addition of human recombinant interleukin-2 with both cell lines. NK activity evaluated by flow cytometry in the peripheral ...

  15. Immune functions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): Evaluation of natural killer cell activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. De Guise (Sylvain); P.S. Ross (Peter); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D. Martineau (Daniel); P. Beland; M. Fournier (Michel)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractNatural killer (NK) activity, an important non-specific defense mechanism against viral infections and tumors, was demonstrated in beluga whales using two different methods: 51Cr release and flow cytometry. Using the 51Cr release assay, NK activity in belugas was shown to be higher again

  16. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in a Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

    OpenAIRE

    Martineau, D.; Lagacé, A.; Massé, R; Morin, M.; Béland, P

    1985-01-01

    A transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder was found in a beluga whale stranded in the St. Lawrence middle estuary. Various organs of this animal were submitted to high resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. High frequency of urinary bladder cancer in the human population of the same area and the presence of carcinogenic compounds in the marine environment of this animal are discussed.

  17. Immune functions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): evaluation of natural killer cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guise, S; Ross, P S; Osterhaus, A D; Martineau, D; Béland, P; Fournier, M

    1997-09-19

    Natural killer (NK) activity, an important non-specific defense mechanism against viral infections and tumors, was demonstrated in beluga whales using two different methods: 51Cr release and flow cytometry. Using the 51Cr release assay, NK activity in belugas was shown to be higher against K-562 than against YAC-1 cell lines. Moreover, it was enhanced by the addition of human recombinant interleukin-2 with both cell lines. NK activity evaluated by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of eight belugas increased when the effector:target cell (E:T) ratio increased, and averaged 13.9% +/- 3.8% (range 9.9% to 17.8%) at an E:T ratio of 100:1. While NK activity could be readily detected using both methods, the lack of radio-isotopes and related laboratory room make the flow cytometric method a viable and safe alternative. The evaluation of this function in cetaceans could lead to a better understanding of the early events that lead to viral epizootics in populations of marine mammals in different parts of the world, as well as to the high prevalence of neoplasms in St. Lawrence beluga whales.

  18. Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) granulocytes and monocytes display variable responses to in vitro pressure exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Laura A; Romano, Tracy A

    2015-01-01

    While it is widely known that marine mammals possess adaptations which allow them to make repetitive and extended dives to great depths without suffering ill effects seen in humans, the response of marine mammal immune cells to diving is unknown. Renewed interest in marine mammal dive physiology has arisen due to reports of decompression sickness-like symptoms and embolic damage in stranded and by-caught animals, and there is concern over whether anthropogenic activities can impact marine mammal health by disrupting adaptive dive responses and behavior. This work addresses the need for information concerning marine mammal immune function during diving by evaluating granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, and granulocyte activation in belugas (n = 4) in comparison with humans (n = 4), with and without in vitro pressure exposures. In addition, the potential for additional stressors to impact immune function was investigated by comparing the response of beluga cells to pressure between baseline and stressor conditions. Granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, as well as granulocyte activation, were compared between pressure exposed and non-exposed cells for each condition, between different pressure profiles and between conditions using mixed generalized linear models (α = 0.05). The effects of pressure varied between species as well by depth, compression/decompression rates, and length of exposures, and condition for belugas. Pressure induced changes in granulocyte and monocyte function in belugas could serve a protective function against dive-related pathologies and differences in the response between humans and belugas could reflect degrees of dive adaptation. The alteration of these responses during physiologically challenging conditions may increase the potential for dive-related in jury and disease in marine mammals.

  19. Genus Tetrastemma Ehrenberg, 1831 (Phylum Nemertea)--a natural group? Phylogenetic relationships inferred from partial 18S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Malin; Sundberg, Per

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the monophyletic status of the hoplonemertean taxon Tetrastemma by reconstructing the phylogeny for 22 specimens assigned to this genus, together with another 25 specimens from closely related hoplonemertean genera. The phylogeny was based on partial 18S rRNA sequences using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The included Tetrastemma-species formed a well-supported clade, although the within-taxon relationships were unsettled. We conclude that the name Tetrastemma refers to a monophyletic taxon, but that it cannot be defined by morphological synapomorphies, and our results do not imply that all the over 100 species assigned to this genus belong to it. The results furthermore indicate that the genera Amphiporus and Emplectonema are non-monophyletic.

  20. Offshore distribution patterns of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum ehrenberg and associated phyto- and bacterioplankton in the southern Atlantic coast (Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Siqueira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on Thrichodesmium erythraeum occurring on the inner shelf in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Temperature, salinity, rainfall, wind velocity, total bacteria, bacterial biomass, chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton, Anabaena sp., Merismopedia sp. and T. erythraeum densities were measured in surface water. Centric and pennate diatoms, Anabaena sp. and Merismopedia sp. were most abundant at 15 m isobath, while dinoflagellate abundance was relatively constant among stations. Similarly, total bacterial densities were relatively homogeneous throughout the sampling area, suggesting that blooms of T. erythraeum were not yet in the senescent phase. Results showed that T. erythraeum was capable of surviving in relatively inhospitable environmental conditions, due to its ability to fix nitrogen and to photosynthesis at high light intensities.O propósito principal da presente pesquisa foi investigar as florações de Trichodesmium erythraeum na plataforma continental interna do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Foram medidas, em águas de superfície a temperatura, salinidade, bactérias totais, biomassa bacteriana, clorofila-a, densidade fitoplanctônica, densidade das cianobactérias Anabaena sp., Merismopedia sp. e T. erythraeum. Ao contrário dos dinoflagelados, cuja abundância foi relativamente constante em todas as estações, as diatomáceas cêntricas e penadas, Anabaena sp. e Merismopedia sp. foram mais abundantes até a isóbata dos 15 m. A densidade de bactérias totais também foi relativamente homogênea na área amostrada, o que sugere que as florações de T. erythraeum não se encontravam em fase senescente. Os resultados confirmam que T. erythraeum é capaz de sobreviver em condições ambientais relativamente inóspitas devido à sua capacidade de fixar nitrogênio e efetuar a fotossíntese em altas intensidades de luz.

  1. Offshore distribution patterns of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum ehrenberg and associated phyto- and bacterioplankton in the southern Atlantic coast (Paraná, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Siqueira; Hedda Elisabeth Kolm; Frederico Pereira Brandini

    2006-01-01

    Studies were carried out on Thrichodesmium erythraeum occurring on the inner shelf in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Temperature, salinity, rainfall, wind velocity, total bacteria, bacterial biomass, chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton, Anabaena sp., Merismopedia sp. and T. erythraeum densities were measured in surface water. Centric and pennate diatoms, Anabaena sp. and Merismopedia sp. were most abundant at 15 m isobath, while dinoflagellate abundance was relatively constant among stations. Similarl...

  2. 中国等蝎属一新种(蝎目,钳蝎科)%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS ISOMETRUS EHRENBERG 1828 FROM CHINA (SCORPIONES, BUTHIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILSON R LOUREN(C)O; 朱明生

    2008-01-01

    描述了采于中国西藏等蝎属1新种--西藏等蝎,Isometrus(Reddyanus)tibetanus sp.nov..为了比较,根据原始模式标本和保存在法国自然博物馆的系列标本,重新描述了原始描述于印度和尚分布于尼泊尔的阿萨姆等蝎 Isometrus(Reddyanus) assamensis Oates,1888.%A new species, Isinetrys (Reddyanus) tibetanus sp. nov. from Tibet, China is described. For comparative purposes,Isometrus (Reddyanus) assamensis Oates, 1888, originally described from India, and also distributed in Nepal, is redescribed based on the original type materials (holotypes) and a series of specimens deposited in the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

  3. Ergebnisse der Nachuntersuchung einiger Rhizostomeen-typen Ehrenberg's, Haeckel's und Vanhöffen's aus den Zoologischen Museen im Berlin und Königsberg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1923-01-01

    Die vorliegende Mitteilung schliesst sich enge an an die Reihe inhaltsverwandter Arbeiten über die Untersuchungsergebnisse von RhizostomeenOriginaltypen, die in den Museen von Amsterdam (8), Kopenhagen (9), Hamburg (10) und Jena (11) sich befinden. Hier handelt es sich um einige Originale von Ehrenb

  4. Age and sex distributions in the catches of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas , in West Greenland and in western Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Lockyer, C.

    2001-01-01

    with mature females were taken. Age was estimated from Growth Layer Groups (GLGs) in sectioned teeth, assuming the currently accepted criteria of 2 GLGs forming annually. The mean and median ages were increasing slightly in both sexes from Upernavik from 1985 through 1994. Both immature and mature whales were...... taken on the wintering grounds from Disko Bay and south. Estimation of survival was confounded by the large number of whales where only a minimum age could be assigned because of tooth wear at the crown (i. e. no neonatal Line in the dentine). The apparent survival rates for belugas from West Greenland...

  5. Groups of related belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) travel together during their seasonal migrations in and around Hudson Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Gabriel J; Duchesne, Pierre; Postma, Lianne D; Lesage, Véronique; Hammill, Mike O; Turgeon, Julie

    2013-02-07

    Social structure involving long-term associations with relatives should facilitate the learning of complex behaviours such as long-distance migration. In and around Hudson Bay (Canada), three stocks of beluga whales form a panmictic unit, but have different migratory behaviours associated with different summering areas. We analysed genetic variation at 13 microsatellite loci among 1524 belugas, to test hypotheses about social structure in belugas. We found significant proportions of mother-offspring pairs throughout the migratory cycle, but average relatedness extended beyond close kinship only during migration. Average relatedness was significantly above random expectations for pairs caught at the same site but on different days or months of a year, suggesting that belugas maintain associations with a network of relatives during migration. Pairs involving a female (female-female or male-female) were on average more related than pairs of males, and males seemed to disperse from their matrilineal group to associate with other mature males. Altogether, our results indicate that relatives other than strictly parents, and especially females, play a role in maintaining a social structure that could facilitate the learning of migration routes. Cultural conservatism may limit contributions from nearby summer stocks to endangered stocks such as the Eastern Hudson Bay beluga.

  6. Pathology of stranded beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, D; Lagacé, A; Béland, P; Higgins, R; Armstrong, D; Shugart, L R

    1988-04-01

    From June 1983 to May 1986, thirteen carcasses of stranded beluga whales from a polluted area of the St. Lawrence River, Canada were necropsied. High performance liquid chromatography was performed on the brains of three other animals to determine concentrations of benzo a pyrene (BaP). Two juvenile animals had severe multisystemic lesions one of which, a severe necrotizing dermatitis, was associated with a Herpesvirus-like particle. Four adults had five varieties of tumours. An adult had a systemic nocardiosis and a juvenile was affected ty a non 0:1 Vibrio cholerae septicemia. High concentrations of BaP adducts were found in the brains which were analyzed. Occurrence of BaP adducts in the brain of three whales of this population coincides with the high incidence of tumours. This and the previous finding of high concentrations of organochlorine in the tissues of these animals suggest an important role of industrial contaminants in the recent decrease of this population.

  7. Non-neoplastic lesions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and other marine mammals from the St Lawrence Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guise, S; Lagacé, A; Béland, P; Girard, C; Higgins, R

    1995-04-01

    In a 3-year (1988-1990) pathological study, 24 carcasses of beluga whales from the St Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada, showed numerous severe lesions, many of which had never been reported in cetaceans. The most common lesions were found in the digestive tract (21 animals) and consisted mainly of periodontitis and of erosions and ulcers in the oesophagus and the first two gastric compartments. Pneumonia, usually of parasitic origin, was also a common finding (12 animals). The adrenal glands often contained nodules (five animals) or cysts (seven animals), and mastitis was observed in five females. Overall, the incidence of degenerative, infectious, hyperplastic or necrotic lesions, in addition to numerous neoplasms described in another paper, was considerably higher than that found in marine mammals elsewhere or in other species of marine mammal from the same waters.

  8. Lactational Transfer of Polychlorinated-Biphenyls (PCBs) and Other Organochlorines in St. Lawrence Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Marc A; Muir, Derek C G; Béland, Pierre; Hickie, Brendan E

    2016-01-01

    This study uses an individual-based contaminant bioaccumulation model for marine mammals to explore factors controlling the transfer of PCBs from mother to calf via nursing in beluga from the St. Lawrence Estuary. Beluga blubber samples (n = 46), along with four matched milk samples from stranded animals over the 1986-1994 period were used for comparison with modelled results. Based on 68 POPs, including 48 PCBs and 20 other organochlorine compounds, milk:blubber ratios were 0.65 between log K OW 3-6.5, then decreased to 0.1 at log K OW 8. Model simulations based on this relationship indicated females were transferring PCBs that were relatively very hydrophobic and highly chlorinated less readily than their lower chlorinated counterparts, resulting in an enriched concentration of very hydrophobic congeners in nursing females relative to adult males. There was very good agreement between observed and modelled male:female PCB concentration ratios. Four females within our dataset (15 %) had male-like ΣPCB concentrations as well as male-like congener profiles, suggesting that these individuals may have had a reduced or limited nursing history.

  9. Toxoplasmosis in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St Lawrence estuary: two case reports and a serological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelian, I; Boisclair, J; Dubey, J P; Kennedy, S; Martineau, D

    2000-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in two free-ranging beluga whales from the St Lawrence estuary, Quebec, Canada, in 1988 and 1998. Histologically, tachyzoites and bradyzoites were present in the brain, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenals and lungs of both animals, and in the thymus of one. These organisms were readily labelled by an indirect immunohistochemical method for Toxoplasma gondii antigens. In the lymph nodes, spleen and lungs the organisms were associated with histiocytic infiltration. In the brain of one animal they were associated with mild multifocal gliosis and haemorrhages. There was no evidence of concomitant morbillivirus infection. Serum samples were collected from 22 beluga whales stranded between 1995 and 1998 on the shores of the St Lawrence Estuary and examined for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test. Antibody titres of s25 were found in six (27%) of the animals. This is the first confirmed report of toxoplasmosis in beluga whales.

  10. Immune functions in the Fisher rat fed beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) blubber from the contaminated St. Lawrence estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapierre, P.; Guise, S. De [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Biologiques; Muir, D.C.G. [Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Norstrom, R. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada); Beland, P. [St. Lawrence National Inst. of Ecotoxicology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fournier, M. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Biologiques]|[INRS-Sante, Pointe-Claire, Quebec (Canada)]|[IML, Mont Joli, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans

    1999-02-01

    In order to assess the immunotoxic potential of food naturally contaminated with PCBs and other organohalogens, Fisher rats were fed a diet in which the lipids originated from the blubber of either a highly polluted St. Lawrence beluga or a relatively uncontaminated Arctic beluga. After a period of 2 months, different immune functions were evaluated, including lymphoblastic transformation, natural killer cell activity, plaque-forming cells, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and immunophenotyping. For all assays, rats fed at St. Lawrence beluga blubber diet or a mixture of Arctic and St. Lawrence beluga blubber diet were not different from control rats fed a diet containing Arctic beluga blubber. These results are inconsistent with the well-known immunosuppressive effects of organochlorines in numerous species and with the lesions suggestive of organochlorine-related immunosuppression that are observed in St. Lawrence belugas. The lack of observable immunotoxic effects in rats fed contaminated beluga blubber might be explained by antagonistic effects in the organohalogen mixture, by a response specific to the rat, by a strain-related lack of sensitivity to organochlorines, or by insufficient dose due to the shortness of the exposure period or the route of exposure.

  11. Immune functions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): evaluation of phagocytosis and respiratory burst with peripheral blood leukocytes using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guise, S; Flipo, D; Boehm, J R; Martineau, D; Béland, P; Fournier, M

    1995-08-01

    Flow cytometric assays using peripheral blood were developed to study phagocytosis and respiratory burst, the two major functions of neutrophils and among the most important non-specific defense mechanisms, in beluga whales. The use of flow cytometry avoids the problems associated with the isolation and purification of different cell types, and allows the measurement of a large number of cells (10,000) in a very short period of time. The methods described will be used to compare these functions in blood samples from highly contaminated beluga whales from the St. Lawrence and from relatively clean arctic beluga whales.

  12. STRATIGRAPHIC ARCHITECTURE OF THE SALENTO COAST FROM CAPO D'OTRANTO TO S.MARIA DI LEUCA (APULIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFONSO BOSELLINI

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous to Quaternary succession of the Apulia Platform cropping out on the eastern coast of the Salento Peninsula shows a special stratigraphic architecture. Whereas on the platform top, i.e. on the Salento Peninsula proper, the succession is at most a few tens of metres thick and is punctuated by unconformities, on the margin and slope of the platform, along the present-day eastern coast of the peninsula, several carbonate systems are laterally disposed and grafted one upon the other. Three of these systems are clinostratified and include well developed reef tracts of Priabonian, early Chattian and early Messinian age. The geologic conclusion of our study is that, since the Late Cretaceous, the eastern coast of the Salento Peninsula grossly coincided with the margin of the Apulia Platform. This paleogeographic element acted as a foreland horst and registered important geodynamic events related to the growth of the adjacent Hellenide and Apennine thrust belts. During the last 60 m.y., the horst carapace was constantly near sea level and sediments were mainly accommodated and preserved on the deep margin and slope of the platform. 

  13. Pressure Induced Changes in Adaptive Immune Function in Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas; implications for dive physiology and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Thompson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased pressure, associated with diving, can alter cell function through several mechanisms and has been shown to impact immune functions performed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in humans. While marine mammals possess specific adaptations which protect them from dive related injury, it is unknown how their immune system is adapted to the challenges associated with diving. The purpose of this study was to measure PBMC activation (IL2R expression and Concanavalin A induced lymphocyte proliferation (BrdU incorporation in belugas following in vitro pressure exposures during baseline, Out of Water Examination (OWE and capture/release conditions. Beluga blood samples (n=4 were obtained from animals at the Mystic Aquarium and from free ranging animals in Alaska (n=9. Human blood samples (n=4 (Biological Specialty Corporation were run for comparison. In vivo catecholamines and cortisol were measured in belugas to characterize the neuroendocrine response. Comparison of cellular responses between controls and pressure exposed cells, between conditions in belugas, between belugas and humans as well as between dive profiles, were run using mixed generalized linear models (α=0.05. Cortisol was significantly higher in wild belugas and OWE samples as compared with baseline for aquarium animals. Both IL2R expression and proliferation displayed significant pressure induced changes, and these responses varied between conditions in belugas. Both belugas and humans displayed increased IL2R expression, while lymphocyte proliferation decreased for aquarium animals and increased for humans and wild belugas. Results suggest beluga PBMC function is altered during diving and changes may represent dive adaptation as the response differs from humans, a non-dive adapted mammal. In addition, characteristics of a dive (i.e., duration, depth as well as neuroendocrine activity can alter the response of beluga cells, potentially impacting the ability of animals to fight infection or avoid dive related pathologies.

  14. Bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) whales in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reproductive activity in the bowhead whale was observed in early May near Pt. Barrow Alaska, indicating that this species may calf and breed during the northward...

  15. Notes on the Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas in the lagoon region of Cananéia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sadowsky

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Ninety one young specimens and 3 adult females of BulI shark ("cação cabeça chata" caught in the lagoon region of Cananéia were examined, their tooth formula being 27/25 and the number of pre-caudal vertebrae ranging from 109 to 115. The proportion between the 1st and 2nd dorsal fins were found to be 2.3 and 2.8 for the young,and 2.9 to 3.1 for the adults. These data confirm that the studied form belongs to C. leuoas. Young occur regularly but in limited numbers.As regards the adults, however, females only appear during the short parturition period, i.e., from November to February. The number of embryos in the litters were from 7 to 9, their sizes ranging between 768-812 mm. The length of the smallest free young found was 697 mm, but young presumably 9 to 12 months old had 98 to 112 cm; between 21 and 24 months they were reaching 124 to 128 cm, that is, the same size they have when they start migrating to the open sea. The feeding inhibition phenomenon during the period of parturition was not observed in the female specimens caught in the lagoon. The more abundant species found in the stomach contents were: Arius spixii; Chloroscombrus chrysurus; A. grandicassus; A. barbus; Felichtys marinus; Genidens genidens; Chanophorus tajacica and Carcharhinus porosus.Noventa e um espécimes jovens e 3 fêmeas adultas de "cação cabeça chata" capturados na região lagunar de Cananeia foram examinados, constatando-se a fórmula dental 27/25 e número de vértebras pré-caudais entre 109 e 115.Verificouse que as proporções entre a la. nadadeira dorsal e a 2a. foram de 2.3 e 2.8 para os jovens e de 2.9 até 3.1 para os adultos.Ficou assim confirmado que a forma es tudada pertence a C. leuaas. É comum a ocorrência de jovens dentro da região estudada~ no entanto,quanto aos adultos,as fêmeas só são encontradas durante o período de parição, i.é, de novembro a fevereiro. Constatou-se que o número de embriões nas ninhadas foi de 7 a 9 e seus tamanhos oscilaram ent re 768-812 mm. O comprimento do menor jovem livre encontrado foi de 697 mm, sendo que jovens de presumivelmente 9 a 12 meses têm de 98 a 112 cm; entre 21 e 24 meses alcançam 124 a 128 cm, ou seja, os tamanhos que apresentam quando emigram para mar aberto. Não ficou confirmado o fenômeno da inibição alimentar nas fêmeas capturadas, já observado em genetrizes da mesma espécie durante o período de parição no delta do Mississippi. O conteúdo estomacal apresentou, por ordem decrescente de abundância: Arius spixii (13; Chloroscombrus chrysurus (7; A. grandicassus (6; A. barbus (4; Felichtys marinus (3; Genidens genide ns (2; Chanophorus tajacica (2; Carcharhinus porosus (2; Conodon nobilis, Caranx crysos, scomberomorus maculatus, Sphyrna tiburo, Rhinoptera brasiliensis, Dasyatis americana, Diapterus rhombeus (1, além de cerca de 25/30 exemplares de Callinectes sp.

  16. Proposal of Spirillum winogradskyi sp. nov., a novel microaerophilic species, an emended description of the genus Spirillum and Request for an Opinion regarding the status of the species Spirillum volutans Ehrenberg 1832.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkopaeva, Daria; Grabovich, Margarita; Kuever, Jan; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Tourova, Tatiana P; Kolganova, Tatiana V; Dubinina, Galina

    2009-11-01

    A novel obligately organotrophic, facultatively microaerophilic spirillum, designated strain D-427(T), was isolated from sulfidic sludge of a municipal wastewater-treatment plant. Cells were Gram-negative, large and highly motile due to bipolar tufts of flagella covered with mucous sheaths. Coccoid cells were sometimes formed. Strain D-427(T) grew optimally at pH 7.5-7.8 and 28 degrees C in the presence of 2 % O(2) in the gas phase. The organism showed oxidase and very low catalase activity. The isolate grew chemo-organotrophically with a limited number of organic acids as substrates. The DNA G+C content was 38.0 mol% (T(m)). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain D-427(T) in the genus Spirillum within the class Betaproteobacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain D-427(T) and Spirillum volutans ATCC 19554(T), the type strain of the single species of the genus, was 98.6 %. The low level of DNA-DNA hybridization and different phenotypic properties indicate that strain D-427(T) is clearly distinguishable from Spirillum volutans. No strain of S. volutans is available from any established culture collection or from the authors who described this species. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data and the fact that the type and single species of the genus Spirillum cannot be included in any scientific study, since the type strain has been lost, we propose to assign strain D-427(T) as a novel species of the genus Spirillum, Spirillum winogradskyi sp. nov. (type strain D-427(T) =DSM 12756(T) =VKM B-2518(T)), and we request that the Judicial Commission place the name Spirillum volutans on the list of rejected names if a suitable type strain is not found or a neotype is not proposed within 2 years following the publication of this paper. An emended description of the genus Spirillum is also provided.

  17. Detection and quantitation of benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in brain and liver tissues of Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence and Mackenzie Estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    It should be noted that there are few analytical techniques available for the detection and quantitation of chemical adducts in the DNA of living organisms. The reasons for this are: the analytical technique often has to accommodate the unique chemical and/or physical properties of the individual chemical or its metabolite; the percentage of total chemical that becomes most of the parent compound is usually detoxified and excreted; not all adducts that form between the genotoxic agent and DNA are stable or are involved in the development of subsequent deleterious events in the organism; and the amount of DNA available for analysis is often quite limited. 16 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Occurrence of chlorinated paraffins in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Lake Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennie, D. T.; Sullivan, C. A.; Maguire, R. J. [Envirronment Canada, National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Samples of 25 dead beluga whales from the St. Lawrence River estuary, as well as samples of 10 rainbow trout and three carps caught in western Lake Ontario were analyzed for total short and medium chain chlorinated paraffins using gas chromatography-low resolution negative chemical ionization spectroscopy. Both short and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins were quantitatively identified in all samples using two commercial preparations. Beluga results were found to be higher than concentrations reported for marine mammals in Europe, but comparable to total PCB and total DDT results for the same population of beluga whales. Results for freshwater species are comparable to those reported for fish sampled from other industrially impacted waterways in North America, but elevated compared to marine species from European studies. Comparisons of the results with gas chromatography-negative ion mass spectroscopy analysis from another study indicated that the two analytical techniques are not congruent. The differences may be accounted for by different effects of interfering organochlorine substances on the analysis of chlorinated paraffins. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. A modelling-based perspective on the past, present, and future polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of the St. Lawrence beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickie, B. E.; Mackay, D. [Trent Univ., Environmental Modelling Centre, Peterborough, ON (Canada); Kingsley, M. C. S. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Hodson, P. V. [Queen' s Univ., School of Environmental Studies, Kingston, ON (Canada); Muir, D. C. G. [Environment Canada, National Water Resesarch Institute, Burlington, ON (Canada); Beland, P. [St. Lawrence National Inst of Exotoxicology, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Two models showing the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) by the St. Lawrence beluga whale population from 1950 to the present are described. The study also aimed at predicting future trends based on likely contaminant loading scenarios. The individual-based model (IB) calculates the accumulation of PCBs over the life time of an individual, taking into account the animal's complete life history, including growth, body composition, energetics, diet, gestation, birth and lactation. The population-based (PB) model is based on energy and contaminant flux budgets summarized from the IB model; it quantifies the changes in contaminant levels throughout the population over several generations. The study also includes consideration of the hypothesis that migrating American eels from Lake Ontario are a significant dietary source of contaminants for the beluga whales in the St. Lawrence River. Results showed that eels may have contributed as much as 45 per cent of the total PCB burden in the population in the mid-1980s. With migrating eels included as part of the beluga diet, PCB concentrations in the population peaked between 1965 and 1975, and have been gradually declining since then. Future declines in PCB levels in the beluga are predicted in proportion with changes in the PCB levels of their prey. This and similar studies are also considered useful in identifying tolerable concentrations of PCBs and other contaminants, information that could be used as tools in aquatic ecosystem management. 52 refs., 8 figs.

  20. PBDEs and PCBs in the liver of the St Lawrence Estuary beluga (Delphinapterus leucas): a comparison of levels and temporal trends with the blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raach, Meriem; Lebeuf, Michel; Pelletier, Emilien

    2011-03-01

    Due to their lipophilic properties, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are commonly assessed using the blubber of marine mammals. However, these chemicals are also accumulating in other tissues including the liver. Some pollutants, namely perfluorinated alkyl acids, are found predominately in the liver and blood of marine mammals, and thus monitored in those tissues. This raises the question whether any tissue would represent an identical trend of POPs in the SLE beluga. The current study reports the first temporal trends of PBDEs and PCBs in the liver of 65 SLE belugas. Neither ∑₇PBDEs nor major individual PBDE-homolog group concentrations showed significant trends between 1993 and 2007. Also, ∑₃₂PCBs did not change over years, although, tetra-, penta- and hepta-PCB decreased by 7.1, 6.8 and 8.5%, respectively, in males, whereas tetra-, penta- and octa-PCBs declined by 11, 12 and 12.9%, respectively, in females. In order to compare the distribution of POPs between liver and blubber, a lipid normalised concentration ratio R (blubber/liver) for PBDEs and PCBs was calculated for each individual beluga. For all PBDE and several PCB homolog groups, mean R values were not statistically different from unity indicating that the partitioning of these POPs is governed by the tissue lipid-content. Temporal trends of R ratios of PBDEs and PCBs were also examined. There were generally no significant temporal trends except for PBDEs in males where R increased in average by 12.7 ± 2.9% yearly. The stratification of the blubber into a metabolically active (inner) and less active layers (outer blubber) may result in a slower response time of the blubber (full depth) than the liver to the recent change of contamination in the environment and explain the time trend differences between both tissues. This study suggests that the liver is more representative of recent exposure to lipophilic contaminants.

  1. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF GYMNODINIUM AUREOLUM (DINOPHYCEAE): TOWARD A FURTHER REDEFINITION OF GYMNODINIUM SENSU STRICTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert

    2001-01-01

    of Gymnodinium, G. fuscum (Ehrenberg) Stein and certain other Gymnodinium species. The nuclear pores were restricted to these chambers. In the flagellar apparatus a nuclear fibrous connective linked the longitudinal microtubular root and the nucleus. This structure had so far been observed only in Gymnodinium...... spp. and in the heterotrophic species Actiniscus pentasterias (Ehrenberg) Ehrenberg, Nematodinium armatum (Dogiel) Kofoid et Swezy and Polykrikos kofoidii Chatton. Another unusual feature of G. aureolum was the presence of a striated fiber in the longitudinal flagellum, a feature previously only found...... in Ceratium furca (Ehrenberg) Claparède et Lachmann and C. tripos (O.F. Müller) Nitzsch. Gymnodinium aureolum also possessed a prominent ventral protrusion associated with the peduncle and containing electron opaque material. It is concluded that G. aureolum belongs to the Gymnodinium sensu stricto group...

  2. Diverse opslag i Sociologisk leksikon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2011-01-01

    -aftraditionalisering, monisme, erkendelsesinteresse, kognitiv semantik, Thomas-teoremet, realitetskonstruktion, virkningshistorie, eksternaliteter, undtagelsestilstand, atmosfære, umyndiggørelse, vi-intentionalitet, rationale, diversitet, Ehrenberg, Alain, individuation, Guattari, Félix, kapitalens civiliserende indflydelse...

  3. 安徽省假棘影熊虫属(缓步动物,棘影科)2个新记录种记述%Two New Records of Pseudechiniscus (Tardigrada,Echiniscidae) from Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏群; 刘晓莉

    2009-01-01

    Two new records of Tardigrada in Anhui Province were reported. They are Pseudechiniscus facettalis Petersen, 1951 (Heterotardigrada, Echiniscidae) and Pseudechiniscus suillus Ehrenberg, 1853 (Heterotardigrada, Echiniscidae).%记述了安徽省2个缓步动物新记录种,它们是Pseudechiniscus facettalis Petersen,1951(异缓步纲,棘影科)和Pseudechiniscus suillus Ehrenberg,1853(异缓步纲,棘影科).

  4. AFSC/NMML: Beluga whale aerial survey in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 1993-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted aerial counts of Cook Inlet beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from 1993 to 2014 (excluding 2013)....

  5. Beluga whales aerial survey conducted by Alaska Fisheries Scientific Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1993-06-02 to 2014-06-12 (NCEI Accession 0133936)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted aerial counts of Cook Inlet beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from 1993 to 2014 (excluding 2013)....

  6. Review of the Freshwater Sharks of Iran (Family Carcharhinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Coad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The systematics, morphology, distribution, biology, economic importance and conservation of the bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas in Iran are described, the species is illustrated, and a bibliography on this fish in Iran is provided.

  7. Aerial Surveys of Bowhead Whales, North Slope, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    general area were 15 to 20 belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas ). They were evenly spaced and were proceeding quite steadily in straight, regular lines on...in polynyas within the ice. In early spring, whales from this population move northward from the Bering Sea, passing St Lawrence and Diomede Islands...Harvard Univ. Press Cambridge. MA. Sergeant. D.E. and W. Hoch. 1974. Biology of bowhead Balaena mysticetus and white whale Delphinapterus leucas in

  8. Distribution, Abundance, Behavior, and Bioacoustics of Endangered Whales in the Alaskan Beaufort and Eastern Chukchi Seas, 1979-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Habitat Relationships and Behavior 70 d. Calf Sightings and Estimated Recruitment 72 Other Marine Mammals 72 a. Belukha ( Delphinapterus leucas ) 72 b...been seen in the Chukchi Sea only in 3uly. Other Marine Mammals a. Belukha, or White Whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) There were 109 sightings of 492...physalus) whales in the St . Lawrence river (Macfarlane, 1981); and minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) off 3apan (Nishiwaki and Sasao, 1977

  9. First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two suctorians, were identified and classified within the subclass Peritrichia: Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; and Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg,1834 (Acinetidae and Tokophrya Bütschli,1889 (Tokophrydae. The results showed that P. lineata constitute the microenvironment of a ciliate protozoan community that presents complex trophic interactions.O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um levantamento dos protozoários ciliados dos táxons Peritrichia e Suctoria, epibiontes de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Cinqüenta moluscos foram coletados em ambientes de vala de irrigação, em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. As conchas dos moluscos foram raspadas com bisturi e o material extraído analisado in vivo sob o microscópio de luz. Todos os moluscos examinados apresentaram ciliados epibiontes em suas conchas. Registra-se pela primeira vez ciliados epibiontes em P. lineata. Sete gêneros de ciliados: cinco peritríquios e dois suctórios foram identificados e classificados nas subclasses Peritrichia : Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae e Vorticella Lìnnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; e Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg, 1834 (Acinetidae e Tokophrya Bütschli, 1889

  10. The Seasonal Phytoplankton Assemblages Associated with the Chesapeake Bay Plume and Waters Off Dam Neck, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    indicated by A, B, C, in order of decreasing abundance. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE W S S F A Achnanthes sp. - - - x Achnanthes fimbriata (Grunow) Ross x... Achnanthes leimermann Hustedt x Actinoptychus senarius Ehrenberg x X X x Amphiprora sp. K x x Amphiprora gigantea v. sulcata (O’Meara) Cleve K x Amphora sp

  11. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  12. Amebas testáceas ocorrentes na região de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul: II. Novos registros para a região Testate amoebae found in the region of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul: II. New record to the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stolzenberg Torres

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A second study of the testate amoebae of the region of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul revealed the presence of Arcella Ehrenberg, 1830.Difflugia Leclerc, 1815, Lesquereusia Schulumberger, 1845, Centropyxis Stein, 1857, Bulinularia Penard, 1911 and Euglypha Dujardin, 1841 genera. Our finds demand emendations of the diagnostic characteristics of several species.

  13. The Effect of Active Duty Presence on High Quality Enlisted Accessions in the Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    military. An analysis of prior research involving geospatial factors finds that recruiter density and market segmentation also play a role in whether...19 A. FUNDAMENTALS OF MILITARY MANPOWER ............................19 1. Labor Market ...Source: CMC (2009a). .............................................16 Figure 5. Distributed Market -Based Model. Source: Ehrenberg & Smith (2012

  14. Pliocene diatoms from the Bryce Canyon Area, Utah

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A

    of northern Utah. Twelve genera showed that the lake was at first fresh but later became brackish as indicated by the presence of @iCocconeis lineata@@ Ehrenberg and @iSurirella craticula@@ (= @iStictodesmis craticula@@) which are characteristic of such a...

  15. Intelligence, Belief in the Paranormal, Knowledge of Probability and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Nayak, Laxman; Priest, Lee

    2006-01-01

    In young adults, preparedness to accept improbable events as planned rather than due to chance is predictive of the level of belief in the paranormal, possibly underpinned by lower intelligence levels (Musch and Ehrenberg, 2002). The present study, using a sample of 73 older participants aged 60-84 years failed to find any relationship between…

  16. Depression er en moderne succeshistorie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2010-01-01

    I lykkepillernes æra hylder vi det individuelle initiativ og selvrealiseringen, og det skaber grobund for, at depression bliver tidens vigtigste psykiske problem. Den anerkendte franske sociolog Alain Ehrenberg gæster DPU, Aarhus Universitet, hvor han fortæller om sine udforskninger af det depres...

  17. 3 Discoasteridae, Coccolithinae and Radiolaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hok, Tan Sin

    1931-01-01

    Notwithstanding the fact that representants of this group were already known to Prof. C. G. Ehrenberg, the great micropaleontologist of the first half of the 19th century and subsequent authors have mentioned them from various localities, they have remained almost unknown. Their organic nature too h

  18. En model for lagerstørrelsen som determinant for købs- og brugsadfærden for et kortvarigt forbrugsgode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Kai

    2005-01-01

    (Ehrenberg (1959)), Erlangfordelingen (Herniter(1971), Zufryden (1978), Jeuland, Bass and Wright (1980) og Gupta (1988)) og Cox's hazard model (Jain and Vilcassim (1991)). Dels fordi det aktuelle lager af varen kun indgår indirekte i modelkonstruktionen via størrelsen af det købte kvantum ved forrige køb...

  19. Cyclopoid copepods (Lichomolgidae) from octocorals at Eniwetok Atoll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humes, Arthur G.

    1973-01-01

    This report of lichomolgid copepods found for the first time associated with octocorals in the Pacific Ocean includes six species, two of them new. Paramolgus eniwetokensis n. sp. and Paramolgus ostentus n. sp. are associated with Lobophytum pauciflorum (Ehrenberg). New host records include Acanthom

  20. On some Balanids living in Corals, collected by the Snellius Expedition in 1930

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolosváry, G.

    1950-01-01

    Prof. H. Boschma, director of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, sent me some Balanids associated with Millepora platyphylla Hemprich & Ehrenberg, partly preserved in formalin, partly in a dry state. The material was collected by the Snellius Expedition in 1930, the data concerning the presen

  1. The Gonyaulax spinifera (Dinophyceae) "complex": Perpetuating the paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochon, André; Lewis, Jane; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Specimens of dinoflagellate cysts referable to the cyst-species Spiniferites ramosus (Ehrenberg 1838) Mantell 1854 and Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (Ostenfeld 1903) Reid 1974 have been produced in the same crossed-strain of Gonyaulax spinifera-type (Claparède and Lachmann 1857) Diesing 1866 motile...

  2. Evaluation of sediment contamination by trace elements and the zooplankton community analysis in area affected by gold exploration in Southeast (SE of the Iron Quadrangle, Alto Rio Doce, (MG Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia de Lima e Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to verify the geochemical composition of sediments samples (riverbed and bank and the relationship of the following elements: Al, As, Cd. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn with the zooplankton community. METHODS: Bank and riverbed sediments were collected in four sampling points along the studied area, in June/2010 (dry season and March/2011 (rainy season. Three types of analysis were performed: granulometric, mineralogical (by X-Ray diffractometer and geochemical (by ICPOES, where for the last two types, only a fraction of silt/clay (<0.062 mm was used, and the results were compared with the following reference values: Local Reference Value (Costa et al., 2010, Quality Reference Values (São Paulo, 2005, PEC and TEC values (MacDonald et al., 2000. For identification of the zooplankton community, riverbed and bank samples were collected in polyethylene bottles, suspended with deionized water (bank sample only, stained with Rose Bengal and preserved in formalin at 4%. RESULTS: As concentrations at Col sampled point were 18 times greater than the Local Reference Value (3.84 mg.kg-1. Cd concentrations were greater than the values established by the QRV (<0.5 mg.kg-1 and PEC (4.98 mg.kg-1 in almost all the sampled points, regarding seasonality. The following zooplanktonic species were identified: Arcella costata (Ehrenberg, 1847, Arcella discoides (Ehrenberg, 1843, Arcella vulgaris (Ehrenberg, 1830, Centropyxis aculeata (Ehrenberg, 1838, Centropyxis ecornis (Ehrenberg, 1841, Difflugia sp., Difflugia acuminata (Ehrenberg, 1838, Euglypha laevis (Perty, 1849, Trynema enchelys (Ehrenberg, 1938, Asplanchna priodonta (Gosse, 1850, and Bedelloida, with, approximately 81% belonging to the Protozoa group. CONCLUSIONS: The studied area, with the exception of the Tripuí point, was found to be impacted by historical gold exploration in the region, as well as by the growing urbanization. Within the elements considered to be the most toxic to the biota

  3. Seasonal and long-term changes in relative abundance of bull sharks from a tourist shark feeding site in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Baensch, Harald

    2011-01-27

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity.

