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Sample records for frontier beckons space

  1. The new gold rush the riches of space beckon!

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2017-01-01

    This book captures the most exciting advances in the harnessing of space as a global resource. The authors track the growing number of space businesses and opportunities for investors, and the many possible benefits of spaceplanes, space stations and even space colonies. The authors also discuss the need for more regulatory reform. Companies like Planetary Resources are now forming to find mineral-rich asteroids and bring back new riches to Earth. Solar power satellites in the next few years will start to beam clean energy back to Earth, to meet the growing demands of a still-developing world. Innovative space industries are vital to the survival of modern human life, and the authors demonstrate what can be done to encourage the growing of the "New Space" frontier. From lassoing and then mining asteroids to developing new methods of defending the planet from space hazards and setting up new hotels and adventures for tourists in space, this new industry will have profound effects on Earth, especially on its ec...

  2. Frontier spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg; Lund, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The global expansion of markets produces frontiers of contestation over the definition and control of resources. In a frontier context, new patterns of resource exploration, extraction, and commodification create new territories. A recently published collection (Rasmussen and Lund 2018) explores...

  3. Reconfiguring frontier spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg; Lund, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The expansion of capitalism produces contests over the definition and control of resources. On a global scale, new patterns of resource exploration, extraction, and commodification create new territories. This takes place within a dynamic of frontiers and territorialization. Frontier dynamics...

  4. Space: A new frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Mona; Miranda, Denis M.

    1986-08-01

    The challenges and the promises of space colonization present an exciting opportunity for exploring and analyzing the values, the institutions and the physical environments we have created on Earth. Here we describe an interdisciplinary course, team-taught, that examines the current state of space exploration and the innovative technologies spawned by space research. The course also explores the possible social, economic, political and international impacts of migration to space of people and industries. A course project is to design a space colony for a community of 10,000 people. Given the technical design parameters and other details, the students are to engineer socially an ideal community, bearing in mind the short lifetimes of utopian communities of the past. The process is intended to help the students gain a fair understanding of the dynamics of human societies and of the technologies we have developed that enable us to change our world and to design new worlds.

  5. Frontiers, territoriality and tensions in bordering spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansión of the agricultural frontier in the Argentine pampas implied a re-valuation of "bordering" spaces, which were considered "marginal" by capital. This paper aims at interpreting the socio-territorial impact -from both a material and a symbolic level- being caused by the expansión of the productive, business-profile [agricultural and oil] frontier in the center-west of the province of La Pampa. With the interpretative approach provided by qualitative methodologies, we intend to analyze -in a case study- how these frontier expansión processes altered and re-defined the social arena between the years 2000 and 2010, the social construction of the space and the power relations in Chos Malal

  6. Space The New Medical Frontier / NASA Spinoffs Milestones in Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Space The New Medical Frontier Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... the occasion. Photo courtesy of NIH Long-Term Space Research Until the advent of the ISS, research ...

  7. The Beckoning Void in Moravagine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Bellstrom

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chapter «Mascha,» lying at the heart of Cendrars's Moravagine , contains within it a variety of images and themes suggestive of emptiness. The philosophy of nihilism is exemplified in the motivations and actions of the group of terrorists seeking to plunge Russia into revolutionary chaos. Mascha's anatomical orifice, symbolizing both a biological and a psychological fault, and the abortion of her child, paralleled by the abortion of the revolutionary ideal among her comrades, are also emblematic of the chapter's central void. Moreover, Cendrars builds the theme of hollowness by describing Moravagine with images of omission, such as «empan» (space or span, «absent,» and «étranger.» Moravagine's presence, in fact, characteristically causes an undercurrent of doubt and uncertainty about the nature of reality to become overt. It is this parodoxical presence which seems to cause the narrator (and consequently the narrative to «lose» a day at the most critical moment of the story. By plunging the reader into the narrator's lapsus memoriae , Cendrars aims at creating a feeling of the kind of mental and cosmic disorder for which Moravagine is the strategist and apologist. This technique of insufficiency is an active technique, even though it relies on the passive idea of removing explanation and connecting details. The reader is invited, or lured, into the central void of the novel and, faced with unresolvable dilemmas, becomes involved in the same disorder that was initially produced.

  8. A Study on Neutrosophic Frontier and Neutrosophic Semi-frontier in Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Iswarya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper neutrosophic frontier and neutrosophic semi-frontier in neutrosophic topology are introduced and several of their properties, characterizations and examples are established.

  9. Global partnerships: Expanding the frontiers of space exploration education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Akinyede, Joseph O.; Goswami, Nandu; Thomson, William A.

    2012-11-01

    Globalization is creating an interdependent space-faring world and new opportunities for international partnerships that strengthen space knowledge development and transfer. These opportunities have been codified in the Global Exploration Strategy, which endorses the "inspirational and educational value of space exploration" [1]. Also, during the 2010 Heads of Space Agencies Summit celebrating the International Academy of Astronautics' (IAA) 50th Anniversary, space-faring nations from across the globe issued a collective call in support of robust international partnerships to expand the frontiers of space exploration and generate knowledge for improving life on Earth [2]. Educators play a unique role in this mission, developing strategic partnerships and sharing best educational practices to (1) further global understanding of the benefits of space exploration for life on Earth and (2) prepare the next generation of scientists required for the 21st Century space workforce. Educational Outreach (EO) programs use evidence-based, measurable outcomes strategies and cutting edge information technologies to transfer space-based science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) knowledge to new audiences; create indigenous materials with cultural resonance for emerging space societies; support teacher professional development; and contribute to workforce development initiatives that inspire and prepare new cohorts of students for space exploration careers. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) have sustained a 13-year space science education partnership dedicated to these objectives. This paper briefly describes the design and achievements of NSBRI's educational programs, with special emphasis on those initiatives' involvement with IAA and the International Astronautical Congress (IAC). The IAA Commission 2 Draft Report, Space for Africa, is discussed

  10. Space and the Frontier Mythos: A Re-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S.; Messier, Douglas; Bormanis, Andre

    1997-07-01

    Some modern space philosophies emphasize the historical parallels between the conquest of the Martian frontier and the expansion into the American West. These parallels are used as a rationale for planning the exploration and large-scale settlement of Mars. However, many of these historical allegories are in error. Vast differences exist between the geographical realities of Mars and the western frontier. Furthermore, westward expansion took place within a set of political, economic, social, and technological circumstances that are unlikely to be repeated in Martian exploration. The physical conditions and geographical realities of the Martian frontier in exploration and settlement terms are closer to the Antarctic continent. The American West, which had been inhabited by humans for thousands of years, offered a relative degree of comfort to new arrivals. We do not find large numbers of people migrating to the Canadian High Arctic or other polar regions to live. The inhospitable nature of these polar regions are the major limitation to the human desire to live there. The conquest of the American West took place within the context of a complex set of circumstances. Americans believed they had a 'manifest destiny' to extend their civilization across the continent. Many people also went west in search of a better life: for gold, land or other opportunities. The technology also existed at that point to allow large numbers of people to head west on their own at minimal cost. The settlement of Mars will be far different. It is for these reasons that we believe Antarctica is a much better analog for the exploration of Mars. Therefore, Martian exploration and settlement plans should be adjusted accordingly.

  11. Historic Frontier Processes active in Future Space-Based Mineral Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    The forces that shaped historic mining frontiers are in many cases not bound by geographic or temporal limits. The forces that helped define historic frontiers are active in today's physical and virtual frontiers, and will be present in future space-based frontiers. While frontiers derived from position and technology are primarily economic in nature, non-economic conditions affect the success or failure of individual frontier endeavors, local "mining camps" and even entire frontiers. Frontiers can be defined as the line of activity that divides the established markets and infrastructure of civilization from the unclaimed resources and potential wealth of a wilderness. At the frontier line, ownership of resources is established. The resource can then be developed using capital, energy and information. In a mining setting, the resource is concentrated for economic shipment to the markets of civilization. Profits from the sale of the resource are then used to fund further development of the resource and/or pay investors. Both positional and technical frontiers develop as a series of generations. The profits from each generation of development provides the capital and/or investment incentive for the next round of development. Without profit, the self-replicating process of frontiers stops.

  12. Vet Tech Field Beckons, Even in an Uncertain Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In a time of rising unemployment and increasing economic uncertainty, some fields still beckon with promises of continued growth, bright futures and handsome paychecks. And one of the most promising of all is the field of veterinary technology. This article features the Veterinary Technology Program at St. Petersburg College (SPC) in Florida.…

  13. Will space actually be the final frontier of humankind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta, Giancarlo; Rycroft, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Science fiction gave us the idea of space as the final frontier. Strongly supported by the pioneers of spaceflight, this was first questioned in the 1970s. The Apollo landings on the Moon did not lead to a permanent human presence on our satellite, the environment of even the most Earth-like planet (Mars) turned out to be more hostile, and the technical difficulties and the cost of spaceflight were worse than expected. So humankind seemed for ever to be bound to its own planet. These rather pessimistic views are re-examined here, in the light of recent technological advances, scientific discoveries and new perspectives. It is suggested that they result from a lack of vision. Thus the ‘final frontier’ myth is found still to hold, but with a much more stretched out timetable for future space programmes that was envisaged in the 1960s. The present generation can take its first faltering steps on the path towards a spacefaring civilization, but the outcome will depend on social, political and economic issues rather than technological and scientific ones.

  14. Thick Disks in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Tompkins, Brittany; Jenks, Leah G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Thick disk evolution is studied using edge-on galaxies in two Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field Parallels. The galaxies were separated into 72 clumpy types and 35 spiral types with bulges. Perpendicular light profiles in F435W, F606W, and F814W ( B , V , and I ) passbands were measured at 1 pixel intervals along the major axes and fitted to sech{sup 2} functions convolved with the instrument line spread function (LSF). The LSF was determined from the average point spread function of ∼20 stars in each passband and field, convolved with a line of uniform brightness to simulate disk blurring. A spread function for a clumpy disk was also used for comparison. The resulting scale heights were found to be proportional to galactic mass, with the average height for a 10{sup 10±0.5} M {sub ⊙} galaxy at z = 2 ± 0.5 equal to 0.63 ± 0.24 kpc. This value is probably the result of a blend between thin and thick disk components that cannot be resolved. Evidence for such two-component structure is present in an inverse correlation between height and midplane surface brightness. Models suggest that the thick disk is observed best between the clumps, and there the average scale height is 1.06 ± 0.43 kpc for the same mass and redshift. A 0.63 ± 0.68 mag V − I color differential with height is also evidence for a mixture of thin and thick components.

  15. Space: the final frontier in the learning of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    In Space, relations, and the learning of science, Wolff-Michael Roth and Pei-Ling Hsu use ethnomethodology to explore high school interns learning shopwork and shoptalk in a research lab that is located in a world class facility for water quality analysis. Using interaction analysis they identify how spaces, like a research laboratory, can be structured as smart spaces to create a workflow (learning flow) so that shoptalk and shopwork can projectively organize the actions of interns even in new and unfamiliar settings. Using these findings they explore implications for the design of curriculum and learning spaces more broadly. The Forum papers of Erica Blatt and Cassie Quigley complement this analysis. Blatt expands the discussion on space as an active component of learning with an examination of teaching settings, beyond laboratory spaces, as active participants of education. Quigley examines smart spaces as authentic learning spaces while acknowledging how internship experiences all empirical elements of authentic learning including open-ended inquiry and empowerment. In this paper I synthesize these ideas and propose that a narrative structure might better support workflow, student agency and democratic decision making.

  16. Brain Extracellular Space: The Final Frontier of Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Charles; Hrabětová, Sabina

    2017-11-21

    Brain extracellular space is the narrow microenvironment that surrounds every cell of the central nervous system. It contains a solution that closely resembles cerebrospinal fluid with the addition of extracellular matrix molecules. The space provides a reservoir for ions essential to the electrical activity of neurons and forms an intercellular chemical communication channel. Attempts to reveal the size and structure of the extracellular space using electron microscopy have had limited success; however, a biophysical approach based on diffusion of selected probe molecules has proved useful. A point-source paradigm, realized in the real-time iontophoresis method using tetramethylammonium, as well as earlier radiotracer methods, have shown that the extracellular space occupies ∼20% of brain tissue and small molecules have an effective diffusion coefficient that is two-fifths that in a free solution. Monte Carlo modeling indicates that geometrical constraints, including dead-space microdomains, contribute to the hindrance to diffusion. Imaging the spread of macromolecules shows them increasingly hindered as a function of size and suggests that the gaps between cells are predominantly ∼40 nm with wider local expansions that may represent dead-spaces. Diffusion measurements also characterize interactions of ions and proteins with the chondroitin and heparan sulfate components of the extracellular matrix; however, the many roles of the matrix are only starting to become apparent. The existence and magnitude of bulk flow and the so-called glymphatic system are topics of current interest and controversy. The extracellular space is an exciting area for research that will be propelled by emerging technologies. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fizeau interferometry from space: a challenging frontier in global astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreggia, Davide; Gardiol, Daniele; Gai, Mario; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Busonero, Deborah

    2004-10-01

    The design and performance of a Fizeau interferometer with long focal length and large field of view are discussed. The optical scheme presented is well suited for very accurate astrometric measurements from space, being optimised, in terms of geometry and aberrations, to observe astronomical targets down to the visual magnitude mV=20, with a measurement accuracy of 10 microarcseconds at mV=15. This study is in the context of the next generation astrometric space missions, in particular for a mission profile similar to that of the Gaia mission of the European Space Agency. Beyond the accuracy goal, the great effort in optical aberrations reduction, particularly distortion, aims at the optimal exploitation of data acquisition done with CCD arrays working in Time Delay Integration mode. The design solution we present reaches the astrometric goals with a field of view of 0.5 square degrees.

  18. Space: The Final Frontier-Research Relevant to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, John D

    2017-04-01

    A critically important gap in knowledge surrounds the health consequences of exposure to radiation received gradually over time. Much is known about the health effects of brief high-dose exposures, such as from the atomic bombings in Japan, but the concerns today focus on the frequent low-dose exposures received by members of the public, workers, and, as addressed in this paper, astronauts. Additional guidance is needed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for planning long-term missions where the rate of radiation exposure is gradual over years and the cumulative amounts high. The direct study of low doses and low-dose rates is of immeasurable value in understanding the possible range of health effects from gradual exposures and in providing guidance for radiation protection, not only of workers and the public but also astronauts. The ongoing Million Person Study (MPS) is 10 times larger than the study of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of 86,000 survivors with estimated doses. The number of workers with >100 mSv career dose is substantially greater. The large study size, broad range of doses, and long follow-up indicate substantial statistical ability to quantify the risk of exposures that are received gradually over time. The study consists of 360,000 U.S. Department of Energy workers from the Manhattan Project; 150,000 nuclear utility workers from the inception of the nuclear age; 115,000 atomic veterans who participated in above-ground atmospheric tests at the Nevada Test Site and the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls and Johnston Island in the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG); 250,000 radiologists and medical workers; and 130,000 industrial radiographers. NASA uses an individual risk-based system for radiation protection in contrast to the system of dose limits for occupational exposures used by terrestrial-based organizations. The permissible career exposure limit set by NASA for each astronaut is a 3% risk of exposure-induced death (REID

  19. The last of NASA's original pilot astronauts expanding the space frontier in the late sixties

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2017-01-01

    Resulting from the authors’ deep research into these two pre-Shuttle astronaut groups, many intriguing and untold stories behind the selection process are revealed in the book. The often extraordinary backgrounds and personal ambitions of these skilled pilots, chosen to continue NASA’s exploration and knowledge of the space frontier, are also examined. In April 1966 NASA selected 19 pilot astronauts whose training was specifically targeted to the Apollo lunar landing missions and the Earth-orbiting Skylab space station. Three years later, following the sudden cancellation of the USAF’s highly classified Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) project, seven military astronauts were also co-opted into NASA’s space program. This book represents the final chapter by the authors in the story of American astronaut selections prior to the era of the Space Shuttle. Through personal interviews and original NASA documentation, readers will also gain a true insight into a remarkable age of space travel as it unfolded ...

  20. Pursuing the Secrets of Matter, Space and Time at the Energy Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannis, Paul

    2003-04-01

    Particle physicists have made good progress in characterizing the fundamental forces of Nature and the elementary constituents of matter, and these phenomena shaped the universe in its earliest moments. However, what we know now is likely quite incomplete, and new ingredients are expected to surface in accelerator experiments over the coming twenty years. The new results are expected to give us insights into the nature of physics at much higher energies, and thus at earlier epochs in the universe, than are probed directly and may reveal new complexity in the nature of space and time. We will discuss the nature of the new results to be expected at the expanding energy frontier from experimental programs at the Fermilab Tevatron, the CERN Large Hadron Collider, and a TeV scale electron-positron linear collider.

  1. Frontier Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of frontier studies in the tourism literature. We discuss the main advantages and disadvantages of the various frontier approaches, in particular, the nonparametric and parametric frontier approaches. The study further differentiates between micro...

  2. Little Blue Dots in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields: Precursors to Globular Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2017-12-01

    Galaxies with stellar masses {10}-7.4 yr‑1 were examined on images of the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field Parallels for Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-02403. They appear as unresolved “Little Blue Dots” (LBDs). They are less massive and have higher specific star formation rates (sSFRs) than “blueberries” studied by Yang et al. and higher sSFRs than “Blue Nuggets” studied by Tacchella et al. We divided the LBDs into three redshift bins and, for each, stacked the B435, V606, and I814 images convolved to the same stellar point-spread function (PSF). Their radii were determined from PSF deconvolution to be ∼80 to ∼180 pc. The high sSFRs suggest that their entire stellar mass has formed in only 1% of the local age of the universe. The sSFRs at similar epochs in local dwarf galaxies are lower by a factor of ∼100. Assuming that the star formation rate is {ε }{ff}{M}{gas}/{t}{ff} for efficiency {ε }{ff}, gas mass M gas, and free-fall time, t ff, the gas mass and gas-to-star mass ratio are determined. This ratio exceeds 1 for reasonable efficiencies, and is likely to be ∼5 even with a high {ε }{ff} of 0.1. We consider whether these regions are forming today’s globular clusters. With their observed stellar masses, the maximum likely cluster mass is ∼ {10}5 {M}ȯ , but if star formation continues at the current rate for ∼ 10{t}{ff}∼ 50 {Myr} before feedback and gas exhaustion stop it, then the maximum cluster mass could become ∼ {10}6 {M}ȯ .

  3. Frontier constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    expansion, population resettlement and securitization, and the confluence of these dynamic processes creates special frontier constellations. Through the case of the Indonesian-Malaysian borderlands, I explore how processes of frontier colonization through agricultural expansion have been a recurrent...

  4. High Frontier, The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals. Volume 4, Number 2, February 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    and communications) space and special technical operations ( SSTO ). On an almost daily basis, the ACCE space planner assisted the corps space...level of involvement ensured integration and synchronization of ground, air, space, and information operations. In addition the MNC-I C3 SSTO was...augment- ed by an ARSST. The ARSST team lead also assisted MNC-I C3 SSTO with on-go- ing planning efforts, which better prepared his team to support

  5. Impossible Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    A key result of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is that the market portfolio---the portfolio of all assets in which each asset's weight is proportional to its total market capitalization---lies on the mean-variance efficient frontier, the set of portfolios having mean-variance characteristics that cannot be improved upon. Therefore, the CAPM cannot be consistent with efficient frontiers for which every frontier portfolio has at least one negative weight or short position. We call such ...

  6. Systems Engineering Using Heritage Spacecraft Technology: Lessons Learned from Discovery and New Frontiers Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2011-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced or heritage systems and the system environment identifies unanticipated issues that result in cost overruns or schedule impacts. The Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays resulting from advanced technology or heritage assumptions for 6 D&NF missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that the cost and schedule growth did not result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. Instead, systems engineering processes did not identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement the heritage or advanced technology. This presentation summarizes the study s findings and offers suggestions for improving the project s ability to identify and manage the risks inherent in the technology and heritage design solution.

  7. The Star Formation Main Sequence in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Paola; Fontana, Adriano; Castellano, Marco; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Merlin, Emiliano; Amorin, Ricardo; Cullen, Fergus; Daddi, Emanuele; Dickinson, Mark; Dunlop, James S.; Grazian, Andrea; Lamastra, Alessandra; McLure, Ross J.; Michałowski, Michał. J.; Pentericci, Laura; Shu, Xinwen

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (M), I.e., the main sequence (MS) relation of star-forming galaxies, at 1.3≤slant zFrontier Fields, on the basis of rest-frame UV observations. Gravitational lensing combined with deep HST observations allows us to extend the analysis of the MS down to {log} M/{M}⊙ ˜ 7.5 at z≲ 4 and {log} M/{M}⊙ ˜ 8 at higher redshifts, a factor of ˜10 below most previous results. We perform an accurate simulation to take into account the effect of observational uncertainties and correct for the Eddington bias. This step allows us to reliably measure the MS and in particular its slope. While the normalization increases with redshift, we fit an unevolving and approximately linear slope. We nicely extend to lower masses the results of brighter surveys. Thanks to the large dynamic range in mass and by making use of the simulation, we analyzed any possible mass dependence of the dispersion around the MS. We find tentative evidence that the scatter decreases with increasing mass, suggesting a larger variety of star formation histories in low-mass galaxies. This trend agrees with theoretical predictions and is explained as either a consequence of the smaller number of progenitors of low-mass galaxies in a hierarchical scenario and/or of the efficient but intermittent stellar feedback processes in low-mass halos. Finally, we observe an increase in the SFR per unit stellar mass with redshift milder than predicted by theoretical models, implying a still incomplete understanding of the processes responsible for galaxy growth.

  8. High Frontier: The Journal for Space and Cyberspace Professionals. Volume 7, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Awareness Sharing Ms. Jessica S. Tok ...Situational Awareness Sharing Ms. Jessica S. Tok Space Policy Analyst US Strategic Command/J513 Offutt AFB, Nebraska Trends Toward a Congested Domain...mitigate/mitigation.html; also United Nations, Report of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Annex (A/62/20). Ms. Jessica S. Tok (BS

  9. Ballistic Missile Defense: National Security and the High Frontier of Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adragna, Steven P.

    1985-01-01

    Ballistic missile defense is discussed, and the rationale behind the proposal to place defensive weapons in space is examined. Strategic defense is a national security, political, and moral imperative. (RM)

  10. High Frontier: The Journal for Space and Missile Professionals. Volume 7, Number 4, August 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ability to manage risk differently, and the focus on delivering capability on time. The current Air Force and NRO space acquisition models are best...suffer execution; (3) establish a solid baseline; (4) control the baseline; it is your lifeblood; (5) manage risk ; it never goes away on its own; (6...the Inter- national Institute of Space Law. He taught management theory for Cerro Coso Community College and Golden Gate University. He also taught

  11. Weaponizing the Final Frontier: The United States and the New Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    prepare to defend these systems from attack.41 The next logical step is the development and execution of this philosophy to secure national interests...fourth argument impacting the weaponization of space references is the question of morality . In the article, Moral and Ethical Decisions Regarding Space...Warfare, Col (now General) John Hyten and Dr. Robert Uy describe the moral and ethical considerations to evaluate as the United States shapes

  12. High Frontier: The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals. Volume 1, Number 3, Winter 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    i. 16 Ibid., i. 17 Dana Johnson and Ariel E. Levite , Toward Fusion of Air and Space: Surveying Developments and Assessing Choices for Small and...another quantum jump in American exploitation of space-based communications, naviga- tion, and ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance) in...defense has been defined as requiring the quantum of re- sponding force to be “limited in intensity and magnitude to what is reasonably necessary

  13. Space micropropulsion systems for Cubesats and small satellites: From proximate targets to furthermost frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Igor; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ding, Yongjie; Raitses, Yevgeny; Mazouffre, Stéphane; Henning, Torsten; Klar, Peter J.; Shinohara, Shunjiro; Schein, Jochen; Garrigues, Laurent; Kim, Minkwan; Lev, Dan; Taccogna, Francesco; Boswell, Rod W.; Charles, Christine; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Shen, Yan; Scharlemann, Carsten; Keidar, Michael; Xu, Shuyan

    2018-03-01

    Rapid evolution of miniaturized, automatic, robotized, function-centered devices has redefined space technology, bringing closer the realization of most ambitious interplanetary missions and intense near-Earth space exploration. Small unmanned satellites and probes are now being launched in hundreds at a time, resurrecting a dream of satellite constellations, i.e., wide, all-covering networks of small satellites capable of forming universal multifunctional, intelligent platforms for global communication, navigation, ubiquitous data mining, Earth observation, and many other functions, which was once doomed by the extraordinary cost of such systems. The ingression of novel nanostructured materials provided a solid base that enabled the advancement of these affordable systems in aspects of power, instrumentation, and communication. However, absence of efficient and reliable thrust systems with the capacity to support precise maneuvering of small satellites and CubeSats over long periods of deployment remains a real stumbling block both for the deployment of large satellite systems and for further exploration of deep space using a new generation of spacecraft. The last few years have seen tremendous global efforts to develop various miniaturized space thrusters, with great success stories. Yet, there are critical challenges that still face the space technology. These have been outlined at an inaugural International Workshop on Micropropulsion and Cubesats, MPCS-2017, a joint effort between Plasma Sources and Application Centre/Space Propulsion Centre (Singapore) and the Micropropulsion and Nanotechnology Lab, the G. Washington University (USA) devoted to miniaturized space propulsion systems, and hosted by CNR-Nanotec—P.Las.M.I. lab in Bari, Italy. This focused review aims to highlight the most promising developments reported at MPCS-2017 by leading world-reputed experts in miniaturized space propulsion systems. Recent advances in several major types of small

  14. Space, the final frontier: A critical review of recent experiments performed in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Kiss, John Z

    2016-02-01

    Space biology provides an opportunity to study plant physiology and development in a unique microgravity environment. Recent space studies with plants have provided interesting insights into plant biology, including discovering that plants can grow seed-to-seed in microgravity, as well as identifying novel responses to light. However, spaceflight experiments are not without their challenges, including limited space, limited access, and stressors such as lack of convection and cosmic radiation. Therefore, it is important to design experiments in a way to maximize the scientific return from research conducted on orbiting platforms such as the International Space Station. Here, we provide a critical review of recent spaceflight experiments and suggest ways in which future experiments can be designed to improve the value and applicability of the results generated. These potential improvements include: utilizing in-flight controls to delineate microgravity versus other spaceflight effects, increasing scientific return via next-generation sequencing technologies, and utilizing multiple genotypes to ensure results are not unique to one genetic background. Space experiments have given us new insights into plant biology. However, to move forward, special care should be given to maximize science return in understanding both microgravity itself as well as the combinatorial effects of living in space. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. High Frontier - The Journal for Space and Missile Professionals. Volume 4, Number 3, May 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    www.afspc.af.mil To subscribe: Hard copy: nsage@colsa.com Digital copy: http://www.af.mil/subscribe Headquarters Air Force Space Command Peterson Air Force...Navigation Group of the Colombian Commission on Space and the United States of America from 23 to 27 June 2008. The work- shop will be held in Medellin ...satellite systems, to be held in Medellin from 23-27 June 2008, http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/ SAP/gnss/index.html. 3 Information on the 12th

  16. The Lived Space: Possession, Ownership, and Land Sales on the Chilean Frontier (Valdivia, 1790-1830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Bastias Saavedra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By looking into sales of indigenous land in the territory of Valdivia between 1790 and 1830, this article discusses how legal interactions were tied to the local spaces of rural habitation. Since ownership was linked with possession and use in Spanish colonial law, local social relations and shared local knowledge were crucial for determining legal ownership and ensuring the validity of land transfers. This article provides insights into how law operated in newly integrated colonial spaces, and reveals that land transfers did not yet constitute purely contractual relations but were instead socially negotiated transactions involving different levels of authority and dependency.

  17. High Frontier - The Journal for Space and Missile Professionals. Volume 4, Number 1, November 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    and Col Chris D. Crawford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 United States Air Force Academy Physics Department and Space...colleagues at the US Air Force Academy (USAFA) outline how the USAFA Physics Department is arming our future Airmen with the technical skills...Operations Command (AFSOC) completed an analysis for the Aircrew Training and Rehearsal Support ( ATARS ) program. ATARS , which provides AFSOC crews a

  18. High Frontier: The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals. Volume 2, Number 4, August 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    signals, and optical telegraphy required line of sight (LOS) visibility be- tween relay stations. The relay stations themselves required protection...is a Se- nior Project Leader on the Aero- space Corporation’s GSE/TI team that has supported the Air Force’s Overhead Nonimaging IR

  19. Birth spacing and fertility limitation: a behavioral analysis of a nineteenth century frontier population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D L; Bean, L L

    1985-05-01

    Our analysis of changing birth interval distributions over the course of a fertility transition from natural to controlled fertility has examined three closely related propositions. First, within both natural fertility populations (identified at the aggregate level) and cohorts following the onset of fertility limitation, we hypothesized that substantial groups of women with long birth intervals across the individually specified childbearing careers could be identified. That is, even during periods when fertility behavior at the aggregate level is consistent with a natural fertility regime, birth intervals at all parities are inversely related to completed family size. Our tabular analysis enables us to conclude that birth spacing patterns are parity dependent; there is stability in CEB-parity specific mean and birth interval variance over the entire transition. Our evidence does not suggest that the early group of women limiting and spacing births was marked by infecundity. Secondly, the transition appears to be associated with an increasingly larger proportion of women shifting to the same spacing schedules associated with smaller families in earlier cohorts. Thirdly, variations in birth spacing by age of marriage indicate that changes in birth intervals over time are at least indirectly associated with age of marriage, indicating an additional compositional effect. The evidence we have presented on spacing behavior does not negate the argument that parity-dependent stopping behavior was a powerful factor in the fertility transition. Our data also provide evidence of attempts to truncate childbearing. Specifically, the smaller the completed family size, the longer the ultimate birth interval; and ultimate birth intervals increase across cohorts controlling CEB and parity. But spacing appears to represent an additional strategy of fertility limitation. Thus, it may be necessary to distinguish spacing and stopping behavior if one wishes to clarify behavioral

  20. High Frontier: The Journal for Space and Missile Professionals. Volume 7, Number 1, November 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    effect on their decision calculus . The predictability of our response—and their accounting for it—was a part of their cost/ benefit trade space well...national leadership’s decision calculus , there is one simple point of clarity about nuclear deterrence that transcends all of the variables: your...Together with more inci- dental situations of entanglement (e.g., when services are shared on a commercial bearer), these common systems create a

  1. High Frontier, The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals. Volume 5, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Institute of Space Law. He also taught management theory for Cerro Coso Com- munity College and Golden Gate University. Mr. Rendleman has been awarded the...nation must not place its sovereignty at risk or forfeit its cur- rent warfighting advantages. To present an effective deterrence, the portrait of...bombers on alert, the preponderance of reliance and risk then moves to the submarine force, essentially requiring the US to rely upon a single nuclear

  2. High Frontier, The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals. Volume 5, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Although theoretical arguments exist supporting and opposing the relevance of a military genius in NCW, this essay opines that since Clausewitz’s...Wyoming native, who attended the Fountain Valley School in Colora- do Springs, Colo- rado, in the early 1960s and wrote lyrics for the Grateful Dead...author or co-author of chapters or essays in Beyond the Ionosphere: Fifty Years of Satellite Communication (1997); Organizing for the Use of Space

  3. The Lawless Frontier of Deep Space: Code as Law in EVE Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa de Zwart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the concepts of player agency with respect to governance and regulation of online games. It considers the unique example of the Council of Stellar Management in EVE Online, and explores the multifaceted role performed by players involved in that Council. In particular, it considers the interaction between code, rules, contracts, and play with respect to EVE Online. This is used as a means to better understand the relations of power generated in game spaces.

  4. Contributing to COSPAR - Contibuting to Expanding the Knowledge Frontier of Space for the Benefit of Humankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    COSPAR's objectives are to promote -on an international level- scientific research in space, with emphasis on the exchange of results, information and opinions, and to provide a forum, open to all scientists, for the discussion of problems that may affect scientific space research (https://cosparhq.cnes.fr/about/origin-purpose-role). COSPAR played an extraordinary significant role in the past by facilitating the scientific exchange between East and West … and surely contributed to the present fluid and free-flowding situation. COSPAR’s challenge now is to get a similar result by providing opportunities to less developed countries to upgrade their resources to progress on all kinds of research using space means. This presentation shows the activity developed by the Climatology from Satellites Group of the University of Valencia, Spain, during the last 10 years, in different action areas of COSPAR, and in the framework of Commission A on Space Studies of the Earth's Surface, Meteorology and Climate, especially in Sub-Commission A3 on Land Processes and Morphology, as well as in the organisation of some Capacity Building Courses akin to Commission A’s terms of reference. The effort -if any- has always and so far been worthwhile. The Group has learnt a lot, it has notably incresed its capacity for networking, as well as its opportunities to accompany scientists from less developed countries in their scientific growing and development of resources (Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime -Chinese proverb … and root and foundation for Capacity Building).

  5. Urban space in the market of the frontier zone: perceptions and conceptions in a mobile scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras Díaz, María Margarita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article had the objective to identify perceptions of walkers about the urban public space of six avenue market in the border zone of San Jose de Cucuta, Colombia. The research follows a mix focus, qualitative of content analysis, from deep interviews and quantitative through a confirmatory factorial analysis. Results: as chaotic and congested is perceived the six avenue market; urban elements are used and modified continuously by informal salesmen without symbolic connotation that establish a system of relationships with elements of surrounding scenery; citizens and foreigners show a high degree of commitment and graceful to the city and country; planning to be considered only commercial pedestrian road are manifested as solution to congestion and chaos in the avenue. Conclusion: the six avenue market located in the border zone, follows a intercultural cohabitation mode: state, residents, culture and territory are merging categories to conception of urban public space, components business culture, economic status and psychosocial factors are significantly associated with cultural, social and economic status variable urban space.

  6. High Frontier, The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals. Volume 4, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    the Hidden Story of America’s Space Espionage (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2003), 364. 2 Dwayne A. Day, John M. Logsdon, and Brian Latell, Eye...is lengthy but includes folks like Lt Gen Mike Hamel, Lt Gen Tom Sheridan, Maj Gen Jimmy Morrell, Maj Gen Jim Armour , Maj Gen Mitch Mitchell, Brig...Security: Security was very tight. For example, shortly af- ter I was appointed DDNRO I was visited by Clarence “Kel- ly” Johnson , with whom I had worked

  7. New Frontiers for Massive Star Winds: Imaging and Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 2013. JWST will find the first stars and galaxies that formed in the early universe, connecting the Big Bang to our own Milky Way galaxy. JWST will peer through dusty clouds to see stars forming planetary systems, connecting the Milky Way to our own Solar System. JWST's instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of 1 - 28 microns, with some capability in the visible range. JWST will have a large mirror, 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns (0.1 arcsec resolution). JWST will be placed in an L2 orbit about 1.5 million km from the Earth. The instruments will provide imaging, coronography, and multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy across the full 1 - 28 micron wavelength range. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of massive star winds from the Milky Way to the early universe.

  8. The Climate Adaptation Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Climate adaptation has emerged as a mainstream risk management strategy for assisting in maintaining socio-ecological systems within the boundaries of a safe operating space. Yet, there are limits to the ability of systems to adapt. Here, we introduce the concept of an adaptation frontier , which is defined as a socio-ecological system s transitional adaptive operating space between safe and unsafe domains. A number of driving forces are responsible for determining the sustainability of systems on the frontier. These include path dependence, adaptation/development deficits, values conflicts and discounting of future loss and damage. The cumulative implications of these driving forces are highly uncertain. Nevertheless, the fact that a broad range of systems already persist at the edge of their frontiers suggests a high likelihood that some limits will eventually be exceeded. The resulting system transformation is likely to manifest as anticipatory modification of management objectives or loss and damage. These outcomes vary significantly with respect to their ethical implications. Successful navigation of the adaptation frontier will necessitate new paradigms of risk governance to elicit knowledge that encourages reflexive reevaluation of societal values that enable or constrain sustainability.

  9. Frontier commodification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rune Bolding

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary global imagination, Darjeeling typically figures on two accounts: as a unique tourism site replete with colonial heritage and picturesque nature, and as the productive origin for some of the world's most exclusive teas. In this commodified and consumable form, Darjeeling is part...... of material and representational interventions, I uncover the particular assemblage of government and capital that enabled this transformation and highlight its potential resonances with contemporary cases of frontier commodification in South Asia and beyond....

  10. Network frontier as a metaphor and myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Plotichkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers spatial metaphors of the Internet and the possibility to extrapolate the frontier thesis of F. Turner on the electronic space. The authors believe that information and communication technologies and the digital world have become new spaces for the expansion of states or individuals. That is why there are ongoing scientific debates on the limits and potential of western and electronic frontiers’ metaphors for analytical description of the digital space. The metaphor of the Internet as a western frontier is quite controversial; many authors prefer the electronic frontier analogy as more heuristic and valid for constructing metaphors of the digital reality. The network frontier is defined as a dynamic, elastic and permeable border of social and cultural practices of the network society. The authors estimate the heuristic potential of the concept ‘network frontier’ developed on the basis of integration of the frontier theory and the concept ‘network society’, taking into account the effects of globalization for the study of elastic, permeable and movable border of the network landscape. In the digital world, the spatiality transforms, the geography of the Internet network determines the metamorphosis of the frontier as a contact zone between online and offline spaces, which is dynamic, innovative, encourages mobility, and its permeability depends on the digital competence of citizens. The authors explain the mythology of western and electronic frontier; name the main network frontier myths related to the rhetoric of western frontier myth; describe the main components of the western frontier myth associated with the idea of American exceptionalism; and conclude with the identification of nowadays myths about frontier-men and the online space they master.

  11. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IV. Mass Reconstruction of the Lensing Cluster Abell 2744 from Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Jones, T. A.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Trenti, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  12. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). IV. MASS RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LENSING CLUSTER ABELL 2744 FROM FRONTIER FIELD IMAGING AND GLASS SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Schmidt, K. B.; Jones, T. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Bradac, M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Brammer, G. B.; Ryan, R. E. Jr. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Trenti, M., E-mail: xinwang@physics.ucsb.edu [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2015-09-20

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  13. Taking SiC Power Devices to the Final Frontier: Addressing Challenges of the Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Silicon carbide power device technology has the potential to enable a new generation of aerospace power systems that demand high efficiency, rapid switching, and reduced mass and volume in order to expand space-based capabilities. For this potential to be realized, SiC devices must be capable of withstanding the harsh space radiation environment. Commercial SiC components exhibit high tolerance to total ionizing dose but to date, have not performed well under exposure to heavy ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic rays. Insertion of SiC power device technology into space applications to achieve breakthrough performance gains will require intentional development of components hardened to the effects of these highly-energetic heavy ions. This work presents heavy-ion test data obtained by the authors over the past several years for discrete SiC power MOSFETs, JFETs, and diodes in order to increase the body of knowledge and understanding that will facilitate hardening of this technology to space radiation effects. Specifically, heavy-ion irradiation data taken under different bias, temperature, and ion beam conditions is presented for devices from different manufacturers, and the emerging patterns discussed.

  14. Preparing for the High Frontier: The Role and Training of NASA Astronauts in the Post- Space Shuttle Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In May 2010, the National Research Council (NRC) was asked by NASA to address several questions related to the Astronaut Corps. The NRC s Committee on Human Spaceflight Crew Operations was tasked to answer several questions: 1. How should the role and size of the activities managed by the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Operations Directorate change after space shuttle retirement and completion of the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS)? 2. What are the requirements for crew-related ground-based facilities after the Space Shuttle program ends? 3. Is the fleet of aircraft used for training the Astronaut Corps a cost-effective means of preparing astronauts to meet the requirements of NASA s human spaceflight program? Are there more cost-effective means of meeting these training requirements? Although the future of NASA s human spaceflight program has garnered considerable discussion in recent years and there is considerable uncertainty about what the program will involve in the coming years, the committee was not tasked to address whether human spaceflight should continue or what form it should take. The committee s task restricted it to studying activities managed by the Flight Crew Operations Directorate or those closely related to its activities, such as crew-related ground-based facilities and the training aircraft.

  15. The fundamentals of modern astrophysics a survey of the cosmos from the home planet to space frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Marov, Mikhail Ya

    2015-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Modern Astrophysics provides an overview of the modern science of astrophysics. It covers the Sun, Solar System bodies, exoplanets, stars, and star life cycle, planetary systems origin and evolution, basics of astrobiology, our galaxy the Milky Way, other galaxies and galactic clusters, a general view of the Universe, its structure, evolution and fate, modern views and advanced models of cosmology as well as the synergy of micro- and macro physics, standard model, superstring theory, multiversity and worm holes. The main concepts of modern astrophysics and prospects for future studies are accompanied by numerous illustrations and a summary of the advanced projects at various astronomical facilities and space missions. Dr. Marov guides readers through a maze of complicated topics to demystify the field and open its wonders to all.

  16. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  17. HFF-DeepSpace Photometric Catalogs of the 12 Hubble Frontier Fields, Clusters, and Parallels: Photometry, Photometric Redshifts, and Stellar Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Heath V.; Lange-Vagle, Daniel; Marchesini, Danilo; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Ferrarese, Laura; Stefanon, Mauro; Kado-Fong, Erin; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Oesch, Pascal A.; Feinstein, Adina D.; Labbé, Ivo; Lundgren, Britt; Martis, Nicholas; Muzzin, Adam; Nedkova, Kalina; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen

    2018-03-01

    We present Hubble multi-wavelength photometric catalogs, including (up to) 17 filters with the Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 from the ultra-violet to near-infrared for the Hubble Frontier Fields and associated parallels. We have constructed homogeneous photometric catalogs for all six clusters and their parallels. To further expand these data catalogs, we have added ultra-deep K S -band imaging at 2.2 μm from the Very Large Telescope HAWK-I and Keck-I MOSFIRE instruments. We also add post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), as well as archival IRAC 5.8 and 8.0 μm imaging when available. We introduce the public release of the multi-wavelength (0.2–8 μm) photometric catalogs, and we describe the unique steps applied for the construction of these catalogs. Particular emphasis is given to the source detection band, the contamination of light from the bright cluster galaxies (bCGs), and intra-cluster light (ICL). In addition to the photometric catalogs, we provide catalogs of photometric redshifts and stellar population properties. Furthermore, this includes all the images used in the construction of the catalogs, including the combined models of bCGs and ICL, the residual images, segmentation maps, and more. These catalogs are a robust data set of the Hubble Frontier Fields and will be an important aid in designing future surveys, as well as planning follow-up programs with current and future observatories to answer key questions remaining about first light, reionization, the assembly of galaxies, and many more topics, most notably by identifying high-redshift sources to target.

  18. The Final Frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2017-01-01

    in living conditions, where neglect or reckless behavior may have fatal consequences. Exploring the consequences of such behavior in Tom Godwin’s short story ‘The Cold Equations’ (1954) as well as Ridley Scott’s film, Alien (1979), it argues that such ‘frontier situations’ warrant a change in the general...

  19. Frontier Fields: Engaging Educators, the Youth, and the Public in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Darnell, John A.; Ryer, Holly

    2015-01-01

    The Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters that will be taken in parallel with six deep 'blank fields.' The three-year long collaborative program is led by observations from NASA's Great Observatories. The observations allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein's theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has initiated an education and public outreach (EPO) project to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the Hubble EPO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community, the youth, and the public, and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, professional development workshops, and direct interactions with scientists. We are also leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog. The main underpinnings of the program's infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.The Frontier Fields program has just completed its first year. This talk will feature the goals and current status of the Frontier Fields EPO program. We will highlight OPO's strategies and infrastructure

  20. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). VI. Comparing the Mass and Light in MACS J0416.1-2403 Using Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Wang, X.; Brammer, G. B.; Broussard, A.; Amorin, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Schrabback, T.; Trenti, M.; Vulcani, B.

    2016-11-01

    We present a model using both strong and weak gravitational lensing of the galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403, constrained using spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) and Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data. We search for emission lines in known multiply imaged sources in the GLASS spectra, obtaining secure spectroscopic redshifts of 30 multiple images belonging to 15 distinct source galaxies. The GLASS spectra provide the first spectroscopic measurements for five of the source galaxies. The weak lensing signal is acquired from 884 galaxies in the F606W HFF image. By combining the weak lensing constraints with 15 multiple image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and nine multiple image systems with photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster on an adaptive grid. The resulting map of total mass density is compared with a map of stellar mass density obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields imaging data to study the relative distribution of stellar and total mass in the cluster. We find that the projected stellar mass to total mass ratio, f ⋆, varies considerably with the stellar surface mass density. The mean projected stellar mass to total mass ratio is =0.009+/- 0.003 (stat.), but with a systematic error as large as 0.004-0.005, dominated by the choice of the initial mass function. We find agreement with several recent measurements of f ⋆ in massive cluster environments. The lensing maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available to the broader community in the standard HFF format.

