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Sample records for fronted electronics daughter

  1. SPD very front end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luengo, S.; Gascon, D.; Comerma, A.; Garrido, L.; Riera, J.; Tortella, S.; Vilasis, X.

    2006-01-01

    The Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) is part of the LHCb calorimetry system [D. Breton, The front-end electronics for LHCb calorimeters, Tenth International Conference on Calorimetry in Particle Physics, CALOR, Pasadena, 2002] that provides high-energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first level trigger. The SPD is designed to distinguish electrons from photons. It consists of a plastic scintillator layer, divided into about 6000 cells of different size to obtain better granularity near the beam [S. Amato, et al., LHCb technical design report, CERN/LHCC/2000-0036, 2000]. Charged particles will produce, and photons will not, ionization in the scintillator. This ionization generates a light pulse that is collected by a WaveLength Shifting (WLS) fiber that is coiled inside the scintillator cell. The light is transmitted through a clear fiber to the readout system that is placed at the periphery of the detector. Due to space constraints, and in order to reduce costs, these 6000 cells are divided in groups using a MAPMT [Z. Ajaltouni, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 504 (2003) 9] of 64 channels that provides information to the VFE readout electronics. The SPD signal has rather large statistical fluctuations because of the low number (20-30) of photoelectrons per MIP. Therefore the signal is integrated over the whole bunch crossing length of 25 ns in order to have the maximum value. Since in average about 85% of the SPD signal is within 25 ns, 15% of a sample is subtracted from the following one using an operational amplifier. The SPD VFE readout system that will be presented consists of the following components. A specific ASIC [D. Gascon, et al., Discriminator ASIC for the VFE SPD of the LHCb Calorimeter, LHCB Technical Note, LHCB 2004-xx] integrates the signal, makes the signal-tail subtraction, and compares the level obtained to a programmable threshold (to distinguish electrons from photons). A FPGA programmes the ASIC threshold and the value for

  2. New RPC front-end electronics for hades

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, Alejandro; Cabanelas, P; Díaz, J; Garzón, J A; González-Díaz, D; König, W; Lange, J S; Marín, J; Montes, N; Skott, P; Traxler, M

    2007-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) detectors are mainly used for both particle identification and triggering. Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors are becoming widely used because of their excellent TOF capabilities and reduced cost. The new ESTRELA* RPC wall, which is being installed in the HADES detector at Darmstadt GSI, will contain 1024 RPC modules, covering an active area of around 7 m2. It has excellent TOF and good charge resolutions. Its Front-End electronics is based on a 8-layer Mother-Board providing impedance matched paths for the output signals of each of the eight 4-channel Daughter-Boards to the TDC.

  3. RPC performance vs. front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli, R.; Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Stante, L.; Liberti, B.; Pastori, E.; Santonico, R.; Zerbini, A.

    2012-01-01

    Moving the amplification from the gas to the front-end electronics was a milestone in the development of Resistive Plate Chambers. Here we discuss the historical evolution of RPCs and we show the results obtained with newly developed front-end electronics with threshold in the fC range.

  4. Electronic instrument for radon daughter dosimetry. Report of investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the daily exposures of uranium mining personnel to 222Rn daughters, a device is needed which will continually monitor the individual's exposure. Such a device has been built and tested and is known as the Radon Daughter Dosimeter. This is an electronic instrument using a solid-state detector and circuitry. The system permits the evaluation of cumulative exposures to airborne radon progeny, expressed in units of Working Level Hours (WL-HRS). The instrument is a personal device worn by the individual throughout the working shift. Since the instrument is in close proximity to the miner and measures continual exposure, it provides an accurate account of total cumulative exposure, thus avoiding the errors caused by the present technique of spot checking of the environment

  5. The ALICE TPC front end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, L; Bialas, N; Bramm, R; Campagnolo, R; Engster, Claude; Formenti, F; Bonnes, U; Esteve-Bosch, R; Frankenfeld, Ulrich; Glässel, P; Gonzales, C; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Jiménez, A; Junique, A; Lien, J; Lindenstruth, V; Mota, B; Braun-Munzinger, P; Oeschler, H; Österman, L; Renfordt, R E; Ruschmann, G; Röhrich, D; Schmidt, H R; Stachel, J; Soltveit, A K; Ullaland, K

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the front end electronics for the time projection chamber (TPC) of the ALICE experiment. The system, which consists of about 570000 channels, is based on two basic units: (a) an analogue ASIC (PASA) that incorporates the shaping-amplifier circuits for 16 channels; (b) a mixed-signal ASIC (ALTRO) that integrates 16 channels, each consisting of a 10-bit 25-MSPS ADC, the baseline subtraction, tail cancellation filter, zero suppression and multi-event buffer. The complete readout chain is contained in front end cards (FEC), with 128 channels each, connected to the detector by means of capton cables. A number of FECs (up to 25) are controlled by a readout control unit (RCU), which interfaces the FECs to the data acquisition (DAQ), the trigger, and the detector control system (DCS) . A function of the final electronics (1024 channels) has been characterized in a test that incorporates a prototype of the ALICE TPC as well as many other components of the final set-up. The tests show that the ...

  6. Diffusive scattering of electrons by electron holes around injection fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Bonnell, J. W.

    2017-03-01

    Van Allen Probes have detected nonlinear electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes include electron holes (EH), double layers, and more complicated solitary waves. We show that EHs can efficiently scatter electrons due to their substantial transverse electric fields. Although the electron scattering driven by EHs is diffusive, it cannot be evaluated via the standard quasi-linear theory. We derive analytical formulas describing local electron scattering by a single EH and verify them via test particle simulations. We show that the most efficiently scattered are gyroresonant electrons (crossing EH on a time scale comparable to the local electron gyroperiod). We compute bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and demonstrate their dependence on the EH spatial distribution (latitudinal extent and spatial filling factor) and individual EH parameters (amplitude of electrostatic potential, velocity, and spatial scales). We show that EHs can drive pitch angle scattering of ≲5 keV electrons at rates 10-2-10-4 s-1 and, hence, can contribute to electron losses and conjugated diffuse aurora brightenings. The momentum and pitch angle scattering rates can be comparable, so that EHs can also provide efficient electron heating. The scattering rates driven by EHs at L shells L ˜ 5-8 are comparable to those due to chorus waves and may exceed those due to electron cyclotron harmonics.

  7. The upgraded CDF front end electronics for calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, G.; Frei, D.; Hahn, S.R.; Nelson, C.A.; Segler, S.L.; Stuermer, W.

    1991-11-01

    The front end electronics used in the calorimetry of the CDF detector has been upgraded to meet system requirements for higher expected luminosity. A fast digitizer utilizing a 2 {mu}Sec, 16 bit ADC has been designed and built. Improvements to the front end trigger circuitry have been implemented, including the production of 900 new front end modules. Operational experience with the previous system is presented, with discussion of the problems and performance goals.

  8. The upgraded CDF front end electronics for calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, G.; Frei, D.; Hahn, S.R.; Nelson, C.A.; Segler, S.L.; Stuermer, W.

    1991-11-01

    The front end electronics used in the calorimetry of the CDF detector has been upgraded to meet system requirements for higher expected luminosity. A fast digitizer utilizing a 2 μSec, 16 bit ADC has been designed and built. Improvements to the front end trigger circuitry have been implemented, including the production of 900 new front end modules. Operational experience with the previous system is presented, with discussion of the problems and performance goals

  9. Front-end electronics development for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, M.

    1990-12-01

    This is a status report on electronics development undertaken by the Front-End Electronics Collaboration. The overall goal of the collaboration remains the development by 1992 of complete, architecturally compatible, front end electronic systems for calorimeter, wire drift chamber, and silicon strip readout. We report here a few highlights to give a brief overview of the work underway. Performance requirements and capabilities, selected architectures, circuit designs and test results are presented. 13 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  10. Low noise monolithic CMOS front end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.; Bergmann, H.; Holl, P.; Manfredi, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    Design considerations for low noise charge measurement and their application in CMOS electronics are described. The amplifier driver combination whose noise performance has been measured in detail as well as the analog multiplexing silicon strip detector readout electronics are designed with low power consumption and can be operated in pulsed mode so as to reduce heat dissipation even further in many applications. (orig.)

  11. Fast front-end electronics for COMPASS MWPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Colantoni, M L; Ferrero, A; Frolov, V; Grasso, A; Heinz, S; Maggiora, A; Maggiora, M G; Panzieri, D; Popov, A; Tchalyshev, V

    2000-01-01

    In the COMPASS experiment, under construction at CERN, about 23000 channels of MWPCs will be used. The very high rate of the muon and hadron beams, and the consequently high trigger rate, require front- end electronics with innovative conceptual design. A new MWPC front- end electronics that fulfills the main COMPASS requirement to have a fast DAQ with a minimum dead-time has been designed. The general concept of the front-end cards is described; the comparative tests of two front-end chips, and different fast gas mixtures, are also shown. The commissioning of the experiment will start in the summer 2000, and production running, using the muon beam, is foreseen for the year 2001. (8 refs).