  4. Seasonal and Long-Term Changes in Relative Abundance of Bull Sharks from a Tourist Shark Feeding Site in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.; Baensch, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity. PMID:21346792

  5. ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS METAL IONS IN SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.L. Ramachandra*, C. Ashajyothi and Padmalatha S. Rai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Metal ions such as iron , lead, copper, nickel, cadmium , chromium and zinc were investigated in medicinally important plants Alstonia scholaris, Tabernaemontana coronariae, Asparagus racemosus, Mimosa pudica, Leucas aspera and Adhatoda vasica applying atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. The purpose of this study was to standardize various metal ion Contamination in indigenous medicinal plants. Maximum concentration of lead was present in Leucas aspera and Adhatoda vasica followed by Alstonia scholaris, Tabernaemontana coronariae and Asparagus racemosus. The concentration of lead in Mimosa pudica was below the detectable level. The maximum concentration of zinc was detected in Adhatoda vasica followed by Leucas aspera, Asparagus racemosus, Tabernaemontana coronariae, Alstonia scholaris and Mimosa pudica. The concentration of Cadmium, nickel and chromium was below the detectable level.

  6. Opportunistic visitors: long-term behavioural response of bull sharks to food provisioning in Fiji.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg M Brunnschweiler

    Full Text Available Shark-based tourism that uses bait to reliably attract certain species to specific sites so that divers can view them is a growing industry globally, but remains a controversial issue. We evaluate multi-year (2004-2011 underwater visual (n = 48 individuals and acoustic tracking data (n = 82 transmitters; array of up to 16 receivers of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from a long-term shark feeding site at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve and reefs along the Beqa Channel on the southern coast of Viti Levu, Fiji. Individual C. leucas showed varying degrees of site fidelity. Determined from acoustic tagging, the majority of C. leucas had site fidelity indexes >0.5 for the marine reserve (including the feeding site and neighbouring reefs. However, during the time of the day (09:00-12:00 when feeding takes place, sharks mainly had site fidelity indexes <0.5 for the feeding site, regardless of feeding or non-feeding days. Site fidelity indexes determined by direct diver observation of sharks at the feeding site were lower compared to such values determined by acoustic tagging. The overall pattern for C. leucas is that, if present in the area, they are attracted to the feeding site regardless of whether feeding or non-feeding days, but they remain for longer periods of time (consecutive hours on feeding days. The overall diel patterns in movement are for C. leucas to use the area around the feeding site in the morning before spreading out over Shark Reef throughout the day and dispersing over the entire array at night. Both focal observation and acoustic monitoring show that C. leucas intermittently leave the area for a few consecutive days throughout the year, and for longer time periods (weeks to months at the end of the calendar year before returning to the feeding site.

  7. Opportunistic visitors: long-term behavioural response of bull sharks to food provisioning in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Barnett, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Shark-based tourism that uses bait to reliably attract certain species to specific sites so that divers can view them is a growing industry globally, but remains a controversial issue. We evaluate multi-year (2004-2011) underwater visual (n = 48 individuals) and acoustic tracking data (n = 82 transmitters; array of up to 16 receivers) of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from a long-term shark feeding site at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve and reefs along the Beqa Channel on the southern coast of Viti Levu, Fiji. Individual C. leucas showed varying degrees of site fidelity. Determined from acoustic tagging, the majority of C. leucas had site fidelity indexes >0.5 for the marine reserve (including the feeding site) and neighbouring reefs. However, during the time of the day (09:00-12:00) when feeding takes place, sharks mainly had site fidelity indexes <0.5 for the feeding site, regardless of feeding or non-feeding days. Site fidelity indexes determined by direct diver observation of sharks at the feeding site were lower compared to such values determined by acoustic tagging. The overall pattern for C. leucas is that, if present in the area, they are attracted to the feeding site regardless of whether feeding or non-feeding days, but they remain for longer periods of time (consecutive hours) on feeding days. The overall diel patterns in movement are for C. leucas to use the area around the feeding site in the morning before spreading out over Shark Reef throughout the day and dispersing over the entire array at night. Both focal observation and acoustic monitoring show that C. leucas intermittently leave the area for a few consecutive days throughout the year, and for longer time periods (weeks to months) at the end of the calendar year before returning to the feeding site.

  8. Epidemiological studies on ethylene oxide and cancer: an updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstedt, L C

    1988-01-01

    In 1959, Dr Lars Ehrenberg and a coworker warned the Swedish authorities that ethylene oxide, a common chemical, constituted a potential cancer hazard. Twenty years later, the first epidemiological study and case reports were published indicating an increased cancer risk after occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. An updating of three small Swedish cohorts comprising 709 employees revealed 33 deaths from cancer whereas 20 were expected from national average rates. The excess was due mainly to an increased risk of stomach cancer in one production plant and an excess of blood and lymphatic malignancies in all three cohorts. The results are in accordance with the results of clastogenic, animal and short-term tests and support Professor Ehrenberg's hypothesis, formulated 28 years ago.

  9. Morphological examination and phylogenetic position of two newly recorded freshwater Cryptomonas species (Cryptophyceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang XIA; Guo-Xiang LIU; Zheng-Yu HU

    2013-01-01

    Two freshwater cryptomonads,Cryptomonas obovata Skuja and Cryptomonas curvata Ehrenberg,are reported for the first time in China.Identification was based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.Cryptomonas obovata was characterized by its obovoid cell shape,lobed cell subapex,and a large number of starch grains.Cryptomonas curvata was characterized by its sigmoid cell shape,rostrate cell apex,and numerous pyrenoids.Nuclear and nucleomorph small subunit rDNA phylogenetic analyses revealed Cryptomonas curvata collected from China was very similar to C.curvata strains cultivated in Germany,and the closest relative of C.obovata was found to be C.pyrenoidifera Geitler.Controversially,some quite morphologically different members of the genus Cryptomonas Ehrenberg were clustered into the same group in phylogeny analyses,which emphasized the complexity of the genus Cryptomonas.

  10. Impacts of the construction of the Port of Suape on phytoplankton in the Ipojuca River estuary (Pernambuco-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luise Koening

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the impact on phytoplankton, sampling was conducted monthly at 4 fixed stations, from April/86 to March/87 at diurnal low and high tide using a plankton net (65 mum mesh size and a 1 L Van Dorn bottle. Among the 133 taxa identified, marine littoral euryhaline species were most common, outranking Gyrosigma balticum (Ehrenberg Rabenhorst, Nitzschia sigma (Kützing Wm. Smith, Licmophora abbreviata Agardh, Climacosphenia moniligera Ehrenberg, Surirella febigerii Lewis, Terpsinoe musica Ehrenberg and Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenberg Reiman and Lewis. The port construction caused significant changes to the phytoplankton community with a strong influence of marine species (mainly dinoflagellate because of the opening of the reef near the river mouth in 1983. The shallow depth and hydrodynamic brought many littoral species to the water columm. The community was composed by marine euryhaline and limnetic organisms, influenced by the salinity, rain and tide. Species diversity was high (> 3 bits.cel-1 owing to the high environmental heterogeneity (marine, freshwater and benthic interactions. After the port implantation, a strong decrease occurred in phytoplankton density owing to high loads of suspended matter. Lowest values (121,00 cells.l-1 were registered during rainy season. During dry season, when light intensity was higher, phytoplankton presented highest density ( 1,789,000 cells.l-1.A implantação do Complexo Industrial Portuário de Suape (Pernambuco-Brasil entre 1979 e 1984, modificou os processos ecológicos observados no estuário do rio Ipojuca. As amostras foram coletadas mensalmente em 4 estações fixas, no período de abril/86 a março/87 nas preamares e baixa-mares diurnas, utilizando-se uma rede de plâncton com abertura de malha de 65 mim e garrafas de Van Dorn. Foram identificados um total de 133 taxa. As espécies marinhas litorais foram as mais comuns e freqüentes, destacando-se: Gyrosigma balticum (Ehrenberg

  11. A Newly Recorded Species of Genus Hypsibius (Tardigrada: Hypsibiidae) from the Wuyi Mountains, Southeastern China%武夷山高生熊虫属(缓步动物门:高生熊虫科)新纪录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞娜; 孙西寨

    2014-01-01

    记述了我国缓步动物1种新纪录种皮氏高生熊虫(Hypsibius pedrottii Bertolani,Manicardi&Gibertoni,1987).该种属于真缓步纲(Class Eutardigrada Richters,1926)、并爪目(Order Parachela Schuster,Nelson Grigarick& Christenberry,1980)、高生熊虫科(Family Hypsibidae Pilato,1969)、高生熊虫属(Genus Hypsibius Ehrenberg,1848).

  12. Microbiota aquática do Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra: protistas heterotróficos

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Vladimir Stolzenberg

    2000-01-01

    Neste primeiro estudo a respeito da microbiota aquática do parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra estão apresentados os protistas heterotróficos identificados, até o presente momento. Desta forma, foram identificados representantes dos gêneros Arcella Ehrenberg, 1830, Difflugia Leclerc, 1815, Centropyxis Stein, 1857, Cyclopyxis Deflandre, 1929, Lesquereusia Schulumberger, 1845, Stentor Oken, 1815, Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 e Paramecium Müller, 1773. Posteriormente foram realizadas análises de ...

  13. Review of New Nearctic Mosquito Distributional Records North of Mexico, with Notes on Additions and Taxonomic Changes of the Fauna, 1982-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    communis Connecticut Andreadis (1986) Ae. diantaeus New Brunswick Maltais and Daigle (1984) Av. dupreei Michigan Cassani and Newson (1980) Ac...Ae. purpureipes California Meyer et al. (1987) Ae. sollicitans Michigan Cassani and Newson (1980) Ae. s. spenccrii New Jersey Ehrenberg (1983) Ae...Michigan Cassani and Newson (1980) An. hermsi California Barr and Guptavanij (1989) An. perplexens Michigan Wilmot et al. (1987) Louisiana Chapman and

  14. First record of an epibiont protozoan Epistylis sp. (Ciliophora, Peritrichia attached to Ergasilus chelangulatus (Ergasilidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK. Azevedo

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we described the first record of an epibiont protozoan Epistylis sp. Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia attached to Ergasilus chelangulatus Thatcher and Brasil-Sato, 2008, parasite of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 in Brazil, with electron microscope observations. Fish were collected in Veados River, state of São Paulo and the crustacean Ergasilus chelangulatus being registered for the first time in this river, expanding its geographical distribution in Brazil.

  15. Meta-Zooplankton Investigation and Water Quality Assessment in Yelang Reservoir in Spring%夜郎湖水库春季后生浮游动物调查与水质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁爱丽; 陈椽; 潘静; 徐兴华; 龙胜兴

    2012-01-01

    2011年3月对夜郎湖水库后生浮游动物及水质情况进行了调查.共鉴定出后生浮游动物17种,其中,桡足类2种,枝角类3种,轮虫类12种.优势种为针簇多肢轮虫(Polyarthra trigla Ehrenberg)、矩形龟甲轮虫(Keratella quadrata(Müller))、螺形龟甲轮虫(Keratella cochlearis Gosse)、曲腿龟甲轮虫(Keratella valga Ehrenberg)、透明溞(Daphnia hyalina Leydig)、长额象鼻溞(Bosmina longirostris (O.F.Müller))和近邻剑水蚤(Cyclops vicinus Uijanin).后生浮游动物数量为0.2~570.0 ind/L.利用后生浮游动物群落结构、理化指标及生物多样性指数进行综合评价,该水库水质为Ⅰ类.%Meta-zooplankton in Yelanghu reservoir was investigated; and the water quality was assessed in March 2011. The results indicated that 17 species of meta-zooplanktons were identified, consisting of 12 species of Rotifera, 2 Species of Clado-cera, and 3 species of Copepoda, The dominant species were Cyclops vicinns Uijanin, Daphnia hyalina Leydig, Bosmina lon-girostris (O.F.Müller), K. quadrata (Müller), K. cochlearis Gosse,Keratella valga Ehrenberg and Polyarthra trigla Ehrenberg. The abundance of meta-zooplankton ranged from 0.2 to 570.0 ind/L. The community structure of meta-zooplankton, physical and chemical indicators and diversity indexes were used to evaluate the water quality; and it was revealed that the water quality belonged to class I .

  16. Separation and Identification of Mould from Silk Fabrics Contaminated by Microorganisms%污染的丝绸织物中霉菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐长波; 李世超

    2009-01-01

    对污染的丝绸织物中的霉菌进行分离纯化,分离出三种霉菌,通过菌落形态观察和显微形态观察,分别鉴定为藻菌纲的根霉属(Rhizopus Ehrenberg)、子囊菌纲的拟青霉属(Penicilliopsis Solms-Laubach)和半知菌类的黑曲霉组(A.niger).

  17. Aquatic Studies of the Main Channel Border Habitat of Pool 5A on the Upper Mississippi River,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    upepnora maty Keribaud CYANOPHYTA (Blue-green Algae) *-Pinnuari nodsa (Ehrenberg) W. Smith Anabaena spp. inn ara SP __ p. p~hanizomenon flos- aguae ...material captured in the collection bag was washed in a sieve bucket of UrS. Standard No. 30 mesh (595 um aperture). Organisms and sieve residue were...enumeration and biomass determination were washed in the field on a U.S. Standard No. 30 mesh (595 pm aperture) sieve. Sieve residue was transferred to

  18. Investigation of the Molecular Response of Belugas to Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    described above were obtained from this related project. REFERENCES Denis, F., Archambault, D., 2001. Molecular cloning and characterization of...mRNA expression levels serve as indicators to assess stress? BMC Veterinary Research 9:145. St-Laurent, G. and Archambault, D., 2000. Molecular ... cloning , phylogenetic analysis and expression of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) interleukin 6. Veterinary Immunology Immunopathology 73: 31-44

  19. Estimating the Economic Value of Narwhal and Beluga Hunts in Hudson Bay, Nunavut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoover, C.; Bailey, M.L.; Higdon, J.; Ferguson, S.H.; Sumaila, R.

    2013-01-01

    Hunting of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in Hudson Bay is an important activity, providing food and income in northern communities, yet few studies detail the economic aspects of these hunts. We outline the uses of narwhal and beluga and estimate the revenues, costs,

  20. 75 FR 54599 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the Knik Arm Crossing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Act (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of the KABATA's application and request for the development and... through 2017. Marine mammals, particularly Cook Inlet beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), would be... Level B harassment, Cook Inlet beluga whales, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), harbor porpoise...

  1. 75 FR 4528 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for Cook Inlet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... plan development. NMFS is hereby soliciting relevant information on Cook Inlet beluga whales and their... Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for Cook Inlet Beluga Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... recovery plan for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and requests information from...

  2. 77 FR 27283 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... in Camden Bay. These species include: beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas); bowhead whale (Balaena... notes reactions of bowhead and beluga whales to certain activities below 160 dB. The letter also states... causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, breathing,...

  3. 77 FR 50473 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Project History Construction activities for the replacement of the east span of the SF-OBB commenced in... case the loss of hearing sensitivity is unrecoverable, or temporary (TTS), in which case the animal's..., experiments on a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) and beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) showed that...

  4. Effects of Aircraft Noise and Sonic Booms on Domestic Animals and Wildlife: Bibliographic Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    effects of noise on marine mammals. Beluga whales (Oelphinapterus leucas) are more easily displaced by boat traffic when feeding. Bowhead whales... Wales . Three or four ravens were idling in the up- currents over a high rock spur between two streams. When the silence was shattered by a "very loud

  5. La depresión: encrucijada entre las nuevas modalidades del ser y el dispositivo farmacéutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Londoño

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siguiendo la tesis del sociólogo Alain Ehrenberg, la depresión se instaló en las sociedades occidentales como una consecuencia de las nuevas modalidades del individuo. La emancipación y la soberanía individual comenzadas en el siglo de las luces trajeron consigo nuevos malestares de la mente. La neurastenia resume la primera “epidemia” mundial que muestra las consecuencias de estas mutaciones antropológicas. La neurosis y el psicoanálisis demuestran que la depresión y otras formas de sufrimiento de las personas ordinarias son el resultado de un precio a pagar por entrar en la civilización. Para Ehrenberg, la epidemia contemporánea de depresión es el rostro de un eclipse de la culpabilidad y el conflicto interior, favoreciendo una apertura de infinitas posibilidades y la consagración personal como nuevos ideales constitutivos de la personalidad y la identidad, siendo la depresión una disfunción o insuficiencia a convertirse en uno mismo. Sin embargo, las tesis de Ehrenberg no toman en cuenta el esfuerzo realizado por la industria farmacéutica y el dispositivo comercial y de mercadeo creado para modificar las costumbres y el saber médico, facilitando así la explosión diagnóstica y autodiagnóstica de este trastorno controversial.

  6. Protozoa in a stressed area of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast of Damietta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moussa Dorgham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Damietta coast is part of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta and has recently been polluted as a result of intensive human activities.The environmental parameters and protozoan community in the area were studied biweekly from January to December 2007. The results of the environmentalparameters indicated low salinity, oxic and anoxic conditions, high nutrient levels and intensive phytoplankton growth. A total of 69 protozoan specieswere identified, belonging to Amoebozoa (8 species, Foraminifera (12 species, non-tintinnid ciliates (22 species and tintinnids (27 species. The numerical density of protozoans was high over the whole area, with annual averages between 8.2 × 103 cells m-3 and 51.4 × 103 cells m-3.Spring was the most productive season for protozoans, but several distinct peaks were observed during the year at the sampling sites. The protozoangroups showed clearly different spatial patterns in both composition and abundance: whereas amoebozoans and non-tintinnid ciliates were dominant in themore polluted areas (sites IV and V, tintinnids dominated in the less polluted areas (sites, I, II and III. Several pollution indicators wererecorded: amoebozoans - Centropyxis aculeata, Centropyxis sp., Cochliopodium sp.,Difflugia sp.; non-tintinnids - Bursaridium sp., Frontonia atra,Holophrya sp., Paramecium sp., Paramecium bursaria,Vasicola ciliata, Vorticella sp., Strombidium sp.; tintinnids- Favella ehrenbergii, Helicostomella subulata, Leprotintinnus nordgvisti,Tintinnopsis beroidea, Stenosemella ventricosa, Tintinnopsis campanula,T. cylindrica, T. lobiancoi, Eutintinnus lusus-undae.

  7. Upwelling dynamics in the Baltic Sea studied by a combined SAR/infrared satellite data and circulation model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Gurova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Damietta coast is part of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta and has recently been polluted as a result of intensive human activities.The environmental parameters and protozoan community in the area were studied biweekly from January to December 2007. The results of the environmentalparameters indicated low salinity, oxic and anoxic conditions, high nutrient levels and intensive phytoplankton growth. A total of 69 protozoan specieswere identified, belonging to Amoebozoa (8 species, Foraminifera (12 species, non-tintinnid ciliates (22 species and tintinnids (27 species. The numerical density of protozoans was high over the whole area, with annual averages between 8.2 × 103 cells m-3 and 51.4 × 103 cells m-3.Spring was the most productive season for protozoans, but several distinct peaks were observed during the year at the sampling sites. The protozoangroups showed clearly different spatial patterns in both composition and abundance: whereas amoebozoans and non-tintinnid ciliates were dominant in themore polluted areas (sites IV and V, tintinnids dominated in the less polluted areas (sites, I, II and III. Several pollution indicators wererecorded: amoebozoans - Centropyxis aculeata, Centropyxis sp., Cochliopodium sp.,Difflugia sp.; non-tintinnids - Bursaridium sp., Frontonia atra,Holophrya sp., Paramecium sp., Paramecium bursaria,Vasicola ciliata, Vorticella sp., Strombidium sp.; tintinnids- Favella ehrenbergii, Helicostomella subulata, Leprotintinnus nordgvisti,Tintinnopsis beroidea, Stenosemella ventricosa, Tintinnopsis campanula,T. cylindrica, T. lobiancoi, Eutintinnus lusus-undae.

  8. A new metric for measuring condition in large predatory sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irschick, D J; Hammerschlag, N

    2014-09-01

    A simple metric (span condition analysis; SCA) is presented for quantifying the condition of sharks based on four measurements of body girth relative to body length. Data on 104 live sharks from four species that vary in body form, behaviour and habitat use (Carcharhinus leucas, Carcharhinus limbatus, Ginglymostoma cirratum and Galeocerdo cuvier) are given. Condition shows similar levels of variability among individuals within each species. Carcharhinus leucas showed a positive relationship between condition and body size, whereas the other three species showed no relationship. There was little evidence for strong differences in condition between males and females, although more male sharks are needed for some species (e.g. G. cuvier) to verify this finding. SCA is potentially viable for other large marine or terrestrial animals that are captured live and then released.

  9. Population Structure of Island-Associated Dolphins: Evidence from Mitochondrial and Microsatellite Markers for Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Around the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    derived from killer whales (Orcinus orca ; Hoelzel et al. 1998a); loci D5 and D12 from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas; Buchanan et al. 1996); and...M. Dahlheim and S. J. Stern. 1998a. Low genetic variation among killer whales (Orcinus orca ) in the eastern North Pacific and genetic...24 MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, VOL. **, NO. **, 2011 Rooney, A. P., D. B.Merritt and J.N.Derr. 1999.Microsatellite diversity in captive bottlenose dolphins

  10. Comparative retinal anatomy in four species of elasmobranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Nicole L; Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S

    2012-04-01

    Using both light and transmission electron microscopy, we examined the retinal anatomy of four elasmobranch species with differing ecologies: the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni, epaulette shark Hemiscyllium ocellatum and pink whipray Himantura fai. Their retinas are typical of other vertebrates, having three nuclear and two synaptic layers, but are characterised by very large horizontal cells, low densities of ganglion cells (many of which are displaced to the inner nuclear and inner plexiform layers) and the presence of numerous myelinated axons within the nerve fibre layer. Carcharhinus leucas, H. fai and H. ocellatum have duplex retinas containing both rods and single cones. The peak ratio of rods to cones is much lower in C. leucas (4:1) and H. fai (3:1) compared to H. ocellatum (19:1), reflecting differences in diel activity patterns. No cones were observed in the retina of H. portusjacksoni, which is strongly nocturnal. The cones of H. fai lack a distinct myoid and their nuclei are located in a discrete layer sclerad to the external limiting membrane (ELM), whereas those of C. leucas and H. ocellatum have an obvious myoid, and their nuclei are located vitread to the ELM. No double/twin cones were observed in any species. Incorporating data from other studies, there is a clear correlation between rod outer segment volume and visual ecology in elasmobranchs, with smaller volumes found in partly diurnal pelagic species and larger volumes in benthic nocturnal species. This trend may reflect fundamental differences in visual temporal resolution between active and more sedentary species. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Finding of No Significant Impact/Finding of No Practicable Alternative: Environmental Assessment of the Privatization of Military Family Housing at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-09

    Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas NA NA X X Dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus NA NA X Lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris NA NA X X Sandbar shark...and patio doors, storm doors with screens at main entrances, and overhead lighting in bedrooms and large closets. Attached Units. Stacked units are...the community as needed, and all roads and parking areas shall have adequate snow stacking capacity and storm drainage. Privacy. All units shall have

  12. Sound Propagation in Shallow Water. Volume 2. Unclassified Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-15

    sounds generated either by beluga whales [Ref. 24J or by any other marine mammal indigenous to the Bering Sea [Ref. 25]. Beluga whales migrate ...34, "chirping" and "whistling" were recorded near the ice/water boundary predominantly at site I, and to some extent at sites Da and D«* Beluga whales ...34Production of Underwater Sound by the White Whale or Beluga , Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas), "Journal of Marine Research, 20(2), 149-162 (1962

  13. A Synopsis of Marine Animal Underwater Sounds in Eight Geographic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-05-28

    34. Since then we have found that migrating gray whales produce moans, under- water sounds associated with their blows, and knocking sounds. Moans last...the whales are in a given area, usually as they migrate past, between their summer sojourns to polar waters and their winter movements toward the...its vocali- zations are available from Dr. W. C. Cummings, NUC Code 5054. : ii V, , 71 Delphinapterus leucas--(white- whale or beluga ) The beluga is

  14. Distribution, Abundance, Behavior, and Bioacoustics of Endangered Whales in the Western Beaufort and Northeastern Chukchi Seas, 1979-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    the area. Other Marine Mammals a. Belukha or White Whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) Thirty-three sightings of 140 belukhas were made in the western...contour was clipped near St . Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea. Data Processing and Quality Control A computer program (SPEED) was written to screen for...Estimates 42 c. Habitat Relationships and Behavior 43 d. Calf Sightings 44 ix Page Other Marine Mammals 44 a. Belukha, or White Whale ( Delphinapterus

  15. Aerial Surveys of Endangered Whales in the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Northern Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    16 Surveys of St Lawrence Island Nome to Point Barrow . . . 16 I Surveys of Barrow Area . . 18 Point Barrow to Deadhorse . . . 20 Surveys from...lease area, the Norton Basin - St . Lawrence Island area, the Hope Basin, and coastal portions of the Chukchi Sea. DESIGN The areas of study are listed...Bowhead Whale 314 857 Balaena mysticetus Beluga Whale** 284 3404 Delphinapterus leucas Gray Whale 2 6 Eschrichtius robustus Ring Seal 250 765 Phoca

  16. Cancer in wildlife, a case study: beluga from the St. Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Martineau, Daniel; Lemberger, Karin; Dallaire, André; Labelle, Philippe; Lipscomb, Thomas P; Michel, Pascal; Mikaelian, Igor

    2002-01-01

    A population of approximately 650 beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabits a short segment of the St. Lawrence estuary (SLE). Over 17 years (1983-1999), we have examined 129 (or 49%) of 263 SLE beluga carcasses reported stranded. The major primary causes of death were respiratory and gastrointestinal infections with metazoan parasites (22%), cancer (18%), and bacterial, viral, and protozoan infections (17%). We observed cancer in 27% of examined adult animals found dead, a percentage similar t...

  17. Strategic Investment Plan Fiscal Year 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    health of world oceans. The beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) has received increasing attention with respect to environmental contaminants. One...population in particular, that of the St . Lawrence River and Estuary in Quebec, Canada, is now suspected to be severely impacted by a variety of industrial...evidence is mounting that the health of the St . Lawrence population is being measurably threatened when compared to belugas in other Canadian regions

  18. The beluga whale produces two pulses to form its sonar signal

    OpenAIRE

    Lammers, Marc O.; CASTELLOTE Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Odontocete cetaceans use biosonar clicks to acoustically probe their aquatic environment with an aptitude unmatched by man-made sonar. A cornerstone of this ability is their use of short, broadband pulses produced in the region of the upper nasal passages. Here we provide empirical evidence that a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) uses two signal generators simultaneously when echolocating. We show that the pulses of the two generators are combined as they are transmitted through the melon...

  19. Effects of Aircraft Noise and Sonic Booms on Domestic Animals and Wildlife: A Literature Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Aquatic mammals: Beluga whale Boat traffic (Acoustical Easily displaced Society of America 1980) Pinnepeds Sonic booms (80-89 dBA SPL) Startle...Arctic mammals are limited. Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are more easily displaced by boat traffic when feeding, and bowhead whales (Balaena...population of ravens (Corvus corax) to a sonic boom in central Wales Three or four ravens were idling in the upcurrents over a high rock spur between

  20. Detection, Classification, and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    beluga and bowhead whale recordings from the Beaufort Sea NOAA-NMML – recordings of many species from the Bering Sea Univ. New South Wales ...whale Antarctic 8594 3 8432.1 Univ. New S. Wales Berardius bairdii Baird’s beaked whale North Pacific 18 7797.1 UW-APL, NMML/NOAA northeast Pacific...Waves, Inc. northeast Alaska Independent researcher Delphinapterus leucas beluga Chukchi Sea Bio-Waves, Inc. St. Lawrence Estuary

  1. Determination of anti-microbial activity and the content of flavonoids of Melastoma affine%多花野牡丹的抑菌活性及总黄酮含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏燕评; 周孙英; 刘剑秋

    2005-01-01

    The anti-microbial activities of leaves and stems from Melastoma affine D. Don were studied, and the content of flavonoids and their seasonal variation were measured by means of polyamide puring and aluminium color-developing method, rutin was used as a standard. Results showed that the extract had no effects on Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus niger V. Tiegh. and Penicilliurn chrysogenurn Thom but evident inhibitive effects on Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani et Chalmers, Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn, Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach, Proteus vulgaris Hauser and Sarcina lutea Schroeeter. The highest yield of flavonoids from leaves was 3.95% in May, which was regarded as its available component.

  2. Species of Naked Amoebae (Protista new for the Fauna of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsyuk M. K.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Представлены сведения об обнаружении новых для фауны Украины голых амеб: Rhizamoeba sp., Thecamoeba quadrilineata (Carter, 1856, Thecamoeba verrucosa (Ehrenberg, 1838, Flamella sp., Penardia mutabilis Cash, 1904

  3. Some Heteronema species (Euglenophyta occurring in Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland (Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Poniewozik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One new Heteronema cf. distigmoides Christen and three rare taxa of H. acus (Ehrenberg Stein, H. spirale KLEBS and H. nebulosum (Dujardin Klebs were reported for the Polish flora. All of them were found in the mesotrophic Lake Piaseczno and in a small village pond in Kaniwola, in 2002. Both water reservoirs are situated on the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland (Eastern Poland. The above mentioned species are new to the flora of the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland, probably because of insufficient research, which was carried out on euglenophytes in this area previously. All the presented species are described thoroughly and illustrated in this paper.

  4. Exhaustion and the Pathologization of Modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Anna Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This essay analyses six case studies of theories of exhaustion-related conditions from the early eighteenth century to the present day. It explores the ways in which George Cheyne, George Beard, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Sigmund Freud, Alain Ehrenberg and Jonathan Crary use medical ideas about exhaustion as a starting point for more wide-ranging cultural critiques related to specific social and technological transformations. In these accounts, physical and psychological symptoms are associated with particular external developments, which are thus not just construed as pathology-generators but also pathologized. The essay challenges some of the persistently repeated claims about exhaustion and its unhappy relationship with modernity.

  5. Fine morphology of four Licmophora (Bacillariophyta, Licmophorales) species from Admiralty Bay and Elephant Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciano F.; Calixto-Feres,Mariana; Tenenbaum,Denise Rivera; Procopiak, Leticia K.; Portinho,Danielle; Hinz, Friedel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, four Antarctic species of the diatom genus Licmophora namely L. antarctica M. Peragallo, L. belgicae M. Peragallo, L. gracilis (Ehrenberg) Grunow and L. luxuriosa Heiden are described using an electron microscope, based on two collections of samples collected during different expeditions under the Brazilian Antarctic program (Summer of 1994, and 2003 to 2010). Plankton and benthic samplings were carried out at different locations in King George and Elephant Islands, Antarctic P...

  6. Variación nictemeral del género Prorocentrum (Dinophyceae) en la laguna costera Sontecomapan, Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    MUCIÑO-MÁRQUEZ, Rocio Elizabeth; Figueroa-Torres, Maria Guadalupe; Gárate Lizárraga, Ismael

    2011-01-01

    El género Prorocentrum Ehrenberg, incluye 62 especies marinas, 21 son consideradas formadoras de florecimientos algales nocivos (FAN), de las cuales aproximadamente 10 especies producen toxinas. Considerando lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo consistió en determinar la distribución y abundancia de las especies del género Prorocentrum durante un ciclo nictemeral, así como la influencia de algunas variables ambientales, en la boca de la laguna costera de Sontecomapan Veracruz, México. Los...

  7. Water quality and zooplankton composition in a receiving pond of the stormwater runoff from an urban catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose de Paggi, Susana; Paggi, Juan; Collins, Pablo; Collins, Jorge; Graciela, Bernal

    2008-09-01

    Six storm periods were monitored from November 2002 to September 2005 at two stations of a receiving pond of the stormwater runoff from a small urban catchment of the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Weekly samples were taken before and after rain events under different conditions of temperature, pluvial precipitation, and duration of the previous dry period. A sampling station was established at the outlet of the catchment (S1) and another one near the outlet of the receiving pond (S2). Both stations differed significantly in their dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, temperature, transparency, and zooplankton composition. The concentrations of nutrients and BOD5 values indicated permanently eutrophic condition at both stations. After rainstorms, the concentrations of lead, zinc and suspended solids showed a marked increase. The zooplankton composition at S1 was characterized by the abundance of protozoans (Dexiostoma campylum (Stokes) Didinium nasutum Muller, Plagyopila cf nasuta, and Bdelloidea rotifers (Philodina sp and Rotaria sp), while Monogononta rotifers and small cladocerans were dominant at S2. The most abundant species were the rotifers Platyias quadricornis (Ehrenberg), Mytilina ventralis (Ehrenberg) and Lepadella ovalis (Muller), and the cladoceran Chydorus pubescens Sars.

  8. O sofrimento psíquico e as novas modalidades de relação entre o normal e o patológico: uma discussão a partir da perspectiva freudiana sobre o caráter do psicopatológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Virginia de Queiroz Pinheiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study begins from the thesis of Ehrenberg in which the idea is established that current the clinical activity, extends itself to mental suffering overall and is no longer restricted to care with the pathological dimension of human experience. This is the constitution of the field of mental health in which the psychopathology becomes a smaller area. Since the practice was no longer specified by the pathological character of its object, we put into question the relations between the normal and pathological behind the attention on mental health. Thus, we began our research in examining the concepts of normal and pathological that marked the emergence of clinical activity. Then, we look at Freudian psychopathology in order to highlight the specificity of the psychopathological phenomenon in relation to other types of human suffering. Finally, in light of the Freudian formulations about the difference between inhibition and symptom, we assume the conceptual identity between psychological distress and inhibition, analyzing the changes in relations between the normal and the pathological that are behind the various methods of psychological suffering adopted as clinically relevant.   Keywords: psychological suffering; normal and pathological; Freud; Ehrenberg; mental health.

  9. Mytilina (Rotifera: Monogonota: Mytilinidae) from Congo Basin%刚果盆地的棘管轮属(轮虫门;单巢亚纲;棘管轮科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永婷; 吴波; SEGERSHendrik

    2016-01-01

    研究了2010年4月到5月和2012年6月二次采集自刚果盆地的水样,共发现棘管轮属Mytilina Bory de St.Vincent 1826的8个种,其中2个种M.crassipes(Lucks,1912)和M trigona(Gosse,1851)是非洲新纪录种;M.macrocera (Jennings,1894)和M.bisulcata (Lucks,1912)是刚果盆地多个样点的常见种;Mventralis(Ehrenberg,1830)和M.trigona,在刚果盆地个别样点比较多见;M.michelangllii Reid & Turner,1988,M.crassipes和M.brevispina(Ehrenberg,1830)在此次刚果盆地的调查中非常罕见;描述了一种棘管轮,其形态奇特,可能是新种.

  10. El consumo de bienes religiosos. Una introducción económica al caso español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Economic of Religion issues to explore Spanish religious behaviour. Under this microeconomic framework religious practise is considered "rational" using Azzi-Ehrenberg (1975 arguments: salvation, social and professional motives. We test if that hypotheses may explain Spanish religious activity. To this end we run descriptive and multivariate analysis that allows us to conclude the following: theoretical models well perform Spanish data; gender, ageing, family size and education are positive determinant of church-attendance; the influence of parents behaviour on children religious activity.

    Este trabajo explora el comportamiento religioso de los españoles desde el enfoque de la Economía de la Religión. En un marco microeconómico y utilizando los argumentos de Azzi- Ehrenberg (1975 —motivo salvación, consumo y profesional—, la práctica religiosa resulta racional. En esta investigación estudiamos si estas hipótesis pueden explicar el comportamiento religioso de los españoles. Para ello se realizan análisis descriptivos y multivariantes que nos permiten concluir que: los modelos teóricos explican bien los datos españoles; que el sexo, la edad, el tamaño de la familia y la educación son determinantes positivos de la asistencia a iglesia; que el ejemplo de los padres influye en la actividad religiosa actual de los hijos.

  11. Crystal structures of spinel-type Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 revisited using neutron powder diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dominic Fortes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data have been collected from Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 to a resolution of sin (θ/λ = 1.25 Å−1, which is substantially better than the previous analyses using Mo Kα X-rays, providing roughly triple the number of measured reflections with respect to the previous studies [Okada et al. (1974. Acta Cryst. B30, 1872–1873; Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004. Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 630, 1336–1341]. The unit-cell parameters are in excellent agreement with literature data [Swanson et al. (1962. NBS Monograph No. 25, sect. 1, pp. 46–47] and the structural parameters for the molybdate agree very well with those of Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004. However, the tungstate structure refinement of Okada et al. (1974 stands apart as being conspicuously inaccurate, giving significantly longer W—O distances, 1.819 (8 Å, and shorter Na—O distances, 2.378 (8 Å, than are reported here or in other simple tungstates. As such, this work represents an order-of-magnitude improvement in precision for sodium molybdate and an equally substantial improvement in both accuracy and precision for sodium tungstate. Both compounds adopt the spinel structure type. The Na+ ions have site symmetry .-3m and are in octahedral coordination while the transition metal atoms have site symmetry -43m and are in tetrahedral coordination.

  12. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations.

  13. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda A. Amaral-Zettler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extremely acidic (pH<3 and extremely alkaline (pH>9 environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from 7 diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A total of 946 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity Percentage Analysis (SIMPER followed by Indicator OTU Analysis (IOA and Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain’s Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations.

  14. Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman M Atiar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombus formed in blood vessels lead to atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs sometimes cause serious and fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases although they show little toxicity in some cases. Aqueous extracts of herbs used in thrombolysis have been reported before with cytotoxic data, however, the organic extracts of herbs have not been documented. This study aims to investigate whether organic extracts possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity. Methods An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., Ageratum conyzoides L., Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica (Burm.f. Merr., Leucas aspera Willd., Senna sophera L. Roxb., and Solanum torvum Swartz. using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Briefly, venous blood drawn from twenty healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots which were weighed and treated with the test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. Results Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed 18.12 ± 2.34%, 48.9 ± 2.44%, 39.30 ± 0.96%, 37.32 ± 2.00%, 31.61 ± 2.97% and 31.51 ± 0.57% and clot lysis respectively. Among the herbs studied Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera showed very significant (p Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed LC50 values 508.86 ± 6.62,41.16 ± 1.26, 2.65 ± 0.16, 181.67 ± 1.65, 233

  15. Role of collagens and perlecan in microvascular stability: exploring the mechanism of capillary vessel damage by snake venom metalloproteinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Escalante

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is a clinically important manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomings, and is induced by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs. Hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic SVMPs hydrolyze some basement membrane (BM and associated extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. Nevertheless, only hemorrhagic SVMPs are able to disrupt microvessels; the mechanisms behind this functional difference remain largely unknown. We compared the proteolytic activity of the hemorrhagic P-I SVMP BaP1, from the venom of Bothrops asper, and the non-hemorrhagic P-I SVMP leucurolysin-a (leuc-a, from the venom of Bothrops leucurus, on several substrates in vitro and in vivo, focusing on BM proteins. When incubated with Matrigel, a soluble extract of BM, both enzymes hydrolyzed laminin, nidogen and perlecan, albeit BaP1 did it at a faster rate. Type IV collagen was readily digested by BaP1 while leuc-a only induced a slight hydrolysis. Degradation of BM proteins in vivo was studied in mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Western blot analysis of muscle tissue homogenates showed a similar degradation of laminin chains by both enzymes, whereas nidogen was cleaved to a higher extent by BaP1, and perlecan and type IV collagen were readily digested by BaP1 but not by leuc-a. Immunohistochemistry of muscle tissue samples showed a decrease in the immunostaining of type IV collagen after injection of BaP1, but not by leuc-a. Proteomic analysis by LC/MS/MS of exudates collected from injected muscle revealed higher amounts of perlecan, and types VI and XV collagens, in exudates from BaP1-injected tissue. The differences in the hemorrhagic activity of these SVMPs could be explained by their variable ability to degrade key BM and associated ECM substrates in vivo, particularly perlecan and several non-fibrillar collagens, which play a mechanical stabilizing role in microvessel structure. These results underscore the key role played by these ECM components in the mechanical stability of

  16. Auditory Weighting Functions and TTS/PTS Exposure Functions for Marine Mammals Exposed to Underwater Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In-air and Underwater Hearing Sensitivity of a Northern Elephant Seal (Mirounga Angustirostris),” Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1751–1758. Kastak...Pulses,” Canadian Journal of Zoology 66:1578– 1582. 59 Thomas, J., N. Chun, W. Au, and K. Pugh. 1988. “Underwater Audiogram of a False Killer...Underwater Hearing Sensitivity In Belugas, Delphinapterus leucas,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 84:2273–2275. Babushina, E. S., G. L

  17. Role of Collagens and Perlecan in Microvascular Stability: Exploring the Mechanism of Capillary Vessel Damage by Snake Venom Metalloproteinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Teresa; Ortiz, Natalia; Rucavado, Alexandra; Sanchez, Eladio F.; Richardson, Michael; Fox, Jay W.; Gutiérrez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhage is a clinically important manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomings, and is induced by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic SVMPs hydrolyze some basement membrane (BM) and associated extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Nevertheless, only hemorrhagic SVMPs are able to disrupt microvessels; the mechanisms behind this functional difference remain largely unknown. We compared the proteolytic activity of the hemorrhagic P-I SVMP BaP1, from the venom of Bothrops asper, and the non-hemorrhagic P-I SVMP leucurolysin-a (leuc-a), from the venom of Bothrops leucurus, on several substrates in vitro and in vivo, focusing on BM proteins. When incubated with Matrigel, a soluble extract of BM, both enzymes hydrolyzed laminin, nidogen and perlecan, albeit BaP1 did it at a faster rate. Type IV collagen was readily digested by BaP1 while leuc-a only induced a slight hydrolysis. Degradation of BM proteins in vivo was studied in mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Western blot analysis of muscle tissue homogenates showed a similar degradation of laminin chains by both enzymes, whereas nidogen was cleaved to a higher extent by BaP1, and perlecan and type IV collagen were readily digested by BaP1 but not by leuc-a. Immunohistochemistry of muscle tissue samples showed a decrease in the immunostaining of type IV collagen after injection of BaP1, but not by leuc-a. Proteomic analysis by LC/MS/MS of exudates collected from injected muscle revealed higher amounts of perlecan, and types VI and XV collagens, in exudates from BaP1-injected tissue. The differences in the hemorrhagic activity of these SVMPs could be explained by their variable ability to degrade key BM and associated ECM substrates in vivo, particularly perlecan and several non-fibrillar collagens, which play a mechanical stabilizing role in microvessel structure. These results underscore the key role played by these ECM components in the mechanical stability of microvessels. PMID

  18. Genetic profiling links changing sea-ice to shifting beluga whale migration patterns

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing concern over how Arctic fauna will adapt to climate related changes in sea-ice. We used long-term sighting and genetic data on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in conjunction with multi-decadal patterns of sea-ice in the Pacific Arctic to investigate the influence of sea-ice on spring migration and summer residency patterns. Substantial variations in sea-ice conditions were detected across seasons, years and sub-regions, revealing ice–ocean dynamics more complex than ...