  1. Four men in a space station - To say nothing of the cow! The quest for finding respite and work in the ultimate frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Dorri, Yaser; D'Souza, Anil; Scofield, R Hal

    2007-01-01

    Fed up with life on earth, four scientists attempt to make it to space to live in the International Space Station (ISS) and carry out experiments. The difficulties in getting selected by NASA, the rigourous training to fly and the risks of the journey to life and health are the rate limiting steps in their quest. They propose commercialization of space and also ferrying cows to space for food as well as generation of biogas. The anaerobic environment is particularly suitable for biogas generation and if successful they plan to get NASA to launch space vehicles to Mars using this natural fuel with the ISS as the staging area.

  2. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  3. PARTICLE BEAMS: Frontier course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Driven by the quest for higher energies and optimal physics conditions, the behaviour of particle beams in accelerators and storage rings is the subject of increasing attention. Thus the second course organized jointly by the US and CERN Accelerator Schools looked towards the frontiers of particle beam knowledge. The programme held at South Padre Island, Texas, from 23-29 October attracted 125 participants including some 35 from Europe

  4. PARTICLE BEAMS: Frontier course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-01-15

    Driven by the quest for higher energies and optimal physics conditions, the behaviour of particle beams in accelerators and storage rings is the subject of increasing attention. Thus the second course organized jointly by the US and CERN Accelerator Schools looked towards the frontiers of particle beam knowledge. The programme held at South Padre Island, Texas, from 23-29 October attracted 125 participants including some 35 from Europe.

  5. About pioneer frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographer Pierre Monbeig wrote texts far ahead of his time, who deserve to be read today as they are useful in understanding today's pioneering frontiers. These are nowadays much further north than in his time, in the Amazon, contested between advocates of environmental protection and production of meat and grains, which has appeared on the southern ,lank of Brazilian Amazon, in Mato Grosso.

  6. Frontiers in Gold Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Basic chemistry of gold tells us that it can bond to sulfur, phosphorous, nitrogen, and oxygen donor ligands. The Frontiers in Gold Chemistry Special Issue covers gold complexes bonded to the different donors and their fascinating applications. This issue covers both basic chemistry studies of gold complexes and their contemporary applications in medicine, materials chemistry, and optical sensors. There is a strong belief that aurophilicity plays a major role in the unending applications of g...

  7. Prairie, gold and frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirico, S.

    2005-01-01

    ThIs work deals with the mining history of the region of Cunapiru, Uruguay. Its process develops inside a rural world, and in this aspect it is not very different to other praires of similar geographic zones.Nevertheless, the fact of being a frontier territory makes it singular, different, and peculiar enough to transform this praire deeply. Memories of prosperity times nurture a centenarian illusion of manfified, inexact dating or significance facts. However, all that memories were essentials to collective identify.

  8. Where is the Efficient Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Chen

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been spent on the construction of reliable efficient frontiers. However, mean-variance efficient portfolios constructed using sample means and covariance often perform poorly out of sample. We prove that, the capital market line is the efficient frontier for the risky assets in a financial market with liquid fixed income trading. This unified understanding of riskless asset as the boundary of risky assets relieves the burden of constructing efficient frontiers in asset a...

  9. The Hubble Frontier Fields: Engaging Multiple Audiences in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Ryer, Holly; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lotz, Jennifer M.

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The three-year long collaborative program began in late 2013 and is led by observations from NASA’s Great Observatories. The observations, now complete, allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein’s theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has engaged multiple audiences over the past three years to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the STScI outreach program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the public and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. In addition, we are leveraging the reach of the new NASA’s Universe of Learning education program to bring the science of the Frontier Fields to informal education audiences. The main underpinnings of the STScI outreach program and the Universe of Learning education program are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging the infrastructure of these education and outreach programs to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.This talk will feature highlights over the past three years of the program. We will highlight OPO’s strategies and infrastructure that allows for the quick delivery of groundbreaking science to the education community and public.

  10. Frontiers in Computer Education

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Egui; 2011 International Conference on Frontiers in Computer Education (ICFCE 2011)

    2012-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Frontiers in Computer Education (ICFCE 2011) in Sanya, China, December 1-2, 2011. The contributions can be useful for researchers, software engineers, and programmers, all interested in promoting the computer and education development. Topics covered are computing and communication technology, network management, wireless networks, telecommunication, Signal and Image Processing, Machine Learning, educational management, educational psychology, educational system, education engineering, education technology and training.  The emphasis is on methods and calculi for computer science and education technology development, verification and verification tools support, experiences from doing developments, and the associated theoretical problems.

  11. Frontiers in nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Pujari, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    This book contains articles on the landmarks in nuclear and radiochemistry which takes through scientific history spanning over five decades from the times of Roentgen to the middle of this century. Articles on nuclear fission and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle give an insight into the current status of this subject. Reviews on frontier areas like lanthanides, actinides, muonium chemistry, accelerator based nuclear chemistry, fast radiochemical separations and nuclear medicine bring out the multidisciplinary nature of nuclear sciences. This book also includes an article on environmental radiochemistry and safety. Chapters relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Frontiers in Magnetic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Magnetic Materials focuses on the current achievements and state-of-the-art advancements in magnetic materials. Several lines of development- High-Tc Superconductivity, Nanotechnology and refined experimental techniques among them – raised knowledge and interest in magnetic materials remarkably. The book comprises 24 chapters on the most relevant topics written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students.

  13. Particle Physics at the Cosmic, Intensity, and Energy Frontiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Rouven

    2018-04-06

    Major efforts at the Intensity, Cosmic, and Energy frontiers of particle physics are rapidly furthering our understanding of the fundamental constituents of Nature and their interactions. The overall objectives of this research project are (1) to interpret and develop the theoretical implications of the data collected at these frontiers and (2) to provide the theoretical motivation, basis, and ideas for new experiments and for new analyses of experimental data. Within the Intensity Frontier, an experimental search for a new force mediated by a GeV-scale gauge boson will be carried out with the $A'$ Experiment (APEX) and the Heavy Photon Search (HPS), both at Jefferson Laboratory. Within the Cosmic Frontier, contributions are planned to the search for dark matter particles with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and other instruments. A detailed exploration will also be performed of new direct detection strategies for dark matter particles with sub-GeV masses to facilitate the development of new experiments. In addition, the theoretical implications of existing and future dark matter-related anomalies will be examined. Within the Energy Frontier, the implications of the data from the Large Hadron Collider will be investigated. Novel search strategies will be developed to aid the search for new phenomena not described by the Standard Model of particle physics. By combining insights from all three particle physics frontiers, this research aims to increase our understanding of fundamental particle physics.

  14. Introducing "Frontiers in Zoology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jürgen; Tautz, Diethard

    2004-09-29

    As a biological discipline, zoology has one of the longest histories. Today it occasionally appears as though, due to the rapid expansion of life sciences, zoology has been replaced by more or less independent sub-disciplines amongst which exchange is often sparse. However, the recent advance of molecular methodology into "classical" fields of biology, and the development of theories that can explain phenomena on different levels of organisation, has led to a re-integration of zoological disciplines promoting a broader than usual approach to zoological questions. Zoology has re-emerged as an integrative discipline encompassing the most diverse aspects of animal life, from the level of the gene to the level of the ecosystem.The new journal Frontiers in Zoology is the first Open Access journal focussing on zoology as a whole. It aims to represent and re-unite the various disciplines that look at animal life from different perspectives and at providing the basis for a comprehensive understanding of zoological phenomena on all levels of analysis. Frontiers in Zoology provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality research and reviews on zoological issues that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  15. Summertime...and Reading Beckons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Otto

    2000-01-01

    Presents a collection of quotes by famous people about reading for enjoyment and personal development. The collection was assembled from a lifetime of fond association with books and reading by the rare-book librarian at the State Library in Berlin, who after Hitler's rise, relocated to the United States and founded the Bettmann Archive in New…

  16. New frontiers for tomorrow's world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassler, P.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with new frontiers and barricades in the global economic development and their influence on fuel consumption and energy source development. Topics discussed are incremental energy supply - new frontiers, world car population - new frontiers, OPEC crude production capacity vs call on OPEC, incremental world oil demand by region 1992-2000, oil resource cost curve, progress in seismic 1983-1991, Troll picture, cost reduction in renewables, sustained growth scenario, nuclear electricity capacity - France, OECD road transport fuels - barricades, and energy taxation. 18 figs

  17. Ghana's cocoa frontier in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Agergaard, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    Since the first commercial planting of cocoa in Ghana more than a century ago, the production of cocoa has been a key factor in the redistribution of migrants and has played a pivotal role in the development of both sending and receiving communities. This process has been acknowledged...... Region, this article aims to examine how immigration and frontier dynamics in the Western region are contributing to livelihood transitions and small town development, and how this process is gradually becoming delinked from the production of cocoa. The article focuses on how migration dynamics interlink...... in the literature for decades. However, how migration flows have changed in response to changing livelihoods dynamics of the frontier and how this has impacted on the development of the frontier has only attracted limited attention. Based on a study of immigration to Ghana's current cocoa frontier in the Western...

  18. Mythic Evolution of "The New Frontier" in Mass Mediated Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    1986-01-01

    Combines "rhetorical narration" with K. Burke's dramatistic pentad to argue that definitional cultural myths are rhetorically meaningful in relation to social consciousness if both evolved teleologically. Delineates two phases in America's frontier myth associated with recent space fiction films' representation of a pentadic term's…

  19. Power System Extreme Event Detection: The VulnerabilityFrontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Pinar, Ali; Roy, Sandip

    2007-10-17

    In this work we apply graph theoretic tools to provide aclose bound on a frontier relating the number of line outages in a gridto the power disrupted by the outages. This frontier describes theboundary of a space relating the possible severity of a disturbance interms of power disruption, from zero to some maximum on the boundary, tothe number line outages involved in the event. We present the usefulnessof this analysis with a complete analysis of a 30 bus system, and presentresults for larger systems.

  20. Frontiers in Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowlan, Pamela Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-02

    These are slides dealing with frontiers in chemical physics. The following topics are covered: Time resolving chemistry with ultrashort pulses in the 0.1-40 THz spectral range; Example: Mid-infrared absorption spectrum of the intermediate state CH2OO; Tracking reaction dynamics through changes in the spectra; Single-shot measurement of the mid-IR absorption dynamics; Applying 2D coherent mid-IR spectroscopy to learn more about transition states; Time resolving chemical reactions at a catalysis using mid-IR and THz pulses; Studying topological insulators requires a surface sensitive probe; Nonlinear phonon dynamics in Bi2Se3; THz-pump, SHG-probe as a surface sensitive coherent 2D spectroscopy; Nanometer and femtosecond spatiotemporal resolution mid-IR spectroscopy; Coherent two-dimensional THz/mid-IR spectroscopy with 10nm spatial resolution; Pervoskite oxides as catalysts; Functionalized graphene for catalysis; Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements; Spatiotemporal pulse measurement; Intense, broad-band THz/mid-IR generation with organic crystals.

  1. On unlimited frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.

    1985-01-01

    The political system in the United States in unique because our forefathers planned it that way. Unfortunately, this uniqueness does not always serve the interest of those who advocate large nuclear-power facilities and fuel-cycle activities involving reprocessing and breeder reactors. The influence of various political systems on the viability of the nuclear-power option is discussed. As it faces the future, the U.S. nuclear community is divided over its most appropriate courses of action. The current administration is supportive in words if not in deeds, but it is ideologically opposed to advocating the conditions needed for a thriving nuclear industry based on large light water reactors. Will the U.S. enter the new century with ''unlimited frontiers'' in many new nuclear plant designs, or will some major shift in public opinion bring back political conditions that are more compatible with large LWR facilities. This is the $64,000 question confronting the nuclear industry, which must be prepared for any eventuality. The best chance for the U.S. to regain worldwide superiority in nuclear power-technology may lie in our ability to make rapid adjustments and to offer new and advanced machines that best fit utility needs and the political conditions of their own time

  2. Space and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Some daring explorers like to study distant frontiers by venturing out into them, but others prefer to study them by bringing them, or representative samples, a little closer to the lab. Both options are pursued in the fields of space and astronomy. Space exploration and astronomy are intricately linked and are examined in-depth in this guide. Dedicated to the scientists who explore the frontiers of space and astronomy-and the results of their unfamiliar findings-each chapter in Space and Astronomy explores one of the frontiers of this science. The development of technology, such as rocket pro

  3. River morphodynamics from space: the Landsat frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Jon; Khandelwal, Ankush; Fratkin, Mulu; Kumar, Vipin; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    NASA's Landsat family of satellites have been observing the entire globe since 1984, providing over 30 years of snapshots with an 18 day frequency and 30 meter resolution. These publicly-available Landsat data are particularly exciting to researchers interested in river morphodynamics, who are often limited to use of historical maps, aerial photography, and field surveys with poor and irregular time resolutions and limited spatial extents. Landsat archives show potential for overcoming these limitations, but techniques and tools for accurately and efficiently mining the vault of scenes must first be developed. In this PICO presentation, we detail the problems we encountered while mapping and quantifying planform dynamics of over 1,300 km of the actively-migrating, meandering Ucayali River in Peru from Landsat imagery. We also present methods to overcome these obstacles and introduce the Matlab-based RivMAP (River Morphodynamics from Analysis of Planforms) toolbox that we developed to extract banklines and centerlines, compute widths, curvatures, and angles, identify cutoffs, and quantify planform changes via centerline migration and erosion/accretion over large spatial domains with high temporal resolution. Measurement uncertainties were estimated by analyzing immobile, abandoned oxbow lakes. Our results identify hotspots of planform changes, and combined with limited precipitation, stage, and topography data, we parse three simultaneous controls on river migration: climate, sediment, and meander cutoff. Overall, this study demonstrates the vast potential locked within Landsat archives to identify multi-scale controls on river migration, observe the co-evolution of width, curvature, discharge, and migration, and discover and develop new geomorphic insights.

  4. Energy not the only frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-11-15

    While the push for big new machines to explore high energy frontiers makes the headlines, other avenues for physics progress are still being actively explored. To reflect these efforts, theorists and experimenters from the experiments committees for CERN's two major existing machines - the PS Proton Synchrotron and the SPS Super Proton Synchrotron – joined forces in study groups to look at long term physics perspectives. As one experimenter put it, 'there are frontiers of high complexity and high precision as well as high energy'. The groups' findings were aired at a special joint open meeting of the two committees at CERN on 31 August and 1 September.

  5. Toward the last frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    A number of exciting mission opportunities are being considered for the 21st century, including advanced robotic science missions to the outer planets and beyond, human exploration of the Moon and Mars, and advanced space transportation systems. All of these missions will require some form of nuclear power; however, it is clear that current budgetary constraints preclude developing many different types of space nuclear power systems. This paper reviews the specific civil space missions which have been identified, the power levels and lifetimes required, and the technologies available

  6. Pushing Human Frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    With human colonization of Mars, I think you will see a higher standard of civilization, just as America set a higher standard of civilization which then promulgated back into Europe. I think that if you want to maximize human potential, you need a higher standard of civilization, and that becomes an example that benefits everyone. Without an open frontier, closed world ideologies, such as the Malthus Theory, tend to come to the forefront. It is that there are limited resources; therefore, we are all in deadly competition with each other for the limited pot. The result is tyrannical and potentially genocidal regimes, and we've already seen this in the twentieth century. There s no truth in the Malthus Theory, because human beings are the creators of their resources. With every mouth comes a pair of hands and a brain. But if it seems to be true, you have a vector in this direction, and it is extremely unfortunate. It is only in a universe of infinite resources that all humans can be brothers and sisters. The fundamental question which affects humanity s sense of itself is whether the world is changeable or fixed. Are we the makers of our world or just its inhabitants? Some people have a view that they re living at the end of history within a world that s already defined, and there is no fundamental purpose to human life because there is nothing humans can do that matters. On the other hand, if humans understand their own role as the creators of their world, that s a much more healthy point of view. It raises the dignity of humans. Indeed, if we do establish a new branch of human civilization on Mars that grows in time and potency to the point where it cannot really settle Mars, but transforms Mars, and brings life to Mars, we will prove to everyone and for all time the precious and positive nature of the human species and every member of it.

  7. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, J. M.; Koekemoer, A.; Grogin, N.; Mack, J.; Anderson, J.; Avila, R.; Barker, E. A.; Borncamp, D.; Durbin, M.; Gunning, H.; Hilbert, B.; Jenkner, H.; Khandrika, H.; Levay, Z.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J.; Ogaz, S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Coe, D.; Capak, P.; Brammer, G., E-mail: lotz@stsci.edu [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 Sam Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-03-01

    What are the faintest distant galaxies we can see with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) now, before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope ? This is the challenge taken up by the Frontier Fields, a Director’s discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combines the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters—Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370—have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras with coordinated parallel fields for over 840 HST orbits. The parallel fields are the second-deepest observations thus far by HST with 5 σ point-source depths of ∼29th ABmag. Galaxies behind the clusters experience typical magnification factors of a few, with small regions magnified by factors of 10–100. Therefore, the Frontier Field cluster HST images achieve intrinsic depths of ∼30–33 mag over very small volumes. Spitzer has obtained over 1000 hr of Director’s discretionary imaging of the Frontier Field cluster and parallels in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m bands to 5 σ point-source depths of ∼26.5, 26.0 ABmag. We demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity of the HST Frontier Field images to faint high-redshift galaxies, and review the initial results related to the primary science goals.

  8. Territorialidades, lived and senses of place in advance of the productive frontier times spaces Territorialidades, espacios vividos y sentidos de lugar en tiempos de avance de la frontera productiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In full process redshift the productive border and pop-up dispute over the use and appropriation of resources, the intervention of different social subjects in the West of La Pampa is redefining productivas-reproductivas practices crianceros farmers and, consequently, the social construction of space. Since the end of the military campaigns against agents, different indigenous societies through the exercise of power, built certain territorial representations and put into action practices tending to articulate the pampean West with the national economy. However little appreciation of this space made possible the development of certain forms of organizing socio-productive and symbolic autonomy. Before the expansion of the livestock border, the imposed hydrocarbon region and increasing presence of new territorial logics grow confrontations by unequal access to natural resources, the appropriation of space and the construction of territorialidades. In this context, article focused on the internal organisation of rural settlements and social uses of spaces of time, in two areas of the West "end" look: La Humada and Chos Malal. This mode is intended to establish how organized spaces home, peridomestic and mount and what senses expressed subjects into life and places spaces in times of expansion of the production frontier. The new social field generated product of capitalism on the peasant drives progress is expressed, not only changes in forms of livestock, management organization of production and social construction of space, but also in forms of sociability and collective resistance strategies. This process, which is brewing in the region, has a similar development in other spaces where productive progress has occurred before or at a faster pace. Different qualitative methodology strategies that combine the study case with life stories, in-depth interviews and analysis of documentary sources are articulated for the conduct of research.En pleno

  9. Renormalization group critical frontier of the three-dimensional bond-dilute Ising ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, N.-C.; Schwaccheim, G.; Tsallis, C.

    1981-01-01

    The critical frontier (as well as the thermal type critical exponents) associated to the quenched bond-dilute spin - 1/2 Ising ferromagnet in the simple cubic lattice is approximately calculated within a real space renormalization group framework in two different versions. Both lead to qualitatively satisfactory critical frontiers, although one of them provides an unphysical fixed point (which seem to be related to the three-dimensionality of the system) besides the expected pure ones; its effects tend to disappear for increasingly large clusters. Through an extrapolation procedure the (unknown) critical frontier is approximately located. (Author) [pt

  10. The two frontiers of physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-05-15

    In March at Garching, near Munich, physicists from different walks of life together took another hard look at the two major frontiers of physics – the very large and the infinitesimally small. Organized jointly by CERN and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Garching 'Symposium on Cosmology, Astronomy and Fundamental Physics' was the second in a series launched at CERN in November 1983.

  11. Discovery of a Supernova in HST imaging of the MACSJ0717 Frontier Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Lotz, Jennifer; Strolger, Louis-Gregory

    2013-10-01

    We report the discovery of a supernova (SN) in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations centered on the galaxy cluster MACSJ0717. It was discovered in the F814W (i) band of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), in observations that were collected as part of the ongoing HST Frontier Fields (HFF) program (PI:J.Lotz, HST PID 13498). The FrontierSN ID for this object is SN HFF13Zar (nicknamed "SN Zara").

  12. Frontier Fields: Bringing the Distant Universe into View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Lawton, Brandon L.; Summers, Frank; Ryer, Holly

    2014-06-01

    The Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters that will be taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The three-year long collaborative program centers on observations from NASA’s Great Observatories, who will team up to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically see. Because of the unprecedented views of the universe that will be achieved, the Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. For example, the program provides an opportunity to look back on the history of deep field observations and how they changed (and continue to change) astronomy, while exploring the ways astronomers approach big science problems. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach has initiated an education and public outreach (E/PO) project to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields program - providing a behind-the-scenes perspective of this observing initiative. This poster will highlight the goals of the Frontier Fields E/PO project and the cost-effective approach being used to bring the program’s results to both the public and educational audiences.

  13. Energy not the only frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    While the push for big new machines to explore high energy frontiers makes the headlines, other avenues for physics progress are still being actively explored. To reflect these efforts, theorists and experimenters from the experiments committees for CERN's two major existing machines - the PS Proton Synchrotron and the SPS Super Proton Synchrotron – joined forces in study groups to look at long term physics perspectives. As one experimenter put it, 'there are frontiers of high complexity and high precision as well as high energy'. The groups' findings were aired at a special joint open meeting of the two committees at CERN on 31 August and 1 September

  14. Frontier Scientists use Modern Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connell, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

  15. Energy not the only frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    In the major world areas active In high energy physics, proposals have been prepared for new machines to manufacture intense beams of strongly interacting particles (hadrons) to complement the physics coming in from the high energy frontier. An information session on these plans for intense hadron facilities was included in the Third International Conference on the Intersections between Particle and Nuclear Physics, held in Rockport, Maine, in May

  16. The two frontiers of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    In March at Garching, near Munich, physicists from different walks of life together took another hard look at the two major frontiers of physics – the very large and the infinitesimally small. Organized jointly by CERN and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Garching 'Symposium on Cosmology, Astronomy and Fundamental Physics' was the second in a series launched at CERN in November 1983

  17. Bioactive glasses: Frontiers and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry L. Hench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980’s it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are: a discovery; b clinical application; c tissue regeneration; and d innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.

  18. Frontiers of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the double-slit experiment and the problem of whether one can choose whether the photon shall have come through both of the slits, or only one of them, after it has already transversed the screen. A proper quantum concept of correlation is formalised as it depends on time. It takes the existence of the dynamic entity under study and the concept of time for granted, and does not transcend the concept of time. Time is absolute and universal in Newtonian physics and in special relativity successive times correspond to successive slices through space-time. Many fingured time is discussed in this context. The concepts of transcending time, causal order without causal order, asymmetry in time and the expansion of the universe, memory and the arrow of time, and the gates of time are all considered. (Auth./C.F.)

  19. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  20. Exploring the inner frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozai, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity (HTSC), many applications have been proposed, but few have become real commercial products. Among those few one of the most promising is a magnetic shield that uses the principle of a superconductor's perfect diamagnetism- excluding magnetic fields from HTSC materials. A SQUID-CT may have a key to disclosing one of the last sanctuaries of science-the human brain. To measure a human brain's magnetic field, a SQUID has to be located inside a magnetic shield space. In previous measurements, a conventional bulky magnetic shield room, entirely covered by a multilayered ferromagnetic metal wall (as well as aluminum walls) had been widely used

  1. THE EVOLUTION OF ROMAN FRONTIER CONCEPT AND POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cupcea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Roman power is, ideologically, infinite in time and space. Nevertheless, the Roman state had experienced a wide variety of territorial limits, evolving in time and space, more or less throughout a millennium. If at first the Roman state, limited to Rome metropolitan area, later to the Italian peninsula, was easily defensible, beginning with the heavy expansion, also came trouble. The Romans, always innovating, find solutions for the fortification of the contact zones with the Barbarians. The Roman frontier concept was fundamentally different from the modern one. If the defence of Roman possessions was obviously priority, the border should remain an open ensemble, allowing for the free circulation of people and goods, some of the fundamental Roman rights. The peak of Roman expansion, 2nd century A.D. brings also the maximum development of the Empire frontier. Dacia overlaps widely chronologically on this trend, this being one of the reasons for one of the most complex frontier system in the Empire.

  2. Vikings and the Western Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Wienberg, Jes

    2015-01-01

    The article investigates how and why the Vikings became world-famous. The point of departure is the World Exposition in Chicago in 1893, where an icon for the Viking, a replica of the Gokstad ship, arrived the very same day as Frederick Jackson Turner presented his frontier thesis. The origin of the word Viking, the romantic revival of the Viking, the creation of the Viking Age and the criticism of the Viking and the Viking Age is discussed. Finally the article argues that the Viking and the ...

  3. South African Homelands as Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of frontier zones, the homelands emerge as areas in which the future of the South African postcolony is being renegotiated, contested and remade with hyper-real intensity. This is so because the many fault lines left over from apartheid (its loose ends, so to speak) – between white and black; between...... in these settings that the postcolonial promise of liberation and freedom must face its test. As such, the book offers highly nuanced and richly detailed analyses that go to the heart of the diverse dilemmas of post-apartheid South Africa as a whole, but simultaneously also provides in condensed form an extended...

  4. New Frontiers of Land Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee Peluso, Nancy; Lund, Christian

    2011-01-01

    rights, and territories created, extracted, produced, or protected on land. Primitive and on-going forms of accumulation, frontiers, enclosures, territories, grabs, and racializations have all been associated with mechanisms for land control. Agrarian environments have been transformed by processes of de...... analytic tools that had seemed to have timeless applicability with new frameworks, concepts, and theoretical tools. What difference does land control make? These contributions to the debates demonstrate that the answers have been shaped by conflicts, contexts, histories, and agency, as land has been...

  5. New frontiers in PDF determination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) are a crucial input at the LHC, their uncertainty often being the limiting factor in the accuracy of theoretical predictions. At the same time the LHC is delivering a number of precise measurements that have the potential to greatly constrain these functions. I will give an overview on the theory behind and on the state of the art of PDF determination. I will then mention the new theoretical and methodological challenges in modern PDF fits and explore the precision frontiers opened by the accuracy of the LHC data.

  6. Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J.L.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Collar, J.; de Gouvea, A.; Essig, R.; Grossman, Y.; Haxton, W.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Pitts, K.; Ligeti, Z.; Patterson, J.R.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.; Ritchie, J.L.; Roodman, A.; Scholberg, K.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Zeller, G.P.; Aefsky, S.; Afanasev, A.; Agashe, K.; Albright, C.; Alonso, J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Aoki, M.; Arguelles, C.A.; Arkani-Hamed, N.; Armendariz, J.R.; Armendariz-Picon, C.; Arrieta Diaz, E.; Asaadi, J.; Asner, D.M.; Babu, K.S.; Bailey, K.; Baker, O.; Balantekin, B.; Baller, B.; Bass, M.; Batell, B.; Beacham, J.; Behr, J.; Berger, N.; Bergevin, M.; Berman, E.; Bernstein, R.; Bevan, A.J.; Bishai, M.; Blanke, M.; Blessing, S.; Blondel, A.; Blum, T.; Bock, G.; Bodek, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boyce, J.; Breedon, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Brice, S.J.; Briere, R.A.; Brodsky, S.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Browder, T.E.; Bryman, D.A.; Buckley, M.; Burnstein, R.; Caden, E.; Campana, P.; Carlini, R.; Carosi, G.; Castromonte, C.; Cenci, R.; Chakaberia, I.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Cheng, C.H.; Choudhary, B.; Christ, N.H.; Christensen, E.; Christy, M.E.; Chupp, T.E.; Church, E.; Cline, D.B.; Coan, T.E.; Coloma, P.; Comfort, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, J.; Cooper, R.J.; Cowan, R.; Cowen, D.F.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Datta, A.; Davies, G.S.; Demarteau, M.; DeMille, D.P.; Denig, A.; Dermisek, R.; Deshpande, A.; Dewey, M.S.; Dharmapalan, R.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, M.R.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dobbs, S.; Duraisamy, M.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Duyang, H.; Dwyer, D.A.; Eads, M.; Echenard, B.; Elliott, S.R.; Escobar, C.; Fajans, J.; Farooq, S.; Faroughy, C.; Fast, J.E.; Feinberg, B.; Felde, J.; Feldman, G.; Fierlinger, P.; Fileviez Perez, P.; Filippone, B.; Fisher, P.; Flemming, B.T.; Flood, K.T.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.J.; Freyberger, A.; Friedland, A.; Gandhi, R.; Ganezer, K.S.; Garcia, A.; Garcia, F.G.; Gardner, S.; Garrison, L.; Gasparian, A.; Geer, S.; Gehman, V.M.; Gershon, T.; Gilchriese, M.; Ginsberg, C.; Gogoladze, I.; Gonderinger, M.; Goodman, M.; Gould, H.; Graham, M.; Graham, P.W.; Gran, R.; Grange, J.; Gratta, G.; Green, J.P.; Greenlee, H.; Group, R.C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gudkov, V.; Guenette, R.; Haas, A.; Hahn, A.; Han, T.; Handler, T.; Hardy, J.C.; Harnik, R.; Harris, D.A.; Harris, F.A.; Harris, P.G.; Hartnett, J.; He, B.; Heckel, B.R.; Heeger, K.M.; Henderson, S.; Hertzog, D.; Hill, R.; Hinds, E.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Holt, R.J.; Holtkamp, N.; Horton-Smith, G.; Huber, P.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imber, J.; Irastorza, I.; Jaeckel, J.; Jaegle, I.; James, C.; Jawahery, A.; Jensen, D.; Jessop, C.P.; Jones, B.; Jostlein, H.; Junk, T.; Kagan, A.L.; Kalita, M.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaplan, D.M.; Karagiorgi, G.; Karle, A.; Katori, T.; Kayser, B.; Kephart, R.; Kettell, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Kirby, M.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.; Kneller, J.; Kobach, A.; Kohl, M.; Kopp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Korsch, W.; Kourbanis, I.; Krisch, A.D.; Krizan, P.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, K.S.; Kuno, Y.; Kutter, T.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lamm, M.; Lancaster, J.; Lancaster, M.; Lane, C.; Lang, K.; Langacker, P.; Lazarevic, S.; Le, T.; Lee, K.; Lesko, K.T.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, M.; Lindner, A.; Link, J.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.S.; Littlejohn, B.; Liu, C.Y.; Loinaz, W.; Lorenzon, W.; Louis, W.C.; Lozier, J.; Ludovici, L.; Lueking, L.; Lunardini, C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Machado, P.A.N.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Maloney, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Marsh, W.; Marshak, M.; Martin, J.W.; Mauger, C.; McFarland, K.S.; McGrew, C.; McLaughlin, G.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Meadows, B.T.; Mehdiyev, R.; Melconian, D.; Merkel, H.; Messier, M.; Miller, J.P.; Mills, G.; Minamisono, U.K.; Mishra, S.R.; Mocioiu, I.; Sher, S.Moed; Mohapatra, R.N.; Monreal, B.; Moore, C.D.; Morfin, J.G.; Mousseau, J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, P.; Muether, M.; Mumm, H.P.; Munger, C.; Murayama, H.; Nath, P.; Naviliat-Cuncin, O.; Nelson, J.K.; Neuffer, D.; Nico, J.S.; Norman, A.; Nygren, D.; Obayashi, Y.; O'Connor, T.P.; Okada, Y.; Olsen, J.; Orozco, L.; Orrell, J.L.; Osta, J.; Pahlka, B.; Paley, J.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papucci, M.; Parke, S.; Parker, R.H.; Parsa, Z.; Partyka, K.; Patch, A.; Pati, J.C.; Patterson, R.B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Paz, Gil; Perdue, G.N.; Perevalov, D.; Perez, G.; Petti, R.; Pettus, W.; Piepke, A.; Pivovaroff, M.; Plunkett, R.; Polly, C.C.; Pospelov, M.; Povey, R.; Prakesh, A.; Purohit, M.V.; Raby, S.; Raaf, J.L.; Rajendran, R.; Rajendran, S.; Rameika, G.; Ramsey, R.; Rashed, A.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Rebel, B.; Redondo, J.; Reimer, P.; Reitzner, D.; Ringer, F.; Ringwald, A.; Riordan, S.; Roberts, B.L.; Roberts, D.A.; Robertson, R.; Robicheaux, F.; Rominsky, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J.L.; Rott, C.; Rubin, P.; Saito, N.; Sanchez, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schellman, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, D.W.; Schneps, J.; Schopper, A.; Schuster, P.; Schwartz, A.J.; Schwarz, M.; Seeman, J.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Seth, K.K.; Shafi, Q.; Shanahan, P.; Sharma, R.; Sharpe, S.R.; Shiozawa, M.; Shiltsev, V.; Sigurdson, K.; Sikivie, P.; Singh, J.; Sivers, D.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.; Sobczyk, J.; Sobel, H.; Soderberg, M.; Song, Y.H.; Soni, A.; Souder, P.; Sousa, A.; Spitz, J.; Stancari, M.; Stavenga, G.C.; Steffen, J.H.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoeckinger, D.; Stone, S.; Strait, J.; Strassler, M.; Sulai, I.A.; Sundrum, R.; Svoboda, R.; Szczerbinska, B.; Szelc, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Tanedo, P.; Taneja, S.; Tang, J.; Tanner, D.B.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I.; Thomas, J.; Thorn, C.; Tian, X.; Tice, B.G.; Tobar, M.; Tolich, N.; Toro, N.; Towner, I.S.; Tsai, Y.; Tschirhart, R.; Tunnell, C.D.; Tzanov, M.; Upadhye, A.; Urheim, J.; Vahsen, S.; Vainshtein, A.; Valencia, E.; Van de Water, R.G.; Van de Water, R.S.; Velasco, M.; Vogel, J.; Vogel, P.; Vogelsang, W.; Wah, Y.W.; Walker, D.; Weiner, N.; Weltman, A.; Wendell, R.; Wester, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitmore, J.; Widmann, E.; Wiedemann, G.; Wilkerson, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R.J.; Winter, W.; Wise, M.B.; Wodin, J.; Wojcicki, S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wongjirad, T.; Worcester, E.; Wurtele, J.; Xin, T.; Xu, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yavin, I.; Yeck, J.; Yeh, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Young, A.; Zimmerman, E.; Zioutas, K.; Zisman, M.; Zupan, J.; Zwaska, R.; Intensity Frontier Workshop

    2012-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  7. Frontier differences and the global malmquist index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews different ways of comparing the efficiency frontiers for subgroups within a data set, specifically program efficiency, the metatechnology (or technology gap) ratio and the global frontier difference index. The latter is subsequently used to define a global Malmquist index...

  8. JILA Science | Exploring the frontiers of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    print logo Main menu Research Research Areas Research Highlights JILA Discoveries JILA Physics Frontier Institutes Give to JILA Search form Search Search Advanced JILA Sites: JILA Physics Frontier Center JILA Molecular Physics Biophysics Chemical Physics Laser Physics Nanoscience Precision Measurement Quantum

  9. The frontier beneath our feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gordon E.; Dietrich, William E.

    2017-04-01

    Following the simple question as to where water goes when it rains leads to one of the most exciting frontiers in earth science: the critical zone—Earth's dynamic skin. The critical zone extends from the top of the vegetation canopy through the soil and down to fresh bedrock and the bottom of the groundwater. Only recently recognized as a distinct zone, it is challenging to study because it is hard to observe directly, and varies widely across biogeoclimatic regions. Yet new ideas, instruments, and observations are revealing surprising and sometimes paradoxical insights, underscoring the value of field campaigns and long-term observatories. These insights bear directly on some of the most pressing societal problems today: maintaining healthy forests, sustaining streamflow during droughts, and restoring productive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The critical zone is critical because it supports all terrestrial life; it is the nexus where water and carbon is cycled, vegetation (hence food) grows, soil develops, landscapes evolve, and we live. No other frontier is so close to home.

  10. Intracluster light at the Frontier - II. The Frontier Fields Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Mireia; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2018-02-01

    Multiwavelength deep observations are a key tool to understand the origin of the diffuse light in clusters of galaxies: the intracluster light (ICL). For this reason, we take advantage of the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) survey to investigate the properties of the stellar populations of the ICL of its six massive intermediate redshift (0.3 1015 M⊙) clusters is formed by the stripping of MW-like objects that have been accreted at z < 1, in agreement with current simulations. We do not find any significant increase in the fraction of light of the ICL with cosmic time, although the redshift range explored is narrow to derive any strong conclusion. When exploring the slope of the stellar mass density profile, we found that the ICL of the HFF clusters follows the shape of their underlying dark matter haloes, in agreement with the idea that the ICL is the result of the stripping of galaxies at recent times.

  11. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  12. Optimization and industry new frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkikh, Victor

    2003-01-01

    Optimization from Human Genes to Cutting Edge Technologies The challenges faced by industry today are so complex that they can only be solved through the help and participation of optimization ex­ perts. For example, many industries in e-commerce, finance, medicine, and engineering, face several computational challenges due to the mas­ sive data sets that arise in their applications. Some of the challenges include, extended memory algorithms and data structures, new program­ ming environments, software systems, cryptographic protocols, storage devices, data compression, mathematical and statistical methods for knowledge mining, and information visualization. With advances in computer and information systems technologies, and many interdisci­ plinary efforts, many of the "data avalanche challenges" are beginning to be addressed. Optimization is the most crucial component in these efforts. Nowadays, the main task of optimization is to investigate the cutting edge frontiers of these technologies and systems ...

  13. New frontiers for tomorrow`s world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassler, P [Shell International Petroleum Co. Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The conference paper deals with new frontiers and barricades in the global economic development and their influence on fuel consumption and energy source development. Topics discussed are incremental energy supply - new frontiers, world car population - new frontiers, OPEC crude production capacity vs call on OPEC, incremental world oil demand by region 1992-2000, oil resource cost curve, progress in seismic 1983-1991, Troll picture, cost reduction in renewables, sustained growth scenario, nuclear electricity capacity - France, OECD road transport fuels - barricades, and energy taxation. 18 figs.

  14. Frontier research at ANSTO with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadd, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    In the last decade there has been considerable interest in the new form of carbon called fullerenes. Instead of hexagonal rings of carbon atoms arranged in planar sheets in graphite or a 3-D tetrahedral structure in diamond, this new form of carbon consists of closed cages of carbon atoms. The fullerene which has gained the most notoriety has been C 60, 'buckminsterfullerene' or 'buckyballs'. This has the geometry of a soccer ball where the carbon atoms correspond to the vertices of the seams. As well as these cages, long hollow tubes of carbon have also been formed called carbon nanotubes. These new carbon materials are poised to create new technologies in the fields of new materials, superconductors, electronic components, medical drugs, radioisotopes and radiotracers. At ANSTO the strategy of combining frontier research with the use of neutrons has been taken, to try and produce a useful end product related to our core activities. The research has focussed on trying to trap atoms (molecules) inside the centre of fullerene cages and in particular C 60 or in the solid fullerene lattice in the spaces between the closely packed cages. Neutrons from our research nuclear reactor serve a two-fold purpose. Neutron diffraction has been used to elucidate the crystal structure of the new materials followed by neutron irradiation to activate the trapped species for possible uses in radiopharmaceutical and industrial radiotracer applications. (author)

  15. An Arbitrary Benchmark CAPM: One Additional Frontier Portfolio is Sufficient

    OpenAIRE

    Ekern, Steinar

    2008-01-01

    First draft: July 16, 2008 This version: October 7, 2008 The benchmark CAPM linearly relates the expected returns on an arbitrary asset, an arbitrary benchmark portfolio, and an arbitrary MV frontier portfolio. The benchmark is not required to be on the frontier and may be non-perfectly correlated with the frontier portfolio. The benchmark CAPM extends and generalizes previous CAPM formulations, including the zero beta, two correlated frontier portfolios, riskless augmented frontier, an...

  16. Frontier areas and exploration techniques. Frontier uranium exploration in the South-Central United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.D.; Biddle, K.T.

    1977-01-01

    Selected areas of the South-Central United States outside the known U trends of South Texas have a largely untested potential for the occurrence of significant U mineralization. These areas, underlain by Tertiary and older sediments, include parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The commonly accepted criteria employed in U exploration are applicable to these frontier areas but special consideration must also be given to the atypical geologic aspects of such areas as they may apply to relatively unique types of U mineralization or to the development of special exploration criteria for common types of roll-front and fault-and dome-related uranium mineralization. The procedures used in evaluating frontier areas should be based on comprehensive evaluations involving: (1) location and analysis of potential source rocks (e.g., intrusive igneous rocks, bentonitic sediments, unique complexes, etc.); (2) definition of regional variations in the potential host sediments (e.g. marginal marine to nonmarine environments of deposition); (3) review of all available radiometric data in Tertiary or older rocks; (4) local groundwater sampling; (5) widely spaced reconnaissance (or stratigraphic) drilling, coring and borehole geophysical logging to define favorable sedimentary facies and to establish the specific lithologic character of the sediments; and (6) detailed petrographic evaluation of all available samples to define the environment of deposition and diagenetic history of ''favorable'' sediments. If procedures produce favorable results, an expanded exploration program is justified. Depths up to 3,000 feet should be anticipated if up-dip information is favorable. Selected areas are discussed that have: (1) favorable source and host rocks;(2) favorable age; (3) favorable regional and local structure; and (4) radiometric characteristics favorable for U mineralization of potentially economic grade and reserves in the areas

  17. Frontiers of quantum Monte Carlo workshop: preface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The introductory remarks, table of contents, and list of attendees are presented from the proceedings of the conference, Frontiers of Quantum Monte Carlo, which appeared in the Journal of Statistical Physics

  18. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  19. Frontier search to slow in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that oil and gas exploration in Indonesia likely will begin refocusing on proven areas after 1993, Arthur Andersen and Co.'s Far East oil analyst predicts. Arthur Andersen's James Sales the disappointing exploration results, outdated production sharing contract (PSC) terms, and low oil prices are discouraging companies from exploring frontier acreage. But Indonesian frontier activity during 1992-93 is likely to remain high because a large number of PSCs awarded in the past 2 years by state owned Pertamina cover high risk frontier areas. PSC contractors have disclosed several discoveries on recently awarded frontier tracts. However, the discoveries have been relatively small and far from pipeline infrastructure. With prevailing low oil prices, Pertamina likely will find it difficult to entice companies to extend PSCs or joint operating agreements beyond minimum exploration commitments

  20. Nucleon measurements at the precision frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Carl E. [Physics Department, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    We comment on nucleon measurements at the precision frontier. As examples of what can be learned, we concentrate on three topics, which are parity violating scattering experiments, the proton radius puzzle, and the symbiosis between nuclear and atomic physics.

  1. On the critical frontiers of Potts ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, A.C.N. de; Tsallis, C.

    1981-01-01

    A conjecture concerning the critical frontiers of q- state Potts ferromagnets on d- dimensional lattices (d > 1) which generalize a recent one stated for planar lattices is formulated. The present conjecture is verified within satisfactory accuracy (exactly in some cases) for all the lattices or arrays whose critical points are known. Its use leads to the prediction of: a) a considerable amount of new approximate critical points (26 on non-planar regular lattices, some others on Husimi trees and cacti); b) approximate critical frontiers for some 3- dimensional lattices; c) the possibly asymptotically exact critical point on regular lattices in the limit d→infinite for all q>=1; d) the possibly exact critical frontier for the pure Potts model on fully anisotropic Bethe lattices; e) the possibly exact critical frontier for the general quenched random-bond Potts ferromagnet (any P(J)) on isotropic Bethe lattices. (Author) [pt

  2. New Frontiers in Passive and Active Nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    The articles included in this special section focus on several recent advances in the field of passive and active nanoantennas that employ not only traditional based realizations but also their new frontiers.......The articles included in this special section focus on several recent advances in the field of passive and active nanoantennas that employ not only traditional based realizations but also their new frontiers....

  3. Frontiers in Time Series and Financial Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, S.; McAleer, M.J.; Tong, H.

    2015-01-01

    __Abstract__ Two of the fastest growing frontiers in econometrics and quantitative finance are time series and financial econometrics. Significant theoretical contributions to financial econometrics have been made by experts in statistics, econometrics, mathematics, and time series analysis. The purpose of this special issue of the journal on “Frontiers in Time Series and Financial Econometrics” is to highlight several areas of research by leading academics in which novel methods have contrib...