  12. CMOS front-end electronics for radiation sensors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071026

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive treatment of front-end electronics for radiation detection. It discusses the fundamental principles of signal processing for radiation detectors and describes circuits at the level of functional building blocks, omitting transistor-level implementation. It also covers important system-level topics commonly found in the world of front-end electronics for radiation sensors. The book develops the topics in detail, with a constant focus on practical problems. It also provides real implementation examples that offer insights and stimuli for more experienced engineers already working in the field.

  13. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Terri M

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm sup 2. For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes.

  14. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2010-10-12

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  15. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terri M. Shaw et al.

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm 2 . For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes

  16. Front-end electronics for multichannel semiconductor detector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grybos, P

    2010-01-01

    Front-end electronics for multichannel semiconductor detektor systems Volume 08, EuCARD Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology The monograph is devoted to many different aspects related to front-end electronics for semiconductor detector systems, namely: − designing and testing silicon position sensitive detectors for HEP experiments and X-ray imaging applications, − designing and testing of multichannel readout electronics for semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications, especially for noise minimization, fast signal processing, crosstalk reduction and good matching performance, − optimization of semiconductor detection systems in respect to the effects of radiation damage. The monograph is the result mainly of the author's experience in the above-mentioned areas and it is an attempt of a comprehensive presentation of issues related to the position sensitive detection system working in a single photon counting mode and intended to X-ray imaging applications. The structure...

  17. Test of ATLAS RPCs Front-End electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Stante, L.; Liberti, B.; Paoloni, A.; Pastori, E.; Santonico, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Front-End Electronics performing the ATLAS RPCs readout is a full custom 8 channels GaAs circuit, which integrates in a single die both the analog and digital signal processing. The die is bonded on the Front-End board which is completely closed inside the detector Faraday cage. About 50 000 FE boards are foreseen for the experiment. The complete functionality of the FE boards will be certificated before the detector assembly. We describe here the systematic test devoted to check the dynamic functionality of each single channel and the selection criteria applied. It measures and registers all relevant electronics parameters to build up a complete database for the experiment. The statistical results from more than 1100 channels are presented

  18. Modulated electron bunch with amplitude front tilt in an undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2015-12-01

    In a previous paper we discussed the physics of a microbunched electron beam kicked by the dipole field of a corrector magnet by describing the kinematics of coherent undulator radiation after the kick. We demonstrated that the effect of aberration of light supplies the basis for understanding phenomena like the deflection of coherent undulator radiation by a dipole magnet. We illustrated this fact by examining the operation of an XFEL under the steady state assumption, that is a harmonic time dependence. We argued that in this particular case the microbunch front tilt has no objective meaning; in other words, there is no experiment that can discriminate whether an electron beam is endowed with a microbunch front tilt of not. In this paper we extend our considerations to time-dependent phenomena related with a finite electron bunch duration, or SASE mode of operation. We focus our attention on the spatiotemporal distortions of an X-ray pulse. Spatiotemporal coupling arises naturally in coherent undulator radiation behind the kick, because the deflection process involves the introduction of a tilt of the bunch profile. This tilt of the bunch profile leads to radiation pulse front tilt, which is equivalent to angular dispersion of the output radiation. We remark that our exact results can potentially be useful to developers of new generation XFEL codes for cross-checking their results.

  19. PMF: the front end electronic of the ALFA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barrillon, P; Cheikali, C; Cuisy, D; Gaspard, M; Fournier, D; Heller, M; Iwanski, W; Lavigne, B; de La Taille, C; Puzo, P; Socha, J-L

    2008-01-01

    The front end electronic (PMF) of the future ATLAS luminometer is described here. It is composed by a MAPMT and a compact stack of three PCBs which deliver the high voltage, route and readout the output signals. The third board contains a FPGA and MAROC, a 64 channels ASIC which can correct the non uniformity of the MAPMT channels gain thanks to a variable gain preamplifier. Its main role is to shape and discriminate the input signals at 1/3 photo-electron and produce 64 trigger outputs. Laboratory tests performed on prototype and pre-series PMFs have showed performances in good agreement with the requirements.

  20. Novel Front-end Electronics for Time Projection Chamber Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    García García, Eduardo José

    This work has been carried out in the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and it was supported by the European Union as part of the research and development towards the European detector the (EUDET) project, specifically for the International Linear Collider (ILC). In particle physics there are several different categories of particle detectors. The presented design is focused on a particular kind of tracking detector called Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The TPC provides a three dimensional image of electrically charged particles crossing a gaseous volume. The thesis includes a study of the requirements for future TPC detectors summarizing the parameters that the front-end readout electronics must fulfill. In addition, these requirements are compared with respect to the readouts used in existing TPC detectors. It is concluded that none of the existing front-end readout designs fulfill the stringent requirements. The main requirements for future TPC detectors are high integration, an increased n...

  1. Electron Jet Detected by MMS at Dipolarization Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. M.; Fu, H. S.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Gershman, D. J.; Hwang, K.-J.; Chen, Z. Z.; Cao, D.; Xu, Y.; Yang, J.; Peng, F. Z.; Huang, S. Y.; Burch, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Ergun, R. E.; Russell, C. T.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Le Contel, O.

    2018-01-01

    Using MMS high-resolution measurements, we present the first observation of fast electron jet (Ve 2,000 km/s) at a dipolarization front (DF) in the magnetotail plasma sheet. This jet, with scale comparable to the DF thickness ( 0.9 di), is primarily in the tangential plane to the DF current sheet and mainly undergoes the E × B drift motion; it contributes significantly to the current system at the DF, including a localized ring-current that can modify the DF topology. Associated with this fast jet, we observed a persistent normal electric field, strong lower hybrid drift waves, and strong energy conversion at the DF. Such strong energy conversion is primarily attributed to the electron-jet-driven current (E ṡ je ≈ 2 E ṡ ji), rather than the ion current suggested in previous studies.

  2. PMF: The front end electronic of the ALFA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrillon, P., E-mail: barrillo@lal.in2p3.f [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, 91898 Orsay (France); Blin, S.; Cheikali, C.; Cuisy, D.; Gaspard, M.; Fournier, D.; Heller, M. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, 91898 Orsay (France); Iwanski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lavigne, B.; De la Taille, C.; Puzo, P.; Socha, J-L. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, 91898 Orsay (France)

    2010-11-01

    The front end electronic (PMF) of the future ATLAS luminometer is described here. It is composed of a MAPMT and a compact stack of three PCBs, which deliver high voltage, route and read out of the output signals. The third board contains an FPGA and MAROC, a 64-channel ASIC, which can correct the non-uniformity of the MAPMT channels gain, thanks to a variable gain preamplifier. Its main role is to shape and discriminate the input signals at 1/3 photo-electron and produce 64 trigger outputs. Laboratory tests performed on prototype and pre-series PMFs have showed performances in good agreement with the requirements and have fulfilled the approval criteria for the final production of all elements.

  3. PMF: the front end electronic of the ALFA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barrillon, P; Cheikali, C; Cuisy, D; Gaspard, M; Fournier, D; Heller, M; Iwanski, W; Lavigne, B; de La Taille, C; Puzo, P; Socha, J-L

    2010-01-01

    The front end electronic (PMF) of the future ATLAS luminometer is described here. It is composed of a MAPMT and a compact stack of three PCBs, which deliver high voltage, route and read out of the output signals. The third board contains an FPGA and MAROC, a 64-channel ASIC, which can correct the non-uniformity of the MAPMT channels gain, thanks to a variable gain preamplifier. Its main role is to shape and discriminate the input signals at 1/3 photo-electron and produce 64 trigger outputs. Laboratory tests performed on prototype and pre-series PMFs have showed performances in good agreement with the requirements and have fulfilled the approval criteria for the final production of all elements.