  19. Status of the belugas of the St Lawrence estuary, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael CS Kingsley

    2002-01-01

    A population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabiting the estuary of the St Lawrence river in Quebec, Canada, was depleted by unregulated hunting, not closed until 1979. Surveys in 1977 showed only a few hundred in the population. Surveys since then have produced increasing estimates of population indices. An estimate of the population, fully corrected for diving animals, was 1,238 (SE 119) in September 1997. The population was estimated to have increased from 1988 through 1997 by 31.4 b...

  20. Uterine adenocarcinoma with abdominal carcinomatosis in a beluga whale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lair, S; De Guise, S; Martineau, D

    1998-04-01

    A case of uterine adenocarcinoma is reported in a 26-yr-old, free-ranging beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada). This neoplasm appeared as a segmental stenotic thickening of the left uterine horn composed of well differentiated, but disorganized and infiltrative, glandular structures surrounded by an extensive scirrhous stroma. Abdominal carcinomatosis was observed on the mesosalpinx and on the serosal aspect of the gastric compartments. This is the first report of a malignancy originating in the uterus of a cetacean.

  1. Visibility of St Lawrence belugas to aerial photography, estimated by direct observation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael CS Kingsley; Isabelle Gauthier

    2002-01-01

    The depleted population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabiting the St Lawrence estuary, Canada, was monitored by periodic photographic aerial surveys. In order to correct counts made on aerial survey film and to obtain an estimate of the true size of the population, the diving behaviour and the visibility from the air of these animals was studied. A Secchi-disk turbidity survey in the belugas’ summer range showed that water clarity varied between 1.5 m and 11.6 m. By studying aerial ph...

  2. (4R,5R,6S,7R,8S,9R,10S,13S-7,8β-Epoxymomilactone-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H26O4, was extracted from Leucas Urticifolia, a wild Lamiaceae herb distributed in the Punjab, Baluchistan, Sindh and the Rajputana desert of Pakistan. The plant is utilized for various medicinal applications by the local community. The title compound is based on the pimarane–diterpene skeleton. The molecule exhibits an epoxy ring fused to momilactone-A, leading to a pentacyclic molecular structure. The absolute configuration was assigned by comparison with the crystal structure of momilactone, but needs further verification. The crystal structure is governed by four intermolecular hydrogen-bond interactions of the C—H...O type.

  3. Complete genome sequence of the termite hindgut bacterium Spirochaeta coccoides type strain (SPN1 T ), reclassification in the genus Sphaerochaeta as Sphaerochaeta coccoides comb. nov. and emendations of the family Spirochaetaceae and the genus Sphaerochaeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Scheuner, Carmen [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Spirochaeta coccoides Droege et al. 2006 is a member of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835, one of the oldest named genera within the Bacteria. S. coccoides is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, spherical bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut contents of the termite Neotermes castaneus. The species is of interest because it may play an important role in the digestion of breakdown products from cellulose and hemicellulose in the termite gut. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for strain SPN1{sup T}, and based on physiological and genomic characteristics, we propose its reclassification as a novel species in the genus Sphaerochaeta, a recently published sister group of the Spirochaeta. The 2,227,296 bp long genome of strain SPN1{sup T} with its 1,866 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  4. Redescriptions of three trachelocercid ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Karyorelictea), with notes on their phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Xu, Yuan; Yi, Zhenzhen; Warren, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Three trachelocercid ciliates, Kovalevaia sulcata (Kovaleva, 1966) Foissner, 1997, Trachelocerca sagitta (Müller, 1786) Ehrenberg, 1840 and Trachelocerca ditis (Wright, 1982) Foissner, 1996, isolated from two coastal habitats at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and silver impregnation methods. Data on their infraciliature and morphology are supplied. The small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) genes of K. sulcata and Trachelocerca sagitta were sequenced for the first time. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data indicate that both organisms, and the previously sequenced Trachelocerca ditis, are located within the trachelocercid assemblage and that K. sulcata is sister to an unidentified taxon forming a clade that is basal to the core trachelocercids.

  5. Complete genome sequence of the termite hindgut bacterium Spirochaeta coccoides type strain (SPN1T), reclassification in the genus Sphaerochaeta as Sphaerochaeta coccoides comb. nov. and emendations of the family Spirochaetaceae and the genus Sphaerochaeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, Birte; Han, Cliff; Scheuner, Carmen; Lu, Megan; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxane; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Gronow, Sabine; Goker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Detter, John C.

    2012-05-25

    Spirochaeta coccoides Dröge et al. 2006 is a member of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835, one of the oldest named genera within the Bacteria. S. coccoides is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, spherical bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut contents of the termite Neotermes castaneus. The species is of interest because it may play an important role in the digestion of breakdown products from cellulose and hemicellulose in the termite gut. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for strain SPN1T, and based on physiological and genomic characteristics, we propose its reclassification as a novel species in the genus Sphaerochaeta, a recently published sister group of the Spirochaeta. The 2,227,296 bp long genome of strain SPN1T with its 1,866 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the GenomicEncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  6. Two newly recorded species of Tardigrada from China%中国缓步动物两新记录种记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 王大勇

    2008-01-01

    本文记述了中国缓步动物两新记录种,它们是碧绿棘甲熊虫Echiniscus perviridis Ramazzotti,1959和叉爪小生熊虫Minibiotus furcatus Ehrenberg,1859.碧绿棘甲熊虫的标本采自秦岭南坡安康地区,个体大小和特征与模式标本完全一致.叉爪小生熊虫的标本采自陕西省秦岭山脉平河梁,与模式标本个体大小相近,特征基本一致,但中国标本口管比模式标本要宽.

  7. Study on the antibacterial activity of water extract from leaf of Citrus unshiu Marc%温州蜜柑叶片水提取液的抑菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰; 陈新朝

    2004-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the water extract form leaf of Citrus unshiu Marc was strdied. The resulte indicated that 0.17-0.50g·mL-1 leaf extract form C. unshiu had different antibacterial activities to Escherichia coli (Migula)Castellani et Chalmers,Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach,Candida albicans (Robin)Berkhout and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn,diameters of antibacterial zone weere 0.14-0.39cm. The antibacterial activity to E.coli was the best with the water estract,the diameters of antibacterial zone were 0.22-0.38cm. With the concentration of the leaf extract increased,the antibacterial activity to the tested bacteria and yeast gradually increased.

  8. Investigating brand loyalty using Dirichlet benchmarks: The case of light dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    During the last years, a strong consumer interest appears for food products with low caloric content ("light" products). Due to their popularity, the real success of these products in the marketplace is a worth-investigating issue. The creation of buyers that are loyal to light food brands...... constitutes an indication of this success. The present work aims to investigate consumer loyalty to light dairy (milk and yoghurt) brands. First, basic Brand Performance Measures (BPMs) are empirically estimated to describe market structure of the dairy categories under investigation. Then, the Dirichlet...... model (Ehrenberg et al., 2004) was fitted to the empirical data, pointing out to theoretical category loyalty measures. Grouping of the dairy categories under investigation according to their purchase frequency and brand penetration then follows. The work concludes with the overall estimation...

  9. Brand patronage and loyalty patterns in store vs. manufacturer brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    , while offering good value for money. There is a large body of literature explaining and further exploring factors that influence loyalty towards store brands (e.g. among others Steenkamp and Dekimpe, 1997; Dhar and Hoch, 1997; Ailawadi and Keller, 2004; De Wulf et al, 2005). The objective of the work...... is to investigate the potential existence of differences in the loyalty behaviour between store brands and manufacturer brands, as expressed through certain brand performance and loyalty measures (e.g. market shares, penetration, purchase frequencies, repeat rate, etc.). In order to meet the above......-described objective, panel data from the soft-drinks market in Greece are used, with the premise to investigate brand performance and loyalty of store brands. Observed loyalty measures are benchmarked against predictions from the Dirichlet model (Ehrenberg, Uncles and Goodhardt 2004). The aim of this work is, first...

  10. Brand patronage and loyalty patterns in store vs. manufacturer brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    Nowadays, in most of the developed fast-moving consumer goods' markets store brands (i.e. retailer brands or private labels) have managed to establish a considerable share in the retail market. Moreover, it is well known that store brands are perceived as strong competitors to manufacturer brands...... is to investigate the potential existence of differences in the loyalty behaviour between store brands and manufacturer brands, as expressed through certain brand performance and loyalty measures (e.g. market shares, penetration, purchase frequencies, repeat rate, etc.). In order to meet the above......-described objective, panel data from the soft-drinks market in Greece are used, with the premise to investigate brand performance and loyalty of store brands. Observed loyalty measures are benchmarked against predictions from the Dirichlet model (Ehrenberg, Uncles and Goodhardt 2004). The aim of this work is, first...

  11. Brand patronage and loyalty patterns: Store vs. manufacturer brands in the Greek soft drink category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Fotopoulos, Christos

    Nowadays, in most of the developed fast-moving consumer goods' markets store brands (i.e. retailer brands or private labels) have managed to establish a conciderable share in the retail market. Moreover, it is well known that store brands are perceived as strong competitors to manufacturer brands...... the potential existence of differences in the loyalty behavior between store brands and manufacturer brands, as expressed through certain brand performance and loyalty measures (e.g. market shares, penetration, purchase frequencies, repeat rate, etc.). In order to meet the above escribed objective, panel data...... from the soft-drinks market in Greece are used, with the premise to investigate brand performance and loyalty of store brands. Observed loyalty measures are benchmarked against predictions from the Dirichlet model (Ehrenberg, Uncles and Goodhardt 2004). The aim of this work is, first, to explore...

  12. Marine diatoms from Buenos Aires coastal waters (Argentina: II. Thalassionemataceae and Rhaphoneidaceae Diatomeas marinas de aguas costeras de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina: II. Thalassionemataceae y Rhaphoneidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIA A SAR

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the diversity of the species belonging to the diatom families Thalassionemataceae Round and Rhaphoneidaceae Forti frequently found in the temperate marine coastal waters of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, from October 1994 to September 2000. It comprises morphological, taxonomic and distributional analysis of species found in planktonic samples collected at San Clemente del Tuyú, Santa Teresita, La Lucila del Mar, Mar de Ajó, Nueva Atlantis, Pinamar and Villa Gesell. Raw and cleaned samples were analysed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Four taxa of the genus Thalassionema Grunow ex Mereschkowsky amend. Hallegraeff, one of the genus Lioloma Hasle, two of the genus Delphineis Andrews and one of the genus Rhaphoneis Ehrenberg, were identified. Thalassionema pseudonitzschioides (Schuette & Schrader Hasle, Thalassionema synedriforme (Greville Hasle and Lioloma pacificum (Cupp Hasle in Hasle & Syvertsen are new records for ArgentinaEste estudio describe la diversidad de especies de diatomeas pertenecientes a las familias Thalassionemataceae Round and Rhaphoneidaceae Forti encontradas frecuentemente en aguas costeras marinas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, entre octubre de 1994 y septiembre de 2000. En él se lleva a cabo el estudio morfológico, taxonómico y distribucional de las especies halladas en muestras planctónicas colectadas en San Clemente del Tuyú, Santa Teresita, La Lucila del Mar, Mar de Ajó, Nueva Atlantis, Pinamar y Villa Gesell. Material sin tratar y tratado fue analizado con microscopio óptico y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Cuatro taxa de Thalassionema Grunow ex Mereschkowsky amend. Hallegraeff, uno de Lioloma Hasle, dos de Delphineis Andrews y uno de Rhaphoneis Ehrenberg, fueron identificados. Thalassionema pseudonitzschioides (Schuette & Schrader Hasle, Thalassionema synedriforme (Greville Hasle y Lioloma pacificum (Cupp Hasle in Hasle & Syvertsen son reportadas por

  13. Biodiversity of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in the Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Stabili

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative composition of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in water samples from the Southern Adriatic Sea of Italy was examined. Water samples were collected monthly, for a year, at 16 stations along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca. The results obtained described the heterotrophic bacterial community over an annual cycle. Mean values of bacterial densities were 5.3 x 104 CFUml-1 in Brindisi, 5.8 x 104 CFUml-1 in S. Cataldo, 4.3 x 104 CFUml-1 in Otranto and 6.7 x 104 CFUml-1 in S. M. di Leuca. The differences in bacterial densities between the sites considered were estimated. The hydrodynamic circulation, the trophism and the geographical position of the examined sites contribute to justify the different bacterial density trends. The bacterial community consisted mainly of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae represented a considerable fraction of the bacterial community in the Southern Adriatic Sea. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram positive bacteria. The enzymatic versatility of the observed genera suggest their importance in organic matter turnover of this oligotrophic ecosystem.

  14. Relative abundance and size of coastal sharks derived from commercial shark longline catch and effort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J K; Hale, L F; Morgan, A; Burgess, G

    2012-04-01

    In the north-west Atlantic Ocean, stock assessments conducted for some commercially harvested coastal sharks indicate declines from 64 to 80% with respect to virgin population levels. While the status of commercially important species is available, abundance trend information for other coastal shark species in the north-west Atlantic Ocean are unavailable. Using a generalized linear modelling (GLM) approach, a relative abundance index was derived from 1994 to 2009 using observer data collected in a commercial bottom longline fishery. Trends in abundance and average size were estimated for bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna, tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier and lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris. Increases in relative abundance for all shark species ranged from 14% for C. brevipinna, 12% for C. leucas, 6% for N. brevirostris and 3% for G. cuvier. There was no significant change in the size at capture over the time period considered for all species. While the status of shark populations should not be based exclusively on abundance trend information, but ultimately on stock assessment models, results from this study provide some cause for optimism on the status of these coastal shark species.

  15. Contrasting movements and connectivity of reef-associated sharks using acoustic telemetry: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mario; Lédée, Elodie J I; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Tobin, Andrew J; Heupel, Michelle R

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) for wide-ranging predators is essential to designing effective management and conservation approaches. The use of acoustic monitoring and network analysis can improve our understanding of the spatial ecology and functional connectivity of reef-associated species, providing a useful approach for reef-based conservation planning. This study compared and contrasted the movement and connectivity of sharks with different degrees of reef association. We examined the residency, dispersal, degree of reef connectivity, and MPA use of grey reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), silvertip (C. albimarginatus), and bull (C. leucas) sharks monitored in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). An array of 56 acoustic receivers was used to monitor shark movements on 17 semi-isolated reefs. Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos and C. albimarginatus were detected most days at or near their tagging reef. However, while C. amblyrhynchos spent 80% of monitoring days in the array, C. albimarginatus was only detected 50% of the time. Despite both species moving similar distances (sharks like C. leucas, a combination of spatial planning and other alternative measures is critical. Our findings demonstrate that acoustic monitoring can serve as a useful platform for designing more effective MPA networks for reef predators displaying a range of movement patterns.

  16. ОЦЕНКА СЕЗОННОГО РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЯ БЕЛУХИ DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS И ОБЪЕКТОВ ЕЕ ПИТАНИЯ В ПРИБРЕЖНЫХ ВОДАХ СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНОЙ ЧАСТИ БЕРИНГОВА МОРЯ

    OpenAIRE

    Литовка, Д.; Андронов, П.; Батанов, Р.

    2013-01-01

    Впервые с помощью слежения за мечеными белухами со спутников была подтверждена описанная ранее схема осенних миграций и зимнего распределения анадырской белухи, построенная на основе многолетних наблюдений, опросных сведений и авиаучетов в разные годы. Была выявлена акватория зимнего нагула анадырской белухи и белух из других популяций из Канады и Аляски (от мыса Наварин до острова Св. Лаврентия). Анализ погружений выявил в основном возрастные отличия в поведении белух, а также отличия в погр...

  17. On the Nature of Tintinnid Loricae (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina): a Histochemical, Enzymatic, EDX, and High-resolution TEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatha, Sabine; Simon, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Tintinnids (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina) are occasionally the dominant ciliates in the marine plankton. The tintinnid loricae are minute artworks fascinating scientists for more than 230 years, but their chemical composition remained unclear, viz., chitinous or proteinaceous substances were discussed. Since sedimenting loricae contribute to the flux of elements and organic compounds in the oceans, knowledge about their nature is necessary in assessing their ecological role. Previous techniques and new methods, e.g. enzymatic digestion and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, are applied in the present study. A chitinous nature of the loricae is rejected by the Van-Wisselingh test and failure of chitinase digestion. Only proteins might show a resistance against strong hot bases (KOH at 160°C for ~ 40 min. in tintinnid loricae) similar to that of chitin. Actually, the presence of nitrogen in the EDX analyses and the digestion of at least some loricae by proteinase K strongly indicate a proteinaceous nature. Furthermore, the crystal lattice revealed by high-resolution TEM in Eutintinnus loricae is similar to the proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) of archaea, and the striation recognizable in transverse sections of Eutintinnus loricae has a periodicity resembling that of the crystalline proteins in the extruded trichocysts of Paramecium and Frontonia. The proteolytic resistance of some loricae does not reject the idea of a proteinaceous nature, as proteins in S-layers of some archaea and in most naturally occurring prions show comparable reactions. The data from the present study and the literature indicate proteins in the loricae of thirteen genera. Differences in the proteolytic resistance and staining properties between genera and congeners are probably due to deviations in the protein composition and the additional substances, e.g. lipids, carbohydrates. At the present state of knowledge, correlations between lorica structure, wall texture

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in beluga whales from the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, A; Payne, J F; Fancey, L L; Santella, R M; Young, T L

    1997-05-01

    The Arctic is still relatively pristine in nature, but it is also vulnerable to pollution because contaminants originating from midlatitudes are transported to the Arctic by atmospheric processes, ocean currents, and rivers (Muir et al., 1992). Recognition of this fact of Arctic vulnerability has resulted in a Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment by eight Arctic countries. A manifest aim of this declaration is to develop an Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. We report here on the presence of measurable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts, including relatively high levels in Arctic beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). These results lend support to the value of developing biological assessment programs for Arctic wildlife.

  19. Ethnomedicinal plants of Jodhpur District, Rajasthan used in herbal and folk remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.S.Kapoor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jodhpur district a part of Thar Desert is very rich in medicinal plant wealth. The medicinal plants of this region have great potential to be used in drug and pharmaceutical industries. These herbal plants have been used by local people, tribal communities, vendors, native doctors such as Ojhas, Bhagats Bhopas and experts of Ayurvedic fields since long time in herbal and folk remedies. Kalbelia, Nats, Bhils, Raika, Bhopas, Banjara, Gadolia-Lohar, Saharia and Meena communities of this district have a rich knowledge of plants based traditional medicines. Ten ethnomedicinal plants like Cleome gynandra Linn., Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn., Cassia angustifolia Vahl., Echinops echinatus Roxb., Leucas aspera (Willd. Spreng., Mimosa hamata Willd., Moringa oleifera Lamk., Pedalium murex Linn., Peganum harmala Linn., Sida cordifolia Linn. have been selected for this research work. The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethnomedicinal value of the plants and their uses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.

  20. New Records of Lamiaceae from Guangxi,China%广西唇形科植物新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严克俭; 农云开; 杨平; 屈信成

    2015-01-01

    该文首次报道了唇形科5种植物在广西的新记录——簇序属(Craniotome Reichenb.)及簇序草[Craniotome furcata (Link) Kuntze]、西南水苏[Stachys kouyangensis (Vaniot) Dunn]、海南深红鸡脚参[Orthosiphon rubicundus (D.Don) Benth.var.hainanensis Sun ex C.Y.Wu]、黄花香薷[Elsholtzia flava(Benth.)Benth.]、滨海白绒草[Leucas chinensis (Retz.)R.Br.].引证标本均存放于广西中医药研究院标本馆(GXMI).

  1. REVISION OF THE TEETH OF THE GENUS CARCHARHINUS (ELASMOBRANCHII; CARCHARHINIDAE FROM THE PLIOCENE OF TUSCANY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFANO MARSILI

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The great similar tooth morphologies that characterized the sharks of the genus Carcharhinus have suggested that the Neogene Mediterranean Sea were inhabited by only one or two widespread carcharhinid taxa, Carcharhinus egertoni and C. priscus. The first Mediterranean Pliocene record of five new shark species included into Carcharhinus, C. aff. brachyurus, C. falciformis, C. leucas, C. perezi, and C. plumbeus, have been identified by the review of some shark teeth from Tuscany (Italy and housed in the Italian Museums of the Universities of Firenze, Bologna, and Pisa. Moreover, the Mediterranean records of the two Recent C. longimanus and C. obscurus has been confirmed too. Paleobiogeographic and palaeoecologic analysis have been produced on the presence of some species absent or doubtful for the extant Mediterranean shark community. 

  2. Measuring Hearing in Wild Beluga Whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, T Aran; Castellote, Manuel; Quakenbush, Lori; Hobbs, Roderick; Goertz, Caroline; Gaglione, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We measured the hearing abilities of seven wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) during a collection-and-release experiment in Bristol Bay, AK. Here we summarize the methods and initial data from one animal and discuss the implications of this experiment. Audiograms were collected from 4 to 150 kHz. The animal with the lowest threshold heard best at 80 kHz and demonstrated overall good hearing from 22 to 110 kHz. The robustness of the methodology and data suggest that the auditory evoked potential audiograms can be incorporated into future collection-and-release health assessments. Such methods may provide high-quality results for multiple animals, facilitating population-level audiograms and hearing measures in new species.

  3. Induction of micronuclei in vitro by organochlorine compounds in beluga whale skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, J M; Dubeau, H; Rassart, E

    1999-02-02

    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabiting the St. Lawrence estuary are highly contaminated with environmental pollutants and have a high incidence of cancer. Environmental contaminants may be partly responsible for the high cancer incidence observed in this population. DNA damage plays an important role in the development of cancer. The micronuclei (MN) assay was used to test the genotoxic potential of organochlorine (OC) pesticides with and without external metabolic factor in skin fibroblasts of an Arctic beluga whale. Toxaphene, chlordane and p,p'-DDT induced significant (pSt. Lawrence beluga whales. However, because of the known genotoxicity of toxaphene and the long lifespan of beluga whales, it cannot be excluded that toxaphene may pose a long-term genetic hazard to the more contaminated whales of this population.

  4. Giardiasis in pinnipeds from eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, L N; Olson, M

    1999-10-01

    Cysts of Giardia sp. were detected in feces from the rectum of 20 of 74 pinnipeds examined from the eastern coast of Canada in 1997 and 1998 using a monoclonal antibody technique. Infected pinnipeds included 15 adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), four adult grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and one juvenile harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Cysts were not detected in 15 seal pups St. Lawrence. The overall prevalence of Giardia sp. in grey and harbor seals, excluding pups, from the Gulf and St. Lawrence estuary was 23%. Feces from 11 beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and one northern bottle-nosed whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) stranded in the St. Lawrence estuary were negative for Giardia sp. cysts. The significance of Giardia sp. in marine mammals, shown here for the first time in eastern coastal Canada, is unknown.

  5. Bone fluoride concentrations in beluga whales from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelian, I; Qualls, C W; De Guise, S; Whaley, M W; Martineau, D

    1999-04-01

    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary have been reported to have dental and bone abnormalities. To determine whether these lesions could be caused by high exposure to fluorides, we measured bone fluoride levels in eight beluga whales stranded on the shores of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada), and in nine beluga whales killed by Inuit hunters in the Hudson Bay (North Western Territories, Canada). In both groups, fluoride concentrations were higher than those found in terrestrial mammals intoxicated by fluorides. Unexpectedly, fluoride concentration was significantly higher in beluga whales from the Hudson Bay (mean +/- SD: 10.365 +/- 1.098 ppm) than in beluga whales from the St. Lawrence Estuary (4.539 +/- 875 ppm) and was positively correlated with age in the latter population. Differences in diet might explain the differences in fluoride concentrations found between these two populations.

  6. Screening of twenty five plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Tennyson; K John Ravindran; S Arivoli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of twenty five plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against the third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus at 1 000 ppm concentration. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 and 48 h. Results: The hexane extracts of Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) and Murraya koeingii (M. koeingii) plants showed 100 percent mortality at 24 h bioassay followed by diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of C. collinus, Leucas aspera (L. aspera), Hydrocotyle javanica (H. javanica), M. koeingii, Sphaeranthus indicus (S. indicus) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Z. limonella) after 48 h exposure. Conclusions: The results indicate larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus and further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredients of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  7. Development of Microsatellite Markers in the Deep-Sea Cup Coral Desmophyllum dianthus by 454 Sequencing and Cross-Species Amplifications in Scleractinia Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addamo, Anna M; García-Jiménez, Ricardo; Taviani, Marco; Machordom, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite loci were isolated for the first time for the deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus, using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. We developed conditions for amplifying 24 markers in 10 multiplex reactions. Three to 16 alleles per locus were detected across 25 samples analyzed from Santa Maria di Leuca coral province (Mediterranean Sea). For the 24 polymorphic loci, observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.211 to 0.880 and 0.383 to 0.910, respectively; 3 loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, after null allele and sequential Holm-Bonferroni corrections. These newly isolated microsatellites are very useful genetic markers that provide data for future conservation strategies. Cross-amplification of these microsatellites, tested in 46 coral species, representing 40 genera, and 10 families of the phylum Cnidaria, produced informative allelic profiles for 1 to 24 loci. The utility of extending analyses to cross-species amplifications is also discussed.

  8. New deep-water cnidarian sites in the southern Adriatic Sea

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    L. ANGELETTI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle exploration and bottom sampling in the southern Adriatic Sea (Apulian and Montenegrin margins resulted in the discovery of cnidarian-rich deep-sea habitats in the depth range of ca. 400-700 m. In particular, ROV inspection of Montenegrin canyons reveals the existence of megabenthic communities dominated by a variety of cnidarians, including scleractinians (Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa, Dendrophyllia cornigera, antipatharians (Leiopathes glaberrima and gorgonians (Callogorgia verticillata as major habitat forming taxa, often in association with sponges and, subordinately, serpulids. All such cnidarians are new records for the southeastern side of the Adriatic Sea. Our investigation indicates that an almost continuous belt of patchy cold water coral sites occurs along the entire southwestern margin (Apulian, basically connecting the Adriatic populations with those inhabiting the Ionian margin (Santa Maria di Leuca coral province.

  9. Conservation challenges of sharks with continental scale migrations

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    Michelle eHeupel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding movement and connectivity of populations is increasingly important as human and climate change pressures become more pervasive, but can be problematic in difficult to observe species such as large marine predators. We examined the movements of bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, using acoustic telemetry arrays along the east coast of Australia. Approximately half of 75 individuals released in temperate waters moved into tropical reef regions, with both sexes undertaking long-range movements and multiple individuals making return trips. Only 3% of 39 individuals released in tropical reef habitats moved south to temperate waters, but approximately 25% moved to southern reef or subtropical coastal areas. These results reveal complex linkages along the east coast of Australia which suggest a tropical reef based population comprised of individuals that migrate to multiple regions. Connectivity between locations along the east coast of Australia creates important conservation challenges for resource managers in multiple jurisdictions.

  10. ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF FIVE TRADITIONALLY USED INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

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    Adhikarimayum Haripyaree

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexane, Methanol and Distilled water extracts of five Indian Medicinal plants viz., Mimosa pudica L, Vitex trifolia Linn, Leucas aspera Spreng, Centella asiatica (L Urban and Plantago major Linn belonging to different families were subjected to preliminary antimicrobial screening against six standard organisms viz., Ceratocystis paradoxa, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Macrophomina phaseoli, Trichoderma viride and Rhizopus nigricans. To evaluate antifungal activity agar well diffusion method was used. In addition LD50 of the same plant extracts were determined by using Range test on Mus musculus for cytotoxic activity. Methanolic extract of M. pudica showed the highest and significant inhibitory effect against some fungal species. Again, methanolic extract of M. pudica displayed the greatest cytotoxic activity.

  11. Aerial Surveys of Endangered Whales in the Northern Bering, Eastern Chukchi, and Alaskan Beaufort Seas, 1985: With a Seven Year Review, 1979-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    8217 . " - • " " " ’ " ’"" . - - - " "" "° " " "" " " , , - " UUSS USSRA as LEGENDJ 0GV S CAPE PRINCE OF WALES % .4(DO crnM BERING SEA OCG 00 M 0a hI)rO 0 0 0 1 Kp 000...o,,o_.._ .- Demarcation Pt Cape Lisbuneo 680I , ialn 680: 660 USSR16 100 15 1 apatocni Prince of Wales AndSK i nest coe s dNo o i 64...and migration patterns of the white whale ( Beluga ), Delphinapterus leucas. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. vol. 30:465-480. 1980. Herzing, D.L. and B.R. Mate

  12. The Diatom Stratigraphy of Rawapening Lake, Implying Eutrophication History

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    Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati

    2012-01-01

    community dominated by planktonic forms occurs c. 1983. This community was initially dominated by more clear water, oligotrophic species such as Discostella stelligera (Cleve and Grunow Houk and Klee and Aulacoseira distans (Ehrenberg Simonsen, but transitions in 1990 to one dominated by A. granulata (Ehrenberg Simonsen and ultimately Aulacoseira ambigua (Grunow Simonsen. This is interpreted as a shift to a turbid water phase that has advantaged phytoplankton, at the expense of benthic or epiphytic taxa that require clear water. Conclusion: The dominance of A. granulate (Ehrenberg Simonsen since the 1990s indicates the lake experienced hypertrophic conditions with pH > 9. A high proportion of the taxa in Rawa Pening sediments are not represented in the European data set, so the development of data set of tropical lakes is recommended to provide stronger inferences in local settings.

  13. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.

  14. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F Smoothey

    Full Text Available Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas. Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.

  15. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

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    Juerg M Brunnschweiler

    Full Text Available Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive

  16. Evidence for an Early-Middle Miocene age of the Navidad Formation (central Chile: Paleontological, paleoclimatic and tectonic implications Evidencias de una edad miocena temprana-media de la Formación Navidad: Implicancias paleontológicas, paleoclimáticas y tectónicas

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    Néstor M Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The age of the Navidad Formation in central Chile has always been controversial, mainly due to the conflicting age ranges indicated by its macro- and microfossils. Macrofossils are generally interpreted as having been reworked from older, Early to Middle Miocene strata, whereas a Late Miocene-Pliocene age has been accepted on the basis of planktonic foraminifer index species. The results of this study, however, indicate that the macrofossils occur in situ, which necessitates a complete revision of the geochronological data. It is concluded that the evidence for an Early to Middle Miocene age is overwhelming, and that the planktonic foraminifer index species must have appeared in the SE Pacific earlier than elsewhere. These include Globoturborotalia apertura, Globorotalia puncticulata (Deshayes, Globorotalia spheriomizea (Walters, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg, and Neogloboquadrina acostaensis (Blow. An Early to Middle Miocene age for the Navidad Formation correlates well with a reinterpretation of its depo-sitional environment as a continental shelf instead of a deepwater continental slope, global and regional paleoclimatic events, and the tectonic development of the Andes Range.La edad de la Formación Navidad en Chile central siempre ha sido controversial, debido a los distintos rangos de edad indicados por los macro- y microfósiles. En general, se considera que los macro-fósiles han sido retrabajados de estratos del Mioceno Temprano a Medio, y se aceptó una edad miocena tardía para esta unidad sobre la base de especies indicadoras de foraminíferos planctónicos. Sin embargo, los resultados de este estudio indican que los macrofósiles ocurren in situ, lo cual hace necesario una revisión completa de los datos geocronológicos. Se concluye que la evidencia por una edad miocena temprana a media es contundente, y que los foraminíferos planctónicos que indicarían una edad miocena tardía aparecieron más temprano en el SE del oc

  17. SOIL ALGAE OF BLADE OF COIL IN DONETSK REGION

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    Maltseva I.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On territory of Donbass for more than 200 years the underground coal mining has produced, accompanied by the formation of the mine dumps. Finding ways to reduce their negative impact on the environment should be based on their comprehensive study. The soil algae are active participants in the syngenetic processes in industrial dumps of different origin. The purpose of this paper is to identify the species composition and dominant algae groups in dump mine SH/U5 “Western” in the western part of Donetsk.The test blade is covered with vegetation to the middle from all sides, and on the north side of 20-25 m to the top. The vegetation cover of the lower and middle tiers of all the exposures range in 70-80%. Projective vegetation cover of upper tiers of the northern, north-eastern and north-western exposures are in the range of 20-40%, other – 5-10%. We revealed some 38 algae species as a result of our research in southern, northern, western, and eastern slopes of the blade “Western”. The highest species diversity has Chlorophyta - 14 species (36.8% of the total number of species, then Cyanophyta - 9 (23,7%, Bacillariophyta - 7 (18,4%, Xantophyta - 5 (13.2%, and Eustigmatophyta - 3 (7.9%. The dominants are represented by Hantzschia amphyoxys (Ehrenberg Grunow in Cleve et Grunow, Bracteacoccus aerius, Klebsormidium flaccidum (Kützing Silva et al., Phormidium autumnale, Pinnularia borealis Ehrenberg, Planothidium lanceolatum (Brebisson in Kützing Bukhtiyarova, Xanthonema exile (Klebs Silva.It should be noted that the species composition of algae groups in different slopes of the blade was significantly different. Jacquard coefficient was calculated for algae communities varied in the range of 15,4-39,1%. The smallest number of algae species was observed on the southern slope of the blade (14 species, maximum was registered in the areas of north and west slopes. Differences in the species composition of algae were also observed in three

  18. Seasonal Variation of the Genus Prorocentrum (DINOPHYCEAE in Two Tuna Farms In The Bahía De La Paz, Mexico

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    Rocio Elizabeth MUCIÑO-MÁRQUEZ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Prorocentrum Ehrenberg includes 81 marine species, of which 21 are considered causative agents of harmful algal blooms, and approximately 9 species produce toxins. The objectives of this study were to determine distribution and abundance of Prorocentrum species during an annual cycle at two sampling sites within tuna farms near San Juan de La Costa (SC, Rancheros del Mar (RM and at a station without the influence of these farms located off El Mogote (M, in the Bahia de la Paz, Gulf of California. Samples were taken monthly (June 2006-May 2007 at different depths at SC (0, 25 and 50 m, at the RM (0, 15 and 30 m and at El Mogote (0 m with a van Dorn bottle. The results showed a total of twelve species in the annual cycle: P. compressum, P. dactylus, P. emarginatum, P. gracile, P. lima, P. micans, P. minimum, P. rhathymum, P. rostratum, P. shikokuense, P. triestinum and P. vaginula, of which the first eight are bloomsVARIACIÓN ESTACIONAL DEL GÉNERO Prorocentrum (DINOPHYCEAE EN DOS GRANJAS ATUNERAS EN LA BAHÍA DE LA PAZ, MÉXICOEl género Prorocentrum Ehrenberg, incluye 62 especies marinas, 21 son consideradas formadoras de florecimientos algales nocivos (FAN, de las cuales aproximadamente 10 especies producen toxinas. Considerando lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo consistió en determinar la distribución y abundancia de las especies del género Prorocentrum durante un ciclo anual, en dos estaciones de muestreo ubicadas dentro del ámbito de las granjas atuneras y en una estación fuera de la influencia de las granjas en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S Las muestras de agua se recolectaron mensualmente (junio 2006-mayo 2007 con una botella van Dorn en diferentes niveles de profundidad. En San Juan de La Costa (SC se recolectaron en superficie 25 y 50 m, en Rancheros del Mar (RM en superficie, 15, y 30 m, y en El Mogote (M solo en superficie. A lo largo del ciclo anual, en las granjas atuneras en la Bahía de La Paz, se registraron

  19. Diatomáceas epilíticas de águas oligotróficas e ácidas do Sudeste do Brasil Epilithic diatoms from acidic and oligotrophic waters in Southeast Brazil

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    Luís Gustavo de Castro Canani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Poucos estudos tem abordado a flora de diatomáceas de sistemas oligotróficos do Brasil. São apresentados os resultados da composição taxonômica e distribuição espacial e temporal de diatomáceas no rio do Salto, situado no Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais (21º40'-21º44'S e 43º52'-43º55'W. As águas desse rio possuem pH entre 4,2 e 5,5 e concentração de ortofosfato entre 1,37 e 10,98 µg.L-1. O estudo baseia-se na análise de 80 amostras coletadas em oito estações no leito rochoso do rio, em janeiro e julho de 2004, períodos de chuva e estiagem, respectivamente. Um total de 15 espécies e duas variedades taxonômicas, distribuídas em oito gêneros e oito famílias foram descritas e ilustradas, com destaque para o gênero Eunotia Ehrenberg. O estudo sobre diatomáceas bentônicas em ambientes lóticos é pioneiro no estado de Minas Gerais, sendo registradas 14 novas citações, das quais Fragilariforma stevensonii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Eunotia pirarucu Metzeltin & Lange Betalot, Nupela giluwensis Vyverman & Compère e Sellaphora blackfordensis Mann & Droop são primeiros registros para o Brasil.Few studies have been done on the diatom flora of acidic and oligotrophic environments from Brazil. We present the taxonomic composition and distribution of diatoms of Salto River, situated at Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais (21º40'-21º44'S; 43º52'-43º55'W. The pH values ranged from 4.2 to 5.5 and orthophosphate was between 1.37 and 10.98 µg.L-1. The study is based on the analysis of 80 samples collected at eight stations in the rocky stream bed, in January and July 2004, rainy and dry seasons, respectively. A total of 15 species and two taxonomic varieties distributed in eight genera and eight families were described and illustrated, notably the Eunotia Ehrenberg genus. The study of benthic diatoms in lotic systems is pioneer in Minas Gerais state; 14 new records were recorded of which Fragilariforma stevensonii

  20. Ciliates (Protozoa from dried sediments of a temporary pond from Argentina Ciliados (Protozoa de sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la Argentina

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    Gabriela Cristina Küppers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary ponds represent special environments that are inhabited by organisms adapted to changing environmental conditions. Ciliates are able to survive complete loss of water in these transient habitats through cyst formation. However, ciliates from the Neotropical region in general have been poorly studied with modern techniques. The main goal of this study is to describe the ciliates in dried sediments of a temporary pond from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, through sampling efforts that were performed 2003-2005. Soil samples were obtained during drought phases and re wetted in laboratory to establish raw and enriched cultures. Ciliates were then studied both in vivo and after impregnation with protargol. In this study, we present 4 new records for Argentina (Gonostomum affine (Stein, 1859 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia bifaria (Stokes, 1887 Berger, 1999, Pleurotricha lanceolata (Ehrenberg, 1835 Stein, 1859, Meseres corlissi Petz and Foissner, 1992, 1 for South America (Blepharisma americanum (Suzuki, 1954 Hirshfield, Isquith and Bhandary, 1965, and 2 for the Neotropical Realm (Gonostomum strenuum (Engelmann, 1862 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia lemnae Ammermann and Schlegel, 1983.Los cuerpos de agua temporarios son ambientes particulares que se encuentran habitados por organismos adaptados a condiciones fluctuantes. Los ciliados son capaces de sobrevivir a la pérdida completa de agua del ambiente gracias a la formación de estructuras de resistencia. Por otra parte, los ciliados de la región Neotropical han sido poco investigados con técnicas modernas. El objetivo de este estudio es referir los ciliados que se desarrollaron a partir de los sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, en la que se realizaron muestreos durante el período 2003-2005. Las muestras de suelo fueron obtenidas durante las fases de sequía y luego resuspendidas en el laboratorio para realizar cultivos naturales y enriquecidos. Los

  1. Caracterização quali-quantitativa do fitoplâncton da zona de arrebentação de uma praia amazônica Phytoplankton of the surf zone in Amazon beach

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    Jislene Brito Matos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura da comunidade fitoplanctônica da praia da Princesa (Ilha de Maiandeua foi estudada durante um ciclo nictemeral nos meses de novembro/08, março/09, junho/09 e setembro/09, de modo a verificar os efeitos de algumas variáveis ambientais sobre esta comunidade. O microfitoplâncton da praia da Princesa esteve representado por 98 táxons, com predomínio das diatomáceas, seguidas dos dinoflagelados e cianofíceas. Nas amostras qualitativas, Coscinodiscus perforatus Ehrenberg se destacou como abundante nos meses de março (45,6% e junho (45,1%, enquanto que a análise quantitativa revelou Dimeregramma minor (Gregory Ralfs como dominante, principalmente, em novembro (82,0% e setembro (83,0%. A biomassa fitoplanctônica (clorofila-a foi significativamente mais elevada em março (U= 0,0; pThe structure of the phytoplankton community of Princesa beach (Maiandeua island was investigated during a nyctemeral cycle in the months of November/08, March/09, June/09 and September/09 to verify the effects of certain environmental variables on this community. The microphytoplankton of Princesa beach was represented by 98 taxa with the dominance of the diatoms, which were followed by the dinoflagellates and cyanophytes. The qualitative study revealed that Coscinodiscus perforatus Ehrenberg was abundant in March (45.6% and June (45.1%, whereas in the quantitative analysis Dimeregramma minor (Gregory Ralfs was dominant, mainly in November/08 (82.0% and September/09 (83.0%. Biomass (chlorophyll-a content was significantly higher in March/08 (U= 0.0; p <0.05. The average total phytoplankton density was significantly higher during the rainy period (F= 6.2; p< 0.05, mainly in June (1,223 ±110 x 10³ cell L-1. K-dominance curves showed a gradual decrease in diversity along the dry period. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling analysis (MDS revealed the formation of three groups, whereas Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed that salinity and turbidity were

  2. Identification of High-active Raw Starch Glucoamylase Strain F7 and Study on Its Enzymatic Properties%高活性生淀粉糖化酶菌株F7的鉴定及其酶学性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕金芝; 张凤英; 刘金梅; 涂瑾

    2013-01-01

    对高活性生淀粉糖化酶菌株F7的归属和酶学性质进行了鉴定和探讨,从菌体形态特征和分子生物学特征方面对F7进行了鉴定,从F7的酶活力、酶对生淀粉的吸附力、最佳的作用温度、pH等方面探讨了F7的生淀粉糖化酶性质.结果表明:菌株F7归属藻菌纲(Ph ycomycetes),毛霉目(Mucorales),毛霉科(Mucoraceae),根霉属(Rhizopus Ehrenberg),米根霉种(Rhizopus oryzae).其酶不仅对生淀粉吸附力大,消化能力强,而且其兼有的强酸性蛋白酶活力低;该酶作用pH范围是3.3~5.3;作用温度是35~45℃,酶活力稳定,在低温条件下酶液能保存较长时间;该酶对大米生淀粉的吸附率高,糖化能力也强.%The attribution of high-active raw starch glucoamylase strain F7 and its enzymatic properties are identified and discussed.The strain F7 is identified from bacteria morphology and molecular biology characteristics,its properties are explored from enzyme activity,absorption of raw starch enzyme,the optimum temperature and pH.The result indicates that the strain F7 belongs to Phycomycetes,Mucorales,Mucoraceae,Rhizopus Ehrenberg,Rhizopus oryzae.Not only is the absorption of raw starch enzyme big and the digestion strong,but also the strong acid protease activity is low.The study of glucoamylase produced by Rhizopus F7 shows that the optimal pH and temperature range for the enzyme reaction are 3.3~5.3 and 35~45 ℃ respectively.The enzyme is stable and can be stored for a long time at low temperature.The rate of absorption is proved to be high,saccharification ability is also strong.