  4. Estimating the NIH efficient frontier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Bisias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The National Institutes of Health (NIH is among the world's largest investors in biomedical research, with a mandate to: "…lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability." Its funding decisions have been criticized as insufficiently focused on disease burden. We hypothesize that modern portfolio theory can create a closer link between basic research and outcome, and offer insight into basic-science related improvements in public health. We propose portfolio theory as a systematic framework for making biomedical funding allocation decisions-one that is directly tied to the risk/reward trade-off of burden-of-disease outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from 1965 to 2007, we provide estimates of the NIH "efficient frontier", the set of funding allocations across 7 groups of disease-oriented NIH institutes that yield the greatest expected return on investment for a given level of risk, where return on investment is measured by subsequent impact on U.S. years of life lost (YLL. The results suggest that NIH may be actively managing its research risk, given that the volatility of its current allocation is 17% less than that of an equal-allocation portfolio with similar expected returns. The estimated efficient frontier suggests that further improvements in expected return (89% to 119% vs. current or reduction in risk (22% to 35% vs. current are available holding risk or expected return, respectively, constant, and that 28% to 89% greater decrease in average years-of-life-lost per unit risk may be achievable. However, these results also reflect the imprecision of YLL as a measure of disease burden, the noisy statistical link between basic research and YLL, and other known limitations of portfolio theory itself. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis is intended to serve as a proof-of-concept and starting point for applying quantitative methods to allocating biomedical research funding that are objective, systematic, transparent

  5. Estimating the NIH efficient frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisias, Dimitrios; Lo, Andrew W; Watkins, James F

    2012-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is among the world's largest investors in biomedical research, with a mandate to: "…lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability." Its funding decisions have been criticized as insufficiently focused on disease burden. We hypothesize that modern portfolio theory can create a closer link between basic research and outcome, and offer insight into basic-science related improvements in public health. We propose portfolio theory as a systematic framework for making biomedical funding allocation decisions-one that is directly tied to the risk/reward trade-off of burden-of-disease outcomes. Using data from 1965 to 2007, we provide estimates of the NIH "efficient frontier", the set of funding allocations across 7 groups of disease-oriented NIH institutes that yield the greatest expected return on investment for a given level of risk, where return on investment is measured by subsequent impact on U.S. years of life lost (YLL). The results suggest that NIH may be actively managing its research risk, given that the volatility of its current allocation is 17% less than that of an equal-allocation portfolio with similar expected returns. The estimated efficient frontier suggests that further improvements in expected return (89% to 119% vs. current) or reduction in risk (22% to 35% vs. current) are available holding risk or expected return, respectively, constant, and that 28% to 89% greater decrease in average years-of-life-lost per unit risk may be achievable. However, these results also reflect the imprecision of YLL as a measure of disease burden, the noisy statistical link between basic research and YLL, and other known limitations of portfolio theory itself. Our analysis is intended to serve as a proof-of-concept and starting point for applying quantitative methods to allocating biomedical research funding that are objective, systematic, transparent, repeatable, and expressly designed to reduce the burden of

  6. Ushering in a New Frontier in Geospace Through Data Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Bhatt, Asti; Matsuo, Tomoko; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Semeter, Joshua L.; Datta-Barua, Seebany

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding and specification of solar-terrestrial interactions benefit from taking advantage of comprehensive data-intensive approaches. These data-driven methods are taking on new importance in light of the shifting data landscape of the geospace system, which extends from the near Earth space environment, through the magnetosphere and interplanetary space, to the Sun. The space physics community faces both an exciting opportunity and an important imperative to create a new frontier built at the intersection of traditional approaches and state-of-the-art data-driven sciences and technologies. This brief commentary addresses the current paradigm of geospace science and the emerging need for data science innovation, discusses the meaning of data science in the context of geospace, and highlights community efforts to respond to the changing landscape.

  7. There is plenty of oil at the bottom: Frontier thinking in knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    This paper will neither celebrate nor criticize knowledge economy but simply ask what it can do. What kinds of knowledge claims can be made in a research project where science, industry and government interests are closely intertwined? Based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with scientists...... of frontier-thinking which works to create a promissory space for future value creation. When viewed from the nano scale, the North Sea oil fields seem half full rather than half empty. There is plenty of oil at the bottom of the ocean if one knows how to look and future oil recovery might become analogous...... between making frontiers out of nature and out of scientists. The reative recalcitrance of scientists subjected to frontier thinking by the hand th at feeds seem to challenge the conception that science is merely being engulfed by capital and government interest. Successful scientists attempt to use...

  8. Conditions for a Possible Dialogue between Theology and Science from the Perspective of the Concept of Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saplacan Calin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Is there a way without conquests and wars to be found in the relationship of theology and science? This relation is analyzed from the perspective of the concept of frontier in order to establish the conditions for a possible dialogue. Paradoxically, the frontier unites and divides at the same time. On the one hand, the frontier marks the differences, on the other hand it appears as a crossing, a passageway. The frontier is an in-between, a huge space in which the two sides are called together to explain each other, and in order to create a passage between the two sides. The methodological framework of analysis is the approach of analytical theology to distinctions in language and significance. As a frame of reference, the possibility conditions for a philosophical dialogue between phenomenology and analytical philosophy have been considered.

  9. Metaorganisms as the new frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thomas C G; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2011-09-01

    Because it appears that almost all organisms are part of an interdependent metaorganism, an understanding of the underlying host-microbe species associations, and of evolution and molecular underpinnings, has become the new frontier in zoology. The availability of novel high-throughput sequencing methods, together with the conceptual understanding that advances mostly originate at the intersection of traditional disciplinary boundaries, enable biologists to dissect the mechanisms that control the interdependent associations of species. In this review article, we outline some of the issues in inter-species interactions, present two case studies illuminating the necessity of interfacial research when addressing complex and fundamental zoological problems, and show that an interdisciplinary approach that seeks to understand co-evolved multi-species relationships will connect genomes, phenotypes, ecosystems and the evolutionary forces that have shaped them. We hope that this article inspires other collaborations of a similar nature on the diverse landscape commonly referred to as "zoology". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. India beckons participants in burgeoning refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that India has opened its refining sector to full private investment for the first time in more than 2 decades. The government again gave a green light to construction of three 120,000 b/d grassroots refineries in East, West, and Central India. The projects had won various governmental approvals in the past few years, but never moved off high center for a variety of economic and regulatory reasons. The difference this time is that the government is offering interests in the projects to private foreign and domestic investors. It's part of India's push to boost overall refining capacity by more than 80% this century

  11. European PV industry -- The future beckons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The author believes that there are reasons to believe that the solar industry is poised on the brink of rapid commercial growth, leading to broadly-based industry viability. The author discusses the role that the European solar industry has to play in helping to bring about a better future. He begins his discussion with the current state of the European industry and follows with recommendations of what the European industry should be doing to encourage the solar industry growth

  12. Intracluster light at the Frontier: A2744

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Mireia; Trujillo, Ignacio, E-mail: mireia.montes.quiles@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias,c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-10-20

    The ultra-deep multiwavelength Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields coverage of the Abell Cluster 2744 is used to derive the stellar population properties of its intracluster light (ICL). The restframe colors of the ICL of this intermediate redshift (z = 0.3064) massive cluster are bluer (g – r = 0.68 ± 0.04; i – J = 0.56 ± 0.01) than those found in the stellar populations of its main galaxy members (g – r = 0.83 ± 0.01; i – J = 0.75 ± 0.01). Based on these colors, we derive the following mean metallicity Z = 0.018 ± 0.007 for the ICL. The ICL age is 6 ± 3 Gyr younger than the average age of the most massive galaxies of the cluster. The fraction of stellar mass in the ICL component comprises at least 6% of the total stellar mass of the galaxy cluster. Our data are consistent with a scenario where the bulk of the ICL of A2744 has been formed relatively recently (z < 1). The stellar population properties of the ICL suggest that this diffuse component is mainly the result of the disruption of infalling galaxies with similar characteristics in mass (M {sub *} ∼ 3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}) and metallicity than our own Milky Way. The amount of ICL mass in the central part of the cluster (<400 kpc) is equivalent to the disruption of 4-6 Milky-Way-type galaxies.

  13. Conventional - Frontier and east coast supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of frontier basins in Canada with proven potential for petroleum resources was provided. A prediction of which frontier basin will become a major supplier of conventional light oil was made by examining where companies are investing in frontier exploration today. Frontier land values for five active frontier areas were discussed. These included the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia Offshore, Western Newfoundland, the southern Northwest Territories and the Central Mackenzie Valley. The focus of this presentation was on three of these regions which are actually producing: Newfoundland's Grand Banks, offshore Nova Scotia and the Mackenzie Valley. Activities in each of these areas were reviewed. The Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board has listed Hibernia's reserves at 666 million barrels. The Sable Offshore Energy Project on the continental shelf offshore Nova Scotia proposes to develop 5.4 tcf of gas plus 75 million barrels of NGLs over a project life of 14 years. In the Mackenzie Valley there are at least three petroleum systems, including the 235 million barrel pool at Norman Wells. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  14. Aerospace nursing: the new frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk-Walker, G C

    1989-01-01

    Since the days of Florence Nightingale and the Crimean War, nursing has been involved in shaping the environment to make it more conducive to human existence. With the emergence of the Space Age the environment has broadened to encompass not only Earth and its ionosphere, but its moon and sister planets as well. To date, nursing has been successful in developing theories that address human-environmental interactions. However, the environment of the 21st century will be vastly different from the environment of the 1980s. In the 21st century, macroutilization of space will become a reality. Such broad-based use of space will include space industrialization and manufacturing, satellite solar power generation, and space habitation. In order to achieve long-duration space flights and habitation, human needs and responses to microgravity must be addressed. This article discusses the physiological and psychological stresses that have an impact on the ability of humans to achieve space habitation and nursing's role in that endeavor. The nursing knowledge base needed to establish the discipline as a major contributor to space health science is discussed. An educational strategy for the development of this knowledge at both the master's and doctoral levels is proposed.

  15. Contruction of a smoothed DEA frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello João Carlos Correia Baptista Soares de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the DEA multipliers model does not allow a unique solution for the weights. This is due to the absence of unique derivatives in the extreme-efficient points, which is a consequence of the piecewise linear nature of the frontier. In this paper we propose a method to solve this problem, consisting of changing the original DEA frontier for a new one, smooth (with continuous derivatives at every point and closest to the original frontier. We present the theoretical development for the general case, exemplified with the particular case of the BCC model with one input and one output. The 3-dimensional problem is briefly discussed. Some uses of the model are summarised, and one of them, a new Cross-Evaluation model, is presented.

  16. The Distribution of the Sample Minimum-Variance Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Kan; Daniel R. Smith

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a finite sample analysis of the sample minimum-variance frontier under the assumption that the returns are independent and multivariate normally distributed. We show that the sample minimum-variance frontier is a highly biased estimator of the population frontier, and we propose an improved estimator of the population frontier. In addition, we provide the exact distribution of the out-of-sample mean and variance of sample minimum-variance portfolios. This allows us t...

  17. Fundamental Symmetries of the Early Universe and the Precision Frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The search for the next Standard Model of fundamental interactions is being carried out at two frontiers: the high energy frontier involving the Tevatron and Large Hadron Collider, and the high precision frontier where the focus is largely on low energy experiments. I discuss the unique and powerful window on new physics provided by the precision frontier and its complementarity to the information we hope to gain from present and future colliders.

  18. AHP 21: Review: China's Last Imperial Frontier and The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Entenmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, historians have not paid much attention to Qing China's Tibetan frontier, but two excellent new studies address this neglect. One is Yingcong Dai's The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing, which examines the Qing conquest of the Khams region up to the end of the eighteenth century and its effect on Sichuan. The other is China's Last Imperial Frontier: Late Qing Expansion in Sichuan's Tibetan Borderlands by Xiuyu Wang, in which he describes Qing efforts to impose direct administration on the Khams region in the last years of the dynasty. ...

  19. Strategic Military Colonisation: The Cape Eastern Frontier 1806–1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi) met, and in many ...

  20. Estimating the NIH Efficient Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is among the world’s largest investors in biomedical research, with a mandate to: “…lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability.” Its funding decisions have been criticized as insufficiently focused on disease burden. We hypothesize that modern portfolio theory can create a closer link between basic research and outcome, and offer insight into basic-science related improvements in public health. We propose portfolio theory as a systematic framework for making biomedical funding allocation decisions–one that is directly tied to the risk/reward trade-off of burden-of-disease outcomes. Methods and Findings Using data from 1965 to 2007, we provide estimates of the NIH “efficient frontier”, the set of funding allocations across 7 groups of disease-oriented NIH institutes that yield the greatest expected return on investment for a given level of risk, where return on investment is measured by subsequent impact on U.S. years of life lost (YLL). The results suggest that NIH may be actively managing its research risk, given that the volatility of its current allocation is 17% less than that of an equal-allocation portfolio with similar expected returns. The estimated efficient frontier suggests that further improvements in expected return (89% to 119% vs. current) or reduction in risk (22% to 35% vs. current) are available holding risk or expected return, respectively, constant, and that 28% to 89% greater decrease in average years-of-life-lost per unit risk may be achievable. However, these results also reflect the imprecision of YLL as a measure of disease burden, the noisy statistical link between basic research and YLL, and other known limitations of portfolio theory itself. Conclusions Our analysis is intended to serve as a proof-of-concept and starting point for applying quantitative methods to allocating biomedical research funding that are objective, systematic, transparent

  1. R-U policy frontiers for health data de-identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Raymond; Ding, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiuyong; Malin, Bradley A

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Privacy Rule enables healthcare organizations to share de-identified data via two routes. They can either 1) show re-identification risk is small (e.g., via a formal model, such as k-anonymity) with respect to an anticipated recipient or 2) apply a rule-based policy (i.e., Safe Harbor) that enumerates attributes to be altered (e.g., dates to years). The latter is often invoked because it is interpretable, but it fails to tailor protections to the capabilities of the recipient. The paper shows rule-based policies can be mapped to a utility (U) and re-identification risk (R) space, which can be searched for a collection, or frontier, of policies that systematically trade off between these goals. Methods We extend an algorithm to efficiently compose an R-U frontier using a lattice of policy options. Risk is proportional to the number of patients to which a record corresponds, while utility is proportional to similarity of the original and de-identified distribution. We allow our method to search 20 000 rule-based policies (out of 2700) and compare the resulting frontier with k-anonymous solutions and Safe Harbor using the demographics of 10 U.S. states. Results The results demonstrate the rule-based frontier 1) consists, on average, of 5000 policies, 2% of which enable better utility with less risk than Safe Harbor and 2) the policies cover a broader spectrum of utility and risk than k-anonymity frontiers. Conclusions R-U frontiers of de-identification policies can be discovered efficiently, allowing healthcare organizations to tailor protections to anticipated needs and trustworthiness of recipients. PMID:25911674

  2. Using the Efficient Frontier to Obtain the Best Solution for the Storage Location Assignment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Elisa Fontana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main variables that influence the efficiency of a warehouse are the use of space and the order picking distance. In the literature, there are proposals to add the costs with space and order picking in order to evaluate each alternative for storage location assignment. However, there were problems with the adoption of this methodology, including difficulties in determining the costs and tradeoffs between them. These difficulties can result in solutions that are suboptimal. Based on these facts, this paper proposes a class-based storage process and storage location assignment by a cube-per-order index (COI that analyzes the space required and the total order picking distance by Pareto-optimal calculations. The efficient frontier possibilities allow the reduction of the set of alternatives, and the DM can analyze only the alternatives on efficient frontier.

  3. Snowmass Computing Frontier: Computing for the Cosmic Frontier, Astrophysics, and Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Habib, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States); Szalay, A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Borrill, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuller, G. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Gnedin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heitmann, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States); Jacobs, D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lamb, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Mezzacappa, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Messer, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Myers, S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); Nord, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Nugent, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Shea, B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ricker, P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Schneider, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-12

    This document presents (off-line) computing requrements and challenges for Cosmic Frontier science, covering the areas of data management, analysis, and simulations. We invite contributions to extend the range of covered topics and to enhance the current descriptions.

  4. Modeling stochastic frontier based on vine copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Michel; Candido, Osvaldo; Tabak, Benjamin M.; da Costa, Reginaldo Brito

    2017-11-01

    This article models a production function and analyzes the technical efficiency of listed companies in the United States, Germany and England between 2005 and 2012 based on the vine copula approach. Traditional estimates of the stochastic frontier assume that data is multivariate normally distributed and there is no source of asymmetry. The proposed method based on vine copulas allow us to explore different types of asymmetry and multivariate distribution. Using data on product, capital and labor, we measure the relative efficiency of the vine production function and estimate the coefficient used in the stochastic frontier literature for comparison purposes. This production vine copula predicts the value added by firms with given capital and labor in a probabilistic way. It thereby stands in sharp contrast to the production function, where the output of firms is completely deterministic. The results show that, on average, S&P500 companies are more efficient than companies listed in England and Germany, which presented similar average efficiency coefficients. For comparative purposes, the traditional stochastic frontier was estimated and the results showed discrepancies between the coefficients obtained by the application of the two methods, traditional and frontier-vine, opening new paths of non-linear research.

  5. Resources for Teaching about the Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, David

    1988-01-01

    Highlights materials relating to the U.S. frontier during the 19th century by citing journal articles and documents related to this topic. Indicates the means for obtaining these works which deal with rural schooling, historical demography, Native Americans, music, revivalism, and Black cowboys. (KO)

  6. THE INVISIBLE FRONTIER: THE CURRENT LIMITS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions, area-wide or regional development organizations, specialized functional authorities or ... regional or functional development authorities, parastatal organizations, or special project ..... frontiers between urban, peri-urban and rural activity are blurring and merging. .... KOPP, A., 1998. Networking and rural development.

  7. Risk appetite : reaching for the frontier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. A.F. de Wild

    2015-01-01

    Deze poster vat de resultaten samen van een onderzoek in spelvorm gehouden onder 56 Nederlandse risicomanagement professionals. Onderzocht werd of zij in staat waren risico’s optimaal te managen. In het spel konden 10 optimale spelstrategieën gespeeld worden die samen een efficient frontier vormden.

  8. Nonlinear science as a fluctuating research frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jihuan

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear science has had quite a triumph in all conceivable applications in science and technology, especially in high energy physics and nanotechnology. COBE, which was awarded the physics Nobel Prize in 2006, might be probably more related to nonlinear science than the Big Bang theory. Five categories of nonlinear subjects in research frontier are pointed out.

  9. Frontiere pericolose: l’adattamento Dangerous frontiers: adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Volpe

    2011-04-01

    >good adaptation – must push further, dare in diversity. Departing from a text means setting off, travelling, crossing a frontier to land elsewhere. And sometimes, as Truffaut wished, doing «something different, and better».

  10. Cosmic frontiers of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, W.J. III.

    1977-01-01

    All relevant topics in general astronomy are covered including orientation in space--time, special relativity, gravitation and general relativity, stars and stellar evolution, white dwarfs, pulsars, neutron stars, the black hole, the geometry of the Schwarzschild solution, and electrically charged and rotating black holes. Also the geometry of the Kerr solution, observations of black holes, white holes and particle creation, gravitational waves and lenses, exploding galaxies and massive and primordial black holes are discussed

  11. Frontiers twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The revolution in twentieth century physics has changed the way we think about space, time and matter and our own place in the universe. It has offered answers to many of the big questions of existence, such as the ultimate nature of things and the how the universe came into being. It has undermined our belief in a Newtonian mechanistic universe and a deterministic future, posing questions about parallel universes, time-travel and the origin and end of everything. At the same time we have witnessed amazing attempts at unification so that physicists are able to contemplate the discovery of a si

  12. Frontiers in particle science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, D.T.; Lawson, S.; Williams, R.A.

    2002-07-01

    The study of particulate materials and interfaces is a dominant discipline within chemical, pharmaceutical, biological, mineral, energy, consumer and healthcare products sectors. The role is set to expand with advances in engineered particulates, nanoscience and innovations in materials science and processing. This book addresses some key issues in these new frontiers for the research and industrial community. Such issues will continue to impact the quality of our everyday lives

  13. Efficient Frontier - Comparing Different Volatility Estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Tea Poklepović; Zdravka Aljinović; Mario Matković

    2015-01-01

    Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) according to Markowitz states that investors form mean-variance efficient portfolios which maximizes their utility. Markowitz proposed the standard deviation as a simple measure for portfolio risk and the lower semi-variance as the only risk measure of interest to rational investors. This paper uses a third volatility estimator based on intraday data and compares three efficient frontiers on the Croatian Stock Market. The results show that ra...

  14. The Canadian experience in frontier environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Early Canadian frontier exploration (from 1955 onshore and from 1966 for offshore drilling) caused insignificant public concern. The 1967-1968 Torrey Canyon Tanker and Santa Barbara disasters roused public opinion and governments. In Canada, 1969-1970 Arctic gas blowouts, a tanker disaster, and damage to the 'Manhattan' exacerbated concerns and resulted in new environmental regulatory constraints. From 1970, the Arctic Petroleum Operations Association learned to operate safely with environmental responsibility. It studied physical environment for design criteria, and the biological and human environment to ameliorate impact. APOA's research projects covered sea-ice, permafrost, sea-bottom, oil-spills, bird and mammal migration, fish habitat, food chains, oceanography, meteorology, hunters'/trappers' harvests, etc. In 1971 Eastcoast Petroleum Operators' Association and Alaska Oil and Gas Association followed APOA's cooperative research model. EPOA stressed icebergs and fisheries. Certain research was handled by the Canadian Offshore Oil Spill Research Association. By the mid-1980s these associations had undertaken $70,000,000 of environmental oriented research, with equivalent additional work by member companies on specific needs and similar sums by Federal agencies often working with industry on complementary research. The frontier associations then merged with the Canadian Petroleum Association, already active environmentally in western Canada. Working with government and informing environmental interest groups, the public, natives, and local groups, most Canadian frontier petroleum operations proceeded with minimal delay and environmental disturbance

  15. Accounting for Cosmic Variance in Studies of Gravitationally Lensed High-redshift Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Field Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Stark, Dan P.; McLeod, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ~35% at redshift z ~ 7 to >~ 65% at z ~ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.

  16. Frontier Research in Astrophysics - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this international workshop is to bring together astrophysicists and physicists who are involved in various topics at the forefront of modern astrophysics and particle physics. The workshop will discuss the most recent experimental and theoretical results in order to advance our understanding of the physics governing our Universe. To accomplish the goals of the workshop, we believe it is necessary to use data from ground-based and space-based experiments and results from theoretical developments: work on the forefront of science which has resulted (or promises to result in) high-impact scientific papers. Hence, the main purpose of the workshop is to discuss in a unique and collaborative setting a broad range of topics in modern astrophysics, from the Big Bang to Planets and Exoplanets. We believe that this can provide a suitable framework for each participant who (while obviously not involved in all the topics discussed), will be able to acquire a general view of the main experimental and theoretical results currently obtained. Such an up-to-date view of the current research on cosmic sources can help guide future research projects by the participants, and will encourage collaborative efforts across various topical areas of research. The proceedings will be published in Proceedings of Science (PoS)- SISSA and will provide a powerful resource for all the scientific community and will be especially helpful for PhD students. The following items will be reviewed: Cosmology: Cosmic Background, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Clusters of Galaxies. Physics of the Diffuse Cosmic Sources. Physics of Cosmic Rays. Physics of Discrete Cosmic Sources. Extragalactic Sources: Active Galaxies, Normal Galaxies, Gamma-Ray Bursts. Galactic Sources: Star Formation, Pre-Main-Sequence and Main- Sequence Stars, the Sun, Cataclysmic Variables and Novae, Supernovae and SNRs, X-Ray Binary Systems, Pulsars, Black Holes, Gamma-Ray Sources, Nucleosynthesis, Asteroseismology

  17. A Note on the Kinks at the Mean Variance Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Vörös, J.; Kriens, J.; Strijbosch, L.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the standard portfolio case with short sales restrictions is analyzed.Dybvig pointed out that if there is a kink at a risky portfolio on the efficient frontier, then the securities in this portfolio have equal expected return and the converse of this statement is false.For the existence of kinks at the efficient frontier the sufficient condition is given here and a new procedure is used to derive the efficient frontier, i.e. the characteristics of the mean variance frontier.

  18. GENDER FRONTIERS IN MODERN URBANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alice Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of what perspectives are the city, the street, the home, the working place and the spaces for leisure being built? On the basis of whose interests and to what purposes are cities ordained? What ideology is behind this “order” proposed to the cities? This article presents a feminist critical analysis of urban modernism since its genesis on the XIX century, in the context of urbanization emerging from industrialization. For the most part, what has been produced on modern urbanism and its planning is male-white-European authored. Analysis, from a feminist perspective, leads to the questioning of “objective” knowledge, produced independently of positionality and thus to the adoption of standpoint epistemologies. Finally, going against the grain of mainstream urbanistic discourse, it demonstrates that the subject of knowledge is not neuter; urbanistic knowledge is produced by men, so as to tend to, and reinforce, patriarchal ideology. The consequences of such a situation are still felt by contemporary women.

  19. Critical Trajectories for the Human Settlement of the High Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lee S.

    2007-02-01

    If preservation and prosperity of humanity on the Earth and human settlement of space are our goals, we should concentrate on a commercial path to get there. Commercial enterprise has a long history of fortuitously aiding scientific progress. We expect radical changes in the cost of earth to orbit transportation, and in the methods and efficacy of deep space transportation, within the next two decades. A successful space tourism industry, beginning with suborbital tourism, will greatly drive down the cost of access to orbit over the next 15 years. Inexpensive transportation to low Earth orbit is the first requirement for a great future on the High Frontier. Inexpensive means the cost associated with a mature transportation system. A mature system has a cost of three to five times the cost of the propellant. The first cheap, reliable and highly reusable rocket engines are just now appearing in vehicles. With an assured market and high flight rate, the heretofore glacial progress in reducing the cost of space transportation is likely to become rapid. This is the first critical enabling example of synergy between free market economics and scientific and technical progress in space. It will not be the last. New high power switches and ultracapacitors developed for the automotive market make possible cheap, robust and reliable mass driver engines. In space construction, using masses of nonterrestrial materials make the gravity tractor technique much more capable than previous schemes to maneuver asteroids. Ion propulsion will continue to improve and the first solar sails will be flown. Advanced robotics will allow remarkable improvements in productivity. The computing power available to robots began to follow the exponential Moore's law less than decade ago. The first commercial autonomous mobile robots appeared in late summer 2006. Humans, however, will be required for the foreseeable future in repair and supervisory roles, particularly in unstructured settings such as

  20. Open Cultural Spaces in Search of New Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Švob-Đokić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Crossing cultural borders opens up a new creativity, new expectations and new emptiness that provoke fear and existential nausea. Are we lost forever, in a specific historical time, in a specific culture, or in a specific geographical location? Are we forgotten in transitions, translations and intercultural misunderstandings? Are we bound to remain foreigners forever? In order to provide some answers, we hurriedly establish new borders and define new relations between the recently-established entities, a new creativity or a new understanding and knowledge that can help us to survive the confrontation with a limitless nihility. In the age of globalisation, an increased effort to position cultural creativity and cultural identification within the local, now multicultural and largely redefined context, is strongly felt. How does this affect people and societies? What are the limits of transgressions between cultures and different cultural values? How can the new cultural identities be redefined? The answers to these questions can turn out to be very different, but they seem to be confined to at least two already discernible directions: cultural hybridisation (García Canclini and the emergence of virtual cultures that promote de-standardised identities.

  1. A New Frontier in a New Domain of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Alfred K.

    2004-07-01

    A deep-seated belief in the existence of a primordial atomistic structure of matter has not always been present in human thinking. The religions of ancient eastern civilizations---essentially spiritual in nature---did not concern themselves with such a speculation, and Christianity of the Middle Ages---essentially rational and deistic in nature---repudiated it.

  2. Frontier Fields: A Cost-Effective Approach to Bringing Authentic Science to the Education Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Lawton, B.; Summers, F.; Ryer, H.

    2015-11-01

    For more than two decades, the Hubble EPO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community and the public, and to engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based, curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, and professional development workshops. The main underpinnings of the program's infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. The Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community in a cost-effective way. Frontier Fields observations and results have been, and will continue to be, embedded into existing product lines and professional development offerings. We also are leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog.

  3. Annual symposium on Frontiers in Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, N.; Fulton, K.R.

    1998-12-31

    This final report summarizes activities conducted for the National Academy of Sciences' Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Science with support from the US Department of Energy for the period July 1, 1993 through May 31, 1998. During the report period, five Frontiers of Science symposia were held at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. For each Symposium, an organizing committee appointed by the NAS President selected and planned the eight sessions for the Symposium and identified general participants for invitation by the NAS President. These Symposia accomplished their goal of bringing together outstanding younger (age 45 or less) scientists to hear presentations in disciplines outside their own and to discuss exciting advances and opportunities in their fields in a format that encourages, and allows adequate time for, informal one-on-one discussions among participants. Of the 458 younger scientists who participated, over a quarter (124) were women. Participant lists for all symposia (1993--1997) are attached. The scientific participants were leaders in basic research from academic, industrial, and federal laboratories in such disciplines as astronomy, astrophysics, atmospheric science, biochemistry, cell biology, chemistry, computer science, earth sciences, engineering, genetics, material sciences, mathematics, microbiology, neuroscience, physics, and physiology. For each symposia, the 24 speakers and discussants on the program were urged to focus their presentations on current cutting-edge research in their field for a scientifically sophisticated but non-specialist audience, and to provide a sense of the experimental data--what is actually measured and seen in the various fields. They were also asked to address questions such as: What are the major research problems and unique tools in their field? What are the current limitations on advances as well as the frontiers? Speakers were asked to provide a

  4. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsesmelis Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC, this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  5. From "Frontiers of Astronomy" to Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sun

    2011-10-01

    In his book Frontiers of Astronomy, Fred Hoyle outlined a number of ideas on the stellar synthesis of solid-state materials and their ejection into the interstellar medium. He also considered the possibility of interstellar organics being integrated into the early Earth during the accretion phase of planetary formation. These organics may have played a role in the origin of life and the creation of fossil fuels. In this paper, we assess these ideas with modern observational evidence, in particular on the evidence of stellar synthesis of complex organics and their delivery to the early Solar System.

  6. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  7. The Research Frontier in Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrens, Thomas; Filatotchev, Igor; Thomsen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    in our knowledge of corporate governance and is likely to lead of a rethink of central concepts like shareholder value, debt governance, and management incentives (2) what do we know and what do we need to how about the impact of national institutions on corporate governance? (3) What research questions......In this paper we attempt to identify the research frontier in corporate governance using three different approaches: (1) what challenges does the financial crisis 2007–2009 pose for corporate governance research? We show that the financial crisis is a huge natural experiment which has exposed gaps...

  8. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  9. Fermilab a laboratory at the frontier of research

    CERN Document Server

    Gillies, James D

    2002-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1967, creeping urbanization has taken away some of Fermilab's remoteness, but the famous buffalo still roam, and farm buildings evocative of frontier America dot the landscape - appropriately for a laboratory at the high-energy frontier of modern research. Topics discussed are the Tevatron, detector upgrades, the neutrino programme, Fermilab and the LHC and the non-accelerator programme.

  10. A Frontier Model for Landscape Ecology: The Tapir in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Flesher; Eduardo Ley

    1995-01-01

    We borrow a frontier specification from the econometrics literature to make inferences about the tolerance of the tapir to human settlements. We estimate the width of an invisible band surrounding human settlements which would act as a frontier or exclusion zone to the tapir to be around 290 meters.

  11. Efficient Provision of Employment Service Outputs: A Production Frontier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Edward S.; Stafford, Frank P.

    1985-01-01

    This article develops a production frontier model for the Employment Service and assesses the relative efficiency of the 51 State Employment Security Agencies in attaining program outcomes close to that frontier. This approach stands in contrast to such established practices as comparing programs to their own previous performance. (Author/CT)

  12. On the Endogeneity of the Mean-Variance Efficient Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. A.; O'Connell, Paul G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Explains that the endogeneity of the efficient frontier in the mean-variance model of portfolio selection is commonly obscured in portfolio selection literature and in widely used textbooks. Demonstrates endogeneity and discusses the impact of parameter changes on the mean-variance efficient frontier and on the beta coefficients of individual…

  13. Frontiere, confini, limiti: e la geografia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Tanca

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The adjective "geographic" does not draw upon what is conceived and opposed to "cultural" elements, but what is resultant of the meeting and exploration of cultural trajectories - boundaries that men establish and realize to contact with the earth's reality, and their societies therein. The historian Lucien Febvre, Paul Vidal de La Blache's student and friend, wrote "in geography no issue is more important than subdivisions one". At the concept of natural frontiers (that until the 700's, indicated a physical element with greater visibility and stability over and above  any man's work, during the eighteenth century,  the problem of subdivision brought with it complications - ergo,  the identification of a criterion to divide the earth surface in parts. Now since the evidence of each geographical representation is actually the product of a self performative mechanism (Dematteis, this should ensure that we contribute, with all our collective practices, to give a meaning and a symbolic function to physical objects,  frontiers, boundaries and limits. In this respect, individual views lose the often fixed aspect of personal opinion, and the connotation of what is "natural", assumes a different cognitive meaning, along with the political and symbolic points of view that mankind often embraces.

  14. NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: Engaging Educators and Students in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Smith, Denise Anne; Jirdeh, Hussein; Summers, Frank; Darnell, John T.; Ryer, Holly

    2015-08-01

    NASA’s Frontier Fields is an ambitious three-year Great Observatories program that will expand our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution in the early universe. The program includes six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters that will be taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The observations allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein’s theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has initiated an E/PO project to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the Hubble E/PO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community, the youth, and the public, and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, professional development workshops, and direct interactions with scientists. We are also leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog. The main underpinnings of the program’s infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.This talk features the goals and current status of the Frontier Fields E/PO program, with a particular emphasis on our education goals and achievements. We also highlight OPO

  15. European regional efficiency and geographical externalities: a spatial nonparametric frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramajo, Julián; Cordero, José Manuel; Márquez, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyses region-level technical efficiency in nine European countries over the 1995-2007 period. We propose the application of a nonparametric conditional frontier approach to account for the presence of heterogeneous conditions in the form of geographical externalities. Such environmental factors are beyond the control of regional authorities, but may affect the production function. Therefore, they need to be considered in the frontier estimation. Specifically, a spatial autoregressive term is included as an external conditioning factor in a robust order- m model. Thus we can test the hypothesis of non-separability (the external factor impacts both the input-output space and the distribution of efficiencies), demonstrating the existence of significant global interregional spillovers into the production process. Our findings show that geographical externalities affect both the frontier level and the probability of being more or less efficient. Specifically, the results support the fact that the spatial lag variable has an inverted U-shaped non-linear impact on the performance of regions. This finding can be interpreted as a differential effect of interregional spillovers depending on the size of the neighboring economies: positive externalities for small values, possibly related to agglomeration economies, and negative externalities for high values, indicating the possibility of production congestion. Additionally, evidence of the existence of a strong geographic pattern of European regional efficiency is reported and the levels of technical efficiency are acknowledged to have converged during the period under analysis.

  16. High Performance Arm for an Exploration Space Suit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design (FFD) proposes to develop and deliver an advanced pressure garment arm with low torque and high Range of Motion (ROM), and increased...

  17. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  18. Frontier lands: Oil and gas statistical overview, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Canada's frontier lands consist of offshore and onshore areas outside the provinces which fall under federal authority. These lands cover some 10.2 million km 2 and include the Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory, and areas off the east and west coasts and in the far north. A statistical summary is presented of oil and gas activities in these frontier lands for 1992. Information provided includes activity status and wells drilled on frontier lands, a resource inventory, oil and gas production, land holdings and status, licenses concluded, petroleum-related employment on frontier lands, and petroleum expenditures on frontier lands. Highlights of activities include the first commercial production of crude oil from the Panuke oil field on the Scotian Shelf; a continued decrease in exploration activity on the frontier lands; the introduction of legislation to eliminate restrictions on foreign ownership of production licences on frontier lands; and the resolution to the Canada-France maritime boundary dispute by the International Court of Arbitration. 9 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Frontiers of interfacial water research :workshop report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    2005-10-01

    Water is the critical natural resource of the new century. Significant improvements in traditional water treatment processes require novel approaches based on a fundamental understanding of nanoscale and atomic interactions at interfaces between aqueous solution and materials. To better understand these critical issues and to promote an open dialog among leading international experts in water-related specialties, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a workshop on April 24-26, 2005 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The ''Frontiers of Interfacial Water Research Workshop'' provided attendees with a critical review of water technologies and emphasized the new advances in surface and interfacial microscopy, spectroscopy, diffraction, and computer simulation needed for the development of new materials for water treatment.

  20. Mapping frontier research in the humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -academic fields and supplemented by new transdisciplinary methods focusing on solving grand societal challenges, such as globalisation, multiculturalism, equality, democracy, security and health. Given the nature of these challenges and the ways in which university leadership has been organised, the very notion...... of impact and styles of reasoning, both in classical and interdisciplinary fields of the humanities. From this perspective, a more composite picture of human culture, language and history can emerge from humanities research. It goes beyond the picture of rational agents, and situates human interaction...... in more complex landscapes of collective identities, networks, and constraints that open for new forms of intellectual leadership in the 21st century. Link: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/mapping-frontier-research-in-the-humanities-9781472597687/...

  1. Mapping Frontier Research in the Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -academic fields and supplemented by new transdisciplinary methods focusing on solving grand societal challenges, such as globalisation, multiculturalism, equality, democracy, security and health. Given the nature of these challenges and the ways in which university leadership has been organised, the very notion...... of impact and styles of reasoning, both in classical and interdisciplinary fields of the humanities. From this perspective, a more composite picture of human culture, language and history can emerge from humanities research. It goes beyond the picture of rational agents, and situates human interaction...... in more complex landscapes of collective identities, networks, and constraints that open for new forms of intellectual leadership in the 21st century. Link: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/mapping-frontier-research-in-the-humanities-9781472597687/...

  2. Frontiers of finance: evolution and efficient markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J D; Lo, A W

    1999-08-31

    In this review article, we explore several recent advances in the quantitative modeling of financial markets. We begin with the Efficient Markets Hypothesis and describe how this controversial idea has stimulated a number of new directions of research, some focusing on more elaborate mathematical models that are capable of rationalizing the empirical facts, others taking a completely different tack in rejecting rationality altogether. One of the most promising directions is to view financial markets from a biological perspective and, specifically, within an evolutionary framework in which markets, instruments, institutions, and investors interact and evolve dynamically according to the "law" of economic selection. Under this view, financial agents compete and adapt, but they do not necessarily do so in an optimal fashion. Evolutionary and ecological models of financial markets is truly a new frontier whose exploration has just begun.

  3. Frontiers in Optimization : Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maulik, Ujjwal; Li, Xiang; FOTA 2016; Operations Research and Optimization

    2018-01-01

    This book discusses recent developments in the vast domain of optimization. Featuring papers presented at the 1st International Conference on Frontiers in Optimization: Theory and Applications (FOTA 2016), held at the Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata, on 24–26 December 2016, it opens new avenues of research in all topics related to optimization, such as linear and nonlinear optimization; combinatorial-, stochastic-, dynamic-, fuzzy-, and uncertain optimization; optimal control theory; as well as multi-objective, evolutionary and convex optimization and their applications in intelligent information and technology, systems science, knowledge management, information and communication, supply chain and inventory control, scheduling, networks, transportation and logistics and finance. The book is a valuable resource for researchers, scientists and engineers from both academia and industry.

  4. Microfluidics expanding the frontiers of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidics has significantly contributed to the expansion of the frontiers of microbial ecology over the past decade by allowing researchers to observe the behaviors of microbes in highly controlled microenvironments, across scales from a single cell to mixed communities. Spatially and temporally varying distributions of organisms and chemical cues that mimic natural microbial habitats can now be established by exploiting physics at the micrometer scale and by incorporating structures with specific geometries and materials. In this article, we review applications of microfluidics that have resulted in insightful discoveries on fundamental aspects of microbial life, ranging from growth and sensing to cell-cell interactions and population dynamics. We anticipate that this flexible multidisciplinary technology will continue to facilitate discoveries regarding the ecology of microorganisms and help uncover strategies to control microbial processes such as biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance.

  5. Materials Frontiers to Empower Quantum Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoinette Jane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sarrao, John Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Richardson, Christopher [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-06-11

    This is an exciting time at the nexus of quantum computing and materials research. The materials frontiers described in this report represent a significant advance in electronic materials and our understanding of the interactions between the local material and a manufactured quantum state. Simultaneously, directed efforts to solve materials issues related to quantum computing provide an opportunity to control and probe the fundamental arrangement of matter that will impact all electronic materials. An opportunity exists to extend our understanding of materials functionality from electronic-grade to quantum-grade by achieving a predictive understanding of noise and decoherence in qubits and their origins in materials defects and environmental coupling. Realizing this vision systematically and predictively will be transformative for quantum computing and will represent a qualitative step forward in materials prediction and control.

  6. Biomedical engineering frontier research and converging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ho-Wook; Shin, Jennifer; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with an integrative overview of the latest research and developments in the broad field of biomedical engineering. Each of the chapters offers a timely review written by leading biomedical engineers and aims at showing how the convergence of scientific and engineering fields with medicine has created a new basis for practically solving problems concerning human health, wellbeing and disease. While some of the latest frontiers of biomedicine, such as neuroscience and regenerative medicine, are becoming increasingly dependent on new ideas and tools from other disciplines, the paradigm shift caused by technological innovations in the fields of information science, nanotechnology, and robotics is opening new opportunities in healthcare, besides dramatically changing the ways we actually practice science. At the same time, a new generation of engineers, fluent in many different scientific “languages,” is creating entirely new fields of research that approach the “old” questions f...

  7. Africa: the new family planning frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John C; Caldwell, Pat

    2002-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa will be the family planning frontier of the twenty-first century. Fertility levels and population growth rates are still high, and family planning programs suited to the region are still being developed. Nevertheless, by the end of the twentieth century, fertility transition was under way in Southern Africa and a few countries elsewhere. Successful regional family planning in the twenty-first century will depend upon stronger political leadership, the development of family planning programs that meet the needs of all segments of society and not only currently married women, assistance to the market, and a recognition of the central importance of hormonal methods, especially injectables. Problems include stagnation in economic growth and in child mortality decline, as well as the persistence of the AIDS epidemic.

  8. Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B.

    2008-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or ‘BioNLP’ in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year. PMID:17977867

  9. Geneva University: New frontiers on photodetection

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92   Vendredi 17 février 2012 SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE 14h00 - Auditoire Stückelberg New frontiers on photodetection Dr Carla Aramo / INFN, Sezione di Napoli In the last years the use of new materials and new technologies opened the door to new kind of devices based on the coupling of well known properties of silicon with properties of other materials. In particular carbon material, in the form of carbon nanotubes, has been used to create heterojunction with interesting photoconductivity characteristics. The new photodetectors obtained show to have peculiar and interesting characteristics with quantum efficiency ranging from >35% to >15% in the investigated wavelength interval from near infrared to near ultraviolet region. The device character...

  10. Experimental Facilities at the High Energy Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, P.

    2016-01-01

    The main theme of the lectures covered the experimental work at hadron colliders, with a clear focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and on the roadmap that led finally to the discovery of the Higgs boson. The lectures were not a systematic course on machine and detector technologies, but rather tried to give a physics-motivated overview of many experimental aspects that were all relevant for making the discovery. The actual lectures covered a much broader scope than what is documented here in this write- up. The successful concepts for the experiments at the LHC have benefitted from the experience gained with previous generations of detectors at lower- energy machines. The lectures included also an outlook to the future experimental programme at the LHC, with its machine and experiments upgrades, as well as a short discussion of possible facilities at the high energy frontier beyond LHC.

  11. Mapping Frontier Research in the Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knowledge production in academia today is burgeoning and increasingly interdisciplinary in nature. Research within the humanities is no exception: it is distributed across a variety of methodic styles of research and increasingly involves interactions with fields outside the narrow confines of th...... and for the organisation of the humanities and higher education?...... of the university. As a result, the notion of liberal arts and humanities within Western universities is undergoing profound transformations. In Mapping Frontier Research in the Humanities, the contributors explore this transformative process. What are the implications, both for the modes of research......Knowledge production in academia today is burgeoning and increasingly interdisciplinary in nature. Research within the humanities is no exception: it is distributed across a variety of methodic styles of research and increasingly involves interactions with fields outside the narrow confines...