  4. Front-end electronics for H.E.P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrisoho, A.

    1990-07-01

    A simplified description of the front-end electronics used for High Energy Physics Detectors is given. A brief analysis of the speed limitation due to the time necessary for the detector charge transfer is given, which depends as well of the detector behaviour as of the preamplifier configuration. A description of the sample electronic circuits like differentiation, integration, pole zero circuit and preamplifier are given. Noise analysis is carried out to derive the relations for the equivalent noise signal for the measuring device with some description of practical noise measuring. The shaping of the signals to obtain an optimization for the noise is considered and some hints for shaping amplifier design, with a description of the noise weightling function for normal and time variant shaping are given

  5. Gravitational Reference Sensor Front-End Electronics Simulator for LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshksar, Neda; Ferraioli, Luigi; Mance, Davor; Zweifel, Peter; Giardini, Domenico; Ten Pierick, Jan

    2017-01-01

    At the ETH Zurich we are developing a modular simulator that provides a realistic simulation of the Front End Electronics (FEE) for LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS). It is based on the GRS FEE-simulator already implemented for LISA Pathfinder. It considers, in particular, the non-linearity and the critical details of hardware, such as the non-linear multiplicative noise caused by voltage reference instability, test mass charging and detailed actuation and sensing algorithms. We present the simulation modules, considering the above-mentioned features. Based on the ETH GRS FEE-simulator for LISA Pathfinder we aim to develop a modular simulator that provides a realistic simulation of GRS FEE for LISA. (paper)

  6. Electronic front-end for LHCb electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigbeder, Ch.

    2000-11-01

    The electronic front-end of the LHCb electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters will be described. It consists of a 9U 32 channel board, each channel including shaper-integrator, 12 bit ADC and look-up tables allowing to code the transverse energy information both for readout and for the Level 0 trigger. The readout information is stored in a fixed latency followed by a derandomizer. The trigger information is processed further on the board by FPGA, performing channel addition and comparison to extract the highest transverse energy local cluster for further processing. The system is fully synchronous and allows to extract candidates for calorimetric trigger at every 40 MHz clock cycle. The operation and characteristics (noise, linearity etc.) of a prototype board will be described. (author)

  7. Front-end electronics and trigger systems - status and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, Helmuth G; Spieler, Helmuth G

    2007-01-01

    The past quarter century has brought about a revolution in front-end electronics for large-scale detector systems. Custom integrated circuits specifically tailored to the requirements of large detector systems have provided unprecedented performance and enabled systems that once were deemed impossible. The evolution of integrated circuit readouts in strip detectors is summarized, the present status described, and challenges posed by the sLHC and ILC are discussed. Performance requirements increase, but key considerations remain as in the past: power dissipation, material, and services. Smaller CMOS feature sizes will not provide the required electronic noise at lower power, but will improve digital power efficiency. Significant improvements appear to be practical in more efficient power distribution. Enhanced digital electronics have provided powerful trigger processors that greatly improve the trigger efficiency. In data readout systems they also improve data throughput, while reducing power requirements. Concurrently with new developments in high energy physics, detector systems for cosmology and astrophysics have made great strides. As an example, a large-scale readout for superconducting bolometer arrays is described

  8. Highly integrated front-end electronics for spaceborne fluxgate sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnes, W; Valavanoglou, A; Hagen, C; Jernej, I; Baumjohann, W; Oberst, M; Hauer, H; Neubauer, H; Pierce, D; Means, J; Falkner, P

    2008-01-01

    Scientific instruments for challenging and cost-optimized space missions have to reduce their resource requirements while keeping the high performance levels of conventional instruments. In this context the development of an instrument front-end ASIC (0.35 µm CMOS from austriamicrosystems) for magnetic field sensors based on the fluxgate principle was undertaken. It is based on the combination of the conventional readout electronics of a fluxgate magnetometer with the control loop of a sigma-delta modulator for a direct digitization of the magnetic field. The analogue part is based on a modified 2–2 cascaded sigma-delta modulator. The digital part includes a primary (128 Hz output) and secondary decimation filter (2, 4, 8,..., 64 Hz output) as well as a serial synchronous interface. The chip area is 20 mm 2 and the total power consumption is 60 mW. It has been demonstrated that the overall functionality and performance of the magnetometer front-end ASIC (MFA) is sufficient for scientific applications in space. Noise performance (SNR of 89 dB with a bandwidth of 30 Hz) and offset stability ( −1 MFA temperature, −1 is acceptable. Only a cross-tone phenomenon must be avoided in future designs even though it is possible to mitigate the effect to a level that is tolerable. The MFA stays within its parameters up to 170 krad of total ionizing dose and it keeps full functionality up to more than 300 krad. The threshold for latch-ups is 14 MeV cm 2 mg −1

  9. Front-end electronics for the ALICE calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ya-Ping; Muller, Hans; Cai, Xu; Zhou, Daicui; Yin, Zhong-Bao; Awes, Terry C.; Wang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    The ALICE calorimeters PHOS and EMCal are based on Avalanche Photo-Diode (APD) photosensors with Charge Sensitive Preamplifiers (CSP) for readout of the scintillating elements. The amplified signals are read out via 32-channel shaper/digitizer front-end electronics (FEE) with 14-bit effective dynamic range. The electronics is based on second order shapers with dual gain for each channel, getting digitized by ALTRO chips. Each APD channel is equipped with an individual 10-bit APD gain adjustment and 2×2 channel clusters generate a 100 ns shaped analog sums output (Fast OR) for the associated Trigger Region Units (TRU). The Fast OR signals are generated by first order shapers with a dynamic range of 12-bit given by the ADC in the TRU cards. Board controller firmware in the FPGA provides local monitoring and configuration of all parameters via the ALICE DCS system. The signal to noise ratio for MIP at 215 MeV is not, vert, similar7 per channel with a noise level of 30 MeV at room temperature for a dynamic range...

  10. Front-end electronics for the Muon Portal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garozzo, S.; Marano, D.; Bonanno, G.; Grillo, A.; Romeo, G.; Timpanaro, M.C. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D.; Riggi, F.; Russo, V.; Bonanno, D.; La Rocca, P.; Longhitano, F.; Bongiovanni, D.G. [Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, and INFN, Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Fallica, G.; Valvo, G. [ST-Microelectronics, Stradale V Primosole 50, Catania (Italy)

    2016-10-11

    The Muon Portal Project was born as a joint initiative between Italian research and industrial partners, aimed at the construction of a real-size working detector prototype to inspect the content of traveling containers by means of secondary cosmic-ray muon radiation and recognize potentially dangerous hidden materials. The tomographic image is obtained by reconstructing the incoming and outgoing muon trajectories when crossing the inspected volume, employing two tracker planes located above and below the container under inspection. In this paper, the design and development of the front-end electronics of the Muon Portal detector is presented, with particular emphasis being devoted to the photo-sensor devices detecting the scintillation light and to the read-out circuitry which is in charge of processing and digitizing the analog pulse signals. In addition, the remote control system, mechanical housing, and thermal cooling system of all structural blocks of the Muon Portal tracker are also discussed, demonstrating the effectiveness and functionality of the adopted design.

  11. Solid-State Photomultiplier with Integrated Front End Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Johnson, Erik; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Jie Chen, Xiao; Miskimen, Rory

    2009-10-01

    The instrumentation cost of physics experiments has been reduced per channel, by the use of solid-state detectors, but these cost-effective techniques have not been translated to scintillation-based detectors. When considering photodetectors, the cost per channel is determined by the use of high-voltage, analog-to-digital converters, BNC cables, and any other ancillary devices. The overhead associated with device operation limits the number of channels for the detector system, while potentially limiting the scope of physics that can be explored. The PRIMEX experiment at JLab, which is being designed to measure the radiative widths of the η and η' pseudo-scalar mesons for a more comprehensive understanding of QCD at low energies, is an example where CMOS solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) can be implemented. The ubiquitous nature of CMOS allows for on-chip signal processing to provide front-end electronics within the detector package. We present the results of the device development for the PRIMEX calorimeter, discussing the characteristics of SSPMs, the potential cost savings, and experimental results of on-chip signal processing.

  12. The LHCb front-end electronics and data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, B

    2000-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is the most recently approved of the four experiments under construction at CERN's LHC accelerator. It is a special purpose experiment designed to precisely measure the CP violation parameters in the B-B system and to study rare B-decays. Triggering poses special problems since the interesting events containing B-mesons are immersed in a large background of inelastic p-p reactions. We therefore decided to implement a four-level triggering scheme. The LHCb data acquisition (DAQ) system will have to cope with an average trigger rate of 40 kHz, after two levels of hardware triggers, and an average event size of 100 kB. Thus, an event-building network which can sustain an average bandwidth of 4 GB /s is required. A powerful software trigger farm will have to be installed to reduce the rate from 40 kHz to 100 Hz of events written for permanent storage. In this paper we will outline the general architectures of the front-end electronics and of the trigger and DAQ system and the readout protocols...

  13. Performances of the Front-End Electronics for the HADES RPC TOF wall on a 12C beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Diaz, J.; Garzon, J.A.; Gil, A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Koenig, W.; Traxler, M.; Zapata, M.