  3. New data-driven method from 3D confocal microscopy for calculating phytoplankton cell biovolume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, L; Paparella, F; Stanca, E; Basset, A

    2015-06-01

    Confocal laser scanner microscopy coupled with an image analysis system was used to directly determine the shape and calculate the biovolume of phytoplankton organisms by constructing 3D models of cells. The study was performed on Biceratium furca (Ehrenberg) Vanhoeffen, which is one of the most complex-shaped phytoplankton. Traditionally, biovolume is obtained from a standardized set of geometric models based on linear dimensions measured by light microscopy. However, especially in the case of complex-shaped cells, biovolume is affected by very large errors associated with the numerous manual measurements that this entails. We evaluate the accuracy of these traditional methods by comparing the results obtained using geometric models with direct biovolume measurement by image analysis. Our results show cell biovolume measurement based on decomposition into simple geometrical shapes can be highly inaccurate. Although we assume that the most accurate cell shape is obtained by 3D direct biovolume measurement, which is based on voxel counting, the intrinsic uncertainty of this method is explored and assessed. Finally, we implement a data-driven formula-based approach to the calculation of biovolume of this complex-shaped organism. On one hand, the model is obtained from 3D direct calculation. On the other hand, it is based on just two linear dimensions which can easily be measured by hand. This approach has already been used for investigating the complexities of morphology and for determining the 3D structure of cells. It could also represent a novel way to generalize scaling laws for biovolume calculation.

  4. PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS OF EUGLENA (EUGLENACEAE) SPECIES WITH AXIAL, STELLATE CHLOROPLASTS BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DATA-NEW TAXA, EMENDED DIAGNOSES, AND EPITYPIFICATIONS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Sylwia; Karnkowska-Ishikawa, Anna; Milanowski, Rafał; Kwiatowski, Jan; Zakryś, Bożena

    2009-04-01

    Morphological and molecular studies, as well as original literature reexamination, necessitate establishment of five Euglena species with a single axial, stellate chloroplast [Euglena viridis (O. F. Müller) Ehrenberg 1830, Euglena pseudoviridis Chadefaud 1937, Euglena stellata Mainx 1926, Euglena pseudostellata sp. nov., and Euglena cantabrica Pringsheim 1956], three species with two chloroplasts (Euglena geniculata Dujardin ex Schmitz 1884, Euglena chadefaudii Bourrelly 1951, and Euglena pseudochadefaudii sp. nov.), and one species with three chloroplasts (Euglena tristella Chu 1946). The primary morphological features, allowing distinction of the considered species are the presence and the shape of mucocysts, as well as the number of chloroplasts. Spherical mucocysts occur in E. cantabrica and E. geniculata, while spindle-shaped mucocysts are present in E. stellata, E. pseudostellata, E. chadefaudii, E. pseudochadefaudii, and E. tristella. No mucocysts are observed in E. viridis and E. pseudoviridis. Two new species (E. pseudochadefaudii sp. nov. and E. pseudostellata sp. nov.) differ from the respective species, E. chadefaudii and E. stellata, only at the molecular level. Molecular signatures and characteristic sequences are designated for nine distinguished species. Emended diagnoses for all and delimitation of epitypes for seven species (except E. viridis and E. tristella) are proposed.

  5. Apoptotic activity of the marine diatom Cocconeis scutellum and eicosapentaenoic acid in BT20 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappo, Michela; Berkov, Strahil; Massucco, Carlotta; Di Maria, Valentina; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles; Avila, Conxita; Messina, Patrizia; Zupo, Valerio; Zupo, Simona

    2012-04-01

    The marine diatoms Cocconeis scutellum Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyceae) are known to trigger apoptosis in the androgenic gland of the Mediterranean crustacean Hippolyte inermis Leach (Decapoda), affecting the shrimp's sex reversal. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible apoptotic effect of extracts and fractions from these microalgae also on human tissues. The chemical profile of C. scutellum was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and, afterwards, organic extracts and fractions from the diatoms were used to treat to breast cancer BT20 cells. Double labeling with annexin V-FITC and isotonic propidium iodide (PI) along with flow cytometry analysis enabled the evaluate of cell apoptosis and viability, whereas hypotonic PI staining was used to analyze the cell cycle in BT20 lines. The involvement of specific caspases was studied by Western blotting. Results demonstrated that the diethyl ether extract and, in particular, fraction 3, the richest fraction in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from the diethyl ether extract, selectively induced apoptosis (up to 89.2% at 1 μg/well of fraction 3) and decreased viability in BT20 cells. The apoptotic effect was displayed in a concentration and time-dependent manner, by activating caspases-8 and 3, and arresting the progression of the cell cycle from S to G2-M phase. EPA alone showed similar apoptotic effects in BT20 cells. The study demonstrates the apoptotic activity of C. scutellum diatoms on breast cancer cells and suggests their potential use as a source of apoptotic compounds.

  6. Identification of the toxic compounds produced by Sargassum thunbergii to red tide microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Renjun; WANG You; TANG Xuexi

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of methanol extracts from the tissues of three macroalgal species on the growths of three marine red tide microalgae were assessed under laboratory conditions.Extracts of Sargassum thunbergii(Mertens ex Roth)Kuntz tissue had stronger inhibitory effects than those of either Sargassum pallidum(Turner)C.Agardh or Sargassum kjellmanianum Yendo on the growths of Heterosigrna akashiwo(Hada)Hada,Skeletonema costatum(Grey.)Grey,and Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg.Methanol extracts of S.thunbergii were further divided into petroleum ether,ethyl acetate,butanol,and distilled water phases by liquid-liquid fractionation.The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions had strong algicidal effects on the microalgae.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of these two phases identified nine fatty acids,most of which were unsaturated fatty acids.In addition,pure compounds of four of the nine unsaturated fatty acids had effective concentrations below 5 mg/L.Therefore,unsaturated fatty acids are a component of the allelochemicals in S.thunbergii tissue.

  7. 陕西省延安黄龙山缓步动物区系初步调查%A Checklist of Tardigrada from Mount Huanglong of Yanan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏群; 刘晓莉

    2010-01-01

    报道了陕西省延安黄龙山的缓步动物名录.该名录包含了13种缓步动物,隶属于2纲、2目、3科、6属.其中帕氏双向熊虫(Diphascon patanei Binda & Pilato, 1971)和马氏等高熊虫(Isohypsibius marcellinoi Binda & Pilato, 1971)是陕西省新纪录种,其余叶状角棘影熊虫(Cornechiniscus lobatus Ramazzotti,1943)、加拿大棘影熊虫(Echiniscus canadensis Murray,1910)、日本棘影熊虫(Echiniscusm japonicus Morikawa,1951)、太白棘影熊虫(Echiniscus taibaiensis Wang and Li,2005)、假棘影阿斯皮尔熊虫(Oseydecgubuscys asoer Abe,Utsugi & Takeda, 1998)、假棘影苏氏熊虫(Pseudechiniscus suillus Ehrenberg,1883)、假棘影乳突状熊虫(Pseudechiniscus papillus Li,Wang, Liu and Su,2005)、哈氏大生熊虫(Macrobiotus hamsworthi Murray, 1907)、胡氏大生熊虫(Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze,1833)、瑞氏大生熊虫(Macrobiotus richtersi Murray,1911)、Diphascon scoticum Murray (1905)是陕西省延安黄龙山新纪录种.

  8. Temporal dynamics of Trichodesmium erythraeum (Cyanophyta) in the National Park "Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano" in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aké-Castillo, José A

    2011-07-01

    Trichodesmium erythraeum Ehrenberg ex Gomont is a microalga worldwide distributed in tropical seas. This filamentous microalga was detected in phytoplankton samples collected in the Protected NaturalArea "Parque Nacional SistemaArrecifal Veracruzano", and because of its ecological importance, its temporal dynamics was studied using net samples (30 microm) collected in one year period. Samples were studied with a light microscope recording the presence, morphological characteristics, life form and relative abundance. Trichodesmium erythraeum occurred as single filaments and was rare in April 2007 and March 2008; as single filaments from May to August and December 2007; as single filaments and small aggregates in September 2007 and January 2008; in aggregates of large size (> 3mm) and high relative abundance in October 2007; and was absence in November 2007 and April 2008. Although the relative abundance of the species was not important comparing with other members of phytoplankton, its occurrence was frequent with a bloom at the beginning of the north winds period. The observed temporal dynamics of this microalga in this coral reef region comes up on the alert in the monitoring red tides programs being implemented in Veracruz coast.

  9. Growth of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia estimated from laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRP. Utz

    Full Text Available Peritrich ciliates are commonly found colonizing living substrates. Although this a well known phenomenon, biological aspects of this relationship need to be studied in more detail. Assessment of growth rates in peritrichs has been the subject of very few studies. Only species in the genera Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1830 and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 had their growth rates evaluated in the field and in the laboratory. In the present study, growth, colonization (colonies/host, and proliferation (zooids/colony rates of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 attached to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana 1848 were evaluated in the laboratory in two food regimes: bacteria only, and algal based diet. Results showed that growth, colonization, and proliferation rates were similar for both diets. Maximum growth rates obtained for Z. intermedium was 0.85 and 0.83 per day, for bacteria and algae respectively. Maximum colonization rates were 0.5 per day for both diets, and the maximum proliferation rates were 0.44 and 0.42 per day for bacteria and algae respectively. These results demonstrate that Z. intermedium is able to grow at the same rate of other peritrichs on bacterial and algal based diets.

  10. Growth of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) estimated from laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, L R P

    2008-05-01

    Peritrich ciliates are commonly found colonizing living substrates. Although this a well known phenomenon, biological aspects of this relationship need to be studied in more detail. Assessment of growth rates in peritrichs has been the subject of very few studies. Only species in the genera Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1830 and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 had their growth rates evaluated in the field and in the laboratory. In the present study, growth, colonization (colonies/host), and proliferation (zooids/colony) rates of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 attached to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana 1848 were evaluated in the laboratory in two food regimes: bacteria only, and algal based diet. Results showed that growth, colonization, and proliferation rates were similar for both diets. Maximum growth rates obtained for Z. intermedium was 0.85 and 0.83 per day, for bacteria and algae respectively. Maximum colonization rates were 0.5 per day for both diets, and the maximum proliferation rates were 0.44 and 0.42 per day for bacteria and algae respectively. These results demonstrate that Z. intermedium is able to grow at the same rate of other peritrichs on bacterial and algal based diets.

  11. Advertising and obesity: a behavioral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip

    2006-06-01

    Concern over the levels of obesity observed in Western countries has grown as researchers forecast a rapid growth in the medical care that a progressively more obese population will require. As health workers deal with increased incidences of diabetes and other obesity-related disorders, policymakers have examined the factors contributing to this problem. In particular, advertising that promotes high fat and high sugar products to children has come under increasing scrutiny. Advertisers have rejected claims that advertising contributes to obesity by arguing that it cannot coerce people into purchasing a product, and does not affect primary demand. This reasoning overlooks the role advertising plays in reinforcing and normalising behavior, however, and it assumes that only direct causal links merit regulatory attention. Ehrenberg's "weak" theory suggests advertising will support unhealthy eating behaviors, while the wide range of sales promotions employed will prompt trial and reward continued consumption. This article presents an alternative analysis of how marketing contributes to obesity and uses behavior modification theory to analyse the "fast-food" industry's promotions. We also review the New Zealand government's response to obesity and suggest policy interventions that would foster healthier eating behaviors.

  12. Helgoland und die Erforschung der marinen Benthosalgen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, D.; Lüning, K.

    1988-09-01

    Early phycological research on the island of Helgoland was performed by amateur phycologists from the adjacent coastal regions of Germany (Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein). These pioneers were followed by professionals, and by collectors from the mainland universities, particularly from Berlin. This second phase group includes the naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, the zoologists Johannes Müller, Ernst Haeckel and Anton Dohrn, and the botanists Alexander Braun, Nathanael Pringsheim, and Ferdinand Cohn. The leading marine phycologist in Germany, towards the end of the 19th century, was Johannes Reinke, who finally worked at the University of Kiel. Paul Kuckuck's doctoral thesis had been supervised by Reinke who recommended him for the post of the first curator of botany at the Biological Station of Helgoland, which was founded in 1892. Kuckuck worked on the island from 1892 to 1914. After World War I, and after Kuckuck's untimely death, Wilhelm Nienburg became the second curator of botany on Helgoland, from 1921 to 1923. The next permanent phycologist on the island, from 1925 to 1936, was Ernst Schreiber. He was followed in 1936 by Peter Kornmann, who retired in 1972 but still continues as a research worker, together with Paul-Heinz Sahling, who started to work as a technical assistant under the guidance of Ernst Schreiber in 1927.

  13. Eli Hecksher as a Portrait Maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Carlson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eli Heckscher was not only author of extensive investigations into economic history. He was also skillful in depicting phenomena in small format in encyclopædias, journals and newspapers. This article presents Heckscher as portrait maker of economic scholars. In these portraits—what he emphasized, what he praised, what he criticized—one can discern the stance of the portrait maker himself. Overall, his portraits are permeated by admiration of sharp theoretical analyses and massive economic historical investigations. He admires the founding fathers of political economy, Adam Smith and David Ricardo, stresses continuity in the development of economic thought, praises humble innovators like David Davidson, Knut Wicksell and Alfred Marshall and denounces (what he perceives as pretentious innovators like Gustav Cassel and John Maynard Keynes. He is critical towards economists who attempt to break out of the classical and neoclassical tradition, especially representatives of the German historical school, and what he judges to be a new type of mercantilism, represented by Bertil Ohlin and Keynes. At the same time he appreciates voluminous and solid investigations into economic history, even if performed without theoretical beacons, by scholars like William Cunningham, William Ashley, John Clapham, Marc Bloch, Richard Ehrenberg and Werner Sombart.

  14. Ocean acidification has no effect on thermal bleaching in the coral Seriatopora caliendrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, C. B.; Fan, T.-Y.; Edmunds, P. J.

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether elevated pCO2 predicted for the year 2100 (85.1 Pa) affects bleaching in the coral Seriatopora caliendrum (Ehrenberg 1834) either independently or interactively with high temperature (30.5 °C). Response variables detected the sequence of events associated with the onset of bleaching: reduction in the photosynthetic performance of symbionts as measured by maximum photochemical efficiency ( F v/ F m) and effective photochemical efficiency (Δ F/ F m') of PSII, declines in net photosynthesis ( P net) and photosynthetic efficiency (alpha, α), and finally, reduced chlorophyll a and symbiont concentrations. S. caliendrum was collected from Nanwan Bay, Taiwan, and subjected to combinations of temperature (27.7 vs. 30.5 °C) and pCO2 (45.1 vs. 85.1 Pa) for 14 days. High temperature reduced values of all dependent variables (i.e., bleaching occurred), but high pCO2 did not affect Symbiodinium photophysiology or productivity, and did not cause bleaching. These results suggest that short-term exposure to 81.5 Pa pCO2, alone and in combination with elevated temperature, does not cause or affect coral bleaching.

  15. Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Pantoja MF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiae Paperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae; Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Paratrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae. The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn of fish. This was the first record of P. africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

  16. Is in vitro micrografting a possible valid alternative to traditional micropropagation in Cactaceae? Pelecyphora aselliformis as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, Ornella; Carra, Angela; Oddo, Elisabetta; Carimi, Francesco; Sajeva, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Several taxa of Cactaceae are endangered by overcollection for commercial purposes, and most of the family is included in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES). Micropropagation may play a key role to keep the pressure off wild populations and contribute to ex situ conservation of endangered taxa. One of the limits of micropropagation is the species-specific requirement of plant regulators for each taxon and sometimes even for different genotypes. With the micrografting technique the rootstock directly provides the scion with the necessary hormonal requirements. In this paper we present data on in vitro grafting of Pelecyphora aselliformis Ehrenberg, an Appendix I CITES listed species critically endangered and sought after by the horticultural trade, on micropropagated Opuntia ficus-indica Miller. Apical and sub-apical scions of P. aselliformis were used to perform micrografting with a successful rate of 97 and 81 % respectively. Survival rate after ex vivo transfer was 85 %. We hypothesize that this method could be applied to other endangered, slow growing taxa of Cactaceae thus contributing to the conservation of this endangered family.

  17. TARDIGRADES FROM SOME MOSSES OF SHENNONG FRAME STATE FOREST PARK IN CHINA%中国神农架国家森林公园苔藓中的缓步动物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨潼

    2007-01-01

    记述了采自湖北省西部神农架国家森林公园苔藓中的缓步动物12种,包括:日本棘影熊虫Echiniscus japonicus Morikawa,1951;双粒棘影熊虫Echiniscus bigranulatus Richters,1907中国新纪录种;华美假棘影熊虫Pseudechiniscus facettalis Petersen,1951;于猪假棘影熊虫Pseudechiniscus suillus(Ehrenberg,1853);迟缓小斑熊虫Milnesium tardigradum(Doyère,1840);隐匿大生熊虫Macrobiotus adelges Dastych,1977;锦葵大生熊虫Macrobiotus hibiscus Barros,1942中国新纪录种;胡芬大生熊虫Macrobiotus hufelandi Schultze,1833;华丽大生熊虫Macrobiotus richtersi Murray,1911;陆栖大生熊虫Macrobiotus terricola Mihel(c)I(c),1949;水生趾生熊虫Dactylobiotus aquatilis Yang,1999;金猴等高熊虫Isohypsibius jinhouensis sp. Nov..所有的标本均保存于中国科学院水生生物研究所.

  18. Eukaryotic pathogens (Chytridiomycota and Oomycota) infecting marine microphytobenthic diatoms - a methodological comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Bettina; Küpper, Frithjof C; Vyverman, Wim; Karsten, Ulf

    2014-12-01

    Using sediment samples from the Solthörn tidal flat (southern North Sea, Germany), collected in bi-weekly intervals from June to July 2012, a range of qualitative and quantitative screening methods for oomycete and chytrid pathogens infecting benthic diatoms were evaluated. Pre-treatment of sediment samples using short ultrasound pulses and gradient centrifugation, in combination with CalcoFluor White, showed the best results in the visualization of both pathogen groups. The highest number of infected benthic diatoms was observed in mid July (5.8% of the total benthic diatom community). Most infections were caused by chytrids and, in a few cases, oomycetes (Lagenisma Drebes (host: Coscinodiscus radiatus Ehrenberg) and Ectrogella Zopf (hosts: Dimeregramma minor in Pritchard and Gyrosigma peisonis). Among the chytrids, sporangium morphology indicated the presence of five different morphotypes, infecting mainly epipelic taxa of the orders Naviculales (e.g., Navicula digitoradiata) and Achnanthales (e.g., Achnanthes brevipes Agardh). The presence of multiple pathogens in several epipelic diatom taxa suggests a significant role for fungal parasitism in affecting microphytobenthic diatom succession. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Culture-Bound Syndromes of a Brazilian Amazon Riverine population: Tentative correspondence between traditional and conventional medicine terms and possible ethnopharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, E; Santos, J de F L; Rodrigues, E

    2017-05-05

    hypothetical correlations between CBS as described by the riverine population studied and some "etic" terms. The main importance of this is to help the proposition of target-oriented pharmacological studies of the natural resources used by these communities. Accordingly, the following plants are suggested to be submitted to further studies for antidepressant and anxiolytic activities: Siparuna guianensis, Mansoa alliacea, Leucas martinicensis, Petiveria alliacea, Annona montana and Alpinia nutans; for anti-seizure activity: Protium amazonicum, Protium aracouchini and Protium heptaphyllum; finally for antispasmodic activity: Leucas martinicensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influência do tipo e da quantidade de resíduos vegetais na emergência de plantas daninhas Influence of type and amount of crop residues on weed emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Correia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da semeadura no outono/inverno de diferentes espécies: sorgo de cobertura (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense 'híbrido Cober Exp', milheto forrageiro (Pennisetum americanum 'var. BN2', capim-pé-de-galinha (Eleusine coracana e braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha para formação de palha (nas quantidades de 3,0 e 5,5 t ha¹, na emergência de plantas daninhas, foi conduzido experimento no ano agrícola 2003/04, na fazenda Três Marcos, em Uberlândia, MG. Foi mantida uma testemunha como tratamento adicional, sem cobertura com restos vegetais. A composição específica e as densidades populacionais das comunidades infestantes foram influenciadas pelos sistemas de produção de cobertura morta. A emergência das plantas daninhas foi menor nas coberturas de sorgo e braquiária e nos maiores níveis de palha. O número de plântulas emergidas de Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus spp., Commelina benghalensis, Leucas martinicensis e gramíneas foi inibido pelas coberturas, enquanto para Chamaesyce spp. os resíduos contribuíram para incremento na sua emergência.To evaluate the effects on weed emergence of autumn/winter sowing of different species [sorghum (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense 'Cober Exp hybrid', forage millet (Pennisetum americanum 'var. BN2', finger millet (Eleusine coracana and St Lucia grass (Brachiaria brizantha, for mulch formation (at rates of 3.0 and 5.5 t ha-1, an experiment was carried out in the agricultural year 2003/2004, in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The specific composition and population densities of the infesting community were influenced by the mulch production systems. Weed emergence was minor under sorghum and Sta Lucia grass cover and in greater amounts of straw. Straw cover inhibited the emergence of seedlings of Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus spp., Commelina benghalensis, Leucas martinicensis and grasses and stimulated the emergence of Chamaesyce spp.

  1. Population dynamics of toxic phytoplankton and bacterial flora in the waters of the low Adriatic sea; Dinamica di popolazione di fitoplancton tossico e flora batterica nel basso Adriatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroppo, C.; Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R.A.; Pastore, M. [CNR, Ist. Sperimentale Talassografico Attlio Cerruti, Taranto (Italy); Marchiori, E. [Rome Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Organica; Bruno, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The coastal areas of the Southern Adriatic Sea, in particular the Apulian ones, may be considered an example of intact ecosystem and represent an ideal term of comparison to other marine ecosystems having higher levels of pollution (Northern Adriatic Sea). In order to evaluate the sanitary levels of this environment, four transect were investigated during two years monitoring (April 1995-March 1997) along the Otranto Channel coasts, by joint research groups of the Environmental Hygiene Laboratory of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita' and the Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti of CNR in Taranto. The study underlines the phytoplanktic and bacterial population dynamics, and the detection of the microbiological water quality along the coast tract Brindisi-Lecce-Otranto-S. Maria di Leuca. The results acquired pointed out population dynamics of some potantially toxic species of Dinophysis genus and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. These depended on the winter nutrient loads due to the ASW (Adriatic Superficial Waters) and to the LIW (Levantine Intermediate Waters). The bacterial community was mainly constituted by genera Aeromonas, Photobacterium, Cytophaga and Pseudomonas. Also the presence of Enterobacteriaceae family was relevant. Among the pathogenic vibrios the most frequently isolated species were Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. [Italian] Considerando che le zone del basso Adriatico, in particolare quelle pugliesi, costituiscono un biotopo ancora relativamente inalterato, esse sono state oggetto di un'indagine sperimentale condotta in 24 mesi di attivita' (aprile 1995-marzo 1997) lungo le coste del Canale di Otranto, ad opera di un gruppo congiunto del Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita' e dei laboratori dell'Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti del CNR di Taranto, ai fini di valutare lo stato di salute di questo ambiente, che fornisce, con buona probabilita', un

  2. La familia Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae de las aguas marinas chilenas The family Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae from marine Chilean waters

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    PATRICIO RIVERA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Hemiaulaceae comprende cuatro géneros, señalados previamente para las aguas chilenas con las siguientes especies: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (Castracane Mangin, E. cornuta (Cleve Grunow y E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. Sin embargo, el análisis con microscopía fotónica y electrónica de muestras recolectadas en aguas marinas chilenas que contenían representantes de esta familia (incluyendo la mayoría de aquellas estudiadas anteriormente por otros investigadores nacionales reveló que (1 el género Cerataulina está representado por C. pelagica, distribuida a lo largo de la costa chilena entre Arica por el norte y el Estrecho de Magallanes por el sur, (2 el género Eucampia está representado por cuatro taxa: E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis Syvertsen (señalada en trabajos anteriores como E. zodiacus f. zodiacus, E. zodiacus f. recta Rivera. Avaria & Cruces f. nov. (descrita aquí, E. cornuta y E. antarctica. Los primeros tres taxa se distribuyen en la zona central y norte de Chile, mientras que E. antarctica es propia de las aguas antárticas desde el Estrecho de Magallanes al sur, (3 las citas anteriores de Hemiaulus sinensis, H. membranaceus y Climacodium biconcavum para las aguas chilenas corresponden a determinaciones erróneas de Eucampia zodiacus f. recta, f. nov. Se entregan descripciones de los taxa encontrados y fotografías obtenidas con los microscopios fotónico y electrónicos que ilustran sus principales características morfológicasThe Family Hemiaulaceae comprises four genera, all of which have been previously reported for coastal waters off Chile, and represented by the following taxa: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (Castracane Mangin, E. cornuta (Cleve Grunow and E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. However, examination

  3. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba

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    Gilma Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002 in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta, 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba’s phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis Meunier, and Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo. ANOVA/MANOVA analysis showed significant spatial differences: lower cell abundance near the shoreline adjacent to a river inlet and higher cell abundance in the deepest area. Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg Dodge 1975 was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. Gambierdiscus toxicus was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. All the species reported in the study area were mainly on Padina spp. (Phaeophyta. Acanthophora spicifera (Rhodophyta did not host dinoflagellate species. Environmental conditions in summer (higher temperature, more nutrients, greater water transparency, and low wind intensity are suitable for macroalgae development, which serves as a substrate for potentially harmful dinoflagellates, and possibly the main vector for spreading ciguatera along the coast of Cuba. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 299-310. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se estudió la abundancia espacial y temporal de dinoflagelados epífitos asociados a la ciguatera durante dos ciclos anuales (marzo 1999 a marzo 2000, y marzo 2001 a marzo 2002 en la costa del noroeste de Cuba. Recolectamos 14 especies de macroalgas (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta y Rhodophyta y obtuvimos 1340 muestras. Identificamos siete especies de dinoflagelados potencialmente nocivas, cinco de ellas nuevos registros para el fitobentos cubano: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis

  4. Epilithic diatoms (Bacillariophyceae as indicators of water quality in the Upper Lerma River, Mexico Diatomeas epilíticas como indicadores de la calidad del agua en la cuenca alta del río Lerma, México

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    Virginia Segura-García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The upper Lerma River is the most economically important basin of Mexico because it is the region where 80 % of the commercial activity of the country takes place, with 3500 industries, 750,000 Ha of irrigated land and 14 cities with populations over 100,000 inhabitants. Despite this relevance, little or no waste water treatment is done in the basin, which results in high contamination levels. The present paper deals with the taxonomy and ecology of epilithic diatoms collected at 11 sites in the basin in the dry and post-rainy seasons of the 2003-2005 period. This is the first study in an environmental direction of the diatoms of the upper Lerma River basin and the information generated will be used to propose, in the short-term, a Lerma River diatom index (IDL, supporting water quality monitoring programs. 178 taxa were recognized, of which 112 taxa (63% were cosmopolitan or widely distributed. The genera with most species were Nitzschia (34, Navicula (19, Gomphonema (15, and Pinnularia (11. The dominant species in the studied locations and study period were Eolimna subminuscula(Manguin Moser, Lange-Bertalot etMetzeltin, Gomphonemaparvulum(Kützing Kützing, Navicula veneta Kützing, Nitzschia capitellata Hustedt, N. sublinearis Hustedt, N. umbonata (Ehrenberg Lange-Bertalot and Sellaphora pupula (Kützing Mereschkowsky, which are characterized as tolerant to α-mesosaprobic to polysaprobic conditions, and to high nitrogen content. Trends in distribution of diatom species in the sampling sites were explained by variations in environmental parameters such as depth, conductivity, pH, temperature, and total dissolved solids.La cuenca alta del río Lerma es la más importante de México desde el punto de vista económico, ya que en ella ocurren el 80 % de las actividades comerciales del país, con 3500 industrias diversas, 750,000 hectáreas de tierras de riego y 14 ciudades con poblaciones de más de 100,000 habitantes. El escaso o nulo

  5. Estrutura sazonal e espacial do microfitoplâncton no estuário tropical do rio Formoso, PE, Brasil Seasonal and spatial structure of microphytoplankton in the tropical estuary of Formoso River, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Marcos Honorato da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as variações espaço-temporal do microfitoplâncton e variáveis ambientais no estuário do rio Formoso, litoral sul do estado de Pernambuco. As coletas ocorreram em três pontos, no período chuvoso (maio a julho/2002 e estiagem (outubro a dezembro/2002. As amostras do plâncton foram obtidas através de arrastos horizontais superficiais, com rede de abertura de malha de 64¼m. Foram registrados in situ dados sobre temperatura e transparência e, concomitantemente, coletadas amostras de água utilizando a garrafa tipo Kitahara para a análise de salinidade, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, sais nutrientes e biomassa. Foram identificados 204 táxons predominando o grupo das diatomáceas (75%, destacando-se como dominantes Chaetoceros costatus Pavillard, Chaetoceros curvisetus Cleve, Chaetoceros sp., Coscinodiscus centralis Ehrenberg, seguidas dos dinoflagelados (10,79%, cianofíceas (6,37%, clorofíceas (3,92%, euglenofíceas (3,43% e silicoflagelados (0,49%. As concentrações de oxigênio demonstraram uma alta capacidade de renovação do ambiente devido ao aporte de águas marinhas; maiores concentrações de nutrientes e biomassa algácea ocorreram durante o período chuvoso e nas baixa-mares. A pluviometria e o aporte marinho foram os parâmetros que mais influenciaram na hidrologia e na distribuição da comunidade fitoplanctônica com reflexo na riqueza taxonômica.This work aimed to evaluate spatial and temporal variations of the microphytoplankton and environmental variables in the Formoso River estuary, southern coast of Pernambuco state. The samples were collected at three stations, in the rainy season (May to July/2002 and dry season (October to December/2002. The plankton samples were obtained through horizontal superficial hauls, with a 64ìm-mesh net. Temperature and transparency were recorded in situ and, at the same time, water samples were collected using a Kitahara bottle to analyze

  6. Cadmium effects and accumulation in cultures of Prorocentrum micans (dinophyta)

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    Kayser, H.; Sperling, K.-R.

    1980-03-01

    Effects and accumulation of cadmium were studied in unialgal 10-1 batch-culture experiments with the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg. Tests were made using sterile filtered North Sea water enriched with nitrate and phosphate only in order to avoid disturbances by complex formation. Cadmium was added to the cultures in amounts of 100 to 0.13 µg l-1. In one series it was added at the start of the experiments and in a second one after a growth period of 1 week. Addition of only 1.2 µg Cd l-1 reduces multiplication rates and maximum cell densities of the algae. Not until 0.4 µg Cd-1 does growth correspond to that of the controls. Cadmium concentrations were measured, after filtration, in the culture medium and in the biomass by means of flameless AAS. The cadmium content in algae increased from 2.7 µg g-1 (dry weight) in controls to 500 µg g-1 (dry weight) in media containing 100 µg Cd l-1. Uptake occurred rapidly during the first few days of the experiments, slowed down somewhat during exponential growth stage, and increased during decay of the cultures. Cadmium content of culture media remained nearly constant (Series 1) or decreased only slowly during experimental time (Series 2). The highest concentration factor was measured in the controls. It decreased with increasing metal concentration in the medium and increased with experimental time. Structural modifications of the cells were visible after Lugol fixation only, indicating brittleness of the cell walls. P. micans has shown to be extremely sensitive to cadmium and to accumulate this metal.

  7. In situ observations on the habitat and abundance of the squat lobster Gastroptychus perarmatus (Haig, 1968 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Chirostylidae in the n orthern Gulf of California, Mexico

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    M.E. Hendrickx

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Living specimens of Gastroptychus perarmatus (Haig, 1968, a chirostylid squat lobster, were observed on colonies of gorgonian corals and sponges in the northern Gulf of California. Video footage and photographs obtained from the Remotely Operated Vehicle JASON dive north of Angel de La Guarda Island in the northern Gulf of California indicate that this squat lobster lives on coral specimens of Callogorgia, probably C. flabellum (Ehrenberg, 1834, and on one or two unidentified species of sponge(s. Seven sites were observed to contain G. perarmatus with the number of individuals per host varying from 2 to 11. No specimens were observed on the sea floor away from a host. Review of videos indicates that most individuals of G. perarmatus observed remained motionless in the same position throughout the video recording period (max. 30 seconds, with the body erect and the chelipeds extended, presumably to facilitate collection of organic particles transported by the current. At one site, however, the video shows one adult specimen grasping large particles of floating debris retained on the gorgonian. Until recently there were no records of G. perarmatus since it was described from California in depths of 229m (north of Anacapa Island. A few specimens were accidentally captured in a benthic sledge in the northern Gulf of California in 2011. This is a new record for the area, including a new maximum depth record (705-710 m for the species. This rare species of squat lobster and its host the gorgonian coral would be subject to severe environmental impacts if fishing or mining activities were developed in the area.

  8. 绿眼虫的叶绿体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和振武

    2003-01-01

    @@ 绿眼虫(Euglena viridis Ehrenberg 1830)为1种习见鞭毛虫,植物学中裸藻门裸藻属的叶绿体特征为"细胞内有许多颗粒状叶绿体,分布于原生质近表面,称边缘位叶绿体,少数种类为中轴位的星状叶绿体,数目很少,只有1~2个".国内许多版本(1950~1992)、、、等对绿眼虫的叶绿本形态描述多为:"大量圆形叶绿体"、"多个叶绿体"、"有甚多含叶绿素的色素体","很多色素体,含多量叶绿素"等.陈义(1950)中明确提出"绿眼虫的色素体1个,在体之中央,胞核之前,作星芒状(34页,注一)."但所附的绿眼虫图(第7图),仍显示出多个叶绿体.南京师范学院生物系(1961)中有"体内仍充满了呈放射状排列的绿色色素体."马特维也夫(1953)中称"原生质内有充满了叶绿素的大量绿色色素体,形成1个或两个特殊星形."此二书指明了叶绿体为放射状或星形,但未指明数目是1个.其附图均显示多个叶绿体.