  12. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  13. Frontiers in Surface Nanophotonics Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid technical advancement of nanoscale fabrication, the science of optics has recently undergone a renaissance with the characterization of new and distinctive kinds of photonic interaction. Beyond the well-known plasmonic processes, many of these effects also arise from intricate local field effects associated with surfaces, where the surface morphology determines the detailed electromagnetic behavior. As such interactions move into practical device applications across the globe, this book presents an overview of some cutting edge developments, contributed by members of several highly renowned research groups. Copiously illustrated and with extensive references to original literature, Frontiers in Surface Nanophotonics will appeal to a wide readership with interests in optics, materials science and nanotechnology.

  14. Cosmic physics: the high energy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F W

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been observed up to energies 10 8 times larger than those of the best particle accelerators. Studies of astrophysical particles (hadrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. Thus, the cosmic high energy frontier is the nexus to new particle physics. This overview discusses recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic γ-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. These topics touch on questions of grand unification, violations of Lorentz invariance as well as Planck scale physics and quantum gravity. (topical review)

  15. Space science--a fountain of exploration and discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yidong

    2014-01-01

    Space science is a major part of space activities, as well as one of the most active areas in scientific exploration today. This paper gives a brief introduction regarding the main achievements in space science involving solar physics and space physics, space astronomy, moon and planetary science, space geo- science, space life science, and micro- gravity science. At the very frontier of basic research, space science should be developed to spearhead breakthroughs in China's fundamental sciences. (author)

  16. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues concerning outer space investments in international law. ... Recent improvements in technology have in essence increased the viability of outer space as the next frontier for international investment and development. In addition to ... Key words: Outer Space, Investments, International Law, International Space Station ...

  17. Shifting frontiers of transcendence in theology, philosophy and science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2010-06-20

    Jun 20, 2010 ... of secularisation and the growing impact of a techno-scientific world view. ... well as new philosophical ideas, have done most to change our ..... Historical Jesus research, too, is just another possible shifting of frontiers based.

  18. Frontiers in Time Series and Financial Econometrics : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ling (Shiqing); M.J. McAleer (Michael); H. Tong (Howell)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Two of the fastest growing frontiers in econometrics and quantitative finance are time series and financial econometrics. Significant theoretical contributions to financial econometrics have been made by experts in statistics, econometrics, mathematics, and time

  19. Frontiers in Time Series and Financial Econometrics: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ling (Shiqing); M.J. McAleer (Michael); H. Tong (Howell)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Two of the fastest growing frontiers in econometrics and quantitative finance are time series and financial econometrics. Significant theoretical contributions to financial econometrics have been made by experts in statistics, econometrics, mathematics, and time

  20. Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-05-01

    The agenda book for the Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium contains abstracts of the 16 presentations as well as information on the program, bios of the speakers, contact information for all attendees, and background on the activity.

  1. Productive efficiency of tea industry: A stochastic frontier approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Key words: Technical efficiency, stochastic frontier, translog ... present low performance of the tea industry in Bangladesh. ... The Technical inefficiency effect .... administrative, technical, clerical, sales and purchase staff.

  2. Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Jesse [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-09-26

    This is the final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0006389, "Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier", describing research accomplishments by the PI in the field of theoretical high energy physics.

  3. A mean-variance frontier in discrete and continuous time

    OpenAIRE

    Bekker, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a mean-variance frontier based on dynamic frictionless investment strategies in continuous time. The result applies to a finite number of risky assets whose price process is given by multivariate geometric Brownian motion with deterministically varying coefficients. The derivation is based on the solution for the frontier in discrete time. Using the same multiperiod framework as Li and Ng (2000), I provide an alternative derivation and an alternative formulation of the solu...

  4. Karakteristik Kurva Efisien Frontier dalam Menentukan Portofolio Optimal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    epha diana supandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pada tulisan ini karakteristik kurva efisien frontier pada model portofolio Markowitz diteliti secara matematis. Portofolio optimal diperoleh dengan menggunakan metode Lagrange. Pada penelitian ini juga dikaji karakteristik portofolio optimal pada portofolio minimum variance, portofolio tangency dan portofolio mean-variance serta posisinya pada kurva efisien frontier. Lebih lanjut untuk memberikan gambaran yang lebih konkrit maka diberikan contoh numerik pada beberapa saham yang diperdagangkan di pasar modal Indonesia.

  5. Frontiers of higher order fuzzy sets

    CERN Document Server

    Tahayori, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Frontiers of Higher Order Fuzzy Sets, strives to improve the theoretical aspects of general and Interval Type-2 fuzzy sets and provides a unified representation theorem for higher order fuzzy sets. Moreover, the book elaborates on the concept of gradual elements and their integration with the higher order fuzzy sets. This book also introduces new frameworks for information granulation based on general T2FSs, IT2FSs, Gradual elements, Shadowed sets and rough sets. In particular, the properties and characteristics of the new proposed frameworks are studied. Such new frameworks are shown to be more capable to be exploited in real applications. Higher order fuzzy sets that are the result of the integration of general T2FSs, IT2FSs, gradual elements, shadowed sets and rough sets will be shown to be suitable to be applied in the fields of bioinformatics, business, management, ambient intelligence, medicine, cloud computing and smart grids. Presents new variations of fuzzy set frameworks and new areas of applicabili...

  6. Considerations on Energy Frontier Colliders after LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    Since 1960’s, particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics, 29 total have been built and operated, 7 are in operation now. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The future of the world-wide HEP community critically depends on the feasibility of possible post-LHC colliders. The concept of the feasibility is complex and includes at least three factors: feasibility of energy, feasibility of luminosity and feasibility of cost. Here we overview all current options for post-LHC colliders from such perspective (ILC, CLIC, Muon Collider, plasma colliders, CEPC, FCC, HE-LHC) and discuss major challenges and accelerator R&D required to demonstrate feasibility of an energy frontier accelerator facility following the LHC. We conclude by taking a look into ultimate energy reach accelerators based on plasmas and crystals, and discussion on the perspectives for the far future of the accelerator-based particle physics. This paper largely follows previous study [1] and the presenta ion given at the ICHEP’2016 conference in Chicago [2].

  7. New frontiers in pediatric Allo-SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talano, J M; Pulsipher, M A; Symons, H J; Militano, O; Shereck, E B; Giller, R H; Hancock, L; Morris, E; Cairo, M S

    2014-09-01

    The inaugural meeting of 'New Frontiers in Pediatric Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation' organized by the Pediatric Blood and Transplant Consortium (PBMTC) was held at the American Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Annual Meeting. This meeting provided an international platform for physicians and investigators active in the research and utilization of pediatric Allo-SCT in children and adolescents with malignant and non-malignant disease (NMD), to share information and develop future collaborative strategies. The primary objectives of the conference included: (1) to present advances in Allo-SCT in pediatric ALL and novel pre and post-transplant immunotherapy; (2) to highlight new strategies in alternative allogeneic stem cell donor sources for children and adolescents with non-malignant hematological disorders; (3) to discuss timing of immune reconstitution after Allo-SCT and methods of facilitating more rapid recovery of immunity; (4) to identify strategies of utilizing Allo-SCT in pediatric myeloproliferative disorders; (5) to develop diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to hematological complications post pediatric Allo-SCT; (6) to enhance the understanding of new novel cellular therapeutic approaches to pediatric malignant and non-malignant hematological disorders; and (7) to discuss optimizing drug therapy in pediatric recipients of Allo-SCT. This paper will provide a brief overview of the conference.

  8. EFISIENSI BANK PEMBANGUNAN DAERAH: PENDEKATAN STOCHASTIC FRONTIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Husein Fadhlullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the efficiency rate at Islamic regional banks (BPD in Indonesia, with case of 15 Islamic regional banks from 2008 – 2012. The method that used in this research is stochastic frontier analysis approach (SFA, which uses the input variable (such as human resources cost, administration cost, and other expenses and the output variable is SFA (operational income. The average efficiency rate from 15 Islamic regional banks from 2008 – 2012 with SFA method is 53.21 percent and all of the Islamic regional banks doesn’t achieve the 100 percent efficiency. The most efficient banks is Islamic regional bank of Kalimantan Barat which the efficiency rate achieve 90.42 percent and the most inefficiency banks is Islamic regional bank of Sumatera Barat. The average efficiency rate from 2008-2012 is always increase each year. In 2008 the average efficiency rate only 33.57 percent and in the last of 2012 achieve 71.81 percent.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v4i1.2291

  9. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  10. Frontiers of advanced engineering materials (faem-06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.; Mirza, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The second international conference on Frontiers of Advanced Engineering Materials was held on 04-06 December 2006 in Lahore, Pakistan. At a time of the rapid expending enormous potential for the wide spread development and usage of Advanced Engineering Materials. About 121 papers were presented by engineers and scientists from 30 organizations, academic institutions and foreign experts from six countries. on the recommendation of a panel after review, only 72 papers were included in this conference proceedings. The main areas of interest which remained under focus during the conference were structure property relationship, surface Modifications, Nano Technology, Super and semi conductors, Magnetic Materials, Materials Proceeding, Glass and Ceramics, Composite Materials. This Conference open a way to help in strengthening the bounds between our foreign guests local and delegates. The participants showed their keen interest in the poster sessions. Fruitful conclusions of these presentations will be helpful to give rise to new topics of research in the fields of advanced engineering Materials. (A.B.)

  11. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  12. Space and the American imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, Howard E.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction will set out the principal theme of the book: that the rise of the U.S. space program was due to a concerted effort by science writers, engineers, industrialists, and civic and political leaders to create a popular culture of space exploration based on important elements of American social life (such as frontier mythology, fears about the cold war, and the rise of the consumer culture). Much of the disillusionment with the NASA space program which set in during the third decade of space flight can be traced to a widening gap between popular expectations and the reality of space exploration.

  13. Exploring gravitational lensing model variations in the Frontier Fields galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris James, Nicholas John; Raney, Catie; Brennan, Sean; Keeton, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Multiple groups have been working on modeling the mass distributions of the six lensing galaxy clusters in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields data set. The magnification maps produced from these mass models will be important for the future study of the lensed background galaxies, but there exists significant variation in the different groups’ models and magnification maps. We explore the use of two-dimensional histograms as a tool for visualizing these magnification map variations. Using a number of simple, one- or two-halo singular isothermal sphere models, we explore the features that are produced in 2D histogram model comparisons when parameters such as halo mass, ellipticity, and location are allowed to vary. Our analysis demonstrates the potential of 2D histograms as a means of observing the full range of differences between the Frontier Fields groups’ models.This work has been supported by funding from National Science Foundation grants PHY-1560077 and AST-1211385, and from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  14. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  15. AHP 28: Review: China's 'Tibetan' Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Ryan Weiner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of China's minorities has become something of an ethnographic subgenre. Given the political sensitivities involved, however, it is unsurprising that relatively little of this fieldwork has been conducted among populations the Chinese state defines as 'Tibetan'. Beth Merriam's important new addition to the literature, China's 'Tibetan' Frontiers, begins to fill this gap. However, as the author is quick to point out, hers is not an ethnography of Tibet or Tibetans, nor the ethno-cultural region of Khams, or even Yushu Prefecture. It is, instead, an intensely local, "school-based study" (10 of Trinde (Khri 'du, Chenduo Township, a remote, eponymously named county seat in the far south of Qinghai Province. Meriam spent fourteen months (2002-2003 as the first foreign teacher at Trinde County Nationalities Middle School. Her inquiry is focused on the region's cultural elite, "a small educated class of the local population" (10 primarily consisting of the school's directors and teachers, but also students, work unit functionaries, cadres, and NGO administrators. "Rather than analysing a specific 'ethnic group,' or political structure," Meriam writes, her study "proceeds from a critical vantage point of practices and concepts associated with a number of broadly-defined political themes and social contexts" (292. The result is a compelling and sophisticated ethnography that not only problematizes the Chinese state's narratives of national(ity unity, but also those disseminated within the exile Tibetan community. Moreover, Meriam explicitly challenges the English-language field of "Tibetan studies," in which "nationality rubrics are also commonly invoked as discrete, homogenous, and unambiguous objects of knowledge" (290. As suggested by the book's title, she summarizes, "A key argument of this ethnography is that context and practice are more appropriate bases for analysis than 'ethnicity,' 'identity' or 'Tibetans'" (147.

  16. A divide and conquer approach to determine the Pareto frontier for optimization of protein engineering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lu; Friedman, Alan M.; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In developing improved protein variants by site-directed mutagenesis or recombination, there are often competing objectives that must be considered in designing an experiment (selecting mutations or breakpoints): stability vs. novelty, affinity vs. specificity, activity vs. immunogenicity, and so forth. Pareto optimal experimental designs make the best trade-offs between competing objectives. Such designs are not “dominated”; i.e., no other design is better than a Pareto optimal design for one objective without being worse for another objective. Our goal is to produce all the Pareto optimal designs (the Pareto frontier), in order to characterize the trade-offs and suggest designs most worth considering, but to avoid explicitly considering the large number of dominated designs. To do so, we develop a divide-and-conquer algorithm, PEPFR (Protein Engineering Pareto FRontier), that hierarchically subdivides the objective space, employing appropriate dynamic programming or integer programming methods to optimize designs in different regions. This divide-and-conquer approach is efficient in that the number of divisions (and thus calls to the optimizer) is directly proportional to the number of Pareto optimal designs. We demonstrate PEPFR with three protein engineering case studies: site-directed recombination for stability and diversity via dynamic programming, site-directed mutagenesis of interacting proteins for affinity and specificity via integer programming, and site-directed mutagenesis of a therapeutic protein for activity and immunogenicity via integer programming. We show that PEPFR is able to effectively produce all the Pareto optimal designs, discovering many more designs than previous methods. The characterization of the Pareto frontier provides additional insights into the local stability of design choices as well as global trends leading to trade-offs between competing criteria. PMID:22180081

  17. A new multicriteria risk mapping approach based on a multiattribute frontier concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemshanov, Denys; Koch, Frank H; Ben-Haim, Yakov; Downing, Marla; Sapio, Frank; Siltanen, Marty

    2013-09-01

    Invasive species risk maps provide broad guidance on where to allocate resources for pest monitoring and regulation, but they often present individual risk components (such as climatic suitability, host abundance, or introduction potential) as independent entities. These independent risk components are integrated using various multicriteria analysis techniques that typically require prior knowledge of the risk components' importance. Such information is often nonexistent for many invasive pests. This study proposes a new approach for building integrated risk maps using the principle of a multiattribute efficient frontier and analyzing the partial order of elements of a risk map as distributed in multidimensional criteria space. The integrated risks are estimated as subsequent multiattribute frontiers in dimensions of individual risk criteria. We demonstrate the approach with the example of Agrilus biguttatus Fabricius, a high-risk pest that may threaten North American oak forests in the near future. Drawing on U.S. and Canadian data, we compare the performance of the multiattribute ranking against a multicriteria linear weighted averaging technique in the presence of uncertainties, using the concept of robustness from info-gap decision theory. The results show major geographic hotspots where the consideration of tradeoffs between multiple risk components changes integrated risk rankings. Both methods delineate similar geographical regions of high and low risks. Overall, aggregation based on a delineation of multiattribute efficient frontiers can be a useful tool to prioritize risks for anticipated invasive pests, which usually have an extremely poor prior knowledge base. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Triangular and honeycomb lattices bond-diluted Ising ferromagnet: critical frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, A.C.N. de; Schwaccheim, G.; Tsallis, C.

    1982-01-01

    Within a real space renormalization group framework (12 different procedures, all of them using star-triangle and duality-type transformations) accurate approximations for the critical frontiers associated with the quenched bond-diluted first-neighbour spin- 1 / 2 Ising ferromagnet on triangular and honeycomb lattices are calculated. All of them provide, in both pure bond percolation and pure Ising limits, the exact critical points and exact or almost exact derivatives in the p-t space (p is the bond independent occupancy probability and t tanh J/k(sub B)T). The best numerical proposals lead to the exact derivative in the pure percolation limit (p = p(sub c)) and, in what concerns the pure Ising limit (p = 1) derivative, to a 0.15% error for the triangular lattice and to a 0.96% error for the honeycomb one; in the intermediate region (p(sub c) [pt

  19. Frontiers in Theoretical and Applied Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the conference is to provide a forum for physicists, astronomers, and space and material scientists from around the world to present the latest developments in the various dynamic fields of physics. Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Material Science and Nanophysics, Nuclear and High Energy Physics, Mathematical Physics, Astrophysics, Space and Planetary Physics

  20. Landscape of Future Accelerators at the Energy and Intensity Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M. J. [Northern Illinois U.; Chattopadhyay, S. [Northern Illinois U.

    2016-11-21

    An overview is provided of the currently envisaged landscape of charged particle accelerators at the energy and intensity frontiers to explore particle physics beyond the standard model via 1-100 TeV-scale lepton and hadron colliders and multi-Megawatt proton accelerators for short- and long- baseline neutrino experiments. The particle beam physics, associated technological challenges and progress to date for these accelerator facilities (LHC, HL-LHC, future 100 TeV p-p colliders, Tev-scale linear and circular electron-positron colliders, high intensity proton accelerator complex PIP-II for DUNE and future upgrade to PIP-III) are outlined. Potential and prospects for advanced “nonlinear dynamic techniques” at the multi-MW level intensity frontier and advanced “plasma- wakefield-based techniques” at the TeV-scale energy frontier and are also described.

  1. Frontier Assignment for Sensitivity Analysis of Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Akio; Aoki, Shingo; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    To extend the sensitivity analysis capability for DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis), this paper proposes frontier assignment based DEA (FA-DEA). The basic idea of FA-DEA is to allow a decision maker to decide frontier intentionally while the traditional DEA and Super-DEA decide frontier computationally. The features of FA-DEA are as follows: (1) provides chances to exclude extra-influential DMU (Decision Making Unit) and finds extra-ordinal DMU, and (2) includes the function of the traditional DEA and Super-DEA so that it is able to deal with sensitivity analysis more flexibly. Simple numerical study has shown the effectiveness of the proposed FA-DEA and the difference from the traditional DEA.

  2. The "Frontier" And Frontier Guards in Banat - a Socio- Historical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIAN ŞTEFĂNUCĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The researchers preoccupied with the regional identity potential of Ţara Almăjului and the Eastern area of the Banat mountain region, Romania, cannot avoid the particular historical evolution, in the last three centuries, of these regions. This is true precisely when the starting point is represented by the Wealth Community (Comunitatea de Avere - a form of collective ownership of a large part of the forests in the abovementioned regions and of certain buildings - a direct remnant of the Austrian frontier past, which was abolished during the Communist period. At that time (the second half of the 18th century, this form of collective ownership generated deep and irreversible social, administrative, architectural, legal and economic transformations which are visible to this day. Apart from an elite preoccupied with historical studies, in relation to which we notice the open affirmation of identity valences which we look for, and apart from another elite which is interested in reinstating and managing the Wealth Community, the locals seem detached both from the past and the frontier, as well as from the attempts to reinstate the Wealth Community. The only truly relevant form of ownership is individual ownership. We consider that this attitude is a variant of what Lucian Blaga called a "boycott of history". Therefore, the identity looked for seems to be constituted not so much by opposing, than by ignoring the past and the disinterest towards collective ownership, to which we can add the suspicion with respect to the intentions of people holding positions within the local administration and state authorities generally.

  3. The 2016 Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry Conference in Bonn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christa E; Thimm, Dominik; Baringhaus, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-05

    Pushing the frontiers of medicinal chemistry: Christa Müller, Dominik Thimm, and Karl-Heinz Baringhaus look back at the events of the 2016 Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry (FiMC) Conference held in Bonn, Germany. The report highlights the themes & talks in the annual conference hosted by the Joint Division of Medicinal Chemistry of the German Pharmaceutical Society (DPhG) and German Chemical Society (GDCh). It is also an invitation to the 2017 conference in Bern, Switzerland this February 12-15. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Greek perceptions of frontier in Magna Graecia: literature and archaeology in dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton POLLINI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Greek perceptions of frontier in Magna Graecia, from a historical archaeological, contextual standpoint. Considering the complex relationship between literary and archaeological evidence, the paper uses as a case study the frontier in Southern Italy, discussing the subjective frontier perceptions by Greeks and Natives in interaction.

  5. Frontier of Self and Impact Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Cléry

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a coherent representation of our body and the mapping of the space immediately surrounding it are of the highest ecological importance. This space has at least three specificities: it is a space where actions are planned in order to interact with our environment; it is a space that contributes to the experience of self and self-boundaries, through tactile processing and multisensory interactions; last, it is a space that contributes to the experience of body integrity against external events. In the last decades, numerous studies have been interested in peripersonal space (PPS, defined as the space directly surrounding us and which we can interact with (for reviews, see Cléry et al., 2015b; de Vignemont and Iannetti, 2015; di Pellegrino and Làdavas, 2015. These studies have contributed to the understanding of how this space is constructed, encoded and modulated. The majority of these studies focused on subparts of PPS (the hand, the face or the trunk and very few of them investigated the interaction between PPS subparts. In the present review, we summarize the latest advances in this research and we discuss the new perspectives that are set forth for futures investigations on this topic. We describe the most recent methods used to estimate PPS boundaries by the means of dynamic stimuli. We then highlight how impact prediction and approaching stimuli modulate this space by social, emotional and action-related components involving principally a parieto-frontal network. In a next step, we review evidence that there is not a unique representation of PPS but at least three sub-sections (hand, face and trunk PPS. Last, we discuss how these subspaces interact, and we question whether and how bodily self-consciousness (BSC is functionally and behaviorally linked to PPS.

  6. Frontier In-Situ Resource Utilization for Enabling Sustained Human Presence on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The currently known resources on Mars are massive, including extensive quantities of water and carbon dioxide and therefore carbon, hydrogen and oxygen for life support, fuels and plastics and much else. The regolith is replete with all manner of minerals. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applicable frontier technologies include robotics, machine intelligence, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, 3-D printing/additive manufacturing and autonomy. These technologies combined with the vast natural resources should enable serious, pre- and post-human arrival ISRU to greatly increase reliability and safety and reduce cost for human colonization of Mars. Various system-level transportation concepts employing Mars produced fuel would enable Mars resources to evolve into a primary center of trade for the inner solar system for eventually nearly everything required for space faring and colonization. Mars resources and their exploitation via extensive ISRU are the key to a viable, safe and affordable, human presence beyond Earth. The purpose of this paper is four-fold: 1) to highlight the latest discoveries of water, minerals, and other materials on Mars that reshape our thinking about the value and capabilities of Mars ISRU; 2) to summarize the previous literature on Mars ISRU processes, equipment, and approaches; 3) to point to frontier ISRU technologies and approaches that can lead to safe and affordable human missions to Mars; and 4) to suggest an implementation strategy whereby the ISRU elements are phased into the mission campaign over time to enable a sustainable and increasing human presence on Mars.

  7. ACCOUNTING FOR COSMIC VARIANCE IN STUDIES OF GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELD CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Dan P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; McLeod, Derek, E-mail: brant@email.arizona.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ∼35% at redshift z ∼ 7 to ≳ 65% at z ∼ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.

  8. ACCOUNTING FOR COSMIC VARIANCE IN STUDIES OF GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELD CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Dan P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; McLeod, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ∼35% at redshift z ∼ 7 to ≳ 65% at z ∼ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program

  9. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 8, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases gut permeability and calcium supplementation, potential chemopreventive effects of dietary DHM for lung tumorigenesis, and the role of the MCP-1 chemokine on adiposity and inflammation. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Gregory Lesinski, and his research on dietary interventions to

  10. Nutrition Frontiers - Summer 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 3 The summer issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the combined effects of ursolic acid and resveratrol for skin cancer, the potential chemopreventive effects of the dietary supplement 4-MU, and a method to monitor a heterocyclic aromatic amine in dyed hair. Learn about our spotlight investigators, Drs. Michael Caligiuri and Jianhua Yu, and their research on

  11. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 8, Issue 2 Dear Colleague, The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the calcium/magnesium intake ratio in colorectal adenoma, the role of PPARγ in metabolism and reproduction, and the effects of time-restricted feeding on metabolic parameters. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. Maria Cruz-Correa, and her research on gut bacterial genes, diet, and colorectal

  12. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2018 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear Colleague, The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the association of gut microbial communities in premenopausal women, how high-fat, high-calorie-diet-induced obesity may increase pancreatic cancer, and the effects of calorie restriction protocols on pro-inflammatory cytokines. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. Purnima Kumar, and her research on black

  13. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 2 The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases green tea's effect on human metabolism, fish oil — as a chemopreventive agent in myeloid leukemia and, with pectin, how they affect microRNA expression in the colon. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Richard Eckert, and his research on skin cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  14. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2018 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane, how a high fat, high cholesterol diet may impact hepatocellular carcinoma, and p53 activation from benzyl isothiocyanate. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. John Groopman, and his research on detoxication of air pollutants with a broccoli supplement. Learn about

  15. Nutrition Frontiers E-Newsletter | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change. |

  16. Nutrition Frontiers - Summer 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 8, Issue 3 Dear Colleague, The summer issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases insulin-like growth factor and vitamin D in prostate cancer risk, bile acid and FXR inactivation and gender dissimilarity, and CerS6, a novel transcriptional target of p53 protein. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. Wendy Russell, and her research on the functional role of the gut microbiota.

  17. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  18. Community Services New Frontier: Establishing the Ties That Bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, George B.

    1984-01-01

    Looks at the historical roots of community services in community colleges. Offers suggestions for keeping community colleges on the frontier of the development of these institutions (e.g., bringing the program into the instructional mainstream, emphasizing program planning, encouraging instructional innovation. (DMM)

  19. Institutions and Bank Performance; A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Meesters, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of institutions on bank efficiency and technology, using a stochastic frontier analysis of a data set of 7,959 banks across 136 countries over 10 years. The results confirm the importance of well-developed institutions for the efficient operation of commercial

  20. Institutions and bank performance : A stochastic frontier analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Meesters, Aljar

    This article investigates the impact of institutions on bank efficiency and technology, using a stochastic frontier analysis of a data set of 7,959 banks across 136 countries over 10 years. The results confirm the importance of well-developed institutions for the efficient operation of commercial

  1. Operational Experience with the Frontier System in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Barry; Dykstra, Dave; Kreuzer, Peter; Du Ran; Wang Weizhen

    2012-01-01

    The Frontier framework is used in the CMS experiment at the LHC to deliver conditions data to processing clients worldwide, including calibration, alignment, and configuration information. Each central server at CERN, called a Frontier Launchpad, uses tomcat as a servlet container to establish the communication between clients and the central Oracle database. HTTP-proxy Squid servers, located close to clients, cache the responses to queries in order to provide high performance data access and to reduce the load on the central Oracle database. Each Frontier Launchpad also has its own reverse-proxy Squid for caching. The three central servers have been delivering about 5 million responses every day since the LHC startup, containing about 40 GB data in total, to more than one hundred Squid servers located worldwide, with an average response time on the order of 10 milliseconds. The Squid caches deployed worldwide process many more requests per day, over 700 million, and deliver over 40 TB of data. Several monitoring tools of the tomcat log files, the accesses of the Squids on the central Launchpad servers, and the availability of remote Squids have been developed to guarantee the performance of the service and make the system easily maintainable. Following a brief introduction of the Frontier framework, we describe the performance of this highly reliable and stable system, detail monitoring concerns and their deployment, and discuss the overall operational experience from the first two years of LHC data-taking.

  2. Frontiers of Land and Water Governance in Urban Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Hartmann; Spit, Tejo

    2015-01-01

    A society that intensifies and expands the use of land and water in urban areas needs to search for solutions to manage the frontiers between these two essential elements for urban living. Sustainable governance of land and water is one of the major challenges of our times. Managing retention areas

  3. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, Marvin L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  4. Tile forts of the Liesbeeck Frontier | Sleigh | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1997) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Tile forts of the Liesbeeck Frontier.

  5. A Schoolmarm All My Life: Personal Narratives from Frontier Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, Joyce, Ed.

    This book presents edited versions of the personal narratives of 24 Mormon women who taught school in frontier Utah. Drawn primarily from the archives of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, the accounts detail the women's lives as Mormons, as pioneers, and as teachers and have been edited to focus on the education of women,…

  6. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  7. Stochastic Frontier Estimation of Efficient Learning in Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlen, Karla R.

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Frontier Regression Analysis was used to investigate strategies and skills that are associated with the minimization of time required to achieve proficiency in video games among students in grades four and five. Students self-reported their video game play habits, including strategies and skills used to become good at the video games…

  8. Dietary fibre: new frontiers for food and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamp, J. W. van der

    2010-01-01

    ... papers of the Dietary fibre analysis workshop and the HEALTHGRAIN Symposium Cereal grain fibre and health , both held in conjunction with DF09. This book is titled Dietary fibre- new frontiers for food and health . With the adoption - after decades of debate - of almost identical definitions of dietary fibre by Codex Alimentarius and the European Un...

  9. New insights into the stochastic ray production frontier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henningsen, A.; Bělín, Matěj; Henningsen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 156, July (2017), s. 18-21 ISSN 0165-1765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV260475 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : stochastic ray production frontier * distance function * multiple outputs Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2016

  10. A frontier measure of U.S. banking competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; Humphrey, David

    2015-01-01

    The three main measures of competition (HHI, Lerner index, and H-statistic) are uncorrelated for U.S. banks. We investigate why this occurs, propose a frontier measure of competition, and apply it to five major bank service lines. Fee-based banking services comprise 35 percent of bank revenues so

  11. Frontiers Of Identity: Representations Of Italianità In Contemporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frontiers Of Identity: Representations Of Italianità In Contemporary Narrative. R Wilson. Abstract. Il concetto di identità culturale italiana, sempre problematica, è stata complicata ulteriormente da alcuni scrittori, che portano avanti una “politica del locale”, contestando nozioni ricevute e omogenee di territorio, identità e ...

  12. Heroines on Horseback: The Frontier Nursing Service of Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Caroline C.

    2014-01-01

    The men of the Breckinridge family have a long history of service to the nation, including many politicians, soldiers, and even a vice president of the United States. But it was a woman in the family, Mary, who had, arguably, the most direct and long-lived impact on those she served. As the founder of the Frontier Nursing Service (FNS) of Eastern…

  13. Efficiency in the Community College Sector: Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Belfield, Clive

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates technical efficiency scores across the community college sector in the United States. Using stochastic frontier analysis and data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System for 2003-2010, we estimate efficiency scores for 950 community colleges and perform a series of sensitivity tests to check for robustness. We…

  14. A tradeoff frontier for global nitrogen use and cereal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Nathaniel D; West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; Foley, Jonathan A; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer use across the world’s croplands enables high-yielding agricultural production, but does so at considerable environmental cost. Imbalances between nitrogen applied and nitrogen used by crops contributes to excess nitrogen in the environment, with negative consequences for water quality, air quality, and climate change. Here we utilize crop input-yield models to investigate how to minimize nitrogen application while achieving crop production targets. We construct a tradeoff frontier that estimates the minimum nitrogen fertilizer needed to produce a range of maize, wheat, and rice production levels. Additionally, we explore potential environmental consequences by calculating excess nitrogen along the frontier using a soil surface nitrogen balance model. We find considerable opportunity to achieve greater production and decrease both nitrogen application and post-harvest excess nitrogen. Our results suggest that current (circa 2000) levels of cereal production could be achieved with ∼50% less nitrogen application and ∼60% less excess nitrogen. If current global nitrogen application were held constant but spatially redistributed, production could increase ∼30%. If current excess nitrogen were held constant, production could increase ∼40%. Efficient spatial patterns of nitrogen use on the frontier involve substantial reductions in many high-use areas and moderate increases in many low-use areas. Such changes may be difficult to achieve in practice due to infrastructure, economic, or political constraints. Increases in agronomic efficiency would expand the frontier to allow greater production and environmental gains

  15. A Note on the Kinks at the Mean Variance Frontier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vörös, J.; Kriens, J.; Strijbosch, L.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the standard portfolio case with short sales restrictions is analyzed.Dybvig pointed out that if there is a kink at a risky portfolio on the efficient frontier, then the securities in this portfolio have equal expected return and the converse of this statement is false.For the

  16. A mean-variance frontier in discrete and continuous time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a mean-variance frontier based on dynamic frictionless investment strategies in continuous time. The result applies to a finite number of risky assets whose price process is given by multivariate geometric Brownian motion with deterministically varying coefficients. The derivation

  17. Operational Experience with the Frontier System in CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Barry; Dykstra, Dave; Kreuzer, Peter; Du, Ran; Wang, Weizhen

    2012-12-01

    The Frontier framework is used in the CMS experiment at the LHC to deliver conditions data to processing clients worldwide, including calibration, alignment, and configuration information. Each central server at CERN, called a Frontier Launchpad, uses tomcat as a servlet container to establish the communication between clients and the central Oracle database. HTTP-proxy Squid servers, located close to clients, cache the responses to queries in order to provide high performance data access and to reduce the load on the central Oracle database. Each Frontier Launchpad also has its own reverse-proxy Squid for caching. The three central servers have been delivering about 5 million responses every day since the LHC startup, containing about 40 GB data in total, to more than one hundred Squid servers located worldwide, with an average response time on the order of 10 milliseconds. The Squid caches deployed worldwide process many more requests per day, over 700 million, and deliver over 40 TB of data. Several monitoring tools of the tomcat log files, the accesses of the Squids on the central Launchpad servers, and the availability of remote Squids have been developed to guarantee the performance of the service and make the system easily maintainable. Following a brief introduction of the Frontier framework, we describe the performance of this highly reliable and stable system, detail monitoring concerns and their deployment, and discuss the overall operational experience from the first two years of LHC data-taking.

  18. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  19. Plasma accelerators at the energy frontier and on tabletops

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Chandrashekhar

    2003-01-01

    New approaches to charged-particle acceleration by collective fields in plasma were discussed. These approaches show considerable promise for realizing plasma accelerators at the energy frontier as well as table-top electron and ion accelerators. Charged particles surfing on electron density waves in plasmas can experience enormous accelerating gradients. (Edited abstract) 45 Refs.

  20. Incubator Baby Shows: A Medical and Social Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Hannah

    2001-01-01

    America's first hospitals for premature infants were built at the turn of the twentieth century at fairs, amusement parks, and expositions. These hospitals represented both a medical and a social frontier. They had a great impact on American medicine because they demonstrated the success of caring for premature infants using incubators. The…

  1. Pesticide use and biodiversity conservation in the Amazonian agricultural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesari, Luis; Waichman, Andrea; Brock, Theo; Adams, Cristina; Grillitsch, Britta

    2013-06-05

    Agricultural frontiers are dynamic environments characterized by the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Because they are currently concentrated in diverse tropical habitats, agricultural frontiers are areas where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management practices, including pesticide use. Focusing on the Amazonian frontier, we show that producers have varying access to resources, knowledge, control and reward mechanisms to improve land management practices. With poor education and no technical support, pesticide use by smallholders sharply deviated from agronomical recommendations, tending to overutilization of hazardous compounds. By contrast, with higher levels of technical expertise and resources, and aiming at more restrictive markets, large-scale producers adhered more closely to technical recommendations and even voluntarily replaced more hazardous compounds. However, the ecological footprint increased significantly over time because of increased dosage or because formulations that are less toxic to humans may be more toxic to other biodiversity. Frontier regions appear to be unique in terms of the conflicts between production and conservation, and the necessary pesticide risk management and risk reduction can only be achieved through responsibility-sharing by diverse stakeholders, including governmental and intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, financial institutions, pesticide and agricultural industries, producers, academia and consumers.

  2. Frontier models for evaluating environmental efficiency: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Wall, A.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to provide a succinct overview of frontier-based models used to evaluate environmental efficiency, with a special emphasis on agricultural activity. We begin by providing a brief, up-to-date review of the main approaches used to measure environmental efficiency, with

  3. Distance to the efficiency frontier and foreign direct investment spillovers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabirianova Peter, K.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, 2-3 (2005), s. 576-586 ISSN 1542-4766 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * technological frontier Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4D4281930A8929DFF628

  4. strategic military colonisation: the cape eastern frontier 1806 – 1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linda

    for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where .... reality, these expeditions were capturing people for service on settler farms. Official .... distances from the coast of 2 500 yards (2 286 m) and 6 000 yards (5 486 m). It ..... Corps pensioner assumed command and with augmented forces led an attack on Fort.

  5. Frontiers of Physics and Plasma Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prerana

    2017-01-01

    Preface to the conference proceedingsWe are very pleased to introduce the proceeding of FPPS-2016; the international conference “Frontiers of Physics and Plasma Science” that took place on 7 and 8 November, 2016 in the campus of Ujjain Engineering College, Ujjain (India). The goal of the meeting was to provide a broad prospective to the plasma science emphasizing physics with a new plasma technologies. The scientific program of the conference focused on the advancement of the all branches of physics in achieving all applications of the plasma science. The conference spans a wide range of topics, reporting experiments, techniques and ideas that advance the plasma science worldwide.There were 20 invited lectures and 04 oral presentations covering the different area of the conference. The keynote lecture was delivered by Dr. Rajdeep Singh Rawat (NTU, Singapore) on “Density plasma focus: novel high energy density plasma device”. Prof. Y.C. Saxena (IPR, Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad), Prof. R. P. Sharma (IIT, New Delhi), Prof. Fernando Haas (Brazil), Prof. Davoud Dorranian (Tehran, Iran), Dr. Raju Khanal (Tribhuwan University, Nepal), Prof. Avinash Khare (IIT, New Delhi), Dr. Navin Dwivedi (Israel), Prof. V.K. Tripathi (IIT New Delhi), Dr. J. Ghosh (IPR, Gandhinagar, Gujarat), Dr. Devendra Sharma (IPR, Gandhinagar, Gujarat), Prof. R.K. Thareja (IIT Kanpur), Dr. Vipul Arora (RRCAT, Indore), Prof. M. P. Bora (Gauhati University, Guwahati) and many more have delivered their lecture in the field of plasma science and its applications. The program was chaired in a professional and efficient way by the session chairmen who were selected for their international standing in the subject.The 165 abstracts that were presented in two days (during parallel poster session) formed a heart of the conference and provided ample opportunity for the discussion. The 170 participants, 110 of whom were students had many fruitful discussions and exchange that contributed to the success of the

  6. Shifting frontiers of transcendence in theology, philosophy and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius W. du Toit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article dealt cursorily with developments in theology, philosophy and the sciences that have contributed to what one might call horizontal transcendence. The premise is that humans have evolved into beings that are wired for transcendence. Transcendence is described in terms of the metaphor of frontiers and frontier posts. Although the frontiers of transcendence shift according to the insights, understanding and needs of every epoch and world view, it remains transcendent, even in its immanent mode. Diverse perceptions of that frontier normally coexist in every era and we can only discern a posteriori which was the dominant one. Frontiers are fixed with reference to the epistemologies, notions of the subject and power structures of a given era. From a theological point of view, encounter with the transcendent affords insight, not into the essence of transcendence, but into human self-understanding and understanding of our world. Transcendence enters into the picture when an ordinary human experience acquires a depth and an immediacy that are attributed to an act of God. In philosophy, transcendence evolved from a noumenal metaphysics focused on the object (Plato, via emphasis on the epistemological structure and limits of the knowing subject (Kant and an endeavour to establish a dynamic subject-object dialectics (Hegel, to the assimilation of transcendence into human existence (Heidegger. In the sciences certain developments opened up possibilities for God to act in non-interventionist ways. The limitations of such an approach are considered, as well as promising new departures – and their limitations – in the neurosciences. From all of this I conclude that an immanent-transcendent approach is plausible for our day and age.

  7. The Frontiers of the Astronomical Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecker, Jean-Claude

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the current state of knowledge obtained by means of observations using the increasingly powerful or proficient instruments of astrophysics, radio astronomy, and space astronomy by satellite. In conclusion, he refers to certain mathematical entities introduced into the theory of the origins and evolution of the cosmos. (Author/MA)

  8. New frontiers in nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwarts, D.; Walet, N.R.; Wolters, A.A.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.; VandeGraff, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The need to go to larger model spaces for more detailed studies of the atomic nucleus has led to the introduction of the supercomputer to nuclear physics. In this report a brief survey of the nuclear shell model is presented and the performance of some of the relevant programs on different computer systems is compared

  9. An insight into the future beckons of maxillofacial prosthodontics: Anaplastology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Padmaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is the god given right of every human being to appear human. Few areas of dentistry offer more challenges to the technical skills or greater satisfaction for the successful rehabilitation of function and esthetics in the patient with gross anatomic defects and deformities of the maxillofacial region. Although remarkable advances in the surgical management of oral and facial defects, but cannot be satisfactorily repaired by plastic surgery alone. Hence, the demand for maxillofacial prosthetic devices for the rehabilitation of patients with congenital or acquired defects has intensified in recent years. This paper gives an insight into the latest innovations and improvisations in the field of maxillofacial prosthodontics.

  10. Optimizing Open-Ended Crowdsourcing: The Next Frontier in Crowdsourced Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Aditya; Sarma, Akash Das; Venkataraman, Vipul

    2017-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is the primary means to generate training data at scale, and when combined with sophisticated machine learning algorithms, crowdsourcing is an enabler for a variety of emergent automated applications impacting all spheres of our lives. This paper surveys the emerging field of formally reasoning about and optimizing open-ended crowdsourcing, a popular and crucially important, but severely understudied class of crowdsourcing—the next frontier in crowdsourced data management. The underlying challenges include distilling the right answer when none of the workers agree with each other, teasing apart the various perspectives adopted by workers when answering tasks, and effectively selecting between the many open-ended operators appropriate for a problem. We describe the approaches that we’ve found to be effective for open-ended crowdsourcing, drawing from our experiences in this space. PMID:28951893

  11. Frontiers and critical expoents in percolation and Ising and Potts ferromagnets: renormalization group and others techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, A.C.N. de.

    1982-01-01

    By using real space renormalization group methods, bond percolation on d-dimensional hypercubic (d = 2, 3, 4), first - and second - neighbour isotropic square, anisotropic square and 'inhomogeneous' 4-8 lattices is studied. Through some extrapolation methods, critical points and/or frontiers are obtained (as well as the critical exponent ν sub(p) in the isotropic cases) for these lattices that, or agree well with other available results, or are new as far as it is know (first - and second - neighbour isotropic square and 'inhomogeneous' 4-8 lattices). A conjecture concerning approximate (eventually exact) critical points and, in certain situations, critical frontiers of q-state Potts ferromagnets on d-dimensional lattices (d > 1) is formulated. This conjecture is verified within good accuracy for all the lattices whose critical points are known, and it allows the prediction of a great number of new results, some of them it is believed to be exact. Within a real space renomalization group framework, accurate approximations for the critical frontiers associated with the quenched bond-diluted first-neighbour spin-1/2 Ising ferromagnet on triangular and honeycomb lattices are calculated. The best numerical proposals lead, in both pure bond percolation (p = p sub(c)) and pure Ising (p = 1) limits, to the exact critical points and (dt 0 /dp) sub(p = p sub(c)) (where t 0 identical to tanh J/K sub(B) T), and to a 0.15% (0.96%) error in (dt 0 /dp) sub(p = 1) for the triangular (honeycomb) lattice; for p sub(c) 0 (for fixed p) of 0.27% (0.14%) is estimated for the triangular (honeycomb) lattice. It is exhibited, for many star-triangle graph pairs with any number of terminals and different sizes, that the exact q = 1, 2, 3, 4 critical points of Potts ferromagnets can aZZ of them, be obtained from any one of such graph pairs. (Author) [pt

  12. Frontiers and challenges in warm dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Desjarlais, Michael; Redmer, Ronald; Trickey, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsed-power driven experiments on the Z machine, ion-beam-driven WDM experiments on the NDCX-II, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent...

  13. Identities aside and at the borders. Frontier and maze in Arraianos (Eloi Enciso, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando REDONDO NEIRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The film studied here, Arraianos (Eloi Enciso, 2012, runs around a crossroad where the fictional and documentary converge, where a strong anti-naturalistic representation of a space and the human group that inhabits it are compared, and a willingness to visual inquiry into that space where traces of a mythical past that has been forming it still remains. Built on the material of the physical space that explores and interrogates, Arraianos displays a speech, also built on the telluric and the popular, it strives to realize the frontier character of that place, A Raia, between Galicia and Portugal, limit territory that has managed to build its own identity. The analysis we make of Arraianos should be focus on, therefore, with the help of the marks that report their hybrid nature. The film analysis we intend to carry out must, therefore, take into account this other space to which the film opens, that of a certain importance that does not avoid the big questions, at a time that will need to pay attention to a film it is located on the explored territory, based both on the telluric and the popular.

  14. Topics in Banach space theory

    CERN Document Server

    Albiac, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This text provides the reader with the necessary technical tools and background to reach the frontiers of research without the introduction of too many extraneous concepts. Detailed and accessible proofs are included, as are a variety of exercises and problems. The two new chapters in this second edition are devoted to two topics of much current interest amongst functional analysts: Greedy approximation with respect to bases in Banach spaces and nonlinear geometry of Banach spaces. This new material is intended to present these two directions of research for their intrinsic importance within Banach space theory, and to motivate graduate students interested in learning more about them. This textbook assumes only a basic knowledge of functional analysis, giving the reader a self-contained overview of the ideas and techniques in the development of modern Banach space theory. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the classical Lebesgue spaces Lp (and their sequence space analogues) and spaces of continuous f...