    2009-01-01

    A Front-End Electronics (FEE) chain for timing accurate measurements has been developed for the RPC wall upgrade of the High-Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES). The wall will cover an area of around 8m 2 with 1122 RPC cells (2244 electronic channels). The FEE chain consists of two boards: a four-channel DaughterBOard (DBO) and a 32-channel MotherBOard (MBO). The DBO uses a fast 2 GHz amplifier feeding a discriminator. The time and the charge information are encoded in the leading and the trailing edge (by a charge to width method) of an LVDS signal. Each MBO houses up to eight DBOs providing them regulated voltage supply, threshold values via DACs, test signals and collection of their trigger outputs. The MBO delivers LVDS signals to a time-to-digital converter readout board (TRB) based on HPTDC for data acquisition. In this work, we present the performance of the FEE measured using: (a) narrow electronic test pulses and (b) real signals read out in a fully instrumented RPC sextant installed in its final position at the HADES. The detector was exposed to particles coming from reactions of a 12 C beam on Be and Nb targets at 2 GeV/A kinetic energy. Results for the whole electronic chain (DBO+MBO+TRB) show a timing jitter of around 40 ps/channel for pulses above 100 fC and 80 ps/channel for beam data taken with the RPC.

  14. Performances of the Front-End Electronics for the HADES RPC TOF wall on a 12C beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Díaz, J.; Garzón, J. A.; Gil, A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Koenig, W.; Traxler, M.; Zapata, M.

    2009-05-01

    A Front-End Electronics (FEE) chain for timing accurate measurements has been developed for the RPC wall upgrade of the High-Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES). The wall will cover an area of around 8 m with 1122 RPC cells (2244 electronic channels). The FEE chain consists of two boards: a four-channel DaughterBOard (DBO) and a 32-channel MotherBOard (MBO). The DBO uses a fast 2 GHz amplifier feeding a discriminator. The time and the charge information are encoded in the leading and the trailing edge (by a charge to width method) of an LVDS signal. Each MBO houses up to eight DBOs providing them regulated voltage supply, threshold values via DACs, test signals and collection of their trigger outputs. The MBO delivers LVDS signals to a time-to-digital converter readout board (TRB) based on HPTDC for data acquisition. In this work, we present the performance of the FEE measured using: (a) narrow electronic test pulses and (b) real signals read out in a fully instrumented RPC sextant installed in its final position at the HADES. The detector was exposed to particles coming from reactions of a 12C beam on Be and Nb targets at 2 GeV/A kinetic energy. Results for the whole electronic chain (DBO+MBO+TRB) show a timing jitter of around 40 ps/channel for pulses above 100 fC and 80 ps/channel for beam data taken with the RPC.

  15. Front-end electronics for the upgraded GMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Anil N; Bhalerao, Vilas; Kumar, A Praveen

    2013-01-01

    This paper first describes briefly the existing front-end receiver in use at the GMRT observatory and then details the ongoing development of next generation receiver systems for the upgraded GMRT. It covers the design of the new, two stage, room temperature, low noise amplifiers with better noise performance and matching, and improved dynamic range that are being implemented for the 130–260 MHz, 250–500 MHz and 550–900 MHz bands of the upgraded GMRT front-end systems.

  16. Installation and testing of the 112 boards for the front-end electronics.

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Installation and testing of the 112 boards for the front-end electronics. 28 boards are interconnected to a TPC type Readout Controller Unit trought the horizontal bus strips. The blue tubes are for the circulating cooling water.

  17. A high performance Front End Electronics for drift chamber readout in MEG experiment upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarello, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Chiri, C.; Corvaglia, A.; Grancagnolo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Panareo, M. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Pepino, A., E-mail: aurora.pepino@le.infn.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Pinto, C.; Tassielli, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi” – Universitá del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Lecce, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    Front End (FE) Electronics plays an essential role in Drift Chambers (DC) for time resolution and, therefore, spatial resolution. The use of cluster timing techniques, by measuring the timing of all the individual ionization clusters after the first one, may enable to reach resolutions even below 100 μm in the measurement of the impact parameter. To this purpose, a Front End Electronics with a wide bandwidth and low noise is mandatory in order to acquire and amplify the drift chamber signals.

  18. The hybridized front end electronics of the Central Drift Chamber in the Stanford Linear Collider Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.; Kirsten, F.A.; Nakamura, M.

    1987-10-01

    In order to accommodate the high packaging density requirements for the front end electronics of the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) in the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), the CDC front end electronics has been hybridized. The hybrid package contains eight channels of amplifiers together with all the associated circuits for calibration, event recognition and power economy switching functions. A total of 1280 such hybrids are used in the CDC

  19. A high performance Front End Electronics for drift chamber readout in MEG experiment upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarello, G.; Chiri, C.; Corvaglia, A.; Grancagnolo, F.; Panareo, M.; Pepino, A.; Pinto, C.; Tassielli, G.

    2016-01-01

    Front End (FE) Electronics plays an essential role in Drift Chambers (DC) for time resolution and, therefore, spatial resolution. The use of cluster timing techniques, by measuring the timing of all the individual ionization clusters after the first one, may enable to reach resolutions even below 100 μm in the measurement of the impact parameter. To this purpose, a Front End Electronics with a wide bandwidth and low noise is mandatory in order to acquire and amplify the drift chamber signals.

  20. Front-end electronics for the CMS preshower detector

    CERN Document Server

    Go, A; Barney, D; Bloch, P; Peisert, Anna; Löfstedt, B; Reynaud, S; Borkar, S; Lalwani, S

    2002-01-01

    The front-end readout system PACE2 for the CMS preshower detector consists of two chips: Delta is a 32 channel preamplifier and shaper that provides low noise, charge to voltage readout for large capacitive silicon sensors over a large dynamic range (up to 400 MIPs); PACE-AM contains a 32-channel wide, 160-cell deep, analog memory with a 32 to 1 multiplexer for serial readout. These chips are designed in .8 mu m BiCMOS DMILL radiation tolerant technology. The performance in terms of dynamic range, linearity, noise, peaking time and memory uniformity are presented. (4 refs).

  1. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    This patent describes a portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as in uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout displays the result in terms of working level-hours

  2. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    A portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure Radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air is described. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout diplays the result in terms of working level-hours

  3. Daughters on Hunger Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the embattled interactions between mothers and daughters in the stories by Edna O’Brien, Mary Lavin, Éilís Ní Dhuibhne and Mary Leland. This conflict involves an underlying distorted intimacy between women within a patriarchal Irish context. The daughter in the stories seeks to rebel against the ‘choking love’ of the tyrannical ‘patriarchal mother’ through a symbolic anorexia, in which the daughter rejects the mother’s food or the food associated with the mother. The mother is also shown to feel ambivalent and resistant towards the daughter’s attempt to break from her dependence upon the mother. The conflict and resistance between mothers and daughters in these stories can be evaluated against the framework of the patriarchal context in which women as mothers are silenced and made powerless in front of the ‘Father,’ and therefore, this resistance can be interpreted as a reaction to this patriarchal ideology and its framework in Irish society. The lost bond between older and younger women needs to be rediscovered and restored by a realisation of patriarchal ideology and furthermore, identification with female subjectivity. This identification between women seems to act as a source of redemption for women of different generations, which results in both liberating themselves from the patriarchal dogma.

  4. Performances of the Front-End Electronics for the HADES RPC TOF wall on a {sup 12}C beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belver, D. [LabCAF, USC, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Dep. de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)], E-mail: danielbf@usc.es; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E. [LabCAF, USC, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Dep. de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Diaz, J. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Valencia 46071 (Spain); Garzon, J.A. [LabCAF, USC, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Dep. de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Gil, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Valencia 46071 (Spain); Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Koenig, W.; Traxler, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zapata, M. [LabCAF, USC, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Dep. de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2009-05-01

    A Front-End Electronics (FEE) chain for timing accurate measurements has been developed for the RPC wall upgrade of the High-Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES). The wall will cover an area of around 8m{sup 2} with 1122 RPC cells (2244 electronic channels). The FEE chain consists of two boards: a four-channel DaughterBOard (DBO) and a 32-channel MotherBOard (MBO). The DBO uses a fast 2 GHz amplifier feeding a discriminator. The time and the charge information are encoded in the leading and the trailing edge (by a charge to width method) of an LVDS signal. Each MBO houses up to eight DBOs providing them regulated voltage supply, threshold values via DACs, test signals and collection of their trigger outputs. The MBO delivers LVDS signals to a time-to-digital converter readout board (TRB) based on HPTDC for data acquisition. In this work, we present the performance of the FEE measured using: (a) narrow electronic test pulses and (b) real signals read out in a fully instrumented RPC sextant installed in its final position at the HADES. The detector was exposed to particles coming from reactions of a {sup 12}C beam on Be and Nb targets at 2 GeV/A kinetic energy. Results for the whole electronic chain (DBO+MBO+TRB) show a timing jitter of around 40 ps/channel for pulses above 100 fC and 80 ps/channel for beam data taken with the RPC.