  9. A redescription of morphologically similar species from the genus Euglena: E. laciniata, E. sanguinea, E. sociabilis, and E. splendens(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnkowska-Ishikawa, Anna; Milanowski, Rafał; Triemer, Richard E; Zakryś, Bożena

    2013-06-01

    Euglena sanguinea (Ehrenberg 1831) was one of the first green euglenoid species described in the literature. At first, the species aroused the interest of researchers mainly due to the blood-red color of its cells, which, as it later turned out, is not a constant feature. Complicated chloroplast morphology, labeled by Pringsheim as the "peculiar chromatophore system", made the correct identification of the species difficult, which is the reason why, throughout the 20th century, new species resembling E. sanguinea were continually being named due to a lack of suitable diagnostic features to distinguish E. sanguinea. Interest in E. sanguinea has returned in recent years, following findings that the species can produce ichthyotoxins. This was followed by the need to classify E. sanguinea correctly, which was achieved through the verification of morphological and molecular data for all species similar to E. sanguinea. As the result of the analysis, the number of species sharing some morphological similarities with E. sanguinea could be reduced from 12, as described in the literature, to four, with established epitypes and updated diagnostic descriptions. The most important diagnostic features included: the presence of mucocysts (i.e., whether they were visible before and/or after staining), the number of chloroplasts, the size of the double-sheathed pyrenoids, and the presence of the large paramylon grain in the vicinity of the stigma. Moreover, sequence analysis revealed the presence of unusually long SSU rDNA sequences in E. sanguinea. Previously, SSU rDNA sequences of such length were known to be present in primary osmotrophic euglenoids.

  10. TAXONOMIC REVISIONS OF MORPHOLOGICALLY SIMILAR SPECIES FROM TWO EUGLENOID GENERA: EUGLENA (E. GRANULATA AND E. VELATA) AND EUGLENARIA (EU. ANABAENA, EU. CAUDATA, AND EU. CLAVATA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnkowska-Ishikawa, Anna; Milanowski, Rafał; Triemer, Richard E; Zakryś, Bożena

    2012-06-01

    The establishment of epitypes (together with the emended diagnoses) for three species of Euglenaria Karnkowska, E. W. Linton et Kwiatowski [Eu. anabaena (Mainx) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton; Eu. caudata (Hübner) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton; and Eu. clavata (Skuja) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton] and two species of Euglena Ehrenberg [E. granulata (Klebs) Schmitz and E. velata Klebs] was achieved due to literature studies, verification of morphological diagnostic features (cell size, cell shape, number of chloroplasts, the presence of mucocysts), as well as molecular characters (SSU rDNA). Now all these species are easy to identify and distinguish, despite their high morphological similarity, that is, spindle-shaped (or cylindrically spindle-shaped) cells and parietal, lobed chloroplasts with a single pyrenoid, accompanied by bilateral paramylon caps located on both sides of the chloroplast. E. granulata is the only species in this group that has spherical mucocysts. E. velata is distinguished by the largest cells (90-150 μm) and has the highest number of chloroplasts (>30). Eu. anabaena has the fewest chloroplasts (usually 3-6), and its cells are always (whether the organism is swimming or not) spindle-shaped or cylindrically spindle-shaped, in contrast to the cells of Eu. clavata, which are club-shaped (clavate) while swimming and only after stopping change to resemble the shape of a spindle or a cylindrical spindle; Eu. clavata has numerous chloroplasts (15-20). Eu. caudata is characterized by asymmetrical spindle-shaped (fusiform) cells, that is, with an elongated rear section and a shorter front section; the number of chloroplasts normally ranges from 7 to 15.

  11. A preliminary investigation of materialism and impulsiveness as predictors of technological addictions among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A; Pirog, Stephen F

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims The primary objective of the present research is to investigate the drivers of technological addiction in college students - heavy users of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study places cell phone and instant messaging addiction in the broader context of consumption pathologies, investigating the influence of materialism and impulsiveness on these two technologies. Clearly, cell phones serve more than just a utilitarian purpose. Cell phones are used in public and play a vital role in the lives of young adults. The accessibility of new technologies, like cell phones, which have the advantages of portability and an ever increasing array of functions, makes their over-use increasingly likely. Methods College undergraduates (N = 191) from two U.S. universities completed a paper and pencil survey instrument during class. The questionnaire took approximately 15-20 minutes to complete and contained scales that measured materialism, impulsiveness, and mobile phone and instant messaging addiction. Results Factor analysis supported the discriminant validity of Ehrenberg, Juckes, White and Walsh's (2008) Mobile Phone and Instant Messaging Addictive Tendencies Scale. The path model indicates that both materialism and impulsiveness impact the two addictive tendencies, and that materialism's direct impact on these addictions has a noticeably larger effect on cell phone use than instant messaging. Conclusions The present study finds that materialism and impulsiveness drive both a dependence on cell phones and instant messaging. As Griffiths (2012) rightly warns, however, researchers must be aware that one's addiction may not simply be to the cell phone, but to a particular activity or function of the cell phone. The emergence of multi-function smart phones requires that research must dig beneath the technology being used to the activities that draw the user to the particular technology.

  12. Effects of High Dissolved Inorganic and Organic Carbon Availability on the Physiology of the Hard Coral Acropora millepora from the Great Barrier Reef.

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    Friedrich W Meyer

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are facing major global and local threats due to climate change-induced increases in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and because of land-derived increases in organic and inorganic nutrients. Recent research revealed that high availability of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC negatively affects scleractinian corals. Studies on the interplay of these factors, however, are lacking, but urgently needed to understand coral reef functioning under present and near future conditions. This experimental study investigated the individual and combined effects of ambient and high DIC (pCO2 403 μatm/ pHTotal 8.2 and 996 μatm/pHTotal 7.8 and DOC (added as Glucose 0 and 294 μmol L-1, background DOC concentration of 83 μmol L-1 availability on the physiology (net and gross photosynthesis, respiration, dark and light calcification, and growth of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834 from the Great Barrier Reef over a 16 day interval. High DIC availability did not affect photosynthesis, respiration and light calcification, but significantly reduced dark calcification and growth by 50 and 23%, respectively. High DOC availability reduced net and gross photosynthesis by 51% and 39%, respectively, but did not affect respiration. DOC addition did not influence calcification, but significantly increased growth by 42%. Combination of high DIC and high DOC availability did not affect photosynthesis, light calcification, respiration or growth, but significantly decreased dark calcification when compared to both controls and DIC treatments. On the ecosystem level, high DIC concentrations may lead to reduced accretion and growth of reefs dominated by Acropora that under elevated DOC concentrations will likely exhibit reduced primary production rates, ultimately leading to loss of hard substrate and reef erosion. It is therefore important to consider the potential impacts of elevated DOC and DIC simultaneously to assess real world

  13. Program Perceived Value and Program Satisfaction Influences on Store Loyalty: Insights from Retail Loyalty Progam

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    Nor Asiah Omar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations to determine whether program perceived value could influence program satisfaction, program card loyalty and store loyalty are critical to elucidate the roles and significance of the constructs and advancing management practice. Accordingly, in line with this research direction, this study aims to assess the effects of program perceived value offered by few leading retail superstores and departmental stores in Malaysia on its members’ loyalty towards the store. The data set utilized in this study has been obtained via quota sampling technique, where a sample of 153 retail loyalty programs’ members was analyzed. An integrative conceptual model was developed and tested using Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS program. The results exemplify that program perceived value is a strong driver of program satisfaction and program card loyalty. Unexpectedly, program perceived value is not a significant predictor of store loyalty but, it has an indirect effect on store loyalty mediated by program satisfaction. Continuous plea in marketing management is to make marketing instruments more efficient. In recent years introduction of customer relationship marketing instruments is strongly advocated, both in marketing theory and practice. Several researchers (e.g., Berry 1983; Berry and Parasuraman 1991; and Gronroos, 1994 have changed the focus of a marketing orientation from attracting short-term, discrete transactional customers to retaining long-lasting, intimate customer relationships. In fact Roberts, Varki, Brodie (2003, further suggested that it is best to describe relationship marketing as the formation of “bonds” between the company and the customer. Achieving an effective relationship in a consumer context is considered to be even more challenging than it is in a business-to-business context, given the generally more polygamous character of consumers as opposed to business customers (Keng and Ehrenberger 1984; Pressey and

  14. Taxonomical and ecological characteristics of the desmids placoderms in reservoir: analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution

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    Sirlene Aparecida Felisberto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of river-dam axis and abiotic factors on the composition of Closteriaceae, Gonatozygaceae, Mesotaeniaceae and Peniaceae in a tropical reservoir METHODS: Water samples for physical, chemical and periphyton analysis were collected in April and August 2002 in different regions along the axis of the river-dam of Rosana Reservoir, River Basin Paranapanema. The substrates collected, always in the litoranea region, were petioles of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth. To examine the relationship of abiotic variables with reservoir zones and between the floristic composition of desmids, we used principal component analysis (PCA and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA RESULTS: The results of the PCA explained 81.3% of the total variability in the first two axes. In the first axis, the variables of conductivity, water temperature and the pH were related to the sampling regions of April with higher values, while for the month of August, nitrate, total phosphorus and dissolved oxygen showed higher values. We identified 20 taxa, distributed in the genera Closterium (14, Gonatozygon (4, Netrium (1 and Penium (1. Spatially, the higher taxa were recorded in the lacustrine region for both collection periods. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA summarized 62.2% of total data variability of taxa in the first two axes, and in August, Closterium incurvum Brébisson, C. cornu Ehrenberg ex Ralfs and Gonatozygon monotaenium De Bary, were related to higher values of turbidity and nitrate to the lacustrine and intermediate regions CONCLUSION: Thus, the formation of groups was due to the regions along the longitudinal axis, then the seasonal period, which must be related to the low current velocity, the higher values of temperature and the water transparency, especially in late summer

  15. Determination of Antarctic Ice Sheet stability over the last ˜500 ka through a study of iceberg-rafted debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Lora; Warnke, Detlef A.; Venz, Kathryn A.; Hodell, David A.; Becquey, Sabine; Gersonde, Rainer; Teitler, Winston

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed ice-rafted debris (IRD) from the South Atlantic Ocean (˜43°S, 9°E) in order to investigate Antarctic Ice Sheet history during the late Pleistocene; the cores examined for this study include piston core TN057-6-PC4 and Ocean Drilling Program Leg 177 drill core Site 1090 (177-1090). Over the last 500 ka at this distal location, IRD arrived during both glacials and interglacials. IRD is present even during warmer intervals, is greatest during colder intervals, and is absent only during terminations and a few other brief intervals. Four different methods are used to normalize the IRD counts, which are then compared to support our interpretation. Several other high-quality climate proxies from this location also aid our interpretations. We conclude that sea surface temperatures are the primary control on the delivery of IRD to this site. During cold times more icebergs survived to reach this distal location. During warm times only a few of the largest icebergs could travel this far. Garnets found in these sediments suggest a likely East Antarctic origin for the IRD; the presence of garnets even during warm intervals further strongly supports that the iceberg source must be the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Therefore, the EAIS must have continued to reach the ocean at least in some part of its margin throughout the last 500 ka. On the other hand, we cannot specifically trace any IRD to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), so WAIS persistence cannot be tested. A particular radiolarian, identified as Dictyocoryne profunda (Ehrenberg) (sensu Boltovskoy (1998)), shows up in the examined size fraction generally only during warm phases. We suggest that D. profunda is a sensitive indicator of warm water temperatures and that it deserves further study.

  16. Effects of High Dissolved Inorganic and Organic Carbon Availability on the Physiology of the Hard Coral Acropora millepora from the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Friedrich W.; Vogel, Nikolas; Diele, Karen; Kunzmann, Andreas; Uthicke, Sven; Wild, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are facing major global and local threats due to climate change-induced increases in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and because of land-derived increases in organic and inorganic nutrients. Recent research revealed that high availability of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) negatively affects scleractinian corals. Studies on the interplay of these factors, however, are lacking, but urgently needed to understand coral reef functioning under present and near future conditions. This experimental study investigated the individual and combined effects of ambient and high DIC (pCO2 403 μatm/ pHTotal 8.2 and 996 μatm/pHTotal 7.8) and DOC (added as Glucose 0 and 294 μmol L-1, background DOC concentration of 83 μmol L-1) availability on the physiology (net and gross photosynthesis, respiration, dark and light calcification, and growth) of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834) from the Great Barrier Reef over a 16 day interval. High DIC availability did not affect photosynthesis, respiration and light calcification, but significantly reduced dark calcification and growth by 50 and 23%, respectively. High DOC availability reduced net and gross photosynthesis by 51% and 39%, respectively, but did not affect respiration. DOC addition did not influence calcification, but significantly increased growth by 42%. Combination of high DIC and high DOC availability did not affect photosynthesis, light calcification, respiration or growth, but significantly decreased dark calcification when compared to both controls and DIC treatments. On the ecosystem level, high DIC concentrations may lead to reduced accretion and growth of reefs dominated by Acropora that under elevated DOC concentrations will likely exhibit reduced primary production rates, ultimately leading to loss of hard substrate and reef erosion. It is therefore important to consider the potential impacts of elevated DOC and DIC simultaneously to assess real world scenarios, as

  17. Effects of High Dissolved Inorganic and Organic Carbon Availability on the Physiology of the Hard Coral Acropora millepora from the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Friedrich W; Vogel, Nikolas; Diele, Karen; Kunzmann, Andreas; Uthicke, Sven; Wild, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are facing major global and local threats due to climate change-induced increases in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and because of land-derived increases in organic and inorganic nutrients. Recent research revealed that high availability of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) negatively affects scleractinian corals. Studies on the interplay of these factors, however, are lacking, but urgently needed to understand coral reef functioning under present and near future conditions. This experimental study investigated the individual and combined effects of ambient and high DIC (pCO2 403 μatm/ pHTotal 8.2 and 996 μatm/pHTotal 7.8) and DOC (added as Glucose 0 and 294 μmol L-1, background DOC concentration of 83 μmol L-1) availability on the physiology (net and gross photosynthesis, respiration, dark and light calcification, and growth) of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834) from the Great Barrier Reef over a 16 day interval. High DIC availability did not affect photosynthesis, respiration and light calcification, but significantly reduced dark calcification and growth by 50 and 23%, respectively. High DOC availability reduced net and gross photosynthesis by 51% and 39%, respectively, but did not affect respiration. DOC addition did not influence calcification, but significantly increased growth by 42%. Combination of high DIC and high DOC availability did not affect photosynthesis, light calcification, respiration or growth, but significantly decreased dark calcification when compared to both controls and DIC treatments. On the ecosystem level, high DIC concentrations may lead to reduced accretion and growth of reefs dominated by Acropora that under elevated DOC concentrations will likely exhibit reduced primary production rates, ultimately leading to loss of hard substrate and reef erosion. It is therefore important to consider the potential impacts of elevated DOC and DIC simultaneously to assess real world scenarios, as

  18. The zooplankton biodiversity of some freshwater environments in Parnaíba basin (Piauí, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JDN. Paranhos

    Full Text Available The plankton fauna of the state of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil, especially in the Parnaíba basin, is still poorly known; the results of most studies of the subject have not been published and can only be found in grey literature (unpublished scientific works, such as course completion work and consulting reports. Thus, this paper presents data from samples taken recently from different water bodies in Piauí and represents the second study to be published on the region's zooplankton since the pioneering work of Spandl (1926. A total of 38 species were recorded, including 23 new occurrences of rotifers, 10 of cladocerans and 2 of copepods for the state of Piauí. The greatest richness was observed for the rotifers, of which the genus Brachionus must be highlighted, especially at the Joana reservoir. Among the crustaceans, the greatest richness was observed at the Bezerra reservoir, where cladocerans of the genus Bosmina were prominent. The rotifers Brachionus havanaensis Rousselet, 1911 and Filinia longiseta (Ehrenberg, 1834; the cladocerans Diaphanosoma spinulosum Herbst, 1967 and Moina micrura Kurz, 1874; and the copepods Notodiaptomus cearensis Wright, 1936 and Thermocyclops decipiens Kiefer, 1927 occurred in all or in most environments in which the respective groups were studied. The results presented here expand the taxonomic list of zooplankton for the state of Piauí, including a total fauna of 30 species of rotifers, 15 of cladocerans and 3 of copepods. The zooplankton richness was considered low in the studied reservoirs compared to other freshwater ecosystems from Northeastern Brazil; however, the few studies developed in the Parnaíba basin suggest that the diversity for these organisms should be higher.

  19. Two new species of Echinobothrium van Beneden, 1849 (Cestoda: Diphyllidea) from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseli, Mohammad; Malek, Masoumeh; Palm, Harry W; Ivanov, Verónica A

    2012-07-01

    Two new species of diphyllidean cestodes are described from the Persian Gulf, Echinobothrium persiense n. sp. from Rhinobatos punctifer Compagno & Randall and Echinobothrium hormozganiense n. sp. from Mustelus mosis Hemprich & Ehrenberg. E. persiense is the first record of a species of Echinobothrium van Beneden, 1849 from R. punctifer and these two new species increase the number of diphyllideans known from the Persian Gulf from one to three. The number of apical hooks of E. persiense (hook formula: {5-6 6/5 5-6}) is distinct from all other species in the genus except for E. affine Diesing, 1863, E. harfordi McVicar, 1976, E. bonasum Williams & Campbell, 1980, E. fautleyae Tyler & Caira, 1999, E. syrtense (Neifar, Tyler & Euzet, 2001) Tyler, 2006 (emend), E. chisholmae Jones & Beveridge, 2001, E. tetabuanense Ivanov & Caira, 2012, E. sematanense Ivanov & Caira, 2012 and E. weipaense Ivanov & Caira, 2012. Echinobothrium persiense can be distinguished from all other species of the genus with 11 apical hooks by a combination of the following features: armed cephalic peduncle, testes arranged in a single column, lateral hooklets arranged in two groups, U-shaped ovary, cephalic peduncle length (124-181 μm), genital pore and cirrus-sac position, and by having 10-14 spines per row on the cephalic peduncle. Echinobothrium hormozganiense has a hook formula of {12-15 16/15 12-15} and is similar to E. musteli Pintner, 1889, E. notoguidoi Ivanov, 1997 and E. diamanti Ivanov & Lipshitz, 2006 by possessing additional spines between the rostellum and the bothria. It differs from E. musteli by having an H-shaped ovary and lateral hooklets arranged in two lateral groups, and the number of spines per row on the cephalic peduncle (18-21) readily differentiates it from E. notoguidoi (24-26) and E. diamanti (95-118). With these two new species, Echinobothrium van Beneden, 1849 now includes 45 valid species.

  20. 黄瓜褐斑病菌室内药剂筛选试验%Lab Screening of Fungicides for Controlling Corynespora Cassiicola on Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付海朋; 李淑菊; 王惠哲

    2011-01-01

    采用生长速率法测定了6种杀菌剂对黄瓜褐斑病菌的毒力.结果表明,6种药剂对褐斑病菌的作用效果存在很大差异.室内测定抑菌效果最好的是50%多·福·锰锌可湿性粉剂在25 600倍液、10亿个·g-1枯草芽孢杆菌可湿性粉剂在19 200倍液时抑菌率均为100%,20%烯肟·戊唑醇、430g·L-1戊唑醇悬浮剂和75%肟菌·戊唑醇水分散粒剂次之.该结果为田间防治试验提供了理论依据.%The toxicity of 6 fungicides for Corynespora cassiicola were tested by mycelium growth rate method. The results showed that the inhibition of 6 fungicides to Corynespora cassiicola were significantly different. Among six fuagicides tested,50% Carbendazim· Thiram· Mancozeb WP and Bacillus s ubtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn WP (1 billion cells ·g-1) had the best inhibition of the mycelium growth of the pathogen, 20% SYP 1620·Tebuconazole SC ,430 g· L-1 tebuconazole SC and 75% Trifloxystrobin ·Tebuconazole WG was the second effective fungicides.

  1. Relationship Between Surface Sediment Diatoms and Summer Water Quality in Shallow Lakes of the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Dong YANG; Xu-Hui DONG; Guang GAO; Hong-Xi PAN; Jing-Lu WU

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between surface sediment diatoms and summer water quality was investigated at 49 lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Lakes ranging from oligomesotrophic to hypereutrophic were examined, providing an obvious nutrient gradient. With the shift from mesotrophic to eutrophic levels, diatom multi-ecotypes dominated by epiphytic and facultative planktonic taxa were replaced by nutrient-tolerant planktonic taxa, such as Cyclotella meneghiniana Skvortzow, C. atomus Hustedt,Cyclostephanos Round, and Stephanodiscus Ehrenberg etc., reflecting the nutrient changes in the lake.The relationship between diatoms and summer water quality indices was explored further using numeric analysis. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) with forward selection and a Monte Carlo permutation test revealed that of all 25 summer water environmental variables, total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a (Chzl a), Secchi depth (SD), dissolved inorganic phosphorus, C1-, SO42-, Mg2+, CO32-, and water depth were significant variables (P<0.05) in explaining diatom distributions. Of these, TP, Chl a, SD, and C1-, were the most important variables. The result of the correlation analysis also showed that a significant correlation exists among these variables, implying that these indices are either interconnected or independent in explaining the diatom data. For phosphorus-limited sites, TP was the most significant variable affecting the diatoms, also affecting changes in Chl a, SD, and iron concentrations. The independence of Chl a may be related to algal competition induced by lake eutrophication, resulting in the feedback to diatom community.In addition to TP, SD can be related to sediment disturbance by wave action and the growth of macrophytes in large shallow lakes. These relationships between diatom ecotypes and water quality provide the basis for a future quantitative reconstruction of historic lake nutrient evolution in the study area and will also provide a

  2. The zooplankton biodiversity of some freshwater environments in Parnaíba basin (Piauí, Northeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranhos, J D N; Almeida, V L S; Silva Filho, J P; Paranaguá, M N; Melo, M; Neumann-Leitão, S

    2013-02-01

    The plankton fauna of the state of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil, especially in the Parnaíba basin, is still poorly known; the results of most studies of the subject have not been published and can only be found in grey literature (unpublished scientific works), such as course completion work and consulting reports. Thus, this paper presents data from samples taken recently from different water bodies in Piauí and represents the second study to be published on the region's zooplankton since the pioneering work of Spandl (1926). A total of 38 species were recorded, including 23 new occurrences of rotifers, 10 of cladocerans and 2 of copepods for the state of Piauí. The greatest richness was observed for the rotifers, of which the genus Brachionus must be highlighted, especially at the Joana reservoir. Among the crustaceans, the greatest richness was observed at the Bezerra reservoir, where cladocerans of the genus Bosmina were prominent. The rotifers Brachionus havanaensis Rousselet, 1911 and Filinia longiseta (Ehrenberg, 1834); the cladocerans Diaphanosoma spinulosum Herbst, 1967 and Moina micrura Kurz, 1874; and the copepods Notodiaptomus cearensis Wright, 1936 and Thermocyclops decipiens Kiefer, 1927 occurred in all or in most environments in which the respective groups were studied. The results presented here expand the taxonomic list of zooplankton for the state of Piauí, including a total fauna of 30 species of rotifers, 15 of cladocerans and 3 of copepods. The zooplankton richness was considered low in the studied reservoirs compared to other freshwater ecosystems from Northeastern Brazil; however, the few studies developed in the Parnaíba basin suggest that the diversity for these organisms should be higher.

  3. Phenological observation and population dynamics of six uncommon medicinal plants in the grasslands of Nilgiris, Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Paulsamy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenological observation and a population density study for six uncommon medicinal plant species were made in four grasslands in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, viz. Thiashola, Korakundah, Ebbenadu and Wenlockdown, at monthly intervals from April 2007 to March 2008. The six plant species were Anaphalis elliptica DC. (Compositae, Ceropegia pusilla Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae, Hedyotis articularis R. Br. ex G. Don (Rubiaceae, Heracleum rigens Walli. ex DC. (Umbelliferae, Leucas vestita Benth. (Lamiaceae and Luzula campestris (L. DC. (Juncaceae. Generally, all six species exhibited peak bud formation between February and May and bud break in June. Most of the leaves were produced in a single flush. Leaf expansion continued up to August in L. vestita. Flowering phenophase was observed from July to October, but in A. elliptica it extended to December. The active period of fruit formation occurred during August to December for all species except A. elliptica, which was during January and February. Seed maturation and seed dispersal happened during December - February for all the species except A. elliptica which happened during May-June. The study of population dynamics shows that there was a net decrease in the population of A. elliptica, L. vestita and L. campestris over a period of one year at Korakundah, Ebbenadu and Wenlockdown grasslands. C. pusilla, H. articularis and H. rigens maintained their populations at the same level in the respective grasslands without any major change during the study period.

  4. Monograph: In vitro efficacy of 30 ethnomedicinal plants used by Indian aborigines against 6 multidrug resistant Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chandra Sahu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To monitor in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf extracts of 30 common and noncommon plants used by aborigines in Kalahandi district, Odisha, against 6 clinically isolated multidrug resistant (MDR Gram-positive bacteria of 3 genera, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus. Methods: The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 6 bacterial strains were studied with the diskdiffusion method with 1 7 antibiotics belonging to 8 classes. Monitored plants have ethnomedicinal use and several are used as traditional medicines. Antibacterial properties were studied with the agar-well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of plants were determined by the microbroth-dilution method. Results: Ethanolic plant-extracts had the better antibacterial potencies in comparison to their corresponding aqueous extracts. Plants with most conspicuous antibacterial properties in controlling MDR strains of Gram-positive bacteria were aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plants, Ixora coccinea, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Polycythaemia rubra, Pongamia pinnata and Syzygium cumini, Carthamus tinctorius, Cucurbita maxima, Murraya koenigii, Leucas aspera, Plumbago indica and Psidium guajava. Ethanolic extracts of most plants had phytochemicals, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids. Conclusions: These plants could be used further for the isolation of pure compounds to be used as complementary non-microbial antimicrobial medicines.

  5. Toxic compounds and health and reproductive effects in St. Lawrence Beluga Whales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beland, P.; Michaud, R. (St. Lawrence National Inst. of Ecotoxicology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); DeGuise, S. (St. Lawrence National Inst. of Ecotoxicology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada) Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada)); Girard, C.; Lagace, A. (Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada)); Martineau, D. (St. Lawrence National Inst. of Ecotoxicology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada) Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Muir, D.C.G. (Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)); Norstorm, R.J. (National Wildlife Research Center, Hull, Quebec (Canada)); Pelletier, E. (INRS-Oceanologie, Rimouski, Quebec (Canada)); Ray, S. (Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)) (and others)

    1993-01-01

    An epidemiologic study was carried out over a period of 9 years on an isolated population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) residing in the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada). More than 100 individual deaths were aged, and/or autopsied and analyzed for toxic compounds, and the population was surveyed for size and structure. Arctic belugas and other species of whales and seals from the St. Lawrence were used for comparison. Population dynamics: Population size appeared to be stable and modeling showed this stable pattern to result from low calf production and/or low survival to adulthood. Toxicology: St. Lawrence belugas had higher or much higher levels of mercury, lead, PCBs, DDT, Mirex, benzo[a]pyrene metabolites, equivalent levels of dioxins, furans, and PAH metabolites, and much lower levels of cadmium than Arctic belugas. In other St. Lawrence cetaceans, levels of PCBs and DDT were inversely related to body size, as resulting from differences in metabolic rate, diet, and trophic position, compounded by length of residence in the St. Lawrence basin. St. Lawrence belugas had much higher levels than predicted from body size alone; levels increased with age in both sexes, although unloading by females through the placenta and/or lactation was evidenced by overall lower levels in females and very high burdens in some calves. 45 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Using social-ecological systems theory to evaluate large-scale comanagement efforts: a case study of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Tyson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Comanagement efforts are increasingly tasked with overseeing natural resource governance at a large scale. I examine comanagement of subsistence harvesting in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR of the western Canadian Arctic, using a social-ecological systems framework. In doing so, this study joins a growing list of research that reviews design principles commonly found in successful small-scale commons management and applies them to a large resource area. This research uses the management of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas and barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus as case studies in understanding the management framework of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, as each species is important in Inuvialuit culture and is actively managed and monitored. Comanagement bodies in the study area display many of the institutional design principles that are characteristic of successful social-ecological systems. Particularly mentionable are the presence of well-organized nested enterprises and a strong incorporation of local knowledge and monitoring. This supports the application of institutional design principles in large-scale analyses of resource management. However, due to the network of policy and management outside the ISR that influences each species, this research suggests that in cases of wide-ranging resource bases, these types of analyses may be better suited to evaluating broad management networks rather than discrete governing regions.

  7. Underwater audiogram of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J; Chun, N; Au, W; Pugh, K

    1988-09-01

    Underwater audiograms are available for only a few odontocete species. A false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) was trained at Sea Life Park in Oahu, Hawaii for an underwater hearing test using a go/no-go response paradigm. Over a 6-month period, auditory thresholds from 2-115 kHz were measured using an up/down staircase psychometric technique. The resulting audiogram showed hearing sensitivities below 64 kHz similar to those of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) and Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Above 64 kHz, this Pseudorca had a rapid decrease in sensitivity of about 150 dB per octave. A similar decrease in sensitivity occurs at 32 kHz in the killer whale, at 50 kHz in the Amazon River dolphin, at 120 kHz in the beluga, at 140 kHz in the bottlenosed dolphin, and at 140 kHz in the harbor porpoise. The most sensitive range of hearing was from 16-64 kHz (a range of 10 dB from the maximum sensitivity). This range corresponds with the peak frequency of echolocation pulses recorded from captive Pseudorca.

  8. Spontaneous human speech mimicry by a cetacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Sam; Carder, Donald; Jeffries, Michelle; Todd, Mark

    2012-10-23

    Although dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been trained to match numbers and durations of human vocal bursts and reported to spontaneously match computer-generated whistles, spontaneous human voice mimicry has not previously been demonstrated. The first to study white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) sounds in the wild, Schevill and Lawrence wrote that "occasionally the calls would suggest a crowd of children shouting in the distance". Fish and Mowbary described sound types and reviewed past descriptions of sounds from this vociferous species. At Vancouver Aquarium, Canada, keepers suggested that a white whale about 15 years of age, uttered his name "Lagosi". Other utterances were not perceptible, being described as "garbled human voice, or Russian, or similar to Chinese" by R.L. Eaton in a self-published account in 1979. However, hitherto no acoustic recordings have shown how such sounds emulate speech and deviate from the usual calls of the species. We report here sound recordings and analysis which demonstrate spontaneous mimicry of the human voice, presumably a result of vocal learning, by a white whale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An empirical test of the 'shark nursery area concept' in Texas bays using a long-term fisheries-independent data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeschke, John T.; Stunz, Gregory W.; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a long-term fisheries-independent data set, we tested the 'shark nursery area concept' proposed by Heupel et al. (2007) with the suggested working assumptions that a shark nursery habitat would: (1) have an abundance of immature sharks greater than the mean abundance across all habitats where they occur; (2) be used by sharks repeatedly through time (years); and (3) see immature sharks remaining within the habitat for extended periods of time. We tested this concept using young-of-the-year (age 0) and juvenile (age 1+ yr) bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from gill-net surveys conducted in Texas bays from 1976 to 2006 to estimate the potential nursery function of 9 coastal bays. Of the 9 bay systems considered as potential nursery habitat, only Matagorda Bay satisfied all 3 criteria for young-of-the-year bull sharks. Both Matagorda and San Antonio Bays met the criteria for juvenile bull sharks. Through these analyses we examined the utility of this approach for characterizing nursery areas and we also describe some practical considerations, such as the influence of the temporal or spatial scales considered when applying the nursery role concept to shark populations.

  10. Neural and muscular control functions of the gut in odontocetes: morphologic evidence in beaked whales and beluga whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, C J

    1993-01-01

    The present data provide some new and unique, gastrointestinal morphologic findings in two species of toothed whales, the Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) and the beluga or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas), which are discussed relative to their atypical feeding behavior and alimentary tract functions. Specifically, the findings show myenteric neural modifications and muscularis externa structural specializations which may support voluntary and involuntary fore- and hindgut behavior. Histologic evidence of intercalation-like striations in the gastric and colonic musculature was discovered, as well as an unusual massive size of the colonic myenteric plexuses. These observations, which are not evident in terrestrial mammalian gastrointestinal tracts, may help explain the unusual upper gastrointestinal tract motility such as ingestion-by-sucking in the absence of prehensile teeth and processing of ingesta in a multi-compartmentalized pyloric stomach. Further, the hindgut modifications may help explain the animal's acute, rectal discharge escape mechanism, likened to squid inking, which seems to be an evolved function of some cetaceans.

  11. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide inhibitory constituents from Cassia occidentalis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neeraj K; Pulipaka, Sravani; Dubey, Shashi P; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2014-05-01

    The anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of thirty-six extracts of nine Indian medicinal plants were determined by measuring the inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Their cytotoxic activity against macrophages was determined by MTT assay. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Cassia occidentalis L. (roots) (IC50 = 21.3 to 43.1 microg/mL) and Mimosa pudica (whole plant) (1C50= 31.7 to 47.2 microg/mL) and the dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Leucas cephalotes (whole plant) (IC50 = 46.8 to 49.3 microg/mL) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro inhibition of the production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and NO in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, the five compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Cassia occidentalis roots were found to suppress LPS-induced IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and NO production in a concentration-dependent manner in these cells at 1C50 values ranging from 22.5 to 97.4 microM. Emodin and chrysophanol were also found active in inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo. These findings justify an ethnopharmacological use of C occidentalis roots as an effective herbal remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammation and associated ailments.

  12. Protection of cadmium chloride induced DNA damage by Lamiaceae plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan; Rajarajeswaran Jayakumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the total phenolic content, DNA protecting and radical scavenging activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of three Lamiaceae plants, i.e. Anisomelos malabarica (A. malabarica), Leucas aspera (L. aspera) and Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum). Methods: The total polyphenols and flavonoids were analyzed in the ethanolic leaf extracts of the lamiaceae plants. To determine the DNA protecting activity, various concentrations of the plant extracts were prepared and treated on cultured HepG2 human lung cancer cells. The pretreated cells were exposed to H2O2 to induce DNA damage through oxidative stress. Comet assay was done and the tail length of individual comets was measured. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion scavenging activities of lamiaceae plants were analyzed. Results: Among the three plant extracts, the highest amount of total phenolic content was found in O. basilicum (189.33 mg/g), whereas A. malabarica showed high levels of flavonoids (10.66 mg/g). O. basilicum also showed high levels of DNA protecting (85%) and radical scavenging activity. Conclusions: The results of this study shows that bioactive phenols present in lamiaceae plants may prevent carcinogenesis through scavenging free radicals and inhibiting DNA damage.

  13. Bioefficacy of botanical insecticides against the dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Tennyson; K John Ravindran; S Arivoli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the bioefficacy of plant extracts viz., whole plants of Sphaeranthus indicus (Asteraceae) and Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), leaves of Abutilon indicum (Malvaceae), Cleistanthus collinus (Euphorbiaceae), Leucas aspera (Lamiaceae) and Murrayakoenigii (Rutaceae), and aerial parts of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) against the dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti. Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against the early third instar larvae at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 h. Results: The ethyl acetate extract of Sphaeranthus indicus (201.11ppm) and hexane extract of Abutilon indicum (261.31ppm) was found to be effective. Conclusions: Further in-depth investigations on the crude extract/phytotoxic compounds of Sphaeranthus indicus are needed to elucidate the larvicidal activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredients of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity in Aedesaegypti should be identified, and small scale field trials are needed for usage of this plant as a mosquitocidal agent.

  14. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Betancort

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain. These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. JAYAKARA BHANDARY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bhandary MJ, Chandrashekar KR. 2014. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 89-93. A study was undertaken in Coastal Karnataka, a culturally and floristically diverse region between the Western Ghats and the Arabian sea in India, to document the diversity and uses of ethnomedicinal plants of the area. This study resulted in the documentation of ethnomedicinal uses of 342 species of plants belonging to 34 families. The dominant families of ethnomedicinal plants were: Fabaceae (38 species, Euphorbiaceae (22 species, Rubiaceae (11 species, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae and Rutaceae (10 species each. Among the plants used, 30% are herbs, 27% trees, 25% climbers and 18% shrubs. Majority of the plants are used against several diseases, either alone or in combination with other plants. The most popular medicinal plants, in terms of the number of diseases against which they are used, are Cyclea peltata, Aristolochia indica, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma longa, Tamarindus indica, Asparagus racemosus, Ficus racemosa, Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus religiosa, Calotropis gigantea, Vitex negundo, Aegle marmelos and Leucas aspera. A list of 50 important ethnomedicinal plants of the region which are used in the treatment of 5 or more disorders is provided.

  16. Protostane and Fusidane Triterpenes: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tao Che

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Protostane triterpenes belong to a group of tetracyclic triterpene that exhibit unique structural characteristics. Their natural distribution is primarily limited to the genus Alisma of the Alismataceae family, but they have also been occasionally found in other plant genera such as Lobelia, Garcinia, and Leucas. To date, there are 59 known protostane structures. Many of them have been reported to possess biological properties such as improving lipotropism, hepatoprotection, anti-viral activity against hepatitis B and HIV-I virus, anti-cancer activity, as well as reversal of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. On the other hand, fusidanes are fungal products characterized by 29-nor protostane structures. They possess antibiotic properties against staphylococci, including the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Fusidic acid is a representative member which has found clinical applications. This review covers plant sources of the protostanes, their structure elucidation, characteristic structural and spectral properties, as well as biological activities. The fungal sources, structural features, biological activities of fusidanes are also covered in this review. Additionally, the biogenesis of these two types of triterpenes is discussed and a refined pathway is proposed.

  17. The spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal in beluga whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensor, Jennifer D; Suydam, Robert; George, John C; Liberman, M C; Lovano, Denise; Rhaganti, Mary Ann; Usip, Sharon; Vinyard, Christopher J; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-12-01

    With the increase of human activity and corresponding increase in anthropogenic sounds in marine waters of the Arctic, it is necessary to understand its effect on the hearing of marine wildlife. We have conducted a baseline study on the spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal of the cochlea in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) as an initial assessment of auditory anatomy and health. We present morphometric data on the length of the cochlea, number of whorls, neuron densities along its length, Rosenthal's canal length, and cross-sectional area, and show some histological results. In belugas, Rosenthal's canal is not a cylinder of equal cross-sectional area, but its cross-section is greatest near the apex of the basal whorl. We found systematic variation in the numbers of neurons along the length of the spiral ganglion, indicating that neurons are not dispersed evenly in Rosenthal's canal. These results provide data on functionally important structural parameters of the beluga ear. We observed no signs of acoustic trauma in our sample of beluga whales. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Validation of dentine deposition rates in beluga whales by interspecies cross dating of temporal δ13C trends in teeth

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    Cory JD Matthews

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic time series from sequentially sampled growth layer groups (GLGs in marine mammal teeth can be combined to build chronologies allowing assessment of isotopic variation in marine ecosystems. Synchronous recording of baseline isotopic variation across dentinal GLGs of species with temporal and spatial overlap in foraging offers a unique opportunity for validation of marine mammal age estimation procedures through calibration of GLG deposition rates in one species against another whose GLG deposition has been independently determined. In this study, we compare trends in stable carbon isotope ratios (d13C across dentinal GLGs of three eastern Canadian Arctic (ECA beluga (Delphinapterus leucas populations through the 1960s-2000s with a d13C time series measured across dentinal GLGs of ECA/Northwest Atlantic killer whales (Orcinus orca from 1944-1999. We use confirmed annual GLG deposition in killer whales as a means to assess beluga GLG deposition, and show linear d13C declines across chronologies of both species were statistically indistinguishable when based on annual GLG deposition in beluga whales, but differed when based on biannual deposition. We suggest d13C declines reflect the oceanic 13C Suess effect, and provide additional support for annual GLG deposition in beluga whales by comparing rates of d13C declines across beluga GLGs with published annual d13C declines attributed to the oceanic 13C Suess effect in the North Atlantic.

  19. Three recent ice entrapments of Arctic cetaceans in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three ice entrapments of Monodontids have been reported in the western North Atlantic since 1993. Hunters in Disko Bay, West Greenland, discovered one in March 1994 that included about 150 narwhals (Monodon monoceros. The entrapment occurred during a sudden cold period which caused ice to form rapidly. The trapped whales were subject to hunting, but about 50 of the killed whales could not be retrieved in the ice. The whales were trapped in a small opening in the ice and because of that they would probably have succumbed even if not discovered by hunters. Two entrapments involving white whales or belugas (Delphinapterus leucas occurred in the eastern Canadian Arctic in May 1999; one in Lancaster Sound discovered by polar bear (Ursus maritimus researchers and one in Jones Sound discovered by hunters. The first included one bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus and about 40 belugas that were being preyed upon by polar bears. The second involved at least 170 belugas, of which about 100 were killed by polar bears and 17 were taken by hunters. The entrapments in Disko Bay and Jones Sound both occurred in areas where entrapments have previously been reported, whereas the one in Lancaster Sound was in a new area.