  15. Commercial sector gas cooling technology frontier and market share analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine, G.D.; Mac Donald, J.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method, developed for the Gas Research Institute of the United States, that can assist planning for commercial sector natural gas cooling systems R and D. These systems are higher in first cost than conventional electric chillers. Yet, engine-driven chiller designs exist which are currently competitive in U.S. markets typified by high electricity or demand charges. Section II describes a scenario analysis approach used to develop and test the method. Section III defines the technology frontier, a conceptual tool for identifying new designs with sales potential. Section IV describes a discrete choice method for predicting market shares of technologies with sales potential. Section V shows how the method predicts operating parameter, cost, and/or performance goals for technologies without current sales potential (or for enhancing a frontier technology's sales potential). Section VI concludes with an illustrative example for the Chicago office building retrofit market

  16. Biomembrane Frontiers Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Faller, Roland; Risbud, Subhash H; Jue, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    HANDBOOK OF MODERN BIOPHYSICS Series Editor Thomas Jue, PhD Handbook of Modern Biophysics brings current biophysics topics into focus, so that biology, medical, engineering, mathematics, and physical-science students or researchers can learn fundamental concepts and the application of new techniques in addressing biomedical challenges. Chapters explicate the conceptual framework of the physics formalism and illustrate the biomedical applications. With the addition of problem sets, guides to further study, and references, the interested reader can continue to explore independently the ideas presented. Volume II: Biomembrane Frontiers: Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life Editors: Roland Faller, PhD, Thomas Jue, PhD, Marjorie L. Longo, PhD, and Subhash H. Risbud, PhD In Biomembrane Frontiers: Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life, prominent researchers have established a foundation for the study of biophysics related to the following topics: Perspectives: Complexes in Liquids, 1900–2008 Mol...

  17. Legal questions relating to nuclear installations close to national frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.

    1983-01-01

    Main emphasis is placed on the criteria to decide whether the construction and operation of a nulcear power plant close to a national frontier is permissible or not. The author discusses the relevant provisions of the international law and those of the Treaty of Rome pertaining to the settlement of conflicts between neighbour states. According to the opinion of the author, nuclear installations close to borders are incompatible with international law only if they do not comply with accepted safety standards. The international agreements do not prohibit the construction of nuclear installations close to frontiers. It would be desirable, however, the author says, to conclude international treaties providing for mutual consultation and information, thus offering a platform for discussing controversial national interests; this idea already being put into practice in customary international law. (WB) [de

  18. New Frontiers in Synthetic Biology for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazka, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration of the solar system is constrained by the cost of moving mass off Earth. Producing materials in situ will reduce the mass that must be delivered from earth. CO2 is abundant on Mars and manned spacecraft. On the ISS, NASA reacts excess CO2 with H2 to generate CH4 and H2O using the Sabatier System. The resulting water is recovered into the ISS, but the methane is vented to space. Thus, there is a capability need for systems that convert methane into valuable materials. Methanotrophic bacteria consume methane but these are poor synthetic biology platforms. Thus, there is a knowledge gap in utilizing methane in a robust and flexible synthetic biology platform. The yeast Pichia pastoris is a refined microbial factory that is used widely by industry because it efficiently secretes products. Pichia could produce a variety of useful products in space. Pichia does not consume methane but robustly consumes methanol, which is one enzymatic step removed from methane. Our goal is to engineer Pichia to consume methane thereby creating a powerful methane-consuming microbial factory.

  19. Food Environment and Weight Outcomes: A Stochastic Frontier Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xun; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2013-01-01

    Food environment includes the presence of supermarkets, restaurants, warehouse clubs and supercenters, and other food outlets. This paper evaluates weight outcomes from a food environment using a stochastic production frontier and an equation for the determinants of efficiency, where the explanatory variables of the efficiency term include food environment indicators. Using individual consumer data and food environment data from New England counties, empirical results indicate that fruit and ...

  20. ASYMMETRY OF MARKET RETURNS AND THE MEAN VARIANCE FRONTIER

    OpenAIRE

    SENGUPTA, Jati K.; PARK, Hyung S.

    1994-01-01

    The hypothesis that the skewness and asymmetry have no significant impact on the mean variance frontier is found to be strongly violated by monthly U.S. data over the period January 1965 through December 1974. This result raises serious doubts whether the common market portifolios such as SP 500, value weighted and equal weighted returns can serve as suitable proxies for meanvariance efficient portfolios in the CAPM framework. A new test for assessing the impact of skewness on the variance fr...

  1. Explaining African Growth Performance: A Production-Frontier Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Houssa; Oleg Badunenko; Daniel J. Henderson

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs a production frontier approach that allows distinguishing technologic progress from efficiency development. Data on 35 African countries in 1970-2007 show that efficiency losses have constrained growth in Africa while technology progress has played a marginal growth enhancing role in the region. Moreover, physical and human capital accumulation are the main factors that drive productivity growth at the country level. Examining the outcomes of successful countries suggests t...

  2. US Accelerator R&D Program Toward Intensity Frontier Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2016-09-15

    The 2014 P5 report indicated the accelerator-based neutrino and rare decay physics research as a centerpiece of the US domestic HEP program. Operation, upgrade and development of the accelerators for the near-term and longer-term particle physics program at the Intensity Frontier face formidable challenges. Here we discuss key elements of the accelerator physics and technology R&D program toward future multi-MW proton accelerators.

  3. International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing : Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Udgata, Siba; Pattnaik, Prasant

    2017-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented at International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing: Theory and applications (FICTA 2016) held at School of Computer Engineering, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, India during 16 – 17 September 2016. The book presents theories, methodologies, new ideas, experiences and applications in all areas of intelligent computing and its applications to various engineering disciplines like computer science, electronics, electrical and mechanical engineering.

  4. Digital Frontier Job & Opportunity Finder. Tomorrow's Opportunities Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Don

    This book describes the newest jobs for which people should train and prepare, as well as exploring where the United States is going as a country, a society, and a people. It is designed to help new job seekers as well as veteran workers find a place in the new wave of work, the "digital frontier." The book is organized in two sections. Section I…

  5. Are Bacteria more dangerous in space?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leys, N.; Baatout, S.

    2010-01-01

    With a mission to Mars and a permanent base on the moon as the ultimate dream, space travel is continually pushing back the frontiers. But long space missions present great challenges for science, for example in the field of microbiology. Together with the European Space Agency (ESA), SCK-CEN is studying the effects of space travel conditions on the behaviour of bacteria. In 2009 the SCK-CEN experts completed four innovative research projects at the cutting edge of microbiology, radiation sciences and space travel.

  6. CMS conditions data access using FroNTier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Barry; Johns Hopkins U.; Dykstra, David; Lueking, Lee; Wicklund, Eric; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC has established an infrastructure using the FroNTier framework to deliver conditions (i.e. calibration, alignment, etc.) data to processing clients worldwide. FroNTier is a simple web service approach providing client HTTP access to a central database service. The system for CMS has been developed to work with POOL which provides object relational mapping between the C++ clients and various database technologies. Because of the read only nature of the data, Squid proxy caching servers are maintained near clients and these caches provide high performance data access. Several features have been developed to make the system meet the needs of CMS including careful attention to cache coherency with the central database, and low latency loading required for the operation of the online High Level Trigger. The ease of deployment, stability of operation, and high performance make the FroNTier approach well suited to the GRID environment being used for CMS offline, as well as for the online environment used by the CMS High Level Trigger (HLT). The use of standard software, such as Squid and various monitoring tools, make the system reliable, highly configurable and easily maintained. We describe the architecture, software, deployment, performance, monitoring and overall operational experience for the system

  7. CMS conditions data access using FroNTier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, B; Dykstra, D; Lueking, L; Wicklund, E

    2008-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC has established an infrastructure using the FroNTier framework to deliver conditions (i.e. calibration, alignment, etc.) data to processing clients worldwide. FroNTier is a simple web service approach providing client HTTP access to a central database service. The system for CMS has been developed to work with POOL which provides object relational mapping between the C++ clients and various database technologies. Because of the read only nature of the data, Squid proxy caching servers are maintained near clients and these caches provide high performance data access. Several features have been developed to make the system meet the needs of CMS including careful attention to cache coherency with the central database, and low latency loading required for the operation of the online High Level Trigger. The ease of deployment, stability of operation, and high performance make the FroNTier approach well suited to the GRID environment being used for CMS offline, as well as for the online environment used by the CMS High Level Trigger. The use of standard software, such as Squid and various monitoring tools, makes the system reliable, highly configurable and easily maintained. We describe the architecture, software, deployment, performance, monitoring and overall operational experience for the system

  8. Migrant decision-making in a frontier landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Across the tropics, rural farmers and livestock keepers use mobility as an adaptive livelihood strategy. Continued migration to and within frontier areas is widely viewed as a driver of environmental decline and biodiversity loss. Recent scholarship advances our understanding of migration decision-making in the context of changing climate and environments, and in doing so it highlights the variation in migration responses to primarily economic and environmental factors. Building on these insights, this letter investigates past and future migration decisions in a frontier landscape of Tanzania, East Africa. Combining field observations and household data within a multilevel modeling framework, the letter analyzes the explicit importance of social factors relative to economic and environmental factors in driving decisions to migrate or remain. Results indeed suggest that local community ties and non-local social networks drive both immobility and anticipated migration, respectively. In addition, positive interactions with local protected natural resource areas promote longer-term residence. Findings shed new light on how frontier areas transition to human dominated landscapes. This highlights critical links between migration behavior and the conservation of biodiversity and management of natural resources, as well as how migrants evolve to become integrated into communities.

  9. Antimatter, a new frontier of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1988-09-01

    The interest in antimatter arises because antimatter offers such high potential, and it also happens to be the most fascinating of materials. In the discussions that follow, considerations will be made on the potential utilization of antimatter in various applications including: Alternate energy source for rocket propulsion and space missions; Pion-induced fission; Muon-catalyzed cold fusion; and Medicine: in treatment of cancer, and for superior radiographs. Comments also are provided that presently discount antiproton-proton annihilation as a possible source of negative muons in hypothetical hybrid fusion-fission reactors, but this could change in the future. Reasons are given as to why further exploratory work should be undertaken at this time. 42 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Frontiers in X-Ray Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The year 2010 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the optical laser and the first anniversary of the world's first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. This exciting, new accelerator-based source of x-rays provides peak brilliances roughly a billion times greater than currently available from synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, and thus explores a qualitatively different parameter space. This talk will describe the first experiments at the LCLS aimed at understanding the nature of high intensity x-ray interactions, related applications in ultrafast imaging on the atomic scale and sketch nascent plans for the extension of both linac and storage-ring based photon sources.

  11. Postcolonial Longing on the Australian Cinematic Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Marsh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p177 The Tracker and Red Hill are cinematic re-interpretations of Australia’s colonial past, which they characterise by a sense of postcolonial longing and an expectation of intimacy. Both films are portals through which arguments about historical truth, subjective memory and contemporary realities are explored and tested. In this paper I argue that both these two films create the idea that the historical colonial space was a constant interplay of violence and beauty, and of hatred and friendship. As black and white characters negotiate their way in and around these seemingly polemical positions, viewers are also challenged to do the same.

  12. Alternative Approaches to Technical Efficiency Estimation in the Stochastic Frontier Model

    OpenAIRE

    Acquah, H. de-Graft; Onumah, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the stochastic frontier model and calculating technical efficiency of decision making units are of great importance in applied production economic works. This paper estimates technical efficiency from the stochastic frontier model using Jondrow, and Battese and Coelli approaches. In order to compare alternative methods, simulated data with sample sizes of 60 and 200 are generated from stochastic frontier model commonly applied to agricultural firms. Simulated data is employed to co...

  13. Security in the CernVM File System and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykstra, D; Blomer, J

    2014-01-01

    Both the CernVM File System (CVMFS) and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System (Frontier) distribute centrally updated data worldwide for LHC experiments using http proxy caches. Neither system provides privacy or access control on reading the data, but both control access to updates of the data and can guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data transferred to clients over the internet. CVMFS has since its early days required digital signatures and secure hashes on all distributed data, and recently Frontier has added X.509-based authenticity and integrity checking. In this paper we detail and compare the security models of CVMFS and Frontier.

  14. Measuring economy-wide energy efficiency performance: A parametric frontier approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, P.; Ang, B.W.; Zhou, D.Q.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a parametric frontier approach to estimating economy-wide energy efficiency performance from a production efficiency point of view. It uses the Shephard energy distance function to define an energy efficiency index and adopts the stochastic frontier analysis technique to estimate the index. A case study of measuring the economy-wide energy efficiency performance of a sample of OECD countries using the proposed approach is presented. It is found that the proposed parametric frontier approach has higher discriminating power in energy efficiency performance measurement compared to its nonparametric frontier counterparts.

  15. Security in the CernVM File System and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, D.; Blomer, J.

    2014-06-01

    Both the CernVM File System (CVMFS) and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System (Frontier) distribute centrally updated data worldwide for LHC experiments using http proxy caches. Neither system provides privacy or access control on reading the data, but both control access to updates of the data and can guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data transferred to clients over the internet. CVMFS has since its early days required digital signatures and secure hashes on all distributed data, and recently Frontier has added X.509-based authenticity and integrity checking. In this paper we detail and compare the security models of CVMFS and Frontier.

  16. Probing the z > 6 Universe with the First Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster A2744

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atek, Hakim; Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Clement, Benjamin; Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald; Jauzac, Mathilde; Jullo, Eric; Laporte, Nicolas; Limousin, Marceau; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-05-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields program combines the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with the gravitational lensing of massive galaxy clusters to probe the distant universe to an unprecedented depth. Here, we present the results of the first combined HST and Spitzer observations of the cluster A-2744. We combine the full near-infrared data with ancillary optical images to search for gravitationally lensed high-redshift (z >~ 6) galaxies. We report the detection of 15 I 814 dropout candidates at z ~ 6-7 and one Y 105 dropout at z ~ 8 in a total survey area of 1.43 arcmin2 in the source plane. The predictions of our lens model also allow us to identify five multiply imaged systems lying at redshifts between z ~ 6 and z ~ 8. Thanks to constraints from the mass distribution in the cluster, we were able to estimate the effective survey volume corrected for completeness and magnification effects. This was in turn used to estimate the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function (LF) at z ~ 6-8. Our LF results are generally in agreement with the most recent blank field estimates, confirming the feasibility of surveys through lensing clusters. Although based on a shallower observations than what will be achieved in the final data set including the full Advanced Camera for Survey observations, the LF presented here goes down to M UV ~-18.5, corresponding to 0.2L sstarf at z ~ 7 with one identified object at M UV ~-15 thanks to the highly magnified survey areas. This early study forecasts the power of using massive galaxy clusters as cosmic telescopes and its complementarity to blank fields. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 13495 and 11689. Based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  17. Sleuthing the Dynamo: the Final Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies are opening new windows into the Sun;from its hidden interior to the far reaches of its turbulentouter envelope: rare-earth detectors for solar neutrinos; theGONG project for helioseismology; SOHO for high-resolutionXUV spectroscopy, and YOHKOH for coronal X-ray imaging. Atthe same time, a fleet of space observatories--ROSAT, EUVE,ASCA, and HST itself--are providing unprecedented views ofthe vacuum-UV and X-ray emissions of stars in our Galacticneighborhood. These seemingly unrelated developments are infact deeply connected. A central issue of solar-stellarphysics is the nature and origin of magnetic activity: thelink between the interior dynamics of a late-type star and theviolent state of its outermost coronal layers. As solarphysicists are unlocking the secrets of the hydromagneticDynamo deep inside the Sun, we and others have beendocumenting the early evolution of the Dynamo and itsassociated external gas-dynamic activity. In particular, wehave obtained HST/FOS spectra of ten young solar-type starsin three nearby open clusters--the Hyades, Pleiades, andAlpha Persei--ranging in age from 50 Myr to 600 Myr. We havesupplemented the HST spectroscopy with deep ROSAT pointings, and ground-based studies. Here, we will continue the HSTside of our project by obtaining FUV spectra of two AlphaPerseids from our original program (but not yet observed),and high-S/N follow-up measurements of the hyperactive PleiadH II 314.

  18. Proceedings of the frontiers of hydrogen complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, Osamu

    2000-05-01

    The discussion meeting on complex systems containing hydrogen and/or hydrogen bondings were held at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Japan, in December, 1999, and the proceedings of the papers presented, 18 oral and 20 poster presentations, are included in the present report. Study on water structure using neutron scattering in these 50 years is activated by appearance of new research techniques: Pulsed neutron sources and easy preparation method of amorphous ices, high density amorphous (HDA) and low density amorphous (LDA) one. Both techniques may bring about possibility of elucidation of the dynamics of water structure. Pulsed neutron sources make possible to carry out measurements in a wider Q-w space, thus extending excitations to higher levels. HDA state can be kept in lower temperatures while maintaining the same density as that of liquid water. Research fields relevant to the present discussion include super-cooled liquid, glassy state, supercritical liquid, polymers, gels and micro-emulsions. Other research techniques for this study include X-ray and photon scattering, NMR, dielectric relaxation phenomena, calorimetric measurement, and computer simulations. (S.Ohno)

  19. The Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (A 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    'The Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES)' was submitted to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CFSES is directed by Gary A. Pope at the University of Texas at Austin and partners with Sandia National Laboratories. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

  20. Energy Frontier Research Center Materials Science of Actinides (A 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Peter

    2011-01-01

    'Energy Frontier Research Center Materials Science of Actinides' was submitted by the EFRC for Materials Science of Actinides (MSA) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. MSA is directed by Peter Burns at the University of Notre Dame, and is a partnership of scientists from ten institutions.The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

  1. Leading research report for fiscal 1998. Life landscape performance evaluation technology (Landscape Frontier); 1998 nendo sendo chosa kenkyu hokokusho. Seikatsu keikan seino hyoka gijutsu (land scape frontier)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the formulation of guidelines for the construction of an appropriate landscape in the 21st century for the creation of 'landscape industry' in a sustainable society, researches were conducted for the development of landscape materials to constitute living circumstances equipped with 'life landscape' and of technologies for evaluating them. In the landscape designing system subcommittee, the current states and problems of landscape designing systems were analyzed and problems to solve were clarified, these problems involving systems and institutions, people and collaboration, formation of a consensus, systems for production and distribution, etc. In the landscape materials subcommittee, a 'landscape cell' concept in which a life space is the unit was employed in discussing the needs for landscape materials to meet and in extracting the seeds the industry was able to offer for improvement on landscape. In the landscape evaluation subcommittee, the history and today of landscape were reviewed to define what was to be respected in the development of evaluation techniques, and guidelines were extracted towards landscape materials development and landscape industry promotion. In addition, a Landscape Frontier symposium was held. (NEDO)

  2. Production possibility frontier analysis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Takezono, Kanako; Suh, Sangwon; Kudoh, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant in Japan using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The empirical analysis uses monthly input data (waste cooking oil, methanol, potassium hydroxide, power consumption, and the truck diesel fuel used for the procurement of waste cooking oil) and output data (biodiesel) of a biodiesel fuel plant for August 2008–July 2010. The results of this study show that the production activity with the lowest cost on the biodiesel production possibility frontier occurred in March 2010 (production activity used 1.41 kL of waste cooking oil, 0.18 kL of MeOH, 16.33 kg of KOH, and 5.45 kW h of power), and the unit production cost in that month was 18,517 yen/kL. Comparing this efficient production cost to the mean unit production cost on the production possibility frontier at 19,712 yen/kL, revealed that the cost of producing 1 kL of biodiesel could be reduced by as much as 1195 yen. We also find that the efficiency improvement will contribute to decreasing the cost ratio (cost per sale) of the biodiesel production by approximately 1% during the study period (24 months) between August 2008 and July 2010. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant using DEA. ► We examine the optimal production activities of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. ► Considering the production frontier, the unit cost of biodiesel could be reduced by 1195 yen. ► The efficiency improvement contributes to decreasing the cost ratio of the biodiesel by 1%

  3. A divide-and-conquer approach to determine the Pareto frontier for optimization of protein engineering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lu; Friedman, Alan M; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2012-03-01

    In developing improved protein variants by site-directed mutagenesis or recombination, there are often competing objectives that must be considered in designing an experiment (selecting mutations or breakpoints): stability versus novelty, affinity versus specificity, activity versus immunogenicity, and so forth. Pareto optimal experimental designs make the best trade-offs between competing objectives. Such designs are not "dominated"; that is, no other design is better than a Pareto optimal design for one objective without being worse for another objective. Our goal is to produce all the Pareto optimal designs (the Pareto frontier), to characterize the trade-offs and suggest designs most worth considering, but to avoid explicitly considering the large number of dominated designs. To do so, we develop a divide-and-conquer algorithm, Protein Engineering Pareto FRontier (PEPFR), that hierarchically subdivides the objective space, using appropriate dynamic programming or integer programming methods to optimize designs in different regions. This divide-and-conquer approach is efficient in that the number of divisions (and thus calls to the optimizer) is directly proportional to the number of Pareto optimal designs. We demonstrate PEPFR with three protein engineering case studies: site-directed recombination for stability and diversity via dynamic programming, site-directed mutagenesis of interacting proteins for affinity and specificity via integer programming, and site-directed mutagenesis of a therapeutic protein for activity and immunogenicity via integer programming. We show that PEPFR is able to effectively produce all the Pareto optimal designs, discovering many more designs than previous methods. The characterization of the Pareto frontier provides additional insights into the local stability of design choices as well as global trends leading to trade-offs between competing criteria. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    images brought into existence by the amalgamation of crusading and missionary ideology and the frontier experience. This is followed by studies on 'Practices,' which examines the chronicle's reflections of the diplomatic, religious, and military practices of the christianisation and colonisation...... chronicle, James A. Brundage; Part I Representations: Henry of Livonia and the ideology of crusading, Christopher Tyerman; Sacred history, profane history: uses of the Bible in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, Jaan Undusk; Henricus the ethnographer: reflections on ethnicity in the Chronicle of Livonia...

  5. The Very Large Hadron Collider: The farthest energy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, William A.

    2001-01-01

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (or Eloisatron) represents what may well be the final step on the energy frontier of accelerator-based high energy physics. While an extremely high luminosity proton collider at 100-200 TeV center of mass energy can probably be built in one step with LHC technology, that machine would cost more than what is presently politically acceptable. This talk summarizes the strategies of collider design including staged deployment, comparison with electron-positron colliders, opportunities for major innovation, and the technical challenges of reducing costs to manageable proportions. It also presents the priorities for relevant R and D for the next few years

  6. Free-Electron Lasers Push Into New Frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Stephen V.

    2003-01-01

    From the early days of the development of free-electron lasers (FELs) the promise of high power and short wavelengths has tantalized physicists and other scientists. Recent developments in accelerator technologies and some new discoveries about the physics of FELs have allowed researchers to push the performance of FELs into new frontiers of high power, short wavelength, and ultra-short pulses. Spin-offs from the FELs have also opened up new radiation sources in the THz, X-ray and gamma ray wavelength ranges

  7. Artificial intelligence and deep learning - Radiology's next frontier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ray Cody; Leung, Jessica

    Tracing the use of computers in the radiology department from administrative functions through image acquisition, storage, and reporting, to early attempts at improved diagnosis, we begin to imagine possible new frontiers for their use in exam interpretation. Given their initially slow but ultimately substantial progress in the noninterpretive areas, we are left desiring and even expecting more in the interpretation realm. New technological advances may provide the next wave of progress and radiologists should be early adopters. Several potential applications are discussed and hopefully will serve to inspire future progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry 2017 in Bern, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Daniel; Heitz, Marc; Poirier, Marion; Gan, Bee Ha; Delalande, Clémence; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2017-10-09

    Sharing capital ideas: The 2017 Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry (FiMC) conference, organized jointly by the German Chemical Society, the German Pharmaceutical Society, and the Swiss Chemical Society, was held at the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of the University of Bern in February 2017. Herein we summarize the many conference highlights, and look forward to the next FiMC meeting, to be held in Jena (Germany) in March 2018. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. the customer at the final frontier of mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten; Jensen, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    , some of the factors influencing the use of this business paradigm are discussed and it is argued that the customer is the major limiting factor at the final frontier of mass customisation. Until recently mass customisation have mainly been turned towards the structural design of products, whereas...... this paper argues that there might be a need for an increased focus on the fulfilment of customer needs. As a result of this manufactures will have to hone the balance of trade-offs, as the paradigm of mass customisation becomes a commodity....

  10. The new frontiers of electron scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1984-08-01

    Recent advances in experimental techniques have produced a new generation of electron scattering data. This paper explores the frontiers of this field and shows how our prospects for the future may be modified. Nuclear structure has been determined with an unprecedented accuracy defining clearly the limits of the most advanced theoretical descriptions. Large meson exchange currents are measured quantitatively with precision. Recent data on the electrodisintegration of deuterium at threshold and on the magnetic form factor of 3 He and tritium show that the pionic exchange current is well understood. There is no satisfactory theoretical description of shorter range processes

  11. Frontiers in ICT towards web 3.0

    CERN Document Server

    Levnajic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Life without the World Wide Web has become unthinkable, much like life without electricity or water supply. We rely on the web to check public transport schedules, buy a ticket for a concert or exchange photos with friends. However, many everyday tasks cannot be accomplished by the computer itself, since the websites are designed to be read by people, not machines. In addition, the online information is often unstructured and poorly organized, leaving the user with tedious work of searching and filtering. This book takes us to the frontiers of the emerging Web 3.0 or Semantic Web - a new gener

  12. Nuclear physics--at the frontiers of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feshbach, H.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear physics has been and will be a major factor in science and technology. The researches in nuclear physics leads to results which can be characterized as universal in that will suitable modifications they apply to small systems generally. It is introduced on the study of nucleon heavy ions and the quark-gluon plasma radioactive nuclei weak interactions and nuclear theory in this paper. The contributions to medicine, industry and other sciences is reviewed. The activity of nuclear physics as frontier research is emphasized. The importance of its applications is pointed out. (Su)

  13. International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing : Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Udgata, Siba; Biswal, Bhabendra

    2013-01-01

    The volume contains the papers presented at FICTA 2012: International Conference on Frontiers in Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications held on December 22-23, 2012 in Bhubaneswar engineering College, Bhubaneswar, Odissa, India. It contains 86 papers contributed by authors from the globe. These research papers mainly focused on application of intelligent techniques which includes evolutionary computation techniques like genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization techniques, teaching-learning based optimization etc  for various engineering applications such as data mining, image processing, cloud computing, networking etc.

  14. A Monte Carlo study on multiple output stochastic frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    , dividing all other output quantities by the selected outputquantity, and using these ratios as regressors (OD). Another approach is the stochasticray production frontier (SR), which transforms the output quantities into their Euclideandistance as the dependent variable and their polar coordinates...... of the approaches is clearly superior. However, considerable differences are found between the estimates at single replications. Taking average efficiencies from both approaches gives clearly better efficiency estimates than taking just the OD or the SR. In the case of zero values in the output quantities, the SR...

  15. Frontiers in Education at Japanese Institutes of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hidenori; Teramoto, Akemi; Shimomura, Naoyuki

    Education has become more and more important in Japanese institutes of higher education. Under such circumstances, societies of the study of frontiers in education have been held since the first society at September 20, 2002. The valuable 158 presentations have been carried out during 11 societies till March, 2006. These presentations are classified according to the topics of subjects. The topics are the improvement of education methods, IT aided education, cooperation with elementary school, junior high school, high school and companies, hands-on training (manufacturing), JABEE and others. Some distinct presentations are summarized.

  16. FRESNO State joins exploration of new frontiers in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    California State University, Fresno has joined a prestigious collaboration of top physicists, giving the Department of Physics' students, faculty and staff access to the most up-to-date information possible on new frontiers in the science for the next 15 years or longer. The program is the ATLAS (an acronym for A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) Experiment, which makes use of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland. (CERN also gave birth to the World Wide Web.)

  17. New insights into the stochastic ray production frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Bělín, Matěj; Henningsen, Géraldine

    The stochastic ray production frontier was developed as an alternative to the traditional output distance function to model production processes with multiple inputs and multiple outputs. Its main advantage over the traditional approach is that it can be used when some output quantities of some o...... important than the existing criticisms: taking logarithms of the polar coordinate angles, non-invariance to units of measurement, and ordering of the outputs. We also give some practical advice on how to address the newly raised issues....

  18. New insights into the stochastic ray production frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Bělín, Matěj; Henningsen, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    The stochastic ray production frontier was developed as an alternative to the traditional output distance function to model production processes with multiple inputs and multiple outputs. Its main advantage over the traditional approach is that it can be used when some output quantities of some o...... important than the existing criticisms: taking logarithms of the polar coordinate angles, non-invariance to units of measurement, and ordering of the outputs. We also give some practical advice on how to address the newly raised issues....

  19. International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing : Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Udgata, Siba; Biswal, Bhabendra

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the Second International Conference on Frontiers in Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications (FICTA-2013) held during 14-16 November 2013 organized by Bhubaneswar Engineering College (BEC), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. It contains 63 papers focusing on application of intelligent techniques which includes evolutionary computation techniques like genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization techniques, teaching-learning based optimization etc  for various engineering applications such as data mining, Fuzzy systems, Machine Intelligence and ANN, Web technologies and Multimedia applications and Intelligent computing and Networking etc.

  20. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Frontiers of Optical Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Baldassare

    2005-01-01

    Advanced spectroscopic techniques allow the probing of very small systems and very fast phenomena, conditions that can be considered "extreme" at the present status of our experimentation and knowledge. Quantum dots, nanocrystals and single molecules are examples of the former and events on the femtosecond scale examples of the latter. The purpose of this book is to examine the realm of phenomena of such extreme type and the techniques that permit their investigations. Each author has developed a coherent section of the program starting at a somewhat fundamental level and ultimately reaching the frontier of knowledge in the field in a systematic and didactic fashion. The formal lectures are complemented by additional seminars.

  1. 40 CFR 81.24 - Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.24 Section 81.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.24 Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial area...

  2. Technology Transfer Strategies for Creating Growth Opportunities in Frontier Markets of Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik B.

    In the past decade, Africa has developed from being an extremely impoverished continent with discouraging prospects to a more promising destination and home to some of the fastest growing Frontier Market economies. Approximately 75% of Africans rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, making...... to create growth opportunities in Frontier Markets of Sub-Saharan Africa....

  3. Use of wikis as a collaborative ICT tool for extending the frontiers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When Web 2.0 technologies are used in the classroom, learners and teachers are given the opportunity to extend the frontiers of knowledge by collaborating and contributing to knowledge. This paper explores the possibility of using Wikis – a Web 2.0 technology – to extend the frontiers of knowledge. It also discusses how ...

  4. Re-Emerging Frontiers: Postcolonial Theory and Historical Archaeology of the Borderlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    processes in borderlands that were created by colonial empires. They are also an apt way to conceptualize relationships in frontiers that lacked colonial stigma. To illustrate this point, two different historical examples of borderlands are scrutinized in this paper: the medieval frontier region...

  5. Using Spline Regression in Semi-Parametric Stochastic Frontier Analysis: An Application to Polish Dairy Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    of specifying an unsuitable functional form and thus, model misspecification and biased parameter estimates. Given these problems of the DEA and the SFA, Fan, Li and Weersink (1996) proposed a semi-parametric stochastic frontier model that estimates the production function (frontier) by non......), Kumbhakar et al. (2007), and Henningsen and Kumbhakar (2009). The aim of this paper and its main contribution to the existing literature is the estimation semi-parametric stochastic frontier models using a different non-parametric estimation technique: spline regression (Ma et al. 2011). We apply...... efficiency of Polish dairy farms contributes to the insight into this dynamic process. Furthermore, we compare and evaluate the results of this spline-based semi-parametric stochastic frontier model with results of other semi-parametric stochastic frontier models and of traditional parametric stochastic...

  6. The ASTRODEEP Frontier Fields catalogues. I. Multiwavelength photometry of Abell-2744 and MACS-J0416

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, E.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Buitrago, F.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Boucaud, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Brammer, G.; Bruce, V. A.; Capak, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Ciesla, L.; Comastri, A.; Cullen, F.; Derriere, S.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Giallongo, E.; Grazian, A.; Lotz, J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Pilo, S.; Santini, P.; Schreiber, C.; Shu, X.; Wang, T.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The Frontier Fields survey is a pioneering observational program aimed at collecting photometric data, both from space (Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope) and from ground-based facilities (VLT Hawk-I), for six deep fields pointing at clusters of galaxies and six nearby deep parallel fields, in a wide range of passbands. The analysis of these data is a natural outcome of the Astrodeep project, an EU collaboration aimed at developing methods and tools for extragalactic photometry and creating valuable public photometric catalogues. Aims: We produce multiwavelength photometric catalogues (from B to 4.5 μm) for the first two of the Frontier Fields, Abell-2744 and MACS-J0416 (plus their parallel fields). Methods: To detect faint sources even in the central regions of the clusters, we develop a robust and repeatable procedure that uses the public codes Galapagos and Galfit to model and remove most of the light contribution from both the brightest cluster members, and the intra-cluster light. We perform the detection on the processed HST H160 image to obtain a pure H-selected sample, which is the primary catalogue that we publish. We also add a sample of sources which are undetected in the H160 image but appear on a stacked infrared image. Photometry on the other HST bands is obtained using SExtractor, again on processed images after the procedure for foreground light removal. Photometry on the Hawk-I and IRAC bands is obtained using our PSF-matching deconfusion code t-phot. A similar procedure, but without the need for the foreground light removal, is adopted for the Parallel fields. Results: The procedure of foreground light subtraction allows for the detection and the photometric measurements of ~2500 sources per field. We deliver and release complete photometric H-detected catalogues, with the addition of the complementary sample of infrared-detected sources. All objects have multiwavelength coverage including B to H HST bands, plus K

  7. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. De la Torre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  8. Urban frontiers in the global struggle for capital gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mörtenböck

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines different ways in which finance models have become the ruling mode of spatializing relationships, arguing that the ongoing convergence of economic and spatial investment has transformed our environments into heavily contested ‘financescapes’. First, it reflects upon architecture’s capacity to give both material and symbolic form to these processes and considers the impacts this has on the emergence of novel kinds of urban investment frontiers, including luxury brand real estate, free zones, private cities, and urban innovation hubs. Focusing on speculative urban developments in Morocco and the United Arab Emirates, the article then highlights the performative dimension of such building programs: how architectural capital is put to work by actively performing the frontiers of future development. Physically staking out future financial gains, this mode of operation is today becoming increasingly manifested in urban crowdfunding schemes. We argue that, far from promoting new models of civic participation, such schemes are functioning as a testbed for speculation around new patterns of spatial production in which architecture acts less as the flagstaff of capital than as a capital system in itself.

  9. Scientific Frontiers in the Management of Coral Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar eAswani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are subjected globally to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors that often act synergistically. Today, reversing ongoing and future coral reef degradation presents significant challenges and countering this negative trend will take considerable efforts and investments. Scientific knowledge can inform and guide the requisite decision-making process and offer practical solutions to the problem of protection as the effects of climate change exacerbate. However, implementation of solutions presently lags far behind the pace required to reverse global declines, and there is a need for an urgent and significant step-up in the extent and range of strategies being implemented. In this paper, we consider scientific frontiers in natural and social science research that can help build stronger support for reef management and improve the efficacy of interventions. We cover various areas including: (1 enhancing the case for reef conservation and management, (2 dealing with local stressors on reefs, (3 addressing global climate change impacts, (4 and reviewing various approaches to the governance of coral reefs. In sum, we consider scientific frontiers in natural and social science that will require further attention in coming years as managers’ work towards building stronger support for reef management and improve the efficacy of local interventions.

  10. Determination of Pareto frontier in multi-objective maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Antonella; Galante, Giacomo; Lupo, Toni; Passannanti, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The objective of a maintenance policy generally is the global maintenance cost minimization that involves not only the direct costs for both the maintenance actions and the spare parts, but also those ones due to the system stop for preventive maintenance and the downtime for failure. For some operating systems, the failure event can be dangerous so that they are asked to operate assuring a very high reliability level between two consecutive fixed stops. The present paper attempts to individuate the set of elements on which performing maintenance actions so that the system can assure the required reliability level until the next fixed stop for maintenance, minimizing both the global maintenance cost and the total maintenance time. In order to solve the previous constrained multi-objective optimization problem, an effective approach is proposed to obtain the best solutions (that is the Pareto optimal frontier) among which the decision maker will choose the more suitable one. As well known, describing the whole Pareto optimal frontier generally is a troublesome task. The paper proposes an algorithm able to rapidly overcome this problem and its effectiveness is shown by an application to a case study regarding a complex series-parallel system.

  11. Special issue on "Frontiers in Materials Science: Condensed matters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nam-Nhat; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Pham, Duc-Thang

    2018-03-01

    This special issue includes the editor-invited and selected papers from 3rd International Symposium on Frontiers in Materials Science (FMS2016), held in Hanoi, Vietnam, from the 28th to 30th of September 2016, which coincided with the 65th anniversary of the Faculty of Physics, Hanoi University of Education. The FMS2016 is a continuation of a series of meetings starting from 2010. A first event was a bilateral Vietnamese-German meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2010, and the second one was held in Frankfurt, Germany, in 2011. The idea at that time was to initiate interactions between scientists from both countries and to further develop the field of materials science in Southeast Asia. After these successful bilateral meetings, a next step was taken by advancing the format of the symposium into an international event. In 2013, the 1st International Symposium on Frontiers in Materials Science (FMS2013) was successfully organized in Hanoi, which followed 2nd symposium, FMS2015, in Tokyo, in 2015. The FMS2016 continues this idea of providing an international forum for physicists, material scientists and chemists for discussing their latest results and the recent developments in the important field of materials science.

  12. The science of space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raine, D.J.; Heller, M.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzing the development of the structure of space-time from the theory of Aristotle to the present day, the present work attempts to sketch a science of relativistic mechanics. The concept of relativity is discussed in relation to the way in which space-time splits up into space and time, and in relation to Mach's principle concerning the relativity of inertia. Particular attention is given to the following topics: Aristotelian dynamics Copernican kinematics Newtonian dynamics the space-time of classical dynamics classical space-time in the presence of gravity the space-time of special relativity the space-time of general relativity solutions and problems in general relativity Mach's principle and the dynamics of space-time theories of inertial mass the integral formation of general relativity and the frontiers of relativity

  13. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

  14. Fitting of full Cobb-Douglas and full VRTS cost frontiers by solving goal programming problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, B.; Mahaboob, B.; Subbarami Reddy, C.; Madhusudhana Rao, B.

    2017-11-01

    The present research article first defines two popular production functions viz, Cobb-Douglas and VRTS production frontiers and their dual cost functions and then derives their cost limited maximal outputs. This paper tells us that the cost limited maximal output is cost efficient. Here the one side goal programming problem is proposed by which the full Cobb-Douglas cost frontier, full VRTS frontier can be fitted. This paper includes the framing of goal programming by which stochastic cost frontier and stochastic VRTS frontiers are fitted. Hasan et al. [1] used a parameter approach Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) to examine the technical efficiency of the Malaysian domestic banks listed in the Kuala Lumpur stock Exchange (KLSE) market over the period 2005-2010. AshkanHassani [2] exposed Cobb-Douglas Production Functions application in construction schedule crashing and project risk analysis related to the duration of construction projects. Nan Jiang [3] applied Stochastic Frontier analysis to a panel of New Zealand dairy forms in 1998/99-2006/2007.

  15. Quality frontier of electricity distribution: Supply security, best practices, and underground cabling in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saastamoinen, Antti; Kuosmanen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Electricity distribution is a prime example of local monopoly. In most countries, the costs of electricity distribution operators are regulated by the government. However, the cost regulation may create adverse incentives to compromise the quality of service. To avoid this, cost regulation is often amended with quality incentives. This study applies theory and methods of productivity analysis to model the frontier of service quality. A semi-nonparametric estimation method is developed, which does not assume any particular functional form for the quality frontier, but can accommodate stochastic noise and heteroscedasticity. The empirical part of our paper examines how underground cabling and location affect the interruption costs. As expected, higher proportion of underground cabling decreases the level of interruption costs. The effects of cabling and location on the variance of performance are also considered. Especially the location is found to be a significant source of heteroscedasticity in the interruption costs. Finally, the proposed quality frontier benchmark is compared to the current practice of Finnish regulation system. The proposed quality frontier is found to provide more meaningful and stable basis for setting quality targets than the average practice benchmarks currently in use. - Highlights: • Cost regulation may create adverse incentives to lower the service quality. • We model the frontier of service quality using a semi-nonparametric approach. • Our nonparametric frontier accounts for stochastic noise and heteroscedasticity. • We estimate how underground cabling and location affect interruption costs. • We compare our quality frontier with the current quality regulation in Finland.

  16. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  17. Keeping up Appearances on the Romano-British Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Birley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Roman Vindolanda lies on the Stanegate Road to the south of Hadrian's Wall, on the northern frontier of the Romano-British province. It has complex stratigraphy with at least ten layers of occupation dating from around AD 85 to its abandonment in the 5th century, but it is the first five levels from AD 85 to AD 130-139 that have produced some of the most significant organic objects from the Empire, including the Vindolanda writing tablets (Birley 2009. One of the distinctive aspects of the Vindolanda collection is the large number of wooden hair combs found in these levels. Over 160 boxwood hair combs have been unearthed from the site. Resembling modern nit combs, these small objects had the primary function of cleaning and detangling hair, but further examination of the collection allows for the exploration of different aspects of style and function.

  18. Characterization of semiconductor and frontier materials by nuclear microprobe technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jieqing; Li Xiaolin; Yang Changyi; Lu Rongrong; Wang Jiqing; Guo Panlin

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe technology is used to characterize the properties of semiconductor and other frontier materials at the stages of their synthesis, modification, integration and application. On the basis of the beam current being used, the analytical nuclear microprobe techniques being used in this project can be divided into two categories: high beam current (PIXE, RBS, PEB) or low beam current (IBIC, STIM) techniques. The material properties measured are the thickness and composition of a composite surface on a SiC ceramic, the sputtering-induced surface segregation and depth profile change in a Ag-Cu binary alloy, the irradiation effects on the CCE of CVD diamond, the CCE profile at a polycrystalline CVD diamond film and a GaAs diode at different voltage biases and finally, the characterization of individual sample on an integrated material chip. (author)

  19. Preface: Special Topic on Frontiers in Molecular Scale Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Ferdinand; Venkataraman, Latha

    2017-03-01

    The electronic, mechanical, and thermoelectric properties of molecular scale devices have fascinated scientists across several disciplines in natural sciences and engineering. The interest is partially technological, driven by the fast miniaturization of integrated circuits that now have reached characteristic features at the nanometer scale. Equally important, a very strong incentive also exists to elucidate the fundamental aspects of structure-function relations for nanoscale devices, which utilize molecular building blocks as functional units. Thus motivated, a rich research field has established itself, broadly termed "Molecular Electronics," that hosts a plethora of activities devoted to this goal in chemistry, physics, and electrical engineering. This Special Topic on Frontiers of Molecular Scale Electronics captures recent theoretical and experimental advances in the field.

  20. 12th International Symposium on Frontiers of Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo; FFP12; Frontiers of fundamental physics and physics education research

    2014-01-01

    In a knowledge-based society, research into fundamental physics plays a vital role not only in the enhancement of human knowledge but also in the development of new technology that affects everday life.The international symposium series Frontiers of Fundamental Physics (FFP) regularly brings together eminent scholars and researchers working in various areas in physics to exchange expertise, ideas, results, and new research perspectives. The twelfth such symposium, FFP12, took place at the University of Udine, Italy, and covered diverse fields of research: astrophysics, high energy physics and particle physics, theoretical physics, gravitation and cosmology, condensed matter physics, statistical physics, computational physics, and mathematical physics. Importantly, it also devoted a great deal of attention to physics education research, teacher training in modern physics, and popularization of physics. The high scientific level of FFP12 was guaranteed by the careful selection made by scientific coordinators fr...

  1. Common Frontiers of the Exact Sciences and the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Erwin N.

    The physicist Franz Serafin Exner (1849-1926) was a prominent Austrian spokesman for the new developments that were coupled with turn-of-the-century experiments and theories related to entropy thermodynamics, the internally structured atom, quantum theory, and relativity. The Exner circle found its inspiration in the intellectual world of Ludwig Boltzmann and his teachers, colleagues, and students. Cross-discipline discussions on common and divergent frontiers of the exact sciences and the humanities meaningfully converged on the significance, comparison, and transfer of concepts such as the laws of nature, causality, probability, and chance. Oswald Spengler's Decline of the West, with its pessimistic, subjectivistic, and negative science-directed messages provided Exner with the opportunity to sharpen his support for the new scientific trends in physics - thus to champion the search for objective truth.