  5. Controlling front-end electronics boards using commercial solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Beneyton, R; Jost, B; Schmeling, S

    2002-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated B-physics experiment under construction at CERN's large hadron collider (LHC) accelerator. This paper will describe the novel approach LHCb is taking toward controlling and monitoring of electronics boards. Instead of using the bus in a crate to exercise control over the boards, we use credit-card sized personal computers (CCPCs) connected via Ethernet to cheap control PCs. The CCPCs will provide a simple parallel, I2C, and JTAG buses toward the electronics board. Each board will be equipped with a CCPC and, hence, will be completely independently controlled. The advantages of this scheme versus the traditional bus-based scheme will be described. Also, the integration of the controls of the electronics boards into a commercial supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system will be shown. (5 refs).

  6. BGO front-end electronics and signal processing in the MXGS instrument for the ASIM mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogseide, Yngve; Cenkeramaddi, Linga Reddy; Genov, Georgi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Bismuth Germanate Oxide (BGO) front-end electronics design and signal processing in Modular X- and Gamma ray sensor (MXGS) instrument onboard the Atmosphere Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM) mission, funded by the European Space Agency. University of Bergen is responsible...... for the design and development of the detector layers and readout electronics for the MXGS instrument. The principal objective of the instrument is to detect Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs), which are related to thunderstorm activity. The digital pulse processing scheme used in the MXGS BGO detector gives...... it a significantly higher rate capability than what has been achieved in other instruments used in the study of terrestrial gamma flashes. The front-end electronics for the BGO detector layer in MXGS system also uses fewer components compared to conventional analog front-ends for BGO detectors, thereby increasing...

  7. Efficient scattering of electrons below few keV by Time Domain Structures around injection fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.

    2016-12-01

    Van Allen Probes observations show an abundance of non-linear large-amplitude electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes referred to as Time Domain Structures (TDS) include electron holes, double layers and more complicated solitary waves. The electron scattering driven by TDS may not be evaluated via the standard quasi-linear theory, since TDS are in principle non-linear plasma modes. In this paper we analyze the scattering of electrons by three-dimensional TDS (with non-negligible perpendicular electric field) around injection fronts. We derive the analytical formulas describing the local scattering by single TDS and show that the most efficiently scattered electrons are those in the first cyclotron resonance (electrons crossing TDS on a time scale comparable with their gyroperiod). The analytical formulas are verified via the test-particle simulation. We compute the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and demonstrate their dependence on the TDS spatial distribution, individual TDS parameters and L shell. We show that TDS are able to provide the pitch-angle scattering of <5 keV electrons at rate 10-2-10-4 s-1 and, thus, can be responsible for driving loss of electrons out of injections fronts on a time scale from few minutes to few hours. TDS can be, thus, responsible for driving diffuse aurora precipitations conjugated to injection fronts. We show that the pitch-angle scattering rates driven by TDS are comparable with those due to chorus waves and exceed those due to electron cyclotron harmonics. For injections fronts with no significant wave activity in the frequency range corresponding to chorus waves, TDS can be even dominant mechanism for losses of below few keV electrons.

  8. Front-end electronics for long straw tube systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulos, J.J.; Blake, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses several critical issues in the readout of long, small diameter plastic straw tubes for central tracking subsystems. Of particular concern are signal attentuation in long straw tubes and signal reflections which arise from improper termination at the ends of the tube. This work is part of a 12 institution collaboration to design and validate a hybrid central tracking chamber (HCTC) utilizing both straw tube and scintillating fiber components. The HCTC design calls for 4 mm diameter plastic straw tubes spanning the entire central tracking region (6-8 m) with readout electronics at both ends. An electrical isolator may be used at the center of each wire to separate each tube into two electrically isolated regions so as to reduce occupancy by a factor of two. With this scheme, no track is farther than 4 m from the associated readout electronics. The HCTC collaboration includes the participation of researchers at the University of Pennsylvania who have contributed a preamplifier and shaper ship which is used in the simulations presented here. A more complete discussion of the HCTC design can be found in the paper by Dr. Alfred Goshaw

  9. Front-End Electronics in calorimetry: from LHC to ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Taille, Ch.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the electronics developments for liquid argon calorimeter read-out at LHC and the development carried out in the framework of the CALICE collaboration for those of the future linear collider (ILC). It also includes chips designed for multi-anode photomultipliers (MaPMT) used in the OPERA experiment or on ATLAS luminometer, which also find applications in medical imaging. Started in the early 90's, the development for ATLAS calorimetry was extremely challenging in terms of readout speed, radiation tolerance and measurement accuracy. The high speed has required a new approach using current-sensitive preamplifiers instead of charge sensitive ones and the redefinition of noise performance in terms of ENI. The preamplifiers developed at Orsay and the monolithic shapers are described in Chapter 1, including considerations of digital filtering, which was a new technique in our field. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the calibration system, designed and built by Orsay, for which the high performance and accuracy necessitated in-depth studies. The 3. chapter closes the studies for ATLAS with a summary of the detector measurements which had to be carried out on the 200 000 channels in order to understand and model the detector and achieve everywhere the accuracy and uniformity at per-cent level. These developments for ATLAS ended in 2004, although parallel work was also carried out for the NA48 and DO calorimeters which are not detailed here. The next generation of collider will require a new generation of calorimeters, much more granular, referred to as 'imaging calorimetry' with embedded read-out electronics. The ASICs developed for this purpose in the framework of the CALICE collaboration are described in Chapter 4. They integrate all the functionalities of amplification, digitization and read-out making them complex 'System-On-Chip' circuits extremely efficient that find many other applications. A family of 3 chips reads out the Si-W electromagnetic

  10. Design and implementation of the ATLAS TRT front end electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Mitch; Atlas TRT Collaboration

    2006-07-01

    The ATLAS TRT subsystem is comprised of 380,000 4 mm straw tube sensors ranging in length from 30 to 80 cm. Polypropelene plastic layers between straws and a xenon-based gas mixture in the straws allow the straws to be used for both tracking and transition radiation detection. Detector-mounted electronics with data sparsification was chosen to minimize the cable plant inside the super-conducting solenoid of the ATLAS inner tracker. The "on detector" environment required a small footprint, low noise, low power and radiation-tolerant readout capable of triggering at rates up to 20 MHz with an analog signal dynamic range of >300 times the discriminator setting. For tracking, a position resolution better than 150 μm requires leading edge trigger timing with ˜1 ns precision and for transition radiation detection, a charge collection time long enough to integrate the direct and reflected signal from the unterminated straw tube is needed for position-independent energy measurement. These goals have been achieved employing two custom Application-specific integrated circuits (ASICS) and board design techniques that successfully separate analog and digital functionality while providing an integral part of the straw tube shielding.

  11. Design and implementation of the ATLAS TRT front end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, Mitch

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS TRT subsystem is comprised of 380,000 4 mm straw tube sensors ranging in length from 30 to 80 cm. Polypropelene plastic layers between straws and a xenon-based gas mixture in the straws allow the straws to be used for both tracking and transition radiation detection. Detector-mounted electronics with data sparsification was chosen to minimize the cable plant inside the super-conducting solenoid of the ATLAS inner tracker. The 'on detector' environment required a small footprint, low noise, low power and radiation-tolerant readout capable of triggering at rates up to 20 MHz with an analog signal dynamic range of >300 times the discriminator setting. For tracking, a position resolution better than 150 μm requires leading edge trigger timing with ∼1 ns precision and for transition radiation detection, a charge collection time long enough to integrate the direct and reflected signal from the unterminated straw tube is needed for position-independent energy measurement. These goals have been achieved employing two custom Application-specific integrated circuits (ASICS) and board design techniques that successfully separate analog and digital functionality while providing an integral part of the straw tube shielding

  12. Front-end Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM). Prototype Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Ryan C.; Morris, Scott J.; Smith, Leon E.; Keller, Daniel T.

    2015-09-16

    The IAEA has requested that PNNL perform an initial set of tests on front-end electronics for unattended measurement (FEUM) prototypes. The FEUM prototype test plan details the tests to be performed, the criteria for evaluation, and the procedures used to execute the tests.