  20. Mercury accumulation in sharks from the coastal waters of southwest Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Darren; Wasno, Robert; Hammerschlag, Neil; Volety, Aswani

    2014-10-01

    As large long-lived predators, sharks are particularly vulnerable to exposure to methylmercury biomagnified through the marine food web. Accordingly, nonlethal means were used to collect tissues for determining mercury (Hg) concentrations and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) from a total of 69 sharks, comprising 7 species, caught off Southwest Florida from May 2010 through June 2013. Species included blacknose (Carcharhinus acronotus), blacktip (C. limbatus), bull (C. leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran), lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). The sharks contained Hg concentrations in their muscle tissues ranging from 0.19 mg/kg (wet-weight basis) in a tiger shark to 4.52 mg/kg in a blacktip shark. Individual differences in total length and δ(13)C explained much of the intraspecific variation in Hg concentrations in blacknose, blacktip, and sharpnose sharks, but similar patterns were not evident for Hg and δ(15)N. Interspecific differences in Hg concentration were evident with greater concentrations in slower-growing, mature blacktip sharks and lower concentrations in faster-growing, young tiger sharks than other species. These results are consistent with previous studies reporting age-dependent growth rate can be an important determinant of intraspecific and interspecific patterns in Hg accumulation. The Hg concentrations observed in these sharks, in particular the blacktip shark, also suggested that Hg may pose a threat to shark health and fitness.

  1. Mercury-induced micronuclei in skin fibroblasts of beluga whales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.M.; Dubeau, H.; Rassart, E. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Biologiques

    1998-12-01

    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabiting the St. Lawrence estuary are highly contaminated with environmental pollutants and have a high incidence of cancer. Environmental contaminants may be partly responsible for the high incidence of cancer observed in this population. DNA damage plays an important role in the development of cancer. The micronuclei assay was used to test the genotoxic potential of mercury compounds in skin fibroblasts of an Arctic beluga whale. Both mercuric chloride (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) induced a highly significant dose-response increase of micronucleated cells. Statistically significant increases in micronucleated cells were observed for 0.5, 5, and 20 {micro}g/ml Hg and 0.05, 0.5, and 2 {micro}g/ml MeHg when compared to control cultures. Concentrations of 0.5, 5, and 20 {micro}g/ml Hg induced a two-, three- and fourfold increase of micronucleated cells, respectively. Treatment with MeHg was one order of magnitude more potent in inducing micronuclei and in inhibiting cell proliferation than Hg. Although results of this in vitro study do not imply that mercury compounds are involved in the etiology of cancer in St. Lawrence beluga whales, significant increases in micronuclei frequency were found at low concentrations of MeHg that are believed to be comparable to concentrations present in certain whales of this population.

  2. Congener-specific analysis of the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by aquatic organisms in the maximum turbidity zone of the St. Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, M M; Dodson, J J; Comba, M E; Kaiser, K L

    1990-11-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of the biota of the St. Lawrence estuary maximum turbidity zone (MTZ) was investigated. The species analyzed consist of zooplankton (mostly Neomysis americana), larval smelt (Osmerus mordax), juvenile smelt, juvenile tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) and adult smelt, tomcod and capelin (Mallotus villosus). A significant increase in total PCB contamination from zooplankton to all fish developmental stages indicates that the St. Lawrence MTZ is a site of significant PCB contamination. The total PCB contamination of adult smelt and tomcod sampled in the St. Lawrence MTZ was greater than the limit of 0.1 ppm set by the International Joint Commission for the protection of predators. For zooplankton, tomcod and capelin, significant correlations were found between lipid content and PCB contamination. The congener-specific analyses showed that the bioconcentration factor of the individual congeners varied with the species involved and with the molecular structure of the congener. It was found that the chlorine atoms in positions 2, 4 and 5 on at least one phenyl ring of the PCB molecule was a dominant factor causing accumulation of PCBs in aquatic organisms. The pattern of PCB congeners found in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) whale tissues is similar to the PCB pattern found in the St. Lawrence estuary MTZ biota.

  3. Genetic variation of the St. Lawrence beluga whale population assessed by DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenaude, N J; Quinn, J S; Beland, P; Kingsley, M; White, B N

    1994-08-01

    Recent surveys suggest that the endangered St. Lawrence beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) population is not recovering significantly despite 20 years of protection. Dead individuals that have been autopsied show high levels of tumours and infections. This situation could be a result of pollution, loss of genetic variation, inbreeding depression or a combination of these factors. Analyses of DNA fingerprints from St. Lawrence belugas with three minisatellite probes (Jeffreys 33.6, 33.15 and M13) indicate a reduced level of genetic variation compared to Beaufort Sea animals. The average band-sharing between individuals of the St. Lawrence beluga population for the three probes (0.534, 0.573 and 0.478, respectively) was significantly higher than that of the Beaufort Sea beluga population (0.343, 0.424, 0.314, respectively). Higher levels of mean allele frequency in the St. Lawrence belugas (0.33 vs. 0.21) suggest that this population is composed of individuals which are related. Inbreeding depression could therefore be a factor in the lack of recovery of the St. Lawrence beluga population.

  4. Measurement of Lombard-like response in the beluga whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, Peter M.

    2001-05-01

    Noise pollution has become recognized as a potential danger to marine mammals in general, and to the St. Lawrence beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in particular. One method to determine whether noise is having an effect on an animals auditory ability is to observe a natural and repeatable response of the auditory and vocal systems to varying noise levels. This can be accomplished by observing changes in animal vocalizations in response to auditory feedback. A response such as this observed in humans and some animals is known as the Lombard vocal response, which represents a reaction of the auditory system directly manifested by changes in vocalization level. This response is known in humans, songbirds, and some primates. In this research a population of belugas in the St. Lawrence River Estuary was tested to determine whether a vocalization-as-a-function-of-noise phenomenon existed by using hidden Markhov classified vocalizations as targets for acoustical analyses. Correlation and regression analyses of signals and noise indicated that the phenomenon does exist and results of a human subjects experiment along with results from other animal species known to exhibit the response strongly implicate the Lombard vocal response in the St. Lawrence population of beluga.

  5. Adrenal hyperplastic and degenerative changes in beluga whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lair, S; Béland, P; De Guise, S; Martineau, D

    1997-07-01

    Thirty stranded beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada) population and five animals from the Hudson Bay aboriginal hunt (North-west Territories, Canada) were examined. Twenty one animals from the St. Lawrence Estuary had mild to severe adrenal lesions and four whales from the Hudson Bay population were affected by minimal adrenal changes. Cortical hyperplasia was observed in 24 adult beluga whales all from the St. Lawrence Estuary. Bilateral cortical cysts and cellular vacuolar degeneration were observed in the adrenal glands of 19 beluga whales from both populations. The cysts, filled with a cortisol-rich liquid, were present in both sexes. Beluga whales with adrenal cysts were significantly older than animals without cysts, and the severity of the lesions increased with age. Nodular hyperplasia of the medulla was observed in seven of the beluga whales, all from the St. Lawrence Estuary population. All lesions could be part of a normal aging process. The adrenocortical lesions might be due to stress or adrenocorticolytic xenobiotics, while the medullary hyperplasia might be caused by hypoxia or exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics.

  6. A morbillivirus antibody survey of Atlantic walrus, narwhal and beluga in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, O; Stewart, R E; Measures, L; Duignan, P; House, C

    2000-07-01

    A longitudinal serologic survey was conducted for morbillivirus antibodies in Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and the St. Lawrence estuary (Canada). Sixty-five of 131 (50%) walruses sampled between 1984 and 1993 had detectable morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies. Positive walrus were identified from four of five Arctic sampling sites, to as far back as 1984. Prevalence of morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies in walruses from Foxe Basin ranged from a high of 76% (n = 21) in 1993 to a low of 22% (n = 28) in 1984. Limitations in sample acquisition may have produced underestimates for the 1984 data. There are no reports of clinical morbillivirus infection in walruses. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a morbillivirus similar or identical to phocine distemper virus (PDV) has circulated among walrus populations of the eastern Canadian Arctic, at least since the early 1980s. No narwhal (n = 79) or beluga (n = 445) from Arctic waters were identified as having antibodies to dolphin morbilivirus (DMV) above the threshold serum dilution of log2 4. Also, none of the beach-cast cetacean carcasses (n = 28) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence estuary were positive for antibodies to DMV. This indicates that Gulf of St. Lawrence, St. Lawrence estuary, and Arctic cetaceans either have not been exposed to DMV or an antigenically related morbillivirus, or are not susceptible to infection.

  7. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears indicates a gradual increase from Alaska east to Svalbard, except PCB levels are significantly higher in eastern Greenland and Svalbard. Information on temporal trends is somewhat contradictory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  8. Organochlorine residues in harp seals, Phoca groenlandica, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait: An evaluation of contaminant concentrations and burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, G.G.; Smith, T.G. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)); Addison, R.F. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, BC (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Organochlorine contaminant concentrations and burdens were evaluated in blubber samples from 50 harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) obtained from the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait, Canada between December 1988 and December 1989. The concentration and burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) increased significantly during the winter months for males occupying the St. Lawrence estuary. The potential for rapid accumulation of contaminants in the estuary was also observed among females: nine postpartum females (1 month after weaning) had higher organochlorine levels than prepartum females from the same location. The lowest observed contaminant concentrations and burdens were in seals from Hudson Strait in autumn. In winter specimens, males had DDT and PCB concentrations about 4 and 2 times as great, respectively, as females of similar age distribution and collection date. Congeners with IUPAC Nos. 138 and 153 accounted for more than 50% of total identifiable PCBs, which is consistent with their prevalence in other marine biota. The concentration of PCBs has declined and the percent p,p'-DDE of total DDT has increased between 1982 and the present study. Unlike the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), harp seals occupy the more polluted waters of the estuary only seasonally, and this may account for their lower residue concentrations. 59 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. Antisporulant Activity of Watery Extracts of Plants against Sclerospora graminicola Causing Downy Mildew Disease of Pearl Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Deepak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Watery extracts of forty plant species commonly growing in across India have been screened for antisporulant activity against Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc. Schroet., the causative agent of pearl millet downy mildew. The collection represented 38 genera of 30 families. The extracts of thirteen species did not show any effect, whereas the activity of extracts of Allium sativum, Clematis gouriana, Evolvulus alsinoides, Mimusops elengi, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper nigrum and Tagetes erecta were commensurable to that of marketed botanical fungicides and Mikal 70 wp. The crude extracts of 12 species (Agave americana, Aloe vera, Artemisia parviflora, Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis, Eucalyptus globosus, Euphorbia hirta, Leucas aspera, Murraya koenigi, Ocimum sanctum, Santalum album and Zingiber offinale completely inhibited the zoosprorangium formation while in the case of remaining 8 plants the crude extracts reduced only partially the sporulation. The antisporulant activity of commercialised Azadirachta preparation (Nutri-Neem was more pronounced than that of Reynutria based one (Milsana and Sabadilla (veratrin, however, these botanical preparations held off synthetic fungicides and the most active watery extracts.

  10. Protostane and Fusidane Triterpenes: A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Goedecke, Tanja; Gunn, Jordan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Che, Chun-Tao

    2013-01-01

    Protostane triterpenes belong to a group of tetracyclic triterpene that exhibit unique structural characteristics. Their natural distribution is primarily limited to the genus Alisma of the Alismataceae family, but they have also been occasionally found in other plant genera such as Lobelia, Garcinia, and Leucas. To date, there are 59 known structures of protostane. Many of them have been reported to possess biological properties such as improving lipotropism, hepato-protection, anti-viral activity against hepatitis B and HIV-I virus, anti-cancer activity, as well as reversal of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. On the other hand, fusidanes are fungal products characterized by the 29-nor protostane structures. They possess antibiotic properties against staphylococci, including the methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Fusidic acid is a representative member which has found clinical applications. This review covers plant sources of the protostanes, their structure elucidation, characteristic structural and spectral properties, as well as biological activities. The fungal sources, structural features, structure-activity relationship and biological activities of fusidanes are also covered in this review. Additionally, the biogenesis of these two types of triterpene is discussed and a refined pathway is proposed. PMID:23563857

  11. Genetic profiling links changing sea-ice to shifting beluga whale migration patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Andrew R.; Suydam, Robert; Quakenbush, Lori; Whiting, Alex; Lowry, Lloyd; Harwood, Lois

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing concern over how Arctic fauna will adapt to climate related changes in sea-ice. We used long-term sighting and genetic data on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in conjunction with multi-decadal patterns of sea-ice in the Pacific Arctic to investigate the influence of sea-ice on spring migration and summer residency patterns. Substantial variations in sea-ice conditions were detected across seasons, years and sub-regions, revealing ice–ocean dynamics more complex than Arctic-wide trends suggest. This variation contrasted with a highly consistent pattern of migration and residency by several populations, indicating that belugas can accommodate widely varying sea-ice conditions to perpetuate philopatry to coastal migration destinations. However, a number of anomalous migration and residency events were detected and coincided with anomalous ice years, and in one case with an increase in killer whale (Orcinus orca) sightings and reported predation on beluga whales. The behavioural shifts were likely driven by changing sea-ice and associated changes in resource dispersion and predation risk. Continued reductions in sea-ice may result in increased predation at key aggregation areas and shifts in beluga whale behaviour with implications for population viability, ecosystem structure and the subsistence cultures that rely on them.

  12. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-browning activities of hot water extracts of oriental herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chen; Jou, Amily Fang-Ju; Chen, Si-Han; Tien, Chia-Ying; Cheng, Chih-Fu; Fan, Nien-Chu; Ho, Ja-An Annie

    2010-11-01

    Traditionally, antioxidants are used to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are harmful by-products of aerobic metabolism. Inulae Flos, Horsetail, Chinese Leucas, Broomweed and Indian Wikstroemia are five herbal teas commonly consumed by Asians. Our aim was to investigate the hot water extracts of these five herbal teas for their total phenolics/flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacities. Furthermore, with inflammation and hyper-pigmentation considered as two biological processes associated with elevated cellular oxidative stress, Inulae Flos water extract was chosen for further evaluation of its inhibitory effects on the production of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators (such as, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in RAW 264.7 cells and its anti-tyrosinase activity. Our findings suggest that Inulae Flos might be an alternative source as a potential antioxidant, and a noteworthy inhibitor of production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, it could also serve as a potential natural food additive to prevent browning.

  13. Utilização de chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr na cultura da soja Roundup Ready® Chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr applied on Roundup Ready® soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia e a seletividade da associação dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr ao glyphosate no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja Roundup Ready® (RR®. O experimento foi realizado no Centro Tecnológico da COMIGO, localizado no município de Rio Verde-GO, na safra 2005/2006. A semeadura do cultivar Monsoy 7878 foi realizada mecanicamente, sendo a semeadora regulada para liberar 18 sementes por metro. O espaçamento utilizado entre linhas foi de 0,50 m. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A aplicação isolada de glyphosate nas doses de 480, 960 e 1.440 g ha-1 não causou intoxicação e não reduziu a altura e o acúmulo de massa seca das plantas de soja RR®. A adição dos herbicidas imazethapyr e chlorimuron-ethyl ao glyphosate ocasionou intoxicação às plantas de soja RR®, todavia em níveis aceitáveis, sendo os sintomas provocados pela ação do imazethapyr mais intensos em comparação aos do chlorimuron-ethyl. A associação do herbicida imazethapyr ao glyphosate reduziu a altura e o acúmulo de fitomassa das plantas de soja RR®. A aplicação isolada de glyphosate nas doses de 480, 960 e 1.440 g ha-1 não apresentou controle satisfatório das plantas daninhas Euphorbia heterophylla, Commelina benghalensis, Chamaesyce hirta, Leucas martinicensis e Ipomoea grandifolia. Apesar de incrementar o controle da maioria das plantas daninhas, a adição dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr ao glyphosate não promoveu aumento de produtividade de grãos na cultura da soja RR®.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr associated to glyphosate in controlling weeds on Roundup Ready (RR® soybean crop. The experiment was carried out at the COMIGO Technological Center in Rio Verde-GO, during the 2005/2006-crop season. The variety used was Monsoy 7878

  14. Evidence of Partial Migration in a Large Coastal Predator: Opportunistic Foraging and Reproduction as Key Drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mario; Heupel, Michelle R; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding animal movement decisions that involve migration is critical for evaluating population connectivity, and thus persistence. Recent work on sharks has shown that often only a portion of the adult population will undertake migrations, while the rest may be resident in an area for long periods. Defining the extent to which adult sharks use specific habitats and their migratory behaviour is essential for assessing their risk of exposure to threats such as fishing and habitat degradation. The present study used acoustic telemetry to examine residency patterns and migratory behaviour of adult bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) along the East coast of Australia. Fifty-six VR2W acoustic receivers were used to monitor the movements of 33 bull sharks in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Both males and females were detected year-round, but their abundance and residency peaked between September and December across years (2012-2014). High individual variability in reef use patterns was apparent, with some individuals leaving the array for long periods, whereas others (36%) exhibited medium (0.20-0.40) or high residency (> 0.50). A large portion of the population (51%) undertook migrations of up to 1,400 km to other coral reefs and/or inshore coastal habitats in Queensland and New South Wales. Most of these individuals (76%) were mature females, and the timing of migrations coincided with the austral summer (Dec-Feb). All migrating individuals (except one) returned to the central GBR, highlighting its importance as a potential foraging ground. Our findings suggest that adult bull sharks appear to be highly dependent on coral reef resources and provide evidence of partial migration, where only a portion of the female population undertook seasonal migrations potentially to give birth. Given that estuarine habitats face constant anthropogenic pressures, understanding partial migration and habitat connectivity of large coastal predators should be a priority for their

  15. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  16. Was everything bigger in Texas? Characterization and trends of a land-based recreational shark fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajemian, Matthew J.; Jose, Philip D.; Froeschke, John T.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Stunz, Gregory W.

    2016-01-01

    Although current assessments of shark population trends involve both fishery-independent and fishery-dependent data, the latter are generally limited to commercial landings that may neglect nearshore coastal habitats. Texas has supported the longest organized land-based recreational shark fishery in the United States, yet no studies have used this “non-traditional” data source to characterize the catch composition or trends in this multidecadal fishery. We analyzed catch records from two distinct periods straddling heavy commercial exploitation of sharks in the Gulf of Mexico (historical period = 1973–1986; modern period = 2008–2015) to highlight and make available the current status and historical trends in Texas’ land-based shark fishery. Catch records describing large coastal species (>1,800 mm stretched total length [STL]) were examined using multivariate techniques to assess catch seasonality and potential temporal shifts in species composition. These fishery-dependent data revealed consistent seasonality that was independent of the data set examined, although distinct shark assemblages were evident between the two periods. Similarity percentage analysis suggested decreased contributions of Lemon Shark Negaprion brevirostris over time and a general shift toward the dominance of Bull Shark Carcharhinus leucas and Blacktip Shark C. limbatus. Comparisons of mean STL for species captured in historical and modern periods further identified significant decreases for both Bull Sharks and Lemon Sharks. Size structure analysis showed a distinct paucity of landed individuals over 2,000 mm STL in recent years. Although inherent biases in reporting and potential gear-related inconsistencies undoubtedly influenced this fishery-dependent data set, the patterns in our findings documented potential declines in the size and occurrence of select large coastal shark species off Texas, consistent with declines reported in the Gulf of Mexico. Future management efforts

  17. Multi-tissue stable isotope analysis and acoustic telemetry reveal seasonal variability in the trophic interactions of juvenile bull sharks in a coastal estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matich, Philip; Heithaus, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how natural and anthropogenic drivers affect extant food webs is critical to predicting the impacts of climate change and habitat alterations on ecosystem dynamics. In the Florida Everglades, seasonal reductions in freshwater flow and precipitation lead to annual migrations of aquatic taxa from marsh habitats to deep-water refugia in estuaries. The timing and intensity of freshwater reductions, however, will be modified by ongoing ecosystem restoration and predicted climate change. Understanding the importance of seasonally pulsed resources to predators is critical to predicting the impacts of management and climate change on their populations. As with many large predators, however, it is difficult to determine to what extent predators like bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the coastal Everglades make use of prey pulses currently. We used passive acoustic telemetry to determine whether shark movements responded to the pulse of marsh prey. To investigate the possibility that sharks fed on marsh prey, we modelled the predicted dynamics of stable isotope values in bull shark blood and plasma under different assumptions of temporal variability in shark diets and physiological dynamics of tissue turnover and isotopic discrimination. Bull sharks increased their use of upstream channels during the late dry season, and although our previous work shows long-term specialization in the diets of sharks, stable isotope values suggested that some individuals adjusted their diets to take advantage of prey entering the system from the marsh, and as such this may be an important resource for the nursery. Restoration efforts are predicted to increase hydroperiods and marsh water levels, likely shifting the timing, duration and intensity of prey pulses, which could have negative consequences for the bull shark population and/or induce shifts in behaviour. Understanding the factors influencing the propensity to specialize or adopt more flexible trophic interactions

  18. Distribution and abundance of Canadian High Arctic belugas, 1974-1979

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    William R Koski

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted >236,000 km of aerial surveys and some supplementary studies of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas in the central and eastern Canadian High Arctic in 974-79. Belugas that wintered in the “North Water” in Baffin Bay moved southwest into Lancaster Sound in April and early May. The main westward migration into Lancaster Sound occurred over a 2 to 3 week period during late June to late July. Estuaries along Somerset Island were occupied for <3 weeks from mid-July to mid-August. Little feeding occurred in estuaries. From mid-August until fall migration began in mid-September belugas occupied estuaries and offshore waters in Peel Sound. Fall migration eastward through Lancaster Sound was exclusively along the south coast of Devon Island, highly co-ordinated, and rapid; most of the population passed through the sound in <1 week. The whales then moved north along the east coast of Devon Island; some entered Jones Sound while others crossed directly to SE Ellesmere Island. Most calving occurred in July and early August; calving was not seen in estuaries and probably occurred offshore. Excluding calves, adults and yearlings formed 77% and 8.4%, respectively, of the population. The proportion of calves during mid-August was consistent with a triennial calving cycle. During late summer, belugas fed on coastal concentrations of polar cod (Boreogadus saida, under pan ice offshore (probably on cod, and in deep offshore waters. The size of the Canadian High Arctic population in the late 1970s was estimated to be at least 10,250 to 12,000 animals without allowing for animals that may have passed between surveys or that were below the surface at the time of the counts.

  19. Spatiotemporal variability of ifsh assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul-Razak M Mohamed; Saddek A Hussein; Laith F Lazem

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study spatial and temporal variability of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River. Methods: This study was conducted from December 2011 to November 2012. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and transparency were measured from three sites in the river. Several fishing methods were adopted to collect fish including gill nets, cast net, electro-fishing and hook and lines. Associations between the distribution of fish species and the environmental variables were quantified by using canonical correspondence analysis. Results:The results showed that the fish assemblage consisted of 58 species representing 46 genera and 27 families belong to Osteichthyes except one (Carcharhinus leucas) relate to Chondrichthyes. Number of species increased in summer and autumn months and sharply decreased in winter. Tenualosa ilisha was the most abundant species comprising 27.4%of the catch, followed by Carassius auratus (23.7%) and Liza klunzingeri (10.6%). The dominance (D3) value for the main three abundant species was 61.7%. Nine species were caught for the first times from the river include eight marine. The overall values of diversity index ranged from 0.67 in March to 2.57 in October, richness index from 2.64 in January to 3.71 in September and evenness index from 0.22 in March to 0.73 in August. Conclusions:Spatially, the fish assemblages of Shatt Al-Arab River can be divided into three ecological fish guilds, namely, common species, seasonal species and occasional species.

  20. Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy in groupers (Epinephelus spp. in southern Italy: a threat for wild endangered species?

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    Vendramin Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER. To date, more than 50 species have proved to be susceptible and among them, those found in genus Epinephelus are highly represented. Clinical disease outbreaks are generally characterized by typical nervous signs and significant mortalities mainly associated with aquaculture activities, although some concerns for the impact of this infection in wild fish have been raised. In this study, the authors present the first documented report describing an outbreak of VER in wild species in the Mediterranean basin. Case presentation In late summer - early winter 2011 (September-December, significant mortalities affecting wild Dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus, Golden grouper (Epinephelus costae and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reported in the municipality of Santa Maria di Leuca (Northern Ionian Sea, Italy. The affected fish showed an abnormal swimming behavior and swollen abdomens. During this epizootic, five moribund fish showing clear neurological signs were captured and underwent laboratory investigations. Analytical results confirmed the diagnosis of VER in all the specimens. Genetic characterization classified all betanodavirus isolates as belonging to the RGNNV genotype, revealing a close genetic relationship with viral sequences obtained from diseased farmed fish reared in the same area in previous years. Conclusion The close relationship of the viral sequences between the isolates collected in wild affected fish and those isolated during clinical disease outbreaks in farmed fish in the same area in previous years suggests a persistent circulation of betanodaviruses and transmission between wild and farmed stocks. Further investigations are necessary to assess the risk of viral transmission between wild and farmed fish populations, particularly in marine protected areas where endangered species are present.

  1. La pesquería de tiburones oceánicos-costeros en los litorales de Colima, Jalisco y Michoacán

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    Angélica Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La pesquería de tiburón es una de las más importantes en el Pacífico mexicano, en la actualidad no se cuentan con los datos de la composición específica de las capturas de las diferentes flotas. En el presente trabajo se describen aspectos biológicos-pesqueros de las especies de tiburón, capturadas por la flota palangrera de mediana altura del puerto de Manzanillo, en un periodo anual de abril 2006-abril 2007, los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente a bordo de estas embarcaciones. La composición de las capturas estuvo representada por nueve especies (n=1 962, de las cuales Carcharhinus falciformis (Bibron, 1839 (88.12% sostiene esta pesquería y en segundo lugar Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 (8.21%. Las especies poco frecuentes fueron Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758 con (1.78%, Alopias pelagicus (Nakamura, 1935 (0.82%, Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey, 1861 (0.45%, Alopias superciliosus (Lowe, 1839 (0.35%, Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes, 1839 (0.1%, Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes, 1839 (0.1% é Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810 (0.05%. La fecundidad estimada para C. falciformis fue de 3-7 crías/hembra con tallas de 30-45cm LT; 40.57+2.03cm LT y P. glauca con 5-52 crías/hembra, con tallas de 5-18.6cm LT; 11.61±0.21cm LT. Por lo tanto se asume que C. falciformis presenta un ciclo concurrente y P. glauca probablemente un ciclo bianual consecutivo.

  2. Identification of shark species composition and proportion in the Hong Kong shark fin market based on molecular genetics and trade records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Shelley C; Magnussen, Jennifer E; Abercrombie, Debra L; McAllister, Murdoch K; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2006-02-01

    The burgeoning and largely unregulated trade in shark fins represents one of the most serious threats to shark populations worldwide. In Hong Kong, the world's largest shark fin market, fins are classified by traders into Chinese-name categories on the basis of market value, but the relationship between market category and shark species is unclear preventing identification of species that are the most heavily traded. To delineate these relationships, we designed a sampling strategy for collecting statistically sufficient numbers of fins from traders and categories under conditions of limited market access because of heightened trader sensitivities. Based on information from traders and morphological inspection, we hypothesized matches between market names and shark taxa for fins within 11 common trade categories. These hypotheses were tested using DNA-based species identification techniques to determine the concordance between market category and species. Only 14 species made up approximately 40% of the auctioned fin weight. The proportion of samples confirming the hypothesized match, or concordance, varied from 0.64 to 1 across the market categories. We incorporated the concordance information and available market auction records for these categories into stochastic models to estimate the contribution of each taxon by weight to the fin trade. Auctioned fin weight was dominated by the blue shark (Prionace glauca), which was 17% of the overall market. Other taxa, including the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), silky (Carcharhinus falciformis), sandbar (C. obscurus), bull (C. leucas), hammerhead (Sphyrna spp.), and thresher (Alopias spp.), were at least 2-6% of the trade. Our approach to marketplace monitoring of wildlife products isparticularly applicable to situations in which quantitative data at the source of resource extraction are sparse and large-scale genetic testing is limited by budgetary or other market access constraints.

  3. Captura de tiburones en la región noroccidental de Cuba

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    Consuelo Aguilar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Los tiburones han sido una importante fuente de alimento e ingresos en Cuba. A pesar de esto, es muy escasa la información sobre este grupo y, en las últimas décadas, no han sido objeto de una investigación organizada. De octubre 2009 a junio 2011 se recolectaron datos biológicos (229 tiburones examinados y pesqueros en cuatro sitios de desembarque de la región noroccidental de Cuba. En esta región, los tiburones son capturados en pesquerías comerciales multiespecíficas en la plataforma insular y de manera incidental en pesquerías deportivas de corto radio de acción durante la captura de grandes especies pelágicas de mar abierto. Se registró un total de 17 especies; seis en pesca comercial, dominada por Carcharhinus perezii, Sphyrna mokarran y Carcharhinus leucas, y 14 en pesca deportiva (artesanal de pequeña escala, no propiamente recreacional, dominada por Isurus oxyrinchus, Isurus paucus, Carcharhinus longimanus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeocerdo cuvier y Prionace glauca. La CPUE mensual en las pesquerías deportivas, varió de 0,43 a 4,44 tiburones capturados por diez viajes de pesca. La mayoría de los tiburones oceánicos capturados en las pesquerías deportivas son especies altamente migratorias y sus poblaciones muestran gran conectividad ecológica en el Golfo de México y aguas adyacentes. Este hecho y la presencia de una gran proporción de individuos de C. longimanus y C. falciformis por debajo de la longitud de madurez, son resultados que deben ser considerados en los planes regionales de conservación y uso racional de los tiburones.

  4. Navigating under sea ice promotes rapid maturation of diving physiology and performance in beluga whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, Shawn R; Suydam, Robert

    2016-09-15

    Little is known about the postnatal development of the physiological characteristics that support breath-hold in cetaceans, despite their need to swim and dive at birth. Arctic species have the additional demand of avoiding entrapment while navigating under sea ice, where breathing holes are patchily distributed and ephemeral. This is the first investigation of the ontogeny of the biochemistry of the locomotor muscle in a year-round Arctic-dwelling cetacean (beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas). Compared with what we know about other cetaceans, belugas are born with high myoglobin content (1.56±0.02 g 100 g(-1) wet muscle mass, N=2) that matures rapidly. Myoglobin increased by 452% during the first year after birth and achieved adult levels (6.91±0.35 g 100 g(-1) wet muscle mass, N=9) by 14 months postpartum. Buffering capacity was 48.88±0.69 slykes (N=2) at birth; adult levels (84.31±1.38 slykes, N=9) were also achieved by 14 months postpartum. As the oxygen stores matured, calculated aerobic dive limit more than doubled over the first year of life, undoubtedly facilitating the movements of calves under sea ice. Nonetheless, small body size theoretically continues to constrain the diving ability of newly weaned 2 year olds, as they only had 74% and 69% of the aerobic breath-hold capacity of larger adult female and male counterparts. These assessments enhance our knowledge of the biology of cetaceans and provide insight into age-specific flexibility to alter underwater behaviors, as may be required with the ongoing alterations in the Arctic marine ecosystem associated with climate change and increased anthropogenic activities.

  5. Sequence analysis of dolphin ferritin H and L subunits and possible iron-dependent translational control of dolphin ferritin gene

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    Sasaki Yukako

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron-storage protein, ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism. Ferritin has dual function to store iron and segregate iron for protection of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species. Tissue ferritin is composed of two kinds of subunits (H: heavy chain or heart-type subunit; L: light chain or liver-type subunit. Ferritin gene expression is controlled at translational level in iron-dependent manner or at transcriptional level in iron-independent manner. However, sequencing analysis of marine mammalian ferritin subunits has not yet been performed fully. The purpose of this study is to reveal cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits, and demonstrate the possibility of expression of these subunits, especially H subunit, by iron. Methods Sequence analyses of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits were performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragments from cDNAs generated via reverse transcription-PCR of leukocyte total RNA prepared from blood samples of six different dolphin species (Pseudorca crassidens, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Grampus griseus, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, and Delphinapterus leucas. The putative iron-responsive element sequence in the 5'-untranslated region of the six different dolphin species was revealed by direct sequencing of PCR fragments obtained using leukocyte genomic DNA. Results Dolphin H and L subunits consist of 182 and 174 amino acids, respectively, and amino acid sequence identities of ferritin subunits among these dolphins are highly conserved (H: 99–100%, (99→98 ; L: 98–100%. The conserved 28 bp IRE sequence was located -144 bp upstream from the initiation codon in the six different dolphin species. Conclusion These results indicate that six different dolphin species have conserved ferritin sequences, and suggest that these genes are iron-dependently expressed.

  6. Spatiotemporal variability of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq

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    Abdul-Razak M. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study spatial and temporal variability of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River. Methods: This study was conducted from December 2011 to November 2012. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and transparency were measured from three sites in the river. Several fishing methods were adopted to collect fish including gill nets, cast net, electro-fishing and hook and lines. Associations between the distribution of fish species and the environmental variables were quantified by using canonical correspondence analysis. Results: The results showed that the fish assemblage consisted of 58 species representing 46 genera and 27 families belong to Osteichthyes except one (Carcharhinus leucas relate to Chondrichthyes. Number of species increased in summer and autumn months and sharply decreased in winter. Tenualosa ilisha was the most abundant species comprising 27.4% of the catch, followed by Carassius auratus (23.7% and Liza klunzingeri (10.6%. The dominance (D3 value for the main three abundant species was 61.7%. Nine species were caught for the first times from the river include eight marine. The overall values of diversity index ranged from 0.67 in March to 2.57 in October, richness index from 2.64 in January to 3.71 in September and evenness index from 0.22 in March to 0.73 in August. Conclusions: Spatially, the fish assemblages of Shatt Al-Arab River can be divided into three ecological fish guilds, namely, common species, seasonal species and occasional species.

  7. Evidence of Partial Migration in a Large Coastal Predator: Opportunistic Foraging and Reproduction as Key Drivers?

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    Mario Espinoza

    Full Text Available Understanding animal movement decisions that involve migration is critical for evaluating population connectivity, and thus persistence. Recent work on sharks has shown that often only a portion of the adult population will undertake migrations, while the rest may be resident in an area for long periods. Defining the extent to which adult sharks use specific habitats and their migratory behaviour is essential for assessing their risk of exposure to threats such as fishing and habitat degradation. The present study used acoustic telemetry to examine residency patterns and migratory behaviour of adult bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas along the East coast of Australia. Fifty-six VR2W acoustic receivers were used to monitor the movements of 33 bull sharks in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR. Both males and females were detected year-round, but their abundance and residency peaked between September and December across years (2012-2014. High individual variability in reef use patterns was apparent, with some individuals leaving the array for long periods, whereas others (36% exhibited medium (0.20-0.40 or high residency (> 0.50. A large portion of the population (51% undertook migrations of up to 1,400 km to other coral reefs and/or inshore coastal habitats in Queensland and New South Wales. Most of these individuals (76% were mature females, and the timing of migrations coincided with the austral summer (Dec-Feb. All migrating individuals (except one returned to the central GBR, highlighting its importance as a potential foraging ground. Our findings suggest that adult bull sharks appear to be highly dependent on coral reef resources and provide evidence of partial migration, where only a portion of the female population undertook seasonal migrations potentially to give birth. Given that estuarine habitats face constant anthropogenic pressures, understanding partial migration and habitat connectivity of large coastal predators should be a priority

  8. Status of the belugas of the St Lawrence estuary, Canada

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    Michael CS Kingsley

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas inhabiting the estuary of the St Lawrence river in Quebec, Canada, was depleted by unregulated hunting, not closed until 1979. Surveys in 1977 showed only a few hundred in the population. Surveys since then have produced increasing estimates of population indices. An estimate of the population, fully corrected for diving animals, was 1,238 (SE 119 in September 1997. The population was estimated to have increased from 1988 through 1997 by 31.4 belugas/yr (SE 13.1. Observations of population age structure, as well as data on age at death obtained from beach-cast carcasses, do not indicate serious problems at the population level, although there are indications that mortality of the oldest animals may be elevated. Few animals appear to live much over 30 years. From examination of beach-cast carcasses, it appears that most deaths are due to old age and disease; hunting is illegal, ship strikes and entrapments in fishing gear are rare, ice entrapments and predation are unknown. Among beach-cast carcasses recovered and necropsied, about 23% of the adults have malignant cancers, while most of the juveniles have pneumonia; other pathological conditions are diverse. No factors are known to be limiting numbers of this population. Habitat quality factors, including persistent contaminants, boat traffic and harassment, may affect the population’s rate of increase, but these effects have not been quantitatively evaluated. Comprehensive legislation exists with powers to protect the population and the environment of which it is a component, but application and enforcement of the laws is not without problems.

  9. Visual laterality of calf-mother interactions in wild whales.

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    Karina Karenina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is

  10. Visibility of St Lawrence belugas to aerial photography, estimated by direct observation

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    Michael CS Kingsley

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The depleted population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas inhabiting the St Lawrence estuary, Canada, was monitored by periodic photographic aerial surveys. In order to correct counts made on aerial survey film and to obtain an estimate of the true size of the population, the diving behaviour and the visibility from the air of these animals was studied. A Secchi-disk turbidity survey in the belugas’ summer range showed that water clarity varied between 1.5 m and 11.6 m. By studying aerial photographs of sheet-plastic models of belugas that had been sunk to different depths below the surface, we found that models of white adults could be seen down to about the same depth as a Secchi disk, but no deeper. Smaller models of dark-grey juveniles could only be seen down to about 50% of Secchi-disk depth. By observing groups of belugas from a hovering helicopter and recording their disappearances and re-appearances, it was found that they were visible for 44.3% of the time, and that an appropriate correction for single photographs would be to multiply the photographic count by about 222% (SE 20%. For surveys in which there was overlap between adjacent frames, the estimated correction would be 209% (SE 16%. This correction factor was slightly conservative and gave an estimate of the true size of the population, based on a single survey, of 1,202 belugas (SE 189 in 1997. An estimate for 1997 based on smoothing 5 surveys 1988–1997 was 1,238 (SE 119.

  11. Surveys of belugas and narwhals in the Canadian High Arctic in 1996

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    Stuart Innes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The summer range of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas and narwhals (Monodon monoceros in Prince Regent Inlet, Barrow Strait and Peel Sound in the Canadian High Arctic was surveyed from 31 July to 3 August 1996 with a visual aerial survey of offshore areas and photographic aerial surveys of concentration areas. The visual survey estimate based on the number of belugas visible to the observers using systematic line transect methods was 10,347 (cv = 0.28. This included corrections for whales that were missed by the observers, observations without distance measurements and an estimate of 1,949 (cv=0.22 belugas from a photographic survey in southern Peel Sound. Using data from belugas tagged with satellite-linked time-depth recorders, the estimate was adjusted for individuals that were diving during the survey which resulted in an estimate of 18,930 belugas (cv = 0.28. Finally, counts of belugas in estuaries, corrected for estuarine surface time, were added to provide a complete estimate of 21,213 belugas (95% CI 10,985 to 32,619. The estimated number of narwhals corrected for sightings that were missed by observers was 16,364 (cv = 0.24. Adjusting this for sightings without distance information and correcting for whales that were submerged produced an estimate of 45,358 narwhals (95% CI 23,397 to 87,932.

  12. A twenty-one year temporal trend of persistent organic pollutants in St. Lawrence Estuary beluga, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Michel; Measures, Lena; Noël, Michelle; Raach, Meriem; Trottier, Steve

    2014-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in blubber from 144 stranded adult belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) found on the shores of the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) between 1987 and 2007. Temporal trends of POP concentrations (ln transformed) in beluga were described by three models, zero slope (ZS), linear (L) and two-segment piecewise (PW). Often two but sometimes all three models were equivalent in describing temporal trends based on Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample sizes. Over this 21-year time period, concentrations of most legacy POPs, including PCBs, DDTs and HCHs, exhibited relatively weak (≤11% per year) but significant decreasing trends in beluga. For PBDEs, temporal trends were best described by a PW model, characterizing a rapid increase until 1997-1998 followed by a slower increase for males and a steady-state for females. Potential cofactors such as blubber lipid content and carcass state of preservation did not show any significant temporal trends over the time period considered. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) in beluga liver, a proxy of trophic level, could not be associated to any effect on temporal trends of POP concentrations in beluga. Several POPs exhibited significant relationships with age of beluga and data were age-adjusted. Temporal trends of POP concentrations adjusted for age of beluga were reassessed but results were essentially identical as those obtained with the original POP data. Overall, POP temporal trends observed in SLE beluga are consistent with changes expected from regulations and restrictions in the use of these compounds in developed countries.