  2. Hospital efficiency and transaction costs: a stochastic frontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Martijn; Groot, Wim; Van Merode, Frits

    2009-07-01

    The make-or-buy decision of organizations is an important issue in the transaction cost theory, but is usually not analyzed from an efficiency perspective. Hospitals frequently have to decide whether to outsource or not. The main question we address is: Is the make-or-buy decision affected by the efficiency of hospitals? A one-stage stochastic cost frontier equation is estimated for Dutch hospitals. The make-or-buy decisions of ten different hospital services are used as explanatory variables to explain efficiency of hospitals. It is found that for most services the make-or-buy decision is not related to efficiency. Kitchen services are an important exception to this. Large hospitals tend to outsource less, which is supported by efficiency reasons. For most hospital services, outsourcing does not significantly affect the efficiency of hospitals. The focus on the make-or-buy decision may therefore be less important than often assumed.

  3. Proceedings of the symposium on frontier nuclear physics (FRONP99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2000-01-01

    The symposium on Frontier Nuclear Physics (FRONP99), organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, under close cooperation with the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on August 2 to 4, 1999. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as hyper nuclear physics, lepton nuclear physics, quark nuclear physics, unstable nuclear physics, superheavy elements and heavy-ion physics. Three talks on the joint project between JAERI (Neutron Science Research Center) and KEK (JHF) were presented in a public session. Thirty three talks on these topics presented at the symposium aroused lively discussions among approximately 70 participants. This report contains 26 papers submitted from the lecturers. (author)

  4. Biochemical paths in humans and cells: Frontiers of AMS bioanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; Palmblad, N.M.; Ognibene, T.; Kabir, M.M.; Buchholz, B.A.; Bench, G.

    2007-01-01

    The publication rate of 3 H and 14 C use in biomedical research decreased by a factor of three since 1990 when the first applications of AMS in biomedicine were published. Against this decrease, the high sensitivity of AMS for these isotopes in small isolated samples has made significant contributions. New smaller spectrometers and increased commercial availability of AMS have solved some of the issues surrounding availability and cost, but improved quantitation in non-isotopic methods now compete with some early uses of AMS. We review the strength of AMS for quantifying rare biochemical events and chemical passages through individual people or cells and consider these as the frontiers of quantitation leading to profitable science unavailable to other techniques

  5. A Monte Carlo Study on Multiple Output Stochastic Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    , dividing all other output quantities by the selected output quantity, and using these ratios as regressors (OD). Another approach is the stochastic ray production frontier (SR) which transforms the output quantities into their Euclidean distance as the dependent variable and their polar coordinates......In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the main question is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often an output distance function is used, where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one output quantity as the dependent variable...... of both specifications for the case of a Translog output distance function with respect to different common statistical problems as well as problems arising as a consequence of zero values in the output quantities. Although, our results partly show clear reactions to statistical misspecifications...

  6. Essays on the frontiers of modern astrophysics and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    This book is a collection of engaging and intriguing essays that describe an intellectual journey from the beginning to the end of universe. It is the product of an ongoing effort to know our place in the universe and share with readers the underpinnings of the magnificent cosmos where we are given a chance to exist only very briefly. The essays incorporate a group of challenging ideas that modern physics and cosmology are struggling to understand, in a unique way that incorporates mythological, religious, and philosophical perspectives. The author relies on a simple and powerful philosophy that we are part of the universe and the universe is part of us.   This wonderful collection of essays provides a journey through the current frontiers of modern astrophysics and cosmology. Its depiction of the most important unsolved mysteries about our place in the Universe is peppered with original insights and philosophical perspectives, making it an intellectual treat. – Avi Loeb, Professor, Harvard University Chai...

  7. The low-energy frontier of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckel, Joerg

    2010-02-01

    Most embeddings of the Standard Model into a more unified theory, in particular the ones based on supergravity or superstrings, predict the existence of a hidden sector of particles which have only very weak interactions with the visible sector Standard Model particles. Some of these exotic particle candidates (such as e.g. ''axions'', ''axion-like particles'' and ''hidden U(1) gauge bosons'') may be very light, with masses in the sub-eV range, and have very weak interactions with photons. Correspondingly, these very weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) may lead to observable effects in experiments (as well as in astrophysical and cosmological observations) searching for light shining through a wall, for changes in laser polarisation, for non-linear processes in large electromagnetic fields and for deviations from Coulomb's law. We present the physics case and a status report of this emerging low-energy frontier of fundamental physics. (orig.)

  8. Theoretical Frontiers in Black Holes and Cosmology School

    CERN Document Server

    Orazi, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    These lecture notes are dedicated to the most recent theoretical applications of Black Hole solutions in high-energy physics. The main motivation of this volume is to present the latest black hole backgrounds that are relevant for gauge/gravity correspondence. Leading scientists in the field explain effective techniques for finding singular and cosmological solutions embedded in gauged supergravity, shedding light on underlying properties and symmetries. Starting from a basic level, the mathematical structures underlying black holes and cosmologies are revealed, helping the reader grasp the connection between theoretical approaches and physical observations with insights into possible future developments from both a theoretical and experimental point of view. The topics covered in this volume are based on lectures delivered during the “Theoretical Frontiers in Black Holes and Cosmology” school, held in Natal in June 2015.

  9. A telecommunications intervention for frontier patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnild, Gail; MacCart, John G; Mitchell, Scot; Tyabah, Kiran; Leenknecht, Cindy; Meszaros, Jane Fitch

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a telecommunications diabetes self-management (DSM) intervention would improve health-related outcomes among frontier participants with diabetes. A one-group pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with two groups of participants was used. Differences between pre and post-test periods on measures of physical and emotional health, knowledge of diabetes, and self-care behaviors were measured. Overall, participants did better along measures of blood pressure, HbA(1c), self-efficacy, knowledge of diabetes, understanding of DSM, monitoring behaviors, and reported less personal and social disruption from diabetes. Six-month follow-up results showed continued positive outcomes.

  10. New frontiers in the neuroscience of the sense of agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eDavid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense that I am the author of my own actions, including the ability to distinguish my own from other people’s actions, is a fundamental building block of our sense of self, on the one hand, and successful social interactions, on the other. Using cognitive neuroscience techniques, researchers have attempted to elucidate the functional basis of this intriguing phenomenon, also trying to explain pathological abnormalities of action awareness in certain psychiatric and neurological disturbances. Recent conceptual, technological and methodological advances suggest several interesting and necessary new leads for future research on the neuroscience of agency. Here I will describe new frontiers for the field such as the need for novel and multifactorial paradigms, anatomically plausible network models for the sense of agency, investigations of the temporal dynamics during agentic processing and ecologically valid virtual reality applications.

  11. Frontiers in Planar Lightwave Circuit Technology Design, Simulation, and Fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Janz, Siegfried; Tanev, Stoyan

    2005-01-01

    This book is the result of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Frontiers in Planar Lightwave Circuit Technology, which took place in Ottawa, Canada from September 21-25, 2004. Many of the world’s leading experts in integrated photonic design, theory and experiment were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise, and participate in discussions on current research and applications, as well as the new directions planar lightwave circuit technology is evolving towards. The sum of their contributions to this book constitutes an excellent record of many key issues and scientific problems in planar lightwave circuit research at the time of writing. In this volume the reader will find detailed overviews of experimental and theoretical work in high index contrast waveguide systems, micro-optical resonators, nonlinear optics, and advanced optical simulation methods, as well as articles describing emerging applications of integrated optics for medical and biological applications.

  12. Controlled drug delivery systems towards new frontiers in patient care

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Filippo; Masi, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of controlled drug delivery systems, covering the most important innovative applications. The principles of controlled drug release and the mechanisms involved in controlled release are clearly explained. The various existing polymeric drug delivery systems are reviewed, and new frontiers in material design are examined in detail, covering a wide range of polymer modification techniques. The concluding chapter is a case study focusing on use of a drug-eluting stent. The book is designed to provide the reader with a complete understanding of the mechanisms and design of controlled drug delivery systems, and to this end includes numerous step-by-step tutorials. It illustrates how chemical engineers can advance medical care by designing polymeric delivery systems that achieve either temporal or spatial control of drug delivery and thus ensure more effective therapy that eliminates the potential for both under-and overdosing.

  13. Real Estate Economics, Management and Investments: New Perspectives and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Del Giudice

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available New perspectives and frontiers were highlighted in a Special Issue on “Real Estate Economics, Finance and Investments”. The twenty-eight papers that were selected and published emanated from scholars from universities all over the world with the aim to represent more recent advances in building management, mass appraisal methods, real estate risk management, economic evaluation of real estate investment projects, real estate market, property, social housing, real estate economics, real estate finance, building transformation and economic effects on environment. These papers helped to determine a unique and valuable opportunity to experiment with multiple approaches to these ever more crucial topics. This note proposes a brief review of the twenty-eight papers, concluding with some reflections about policy, practice and research on real estate issues.

  14. 4th International Conference on Frontiers in Global Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos

    2004-01-01

    Global Optimization has emerged as one of the most exciting new areas of mathematical programming. Global optimization has received a wide attraction from many fields in the past few years, due to the success of new algorithms for addressing previously intractable problems from diverse areas such as computational chemistry and biology, biomedicine, structural optimization, computer sciences, operations research, economics, and engineering design and control. This book contains refereed invited papers submitted at the 4th international confer­ ence on Frontiers in Global Optimization held at Santorini, Greece during June 8-12, 2003. Santorini is one of the few sites of Greece, with wild beauty created by the explosion of a volcano which is in the middle of the gulf of the island. The mystic landscape with its numerous mult-extrema, was an inspiring location particularly for researchers working on global optimization. The three previous conferences on "Recent Advances in Global Opti­ mization", "State-of-the-...

  15. Inference from concave stochastic frontiers and the covariance of firm efficiency measures across firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, Imad

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a Bayesian stochastic frontier model to obtain confidence intervals on firm efficiency measures of electric utilities rather than the point estimates reported in most previous studies. Results reveal that the stochastic frontier model yields imprecise measures of firm efficiency. However, the application produces much more precise inference on pairwise efficiency comparisons of firms due to a sometimes strong positive covariance of efficiency measures across firms. In addition, we examine the sensitivity to functional form by repeating the analysis for Cobb-Douglas, translog and Fourier frontiers, with and without imposing monotonicity and concavity

  16. Exploring the Cosmic Frontier Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, Andrei P; Cesarsky, Catherine; Diamond, Phillip J

    2007-01-01

    In the coming decades, astrophysical science will benefit enormously from the construction and operation of several major international ground- and space based facilities, such as ALMA, Herschel/Planck, and SKA in the far infrared to radio band, Extremely Large Telescopes, JWST and GAIA in the optical to near infrared regime, XEUS and Constellation-X in the X-ray, and GLAST in the Gamma-ray regime. These and other new instruments will have a major impact in a wide range of scientific topics including the cosmological epoch of reionization, galactic dynamics and nuclear activity, stellar astronomy, extra-solar planets, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and many others. On May 18-21, 2004, the Max-Planck-Society’s Harnack-Haus in Dahlem, Berlin hosted the international symposium "Exploring the Cosmic Frontier: Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century". The symposium in Berlin was dedicated to exploring the complementarity and synergies between different branches of astrophysical research, by presenting ...

  17. Exploring the cosmic frontier. Astrophysical instruments for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, A.P.; Zensus, J.A.; Cesarsky, C.; Diamond, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the coming decades, astrophysical science will benefit enormously from the construction and operation of several major international ground- and space based facilities, such as ALMA, Herschel/Planck, and SKA in the far infrared to radio band, Extremely Large Telescopes, JWST and GAIA in the optical to near infrared regime, XEUS and Constellation-X in the X-ray, and GLAST in the Gamma-ray regime. These and other new instruments will have a major impact in a wide range of scientific topics including the cosmological epoch of reionization, galactic dynamics and nuclear activity, stellar astronomy, extra-solar planets, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and many others. On May 18-21, 2004, the Max-Planck-Society's Harnack-Haus in Dahlem, Berlin hosted the international symposium ''Exploring the Cosmic Frontier: Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century''. The symposium in Berlin was dedicated to exploring the complementarity and synergies between different branches of astrophysical research, by presenting and discussing the fundamental scientific problems that will be addressed by major future astrophysical facilities in the next few decades. This book contains 70 papers from the meeting and is intended to give a lasting account of a snapshot of an evolving scientific discourse and interaction throughout our field of research. (orig.)

  18. Mapping scientific frontiers : the quest for knowledge visualization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, Kevin W.

    2003-08-01

    Visualization of scientific frontiers is a relatively new field, yet it has a long history and many predecessors. The application of science to science itself has been undertaken for decades with notable early contributions by Derek Price, Thomas Kuhn, Diana Crane, Eugene Garfield, and many others. What is new is the field of information visualization and application of its techniques to help us understand the process of science in the making. In his new book, Chaomei Chen takes us on a journey through this history, touching on predecessors, and then leading us firmly into the new world of Mapping Scientific Frontiers. Building on the foundation of his earlier book, Information Visualization and Virtual Environments, Chen's new offering is much less a tutorial in how to do information visualization, and much more a conceptual exploration of why and how the visualization of science can change the way we do science, amplified by real examples. Chen's stated intents for the book are: (1) to focus on principles of visual thinking that enable the identification of scientific frontiers; (2) to introduce a way to systematize the identification of scientific frontiers (or paradigms) through visualization techniques; and (3) to stimulate interdisciplinary research between information visualization and information science researchers. On all these counts, he succeeds. Chen's book can be broken into two parts which focus on the first two purposes stated above. The first, consisting of the initial four chapters, covers history and predecessors. Kuhn's theory of normal science punctuated by periods of revolution, now commonly known as paradigm shifts, motivates the work. Relevant predecessors outside the traditional field of information science such as cartography (both terrestrial and celestial), mapping the mind, and principles of visual association and communication, are given ample coverage. Chen also describes enabling techniques known to information

  19. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the international meeting on 'New Frontiers in Numerical Relativity' (Albert Einstein Institute, Potsdam, Germany, 17 21 July 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M.; Rezzolla, L.

    2007-06-01

    Traditionally, frontiers represent a treacherous terrain to venture into, where hidden obstacles are present and uncharted territories lie ahead. At the same time, frontiers are also a place where new perspectives can be appreciated and have often been the cradle of new and thriving developments. With this in mind and inspired by this spirit, the Numerical Relativity Group at the Albert Einstein Institute (AEI) organized a `New Frontiers in Numerical Relativity' meeting on 17 21 July 2006 at the AEI campus in Potsdam, Germany. It is an interesting historical remark that the suggestion of the meeting was first made in the late summer of 2005 and thus at a time that for many reasons has been a turning point in the recent history of numerical relativity. A few months earlier (April 2005) in fact, F Pretorius had announced the first multi-orbit simulations of binary black holes and computed the waveforms from the inspiral, merger and ring-down (`Numerical Relativity', Banff International Research Station, Banff, Canada, 16 21 April 2005). At that time, the work of Pretorius served as an important boost to the research in this field and although no other group has yet adopted the techniques he employed, his results provided the numerical relativity community with clear evidence that the binary black hole problem could be solved. A few months later (November 2005), equally striking results were presented by the NASA Goddard and Texas/Brownsville groups, who also reported, independently, multi-orbit evolutions of binary black holes using numerical techniques and formulations of the Einstein equations which were markedly distinct from those suggested by Pretorius (`Numerical Relativity 2005', Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD, USA, 2 4 November 2005). A few months later other groups were able to repeat the same simulations and obtain equivalent results, testifying that the community as a whole had reached comparable levels of maturity in both the numerical

  20. Evolution of grid-wide access to database resident information in ATLAS using Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration; de Stefano, J; Dewhurst, A L; Dykstra, D; Front, D

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment deployed Frontier technology world-wide during the the initial year of LHC collision data taking to enable user analysis jobs running on the World-wide LHC Computing Grid to access database resident data. Since that time, the deployment model has evolved to optimize resources, improve performance, and streamline maintenance of Frontier and related infrastructure. In this presentation we focus on the specific changes in the deployment and improvements undertaken such as the optimization of cache and launchpad location, the use of RPMs for more uniform deployment of underlying Frontier related components, improvements in monitoring, optimization of fail-over, and an increasing use of a centrally managed database containing site specific information (for configuration of services and monitoring). In addition, analysis of Frontier logs has allowed us a deeper understanding of problematic queries and understanding of use cases. Use of the system has grown beyond just user analysis and subsyste...

  1. Evolution of grid-wide access to database resident information in ATLAS using Frontier

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In addition, analysis of Frontier logs has allowed us a deeper understanding of problematic queries and understanding of use cases. Use of the system has grown beyond just user analysis and subsyst...

  2. Colonel John Graham of Fintry and the Fourth Cape Eastern Frontier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graham's grand strategy to clear the eastern frontier of Xhosa invaders was carefully planned. He warned Major ..... This created a market for local ... interests surpassed the 'luxury' of military and security needs, regulated from Cape Town and.

  3. Portfolio Evaluation Based on Efficient Frontier Superiority Using Center of Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Samat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Investing in portfolio of assets is the best way to reduce the investment risk. The most desired portfolio can be obtained when investors chose to invest in the portfolios that lay on the portfolio’s efficient frontier. However, the superiorities of the portfolios are difficult to differentiate especially when the efficient frontier curves are overlapping. This paper proposed the portfolio’s efficient frontier center of gravity (CoG and Euclidean distance to identify its superiority. A sample of 49 stocks of large-cap and small-cap were used to construct two hypothetical portfolios and its efficient frontiers. The Euclidean distance showed that the large-cap portfolio is superior and having wider feasible solutions compared to the small-cap portfolio. The results of new tool introduced are consistent with the conventional methods. Here the theoretical and practical implications are provided in light of the findings.

  4. Review article The Frontier of Interculturality. A review of Wim van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review article. The Frontier of Interculturality. A review of Wim van Binsbergen\\'s Intercultural Encounters: African and Anthropological Lessons towards a Philosophy of Interculturality (2003). Sanya Osha ...

  5. The Frontier Framework (and its eight Frontier Archetypes): A new conceptual approach to representing staff and patient well-being in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Darrin L

    2018-05-04

    This paper proposes a new conceptual framework for jointly analysing the production of staff and patient welfare in health systems. Research to date has identified a direct link between staff and patient well-being. However, until now, no one has produced a unified framework for analysing them concurrently. In response, this paper introduces the "Frontier Framework". The new conceptual framework is applicable to all health systems regardless of their structure or financing. To demonstrate the benefits of its use, an empirical example of the Frontier Framework is constructed using data from the UK's National Health Service. This paper also introduces eight "Frontier Archetypes", which represent common patterns of welfare generation observable in health organisations involved in programmes of change. These archetypes may be used in planning, monitoring or creating narratives about organisational journeys. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. A FRONTIER MARKET CASE: DOES BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE HAVE A LEADING DOMESTIC INDEX?

    OpenAIRE

    CORNELIA POP; DRAGOS BOZDOG; ADINA CALUGARU

    2012-01-01

    A frontier market can play a significant role in the diversification of a global portfolio. Equally important are the companies selected in order to fulfill the diversification needs. We focused on Bucharest Stock Exchange, considered a frontier market, and we analyzed its own diversification power based on the presence/ absence of a leading index that influences the price evolution of the other traded companies. This idea was suggested by the strong position of the five listed closed-end fun...

  7. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 8: Instrumentation Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarteau, M; Lipton, R; Nicholson, H; Shipsey, I; Akerib, D; Albayrak-Yetkin, A; Alexander, J; Anderson, J; Artuso, M; Asner, D; Ball, R; Battaglia, M; Bebek, C; Beene, J; Benhammou, Y; Bentefour, E; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bilki, B; Blucher, E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Bowden, N; Brooijmans, G; Byrum, K; Cabrera, B; Cancelo, G; Carlstrom, J; Casey, B; Chang, C; Chapman, J; Chen, CH; Childres, I; Christian, D; Convery, M; Corso, WCJ; Cumalat, J; Cushman, P; Via, CD; Dazeley, S; Debbins, P; Deptuch, G; Dhawan, S; Benedetto, VD; DiGiovene, B; Djurcic, Z; Dye, S; Elagin, A; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Etzion, E; Fast, J; Ferretti, C; Fisher, P; Fleming, B; Francis, K; Friedman, P; Frisch, H; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gatto, C; Geronim, G; Gilchriese, G; Golwala, S; Grant, C; Grillo, A; Grünendahl, E; Gorham, P; Guan, L; Gutierrez, G; Haber, C; Hall, J; Haller, G; Hast, C; Heintz, U; Hemmick, T; Hitlin, DG; Hogan, C; Hohlmann, M; Hoppe, E; Hsu, L; Huffer, M; Irwin, K; Izraelevitch, F; Jennings, G; Johnson, M; Jung, A; Kagan, H; Kenney, C; Kettell, S; Khanna, R; Khristenko, V; Krennrich, F; Kuehn, K; Kutschke, R; Learned, J; Lee, AT; Levin, D; Liu, T; Liu, ATK; Lissauer, D; Love, J; Lynn, D; MacFarlane, D; Magill, S; Majewski, S; Mans, J; Maricic, J; Marleau, P; Mazzacane, A; McKinsey, D; Mehl, J; Mestvirisvilli, A; Meyer, S; Mokhov, N; Moshe, M; Mukherjee, A; Murat, P; Nahn, S; Narain, M; Nadel-Turonski, P; Newcomer, M; Nishimura, K; Nygren, D; Oberla, E; Onel, Y; Oreglia, M; Orrell, J; Paley, J; Para, A; Parker, S; Polychronakos, V; Pordes, S; Privitera, P; Prosser, A; Pyle, M; Raaf, J; Ramberg, E; Rameika, R; Rebel, B; Repond, J; Reyna, D; Ristori, L; Rivera, R; Ronzhin, A; Rusack, R; Russ, J; Ryd, A; Sadrozinski, H; Sahoo, H; Sanchez, MC; Sanzeni, C; Schnetzer, S; Seidel, S; Seiden, A; Schmidt, I; Shenai, A; Shutt, T; Silver, Y; Smith, W; Snowden-Ifft, D; Sonnenschein, A; Southwick, D; Spiegel, L; Stanitzki, M; Striganov, S; Su, D; Sumner, R; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Talaga, R; Tayloe, R; Tentindo, S; Terentiev, N; Thom-Levy, J; Thorn, C; Tiffenberg, J; Trischuk, W; Tschirhart, R; Turner, M; Underwood, D; Uplegger, L; Urheim, J; Vagins, M; Bibber, KV; Varner, G; Varner, R; Va' vra, J; Lippe, HVD; Wagner, R; Wagner, S; Weaverdyck, C; Wenzel, H; Weinstein, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wigman, R; Wilson, P; Winn, D; Winter, P; Woody, C; Xia, L; Xie, JQ; Ye, Z; Yeh, MF; Yetkin, T; Yoo, JH; Yu, J; Yu, JM; Zeller, S; Zhang, JL; Zhu, JJ; Zhou, B; Zhu, RY; Zitzer, B

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 8, on the Instrumentation Frontier, discusses the instrumentation needs of future experiments in the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers, promising new technologies for particle physics research, and issues of gathering resources for long-term research in this area.

  8. FERMILAB ACCELERATOR R&D PROGRAM TOWARDS INTENSITY FRONTIER ACCELERATORS : STATUS AND PROGRESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    The 2014 P5 report indicated the accelerator-based neutrino and rare decay physics research as a centrepiece of the US domestic HEP program at Fermilab. Operation, upgrade and development of the accelerators for the near- term and longer-term particle physics program at the Intensity Frontier face formidable challenges. Here we discuss key elements of the accelerator physics and technology R&D program toward future multi-MW proton accelerators and present its status and progress. INTENSITY FRONTIER ACCELERATORS

  9. Expanding the Frontiers of Population Nutrition Research: New Questions, New Methods, and New Approaches12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David L.; Porter, Christine M.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Wuehler, Sara E.; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition research, ranging from molecular to population levels and all points along this spectrum, is exploring new frontiers as new technologies and societal changes create new possibilities and demands. This paper defines a set of frontiers at the population level that are being created by the increased societal recognition of the importance of nutrition; its connection to urgent health, social, and environmental problems; and the need for effective and sustainable solutions at the population level. The frontiers are defined in terms of why, what, who, and how we study at the population level and the disciplinary foundations for that research. The paper provides illustrations of research along some of these frontiers, an overarching framework for population nutrition research, and access to some of the literature from outside of nutrition that can enhance the intellectual coherence, practical utility, and societal benefit of population nutrition research. The frontiers defined in this paper build on earlier forward-looking efforts by the American Society for Nutrition and extend these efforts in significant ways. The American Society for Nutrition and its members can play pivotal roles in advancing these frontiers by addressing a number of well-recognized challenges associated with transdisciplinary and engaged research. PMID:23319128

  10. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  11. High Frontier: The Journal for Space and Cyberspace Professionals. Volume 6, Number 4, August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    much persistence as our enemies. Notes: 1 The Cyber Kill Chain and the concept that an unbroken sequential chain of events for success was conceived by...and contracting were well represented. Soon after the teams formed with their impressive lineups , they practiced their acquisition skills. In

  12. Metabolism in time and space – exploring the frontier of developmental biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Alena; Tennessen, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 18 (2017), s. 3193-3198 ISSN 0950-1991 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : metabolism * mitochondria * aerobic glycolysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 5.843, year: 2016 http://dev.biologists.org/content/144/18/3193

  13. To Boldly Go. America's Next Era in Space: New Frontiers in Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Dr. France Cordova, NASA's Chief Scientist, chaired this, the fourth seminar in the NASA Administrator's Seminar Series. She introduced NASA Administrator, Daniel S. Goldin, who greeted the attendees, and in his opening remarks said that human beings have a need to understand the what and why of the forces of nature and of people, and the stresses on the planet Earth. The first speaker, Dr. Ellen Mosley-Thompson of Ohio State University discussed the many things that scientists have learned from ice cores obtained in Peru and the Antarctic. The next speaker, Dr. Michael McElroy of Harvard University, is active in environmental research. He noted that insurance companies need to know more about the physics and chemistry of weather in order to avoid bankruptcy; that the greenhouse effect, which is good because it reflects heat, is being changed, and we don't know the rules. In the discussion that followed, Goldin asked if the present technology for measuring circulation of air and water and contents of the atmosphere is worth the cost. Drs. McElroy and Mosley-Thompson noted that the historic record in an ice core is endangered by ice melts; that in the last 10 years we've learned that tropics change; that the water vapor in the tropics is critical right now; that clouds absorb short-wave radiation; and that there is a need to improve measurements of atmospheric contents, the development of models, and the understanding of basic physics. We also need to understand parameters for detecting climate change, water, water temperature, and be able to provide fundamental information. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  14. High Frontier: The Journal for Space and Missile Professionals. Volume 7, Number 3, May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    actions before time necessitates the activity. This is especially true in cyber defense. If the warning can go out fast enough, it might be possible...flood of biblical propor- tions, which threatens to inundate even the most skillful cyber-sav- vy readers. Anyone attempting to become intimately

  15. High Frontier - The Journal for Space and Cyberspace Professionals. Volume 6, Number 3, May 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    incorporated inno- vative approaches to advancing state-of-the- art . “Small space” is not just scaled-down payloads, satellites, or launch vehicles...ORS Office location in New Mexico where green chilies are the culinary focus. The RRSW includes several key components: a “design cell” that de...12 those campaigns by applying operational art .7 Stating that ORS is focused on the JFC translates to affirming that ORS is focused at the level

  16. High Frontier: The Journal for Space and Missile Professionals. Volume 6, Number 2, February 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    congressional testimony, MUOS, which was supposed to provide continuity for the nearly defunct ultrahigh frequency follow-on ( UFO ) satellites, is now about...of Leasat satellites provided UHF capac- ity in the period between FLTSATCOM’s end of life and the first UHF UFO system launch in 1993. The UFO ...Harris, the deputy chief of naval operations for communications Networks, told a Senate subcommittee this spring that by May 2010, the UFO

  17. Stable isotopes to trace food web stressors: Is space the final frontier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To support community decision-making, we need to evaluate sources of stress and impact at a variety of spatial scales, whether local or watershed-based. Increasingly, we are using stable isotope-based approaches to determine those scales of impact, and using these approaches in v...

  18. High Frontier, The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals. Volume 3, Number 3, May 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    diameter around 2 nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular lifeforms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200 nm in length, www...na no technology is so innovative that it can indemnify itself against delay or even cancellation. People disagree; interests and equities are

  19. PREFACE Protein folding: lessons learned and new frontiers Protein folding: lessons learned and new frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Rohit V.; Nussinov, Ruth

    2009-03-01

    theories predict that evolved sequences (functional proteins as opposed to random sequences) find their native folds by minimizing geometric (topological) frustration (i.e. avoiding entropic bottlenecks/kinetic traps). In some cases, following a dominant pathway is the optimal way to minimize frustration, whereas in extreme cases, proteins may fold without encountering bottlenecks. Experimental studies of two-state proteins led in turn to the development of quantitative descriptors that have allowed specific testing of theoretical predictions. These include methods such as phi value analysis to characterize transition state ensembles and descriptors that measure the effects of geometry/topology on folding rates. Interestingly, there exists a striking inverse correlation between the relative contact order (the distance in sequence space between spatially proximal contacts made in the native state) and the folding rates of several two-state proteins. The relative contact order provides a rough estimate of the net entropic cost associated with realizing the folded state, and theories have been developed to explain the observed correlation between the contact order and folding rates. Despite its maturity as a field, there are several areas that come under the rubric of protein folding that are just beginning to receive attention. For example, how do complications in vivo such as macromolecular crowding, confinement, the presence of cosolutes, membrane anchoring, and tethering to surfaces influence protein stabilities and folding dynamics? While we are accustomed to studying proteins at concentrations that are amenable to investigation via probes whose signal intensities grow with protein concentration, this does not make these readouts relevant to the in vivo setting. In cells, protein concentrations are tightly regulated and are likely to be orders of magnitude lower than what we are accustomed to using within in vitro experimental setups. Protein folding in vivo is a complex

  20. The ASTRODEEP Frontier Fields catalogues. II. Photometric redshifts and rest frame properties in Abell-2744 and MACS-J0416

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, M.; Amorín, R.; Merlin, E.; Fontana, A.; McLure, R. J.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Mortlock, A.; Parsa, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Balestra, I.; Boucaud, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Brammer, G.; Bruce, V. A.; Buitrago, F.; Capak, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Ciesla, L.; Comastri, A.; Cullen, F.; Derriere, S.; Faber, S. M.; Giallongo, E.; Grazian, A.; Grillo, C.; Mercurio, A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Nonino, M.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Pilo, S.; Rosati, P.; Santini, P.; Schreiber, C.; Shu, X.; Wang, T.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present the first public release of photometric redshifts, galaxy rest frame properties and associated magnification values in the cluster and parallel pointings of the first two Frontier Fields, Abell-2744 and MACS-J0416. The released catalogues aim to provide a reference for future investigations of extragalactic populations in these legacy fields: from lensed high-redshift galaxies to cluster members themselves. Methods: We exploit a multiwavelength catalogue, ranging from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to ground-based K and Spitzer IRAC, which is specifically designed to enable detection and measurement of accurate fluxes in crowded cluster regions. The multiband information is used to derive photometric redshifts and physical properties of sources detected either in the H-band image alone, or from a stack of four WFC3 bands. To minimize systematics, median photometric redshifts are assembled from six different approaches to photo-z estimates. Their reliability is assessed through a comparison with available spectroscopic samples. State-of-the-art lensing models are used to derive magnification values on an object-by-object basis by taking into account sources positions and redshifts. Results: We show that photometric redshifts reach a remarkable ~3-5% accuracy. After accounting for magnification, the H-band number counts are found to be in agreement at bright magnitudes with number counts from the CANDELS fields, while extending the presently available samples to galaxies that, intrinsically, are as faint as H ~ 32-33, thanks to strong gravitational lensing. The Frontier Fields allow the galaxy stellar mass distribution to be probed, depending on magnification, at 0.5-1.5 dex lower masses with respect to extragalactic wide fields, including sources at Mstar ~ 107-108 M⊙ at z > 5. Similarly, they allow the detection of objects with intrinsic star formation rates (SFRs) >1 dex lower than in the CANDELS fields reaching 0.1-1 M⊙/yr at z ~ 6-10. The

  1. Discovering geothermal supercritical fluids: a new frontier for seismic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Licciardi, Andrea; Piccinini, Davide; Mazzarini, Francesco; Musumeci, Giovanni; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Chiarabba, Claudio

    2017-11-06

    Exploiting supercritical geothermal resources represents a frontier for the next generation of geothermal electrical power plant, as the heat capacity of supercritical fluids (SCF),which directly impacts on energy production, is much higher than that of fluids at subcritical conditions. Reconnaissance and location of intensively permeable and productive horizons at depth is the present limit for the development of SCF geothermal plants. We use, for the first time, teleseismic converted waves (i.e. receiver function) for discovering those horizons in the crust. Thanks to the capability of receiver function to map buried anisotropic materials, the SCF-bearing horizon is seen as the 4km-depth abrupt termination of a shallow, thick, ultra-high (>30%) anisotropic rock volume, in the center of the Larderello geothermal field. The SCF-bearing horizon develops within the granites of the geothermal field, bounding at depth the vapor-filled heavily-fractured rock matrix that hosts the shallow steam-dominated geothermal reservoirs. The sharp termination at depth of the anisotropic behavior of granites, coinciding with a 2 km-thick stripe of seismicity and diffuse fracturing, points out the sudden change in compressibility of the fluid filling the fractures and is a key-evidence of deep fluids that locally traversed the supercritical conditions. The presence of SCF and fracture permeability in nominally ductile granitic rocks open new scenarios for the understanding of magmatic systems and for geothermal exploitation.

  2. Technical Efficiency of Thai Manufacturing SMEs: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Charoenrat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA major motivation of this study is to examine the factors that are the most important in contributing to the relatively poor efficiency performance of Thai manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. The results obtained will be significant in devising effective policies aimed at tackling this poor performance.This paper uses data on manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region of Thailand in 2007 as a case study, by applying a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA and a technical inefficiency effects model. The empirical results obtained indicate that the mean technical efficiency of all categories of manufacturing SMEs in theNorth-eastern region is 43%, implying that manufacturing SMEs have high levels of technical inefficiency in their production processes.Manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region are particularly labour-intensive. The empirical results of the technical inefficiency effects model suggest that skilled labour, the municipal area and ownership characteristics are important firm-specific factors affecting technical efficiency. The paper argues that the government should play a more substantial role in developing manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern provinces through: providing training programs for employees and employers; encouraging a greater usage of capital and technology in the production process of SMEs; enhancing the efficiency of state-ownedenterprises; encouraging a wide range of ownership forms; and improving information and communications infrastructure.

  3. Semiconductors: Still a Wide Open Frontier for Scientists/Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, David G.

    1997-10-01

    A 1995 Business Week article described several features of the explosive use of semiconductor chips today: ``Booming'' personal computer markets are driving high demand for microprocessors and memory chips; (2) New information superhighway markets will `ignite' sales of multimedia and communication chips; and (3) Demand for digital-signal-processing and data-compression chips, which speed up video and graphics, is `red hot.' A Washington Post article by Stan Hinden said that technology is creating an unstoppable demand for electronic elements. This ``digital pervasiveness'' means that a semiconductor chip is going into almost every high-tech product that people buy - cars, televisions, video recorders, telephones, radios, alarm clocks, coffee pots, etc. ``Semiconductors are everywhere.'' Silicon and compound semiconductors are absolutely essential and are pervasive enablers for DoD operations and systems. DoD's Critical Technologies Plan of 1991 says that ``Semiconductor materials and microelectronics are critically important and appropriately lead the list of critical defense technologies.'' These trends continue unabated. This talk describes some of the frontiers of semiconductors today and shows how scientists and engineers can effectively contribute to its advancement. Cooperative, multidisciplinary efforts are increasing. Specific examples will be given for scanning capacitance microscopy and thin-film metrology.

  4. THE ROAD OF ROMANIA FROM FRONTIER TOWARDS EMERGING CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELCIC-ŞTEFAN IULIA-OANA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study I first present the classification system of states by international financial institutions on economic and financial criteria, then focusing on the classification made by Morgan Stanley Capital International. According to it the capital market in Romania is currently a frontier one, the Financial Surveillance Authority pursuing the reclassification as an emerging capital market by August 2016. The findings of the study indicate this term as unrealistic, for several reasons. Thus, curently on the Romanian stock market there are only two entities out of 3 minimum required, respectively S.N.G.N Romgaz and Fondul Proprietatea, which fully meet the size and liquidity requirements imposed by MSCI in order to be reclassified as an emerging capital market. Also it is mandatory making significant progress regarding the effectiveness of the operational framework, progress made to some extent through Project S.T.E.A.M. (Set of actions Towards Establishing and Acknowledgment of the emerging Market status. On this project, after analyzing the degree of completion of the proposed measures in order to reach the primary and secondary objectives, whose deadlines have expired, according to the schedule provided, we found that only 69% of them were fulfilled. Given these considerations I can state that Romania could be reclassified as an emerging capital market at the earliest starting with 2017.

  5. Dragonfly: Exploring Titan's Surface with a New Frontiers Relocatable Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Lorenz, Ralph

    2017-10-01

    We proposed to the NASA New Frontiers 4 mission call a lander to assess Titan's prebiotic chemistry, evaluate its habitability, and search for biosignatures on its surface. Titan as an Ocean World is ideal for the study of prebiotic chemical processes and the habitability of an extraterrestrial environment due to its abundant complex carbon-rich chemistry and because both liquid water and liquid hydrocarbons can occur on its surface. Transient liquid water surface environments can be created by both impacts and cryovolcanic processes. In both cases, the water could mix with surface organics to form a primordial soup. The mission would sample both organic sediments and water ice to measure surface composition, achieving surface mobility by using rotors to take off, fly, and land at new sites. The Dragonfly rotorcraft lander can thus convey a single capable instrument suite to multiple locations providing the capability to explore diverse locations 10s to 100s of kilometers apart to characterize the habitability of Titan's environment, investigate how far prebiotic chemistry has progressed, and search for chemical signatures indicative of water- and/or hydrocarbon-based life.

  6. Frontiers in Cancer Nanomedicine: Directing Mass Transport through Biological Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The physics of mass transport within body compartments and across biological barriers differentiates cancers from healthy tissues. Variants of nanoparticles can be manufactured in combinatorially large sets, varying only one transport-affecting design parameter at a time. Nanoparticles can also be used as building blocks for systems that perform sequences of coordinated actions, in accordance to a prescribed logic. These are referred to as Logic-Embedded Vectors “(LEV)” in the following. Nanoparticles and LEVs are ideal probes for the determination of mass transport laws in tumors, acting as imaging contrast enhancers, and can be employed for the lesion-selective delivery of therapy. Their size, shape, density and surface chemistry dominate convective transport in the blood stream, margination, cell adhesion, selective cellular uptake, as well as sub-cellular trafficking and localization. As argued here, the understanding of transport differentials in cancer, termed ‘transport oncophysics’ unveils a new promising frontier in oncology: the development of lesion-specific delivery particulates that exploit mass transport differentials to deploy treatment of greater efficacy and reduced side effects. PMID:20079548

  7. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance frontiers: Tissue characterisation with mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Schofield

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR imaging has expanded rapidly over the last decade. Its role in cardiac morphological and functional assessment is established, with perfusion and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE imaging for scar increasingly used in day-to-day clinical decision making. LGE allows a virtual histological assessment of the myocardium, with the pattern of scar suggesting disease aetiology, and the extent of predicting risk. However, even combined, the full range of pathological processes occurring in the myocardium are not interrogated. Mapping is a new frontier where the intrinsic magnetic properties of heart muscle are measured to probe further. T1, T2 and T2* mapping measures the three fundamental tissue relaxation rate constants before contrast, and the extracellular volume (ECV after contrast. These are displayed in colour, often providing an immediate appreciation of pathology. These parameters are differently sensitive to pathologies. Iron (cardiac siderosis, intramyocardial haemorrhage makes T1, T2 and T2* fall. T2 also falls with fat infiltration (Fabry disease. T2 increases with oedema (acute infarction, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, rheumatological disease. Native T1 increases with fibrosis, oedema and amyloid. Some of these changes are large (e.g. iron, oedema, amyloid, others more modest (diffuse fibrosis. They can be used to detect early disease, distinguish aetiology and, in some circumstances, guide therapy. In this review, we discuss these processes, illustrating clinical application and future advances.

  8. Frontier nurse-midwives and antepartum emergencies, 1925 to 1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schminkey, Donna L; Keeling, Arlene W

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Frontier Nursing Service (FNS) utilized nurse-midwives to respond to antepartum emergencies such as preterm birth, eclampsia, malpresentation, and hemorrhage in the women of Appalachia in the years 1925 to 1939. Particular attention is given to the preparation that nurse-midwives received during their midwifery education to prevent and respond to emergencies. Using traditional historical research methods and primary source material from the FNS papers in the Special Collections, University of Kentucky Libraries, Lexington, Kentucky, this article describes the nurse-midwives' experiences and how they implemented skills they had learned during their training in Great Britain. Working in the isolated mountainous area of Leslie County, Kentucky-for the most part without direct assistance from physicians-FNS nurse-midwives decreased maternal and neonatal mortality rates. During their first 2000 births, they had only 2 maternal deaths, whereas the national average maternal mortality rate was approximately 7 deaths per 1000 births. The nurse-midwives performed external cephalic versions on a routine basis. For pregnancy and birth emergencies, they administered sedation, gave general anesthesia, and performed invasive lifesaving techniques in order to protect the lives of the women in their care. During these 14 years, their cross-cultural engagement, assessment skills, clinical judgment, and timely interventions improved maternal and child health throughout the region. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. Current frontiers and future directions of telecoupling research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    The world has been increasingly interconnected over long distances though processes such as international trade, migration, telecommunication, and disease spread. However, previous studies often focused on socioeconomic or environmental issues of distant processes. While these studies have generated useful information for individual disciplines, integrating socioeconomic and environmental information is essential for holistic understanding of complex global challenges and unbiased decision making to address the challenges. To advance integrated research, the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) has been developed to explicitly address both socioeconomic and environmental issues simultaneously. Although the framework is relatively new, it has already been applied to tackle a variety of globally important issues, such as food security, water resources, energy sustainability, land use, international trade (e.g., food, forest products, energy, wildlife, industrial products), species invasion, investment, ecosystem services, conservation, information dissemination, and tourism. These applications have identified many important research gaps (e.g. spillover systems) and hidden linkages (e.g. feedbacks) among distant areas of the world with profound implications for sustainable development, ecosystem health, and human well-being. While working with telecoupling presents more challenges than focusing only on disciplinary issues, support from funding agencies has helped accelerate research on telecoupling and more efforts are being aimed at framework quantification and operationalization. The presenter will provide an overview of the current frontiers, discuss future research directions, and highlight emerging opportunities and challenges in telecoupling research and governance.

  10. The low-energy frontier of particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Most embeddings of the Standard Model into a more unified theory, in particular the ones based on supergravity or superstrings, predict the existence of a hidden sector of particles which have only very weak interactions with the visible sector Standard Model particles. Some of these exotic particle candidates (such as e.g. ''axions'', ''axion-like particles'' and ''hidden U(1) gauge bosons'') may be very light, with masses in the sub-eV range, and have very weak interactions with photons. Correspondingly, these very weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) may lead to observable effects in experiments (as well as in astrophysical and cosmological observations) searching for light shining through a wall, for changes in laser polarisation, for non-linear processes in large electromagnetic fields and for deviations from Coulomb's law. We present the physics case and a status report of this emerging low-energy frontier of fundamental physics. (orig.)

  11. Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR): An Assessment of Success1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Mario; Mebane, Dorianne; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.