  13. FELIX: a high-throughput network approach for interfacing to front end electronics for ATLAS upgrades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.; Borga, A.; Boterenbrood, H.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Drake, G.; Francis, D.; Gorini, B.; Lanni, F.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Levinson, L.; Narevicius, J.; Plessl, C.; Roich, A.; Ryu, S.; Schreuder, F.; Schumacher, J.; Vandelli, W.; Vermeulen, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning full deployment of a new unified optical link technology for connecting detector front end electronics on the timescale of the LHC Run 4 (2025). It is estimated that roughly 8000 GBT (GigaBit Transceiver) links, with transfer rates up to 10.24 Gbps, will

  14. Modification of doping front migration in electrochemical devices and application to organic electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, Marius; Wan Xianglong; Kopp, Olga; Hermes, Ina; Panz, Jan; Rahmanian, Afsaneh; Knoll, Meinhard

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this paper we demonstrate several ways of tuning the doping front migration process in polymer electronic multilayer structures for the first time. By altering the migration layer thickness the migration velocity may be controlled and it is possible to switch between migration mechanisms. The mechanism of delamination produces rapid jumps in migration velocity, while the addition of 2-hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) can inhibit this effect. In case of vapor activation the migration velocity may be influenced by the relative humidity or by varying the concentration of hygroscopic salts added to the migration layer. The migration mechanisms can be explained in terms of diffusion, capillary transport, and delamination. Tuning the migration process may be used to construct polymer electronic structures such as enhancement and depletion type pseudo transistors and electrical switches (ON-OFF and OFF-ON) with an improved switching time of several minutes. The doping front width is determined by microscopic optical absorption spectroscopy and can be controlled by the concentration of the doping solution. In case of low concentrations the electrochromic effect of the double front is observed. - Abstract: We demonstrate several methods of modifying the doping front migration process in multilayer structures, enabling control of migration velocity and switching between different migration mechanisms. Sharp jumps in migration velocity may be induced using a delamination effect. The influence of migration layer thickness and composition is examined. Migration velocity may also be influenced by exposing the system to a defined relative humidity or by varying the concentration of a hygroscopic salt in the migration layer. The migration mechanisms can be explained in terms of diffusion, capillary transport, and delamination. By tailoring the migration process a variety of polymer electronic structures such as pseudo transistors (enhancement and depletion

  15. Parallel and pipelined front-end for multi-element silicon detectors in scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulin, C.; Epstein, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a silicon quadrant detector (128 elements) implemented as an electron detector in a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope. As the electron beam scans over the sample, electrons are counted during each pixel. The authors developed an ASIC for the multichannel counting system. The digital front-end carries out the readout of all elements, in four groups, and uses these data to compute linear combinations to generate up to eight simultaneous images. For the preprocessing the authors implemented a parallel and pipelined system. Dedicated software tools were developed to generate the programs for all the processors. These tools are transparently accessed by the user via a user friendly interface

  16. Development of front-end electronics for LumiCal detector in CMOS 130 nm technology

    CERN Document Server

    Firlej, M; Idzik, M; Moron, J; Swientek, K; Terlecki, P

    2015-01-01

    front-end electronics for luminosity detector at future Linear Collider are presented. The 8-channel prototype was designed and fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. Each channel comprises a charge sensitive preamplifier with pole-zero cancellation circuit and a CR-RC shaper with 50 ns peaking time. The measurements results confirm full functionality of the prototype and compliance with the requirements imposed by the detector specification. The power consumption of the front-end is in the range 0.6–1.5 mW per channel and the noise ENC around 900 e− at 10 pF input capacitance.

  17. Beam-front dynamics and ion acceleration in drifting intense relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, K.F.; Hintze, W.

    1976-01-01

    Collective ion acceleration at the injection of a relativistic electron beam into a low-pressure gas or a plasma is discussed and its strong dependence on the beam-front dynamics is shown. A simple one-dimensional model taking explicitly into account the motion and ionizing action of the ions in the beam-front region is developed for the calculation of the beam drift velocity. The obtained pressure dependence is in good agreement with experimental data. The energy distribution is shown of the ions accelerated in the moving potential well of the space charge region. Scaling laws for the beam-front dynamics and ion acceleration are derived. (J.U.)

  18. Characterization of front-end electronics for CZT based handheld radioisotope identifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombigit, L., E-mail: lojius@nm.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Yazid, Khairiah; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2016-01-22

    A radioisotope identifier device based on large volume Co-planar grid CZT detector is current under development at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device is planned to be used for in-situ identification of radioisotopes based on their unique energies. This work reports on electronics testing performed on the front-end electronics (FEE) analog section comprising charge sensitive preamplifier-pulse shaping amplifier chain. This test involves measurement of charge sensitivity, pulse parameters and electronics noise. This report also present some preliminary results on the spectral measurement obtained from gamma emitting radioisotopes.

  19. Anode front-end electronics for the cathode strip chambers of the CMS Endcap Muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, T.; Bondar, N.; Golyash, A.; Sedov, V.; Terentiev, N.; Vorobiev, I.

    2005-01-01

    The front-end electronics system for the anode signals of the CMS Endcap Muon cathode strip chambers has about 183,000 channels. The purposes of the anode front-end electronics are to acquire precise muon timing information for bunch crossing number identification at the Level-1 muon trigger system and to provide a coarse radial position of the muon track. Each anode channel consists of an input protection network, amplifier, shaper, constant-fraction discriminator, and a programmable delay. The essential parts of the electronics include a 16-channel amplifier-shaper-discriminator ASIC CMP16 and a 16-channel ASIC D16G providing programmable time delay. The ASIC CMP16 was optimized for the large cathode chamber size (up to 3x2.5 m 2 ) and for the large input capacitance (up to 200 pF). The ASIC combines low power consumption (30 mW/channel) with good time resolution (2-3 ns). The delay ASIC D16G makes possible the alignment of signals with an accuracy of 2.2 ns. This paper presents the anode front-end electronics structure and results of the preproduction and the mass production tests, including radiation resistance and reliability tests. The special set of test equipment, techniques, and corresponding software developed and used in the test procedures are also described

  20. An ASIC implementation of digital front-end electronics for a high resolution PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newport, D.F.; Young, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    AN Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) has been designed and fabricated which implements many of the current functions found in the digital front-end electronics for a high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner. The ASIC performs crystal selection, energy qualification, time correction, and event counting functions for block technology high resolution PET scanners. Digitized x and y position, event energy, and time information are used by the ASIC to determine block crystal number, qualify the event based on energy, and correct the event time. In addition, event counting and block dead time calculations are performed for system dead time corrections. A loadable sequencer for controlling the analog front-end electronics is also implemented. The ASIC is implemented in a 37,000 gate, 1.0 micron CMOS gate-array and is capable of handling 4 million events/second while reducing parts count, cost, and power consumption over current board-level designs

  1. Development of front-end electronics and TDC LSI for the ATLAS MDT

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Y

    2000-01-01

    Architecture of the front-end electronics for the ATLAS muon precision chamber (MDT) is presented. Especially, test results of a prototype TDC chip are described in detail. The chip was fabricated in a 0.3 mu m CMOS gate-array technology. Measurements of critical elements of the chip such as the PLL, and data buffering circuits demonstrated adequate performance. The effect of gamma-ray irradiation, using a /sup 60/Co source, and neutron irradiation, were also examined. The test results revealed radiation tolerance adequate for the operation of the circuits in the environment of the ATLAS MDT. Mounting of the front-end electronics to the MDT is scheduled to start in the year 2001. (10 refs).

  2. Power electron beam front shortening in magnetically insulated transmission line with inner coaxial dielectric insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galstjan, E.A.; Kazanskiy, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    By now the technology of high-power high-current relativistic electron beams with microsecond duration has been developed. The same technology is used in high-power electric pulse generation. However at present the high-power beams of subnanosecond duration are necessary for some investigations and applications. The maximum power parameter achieved by means of the usual technology is limited by a value in the range of 100-300 MW. For this reason a search for new ways to generate high-power REB (relativistic electron beam) is a topical problem. It is obvious that this problem may be reduced to the generation of pulses with a subnanosecond front duration. There are many methods to shorten a pulse duration to its front duration for instance, by using parts of short-circuited transmission lines

  3. Test system for the production of the Atlas Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, David

    2004-01-01

    The Atlas hadronic Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics is fully included in the so-called 'super-drawers'. The 256 super-drawers needed for the entire calorimeter are assembled and extensively tested in Clermont-Ferrand before being sent to CERN to be inserted in the calorimeter modules. A mobile system has been developed to perform a complete test of the super-drawers during their insertion

  4. The front-end (Level-0) electronics interface module for the LHCb RICH detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M. [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bibby, J.H. [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brisbane, S. [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gibson, V. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Harnew, N. [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Jones, M. [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Libby, J. [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.libby1@physics.ox.ac.uk; Powell, A. [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Newby, C. [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Rotolo, N. [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Smale, N. [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Somerville, L.; Sullivan, P.; Topp-Jorgensen, S. [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Wotton, S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wyllie, K. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2007-03-11

    The front-end (Level-0) electronics interface module for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors is described. This module integrates the novel hybrid photon detectors (HPDs), which instrument the RICH detectors, to the LHCb trigger, data acquisition (DAQ) and control systems. The system operates at 40 MHz with a first-level trigger rate of 1 MHz. The module design is presented and results are given for both laboratory and beam tests.