  13. Cancer in wildlife, a case study: beluga from the St. Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada.

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    Martineau, Daniel; Lemberger, Karin; Dallaire, André; Labelle, Philippe; Lipscomb, Thomas P; Michel, Pascal; Mikaelian, Igor

    2002-03-01

    A population of approximately 650 beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabits a short segment of the St. Lawrence estuary (SLE). Over 17 years (1983-1999), we have examined 129 (or 49%) of 263 SLE beluga carcasses reported stranded. The major primary causes of death were respiratory and gastrointestinal infections with metazoan parasites (22%), cancer (18%), and bacterial, viral, and protozoan infections (17%). We observed cancer in 27% of examined adult animals found dead, a percentage similar to that found in humans. The estimated annual rate (AR) of all cancer types (163/100,000 animals) is much higher than that reported for any other population of cetacean and is similar to that of humans and to that of hospitalized cats and cattle. The AR of cancer of the proximal intestine, a minimum figure of 63 per 100,000 animals, is much higher than that observed in domestic animals and humans, except in sheep in certain parts of the world, where environmental contaminants are believed to be involved in the etiology of this condition. SLE beluga and their environment are contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by the local aluminum smelters. The human population living in proximity of the SLE beluga habitat is affected by rates of cancer higher than those found in people in the rest of Québec and Canada, and some of these cancers have been epidemiologically related to PAHs. Considered with the above observations, the exposure of SLE beluga to PAHs and their contamination by these compounds are consistent with the hypothesis that PAHs are involved in the etiology of cancer in these animals.

  14. Pathology and toxicology of beluga whales from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, D; De Guise, S; Fournier, M; Shugart, L; Girard, C; Lagacé, A; Béland, P

    1994-09-16

    An indigenous population of 450-500 beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabiting the St. Lawrence Estuary has been exposed chronically for more than 50 years to a complex mixture of industrial pollutants including organochlorinated compounds (OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. From 1983 to 1990, we have necropsied 45 well preserved carcasses out of a total of 120 beluga whales reported dead over this period. Of these 45 animals, nine were affected by 10 malignant neoplasms. Fifteen animals (33%) were affected by pneumonia. Milk production was compromised in eight of 17 mature females (41%), by inflammatory changes (seven animals) and cancer (one animal) which affected the mammary glands. Opportunistic bacteria were found in pure culture, and/or in significant amounts in at least two organs in 20 belugas (44%). The concentrations of both total PCBs and highly chlorinated PCB congeners were much higher in St. Lawrence animals than in Arctic beluga whales. OC-induced immunosuppression has been repeatedly demonstrated in a wide variety of animal species. Therefore, it is probable that the immune functions of St. Lawrence beluga whales are impaired. Benzo[a]pyrene adducts were detected in 10 of the 11 St. Lawrence beluga whales of which tissues (six livers, 10/11 brains) were analyzed by a method based on HPLC. No such adducts were found in four Arctic animals. Since benzo[alpha]pyrene is one of the most potent chemical carcinogens known to man, these compounds might be responsible for some of the cancers observed in that population. Overall, our findings contrast vividly with those of others who found that cancers are exceedingly rare in free-ranging odontocete populations and that the major causes for mortalities in these populations are bacteria, parasites, and trauma.

  15. Levels of C{sub 10}-C{sub 13} polychloro-n-alkanes in marine mammals from the Arctic and the St. Lawrence River estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomy, G.T.; Muir, D.C.G.; Stern, G.A.; Westmore, J.B.

    2000-05-01

    Marine mammals from various regions of the Arctic and the St. Lawrence River estuary were examined for the first time for levels of C{sub 10}--C{sub 13} polychloro-n-alkanes (sPCAs). Respective mean total sPCA concentrations in the blubber of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Saqqaq and Nuussuaq, western Greenland, were 0.23 {+-} 0.02 (n = 2) and 0.164 {+-} 0.06 {micro}g/g (n = 2), similar to that in beluga from the Mackenzie Delta in the western Canadian Arctic 0.21 {+-} 0.08 {micro}g/g (m = 3). sPCAs levels were higher in beluga blubber from the St. Lawrence River (0.37 to 1.4 {micro}g/g). Mean sPCA concentrations in the blubber samples from walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) (Thule, northwest Greenland) and ringed seal (Phoca hispida) (Eureka, southwest Ellesmere Island) were 0.43 {+-} 0.06 (n = 2) and 0.53 {+-} 0.2 {micro}g/g (n = 6), respectively. Relative to commercial sPCA formulations, samples from the Arctic marine mammals showed a predominance of the shorter chain length lower percent chlorinated PCA congeners, the more volatile components of industrial formulations. This observation is consistent with long-range atmospheric transport of sPCAs to this region. The profiles of the belugas from the St. Lawrence River estuary, however, had higher proportions of the less volatile sPCA congeners, implying that contamination to this region is probably from local sources.

  16. Global distribution of halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles in marine mammal blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, S; Borrell, A; Duffe, J; Duignan, P J; Fair, P; Hall, A; Hoekstra, P; Kovacs, K M; Krahn, M M; Lebeuf, M; Lydersen, C; Muir, D; O'Hara, T; Olsson, M; Pranschke, J; Ross, P; Siebert, U; Stern, G; Tanabe, S; Norstrom, R

    2002-08-01

    Four halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles (HDBPs), hypothesized to be naturally produced, were quantitated in marine mammal blubber from a number of species obtained from various locations worldwide. HDBPs were found in samples from all locations studied. Concentrations of total HDBPs (SigmaHDBPs) ranged from 0.4 ng/g lipid weight in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the White Sea to 2,540 ng/g lipid weight in Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) from the northwestern North Pacific Ocean. At their highest levels, SigmaHDBPs made up 11% of the total quantitated organohalogen body burden of adult male Dall's porpoises. In two beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) data subsets, it was found that males contained significantly higher concentrations of SigmaHDBPs than females. No significant effects of age or sex on SigmaHDBPs were observed in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) data subsets. The geographical distribution of concentrations did not resemble that of the ubiquitous anthropogenic organohalogen, polychlorinated biphenyl congener CB-153. Higher concentrations of HDBPs and different patterns of congeners were observed in samples from Pacific as opposed to non-Pacific Ocean influenced environments. Concentrations of HDBPs in beluga from the Arctic and St. Lawrence River were similar. Their high abundance in north Pacific Ocean biota and widespread occurrence suggest that HDBPs undergo extensive transport from a source located primarily in the Pacific Ocean. Evidence from HDBP congener patterns indicates that both ocean currents and atmospheric transport likely play a role in the movement of HDBPs. These results imply that HDBPs and anthropogenic organohalogens have different sources and support the natural production hypothesis.

  17. Tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane and tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol in marine mammals from the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, M; Bernt, K E; Trottier, S; Noël, M; Hammill, M O; Measures, L

    2001-01-01

    Levels of tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol (TCPM) and its presumed precursor tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) are reported in marine mammals from the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. These compounds were measured in blubber samples of seals and whales using ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection. Detectable concentrations of both TCPM and TCPMe were observed in all of the samples analysed. Concentrations of these compounds varied with species ranging from 1.7 to 153 and from 1.3 to 50.6 ng/g lipid wt. for TCPM and TCPMe, respectively. TCPM was from 1.3 to 10 times more concentrated than TCPMe. The highest levels of both TCPM and TCPMe were observed in adult male beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, while adult female beluga whales from the same area showed levels similar to those in the seals examined. Among the four seal species investigated, TCPM and TCPMe levels were the highest in grey (Halichoerus grypus) and hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals, and lowest in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). Intermediate levels were found in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina); however, their concentrations might be underestimated considering the younger mean age of these animals. Ratios of both 4,4'-DDE/sigma DDT and TCPM/sigma TCP were very similar between animals from the same species. Strong correlations between sigma TCP and sigma DDT were also observed for each species of mammals, most likely indicating that both sigma TCP and sigma DDT are bioaccumulated in marine mammals. The relationships between sigma DDT and sigma TCP also demonstrate that sigma TCP are less bioaccumulated than sigma DDT by the marine mammal species examined.

  18. Decadal shifts in autumn migration timing by Pacific Arctic beluga whales are related to delayed annual sea ice formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Donna D W; Laidre, Kristin L; Stafford, Kathleen M; Stern, Harry L; Suydam, Robert S; Richard, Pierre R

    2016-12-21

    Migrations are often influenced by seasonal environmental gradients that are increasingly being altered by climate change. The consequences of rapid changes in Arctic sea ice have the potential to affect migrations of a number of marine species whose timing is temporally matched to seasonal sea ice cover. This topic has not been investigated for Pacific Arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) that follow matrilineally maintained autumn migrations in the waters around Alaska and Russia. For the sympatric Eastern Chukchi Sea ('Chukchi') and Eastern Beaufort Sea ('Beaufort') beluga populations, we examined changes in autumn migration timing as related to delayed regional sea ice freeze-up since the 1990s, using two independent data sources (satellite telemetry data and passive acoustics) for both populations. We compared dates of migration between 'early' (1993-2002) and 'late' (2004-2012) tagging periods. During the late tagging period, Chukchi belugas had significantly delayed migrations (by 2 to >4 weeks, depending on location) from the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. Spatial analyses also revealed that departure from Beaufort Sea foraging regions by Chukchi whales was postponed in the late period. Chukchi beluga autumn migration timing occurred significantly later as regional sea ice freeze-up timing became later in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas. In contrast, Beaufort belugas did not shift migration timing between periods, nor was migration timing related to freeze-up timing, other than for southward migration at the Bering Strait. Passive acoustic data from 2008 to 2014 provided independent and supplementary support for delayed migration from the Beaufort Sea (4 day yr(-1) ) by Chukchi belugas. Here, we report the first phenological study examining beluga whale migrations within the context of their rapidly transforming Pacific Arctic ecosystem, suggesting flexible responses that may enable their persistence yet also complicate predictions of how

  19. Habitat selection by two beluga whale populations in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, Kristin L.; Stern, Harry L.; Moore, Sue E.; Suydam, Robert S.; Richard, Pierre R.

    2017-01-01

    There has been extensive sea ice loss in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas where two beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) populations occur between July-November. Our goal was to develop population-specific beluga habitat selection models that quantify relative use of sea ice and bathymetric features related to oceanographic processes, which can provide context to the importance of changing sea ice conditions. We established habitat selection models that incorporated daily sea ice measures (sea ice concentration, proximity to ice edge and dense ice) and bathymetric features (slope, depth, proximity to the continental slope, Barrow Canyon, and shore) to establish quantitative estimates of habitat use for the Eastern Chukchi Sea (‘Chukchi’) and Eastern Beaufort Sea (‘Beaufort’) populations. We applied ‘used v. available’ resource selection functions to locations of 65 whales tagged from 1993–2012, revealing large variations in seasonal habitat selection that were distinct between sex and population groups. Chukchi whales of both sexes were predicted to use areas in close proximity to Barrow Canyon (typically <200 km) as well as the continental slope in summer, although deeper water and denser ice were stronger predictors for males than females. Habitat selection differed more between sexes for Beaufort belugas. Beaufort males selected higher ice concentrations (≥40%) than females (0–40%) in July-August. Proximity to shore (<200 km) strongly predicted summer habitat of Beaufort females, while distance to the ice edge was important for male habitat selection, especially during westward migration in September. Overall, our results indicate that sea ice variables were rarely the primary drivers of beluga summer-fall habitat selection. While diminished sea ice may indirectly affect belugas through changes in the ecosystem, associations with bathymetric features that affect prey availability seemed key to habitat selection during summer and fall. These

  20. Wind-dependent beluga whale dive behavior in Barrow Canyon, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, K. M.; Citta, J. J.; Okkonen, S. R.; Suydam, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are the most abundant cetacean in the Arctic. The Barrow Canyon region, Alaska, is a hotspot for Pacific Arctic belugas, likely because the oceanographic environment provides reliable foraging opportunities. Fronts are known to promote the concentration of planktonic prey; when Barrow-area winds are weak or from the west, a front associated with the Alaskan Coastal Current (ACC) intensifies. This front is weakened or disrupted when strong easterly winds slow or displace the ACC. To determine if winds influence the diving depth of belugas, we used generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) to examine how the dive behavior of animals instrumented with satellite-linked time-depth recorders varied with wind conditions. When projected along-canyon winds are from the WSW and the front associated with the ACC is enhanced, belugas tend to target shallower depths (10-100 m) associated with the front. In contrast, when strong winds from the ENE displaced the ACC, belugas tended to spend more time at depths >200 m where the Arctic halocline grades into relatively warmer Atlantic Water (AW). The probability of diving to >200 m, the number of dives >200 m, and the amount of time spent below 200 m were all significantly related to along-canyon wind stress (p<0.01). From these results and known relationships between wind stress, currents and frontal structure in Barrow Canyon and the characteristic vertical distribution of Arctic cod, we infer that the probability of belugas targeting different depth regimes is based upon how wind stress affects the relative foraging opportunities between these depth regimes. Belugas are known to target AW throughout the Beaufort Sea; however, this is the first work to show that the probability of targeting the AW layer is related to wind stress.

  1. Size and trends of the bowhead whale, beluga and narwhal stocks wintering off West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the size and trends of the abundance of the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus, the beluga, or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas, and the narwhal (Monodon monoceros visual aerial surveys were conducted in West Greenland in March 1998 and 1999. An estimated 49 bowhead whales (95% CI: 13 to 188 were present at the surface in 1998. Data from land-based observations enabled correction for bowhead whales that were not available at the surface to be seen during the survey. By applying a rounded average of 80% (SE=3 for submergence an estimate of 246 bowhead whales (95% CI: 62 to 978 in 1998 was obtained. The 76 and 47 sightings of beluga pods in 1998 and 1999, respectively, had distributions similar to those of previous surveys with the highest concentration at the northern edge of the northern part of Store Hellefiskebanke. No belugas were seen in the southernmost area between Maniitsoq and Paamiut. The index estimate of the abundance of belugas comparable with previous surveys was 929 (95% CI: 563 to 1,533 in 1998 and 735 (95% CI: 436 to 1,239 in 1999. When analysing the sightings as a line-transect survey and correcting for whales that were either submerged or at the surface but missed by the observers an estimated 7,941 (95% CI: 3,650 to 17,278 belugas wintered in West Greenland in 1998-1999. The uncorrected estimate of narwhal abundance was 524 (95% CI: 214 to 1,284 and correcting for the same biases as for the belugas gives a total abundance of 2,861 (95% CI: 954 to 8,578 narwhals in 1998-1999.

  2. Enantiomer-specific biomagnification of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and selected chiral chlordane-related compounds within an Arctic marine food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Paul F; O'Hara, Todd M; Karlsson, Heidi; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C

    2003-10-01

    Concentrations of achiral and chiral organochlorine contaminants (OCs), including hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH), chlordane congeners (cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, MC5, MC7, and U82), and related metabolites (oxychlordane [OXY] and heptachlor exo-epoxide [HEPX]), were quantified in seawater (100 L; n = 6) and biota from the coastal Beaufort-Chukchi Seas food web near Barrow (AK, USA). The biota included zooplankton (Calanus spp.; n = 5), fish species such as arctic cod (Boreogadus saida; n = 10), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus; n = 3), and marine mammals including bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus; liver: n = 23; blubber: n = 40), beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas; blubber: n = 20), ringed seals (Phoca hispida; blubber: n = 20), and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus; blubber: n = 7). The food web magnification factors (FWMFs) for HCHs and chlordane compounds ranged from 0.5 (gamma-HCH) to 6.5 (HEPX) and were expected based on known recalcitrance and biotransformation of OCs. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of all chiral OCs were near racemic (EF = 0.50) in the seawater, zooplankton, and all fish analyzed. In contrast, the EFs for most OCs analyzed were nonracemic (EF # 0.50) in the marine mammals blubber (range: 0.09-0.79) because of enantiomer-specific biotransformation and (or) accumulation. However, EF values were not significantly correlated with isotopically determined trophic level. The EFs for all chiral OCs (except alpha-HCH) in bowhead whale liver closely approximated the values in zooplankton, suggesting that the accumulation of chiral OCs from prey into this cetacean is not enantiomer specific. However, the modification of EFs from bowhead liver to blubber suggests that this species has the ability to enantioselectively biotransform and accumulate several chiral OC compounds.

  3. The use of non destructive biomarkers in the study of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Cristina Fossi And Letizia Marsili

    1997-01-01

    Marine mammals have been subject to heavy anthropogenic pressure by direct killing and chemical pollution all over the world. Most studies of contamination and biomarker responses in marine mammals have been conducted using animals killed by hunting out of a total of 12 cetacean species studied, 45 of the specimens were obtained by sacrificing the animal; out of a total of eight pinniped species studied, 40 of the specimens were obtained by killing. The development of a series of non destructive techniques to evaluate biomarker responses and residue levels is recommended for the hazard assessment and conservation of endangered species of marine mammals. Here we review the current status of the non destructive biomarker approach in marine mammals, describing the biological materials available for non destructive tests in stranded brain, liver, blood, skin, subcutaneous blubber, muscle and fur and free ranging animals blood, skin biopsy, fur and faeces and the respective biomarker techniques mixed function oxidase activity and DNA damage in skin biopsy samples; porphyrins in faeces and fur; esterases, porphyrins, clinical biochemical parameter, vitamin A and micronuclei in blood samples. Residue analysis can be carried out in the various biological materials. We also report the results of applying this methodological approach to cetaceans minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, fin whale-- Balaenoptera physalus, beluga whale-- Delphinapterus leucas, short finned pilot whale-- Globicephala macrorhynchus, harbour porpoise -- Phocoena phocoena, Rissos dolphin-- Risso s Grampus griseus, Dall s porpoise-- Phocoenoides dalli dalli, melon headed whale-- Peponocephala electra, bottlenose dolphin -- Tursiops truncatus, striped dolphin-- Stenella coeruleoalba, spinner dolphin-- Stenella longirostris, killer whale-- Orcinus orca and pinnipeds northern fur seal- Callorhinus ursinus, hooded seal-- Cystophora cristata, grey seal-- Halichoerus grypus, harbour seal-- Phoca vitulina

  4. Larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts on the rural malarial vector, Anopheles culicifacies Giles. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    K. Kovendan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector control is one of the most important components in combating vector-borne diseases throughout the world. Application of insecticides is a widely known and popular vector control strategy. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of Abutilon indicum, Hyptis suaveolens and Leucas aspera against third-stage larvae of Anopheles culicifiacies. The results clearly suggest that all three selected plant extracts exhibited moderate larvicidal activity after 24, 48 and 72 h at 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm; the lethal concentrations (LC at 50% and 90% of A. indicum, H. suaveolens against third instar larvae at 24, 48 and 72 h (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and acetone were as follows: A. indicum, LC50=1031.65, 949.18, 833.58 and 673.68 ppm; LC90=2215.87, 2234.39, 2152.97 and 2455.10 ppm; H. suaveolens, LC50=423.00, 347.50, 236.58 and 217.24 ppm; LC90=1431.91, 1292.15, 1138.49 and 1049.27 ppm and L. aspera, LC50=559.77, 401.56, 299.71 and 263.01 ppm; LC90=1400.80, 1549.31, 1157.96 and 1108.72 ppm at 24 h, respectively. Overall, the highest larvicidal activity was observed with H. suaveolens extract followed by L. aspera and A. indicum at various concentrations at 48 and 72 h, respectively. The objective of this investigation was an attempt to search for a user- and eco-friendly vector control agent. The study proved that the selected plant leaf extracts could serve as potent larvicidal agents against A. culicifacies in vector control programs.

  5. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  6. TAXONOMÍA Y DISTRIBUCIÓN DE DIATOMEAS EPILÍTICAS REGISTRADAS POR PRIMERA VEZ EN COLOMBIA. I

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    SILVIA ESTELA SALA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en el marco del proyecto para elaborar un índice de calidad biológica para ríos de zonas bajas y de piedemonte del país basado en comunidades biológicas acuáticas, desarrollado en el Laboratorio de Biotecnología del Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, cuyo objetivo es evaluar la calidad ecológica de los ríos de tierras bajas y de piedemonte dentro del área de influencia de Ecopetrol, a través de la implementación de un índice de calidad biológica utilizando diatomeas. Las 165 muestras analizadas hasta el momento provienen de muestras de perifiton de 83 sistemas lóticos de distintas regiones del país, de donde también se obtuvo información sobre temperatura del agua, pH, conductividad y oxígeno disuelto. El material fue estudiado con microscopio óptico y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Aquí reunimos 11 taxones de los cuales Achnanthidium macrocephalum(Hustedt Round & Bukhtiyarova, Cymbopleura zimmermannii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Chamaepinnularia brasiliana Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Ch. brasilianopsis Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Planothidium lagerheimii (Cleve Wetzel & Ector, Eunotioforma curvula (Hustedt Kociolek & Burliga, Gomphonema archaevibrio fo. cuneatum Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Gomphonema capitatum Ehrenberg, Nitzschia clausii Hantzsch y N. filiformis var. conferta (Richter Lange-Bertalot se mencionan por primera vez para Colombia. Este es el primer registro del género Eunotioforma Kociolek & Burliga y por primera vez se describe e ilustra el género Chamaepinnularia Lange-Bertalot para el país. Además, analizamos la ultraestructura de Nitzschia dissipata(Kützing Grunow, ya mencionada para el país pero solo analizada con MO. A pesar de ser esta especie considerada cosmopolita citada en las floras de diferentes regiones del mundo, ha sido frecuentemente mal identificada, por lo que este análisis nos permitió confirmar la identidad de los materiales colombianos.

  7. Análise parasitológica e hematológica em tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757, da represa de Guarapiranga, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1334 Parasitological and hematological analysis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757 from Guarapiranga reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1334

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Nunes Felizardo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas na represa de Guarapiranga, São Paulo, entre agosto de 1996 e abril de1998, 206 tilápias, Oreochromis niloticus, com o objetivo de relacionar a condição de saúde desses animais à ocorrência de parasitos. Foram analisados: hematócrito e contagem diferencial de leucócitos. Foram feitos raspados de pele e brânquias, sendo estas removidas e fixadas para a identificação de Monogenoidea. Nas brânquias, foram encontrados: Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838, Ichthyophtirius multifiliis (Fouquet, 1876, Cryptobia, amebas e Monogenoidea (Cichlidogyrus sp., e na pele: Trichodina sp., Cryptobia sp. e Henneguya sp. A prevalência de alguns parasitos parece estar associada à temperatura e ao nível de oxigênio dissolvido da água. O hematócrito e a porcentagem dos leucócitos apresentaram pouca variação. Apenas basófilos demonstram diferença significativa entre os valores médios mensais. A porcentagem de eosinófilos foi mais alta nos peixes parasitados por I. multifiliis e Cichlidogyrus sp. e nos não parasitados. Durante esse período, não houve mortalidade de peixes. Conclui-se que os peixes estavam em boas condições de saúde, embora as condições da água da represa não estivessem ideaisA total of 206 adult specimens of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were collected from the Guarapiranga Reservoir, Sao Paulo, from August 1996 to April 1998, to relate their health condition with parasite infestation. Hematocrits and the differential leukocyte counts were analyzed. Scrapings of skin and gills were performed and this last removed and fixed for the identification of monogeneans. In the gills, Trichodina, Ichthyophtirius multifiliis, Cryptobia, amoebas and monogeneans (Cichlidogyrus sp. were found, and in the skin, Trichodina, Cryptobia and Henneguya. The prevalence of some parasites seemed to be associated with water temperature and the level of dissolved oxygen. The hematocrit and leukocyte cells percentage showed little

  8. 南五味子不同溶剂提取物的抑菌活性研究%Study on Antibacterial Activity of Alcohol-soluble and Water-soluble Extracts from Kadsura longepedunculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少杰; 杨敏; 于新

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To study antibacterial activity of alcohol-soluble and water soluble extracts of Kadsura longipedunculata. [Method] The ethanol phase and water phase were isolated from the extracts of Kadsura longepedunculata. Oxford cup method was used for determination on antibacterial activity of common pathogenic bacteria and yeast. Plate coating method was adopted for determination of minimal inhibitory concentra-tion(MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC). [Results] The results showed that Kadsura longepedunculata alcohol phase and water phase have obvious antimicrobial activity on the G+ and G- , and G+ antibacterial activity is stronger than the antibacterial activity of G , antibacterial activity of alcohol is stronger than the water. Alcohol and water phase bacteriostatic activity order all are as follows: Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach > Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn >Escherichia coli > Salmonella paratyphi B Castellani et Chalmers > Saccharomycse cere-visiae. [Conclusion] alcohol-soluble and water soluble extracts of Kadsura longipedunadata all have antibacterial activities, which could be further developed and used.%[目的]研究南五味子的乙醇提取物和水提取物的抑菌活性.[方法]分离南五味子提取物中的乙醇相物质和水相物质,用牛津杯法测定其对常见的致病菌和酵母菌的抑菌活性,用平板涂布法测定最低抑菌浓度(MIC)和最低杀菌浓度(MBC).[结果]南五味子的醇相和水相物质对革兰氏阳性菌(G+)和革兰氏阴性菌(G-)均有明显的抑菌活性,对G+的抑菌活性均强于对G-的抑菌活性;醇相的抑菌活性优于水相的抑菌活性;对酵母菌的抑菌活性均不明显;醇相和水相的抑菌活性顺序均依次为:金黄色葡萄球菌>枯草芽孢杆菌>大肠杆菌>沙门氏菌>酵母菌.[结论]南五味子的乙醇提取物和水提取物均有一定的抑菌活性,值得进一步开发利用.

  9. 铅离子对海洋浮游植物生长影响的研究%Effects of Ph2+ on the growth of marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹莹; 王修林; 杨汝君; 战玉杰; 石晓勇

    2005-01-01

    采用一次培养实验方法,研究了Pb2+对8种常见海洋浮游植物生长的影响.在Logistic生长模型的基础上,结合Lorentz方程和GaussAmp方程,引入Pb2+浓度项,建立新的方程来描述Pb2+存在条件下海洋浮游植物的生长过程,并且通过对实验数据的非线性拟合,验证该方程是合理的.实验拟合结果表明,高浓度Pb2+(c(Pb2+)≥2 500μg/L)对浮游植物的生长普遍有抑制作用,而较低浓度Pb2+(c(Pb2+)≤100μg/L)则易促进赤潮异弯藻(Heterosigma akashwo Hada)、旋链角毛藻(Chaetoceros curvisetus Cleve)、三角褐指藻(Pheodactylum tricomutum Bohlin)、中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema costattum(Greville)Cleve)、青岛大扁藻(Platymonas helgolanidica Kylin var tsingtaoensis)、亚心型扁藻(Platymonas subcordiformis)的生长,它们最佳的促进生长浓度分别为:1 991、2 523、101、1 488、627、509 μg/L但对于海洋原甲藻(Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg)、裸甲藻(Gymnodinium sp.)的生长没有明显的影响.应用该方程在一定程度上不仅可以根据浮游植物的生长情况,推测相应海区的Pb2+污染物浓度;而且也可以预测不同浓度Pb2+条件下,相应海区的海洋浮游植物的生长情况.

  10. Phytoplankton dynamic and bioindication in the Kondopoga Bay, Lake Onego (Northern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Barinova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of our collected material and historical information we assess phytoplankton dynamics in Kondopoga Bay, the Lake Onego in 1993-2011. The summer communities from continuously studied sampling stations contain 100 species belonging to eight divisions: Bacillariophyta, 40; Chlorophyta, 25; Cyanobacteria, 13; Chrysophyta, 12; Euglenophyta, 2; Dinophyta, 4; Cryptophyta, 3; and Xanthophyta, 1. Sample richness varied between 16 and 54 species, with a negative overall trend during the study period, but increases in Cyanobacteria and Dinophyta. Bioindication analysis shows that water acidification slowly rising from 1993 to 2011 with organic pollution (Index saprobity S and the number of species with heterotrophic ability. In 1990s, the total abundance and biomass were on average 1.5 times higher than in 2000-2011, having similar fluctuation ranges (Pearson 0.74, with peaks in 1996 and 2006. At the same time, species richness decreased, showing a depletion of algal communities. Two critically impacted periods are revealed with the Shannon index in 1996 and 2007 and on the basis of the Aquatic Ecosystem State Index (WESI calculation in 1995 and 2007, related to Kondopoga industrial wastewater influx enriched in nutrients and other contaminants. As a whole, the WESI was extremely high, reflecting a high self-purification capacity in respect to phosphate concentration in the bay. The canonical corresponded analysis (CCA shows two different sets of taxa, those stimulated by temperature and nitric nitrogen (Anabaena scheremetievii Elenkin, Dolichospermum lemmermannii (Ricter P.Wacklin, L.Hoffmann & J.Komárek, and Aulacoseira alpigena (Grunow Krammer, and sensitive autotroph species inhabiting cool to temperate clear waters (Aulacoseira distans (Ehrenberg Simonsen, Ankistrodesmus fusiformis Corda ex Korshikov, Mucidosphaerium pulchellum (H.C.Wood C.Bock, Proschold & Krienitz. The comparative statistics with GRAPS program revealed two cores of

  11. Morphology and 18S rDNA gene sequence of Spirostomum minus and Spirostomum teres (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi M. Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Species of Spirostomum Ehrenberg, 1838 are widely used as model organisms in ecological studies of environmental impacts and symbioses between ciliates and human pathogenic bacteria. However, the taxonomy of this genus is confused by the superficiality of the morphological descriptions of its included species, and the use of only a few characters for their differentiation. The present study provides details of total infraciliature, nuclear apparatus, morphometric data and 18S rDNA gene sequences of Spirostomum teres Claparède & Lachmann, 1858 and Spirostomum minus Roux, 1901, isolated from a sewage treatment plant and a freshwater lake in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, respectively. For the morphological descriptions of S. teres and S. minus, living cells were observed using bright-field and differential interference contrast (DIC microscopy, the total infraciliature and nuclear apparatus were revealed by staining with protargol, and ciliary patterns were observed also with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The complete sequences of the 18S rDNA of S. teres and S. minus were obtained using eukaryotic universal primers, and then compared with sequences of other species and populations of Spirostomum deposited in the GenBank database. Living S. minus measured 400-800 µm in length and 55-115 µm in width, with the following characteristics: adoral zone of membranelles approximately 112 µm long; inconspicuous paroral kinety; 30-40 kineties in somatic ciliature; moniliform macronucleus with 9-25 nodes, approximately 12 micronuclei; single and posterior contractile vacuole; and yellow-brown cytoplasm. Living and fully extended S. teres measured approximately 250 µm in length and 65 ìm in width, with the following characteristics: adoral zone of membranelles approximately 92 µm long; approximately 30 somatic kineties; compact macronucleus, approximately five micronuclei; macronuclear groove present; single and posterior contractile vacuole

  12. Species composition and abundance variation of protozoa in Dianshan Lake%淀山湖原生动物种类组成及数量变动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小燕; 王丽卿

    2009-01-01

    应用淡水浮游生物调查方法,查明了2004-2006年淀山湖浮游原生动物的种类组成及数量变动,并研究了原生动物数量变动、Margalef多样性指数与水体富营养化的关系,以期为淀山湖湖泊水质管理提供基础的生物资料.共鉴定原生动物(仅肉足虫类和纤毛虫类)48种,隶属33属7目,其中肉足虫10种、纤毛虫38种;优势种为淡水筒壳虫(Tin-tinnidium fluviatile Stein)、恩茨筒壳虫(T. entzii Chiang)、绿急游虫(Strombidium viride Stein)、小单环栉毛虫(Didinium balbiamii nanum Kahl)及钟形钟虫(Vorticella companula Ehrenberg),优势种密度之和最高可占总密度的69.8%;3年原生动物年均密度季节变化,春季(7685 ind·L-1)>冬季(3241 ind·L-1)>秋季(2153 ind·L-1)>夏季(1680 ind·L-1);水平变化表现为村落周边St2站点(4405 ind·L-1)和进水口St5站点(4976 ind·L-1)居高;原生动物密度水平分布与修正的卡尔森营养综合指数变动趋势基本一致;Margalef多样性指数(D)均值为1.45,变幅为1.15~1.99;D值变化与水质状况密切相关.

  13. Toxicity and sorption kinetics of dissolved cadmium and chromium III on tropical freshwater phytoperiphyton in laboratory mesocosm experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bere, Taurai, E-mail: taubere@yahoo.com [Instituto Internacional de Ecologia, Rua Bento Carlos, 750, Centro, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Univeridade Federal De Sao Carlos, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia e Recursos Naturais, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, SP-310, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tundisi, Jose Galizia [Instituto Internacional de Ecologia, Rua Bento Carlos, 750, Centro, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the interactive effects of Cd and Cr III on tropical phytoperiphyton community growth, metal sorption kinetics, as well as Cd and Cr mixtures toxicity to diatom assemblages in laboratory mesocosm experiments. A natural phytoperiphyton community sampled from the Monjolinho River (South of Brazil) was inoculated into seven experimental systems containing clean glass substrates for phytoperiphyton colonization. The communities were exposed to mixtures of dissolved Cd and Cr concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 mg.L{sup -1} Cd and 0.05 and 0.2 mg.L{sup -1} Cr. Phytoperiphyton chlorophyll a, ash-free dry mass, growth rate, diatom cell density and diatom community composition were analyzed on samples collected after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of colonization. High Cd concentration (0.1 mg.L{sup -1}) affects phytoperiphyton growth while high concentration of Cr (0.2 mg.L{sup -1}) decreased the toxic effects of Cd on phytoperiphyton growth demonstrating the importance of studying metal mixtures in field studies. Shifts in species composition (development of more resistant species like Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kuetzing) Czarnecki, and Nitzschia palea (Kuetzing) Smith and reduction of sensitive ones like Fragilaria capucina Desmazieres, Navicula cryptocephala (Grunow) Cleve, Encyonema silesiacum (Bleisch) Mann, Eunotia bilunaris (Ehrenberg) Mills and Gomphonema parvulum (Kuetzing) Kuetzing), of phytoperiphyton communities with increasing Cd and Cr concentrations and exposure duration have been demonstrated in this study making phytoperiphyton communities appropriate monitors of metal mixtures in aquatic systems. Good Cd and Cr accumulation capacity by phytoperiphyton was demonstrated with total and intracellular metal content in phytoperiphyton reflecting the effects of dissolved concentrations of metal in the culture media and exposure duration. Increase in both Cd and Cr reduced sequestration of each other, with generally more Cd being

  14. Kalyptorhynchia (Platyhelminthes: Rhabdocoela) from KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), with the description of six new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Wim R; Reygel, Patrick; Steenkiste, Niels VAN; Tessens, Bart; Artois, Tom J

    2017-03-13

    material is inadequate for a formal description, but they are mentioned and illustrated to allow future recognition. Six known species, Pocillorhynchus spiroductus Schockaert, 1982, Duplacrorhynchus heyleni Artois & Schockaert, 1999, Gyratrix hermaphroditus Ehrenberg, 1831, Paulodora contortoides Artois & Tessens, 2008, P. drepanophora Artois & Tessens, 2008 and Cheliplana pileola Jouk & De Vocht, 1989 are reported from South Africa for the first time and additional remarks on their morphology are given. An additional species, Brachyrhynchoides oosterlyncki (Willems, Reygel & Artois, 2013) Willems, Reygel & Artois, 2013 was recently described from South Africa and India (see Artois et al., 2013b, 2013c), and is mentioned here for the sake of completeness.