    2016-01-01

    The Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR) course has been held annually since 1998 at the Marine Biological Laboratories in Woods Hole, MA. The primary purpose of the course is to train young reproductive biologists in cutting-edge techniques that would strengthen their career opportunities. An initial evaluation of the FIR course was conducted by surveying the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2002. The findings of this survey were published in Biology of Reproduction in 2006, which highlighted the overall positive impact the course had on the training and upward career trajectory of the participants during the first 5 yr. The current study was designed to access the continued impact of FIR at the 10-yr mark by evaluating the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2008 using two different survey mechanisms. Based on these evaluations and feedback from the participants, it was evident that 1) FIR continues to have a significant positive impact on the careers of the participants, 2) the majority of the participants continue to be involved in research or administration related to the reproductive sciences, 3) nearly 90% of the attendees have been successful in obtaining funding for their research, and 4) most alumni have published at least five manuscripts in higher impact journals since they took the course. Therefore, it is evident that FIR participants are highly successful and continue to significantly impact the advances in the reproductive sciences worldwide. PMID:27335071

  12. ACS/WFC Sky Flats from Frontier Fields Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J.; Lucas, R. A.; Grogin, N. A.; Bohlin, R. C.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Parallel imaging data from the HST Frontier Fields campaign (Lotz et al. 2017) have been used to compute sky flats for the ACS/WFC detector in order to verify the accuracy of the current set of flat field reference files. By masking sources and then co-adding many deep frames, the F606W and F814W filters have enough combined background signal that from Poisson statistics are efficiency tracks the thickness of the two WFC chips. Observations of blue and red calibration standards measured at various positions on the detector (Bohlin et al. 2017) confirm the fidelity of the F814W flat, with aperture photometry consistent to 1% across the FOV, regardless of spectral type. At bluer wavelengths, the total sky background is substantially lower, and the F435W sky flat shows a combination of both flat errors and detector artifacts. Aperture photometry of the red standard star shows a maximum deviation of 1.4% across the array in this filter. Larger residuals up to 2.5% are found for the blue standard, suggesting that the spatial sensitivity in F435W depends on spectral type.

  13. Photon-photon scattering at the high-intensity frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix; Kohlfürst, Christian; Seegert, Nico

    2018-04-01

    The tremendous progress in high-intensity laser technology and the establishment of dedicated high-field laboratories in recent years have paved the way towards a first observation of quantum vacuum nonlinearities at the high-intensity frontier. We advocate a particularly prospective scenario, where three synchronized high-intensity laser pulses are brought into collision, giving rise to signal photons, whose frequency and propagation direction differ from the driving laser pulses, thus providing various means to achieve an excellent signal to background separation. Based on the theoretical concept of vacuum emission, we employ an efficient numerical algorithm which allows us to model the collision of focused high-intensity laser pulses in unprecedented detail. We provide accurate predictions for the numbers of signal photons accessible in experiment. Our study is the first to predict the precise angular spread of the signal photons, and paves the way for a first verification of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in a well-controlled laboratory experiment at one of the many high-intensity laser facilities currently coming online.

  14. The fabric for frontier experiments project at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The FabrIc for Frontier Experiments (FIFE) project is a new, far-reaching initiative within the Fermilab Scientific Computing Division to drive the future of computing services for experiments at FNAL and elsewhere. It is a collaborative effort between computing professionals and experiment scientists to produce an end-to-end, fully integrated set of services for computing on the grid and clouds, managing data, accessing databases, and collaborating within experiments. FIFE includes 1) easy to use job submission services for processing physics tasks on the Open Science Grid and elsewhere; 2) an extensive data management system for managing local and remote caches, cataloging, querying, moving, and tracking the use of data; 3) custom and generic database applications for calibrations, beam information, and other purposes; 4) collaboration tools including an electronic log book, speakers bureau database, and experiment membership database. All of these aspects will be discussed in detail. FIFE sets the direction of computing at Fermilab experiments now and in the future, and therefore is a major driver in the design of computing services worldwide.

  15. Electron accelerators for research at the frontiers of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.; Corneliussen, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    Electron accelerators for the frontiers of nuclear physics must provide high duty factor (>80%) for coincidence measurements; few-hundred-MeV through few-GeV energy for work in the nucleonic, hadronic, and confinement regimes; energy resolution of ∼10 -4 ; and high current (≥ 100 μA). To fulfill these requirements new machines and upgrades of existing ones are being planned or constructed. Representative microtron-based facilities are the upgrade of MAMI at the University of Mainz (West Germany), the proposed two-stage cascaded microtron at the University of Illinois (USA), and the three-stage Troitsk ''polytron'' (USSR). Representative projects to add pulse stretcher rings to existing linacs are the upgrades at MIT-Bates (USA) and at NIKHEF-K (Netherlands). Recent advances in superconducting rf technology, especially in cavity design and fabrication, have made large superconducting cw linacs become feasible. Recirculating superconducting cw linacs are under construction at the University of Darmstadt (West Germany) and at CEBAF (USA), and a proposal is being developed at Saclay (France). 31 refs

  16. Urban water - a new frontier in isotope hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehleringer, James R; Barnette, Janet E; Jameel, Yusuf; Tipple, Brett J; Bowen, Gabriel J

    2016-01-01

    Isotope hydrology has focused largely on landscapes away from densely inhabited regions. In coming decades, it will become increasingly more important to focus on water supplies and dynamics within urban systems. Stable isotope analyses provide important information to water managers within large cities, particularly in arid regions where evaporative histories of water sources, vulnerabilities, and reliabilities of the water supplies can be major issues. Here the spatial and vertical understanding of water supporting urban systems that comes from stable isotope analyses can serve as a useful management tool. We explore this research frontier using the coupled natural-human landscape of the Salt Lake Valley, USA, with its greater than one million inhabitants. We first provide data on the stable isotope ratios of the hydrologic system's primary components: precipitation, incoming surface waters, and terminus waters in this closed basin. We then explore the spatial and temporal patterns of drinking waters within the urban landscape and the new opportunities to better link isotope ratio data with short- and long-term management interests of water managers.

  17. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Impact Report, January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-31

    Since its inception in 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy’s Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) program has become an important research modality in the Department’s portfolio, enabling high impact research that addresses key scientific challenges for energy technologies. Funded by the Office of Science’s Basic Energy Sciences program, the EFRCs are located across the United States and are led by universities, national laboratories, and private research institutions. These multi-investigator, multidisciplinary centers bring together world-class teams of researchers, often from multiple institutions, to tackle the toughest scientific challenges preventing advances in energy technologies. The EFRCs’ fundamental scientific advances are having a significant impact that is being translated to industry. In 2009 five-year awards were made to 46 EFRCs, including 16 that were fully funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). An open recompetition of the program in 2014 resulted in fouryear awards to 32 centers, 22 of which are renewals of existing EFRCs and 10 of which are new EFRCs. In 2016, DOE added four new centers to accelerate the scientific breakthroughs needed to support the Department’s environmental management and nuclear cleanup mission, bringing the total number of active EFRCs to 36. The impact reports in this document describe some of the many scientific accomplishments and greater impacts of the class of 2009 – 2018 EFRCs and early outcomes from a few of the class of 2014 – 2018 EFRCs.

  18. Fermilab in 2012: Upgrades shift focus to the intensity frontier

    CERN Multimedia

    Kurt Riesselmann and Amy Dusto, Fermilab Office of Communication

    2012-01-01

    The upcoming year will be busy at Fermilab, and the largest projects are already beginning. Friday 16 December marks the ground-breaking for the Illinois Accelerator Research Center, a 3,900-square-metre building for accelerator research and development, industrialisation and training of the future generation of accelerator scientists. The centre is expected to open in about two years.   The NOvA project will generate and send a beam of neutrinos to a 15,000-ton detector in Ash River, Minnesota. The neutrinos will complete the 800-kilometre trip in less than three milliseconds. Image source: NoVA Experiment. At the high-energy frontier of particle physics, Fermilab scientists will continue analysing the dataset from the recently retired Tevatron particle accelerator’s two experiments, CDF and DZero, and will continue their strong participation in the CMS experiment at the LHC. Neutrino physics at Fermilab will take a big step forward. In February, crews will begin assembling the ...

  19. Fermilab in 2012: Upgrades shift focus to the intensity frontier

    CERN Multimedia

    Kurt Riesselmann and Amy Dusto, Fermilab Office of Communication

    2011-01-01

    The upcoming year will be busy at Fermilab, and the largest projects are already beginning. Friday 16 December marks the ground-breaking for the Illinois Accelerator Research Center, a 3,900-square-metre building for accelerator research and development, industrialisation and training of the future generation of accelerator scientists. The centre is expected to open in about two years.   The NOvA project will generate and send a beam of neutrinos to a 15,000-ton detector in Ash River, Minnesota. The neutrinos will complete the 800-kilometre trip in less than three milliseconds. Image source: NoVA Experiment. At the high-energy frontier of particle physics, Fermilab scientists will continue analysing the dataset from the recently retired Tevatron particle accelerator’s two experiments, CDF and DZero, and will continue their strong participation in the CMS experiment at the LHC. Neutrino physics at Fermilab will take a big step forward. In February, crews will begin assembling the ...

  20. Frontier Government: The Folding of the Canada-US Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O'Connor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the border is evaluated as a fold of power relations in which sovereign capacity and competence is marshalled alongside strategies of control, surveillance, and risk management to constitute, what we call, a zone of frontier government. We advance the argument that the border is a site for both negative and positive power, for insertion and subtraction, and that the assemblage of surveillance and compliance regimes are "run" not so much in the furtherance of a precautionary or pre-emptive end-state, but as intermediate values that are sufficiently malleable by an invigorated sovereign, expressed in the residue of discretion in and between the many border agencies.  Our analysis is based on extensive policy and program documents, as well as twenty-five interviews with officials in various agencies engaged in the US-Canada and, particularly, the Windsor-Detroit corridor. Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE

  1. The Frontiers of Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    In a letter dated July 17, 2006, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science for Nuclear Physics and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate charged the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) to “conduct a study of the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research and recommend a long range plan that will provide a framework for coordinated advancement of the nation’s nuclear science research programs over the next decade.” This request set in motion a bottom-up review and forward look by the nuclear science community. With input from this community-wide process, a 59 member working group, which included the present NSAC members, gathered at the beginning of May, 2007, to develop guidance on how to optimize the future research directions for the field based on the projected resources outlined in the charge letter from DOE and NSF. A new long range plan—The Frontiers of Nuclear Science—grew out of this meeting. For the last decade, the top priority for nuclear science has been to utilize the flagship facilities that were built with investments by the nation in the 1980s and 1990s. Research with these facilities has led to many significant new discoveries that have changed our understanding of the world in which we live. But new discoveries demand new facilities, and the successes cannot continue indefinitely without new investment.

  2. Leadership in Space: Selected Speeches of NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, May 2005 - October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speech topics include: Leadership in Space; Space Exploration: Real and Acceptable Reasons; Why Explore Space?; Space Exploration: Filling up the Canvas; Continuing the Voyage: The Spirit of Endeavour; Incorporating Space into Our Economic Sphere of Influence; The Role of Space Exploration in the Global Economy; Partnership in Space Activities; International Space Cooperation; National Strategy and the Civil Space Program; What the Hubble Space Telescope Teaches Us about Ourselves; The Rocket Team; NASA's Direction; Science and NASA; Science Priorities and Program Management; NASA and the Commercial Space Industry; NASA and the Business of Space; American Competitiveness: NASA's Role & Everyone's Responsibility; Space Exploration: A Frontier for American Collaboration; The Next Generation of Engineers; System Engineering and the "Two Cultures" of Engineering; Generalship of Engineering; NASA and Engineering Integrity; The Constellation Architecture; Then and Now: Fifty Years in Space; The Reality of Tomorrow; and Human Space Exploration: The Next 50 Years.

  3. Probing the z > 6 universe with the first Hubble frontier fields cluster A2744

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan; Clement, Benjamin; Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald; Jauzac, Mathilde; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Laporte, Nicolas; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-01-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields program combines the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with the gravitational lensing of massive galaxy clusters to probe the distant universe to an unprecedented depth. Here, we present the results of the first combined HST and Spitzer observations of the cluster A-2744. We combine the full near-infrared data with ancillary optical images to search for gravitationally lensed high-redshift (z ≳ 6) galaxies. We report the detection of 15 I 814 dropout candidates at z ∼ 6-7 and one Y 105 dropout at z ∼ 8 in a total survey area of 1.43 arcmin 2 in the source plane. The predictions of our lens model also allow us to identify five multiply imaged systems lying at redshifts between z ∼ 6 and z ∼ 8. Thanks to constraints from the mass distribution in the cluster, we were able to estimate the effective survey volume corrected for completeness and magnification effects. This was in turn used to estimate the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function (LF) at z ∼ 6-8. Our LF results are generally in agreement with the most recent blank field estimates, confirming the feasibility of surveys through lensing clusters. Although based on a shallower observations than what will be achieved in the final data set including the full Advanced Camera for Survey observations, the LF presented here goes down to M UV ∼–18.5, corresponding to 0.2L * at z ∼ 7 with one identified object at M UV ∼–15 thanks to the highly magnified survey areas. This early study forecasts the power of using massive galaxy clusters as cosmic telescopes and its complementarity to blank fields.

  4. Probing the z > 6 universe with the first Hubble frontier fields cluster A2744

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Richard, Johan [CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Ch. André, 69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Clement, Benjamin; Egami, Eiichi [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85721 (United States); Ebeling, Harald [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Jauzac, Mathilde [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 South Africa (South Africa); Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille (France); Laporte, Nicolas [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Natarajan, Priyamvada [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields program combines the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with the gravitational lensing of massive galaxy clusters to probe the distant universe to an unprecedented depth. Here, we present the results of the first combined HST and Spitzer observations of the cluster A-2744. We combine the full near-infrared data with ancillary optical images to search for gravitationally lensed high-redshift (z ≳ 6) galaxies. We report the detection of 15 I {sub 814} dropout candidates at z ∼ 6-7 and one Y {sub 105} dropout at z ∼ 8 in a total survey area of 1.43 arcmin{sup 2} in the source plane. The predictions of our lens model also allow us to identify five multiply imaged systems lying at redshifts between z ∼ 6 and z ∼ 8. Thanks to constraints from the mass distribution in the cluster, we were able to estimate the effective survey volume corrected for completeness and magnification effects. This was in turn used to estimate the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function (LF) at z ∼ 6-8. Our LF results are generally in agreement with the most recent blank field estimates, confirming the feasibility of surveys through lensing clusters. Although based on a shallower observations than what will be achieved in the final data set including the full Advanced Camera for Survey observations, the LF presented here goes down to M {sub UV} ∼–18.5, corresponding to 0.2L {sup *} at z ∼ 7 with one identified object at M {sub UV} ∼–15 thanks to the highly magnified survey areas. This early study forecasts the power of using massive galaxy clusters as cosmic telescopes and its complementarity to blank fields.

  5. Frontiers of Life Sciences: The Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Regina M.; Pellis, Neal R.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid development of the productive processes after World War II extended human settlements into new ecological niches. Advances in Life Sciences played a decisive role supporting the establishment of human presence in areas of the planet where human life could have not existed otherwise. The evolution of life support systems, and the fabrication of new materials and technologies has enabled humans to inhabit Polar Regions, ocean surfaces and depths; and to leave Earth and occupy Low Earth Orbit. By the end of the 20 th Century, stations in the Antarctic and Arctic, off shore oil platforms, submarines, and space stations had become the ultimate demonstration of human ability to engineer habitats at Earth extreme environments and outer space. As we enter the 21st Century, the next development of human settlements will occur through the exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The major risks of space exploration derive from long exposure of humans and other life systems to radiation, microgravity, isolation and confinement, dependence on artificial life support systems, and unknown effects (e.g., altered magnetic fields, ultrahigh vacuum on bacteria, fungi, etc.). Countermeasures will require a complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes. To sustain life in transit and on the surface of the Moon and Mars will require a balance of spacecraft, cargo, astronaut crews, and the use of in situ resources. Limitations on the number of crewmembers, payloads, and the barrenness of the terrain require a novel design for the capabilities needed in transit and at exploration outpost sites. The planned destinations have resources that may be accessed to produce materials, food, shelter, power, and to provide an environment compatible with successful occupation of longterm exploration sites. Once more, the advancements of Life Sciences will be essential for the design of interplanetary voyages and planetary surface operations. This

  6. Efficiently approximating the Pareto frontier: Hydropower dam placement in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojian; Gomes-Selman, Jonathan; Shi, Qinru; Xue, Yexiang; Garcia-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Anderson, Elizabeth; Sethi, Suresh; Steinschneider, Scott; Flecker, Alexander; Gomes, Carla P.

    2018-01-01

    Real–world problems are often not fully characterized by a single optimal solution, as they frequently involve multiple competing objectives; it is therefore important to identify the so-called Pareto frontier, which captures solution trade-offs. We propose a fully polynomial-time approximation scheme based on Dynamic Programming (DP) for computing a polynomially succinct curve that approximates the Pareto frontier to within an arbitrarily small > 0 on treestructured networks. Given a set of objectives, our approximation scheme runs in time polynomial in the size of the instance and 1/. We also propose a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) scheme to approximate the Pareto frontier. The DP and MIP Pareto frontier approaches have complementary strengths and are surprisingly effective. We provide empirical results showing that our methods outperform other approaches in efficiency and accuracy. Our work is motivated by a problem in computational sustainability concerning the proliferation of hydropower dams throughout the Amazon basin. Our goal is to support decision-makers in evaluating impacted ecosystem services on the full scale of the Amazon basin. Our work is general and can be applied to approximate the Pareto frontier of a variety of multiobjective problems on tree-structured networks.

  7. Compendium of Instrumentation Whitepapers on Frontier Physics Needs for Snowmass 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Contents of collection of whitepapers include: Operation of Collider Experiments at High Luminosity; Level 1 Track Triggers at HL-LHC; Tracking and Vertex Detectors for a Muon Collider; Triggers for hadron colliders at the energy frontier; ATLAS Upgrade Instrumentation; Instrumentation for the Energy Frontier; Particle Flow Calorimetry for CMS; Noble Liquid Calorimeters; Hadronic dual-readout calorimetry for high energy colliders; Another Detector for the International Linear Collider; e+e- Linear Colliders Detector Requirements and Limitations; Electromagnetic Calorimetry in Project X Experiments The Project X Physics Study; Intensity Frontier Instrumentation; Project X Physics Study Calorimetry Report; Project X Physics Study Tracking Report; The LHCb Upgrade; Neutrino Detectors Working Group Summary; Advanced Water Cherenkov R&D for WATCHMAN; Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC); Liquid Scintillator Instrumentation for Physics Frontiers; A readout architecture for 100,000 pixel Microwave Kinetic In- ductance Detector array; Instrumentation for New Measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background polarization; Future Atmospheric and Water Cherenkov ?-ray Detectors; Dark Energy; Can Columnar Recombination Provide Directional Sensitivity in WIMP Search?; Instrumentation Needs for Detection of Ultra-high Energy Neu- trinos; Low Background Materials for Direct Detection of Dark Matter; Physics Motivation for WIMP Dark Matter Directional Detection; Solid Xenon R&D at Fermilab; Ultra High Energy Neutrinos; Instrumentation Frontier: Direct Detection of WIMPs; nEXO detector R&D; Large Arrays of Air Cherenkov Detectors; and Applications of Laser Interferometry in Fundamental Physics Experiments.

  8. Deep-water fisheries at the Atlantic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J. D. M.

    2001-05-01

    The deep sea is often thought of as a cold, dark and uniform environment with a low-fish biomass, much of which is highly adapted for life in a food-poor environment. While this might be true of the pelagic fish living in the water column, it is certainly not true of the demersal fish which live on or close to the bottom on the continental slopes around the British Isles (the Atlantic Frontier). These fish are currently being commercially exploited. There is growing evidence to support the view that success of the demersal fish assemblages depends on the pelagic or benthopelagic food sources that impinge both vertically and horizontally onto the slope. There are several quite separate and distinct deep-water fisheries on the Atlantic Frontier. It is a physical barrier, the Wyville-Thomson Ridge, which results in the most significant division of the fisheries. The Ridge, which has a minimum depth of about 500 m, separates the warmer deep Atlantic waters from the much colder Norwegian Sea water and as a result, the deep-water fisheries to the west of the Hebrides and around the offshore banks are quite different from those of the Faroe-Shetland Channel (West of Shetland). The fisheries to the West of the Hebrides can be further divided by the fishing method used into bottom trawl, semipelagic trawl and longline. The bottom-trawl fisheries extend from the shelf-slope break down to about 1700 m and the target species varies with depth. The smallest vessels in the fleet fish on the upper slope, where an important target species is the anglerfish or monkfish ( Lophius spp.). On the mid-slope the main target species are blue ling ( Molva dypterygia) and roundnose grenadier ( Coryphaenoides rupestris), with bycatches of black scabbardfish ( Aphanopus carbo) and deep-water sharks. On the lower slope orange roughy ( Hoplostethus atlanticus) is an important target species. The major semipelagic trawl fishery is a seasonal fishery on spawning aggregations of blue whiting

  9. New frontiers and conceptual frameworks for energy justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Burke, Matthew; Baker, Lucy; Kotikalapudi, Chaitanya Kumar; Wlokas, Holle

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how concepts from justice and ethics can inform energy decision-making and highlight the moral and equity dimensions of energy production and use. It defines “energy justice” as a global energy system that fairly distributes both the benefits and burdens of energy services, and one that contributes to more representative and inclusive energy decision-making. The primary contribution of the article is its focus on six new frontiers of future energy justice research. First is making the case for the involvement of non-Western justice theorists. Second is expanding beyond humans to look at the Rights of Nature or non-anthropocentric notions of justice. Third is focusing on cross-scalar issues of justice such as embodied emissions. Fourth is identifying business models and the co-benefits of justice. Fifth is better understanding the tradeoffs within energy justice principles. Sixth is exposing unjust discourses. In doing so, the article presents an agenda constituted by 30 research questions as well as an amended conceptual framework consisting of ten principles. The article argues in favor of “justice-aware” energy planning and policymaking, and it hopes that its (reconsidered) energy justice conceptual framework offers a critical tool to inform decision-making. - Highlights: • We need “justice-aware” energy policy. • A revised energy justice conceptual framework offers a critical tool to inform decision making. • New fields of inquiry for energy justice research and practice exist. • Tradeoffs and weighing competing justice claims occur in practice.

  10. Tectonostratigraphic terranes of the frontier circum-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.G.; Jones, D.L.; Schermer, E.R.

    1983-03-01

    Many major exploration frontiers around the Pacific are in regions where complex geologic relations reflect plate-tectonic processes, crustal mobility, and accretion of exotic terranes. The destruction of the proto-Pacific ocean (Panthalassa) involved accretion of terranes to cratonal regions such as Gondwana and Laurasia. Terranes in southwestern New Zealand and eastern Antarctica were also probably accreted during the Paleozoic. The southern margin of Siberia, extending into China, underwent a protracted period of accretion from the late Precambrian through the early Mesozoic. Mid-Paleozoic accretion is reflected in the Innuitian foldbelt of the Arctic Ocean, the Black Clastic unit of the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Antler orogeny of the western US cordillera. The Mesozoic breakup of Pangaea and the acceleration of subduction aided in the rifting and dispersal of terranes from equatorial paleolatitudes. Fragments of these terranes now compose much of the continental margins of the Pacific basin, including New Zealand, Indochina, southern China, southeast Siberia, the North American cordillera, and South America. Some terranes are presently being further fragmented by post-accretionary dispersion processes such as strike-slip faulting in western North America and Japan. Although the character and distribution of terranes in the western US are fairly well documented, details are needed for other terranes around the Pacific basin. Interpretation of structure and stratigraphy at depth will be aided by more data on the timing of accretion and the nature of deformation associated with accretion and dispersion. Such data are needed for further define specific exploration targets in the circum-Pacific region.

  11. GABAergic neuroactive steroids: a new frontier in bipolar disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carta Mauro Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    open new frontiers in the investigation of the etiology and treatment of mood disorders, particularly bipolar disorders.

  12. Frontier between medium and large break loss of coolant accidents of pressurized water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewan

    2017-10-01

    In order to provide the probabilistic safety assessment with more realistic condition to calculate the frequency of the initiating event, a study on the frontier between medium-break and large-break loss-of-coolant-accidents has been performed by using best-estimate thermal hydraulic code, TRACE. A methodology based on the combination of the essential safety features and system parameter has been applied to the Zion nuclear power plant to evaluate the validity of the frontier utilized for the probabilistic safety assessment. The peak cladding temperature has been chosen as a relevant system parameter that represents the system behavior during the transient. The results showed that the frontier should be extended from 6 in. to 10 in. based on the required safety functions and system response.

  13. FIFE-Jobsub: a grid submission system for intensity frontier experiments at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    The Fermilab Intensity Frontier Experiments use an integrated submission system known as FIFE-jobsub, part of the FIFE (Fabric for Frontier Experiments) initiative, to submit batch jobs to the Open Science Grid. FIFE-jobsub eases the burden on experimenters by integrating data transfer and site selection details in an easy to use and well-documented format. FIFE-jobsub automates tedious details of maintaining grid proxies for the lifetime of the grid job. Data transfer is handled using the Intensity Frontier Data Handling Client (IFDHC) [1] tool suite, which facilitates selecting the appropriate data transfer method from many possibilities while protecting shared resources from overload. Chaining of job dependencies into Directed Acyclic Graphs (Condor DAGS) is well supported and made easier through the use of input flags and parameters.

  14. Mean-variance portfolio selection and efficient frontier for defined contribution pension schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Bjarne; Vigna, Elena

    We solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem in the accumulation phase of a defined contribution pension scheme. The efficient frontier, which is found for the 2 asset case as well as the n + 1 asset case, gives the member the possibility to decide his own risk/reward profile. The mean...... as a mean-variance optimization problem. It is shown that the corresponding mean and variance of the final fund belong to the efficient frontier and also the opposite, that each point on the efficient frontier corresponds to a target-based optimization problem. Furthermore, numerical results indicate...... that the largely adopted lifestyle strategy seems to be very far from being efficient in the mean-variance setting....

  15. An Efficient, Noniterative Method of Identifying the Cost-Effectiveness Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Sze-chuan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis aims to identify treatments and policies that maximize benefits subject to resource constraints. However, the conventional process of identifying the efficient frontier (i.e., the set of potentially cost-effective options) can be algorithmically inefficient, especially when considering a policy problem with many alternative options or when performing an extensive suite of sensitivity analyses for which the efficient frontier must be found for each. Here, we describe an alternative one-pass algorithm that is conceptually simple, easier to implement, and potentially faster for situations that challenge the conventional approach. Our algorithm accomplishes this by exploiting the relationship between the net monetary benefit and the cost-effectiveness plane. To facilitate further evaluation and use of this approach, we also provide scripts in R and Matlab that implement our method and can be used to identify efficient frontiers for any decision problem. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. An Efficient, Non-iterative Method of Identifying the Cost-Effectiveness Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Sze-chuan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis aims to identify treatments and policies that maximize benefits subject to resource constraints. However, the conventional process of identifying the efficient frontier (i.e., the set of potentially cost-effective options) can be algorithmically inefficient, especially when considering a policy problem with many alternative options or when performing an extensive suite of sensitivity analyses for which the efficient frontier must be found for each. Here, we describe an alternative one-pass algorithm that is conceptually simple, easier to implement, and potentially faster for situations that challenge the conventional approach. Our algorithm accomplishes this by exploiting the relationship between the net monetary benefit and the cost-effectiveness plane. To facilitate further evaluation and use of this approach, we additionally provide scripts in R and Matlab that implement our method and can be used to identify efficient frontiers for any decision problem. PMID:25926282

  17. Neoclassical versus Frontier Production Models ? Testing for the Skewness of Regression Residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuosmanen, T; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    The empirical literature on production and cost functions is divided into two strands. The neoclassical approach concentrates on model parameters, while the frontier approach decomposes the disturbance term to a symmetric noise term and a positively skewed inefficiency term. We propose a theoreti......The empirical literature on production and cost functions is divided into two strands. The neoclassical approach concentrates on model parameters, while the frontier approach decomposes the disturbance term to a symmetric noise term and a positively skewed inefficiency term. We propose...... a theoretical justification for the skewness of the inefficiency term, arguing that this skewness is the key testable hypothesis of the frontier approach. We propose to test the regression residuals for skewness in order to distinguish the two competing approaches. Our test builds directly upon the asymmetry...

  18. FIFE-Jobsub: a grid submission system for intensity frontier experiments at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    The Fermilab Intensity Frontier Experiments use an integrated submission system known as FIFE-jobsub, part of the FIFE (Fabric for Frontier Experiments) initiative, to submit batch jobs to the Open Science Grid. FIFE-jobsub eases the burden on experimenters by integrating data transfer and site selection details in an easy to use and well-documented format. FIFE-jobsub automates tedious details of maintaining grid proxies for the lifetime of the grid job. Data transfer is handled using the Intensity Frontier Data Handling Client (IFDHC) [1] tool suite, which facilitates selecting the appropriate data transfer method from many possibilities while protecting shared resources from overload. Chaining of job dependencies into Directed Acyclic Graphs (Condor DAGS) is well supported and made easier through the use of input flags and parameters.

  19. Long-Term Prospects for Developments in Space (A Scenario Approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-30

    existence of such a frontier, of such an area of activity, of such a locus of dynamism, initiative, and entrepreneurship should be very healthy for both...the estab- lishment of criteria for space traveler selection and preparation in private hands. Unfortunately, the franchised operating corporation in

  20. New Space Industries for the Next Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

  1. Challenges for future space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. The key to success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience was made. These needs fall into three broad categories-survival, self sufficiency and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from low earth orbit (LEO) to Mars was determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options were made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs

  2. Frontier in hair loss and trichoscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtisam Elghblawi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin surfaces have always been examined using dermoscopy, a familiar tool which is useful to magnify and examine skin especially in cases of pigmented skin lesions. However, to examine the hair and scalp, a practical tool called trichoscopy has surfaced recently and has proven to be handy and functional in diagnosing most hair-related diseases. It is also referred to as dermoscopy of the hair and the scalp. It can aid in assessing active diseases in the scalp and hair, such as yellow dots, dystrophic hairs, cadaverized black dots, white dots, and exclamation mark hairs – all of which denote specific criteria for hair diseases. Trichoscopy is a very newly developed non-invasive technique for hair image analysis. It permits non-invasive visualization of hair shafts at higher intensification (about ×70 and ×100 and enables measurement of hair shaft width without the need for removing hair for diagnostic reasons. Moreover, it helps in vivo visualization of the epidermal portion of hair follicles and perifollicular epidermis (orifices. Consequently, it is valuable as it permits the inspection of structures that are otherwise not seen by the naked eye. Trichoscopy is the new frontier for the diagnosis of hair and scalp disease. Nowadays, a trichoscope is considered a must for dermatologists and it is a hot topic in the treatment of hair diseases. There is pooled evidence that the utilization of trichoscopy in the clinical setting for evaluating hair disorders can improve its diagnostic capability beyond simple clinical scrutiny. Trichoscopy can identify both hair shaft and hair opening abnormalities without the need for hair sampling, as well as distinguish between different scalp and hair diseases. Furthermore, it can give easy and quick evaluation of the hair with a follow-up to determine progress and prognosis of the disease with photos. It can also aid in some genetic hair shaft dystrophies such as trichorrhexis nodosa, trichorrhexis

  3. New frontiers in automated assessment: using latent semantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    learning technique which has been developed for the computerised assessment of knowledge. LSA employs linear algebra techniques to induce and represent knowledge in high dimensional spaces, and can be used to compare documents in ...

  4. Designing Collaborative Learning Places: Psychological Foundations and New Frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Ken A.; Goliber, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Considering the modern context of collaborative learning and information technology, details implications for space design, primarily from the field of environmental psychology--the study of the relationship between people and their physical environment. (EV)

  5. Cosmic perspectives in space physics

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Sukumar

    2000-01-01

    In the early years of the twentieth century, Victor Hess of Germany flew instruments in balloons and so discovered in 1912 that an extra-~errestial radiation of unknown origin is incident on the earth with an almost constant intensity at all times. These penetrating non­ solar radiations which were called Cosmic Rays by Millikan, USA, opened the new frontier of space physics and many leading scientists were attracted to it. At the end of World War II a number of space vehicles, e.g. stratospheric balloons, rockets and satellites were developed. In 1950 and onwards, these vehicles enabled spectacular advances in space physics and space astrophysics. New horizons were opened in the explorations of cosmic rays, the earth's magnetosphere, the Sun and the heliosphere, the moon and the planets. Using space-borne instruments, exciting discoveries were made of stars, and galaxies in the infra-red, ultra violet, x-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. In this text book these fascinating new findings are presented in depth a...

  6. Colonel John Graham of Fintry and the Fourth Cape Eastern Frontier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In July 1795, commanding a company of this regiment, he served on the Isle .... Graham's grand strategy to clear the eastern frontier of Xhosa invaders was carefully ..... greatest ability and good management, and has expressed himself in the .... interests surpassed the 'luxury' of military and security needs, regulated from ...

  7. A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Output Level and Growth in Poland and Western Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osiewalski, J.; Koop, G.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper uses Bayesian stochastic frontier methods to measure the productivity gap between Poland and Western countries that existed before the beginning of the main Polish economic reform. Using data for 20 Western economies, Poland and Yugoslavia (1980-1990) we estimate a translog stochastic

  8. No Sign Until the Burst of Fire. Understanding the Pakistan-Afghanistan Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    unmanned crossings in the north and 229 such crossing areas in the south.6 Unaccounted for in this typology of bor- der crossings are hundreds of...Frontier Province, the Punjab, and the Sind. In the Swat District, once an international tourist haven known as the “Switzerland of Asia,” the

  9. Papers presented at the “National Conference on Frontiers in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The papers appearing in this issue of the Bulletin of Materials Science were presented at the “National Conference on Frontiers in Materials Science and. Technology (FMST 02)” organized by the Materials Science Centre, IIT. Kharagpur, during 22–23 February 2002, as part of the Golden Jubilee. Celebrations of IIT ...

  10. The frontiers of empirical science: A Thomist-inspired critique of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The frontiers of empirical science: A Thomist-inspired critique of scientism. Callum Scott. Abstract. Scientistic conceptualisations hold to the positivistic positions that science is limitless in its potential representations of material phenomena and that it is the only sure path to knowledge. In recent popular scientific literature, ...

  11. Illustrating Environmental Issues by Using the Production-Possibility Frontier: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Nancy; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    The authors develop a new classroom experimental game to illustrate environmental issues by using the production-possibility frontier in an introductory economics course. Waste evolves as a byproduct of the production of widgets. Environmental cleanup is produced by reallocating scarce resources away from the production of the dirty good. In…

  12. The Rhetoric of Rationalism versus the Rhetoric of Emotionalism on the American Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Carl Wayne

    As the United States entered the nineteenth century, it did so under the influence of the Second Great Awakening. This was the second wave of revivalism to sweep the nation, and it originated in the frontier as the Great Western Revival. One pertinent characteristic of the revival was its rhetoric, a rhetoric that was a prime expression of a…

  13. The impact of a sustainability constraint on the mean-tracking error efficient frontier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudt, K.M.R.; Cornelissen, J.; Croux, C.

    2013-01-01

    Most socially responsible investment funds combine a sustainability objective with a tracking error constraint. We characterize the impact of a sustainability constraint on the mean-tracking error efficient frontier and illustrate this on a universe of US stocks for the period 2003-2010. © 2013

  14. The potential for energy efficiency gains in the Canadian commercial building sector: A stochastic frontier study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.; Young, D.

    2007-01-01

    The achievement of energy efficiency in commercial buildings is a function of the activities undertaken, the technology in place, and the extent to which those technologies are used efficiently. We study the factors that affect efficient energy use in the Canadian commercial sector by applying a stochastic frontier approach to a cross-section of Canadian commercial buildings included in the Commercial and Institutional Building Energy Use Survey (CIBEUS). Structural and climate-control features of the buildings as well as climatic conditions are assumed to determine the location of the frontier, while management-related variables including such factors as ownership type and activities govern whether or not the maximally attainable efficiency along the frontier is achieved. Our results indicate that although, on average, buildings appear to be fairly efficient, certain types of operations are more likely than others to exhibit energy efficiencies that are significantly worse than average. These results, along with those related to the effects of physical characteristics on the stochastic efficiency frontier, suggest that there is scope for focused policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency in this sector

  15. Scientific American Frontiers Teaching Guides for Shows 901-905, October 1998-April 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Public Television, Hartford.

    These teaching guides are intended to supplement the shows of the ninth season (1998-99) of the PBS Television Series "Scientific American Frontiers." Episode 901 is entitled "Science in Paradise: Another Side of the Caribbean." The teaching guide contains information and activities on hawksbill turtles, volcanic eruptions,…

  16. Grappling with Emerging Adulthoods : Youth narratives of coming of age in a frontier town, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mate (Rekopantswe)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This study is about subjectivities of young people and about coming of age in a frontier town, Beitbridge, in southern Zimbabwe. The study is motivated by the growing attention to African youth as a social-demographic group and a social phenomenon since the

  17. Academic Performance and Burnout: An Efficient Frontier Analysis of Resource Use Efficiency among Employed University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of university student burnout on academic achievement. With a longitudinal sample of working undergraduate university business and economics students, we use a two-step analytical process to estimate the efficient frontiers of student productivity given inputs of labour and capital and then analyse the potential determinants…

  18. Frontiers: Research highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  19. Frontier Government: The Folding of the Canada-US Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem de Lint

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the border is evaluated as a fold of power relations in which sovereign capacity and competence is marshalled alongside strategies of control, surveillance, and risk management to constitute, what we call, a zone of frontier government. We advance the argument that the border is a site for both negative and positive power, for insertion and subtraction, and that the assemblage of surveillance and compliance regimes are "run" not so much in the furtherance of a precautionary or pre-emptive end-state, but as intermediate values that are sufficiently malleable by an invigorated sovereign, expressed in the residue of discretion in and between the many border agencies.  Our analysis is based on extensive policy and program documents, as well as twenty-five interviews with officials in various agencies engaged in the US-Canada and, particularly, the Windsor-Detroit corridor.

  1. [The Probabilistic Efficiency Frontier: A Value Assessment of Treatment Options in Hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Sadler, Andrew

    2017-06-19

    Background The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) recommends the concept of the efficiency frontier to assess health care interventions. The efficiency frontier supports regulatory decisions on reimbursement prices for the appropriate allocation of health care resources. Until today this cost-benefit assessment framework has only been applied on the basis of individual patient-relevant endpoints. This contradicts the reality of a multi-dimensional patient benefit. Objective The objective of this study was to illustrate the operationalization of multi-dimensional benefit considering the uncertainty in clinical effects and preference data in order to calculate the efficiency of different treatment options for hepatitis C (HCV). This case study shows how methodological challenges could be overcome in order to use the efficiency frontier for economic analysis and health care decision-making. Method The operationalization of patient benefit was carried out on several patient-relevant endpoints. Preference data from a discrete choice experiment (DCE) study and clinical data based on clinical trials, which reflected the patient and the clinical perspective, respectively, were used for the aggregation of an overall benefit score. A probabilistic efficiency frontier was constructed in a Monte Carlo simulation with 10000 random draws. Patient-relevant endpoints were modeled with a beta distribution and preference data with a normal distribution. The assessment of overall benefit and costs provided information about the adequacy of the treatment prices. The parameter uncertainty was illustrated by the price-acceptability-curve and the net monetary benefit. Results Based on the clinical and preference data in Germany, the interferon-free treatment options proved to be efficient for the current price level. The interferon-free therapies of the latest generation achieved a positive net cost-benefit. Within the decision model, these therapies

  2. Defining the limits of outer space for regulatory purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt Neto, Olavo de Oliviera

    2015-01-01

    With different countries ascribing to different theories of air space and outer space law, Dr. Bittencourt Neto proposes in this Brief a reassessment of the international law related to the extension of state territories vertically. Taking into consideration the vast number of proposals offered by scholars and diplomatic delegations on this subject matter, as well as the principles of comparative law, a compromise to allow for peaceful development is the only way forward. The author argues for setting the delimitation of the frontier between air space and outer space at 100 km above mean sea level through an international treaty. This would also regulate passage rights for space objects during launchings and reentries, as long as those space activities are peaceful, conducted in accordance with international Law and respecting the sovereign interests of the territorial State. Continuing expansion of the commercial space industry and conflicting national laws require a stable and fair legal framework best ...

  3. International space science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author begins his paper by noting the range of international cooperation which has occured in science since its earliest days. The brightest minds were allowed to cross international frontiers even in the face of major wars, to work on their interests and to interact with like minded scientists in other countries. There has of course been a political side to this movement at times. The author makes the point that doing science on an international basis is extemely important but it is not a way of conducting foreign policy. Even though governments may work together on scientific efforts, it is no glue which will bind them to work together on larger political or economic issues. The reason for doing science on an international basis is that it will lead to better science, not better international relations. There are a limited number of great scientists in the world, and they must be allowed to develop their talents. He then discusses two internationl space programs which have has such collaboration, the Soviet-American Space Biology Program, and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). He then touches on the NASA space exploration program, and the fact that its basic objectives were laid out in the 1940's and l950's. With this laid out he argues in favor of establishment of a lunar base, one of the key elements of NASA's plan, arguing for the value of this step based upon the infrared astronomical work which could be done from a stable lunar site, away from the earth's atmosphere

  4. Identifying best-fitting inputs in health-economic model calibration: a Pareto frontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Eva A; Cipriano, Lauren E; Simons, Cyrena T; Kong, Chung Yin

    2015-02-01

    To identify best-fitting input sets using model calibration, individual calibration target fits are often combined into a single goodness-of-fit (GOF) measure using a set of weights. Decisions in the calibration process, such as which weights to use, influence which sets of model inputs are identified as best-fitting, potentially leading to different health economic conclusions. We present an alternative approach to identifying best-fitting input sets based on the concept of Pareto-optimality. A set of model inputs is on the Pareto frontier if no other input set simultaneously fits all calibration targets as well or better. We demonstrate the Pareto frontier approach in the calibration of 2 models: a simple, illustrative Markov model and a previously published cost-effectiveness model of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). For each model, we compare the input sets on the Pareto frontier to an equal number of best-fitting input sets according to 2 possible weighted-sum GOF scoring systems, and we compare the health economic conclusions arising from these different definitions of best-fitting. For the simple model, outcomes evaluated over the best-fitting input sets according to the 2 weighted-sum GOF schemes were virtually nonoverlapping on the cost-effectiveness plane and resulted in very different incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ($79,300 [95% CI 72,500-87,600] v. $139,700 [95% CI 79,900-182,800] per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained). Input sets on the Pareto frontier spanned both regions ($79,000 [95% CI 64,900-156,200] per QALY gained). The TAVR model yielded similar results. Choices in generating a summary GOF score may result in different health economic conclusions. The Pareto frontier approach eliminates the need to make these choices by using an intuitive and transparent notion of optimality as the basis for identifying best-fitting input sets. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Efficient Discovery of De-identification Policies Through a Risk-Utility Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weiyi; Heatherly, Raymond; Ding, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiuyong; Malin, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Modern information technologies enable organizations to capture large quantities of person-specific data while providing routine services. Many organizations hope, or are legally required, to share such data for secondary purposes (e.g., validation of research findings) in a de-identified manner. In previous work, it was shown de-identification policy alternatives could be modeled on a lattice, which could be searched for policies that met a prespecified risk threshold (e.g., likelihood of re-identification). However, the search was limited in several ways. First, its definition of utility was syntactic - based on the level of the lattice - and not semantic - based on the actual changes induced in the resulting data. Second, the threshold may not be known in advance. The goal of this work is to build the optimal set of policies that trade-off between privacy risk (R) and utility (U), which we refer to as a R-U frontier. To model this problem, we introduce a semantic definition of utility, based on information theory, that is compatible with the lattice representation of policies. To solve the problem, we initially build a set of policies that define a frontier. We then use a probability-guided heuristic to search the lattice for policies likely to update the frontier. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we perform an empirical analysis with the Adult dataset of the UCI Machine Learning Repository. We show that our approach can construct a frontier closer to optimal than competitive approaches by searching a smaller number of policies. In addition, we show that a frequently followed de-identification policy (i.e., the Safe Harbor standard of the HIPAA Privacy Rule) is suboptimal in comparison to the frontier discovered by our approach.