  5. The front-end (Level-0) electronics interface module for the LHCb RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, M.; Bibby, J.H.; Brisbane, S.; Gibson, V.; Harnew, N.; Jones, M.; Libby, J.; Powell, A.; Newby, C.; Rotolo, N.; Smale, N.; Somerville, L.; Sullivan, P.; Topp-Jorgensen, S.; Wotton, S.; Wyllie, K.

    2007-01-01

    The front-end (Level-0) electronics interface module for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors is described. This module integrates the novel hybrid photon detectors (HPDs), which instrument the RICH detectors, to the LHCb trigger, data acquisition (DAQ) and control systems. The system operates at 40 MHz with a first-level trigger rate of 1 MHz. The module design is presented and results are given for both laboratory and beam tests

  6. Front-end electronics for accurate energy measurement of double beta decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A.; Díaz, J.; Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Herrero, V.; Rodriguez, J.; Serra, L.; Toledo, J.; Esteve, R.; Monzó, J.M.; Monrabal, F.; Yahlali, N.

    2012-01-01

    NEXT, a double beta decay experiment that will operate in Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spain), aims at measuring the neutrinoless double-β decay of the 136Xe isotope using a TPC filled with enriched Xenon gas at high pressure operated in electroluminescence mode. One technological challenge of the experiment is to achieve resolution better than 1% in the energy measurement using a plane of UV sensitive photomultipliers readout with appropriate custom-made front-end electronics. The front-end is designed to be sensitive to the single photo-electron to detect the weak primary scintillation light produced in the chamber, and also to be able to cope with the electroluminescence signal (several hundred times higher and with a duration of microseconds). For efficient primary scintillation detection and precise energy measurement of the electroluminescent signals the front-end electronics features low noise and adequate amplification. The signal shaping provided allows the digitization of the signals at a frequency as low as 40 MHz.

  7. A Serializer ASIC at 5 Gbps for Detector Front-end Electronics Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Liu, T; Xiang, A; Ye, J

    2010-01-01

    High speed and ultra low power serial data transmission over fiber optics plays an essential roll in detector front-end electronics readout for experiments at the LHC. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter front-end readout upgrade for the sLHC calls for an optical link system with a data bandwidth of 100 Gbps per each front-end board (FEB), a factor of 62 increase compared with the present optical link system. The transmitter of this optical link will have to withstand the radiation environment where the front-end crates are situated, and stay within the current power dissipation budget limited by the present FEB cooling capacity. To meet these challenges, we developed a 16:1 serializer based on a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) CMOS technology. This serializer, designed to work at 5 Gbps, is a key component in an optical link system. Test results of this ASIC will be reported. A system design for the 100 Gbps optical link system will also be presented, with discussions about key components identi...

  8. Overview of the front end electronics for the Atlas LAR calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rescia, S.

    1997-11-01

    Proposed experiments for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) set new demands on calorimeter readout electronics. The very high energy and large luminosity of the collider call for a large number of high speed, large dynamic range readout channels which have to be carefully synchronized. The ATLAS liquid argon collaboration, after more than 5 years of R and D developments has now finalized the architecture of its front end and read-out electronics, which have been written down in its Technical Design Report (TDR). An overview is presented

  9. Digital front-end electronics for COMPASS Muon-Wall 1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Zhuravlev, N.I.; Maggiora, A.

    2005-01-01

    The digital front-end electronics for the COMPASS Muon-Wall 1 (CERN) detector is described. The digital card has been designed on the basis of the TDC chip F1. One card includes 6 F1 chips (192 channels), bus arbiter, DAC, power supply distribution, hot-link interface. The total number of the digital cards in the system is 44 housed in 5 euro-crates (6U), the total number of readout channels is 8448. The electronics has been designed by the Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (JINR) and INFN (Torino, Italy) experts

  10. Tester of the TRT front-end electronics for the ATLAS-experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hajduk, Z; Kisielewski, B; Kotarba, A; Malecki, P; Natkaniec, Z; Olszowska, J; Ostrowicz, W; Krupinska, G

    2000-01-01

    The VME based tester for front-end electronics of the TRT (Transition Radiation Tracker) detector of the ATLAS-LHC experiment at CERN, Geneva, is described. The TRT read-out electronics for 424576 proportional tubes grouped on many thousands of cards requires stringent quality control after assembly and during installation. The tester provides all required data, pulses, timing and power supplies for tested cards. The essential part of the tester is its software that allows for device handling as well as facilitates functional and statistical tests. The prototype, present design as well as the new design for mass production tests are discussed. (17 refs).

  11. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Front-end Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219286; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter channels at 40-80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented.

  12. VME as a front-end electronics system in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohska, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    It is only a few years since the VME became a standard system, yet the VME system is already so much more popular than other systems. The VME system was developed for industrial applications and not for the scientific research, and high energy physics field is a tiny market when compared with the industrial market. Considerations made here indicate that the VME system would be a good one for a rear-end system, but would not be a good candidate for front-end electronics in physics experiments. Furthermore, there is a fear that the VXI bus could become popular in this field of instrumentation since the VXI system is backed up by major suppliers of instrumentation in the high energy physics field. VXI would not be an adequate system for front-end electronics, yet advertised to be one. It would be worse to see the VXI system to become a standard system for high energy physics instrumentation than the VME system to be one. The VXI system would do a mediocre job so that people might be misled to think that the VXI system can be used as front-end system. (N.K.)

  13. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented

  14. Front-end electronics and readout system for the ILD TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Hedberg, V; Lundberg, B; Mjörnmark, U; Oskarsson, A; Österman, L; De Lentdecker, G; Yang, Y; Zhang, F

    2015-01-01

    A high resolution TPC is the main option for a central tracking detector at the future International Linear Collider (ILC). It is planned that the MPGD (Micro Pattern Gas Detector) technology will be used for the readout. A Large Prototype TPC at DESY has been used to test the performance of MPGDs in an electron beam of energies up to 6 GeV. The first step in the technology development was to demonstrate that the MPGDs are able to achieve the necessary performance set by the goals of ILC. For this ’proof of principle’ phase, the ALTRO front-end electronics from the ALICE TPC was used, modified to adapt to MPGD readout. The proof of principle has been verified and at present further improvement of the MPGD technology is going on, using the same readout electronics. The next step is the ’feasibility phase’, which aims at producing front-end electronics comparable in size (few mm2) to the readout pads of the TPC. This development work is based on the succeeding SALTRO16 chip, which combines the analogue ...

  15. Web-based DAQ systems: connecting the user and electronics front-ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Web technologies are quickly evolving and are gaining in computational power and flexibility, allowing for a paradigm shift in the field of Data Acquisition (DAQ) systems design. Modern web browsers offer the possibility to create intricate user interfaces and are able to process and render complex data. Furthermore, new web standards such as WebSockets allow for fast real-time communication between the server and the user with minimal overhead. Those improvements make it possible to move the control and monitoring operations from the back-end servers directly to the user and to the front-end electronics, thus reducing the complexity of the data acquisition chain. Moreover, web-based DAQ systems offer greater flexibility, accessibility, and maintainability on the user side than traditional applications which often lack portability and ease of use. As proof of concept, we implemented a simplified DAQ system on a mid-range Spartan6 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) development board coupled to a digital front-end readout chip. The system is connected to the Internet and can be accessed from any web browser. It is composed of custom code to control the front-end readout and of a dual soft-core Microblaze processor to communicate with the client.

  16. Web-based DAQ systems: connecting the user and electronics front-ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzi, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Web technologies are quickly evolving and are gaining in computational power and flexibility, allowing for a paradigm shift in the field of Data Acquisition (DAQ) systems design. Modern web browsers offer the possibility to create intricate user interfaces and are able to process and render complex data. Furthermore, new web standards such as WebSockets allow for fast real-time communication between the server and the user with minimal overhead. Those improvements make it possible to move the control and monitoring operations from the back-end servers directly to the user and to the front-end electronics, thus reducing the complexity of the data acquisition chain. Moreover, web-based DAQ systems offer greater flexibility, accessibility, and maintainability on the user side than traditional applications which often lack portability and ease of use. As proof of concept, we implemented a simplified DAQ system on a mid-range Spartan6 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) development board coupled to a digital front-end readout chip. The system is connected to the Internet and can be accessed from any web browser. It is composed of custom code to control the front-end readout and of a dual soft-core Microblaze processor to communicate with the client.

  17. Estimation of radiation effects in the front-end electronics of an ILC electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, V.; Postranecky, M.; Targett-Adams, C.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.