  15. Prevalence of Colacium vesiculosum (Colaciales: Euglenophyceae on planktonic crustaceans in a subtropical shallow lake of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Zalocar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Colacium vesiculosum (Euglenophyceae is an epibiont common on planktonic microcrustaceans of continental waters. The interaction between epibionts and substrate organisms is not very well known, particularly in subtropical environments of South America. In the present work, we analyzed the prevalence, density, biomass and attachment sites of C. vesiculosum on planktonic microcrustaceans from Paiva Lake, a subtropical lake of Argentina. With the aim to evaluate whether epibionts affect the filtering rates of Notodiaptomus spiniger, the dominant planktonic crustacean, we carried out bioassays using phytoplankton Colacium vesiculosum Ehrenberg (Euglenophyceae es un epibionte común en microcrustáceos del plancton de aguas continentales. La interacción epibiontes y organismo substrato es poco conocida, particularmente en ambientes subtropicales de América del Sur. Se analiza la prevalencia, densidad, biomasa y sitios de adhesión de C. vesiculosum en microcrustáceos planctónicos de un lago subtropical de Argentina. Con el fin de evaluar si los epibiontes afectan la tasa de filtración de Notodiaptomus spiniger Brian, crustáceo dominante del zooplancton, se realizaron bioensayos utilizando el fitoplancton <53µm. Los crustáceos fueron muestreados con un tubo de PVC (1m de largo, 10cm de diámetro filtrándose 50L de agua a través de una red de 53µm de abertura de malla. El recuento de los microcrustáceos se realizó en cámaras de Bogorov bajo microscopio estereoscópico. Los organismos infectados fueron separados y observados al microscopio fotónico para determinaciones de densidad y biovolumen de los epibiontes, y su distribución en el exoesqueleto. La prevalencia de C. vesiculosum fue mayor en crustáceos adultos que en estadíos larvales y juveniles. El grupo más infestado fue el de los copépodos calanoideos en relación con su alta densidad. Los sitios de adhesión sobre el exoesqueleto fueron las regiones del cuerpo que durante la

  16. Phylogenetic survey of metabolically active microbial communities associated with the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the Apulian plateau, Central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimov, Michail M.; Cappello, Simone; Crisafi, Ermanno; Tursi, Angelo; Savini, Alessandra; Corselli, Cesare; Scarfi, Simona; Giuliano, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Living deep-water coral assemblages were discovered recently inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea between the depths of 300 and 1000 m off the Cape of Santa Maria di Leuca (Apulian platform, Ionian Sea). This living assemblage was dominated by two colonial scleractinian corals, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Two other corals, Desmophyllum crystagalli and Stenocyathus vermiformis were also recovered from this site, but were much less common. The composition of the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community associated with living specimens of L. pertusa was determined. Dead corals, proximal sediments and overlying seawater were also sampled and analyzed. Complementary 16S ribosomal DNA (crDNA) was obtained from total RNA extracted from all samples that had been subjected to reverse transcription-PCR amplification. Domain-specific 16S PCR primers were used to construct four different 16S crDNA libraries containing 45 Archaea and 201 Bacteria clones. Using Archaea-specific primers, no amplification products were obtained from any coral samples (live and dead). Living specimens of L. pertusa seem to possess a specific microbial community different from that of dead coral and sediment samples. The majority of all coral-associated riboclones was related to the Holophaga-Acidobacterium and Nitrospira divisions (80%). Moreover, more than 12% of all coral-associated riboclones formed a separate deep-branching cluster within the α- Proteobacteria with no known close relatives. The metabolically active fraction of the bacterial community colonizing the dead corals was dominated by Proteobacteria related to the gamma and epsilon subdivisions (74% and 26% of all clones, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of the Archaea clone library retrieved from proximal sediments indicated an exclusive dominance by the members of Crenarchaea Marine Group I (MGI), a lineage of unculturable microorganisms, widely distributed in marine habitats. In contrast, bacterial

  17. [Fishery of oceanic and coastal sharks in Colima, Jalisco and Michoacán].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Angélica; Soriano, Sandra R; Santana, Heriberto; Ramírez, Cecilia E; Valdez, Juan J

    2011-06-01

    Shark fishery is one of the most important activities in the Mexican Pacific coast, nevertheless, there is few data available about the specific captures done by the fleet along the coast. This study describes fishery biology aspects of the shark species catched by the semi-industrial long-line fleet of Manzanillo. Monthly samplings were made on board of these vessels during an annual period from April 2006 to April 2007. Captured species composition (n = 1 962 organisms) was represented by nine species. The one that sustains this fishery was Carcharhinus falciformis (88.12%), followed by Prionace glauca (8.21%). Low frequency species were represented by Sphyrna zygaena (1.78%), Alopias pelagicus (0.82%), Carcharhinus longimanus (0.45%). Furthermore, rare species were Alopias superciliosus (0.35%), Carcharhinus leucas (0.1%), Carcharhinus limbatus (0.1%) and Isurus oxyrinchus (0.05%). Fishery activity affected principally (60-92.70%) young males of C. falciformis, S. zygaena, C. longimanus and I. oxyrinchus; adult males (56-75%) of A. pelagicus, A. superciliosus, and C. limbatus; for P. glauca there were primarily female adults. For all the species found, females showed the bigger sizes when compared to males (with the exception of S. zygaena, that showed sexual dimorphism). Considering the lineal regressions made between precaudal length and total length, and, fork length and total length for C. falciformis, P. glauca, S. zygaena and A. pelagicus, the determination coefficients (r2) showed that both lengths can be useful to obtain the total length of fish with some damage or absence of its caudal fin. The estimated fecundity for C. falciformis was of 3-7 offspring/female of 30-45 cm LT (average of 40.57 +/- 2.03 cm LT); and for P. glauca 5-52 offspring/female of 5-18.6 cm LT (average of 11.61 +/- 0.21 cm LT). In the case of C. longimanus only one female was captured with a total of eight embryos, with an average of 45 cm LT each; for this reason we assumed that

  18. Calcium-binding protein-containing neuronal populations in mammalian visual cortex: a comparative study in whales, insectivores, bats, rodents, and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, I I; Hof, P R; Leranth, C; Morgane, P J

    1993-01-01

    This study is focused on comparative analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid-positive (GABAergic) neuronal populations in primary visual cortex of totally aquatic toothed whales and select terrestrial mammals with different evolutionary histories and various ecological adaptations. The distribution of neuronal populations containing the calcium-binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin, which are recognized markers for the GABAergic neurons in cerebral cortex, is compared in five species of toothed whales and in representatives (one species each) of insectivores, bats, rodents, and primates. Computerized image analysis has shown that overall quantitative characteristics of GABAergic cortical neurons in toothed whales are similar to those in other mammalian orders. Thus, GABA-positive neurons represent 26% of the total population of cortical neurons in the visual cortex of whales. Some 97% of GABA-positive cells contain calcium-binding proteins, which is numerically similar to these parameters found in primates and other mammals. On the other hand, the typology and laminar distribution of calcium-binding protein-containing neurons in the primary visual cortex of five whale species (Delphinapterus leucas, Globicephala melaena, Phocoena phocoena, Stenella coeruleoalba, and Tursiops truncatus) differ significantly from those of primates (Macaca mulatta) and rodents (Rattus rattus) and are similar to those found in insectivorous bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). In whales, bats, and hedgehogs a significant concentration of calbindin-positive, vertically oriented bipolar and bitufted neurons was found in layers I, II, and IIIc/V with their axons arranged in a three-dimensional network. In primates and rodents they are distributed evenly across all cortical layers and are predominantly multipolar or bitufted neurons found in all cortical layers with their axons oriented along the vertical axis of the cortical plate. The parvalbumin-positive neurons

  19. Mercury toxicity in beluga whale lymphocytes: Limited effects of selenium protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouin, H. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Rd, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Loseto, L.L.; Stern, G.A. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Haulena, M. [Vancouver Aquarium, 845 Avison Way, Vancouver, BC, V6G 3E2 (Canada); Ross, P.S., E-mail: peter.s.ross@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Rd, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Increasing emissions of anthropogenic mercury represents a growing concern to the health of high trophic level marine mammals. In its organic form, this metal bioaccumulates, and can be toxic to several physiological endpoints, including the immune system. In this study, we (1) evaluated the effects of inorganic mercury (mercuric chloride, HgCl{sub 2}) and organic mercury (methylmercuric chloride, MeHgCl) on the in vitro function of lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas); (2) characterized the potential protective effects of sodium selenite (Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3}) on cell proliferation of HgCl{sub 2} or MeHgCl-treated beluga whale lymphocytes; and (3) compared these dose-dependent effects to measurements of blood Hg in samples collected from traditionally harvested beluga whales in the western Canadian Arctic. Lymphocyte proliferative responses were reduced following exposure to 1 {mu}M of HgCl{sub 2} and 0.33 {mu}M of MeHgCl. Decreased intracellular thiol levels were observed at 10 {mu}M of HgCl{sub 2} and 0.33 {mu}M of MeHgCl. Metallothionein induction was noted at 0.33 {mu}M of MeHgCl. Concurrent exposure of Se provided a degree of protection against the highest concentrations of inorganic Hg (3.33 and 10 {mu}M) or organic Hg (10 {mu}M) for T-lymphocytes. This in vitro protection of Se against Hg toxicity to lymphocytes may contribute to the in vivo protection in beluga whales exposed to high Hg concentrations. Current Hg levels in free-ranging beluga whales from the Arctic fall into the range of exposures which elicited effects on lymphocytes in our study, highlighting the potential for effects on host resistance to disease. The implications of a changing Arctic climate on Hg fate in beluga food webs and the consequences for the health of beluga whales remain pressing research needs.

  20. Marine mammal acoustic detections in the northeastern Chukchi Sea, September 2007-July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannay, David E.; Delarue, Julien; Mouy, Xavier; Martin, Bruce S.; Leary, Del; Oswald, Julie N.; Vallarta, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    Several cetacean and pinniped species use the northeastern Chukchi Sea as seasonal or year-round habitat. This area has experienced pronounced reduction in the extent of summer sea ice over the last decade, as well as increased anthropogenic activity, particularly in the form of oil and gas exploration. The effects of these changes on marine mammal species are presently unknown. Autonomous passive acoustic recorders were deployed over a wide area of the northeastern Chukchi Sea off the coast of Alaska from Cape Lisburne to Barrow, at distances from 8 km to 200 km from shore: up to 44 each summer and up to 8 each winter. Acoustic data were acquired at 16 kHz continuously during summer and on a duty cycle of 40 or 48 min within each 4-h period during winter. Recordings were analyzed manually and using automated detection and classification systems to identify calls. Bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) whale calls were detected primarily from April through June and from September to December during their migrations between the Bering and Beaufort seas. Summer detections were rare and usually concentrated off Wainwright and Barrow, Alaska. Gray (Eschrichtius robustus) whale calls were detected between July and October, their occurrence decreasing with increasing distance from shore. Fin (Balaenoptera physalus), killer (Orcinus orca), minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) whales were detected sporadically in summer and early fall. Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) was the most commonly detected species between June and October, primarily occupying the southern edge of Hanna Shoal and haul-outs near coastal recording stations off Wainwright and Point Lay. Ringed (Pusa hispida) and bearded (Erignathus barbatus) seals occur year-round in the Chukchi Sea. Ringed seal acoustic detections occurred throughout the year but detection numbers were low, likely due to low vocalization rates. Bearded seal acoustic detections

  1. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, Aaron T. [Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States)]. E-mail: afisk@forestry.uga.edu; Wit, Cynthia A. de [Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Wayland, Mark [Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Kuzyk, Zou Zou [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Burgess, Neil [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 6 Bruce St. Mt. Pearl, NL, A1N4T3 (Canada); Letcher, Robert [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Braune, Birgit [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Norstrom, Ross [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Blum, Susan Polischuk [Office of Research Services, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 4J8 (Canada); Sandau, Courtney [Jacques Whitford Limited, Calgary, AB, T2R 0E4 (Canada); Lie, Elisabeth [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Hans Jorgen S. [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, Janneche Utne [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  2. Distribution and migrations of cetaceans in the Russian Arctic according to observations from aerial ice reconnaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav E Belikov

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on 748 observations of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas and 382 observations of baleen whales in the Russian Arctic, the majority of the data provided by aerial reconnaissance of sea ice (ARSI. Although the data are not suitable for the estimation of the number and density of the animals, they represent a multi-year (1958-1995 range of observations to update our knowledge on the seasonal distribution and migrations of the species. Belugas inhabit not only shelf waters but also the zone of the shelf slope and the abyssal zone of the Arctic Ocean, where the animals appear mostly in summer. In winter belugas were observed only in the Barents Sea. In June-August, the frequency of beluga observations was highest in the Laptev Sea, which has previously been believed to have considerably lower numbers of beluga than the Kara and Barents seas. Patterns of seasonal distribution and ice cover suggest the existence of a natural border preventing or reducing population exchange between belugas inhabiting the western and eastern parts of the Russian Arctic. A brief review of available data on distribution of the narwhal (Monodon monoceros in the Russian Arctic is also given. Two species of baleen whales were frequently seen in the Russian Arctic: the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus, and the grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus. The majority of such observations were made in the southeastern part of the East-Siberian Sea and the southern part of the Chukchi Sea. In the Bering Sea baleen whales were usually seen near the Chukotka Peninsula, in Anadyr Bay and southeast of it. Whales were usually seen in ice-free water: observations of whales among rarefied ice and near the ice edge were rare. There were considerable annual and seasonal variations in distribution and migrations of baleen whales in the region, probably caused mainly by the dynamics of ice conditions.

  3. Effects of Fertilization on Tree Growth and Soil Carbon, Nitrogen Content at an Ecological Restoration Area in Dry-Hot Valley%施肥对干热河谷生态恢复区林木生长及土壤碳氮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国勇; 李昆; 张昌顺

    2009-01-01

    对比研究了施肥对干热河谷生态恢复区4年生印楝(Azadirachta indica A.)、新银合欢(Leucaena leuca-cephala)和大叶相思(Acacia auriliformis A.)生长量和土壤碳氮含量的影响.结果表明:雨季生长期内,施肥措施下印楝、新银合欢和大叶相思地径增量分别是不施肥的2.0倍、1.4倍和2.0倍,树高增量是不施肥的1.6倍、1.4倍和1.5倍.生态恢复区土壤有机碳(SOC)和全氮(TN)含量比恢复前高7.8%和19.1%.施肥对SOC和TN含量的方差贡献率(84.6%和75.4%)日月显高于林分类型(39.3%和56.2%).3类林分SOC含量在3.42~3.60 g/kg之间,大叶相思(0.62 g/kg)和新银合欢(0.57 g/kg)林地TN含量显著高于印楝(0.50 g/kg).肥料配施处理下SOC和TN含量明显高于肥料单施,而不施肥处理含量最低.研究得出.施肥可以显著促进干热河谷人工林的生长,肥料配施效果尤为明显;施肥措施是生态恢复区SOC和TN含量变异的主要原因.该地区生态恢复时宜筛选根瘤菌可以侵染的树种.

  4. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to

  5. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Truchon

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193 and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO. Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance. For most species (75%, n = 6 species, a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata. This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively. This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a

  6. Characterising coarse PBA dynamics in real-time above and below a tropical rainforest canopy using a dual channel UV fluorescence aerosol spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabey, A.; Gallagher, M. W.; Burgess, R.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.,; Kaye, P. H.; Stanley, W. R.; Davies, F.; Foot, V. E.

    2009-04-01

    Primary biogenic aerosols (PBA) are used by organisms as a means to propagate their genetic material, either by transport of the organisms themselves, such as bacterial clusters and viruses, or of their reproductive components in the case of fungi and plants that release spores and pollen. Many studies have suggested PBA might be important for initiation of cloud formation and subsequent precipitation evolution by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or possibly as ice nuclei (IN). This link is inferred from laboratory studies demonstrating the high activation efficiency of PBA at warm temperatures, coupled with observations that biological particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Despite more than two hundred years of research (e.g. Ehrenberg, 1830) information on the abundance, composition and more importantly the sources and heterogeneity of PBA on global scales is still lacking. The first estimates of global average PBA emission rates based on observations and budget calculations were provided by Elbert et al. (2007). They demonstrate that fungi contribute a major fraction of the observed coarse PBA PM10 mass (particles with diameters between 1-10 m), particularly Acomycota (AAM) and Basidiomycota (ABM) commonly seen in tropical regions. These species discharge their spores via so-called "active wet" mechanisms that eject spores inside liquid droplets. Elbert et al. (2007) estimate a global average spore emission rate for ABM of ~17-50 Tg yr-1, corresponding to a global average abundance of ~1 g m-3 and a net emission rate for all fungal spores of 50 Tg yr-1. Uncertainty in the latter estimate is significant compared to the result, placed at 50-1000 Tg yr-1. Nonetheless, these calculations demonstrate the potential importance of PBA and particularly fungal spores in the tropics, where up to half of the coarse mode particulate loading is PBA, and potentially in the global organic aerosol budget. Data was collected using the WIBS-3: a low-cost, portable

  7. MACROALGAS E QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA NA BACIA DO ALTO RIO NEGRO - MUNICÍPIO DE SÃO GABRIEL DA CACHOEIRA (AM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domitila Pascoaloto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigadas as comunidades de macroalgas do rio Negro, no município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira. Em setembro/2007 foram visitados cinco sítios amostrais, próximos à sede da cidade; em Março/2008 foram investigados oito sítios amostrais, entre a comunidade Amium (hemisfério norte e a sede da cidade (hemisfério sul; em agosto de 2008 foram investigadas as comunidades de macroalgas e a qualidade da água do rio Negro e onze afluentes, entre os rios Içana (hemisfério norte e Marie, no hemisfério sul; em abril/2009 foram coletadas macroalgas e água no rio Negro e em igarapés de água com tonalidade vermelha, na sede da cidade; em maio/2009 foram feitas coletas de água no rio Negro entre a comunidade de Cucuí, onde o rio Negro entra no Brasil e a sede do município. As águas dos locais apresentaram características típicas de rio de “água preta”: pH ácido ( 6,0 mgO2/L. As entidades ecológicas de macroalgas observadas pertenceram aos gêneros Batrachospermum Roth (Batrachospermaceae, Rhodophyta; Microspora Thuret (Microsporaceae, Chorophyta, Oedogonium Link ex Hirn (Oedogoniaceae, Chorophyta; Oscillatoria Vaucher ex Gomont (Oscillatoriaceae, Cyanophyta; Phormidium Kützing ex Gomont (Phormidiaceae, Cyanophyta; Spirogyra Link (Zygnemaceae, Chlorophyta; Tabellaria Ehrenberge ex Kützing (Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyta. Na sede da cidade, a macroalga mais freqüente (50% dos registros foi Spirogyra spp.. Foram encontradas macroalgas com hábitos eplilíticos e efíticos Gametófitos de Batrachospermum spp. foram observados em três sítios amostrais (em troncos ou rochas em setembro/2007, período de águas mais baixas, porém não foram encontradas macroalgas nesses locais em março/2008, quando o rio estava mais cheio. No entanto, em agosto de 2008, quando o rio também estava em período de águas altas, foram observados, em fragmentos rochosos na orla da sede do município, filamentos férteis de Batrachospermum sp

  8. Environmental Effects and Structural Optimization of Crab Culture in Ponds in Reclamation Zones of Gucheng Lake%固城湖围垦区池塘河蟹养殖环境影响及模式优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周露洪; 谷孝鸿; 曾庆飞; 毛志刚; 高华梅

    2013-01-01

    为了解固城湖围垦区不同池塘的河蟹养殖环境效应并筛选出适宜的生态养殖模式,对河蟹养殖周期内不同养殖池塘的养殖情况和水环境进行跟踪研究,并构建模型估算养殖容量.结果表明,养殖周期内现有养殖模式的池塘和取水河道水质大多为GB 3838-2002《地表水环境质量标准》中的Ⅳ类和Ⅴ类水,明显劣于固城湖水质(Ⅲ类水),其中最主要的污染因子为TN和TP;池塘的浮游植物、浮游动物和底栖动物的群落结构简单,优势种分别为隐藻、秀体溞及环棱螺,且浮游动物Margalef丰富度指数与河蟹养殖产出呈显著正相关(P<0.05);基于现有养殖模式,河蟹的最大养殖容量为9855只hm-2.综合考虑养殖池塘环境、经济效益及养殖容量等因素,认为固城湖围垦区池塘河蟹的适宜生态养殖模式为:蟹苗投放密度(9000±750)只·hm-2;饵料系数0.47 ~0.53;水草覆盖度约70%(其中苦草40%,伊乐藻20%,轮叶黑藻10%);螺类投放量6 000 ~7500 kg·hm-2.%In order to study environmental effects of crab culture in different ponds in reclamation zones of the Gucheng Lake and screen an optimal ecological pattern of crab culturing, the operation of crab culture and variation of the water environment during the period were monitored and a model was constructed to estimate the carrying capacity of the ponds. Results show that under the current pattern of crab culturing, the waters in the ponds and the water supplying rivers fell in Grade Ⅳ and Ⅴ of the "Standard for Surface Water Environmental Quality" (GB 3838 -2002), and were obviously lower than that in the Gucheng Lake, which was in Grade Ⅲ. In the former, total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) were the main polluting factors. In the ponds, the community structures of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos were simple, and dominated mainly by Cryptorrwnas ehrenberg, Diapharwsoma and Bellamya. The Margalef species

  9. La pesquería de tiburones oceánicos-costeros en los litorales de Colima, Jalisco y Michoacán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La pesquería de tiburón es una de las más importantes en el Pacífico mexicano, en la actualidad no se cuentan con los datos de la composición específica de las capturas de las diferentes flotas. En el presente trabajo se describen aspectos biológicos-pesqueros de las especies de tiburón, capturadas por la flota palangrera de mediana altura del puerto de Manzanillo, en un periodo anual de abril 2006-abril 2007, los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente a bordo de estas embarcaciones. La composición de las capturas estuvo representada por nueve especies (n=1 962, de las cuales Carcharhinus falciformis (Bibron, 1839 (88.12% sostiene esta pesquería y en segundo lugar Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 (8.21%. Las especies poco frecuentes fueron Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758 con (1.78%, Alopias pelagicus (Nakamura, 1935 (0.82%, Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey, 1861 (0.45%, Alopias superciliosus (Lowe, 1839 (0.35%, Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes, 1839 (0.1%, Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes, 1839 (0.1% é Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810 (0.05%. La fecundidad estimada para C. falciformis fue de 3-7 crías/hembra con tallas de 30-45cm LT; 40.57+2.03cm LT y P. glauca con 5-52 crías/hembra, con tallas de 5-18.6cm LT; 11.61±0.21cm LT. Por lo tanto se asume que C. falciformis presenta un ciclo concurrente y P. glauca probablemente un ciclo bianual consecutivo.Fishery of oceanic and coastal sharks in Colima, Jalisco and Michoacán. Shark fishery is one of the most important activities in the Mexican Pacific coast, nevertheless, there is few data available about the specific captures done by the fleet along the coast. This study describes fishery biology aspects of the shark species catched by the semi-industrial long-line fleet of Manzanillo. Monthly samplings were made on board of these vessels during an annual period from April 2006 to April 2007. Captured species composition (n=1 962 organisms was represented by nine species. The one

  10. Medicinal plants used for management of malaria among the Luhya community of Kakamega East sub-County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukungu, Nillian; Abuga, Kennedy; Okalebo, Faith; Ingwela, Raphael; Mwangi, Julius

    2016-12-24

    azedarach L, Aloe spp, Ajuga integrifolia Buch. Ham, Vernonia amygdalina Del., Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane and Mabb, Fuerstia africana T.C.E.Fr., Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P.G.Waterman and Leucas calostachys Oliv. Rumex steudelii Hochst.ex A. Rich and Phyllanthus sepialis Müll. Arg are reported for the first time in the management of malaria. Although Clerodendrum johnstonii Oliv. (Jeruto et al., 2011) and Physalis peruviana L.(Ramadan et al., 2015) are reported in other studies for management of malaria, no studies have been carried out to demonstrate their antiplasmodial activity. The plant parts mostly used were the leaves (36%) and stem barks (26%). Majority of these plants were prepared as decoctions by boiling and allowed to cool before administration (66%) while infusions accounted for 28% of the preparations. The literature mined supports the use of these plants for the management of malaria since most of them have demonstrated in-vitro and in-vivo antiplasmodial activities. Most of the reported plant species in this study have been investigated for antiplasmodial activity and are in agreement with the ethnomedical use. Two (2) plants are reported for the first time in the management of malaria. There is need for documentation and preservation of the rich ethnomedical knowledge within this community given that most of the practitioners are advanced in age and less educated. There is also the danger of over-exploitation of plant species as most of them are obtained from the wild, mainly Kakamega forest. Therefore, there is need for determining the economically and medicinally important plants in this community and planning for their preservation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. 元谋干热河谷区薪炭林造林树种及模式研究%Afforestation Species and Mode of Biomass Energy Trees for Arid Valley Area in Yuanmou County, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路卫华

    2015-01-01

    在对元谋小横山试验林多年跟踪调查研究的基础上,通过对19个参试树种生长量、生物量和热能产值的测定,筛选元谋干热河谷区适宜的薪材树种。同时,比较撩壕、大塘和牛犁沟3种整地方式、不同定植时间、不同定植密度等因素对造林后幼树生长的影响。结果表明,赤桉、银合欢、苏门答腊金合欢、念珠相思、山毛豆等5个树种为元谋干热河谷区适宜的薪材树种,其造林3年后,林木的生物量(气干材)达9.0 t/hm2以上(年平均3.0 t/hm2),其中薪材7.65 t/hm2。最适造林模式为:(1)撩壕整地;(2)造林密度:桉树类5000株/hm2,银合欢、苏门答腊金合欢、念珠相思、山毛豆等10000株/hm2;(3)定植季节是夏至到大暑节令之间。%Based on years of continous tracking study on the experimental forests in Xiaohengshan , Yuanmou County , Yunnan , this article documents how efforts were made to identify and select tree species most suitable for fuel wood consumption out of 19 studied tree species across the arid valley area in Yuanmou .In the process indica-tors such as the growth , biomass and levels of heat production of 19 tree species were measured .In the article fac-tors that may have influence on the growth of juvenile trees after being planted with different afforestation modes were discussed by comparing 3 patterns of soil preparation , i.e., ditch digging , large soil pool and bovine fur-row, and various colonization season/density.Results from this study show that Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Leucae-na leucocephala, Acacia suma, Acacia torulosa and Tephrosia candida were 5 species most suitable for afforestation efforts to plant as fuelwood in this area .Three years after the afforestation , the tree biomass was more than 9.0 t/hm2 (annual 3.0 t/hm2), among which the fuel wood was up to 7.65 t/ha.The best afforestation mode is:(1) Soil preparation should

  12. New cetacean ΔR values for Arctic North America and their implications for marine-mammal-based palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furze, Mark F. A.; Pieńkowski, Anna J.; Coulthard, Roy D.

    2014-05-01

    Radiocarbon-dated marine mammal remains from emergent Arctic coastlines have frequently been used to reconstruct Holocene sea-ice histories. The use of such reconstructions has hitherto been complicated by uncertain marine reservoir corrections precluding meaningful intercomparisons with data reported in calibrated or sidereal years. Based on an exhaustive compilation of previously published marine mammal radiocarbon dates (both live-harvested materials and subfossils) from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), new, statistically-derived δ13C and ΔR values are provided. Average δ13C values are: -16.1 ± 1.1‰ (bone collagen; n = 193) for bowhead (Balaena mysticetus); -14.4 ± 0.5‰ (n = 44; dentine) for beluga (Delphinapterus leucas); -14.8 ± 1.9‰ (teeth and tusks; n = 18) and -18.0 ± 4.7‰ (n = 9; bone collagen) for walrus (Odobenus rosmarus). ΔR values are 170 ± 95 14C years for bowhead (n = 23) and 240 ± 60 14C years for beluga (n = 12). Scarce data preclude calculation of meaningful, statistically robust walrus ΔR. Using the new ΔR values, an expanded and revised database of calibrated bowhead dates (651 dates; many used in previous CAA sea-ice reconstructions) shows pronounced late Quaternary spatio-temporal fluctuations in bone abundance. Though broadly resembling earlier bowhead subfossil frequency data, analysis of the new expanded database suggests early- and mid-Holocene increases in whale abundance to be of longer duration and lower amplitude than previously considered. A more even and persistent spread of infrequent low-abundance remains during “whale free” intervals is also seen. The dominance of three eastern regions (Prince Regent Inlet & Gulf of Boothia; Admiralty Inlet; Berlinguet Inlet/Bernier Bay) in the CAA data, collectively contributing up to 88% of all subfossil remains in the mid-Holocene, is notable. An analysis of calibrated regional sea-level index points suggests that severance of the Admiralty Inlet-Gulf of Boothia

  13. Overview and regional and temporal differences of heavy metals in Arctic whales and ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, R; Innes, S; Richard, P R

    1996-07-16

    Concentrations of mercury, cadmium, and other heavy metals in tissues of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from across the Canadian Arctic are reported. Published and new information is used to provide an overview of metals in tissues of these animals, to delineate the existence of a spatial trend of mercury and cadmium in belugas and ringed seals, and to show a temporal trend is superimposed on the geochemical trend. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Arctic whales and ringed seals were high relative to the Canadian guideline of 0.5 micrograms/g wet wt., for mercury in fish, except in the skin of belugas (0.59-0.78 micrograms/g wet wt.) and flesh of ringed seals (0.39-0.41 micrograms/g wet wt.). In the flesh of belugas (0.94-1.34 micrograms/g wet wt.), and in the liver of ringed seals, tissues that are also consumed by Native people in the Arctic (8.34-27.5 micrograms/g wet wt.), the guideline value was significantly exceeded. Mean lead concentrations in tissues of belugas, narwhal and ringed seals were generally low (0.002-0.028 micrograms/g wet wt.), except in tissues of belugas in the St. Lawrence River (0.10-0.15 micrograms/g wet wt.). The concentration of zinc in the skin of whales was two to three times higher than in other tissues. The concentration of cadmium in organs was highest in narwhal. There was a positive correlation between mercury and selenium in the liver of all three species. The concentration of mercury in tissues of belugas and ringed seals was higher in the western than the eastern Arctic. This was attributed to different natural background concentrations in the western and eastern Arctic of Canada dictated by different geological formations in the two regions. Cadmium concentrations in tissues of belugas and ringed seals were higher in the eastern than the western Arctic. Zinc and copper in some tissues of belugas and ringed seals were also higher in the eastern than the western

  14. A stable isotope ( δ13C, δ15N) model for the North Water food web: implications for evaluating trophodynamics and the flow of energy and contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Keith A.; Fisk, Aaron; Karnovsky, Nina; Holst, Meike; Gagnon, Jean-Marc; Fortier, Martin

    The North Water Polynya is an area of high biological activity that supports large numbers of higher trophic-level organisms such as seabirds and marine mammals. An overall objective of the Upper Trophic-Level Group of the International North Water Polynya Study (NOW) was to evaluate carbon and contaminant flux through these high trophic-level (TL) consumers. Crucial to an evaluation of the role of such consumers, however, was the establishment of primary trophic linkages within the North Water food web. We used δ15N values of food web components from particulate organic matter (POM) through polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) to create a trophic-level model based on the assumptions that Calanus hyperboreus occupies TL 2.0 and there is a 2.4‰ trophic enrichment in 15N between birds and their diets, and a 3.8‰ trophic enrichment for all other components. This model placed the planktivorous dovekie ( Alle alle) at TL 3.3, ringed seal ( Phoca hispida) at TL 4.5, and polar bear at TL 5.5. The copepods C. hyperboreus, Chiridius glacialis and Euchaeta glacialis formed a trophic continuum (TL 2.0-3.0) from primary herbivore through omnivore to primary carnivore. Invertebrates were generally sorted according to planktonic, benthic and epibenthic feeding groups. Seabirds formed three trophic groups, with dovekie occupying the lowest, black-legged kittiwake ( Rissa tridactyla), northern fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis), thick-billed murre ( Uria aalge), and ivory gull ( Pagophilia eburnea) intermediate (TL 3.9-4.0), and glaucous gull ( Larus hyperboreus) the highest (TL 4.6) trophic positions. Among marine mammals, walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus) occupied the lowest (TL 3.2) and bearded seal ( Erignathus barbatus), ringed seal, beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas), and narwhal ( Monodon monoceros) intermediate positions (TL 4.1-4.6). In addition to arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida), we suggest that lower trophic-level prey, in particular the amphipod Themisto libellula, contribute

  15. Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, Monty [Project Director - AK

    2014-02-05

    Cook Inlet, Alaska is home to some of the greatest tidal energy resources in the U.S., as well as an endangered population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Successfully permitting and operating a tidal power project in Cook Inlet requires a biological assessment of the potential and realized effects of the physical presence and sound footprint of tidal turbines on the distribution, relative abundance, and behavior of Cook Inlet beluga whales. ORPC Alaska, working with the Project Team—LGL Alaska Research Associates, University of Alaska Anchorage, TerraSond, and Greeneridge Science—undertook the following U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) study to characterize beluga whales in Cook Inlet – Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with the Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project (Project). ORPC Alaska, LLC, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC, (collectively, ORPC). ORPC is a global leader in the development of hydrokinetic power systems and eco-conscious projects that harness the power of ocean and river currents to create clean, predictable renewable energy. ORPC is developing a tidal energy demonstration project in Cook Inlet at East Foreland where ORPC has a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) preliminary permit (P-13821). The Project collected baseline data to characterize pre-deployment patterns of marine mammal distribution, relative abundance, and behavior in ORPC’s proposed deployment area at East Foreland. ORPC also completed work near Fire Island where ORPC held a FERC preliminary permit (P-12679) until March 6, 2013. Passive hydroacoustic devices (previously utilized with bowhead whales in the Beaufort Sea) were adapted for study of beluga whales to determine the relative abundance of beluga whale vocalizations within the proposed deployment areas. Hydroacoustic data collected during the Project were used to characterize the ambient acoustic environment of the project site pre-deployment to inform the

  16. VIOLÊNCIA SIMBÓLICA NO TRABALHO: CONSIDERAÇÕES EXPLORATÓRIAS SOBRE A NOVA ONTOLOGIA DO TRABALHADOR NA PÓS-MODERNIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Myuki Hashizume

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de já termos superado modelos de trabalho que desconsideravam a inteligência do funcionário, encarando-o como máquina, como os modelos Taylorista e Fordista, e termos ingressado numa nova ordem de relações organizacionais mais horizontalizadas que valorizam a participação e a criatividade do funcionário (Toyotismo, ainda é notável a exploração desigual da empresa em relação ao funcionário em nome da ética do capital. O mundo pós moderno rompe com paradigmas e parâmetros estáveis da organização do mundo moderno, inserindo valores como o risco, a flexibilidade, a ilegibilidade, deixando o trabalhador à deriva da possibilidade de planejar sua carreira profissional a médio ou longo prazo. Com isso, deparamo-nos com um trabalhador que tem a sua rotina e valores (caráter desvirtuados por uma lógica que prioriza a subserviência às mudanças instantâneas do mercado. Sennet (2000 propõe um entendimento de que o caráter do trabalhador pós moderno está corroído, tamanha é a instabilidade e a dificuldade de se manter os laços e compromissos entre trabalhadores e destes com a chefia. Frente a esse cenário, surge um novo paradigma, que elegemos como nosso tema no presente artigo, que instiga os trabalhadores e grandes empresários a cultuar a sua auto performance (EHRENBERG, 2010. A figura do workaholic, outrora vista como uma patologia, hoje é considerada o ideal de dedicação no trabalho. O mundo do trabalho pós-moderno assimila o discurso do competidor esportista: por se tratar de um jogo, ainda que as metas não tenham sido alcançadas naquela ocasião, há novas oportunidades de se recuperá-la, em outras partidas. Dessa forma, controla-se o sujeito de forma onipresente, como já havia teorizado Delleuze (1992, em sua sociedade do controle. No presente trabalho iremos focar a violência simbólica cometida pelas corporações em relação a seus funcionários. Nosso objetivo é demonstrar teoricamente que

  17. 夏季蓝藻水华期间太湖河口区和敞水区纤毛虫群落组成及水平分布%COMMUNITY COMPOSITIONS AND HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF CILIATES IN LAKE TAIHU DURING THE CYANOBACTERIAL BLOOM IN SUMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 卢文轩; 张雷燕; 陈非洲

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ciliate samples were collected from 10 sites in the estuary zones and 14 sites in the pe-lagic zones in the northern area of Lake Taihu in July 2009. The ciliate species and their horizontal distribution were analyzed with quantitative protargol stain (QPS) method. We also explored the relationship between the ciliate commu-nity compositions and the environmental variables. We observed 105 species that represented 60 genera, 15 orders and 3 classes. The numbers of the species in different order were counted and compared. Orders Haptorida (21 species) and Oligotrichida (20 species) ranked the first and second, followed by orders Prostomatida (12 species), Peritrichida (11 species), and Hypotrichida (11 species). These five orders were predominant in the samples, while less species belonged to the other ten orders -- Karyorelictida, Pleurostomatida, Colpodida, Nassulida, Cyrophorida, Suctoria, Hy-menostomatida, Synhymeniida, Scuticociliatida, and Heterotrichida. Halteria bifurcate Tamar, H. grandinella Dujardin, Rimostrombidium brachykinetum Krainer, Tintinnopsis cylindrata Kofoid & Campbell and Cyclidium glaucoma Müller were the dominant species in both estuary (3.1%-12.3% in abundance) and pelagic (4.5%-18.1%) zones, followed by Urotricha farcta Claparède & Lachmann, Codonella cratera Leidy, R. humile Penard, Strombidium mirabile Penard, Tintinnidium pusillum Entz, Vorticella aquadulcis complex and V. campanula Ehrenberg. The abundance of ciliate was higher in the estuary zones than that in the pelagic zones, which fell in the range of 1600 to 80900 cells/L (average 31407 cells/L) and 1225 cells/L to 36000 cells/L (average 18618 cells/L), respectively. The biomass of ciliate showed the same pattern which was 1322.6μg/L and 543.6μg/L on average in the estuary and pelagic zones, respectively. Nei-ther the abundance nor the biomass of ciliates showed significant differences (P>0.05). Among the functional feeding groups, bactivorous and

  18. Sleep Inducing for EEG Recording in Children: A Comparison between Oral Midazolam and Chloral Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

    2013-02-01

    Behav 2008;13 (1:189-95.Gauillard J, Cheref S, Vacherontrystram MN, Martin JC. [Chloral hydrate: a hypnotic best forgotten?]. Encephale 2002;28(3 Pt 1:200-4.Cote CJ, Karl HW, Notterman DA, Weinberg JA, McCloskey C. Adverse sedation events in pediatrics: analysis of medications used for sedation. Pediatrics 2000;106(4:633-44.Greenblatt DJ, Ehrenberg BL, Culm KE, Scavone JM, Corbett KE, Friedman HL, et al. Kinetics and EEG effects of midazolam during and after 1-minute, 1-hour, and 3-hour intravenous infusions. J Clin Pharmacol 2004;44(6:605-11.Gurakan F, Yuce A, Ozen H, Saltic IN. Midazolam and pethidine for the sedation of children undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. Crit care med 2000;28(6:2176-7.Karl HW, Cote CJ, McCubbin MM, Kelley M, Liebelt E, Kaufman S, et al. Intravenous midazolam for sedation of children undergoing procedures: an analysis of age- and procedure-related factors. Pediatr Emerg Care 1999;15(3:167-72.Lightdale JR, Mitchell PD, Fredette ME, Mahoney LB, Zgleszewski SE, Scharff L, et al. A Pilot Study of Ketamine versus Midazolam/Fentanyl Sedation in Children Undergoing GI Endoscopy. Int J Pediatr 2011; 2011:623710.Massanari M, Novitsky J, Reinstein LJ. Paradoxical reactions in children associated with midazolam use during endoscopy. 1997;36(12:681-4.Scott RC, Besag FM, Boyd SG, Berry D, Neville BG. Buccal absorption of midazolam: pharmacokinetics and EEG pharmacodynamics. Epilepsia 1998;39(3:290-4.Loewy J, Hallan C, Friedman E, Martinez C. Sleep/sedation in children undergoing EEG testing: a comparison of chloral hydrate and music therapy. Am J electroneurodiagnostic technol 2006;46(4:343-55.Rodriguez E, Jordan R. Contemporary trends in pediatric sedation and analgesia. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2002;20(1:199-222.Sisson DF, Siegel J. Chloral hydrate anesthesia: EEG power spectrum analysis and effects on VEPs in the rat. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1989;11(1:51-6.Thoresen M, Henriksen O, Wannag E, Laegreid L. Does a sedative dose of chloral hydrate modify the

  19. Biodiversidad del complejo de artrópodos asociados al follaje de la vegetación del norte de Chile, II región Biodiversity of the canopy arthropods associated to vegetation of the north of Chile, II region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO SAIZ

    2000-12-01

    establece el siguiente gradiente decreciente: DL, TM, TA y DI, concordante con la riqueza de especies vegetales. Como grupo, Homoptera es el que se distribuye sobre una mayor diversidad de especies vegetales en las zonas analizadas. Secundariamente puede considerarse a Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Psocoptera y Thysanoptera. Dentro del contexto total de especies vegetales muestreadas, destacan por la riqueza específica de artrópodos: Nolana divaricata, Baccharis petiolata, Heliotropium taltalense, Nicotiana solanifolia, Atriplex atacamensis, Fabiana densa, Baccharis incarum, Nolana crassulifolia, Haplopappus rigidus, Cortaderia atacamensis, Eremocharis fruticosa, Atriplex leuca. En cuanto a daño por fitofagia se encontró un total de 25 especies afectadas por defoliación, minado o formación de cecidias, siendo la más relevante esta última. La fitofagia por succión, la más importante del conjunto se infirió por la alta presencia y abundancia de insectos que funcionalmente corresponden a esta categoría (Homoptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, los que están presentes en todas las zonas ecológicas y en especial en DL y TMThe complex formed by phytophagous insects, their host plants and their predators is one of the most important component of ecosystems biodiversity. In this work the role of this complex on the biodiversity of the arid region of Chile was studied. It is postulated that a higher biodiversiyty of phytophagous insects would be associated to more favorable climatic conditions, higher host plant diversity, and higher nitrogen, ash and water content of the vegetation. Also, a higher biodiversity of predators and parasitoids will be sustained by a higher phytophagous insect biodiversity. The study was conducted in the II Region of Chile through an altitudinal transect crossing the following bioclimatic zones from the coast (0 m of altitude to the Andes (4,000 m of altitude: Coastal Desert (or Desierto Litoral, DL, Continental Desert (or Desierto Interior, DI, Pre

  20. The importance of tidewater glaciers for marine mammals and seabirds in Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Christian; Assmy, Philipp; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Kohler, Jack; Kovacs, Kit M.; Reigstad, Marit; Steen, Harald; Strøm, Hallvard; Sundfjord, Arild; Varpe, Øystein; Walczowski, Waldek; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Zajaczkowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 60% of Svalbard's land areas are glaciated at the present time. The Archipelago has more than 1100 glaciers (> 1 km2) and 163 of these are “tidewater glaciers” - that is glaciers that terminate (with their calving front) at the sea. It has been known for a long time that these glacier front areas are important feeding areas for seabirds and marine mammals. Herein, we review current knowledge regarding the importance of these areas for these animals and reflect upon the processes that create these apparent “hotspots”. Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, routinely dominate avian assemblages in front of glaciers in Svalbard, but fulmars Fulmarus glacialis, ivory gulls Pagophila eburnea and glaucous gulls Larus hyperboreus also contribute to aggregations, which can sometimes comprise many thousands of individuals. The birds are often found in the so-called “brown zone”, which is an area in front of tidewater glaciers that is ice-free due to currents and muddy due to suspended sediments. Animals at these sites typically have their stomachs full of large zooplankton or fish. These brown zones are also foraging hotspots for Svalbard's ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and white whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Prime breeding habitat for ringed seals in Svalbard occurs deep in the fjords where ice pieces calved from the glacier fronts become frozen into land-fast sea-ice, promoting the accumulation of snow to a depth suitable for ringed seal females to dig out birth lairs above breathing holes in the ice. These pupping areas are important hunting areas for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in spring, especially female bears with cubs of the year during the period following emergence from the winter/birthing den. Glacier-ice pieces floating in coastal areas are also important for all seal species in the region as dry platforms during moulting and also as general resting platforms for both birds and seals. During the last decade there have been several years with a