  6. Continent-Spanning Radio Telescope Blazes Trails At the Frontiers of Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The supersharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) is revealing unprecedented details of astronomical objects from stars in our own cosmic neighborhood to galaxies billions of light-years away. Astronomers from across North America and beyond are presenting the results of VLBA research at the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) meeting in Chicago. "The VLBA is one of the most powerful tools in the world for astronomy," said Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which operates the VLBA. "It can produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those produced by the Hubble Space Telescope, and that capability has yielded some spectacular scientific results." Examples of VLBA research presented at the AAS meeting include the most accurate measurement ever made of the distance to another galaxy; the detection of our Solar System's orbital motion around the center of our own Galaxy; a "movie" showing the expansion of debris from a star's explosion in a galaxy 11 million light-years away; and a "movie" of gas motions in the atmosphere of a star more than 1,000 light-years away -- the first time gas motions have ever been tracked in a star other than the Sun. With ten giant dish antennas spread from Hawaii in the Pacific to St. Croix in the Caribbean, all working together as a single telescope, the VLBA is "the world's biggest astronomical instrument," Vanden Bout said. The VLBA has been in full operation for more than five years. A pair of sessions at the AAS meeting is devoted to reports of research using the VLBA. In more than 40 scientific presentations, astronomers tell how they used the VLBA to gain valuable new information about nearly every area from the frontiers of astrophysics. Some of those reporting on their VLBA research are graduate students working on their Ph.D degrees. "We are particularly proud that this instrument, one of the world's premier facilities

  7. A new look at Jupiter: results at the now frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 10's encounter with Jupiter is discussed along with the interplanetary space beyond the orbit of Mars. Other topics discussed include the size of Jupiter, the Galilean satellites, the magnetic field of Jupiter, radiation belts, Jupiter's weather and interior, and future exploration possibilities. Educational projects are also included

  8. An innovative approach to space education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Christine; Berinstain, Alain B.; Criswick, John

    1994-01-01

    At present, Canada does not have enough scientists to be competitive in the global economy, which is rapidly changing from a reliance on natural resources and industry to information and technology. Space is the final frontier and it is a multidisciplinary endeavor. It requires a knowledge of science and math, as well as non-science areas such as architecture and law. Thus, it can attract a large number of students with a diverse range of interests and career goals. An overview is presented of the space education program designed by Canadian Alumni of the International Space University (CAISU) to encourage students to pursue studies and careers in science and technology and to improve science literacy in Canada.

  9. FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTERS: DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPLEX MERGER MACS J1149.6+2223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrean, G. A.; Weeren, R. J. van; Jones, C.; Forman, W.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Murray, S. S.; Nulsen, P.; Bulbul, E.; Kraft, R.; Randall, S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dawson, W. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Golovich, N. [University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Roediger, E. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Section, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Zitrin, A.; Sayers, J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Goulding, A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Mroczkowski, T. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Bonafede, A. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Churazov, E., E-mail: gogrean@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741, Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-03-10

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields cluster MACS J1149.6+2223 is one of the most complex merging clusters, believed to consist of four dark matter halos. We present results from deep (365 ks) Chandra observations of the cluster, which reveal the most distant cold front (z  =  0.544) discovered to date. In the cluster outskirts, we also detect hints of a surface brightness edge that could be the bow shock preceding the cold front. The substructure analysis of the cluster identified several components with large relative radial velocities, thus indicating that at least some collisions occur almost along the line of sight. The inclination of the mergers with respect to the plane of the sky poses significant observational challenges at X-ray wavelengths. MACS J1149.6+2223 possibly hosts a steep-spectrum radio halo. If the steepness of the radio halo is confirmed, then the radio spectrum, combined with the relatively regular ICM morphology, could indicate that MACS J1149.6+2223 is an old merging cluster.

  10. Are Ultra-faint Galaxies at z = 6-8 Responsible for Cosmic Reionization? Combined Constraints from the Hubble Frontier Fields Clusters and Parallels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atek, Hakim; Richard, Johan; Jauzac, Mathilde; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Limousin, Marceau; Schaerer, Daniel; Jullo, Eric; Ebeling, Harald; Egami, Eiichi; Clement, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the Frontier Fields to accurately measure the galaxy rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function (UV LF) in the redshift range z ˜ 6-8. We combine observations in three lensing clusters, A2744, MACS 0416, and MACS 0717, and their associated parallel fields to select high-redshift dropout candidates. We use the latest lensing models to estimate the flux magnification and the effective survey volume in combination with completeness simulations performed in the source plane. We report the detection of 227 galaxy candidates at z = 6-7 and 25 candidates at z ˜ 8. While the total survey area is about 4 arcmin2 in each parallel field, it drops to about 0.6-1 arcmin2 in the cluster core fields because of the strong lensing. We compute the UV LF at z ˜ 7 using the combined galaxy sample and perform Monte Carlo simulations to determine the best-fit Schechter parameters. We are able to reliably constrain the LF down to an absolute magnitude of MUV = -15.25, which corresponds to 0.005 L⋆. More importantly, we find that the faint-end slope remains steep down to this magnitude limit with α =-{2.04}-0.17+0.13. We find a characteristic magnitude of {M}\\star =-{20.89}-0.72+0.60 and log(ϕ⋆) = -{3.54}-0.45+0.48. Our results confirm the most recent results in deep blank fields but extend the LF measurements more than two magnitudes deeper. The UV LF at z ˜ 8 is not very well constrained below MUV = -18 owing to the small number statistics and incompleteness uncertainties. To assess the contribution of galaxies to cosmic reionization, we derive the UV luminosity density at z ˜ 7 by integrating the UV LF down to an observational limit of MUV = -15. We show that our determination of log(ρUV) = 26.2 ± 0.13 (erg s-1 Hz-1 Mpc-3) can be sufficient to maintain reionization with an escape fraction of ionizing radiation of fesc = 10%-15%. Future Hubble Frontier Fields observations will certainly improve the constraints on the UV LF at

  11. Workshop on Information Engines at the Frontiers of Nanoscale Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    biological counterparts, perform tasks that involve the simultaneous manipulation of energy, information, and matter. In this they are information...and Maps 25 2 1 Scope Synthetic nanoscale machines, like their macromolecular biological counterparts, perform tasks that involve the simultaneous ...protocols modeled as geodesics in parameter space endowed with a Rieman- nian metric derived from the inverse di↵usion tensor for a realistic model of

  12. Overview of space nuclear technologies and the American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) has seen an aspect of the universe where nuclear technology is the best energy source available for power, transportation, etc. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been exploiting this aspect of the universe by sending machines and humans into it and exploring, colonizing, industrializing, developing, inhabiting, etc. Space is the final frontier, and nuclear technology is the best suited for today's or the next century's space exploration and development. Many aspects of nuclear technology and its uses in space will be needed. ANS encompasses these and many more aspects of nuclear technology, and all have some role to play in the exploration and development of space. It should be ANS's intent to be an advisory body to NASA on the nuclear aspects of space exploration

  13. [Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier: A Companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Michael Amundsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amundsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham : Ashgate, 2011

  14. On the Frontier of Realities. The Case of Yaroslav Melnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Y. Barabash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay analyzes a specific case of Ukrainian writer Yaroslav Melnik whose literary career is often related to the so called new literary immigration. Melnik has lived for the last twenty five years outside of Ukraine, has published (and sometimes written his books in different European languages and in different European countries and has yet preserved his mother tongue as the main language of his work. The essay discusses a novel, novellas, short stories, and parables written in Ukrainian with the help of which Melnik has reentered in Ukrainian literary space after a long lapse. These works characterized by existential problems, poetics of myth, parabola, and absurd, akin to European modernism (Kafka, Kamu, Hesse, and Shultz and 20th Century Ukrainian literary modernism, determine a specific place of the author in modern Ukrainian literature. The essay scrutinizes such seminal themes for Melnik as anti-totalitarian and anti-global thrust, alienated person dispersed in the “multitude” and blindly submissive to external power and such constant metaphorical images-concepts of his fiction as “forest man,” “selfhood,” “other reality,” “close space — distant space.” Rejecting narrow interpretations of national tradition, Melnik insists, not without polemical bias, on the priority of universal human values. As the essay demonstrates, there is no contradiction between the national and the universal in Melnik’s work; instead, he seeks their synthesis. The organic inclusion of universal human values in the national literary element and vice versa the inclusion of national Ukrainian properties in the global, universal, all-human context, are seen as two sides of the same process.

  15. Frontiers of Physics 1998, Proceedings of the Intl Mtg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, S. P.; Bradley, D. A.

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * FOREWORD * PLENARY SESSIONS * Progress of RFQ and superconducting accelerators in China * Dual Ginzburg-Landau theory and quark nuclear physics * Study of solid surfaces on a atomic scale * QCD phase transition in the laboratory and in the early universe * X-ray studies of magnetism: the synchrotron revolution * On the possibility of a gamma-laser: photon emission by a charged particle channeling in a acoustically bent crystal * Frontiers in ultrafast laser science * Inductively coupled RF discharges * Asymmetries of sea quark distributions in baryons * High energy limit of photon-atom interactions: example of double ionization of He by photoabsorption * Excitation of nuclear levels in atomic transitions * PARALLEL SESSIONS * Condensed Matter Physics * A variational approach to many-particle systems * Path-integral approach to band tail density of states in heavily doped semiconductors * Study of vibrational spectra of nanocrystalline silicon by Raman scattering and photoluminescence spectroscopy * Derivation of nonlinear magnetic susceptibility tensors for a ferromagnet * High hard magnetic properties of Sr hexagonal ferrite substituted by La * Elastic anomalies in superconducting and non-superconducting tl-based compounds * Theoretical calculation of the variation of interface parameter, S with the band gap of the ionic insulator * Stationary waves in nonlinear crystal lattices * Quantum field theory, non-linear optics and magnetic phase transitions * Annealing effects on optical and electrical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon film * Effect of composition, sintering and grain size on the physical properties of cullet-mica ceramics * Optical characterisation of thin metal film using surface plasmons resonance * A look at nonlinear susceptibility coefficients of ferroelectrics in the far infrared * Elastic behaviour of lead zinc phosphate glasses * Characterization of Gd doped Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor

  16. At the frontier of astrophysics and philosophy | Public conference by Hubert Reeves | 16 July

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    "At the frontier of astrophysics and philosophy: between infinitely large and infinitely small" Public conference by Hubert Reeves Globe of Science and Innovation Wednesday 16 July 2014 - 7.00 p.m. Please note that this conference will be in French only. "The Universe is changing.  We are not strangers in the Universe: recent discoveries in astrophysics prove our intimate bond with everything shining in the sky." Save the date! On Wednesday 16 July 2014, Hubert Reeves, astrophysicist, philosopher and engaging communicator, is back at the Globe of Science and Innovation to talk about the frontiers of physics, astronomy and philosophy, two years after the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN. If you ever wondered how this discovery has changed our knowledge of the Universe and strengthened the bond between the infinitely large world of astrophysics and the infinitely small world of quantum physics, this event is for you. The conference is part of POPSCIENCE, a p...

  17. Study of carbonate concretions using imaging spectroscopy in the Frontier Formation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Linaje, Virginia Alonso; Khan, Shuhab D.; Bhattacharya, Janok

    2018-04-01

    Imaging spectroscopy is applied to study diagenetic processes of the Wall Creek Member of the Cretaceous Frontier Formation, Wyoming. Visible Near-Infrared and Shortwave-Infrared hyperspectral cameras were used to scan near vertical and well-exposed outcrop walls to analyze lateral and vertical geochemical variations. Reflectance spectra were analyzed and compared with high-resolution laboratory spectral and hyperspectral imaging data. Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) classification algorithms were applied to quantify facies and mineral abundances in the Frontier Formation. MTMF is the most effective and reliable technique when studying spectrally similar materials. Classification results show that calcite cement in concretions associated with the channel facies is homogeneously distributed, whereas the bar facies was shown to be interbedded with layers of non-calcite-cemented sandstone.

  18. The determinants of cost efficiency of hydroelectric generating plants: A random frontier approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Carlos P.; Peypoch, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the technical efficiency in the hydroelectric generating plants of a main Portuguese electricity enterprise EDP (Electricity of Portugal) between 1994 and 2004, investigating the role played by increase in competition and regulation. A random cost frontier method is adopted. A translog frontier model is used and the maximum likelihood estimation technique is employed to estimate the empirical model. We estimate the efficiency scores and decompose the exogenous variables into homogeneous and heterogeneous. It is concluded that production and capacity are heterogeneous, signifying that the hydroelectric generating plants are very distinct and therefore any energy policy should take into account this heterogeneity. It is also concluded that competition, rather than regulation, plays the key role in increasing hydroelectric plant efficiency

  19. A Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis of Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhongfei; Barros, Carlos Pestana; Borges, Maria Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the technical efficiency of Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies from 1999 to 2011, using a Bayesian stochastic frontier model. The results reveal that efficiency varies among the fossil-fuel electricity generation companies that were analysed. We also focus on the factors of size, location, government ownership and mixed sources of electricity generation for the fossil-fuel electricity generation companies, and also examine their effects on the efficiency of these companies. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: • We analyze the efficiency of 27 quoted Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies during 1999–2011. • We adopt a Bayesian stochastic frontier model taking into consideration the identified heterogeneity. • With reform background in Chinese energy industry, we propose four hypotheses and check their influence on efficiency. • Big size, coastal location, government control and hydro energy sources all have increased costs

  20. US residential energy demand and energy efficiency: A stochastic demand frontier approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates a US frontier residential aggregate energy demand function using panel data for 48 ‘states’ over the period 1995 to 2007 using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Utilizing an econometric energy demand model, the (in)efficiency of each state is modeled and it is argued that this represents a measure of the inefficient use of residential energy in each state (i.e. ‘waste energy’). This underlying efficiency for the US is therefore observed for each state as well as the relative efficiency across the states. Moreover, the analysis suggests that energy intensity is not necessarily a good indicator of energy efficiency, whereas by controlling for a range of economic and other factors, the measure of energy efficiency obtained via this approach is. This is a novel approach to model residential energy demand and efficiency and it is arguably particularly relevant given current US energy policy discussions related to energy efficiency.

  1. Extractive industries and political frontiers in the Amazon during the elastic rubber boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate G, Carlos G

    2008-01-01

    The article analyzes the relationship between the extractive activity of elastic rubber, during the period between the fourth part of 19th century and the first decades of the 20 Th century, in the Amazonian frontier between Brazil, Peru and Colombia, and the process of configuration and definition of the boundaries between these countries. The central aspect of the analysis and the discussion is the questioning of the deterministic and simplistic interpretations that associate, in a mechanical way, the relationship between the kind of rubber species exploited and their production organization, the effects on the indigenous societies, and even the politic organization and delimitation of the bordering territories. It is also expected to show how these interpretations have been wrongly or instrumentally used even in the ideological field, to justify and explain the results of the bordering agreements of these countries, which conduced to establish the current Political frontiers in the Amazon

  2. Trends, drivers and impacts of changes in swidden cultivation in tropical forest-agriculture frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Mertz, Ole; Heinimann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    ultifunctionality of land uses has been preserved as a strategy to adapt to current ecological, economic and political circumstances. In some areas swidden remains important simply because intensification is not a viable choice, for example when population densities and/or food market demands are low......This meta-analysis of land-cover transformations of the past 10–15 years in tropical forest-agriculture frontiers world-wide shows that swidden agriculture decreases in landscapes with access to local, national and international markets that encourage cattle production and cash cropping, including...... biofuels. Conservation policies and practices also accelerate changes in swidden by restricting forest clearing and encouraging commercial agriculture. However, swidden remains important in many frontier areas where farmers have unequal or insecure access to investment and market opportunities, or where...

  3. MUSE integral-field spectroscopy towards the Frontier Fields Cluster Abell S1063

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karman, W.; Caputi, K. I.; Grillo, C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first observations of the Frontier Fields Cluster Abell S1063 taken with the newly commissioned Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectrograph. Because of the relatively large field of view (1 arcmin^2), MUSE is ideal to simultaneously target multiple galaxies...... the cluster, we find 17 galaxies at higher redshift, including three previously unknown Lyman-alpha emitters at z>3, and five multiply-lensed galaxies. We report the detection of a new z=4.113 multiply lensed galaxy, with images that are consistent with lensing model predictions derived for the Frontier...... of scientific topics that can be addressed with a single MUSE pointing. We conclude that MUSE is a very efficient instrument to observe galaxy clusters, enabling their mass modelling, and to perform a blind search for high-redshift galaxies....

  4. Using Stochastic Frontier Analysis to Analyze Adjustment Costs and Investment Utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Henningsen, Arne

    of additional inputs and an initially incomplete investment utilization results in an output level that is temporarily not at its maximum. We estimate an output distance function as a stochastic "Efficiency Effects Frontier" model (Battese & Coelli 1995), where the estimated technical inefficiencies...... are explained with current and lagged investments, farm size, age of the farmer, and interaction terms between these variables. Furthermore, we derive the formula for calculating the marginal effects on technical efficiency for "Efficiency Effects Frontier" models so that we can calculate the (marginal) effect...... of current and past investments on technical efficiency, which we interpret as adjustment costs and temporary incomplete investment utilization. We apply this methodology to a large panel data set of Danish pig producers with 9,281 observations between 1996 and 2008. The results show that investments have...

  5. On the Computation of the Efficient Frontier of the Portfolio Selection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Calvo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An easy-to-use procedure is presented for improving the ε-constraint method for computing the efficient frontier of the portfolio selection problem endowed with additional cardinality and semicontinuous variable constraints. The proposed method provides not only a numerical plotting of the frontier but also an analytical description of it, including the explicit equations of the arcs of parabola it comprises and the change points between them. This information is useful for performing a sensitivity analysis as well as for providing additional criteria to the investor in order to select an efficient portfolio. Computational results are provided to test the efficiency of the algorithm and to illustrate its applications. The procedure has been implemented in Mathematica.

  6. Measurement of productive efficiency with frontier methods. A case study for wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Guillermo; Castellanos, Pablo; Seijas, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we measure the productive efficiency of a group of wind farms during the period 2001-2004 using the frontier methods Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Taking an extensive definition of the productive process of wind electricity as our starting point, we obtain results which allow us to identify, on the one hand, an essentially ex ante efficiency measure and, on the other hand, aspects of relevance for wind farm development companies (developers), technology suppliers and operators in terms of their economic impact. These results may also be of interest for regulators and other stakeholders in the sector. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of the simultaneous use of DEA and SFA methodologies. (author)

  7. Nature's longest threads new frontiers in the mathematics and physics of information in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sreekantan, B V

    2014-01-01

    Organisms endowed with life show a sense of awareness, interacting with and learning from the universe in and around them. Each level of interaction involves transfer of information of various kinds, and at different levels. Each thread of information is interlinked with the other, and woven together, these constitute the universe — both the internal self and the external world — as we perceive it. They are, figuratively speaking, Nature's longest threads. This volume reports inter-disciplinary research and views on information and its transfer at different levels of organization by reputed scientists working on the frontier areas of science. It is a frontier where physics, mathematics and biology merge seamlessly, binding together specialized streams such as quantum mechanics, dynamical systems theory, and mathematics. The topics would interest a broad cross-section of researchers in life sciences, physics, cognition, neuroscience, mathematics and computer science, as well as interested amateurs, familia...

  8. Some effectos on the efficient frontier of the investment strategy: a preliminary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez-Rodríguez, Paz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work an indicator of the social responsibility degree of mutual funds is proposed based on the mutual fund’s screening policy and on the quality of the information provided by the fund manager. Once this indicator is obtained it is included as a constraint in the mean-variance classical optimization model. An exploratory numerical experiment is presented in order to check the possible effect on the efficient frontier of different SRI strategies.

  9. Technical Efficiency in the Chilean Agribusiness Sector - a Stochastic Meta-Frontier Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Larkner, Sebastian; Brenes Muñoz, Thelma; Aedo, Edinson Rivera; Brümmer, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The Chilean economy is strongly export-oriented, which is also true for the Chilean agribusiness industry. This paper investigates the technical efficiency of the Chilean food processing industry between 2001 and 2007. We use a dataset from the 2,471 of firms in food processing industry. The observations are from the ‘Annual National Industrial Survey’. A stochastic meta-frontier approach is used in order to analyse the drivers of technical efficiency. We include variables capturing the effec...

  10. Evolution of Land Use in the Brazilian Amazon: From Frontier Expansion to Market Chain Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S. Soler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural census data and fieldwork observations are used to analyze changes in land cover/use intensity across Rondônia and Mato Grosso states along the agricultural frontier in the Brazilian Amazon. Results show that the development of land use is strongly related to land distribution structure. While large farms have increased their share of annual and perennial crops, small and medium size farms have strongly contributed to the development of beef and milk market chains in both Rondônia and Mato Grosso. Land use intensification has occurred in the form of increased use of machinery, labor in agriculture and stocking rates of cattle herds. Regional and national demands have improved infrastructure and productivity. The data presented show that the distinct pathways of land use development are related to accessibility to markets and processing industry as well as to the agricultural colonization history of the region. The data analyzed do not provide any indication of frontier stagnation, i.e., the slowdown of agricultural expansion, in the Brazilian Amazon. Instead of frontier stagnation, the data analyzed indicate that intensification processes in consolidated areas as well as recent agricultural expansion into forest areas are able to explain the cycle of expansion and retraction of the agricultural frontier into the Amazon region. The evolution of land use is useful for scenario analysis of both land cover change and land use intensification and provides insights into the role of market development and policies on land use.

  11. Motivation And Working Behavior In Frontier Tourism Business Of Thailand-Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Thirachaya Maneenetr

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the motivations and working behavior of the frontier tourism business at the Thailand-Laos border, to compare the working relationship between travel agencies and the hotel business, and to study the relationship between working motivation and working behavior in the tourism business by using a total sampling of 140 persons: 112 persons from the hotel business and 28 persons from travel agencies. Personnel in the tourism business consisted of 42.1...

  12. Microbiome-on-a-Chip: New Frontiers in Plant-Microbiota Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Claire E; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2017-08-01

    An enigmatic concoction of interactions between microbes and hosts takes place below ground, yet the function(s) of the individual components in this complex playground are far from understood. This Forum article highlights how microfluidic - or 'Microbiome-on-a-Chip' - technology could help to shed light on such relationships, opening new frontiers in plant-microbiota research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Frontiers in biomaterials the design, synthetic strategies and biocompatibility of polymer scaffolds for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volume 1" highlights the importance of biomaterials and their interaction with biological system. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues.This ebook covers the latest challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold overtime after implantation and discusses the requirement of innovative technologies and strategies f

  14. A meta-frontier approach for causal inference in productivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Mpeta, Daniel F.; Adem, Anwar S.

    (2012) and create a meta-frontier in order to estimate the effects of participation on the farms’ meta-technology ratio, their group technical efficiency, and their meta-technology technical efficiency. The empirical analysis uses a cross-sectional data set from sunflower farmers in Tanzania, where some...... by the contractor’s provision of (additional) extension service and seeds of high-yielding varieties to the contract farmers....

  15. Mental Healthcare Delivery in London-Middlesex Ontario - The Next Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velji, Karima; Links, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The next frontier for mental healthcare delivery will be focused on three facets of innovation, namely structure, process and outcome. The structure innovation will seek to develop new models of care delivery between the two hospitals and with the community. The process innovation will focus on embedding strategies to adopt a recovery and rehabilitation approach to care delivery. Lastly, the outcome innovation will use system wide quality improvement methods to drive breakthrough performance in mental healthcare.

  16. Frontiers in pulse-power-based high energy density plasma physics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    The papers in this volume of report were presented at the Symposium on Frontiers in Pulse-power-based High Energy Density Physics' held by National Institute for Fusion Science. The topics include the present status of high energy density plasma researches, extreme ultraviolet sources, intense radiation sources, high power ion beams, and R and D of related pulse power technologies. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 4: Cosmic Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J. L. [MIT, LNS; Ritz, S. [UC, Santa Cruz; Beatty, J. J. [Ohio State U.; Buckley, J. [Washington U., Seattle; Cowen, D. F. [Penn State U.; Cushman, P. [Minnesota U.; Dodelson, S. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Galbiati, C. [PNPI, CSTD; Honscheid, K. [Ohio State U.; Hooper, D. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Kaplinghat, M. [UC, Irvine; Kusenko, A. [Unlisted; Matchev, K. [Florida U.; McKinsey, D. [Yale U.; Nelson, A. E. [Washington U., Seattle; Olinto, A. [Chicago U., EFI; Profumo, S. [UC, Santa Cruz; Robertson, H. [Washington U., Seattle; Rosenberg, L. [Unlisted; Sinnis, G. [Los Alamos; Tait, T. M.P. [UCLA

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 4, on the Cosmic Frontier, discusses the program of research relevant to cosmology and the early universe. This area includes the study of dark matter and the search for its particle nature, the study of dark energy and inflation, and cosmic probes of fundamental symmetries.

  18. Frontiers of particle beam and high energy density plasma science using pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi

    2011-04-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on “Frontiers of Particle Beam and High Energy Density Plasma Science using Pulse Power Technology” held in November 20-21, 2009 at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected. The papers reflect the present status and resent progress in the experiment and theoretical works on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. (author)

  19. Evaluation of different frontier-based multi-robot exploration strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benkrid Abdenour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the problem of exploring an unknown environment by a team of mobile robots. The main objective is to compare four different coordination strategies based on frontier concept (boundaries between unexplored and explored open areas and analyze their performance in term of assignment quality, overall exploration time and computational complexity. In order to provide a suitable qualitative study we used three optimization criteria. Each strategy has been implemented and tested extensively in computerized simulation.

  20. Passing It On: Fighting the Pushtun on Afghanistan’s Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    borderlands of Afghanistan and Pakistan are not just the ‘lunar landscape’ portrayed on the evening news. The area has irrigated ‘ green zones’ in the...London: Kegan -Paul, 2000). Caroe was the Governor of the North West Frontier Province of India in 1946–47, the period of the India-Pakistan...It was originally published by the India Intelligence Branch, London, 1899. Also see Sir Olaf Caroe, The Pathans: 550 BC - A 957 (London: Kegan

  1. Analysis about the development of mobile electronic commerce: An application of production possibility frontier model

    OpenAIRE

    Uesugi, Shiro; Okada, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to further develop our previous research on production possibility frontier model (PPFM). An application of model to provide analysis on the mobile commerce survey for which data was collected in Japan und Thailand is presented. PPFM looks into the consumer behaviors as the results form the perception on the relationship between Convenience and Privacy Concerns of certain electronic commerce services. From the data of consumer surveys, PPFM is expected to provide practical sol...

  2. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 3: Energy Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, R.; et al.

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 3, on the Energy Frontier, discusses the program of research with high-energy colliders. This area includes experiments on the Higgs boson, the electroweak and strong interactions, and the top quark. It also encompasses direct searches for new particles and interactions at high energy.

  3. 3rd International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing : Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biswal, Bhabendra; Udgata, Siba; Mandal, JK

    2015-01-01

    Volume 1 contains 95 papers presented at FICTA 2014: Third International Conference on Frontiers in Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications. The conference was held during 14-15, November, 2014 at Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.  This volume contains papers mainly focused on Data Warehousing and Mining, Machine Learning, Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing, AI, E-commerce & Distributed Computing and Soft Computing, Evolutionary Computing, Bio-inspired Computing and its Applications.

  4. Regime shifts in mean-variance efficient frontiers: some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Guidolin; Federica Ria

    2010-01-01

    Regime switching models have been assuming a central role in financial applications because of their well-known ability to capture the presence of rich non-linear patterns in the joint distribution of asset returns. This paper examines how the presence of regimes in means, variances, and correlations of asset returns translates into explicit dynamics of the Markowitz mean-variance frontier. In particular, the paper shows both theoretically and through an application to international equity po...

  5. Markov switching mean-variance frontier dynamics: theory and international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    M. Guidolin; F. Ria

    2010-01-01

    It is well-known that regime switching models are able to capture the presence of rich non-linear patterns in the joint distribution of asset returns. After reviewing key concepts and technical issues related to specifying, estimating, and using multivariate Markov switching models in financial applications, in this paper we map the presence of regimes in means, variances, and covariances of asset returns into explicit dynamics of the Markowitz mean-variance frontier. In particular, we show b...

  6. Trade Performance and Potential of the Philippines: An Application of Stochastic Frontier Gravity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Deluna, Roperto Jr

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the issue of what Philippine merchandise trade flows would be if countries operated at the frontier of the gravity model. The study sought to estimate the coefficients of the gravity model. The estimated coefficients were used to estimate merchandise export potentials and technical efficiency of each country in the sample and these were also aggregated to measure impact of country groups, RTAs and inter-regional trading agreements. Result of the ...

  7. Globalisation vs. fragmentation of space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author does not argue in the present paper with rival theories; instead he links them in a rhizomatic fashion provoking thereby a cartography of the landscape we are facing while the Cartesian tradition of reduction of complexities to simples is shifting towards the irreducible fold (Deleuze. The virtual and the real is not discernible. Entities isolated in the past are now part and parcel of the hybrid and rhizomatic network expanding and flowing throughout the intensive space. They form the hybrid spatium which includes everything: social networks, media, fora, wars, the national and the supranational, global and local, marginal and trivial. Disseminating itself, it invades social spaces, and finally encompasses the whole horizon. Fluidity (Bauman is another expression for emptied social spaces and the shift to the societies of control anticipated by Michel Foucault. Through constant reiteration of the difference, the fold shifts to its alternative - envolution. This very frontier has constantly evaded us, in spite of the effort to overcome it. It is conceived, not according to the linear model, but as an 'intensity' (Deleuze and matrix which constantly reproduces itself and becomes, by the same token, the fate of the postmodern civilization, his own trademark and destiny.

  8. Scaling HEP to Web size with RESTful protocols: The frontier example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykstra, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The World-Wide-Web has scaled to an enormous size. The largest single contributor to its scalability is the HTTP protocol, particularly when used in conformity to REST (REpresentational State Transfer) principles. High Energy Physics (HEP) computing also has to scale to an enormous size, so it makes sense to base much of it on RESTful protocols. Frontier, which reads databases with an HTTP-based RESTful protocol, has successfully scaled to deliver production detector conditions data from both the CMS and ATLAS LHC detectors to hundreds of thousands of computer cores worldwide. Frontier is also able to re-use a large amount of standard software that runs the Web: on the clients, caches, and servers. I discuss the specific ways in which HTTP and REST enable high scalability for Frontier. I also briefly discuss another protocol used in HEP computing that is HTTP-based and RESTful, and another protocol that could benefit from it. My goal is to encourage HEP protocol designers to consider HTTP and REST whenever the same information is needed in many places.

  9. Relationship between Major Developed Equity Markets and Major Frontier Equity Markets of World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mansoor Baig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The core aim of this study is to compute the long run relationship between frontier equity markets Pakistan (KSE 100 Index, Argentina (MERVAL BUENOS AIRES stock Exchange, NSE.20 (Kenya, MSM 30 (MSI Oman and equity markets of developed world (OMXS30 Sweden, SMI (Switzerland, SSE Composite Index (China and STI index (Singapore by taking weekly values from stock return prices for the period 1st week of January-2000 to last week of January/2014. Descriptive statistic, Correlation, Augmented dickey fuller (ADF, Phillips Perron test, Johanson and Jelseluis test of co-integration, Granger causality test, Variance Decomposition Test and Impulse Response are used to find the relationship among frontier and developed markets. The results of this study reveal that frontier markets have no long run relationship with equity markets of developed world. Furthermore, this study is helpful for investors to enhance the returns by diversifying the unsystematic risk at given level of profit because results of this study confirm that markets are no cointegrated.

  10. Introduction: New Frontiers of Ecological Knowledge: Co-producing Knowledge and Governance in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhra Gururani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay makes a case for centering the questions of ecological knowledge in order to understand how environmental governance and resource access are being remade in the frontier ecologies of Asia. These frontiers, consisting of the so-called uplands and coastal zones, are increasingly subject to new waves of extractive and conservation activities, prompted in part by rising values attached to these ecologies by new actors and actor coalitions. Drawing on recent writings in science and technology studies, we examine the coproduction (Jasanoff 2004 of ecological knowledge and governance at this conjuncture of neoliberal interventions, land grabs, and climate change. We outline the complex ways through which the involvement of new actors, new technologies, and practices of boundary work, territorialisation, scale-making, and expertise transform the dynamics of the coproduction of knowledge and governance. Drawing on long term field research in Asia, the articles in this special section show that resident peoples are often marginalised from the production and circulation of ecological knowledge, and thus from environmental governance. While attentive to the entry of new actors and to the shifts in relations of authority, control, and decision-making, the papers also present examples of how this marginalisation can be challenged, by highlighting the limits of boundary-work and expertise in such frontier ecologies.

  11. Evaluating Kuala Lumpur stock exchange oriented bank performance with stochastic frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baten, M. A.; Maznah, M. K.; Razamin, R.; Jastini, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Banks play an essential role in the economic development and banks need to be efficient; otherwise, they may create blockage in the process of development in any country. The efficiency of banks in Malaysia is important and should receive greater attention. This study formulated an appropriate stochastic frontier model to investigate the efficiency of banks which are traded on Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) market during the period 2005–2009. All data were analyzed to obtain the maximum likelihood method to estimate the parameters of stochastic production. Unlike the earlier studies which use balance sheet and income statements data, this study used market data as the input and output variables. It was observed that banks listed in KLSE exhibited a commendable overall efficiency level of 96.2% during 2005–2009 hence suggesting minimal input waste of 3.8%. Among the banks, the COMS (Cimb Group Holdings) bank is found to be highly efficient with a score of 0.9715 and BIMB (Bimb Holdings) bank is noted to have the lowest efficiency with a score of 0.9582. The results also show that Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier model with truncated normal distributional assumption is preferable than Translog stochastic frontier model

  12. Evaluating Kuala Lumpur stock exchange oriented bank performance with stochastic frontiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baten, M. A.; Maznah, M. K.; Razamin, R.; Jastini, M. J. [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010, Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2014-12-04

    Banks play an essential role in the economic development and banks need to be efficient; otherwise, they may create blockage in the process of development in any country. The efficiency of banks in Malaysia is important and should receive greater attention. This study formulated an appropriate stochastic frontier model to investigate the efficiency of banks which are traded on Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) market during the period 2005–2009. All data were analyzed to obtain the maximum likelihood method to estimate the parameters of stochastic production. Unlike the earlier studies which use balance sheet and income statements data, this study used market data as the input and output variables. It was observed that banks listed in KLSE exhibited a commendable overall efficiency level of 96.2% during 2005–2009 hence suggesting minimal input waste of 3.8%. Among the banks, the COMS (Cimb Group Holdings) bank is found to be highly efficient with a score of 0.9715 and BIMB (Bimb Holdings) bank is noted to have the lowest efficiency with a score of 0.9582. The results also show that Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier model with truncated normal distributional assumption is preferable than Translog stochastic frontier model.

  13. Measuring the Efficiency of a Hospital based on the Econometric Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Zandian, Hamed; Baniasadi, Akram; Moghadam, Telma Zahirian; Delavari, Somayeh; Delavari, Sajad

    2016-02-01

    Hospitals are the most expensive health services provider in the world. Therefore, the evaluation of their performance can be used to reduce costs. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of the hospitals at the Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study that assessed the performance of Kurdistan teaching hospitals (n = 12) between 2007 and 2013. The Stochastic Frontier Analysis method was used to achieve this aim. The numbers of active beds, nurses, physicians, and other staff members were considered as input variables, while the inpatient admission was considered as the output. The data were analyzed using Frontier 4.1 software. The mean technical efficiency of the hospitals we studied was 0.67. The results of the Cobb-Douglas production function showed that the maximum elasticity was related to the active beds and the elasticity of nurses was negative. Also, the return to scale was increasing. The results of this study indicated that the performances of the hospitals were not appropriate in terms of technical efficiency. In addition, there was a capacity enhancement of the output of the hospitals, compared with the most efficient hospitals studied, of about33%. It is suggested that the effect of various factors, such as the quality of health care and the patients' satisfaction, be considered in the future studies to assess hospitals' performances.

  14. Relationships of efficiency to reproductive disorders in Danish milk production: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, L G; Bruun, J; Coelli, T; Agger, J F; Lund, M

    2004-01-01

    Relationships of various reproductive disorders and milk production performance of Danish dairy farms were investigated. A stochastic frontier production function was estimated using data collected in 1998 from 514 Danish dairy farms. Measures of farm-level milk production efficiency relative to this production frontier were obtained, and relationships between milk production efficiency and the incidence risk of reproductive disorders were examined. There were moderate positive relationships between milk production efficiency and retained placenta, induction of estrus, uterine infections, ovarian cysts, and induction of birth. Inclusion of reproductive management variables showed that these moderate relationships disappeared, but directions of coefficients for almost all those variables remained the same. Dystocia showed a weak negative correlation with milk production efficiency. Farms that were mainly managed by young farmers had the highest average efficiency scores. The estimated milk losses due to inefficiency averaged 1142, 488, and 256 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow, respectively, for low-, medium-, and high-efficiency herds. It is concluded that the availability of younger cows, which enabled farmers to replace cows with reproductive disorders, contributed to high cow productivity in efficient farms. Thus, a high replacement rate more than compensates for the possible negative effect of reproductive disorders. The use of frontier production and efficiency/inefficiency functions to analyze herd data may enable dairy advisors to identify inefficient herds and to simulate the effect of alternative management procedures on the individual herd's efficiency.

  15. Greatly improved cache update times for conditions data with Frontier/Squid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, Dave; Lueking, Lee, E-mail: dwd@fnal.go [Computing Division, Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The CMS detector project loads copies of conditions data to over 100,000 computer cores worldwide by using a software subsystem called Frontier. This subsystem translates database queries into HTTP, looks up the results in a central database at CERN, and caches the results in an industry-standard HTTP proxy/caching server called Squid. One of the most challenging aspects of any cache system is coherency, that is, ensuring that changes made to the underlying data get propagated out to all clients in a timely manner. Recently, the Frontier system was enhanced to drastically reduce the time for changes to be propagated everywhere without heavily loading servers. The propagation time is now as low as 15 minutes for some kinds of data and no more than 60 minutes for the rest of the data. This was accomplished by taking advantage of an HTTP and Squid feature called If-Modified-Since. In order to use this feature, the Frontier server sends a Last-Modified timestamp, but since modification times are not normally tracked by Oracle databases, a PL/SQL program was developed to track the modification times of database tables. We discuss the details of this caching scheme and the obstacles overcome including database and Squid bugs.

  16. Greatly improved cache update times for conditions data with Frontier/Squid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykstra, Dave; Lueking, Lee

    2009-01-01

    The CMS detector project loads copies of conditions data to over 100,000 computer cores worldwide by using a software subsystem called Frontier. This subsystem translates database queries into HTTP, looks up the results in a central database at CERN, and caches the results in an industry-standard HTTP proxy/caching server called Squid. One of the most challenging aspects of any cache system is coherency, that is, ensuring that changes made to the underlying data get propagated out to all clients in a timely manner. Recently, the Frontier system was enhanced to drastically reduce the time for changes to be propagated everywhere without heavily loading servers. The propagation time is now as low as 15 minutes for some kinds of data and no more than 60 minutes for the rest of the data. This was accomplished by taking advantage of an HTTP and Squid feature called If-Modified-Since. In order to use this feature, the Frontier server sends a Last-Modified timestamp, but since modification times are not normally tracked by Oracle databases, a PL/SQL program was developed to track the modification times of database tables. We discuss the details of this caching scheme and the obstacles overcome including database and Squid bugs.

  17. Theory of Covalent Adsorbate Frontier Orbital Energies on Functionalized Light-Absorbing Semiconductor Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Doak, Peter; Tamblyn, Isaac; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2013-05-16

    Functional hybrid interfaces between organic molecules and semiconductors are central to many emerging information and solar energy conversion technologies. Here we demonstrate a general, empirical parameter-free approach for computing and understanding frontier orbital energies - or redox levels - of a broad class of covalently bonded organic-semiconductor surfaces. We develop this framework in the context of specific density functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory calculations, within the GW approximation, of an exemplar interface, thiophene-functionalized silicon (111). Through detailed calculations taking into account structural and binding energetics of mixed-monolayers consisting of both covalently attached thiophene and hydrogen, chlorine, methyl, and other passivating groups, we quantify the impact of coverage, nonlocal polarization, and interface dipole effects on the alignment of the thiophene frontier orbital energies with the silicon band edges. For thiophene adsorbate frontier orbital energies, we observe significant corrections to standard DFT (∼1 eV), including large nonlocal electrostatic polarization effects (∼1.6 eV). Importantly, both results can be rationalized from knowledge of the electronic structure of the isolated thiophene molecule and silicon substrate systems. Silicon band edge energies are predicted to vary by more than 2.5 eV, while molecular orbital energies stay similar, with the different functional groups studied, suggesting the prospect of tuning energy alignment over a wide range for photoelectrochemistry and other applications.

  18. The Alpha-Helix Concept: Innovative utilization of the Space Station Program. A report to the National Aeronautical and Space Administration requesting establishment of a Sensory Physiology Laboratory on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Singh, N.

    1983-01-01

    A major laboratory dedicated to biological-medical research is proposed for the Space Platform. The laboratory would focus on sensor physiology and biochemistry since sensory physiology represents the first impact of the new space environment on living organisms. Microgravity and the high radiation environment of space would be used to help solve the problems of prolonged sojourns in space but, more importantly, to help solve terrestrial problems of human health and agricultural productivity. The emphasis would be on experimental use of microorganisms and small plants and small animals to minimize the space and time required to use the Space Platform for maximum human betterment. The Alpha Helix Concept, that is, the use of the Space Platform to bring experimental biomedicine to a new and extreme frontier is introduced so as to better understand the worldly environment. Staffing and instrumenting the Space Platform biomedical laboratory in a manner patterned after successful terrestrial sensory physiology laboratories is also proposed.

  19. Ifri's conference on the New Frontiers of Energy Identified Strategic Orientations for the European Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montbrial, Thierry de; Kaulins, Dzintars; ); Ramsay, William; Institut Francais des Relations Internationales - Ifri; Darricarrere, Yves-Louis; Perrin, Olivier; Mitrova, Tatiana; Masuda, Tatsuo; LEWIS, Barbara; Ristori, Dominique; ); Clamadieu, Jean-Pierre; Leautier, Thomas-Olivier; Poncelet, Jean-Pol; Hounsell, Susanne; Maillard, Dominique; Mogg, Lord; Conil-Lacoste, Jean-Francois; Simonneau, Denis; Watkinson, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The Ifri Center for Energy annual conference gathered more than 150 participants, together with prominent policy makers, industry leaders and distinguished academics to discuss how the European energy policy can deliver effective results in light of geopolitical upheavals, technological developments and governance issues. The Founder and President of Ifri, Mr de Montbrial, opened the event and stressed that emotions, not reason, are driving today's world governance. He insisted on the fact that the energy dimension was crucial and stated that it was high time for the European Union to build a coherent energy policy. Mr Kaulins, representing the Latvian Presidency of the Council of the EU, further emphasized that the Energy Union opens a new era in the sense that the EU is taking a less technical and a more political approach to addressing its energy challenges. Commencing with a session on new frontiers of geopolitics and the strategies of the main actors, panelists emphasized the key role of the US on the international energy scene since the shale oil revolution. Many operators in the US and in the rest of the world are cutting capital expenditures in reaction to low oil prices, calling into question the time it will take to recover from excess supply. Beyond adapting to this new context of low oil prices, the need for a long term view was illustrated by the discussion on the Oil and Gas Climate Initiative, an industry-led platform launched by several NOCs and IOCs, among them Total, to address climate change concerns, share industry best practices and advance technological solutions. Meanwhile, Russia, faced with the challenges of a stagnating economy and the effects of sanctions, is changing its strategy and is increasingly turning to China to secure its energy exports. Another key theme of the session was the development of Asian rivalry over energy, despite the many fora created to enhance cooperation in the region. The Energy Union was at the heart of the

  20. Stratigraphy and structural setting of Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation, western Centennial Mountains, southwestern Montana and southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Nichols, D.J.; Obradovich, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and palynologic data were used to correlate the Frontier Formation of the western Centennial Mountains with time-equivalent rocks in the Lima Peaks area and other nearby areas in southwestern Montana. The stratigraphic interval studied is in the middle and upper parts (but not uppermost) of the formation based on a comparison of sandstone petrography, palynologic age data, and our interpretation of the structure using a seismic line along the frontal zone of the Centennial Mountains and the adjacent Centennial Valley. The Frontier Formation is comprised of sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, limestone, and silty shale in fluvial and coastal depositional settings. A distinctive characteristic of these strata in the western Centennial Mountains is the absence of conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstone beds. Absence of conglomerate beds may be due to lateral facies changes associated with fluvial systems, a distal fining of grain size, and the absence of both uppermost and lower Frontier rocks in the study area. Palynostratigraphic data indicate a Coniacian age for the Frontier Formation in the western Centennial Mountains. These data are supported by a geochronologic age from the middle part of the Frontier at Lima Peaks indicating a possible late Coniacian-early Santonian age (86.25 ?? 0.38 Ma) for the middle Frontier there. The Frontier Formation in the western Centennial Mountains is comparable in age and thickness to part of the Frontier at Lima Peaks. These rocks represent one of the thickest known sequences of Frontier strata in the Rocky Mountain region. Deposition was from about 95 to 86 Ma (middle Cenomanian to at least early Santonian), during which time, shoreface sandstone of the Telegraph Creek Formation and marine shale of the Cody Shale were deposited to the east in the area now occupied by the Madison Range in southwestern Montana. Frontier strata in the western Centennial Mountains are structurally isolated from other