    2008-01-01

    The front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of an International Linear Collider detector are situated in a radiation environment. This requires the effect of the radiation on the performance of the electronics, specifically FPGAs, to be examined. In this paper we study the flux, particle spectra and deposited doses at the front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of a detector at the ILC. We also study the occupancy of the electromagnetic calorimeter. These estimates are compared with measurements, e.g. of the radiation damage of FPGAs, done elsewhere. The outcome of the study shows that the radiation doses and the annual flux is low enough to allow today's FPGAs to operate. The Single Event Upset rate, however, lies between 14 min and 12 h depending on the FPGA used and therefore needs to be considered in the design of the data acquisition system of the electromagnetic calorimeter. The occupancy is about 0.002 per bunch train not taking into account the effect of noise which depends on the choice of the detector

  18. A new portable test bench for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J.; Carrio, F.; Moreno, P.; Usai, G.; Valero, A.; Kim, H.Y.; Minashvili, I.; Shalyugin, A.; Reed, R.; Schettino, V.; Souza, J.; Solans, C.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the upgraded portable test bench for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The previous version of the portable test bench was extensively used for certification and qualification of the front-end electronics during the commissioning phase as well as during the short maintenance periods of 2010 and 2011. The new version described here is designed to be an easily upgradable version of the 10-year-old system, able to evaluate the new technologies planned for the ATLAS upgrade as well as provide new functionalities to the present system. It will be used in the consolidation of electronics campaign during the long shutdown of the LHC in 2013-14 and during future maintenance periods. The system, based on a global re-design with state-of-the-art devices, is based on a back-end electronics crate instrumented with commercial and custom modules and a front-end GUI that is executed on an external portable computer and communicates with the controller in the crate through an Ethernet connection. (authors)

  19. Potential Formation in Front of an Electron Emitting Electrode in a Two-Electron Temperature Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyergyek, T.; Cercek, M.; Erzen, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma potential formation in the pre-sheath region of a floating electron emitting electrode (collector) is studied theoretically in a two-electron-temperature plasma using a static kinetic plasma-sheath model. Dependence of the collector floating potential, the plasma potential in the pre-sheath region, and the critical emission coefficient on the hot electron density and temperature is calculated. It is found that for high hot to cool electron temperature ratio a double layer like solutions exist in a certain range of hot to cool electron densities

  20. The Front End Electronics of the Scintillator Pad Detector of LHCb Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gascon, David; Bota, S; Comerma, A; Diéguez, A; Garrido, L; Gaspar, A; Graciani, R; Graciani, E; Herms, A; Llorens, M; Luengo, S; Picatoste, E; Riera, J; Rosselló, M; Ruiz, H; Tortella, S; Vilasís, X

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the Front End electronics of the Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) is outlined. The SPD is a sub-system of the Calorimeter of the LHCb experiment designed to discriminate between charged and neutral particles for the first level trigger. The system design is presented, describing its different functionalities implemented through three different cards and several ASICs. These functionalities are signal processing and digitization, data transmission, interface with control and timing systems of the experiment, low voltage power supply distribution and monitoring. Special emphasis is placed on installation and commissioning subjects such as cabling, grounding, shielding and power distribution.

  1. Performance of the Low-Jitter High-Gain/Bandwidth Front-End Electronics of the HADES tRPC Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belver, Daniel; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Garzon, J. A.; Gil, A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Koenig, W.; Traxler, M.

    2010-10-01

    A front-end electronics (FEE) chain for accurate time measurements has been developed for the new Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC)-based Time-of-Flight (TOF) wall of the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES). The wall covers an area of around 8 m2, divided in 6 sectors. In total, 1122 4-gap timing RPC cells are read-out by 2244 time and charge sensitive channels. The FEE chain consists of 2 custom-made boards: a 4-channel DaughterBOard (DBO) and a 32-channel MotherBOard (MBO). The DBO uses a fast 2 GHz amplifier feeding a dual high-speed discriminator. The time and charge information are encoded, respectively, in the leading edge and the width of an LVDS signal. Each MBO houses up to 8 DBOs providing them regulated voltage supply, threshold values via DACs, test signals and, additionally, routing out a signal proportional to the channel multiplicity needed for a 1st level trigger decision. The MBO delivers LVDS signals to a multi-purpose Trigger Readout Board (TRB) for data acquisition. The FEE allows achieving a system resolution around 75 ps fulfilling comfortably the requirements of the HADES upgrade .

  2. Concerning the maximum energy of ions accelerated at the front of a relativistic electron cloud expanding into vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; Koga, J.; Tajima, T.; Farina, D.

    2004-01-01

    Results of particle-in-cell simulations are presented that demonstrate characteristic interaction regimes of high-power laser radiation with plasma. It is shown that the maximum energy of fast ions can substantially exceed the electron energy. A theoretical model is proposed of ion acceleration at the front of a relativistic electron cloud expanding into vacuum in the regime of strong charge separation. The model describes the electric field structure and the dynamics of fast ions inside the electron cloud. The maximum energy the ions can gain at the front of the expanding electron cloud is found

  3. Front-end Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM). Results of Prototype Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Ryan C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Keller, Daniel T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) deploys unattended monitoring systems to provide continuous monitoring of nuclear material within safeguarded facilities around the world. As the number of unattended monitoring instruments increases, the IAEA is challenged to become more efficient in the implementation of those systems. In 2010, the IAEA initiated the Front-End Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM) project with the goals of greater flexibility in the interfaces to various sensors and data acquisition systems, and improved capabilities for remotely located sensors (e.g., where sensor and front-end electronics might be separated by tens of meters). In consultation with the IAEA, a technical evaluation of a candidate FEUM device produced by a commercial vendor has been performed. This evaluation assessed the device against the IAEA’s original technical specifications and a broad range of important parameters that include sensor types, cable lengths and types, industrial electromagnetic noise that can degrade signals from remotely located detectors, and high radiation fields. Testing data, interpretation, findings and recommendations are provided.

  4. The Majorana Low-noise Low-background Front-end Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ(0ν)) of the isotope 76Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale germanium-based ββ(0ν)-decay searches, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value of the 76Ge ββ(0ν)-decay. Such a requirement on the background level significantly constrains the design of the readout electronics, which is further driven by noise and energy resolution performances. We present here the low-noise low- background front-end electronics developed for the low-capacitance p-type point contact (P-PC) germanium detectors of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. This resistive-feedback front-end, specifically designed to have low mass, is fabricated on a radioassayed fused-silica substrate where the feedback resistor consists of a sputtered thin film of high purity amorphous germanium and the feedback capacitor is based on the capacitance between gold conductive traces.

  5. A front-end electronic system for large arrays of bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Liu, X.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.; Rosenfeld, C.; Zhu, B. X.

    2018-02-01

    CUORE is an array of thermal calorimeters composed of 988 crystals held at about 10 mK, whose absorbed energy is read out with semiconductor thermistors. The composition of the crystal is TeO2, and the aim is the study of the double beta decay of 130Te on very long and stable runs. CUPID-0 is an array of 26 Zn82Se crystals with double thermistor readout to study the double beta decay of 82Se. In the present paper, we present an overview of the entire front-end electronic readout chain, from the preamplifier to the anti-aliasing filter. This overview includes motivations, design strategies, circuit implementation and performance results of the electronic system, including other auxiliary yet important elements like power supplies and the slow control communication system. The stringent requirements of stability on the very long experimental runs that are foreseen during CUORE and CUPID-0 operation, are achieved thanks to novel solutions of the front-end preamplifier and of the detector bias circuit setup.

  6. Analyses of electron runaway in front of the negative streamer channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.; Neubert, T.; Chanrion, O.

    2017-08-01

    X-ray and γ-ray emissions, observed in correlation with negative leaders of lightning and long sparks of high-voltage laboratory experiments, are conventionally connected with the bremsstrahlung of high-energy runaway electrons (REs). Here we extend a focusing mechanism, analyzed in our previous paper, which allows the electric field to reach magnitudes, required for a generation of significant RE fluxes and associated bremsstrahlung, when the ionization wave propagates in a narrow, ionized channel created by a previous streamer. Under such conditions we compute the production rate of REs per unit streamer length as a function of the streamer velocity and predict that, once a streamer is formed with the electric field capable of producing REs ahead of the streamer front, the ionization induced by the REs is capable of creating an ionized channel that allows for self-sustained propagation of the RE-emitting ionization wave independent of the initial electron concentration. Thus, the streamer coronas of the leaders are probable sources of REs producing the observed high-energy radiation. To prove these predictions, new simulations are planned, which would show explicitly that the preionization in front of the channel via REs will lead to the ionization wave propagation self-consistent with RE generation.

  7. Detector and Front-end electronics for ALICE and STAR silicon strip layers

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Higueret, S; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Suire, C; Tarchini, A; Berst, D; Blondé, J P; Clauss, G; Colledani, C; Deptuch, G; Dulinski, W; Hu, Y; Hébrard, L; Kucewicz, W; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Ravel, O; Retière, F

    1998-01-01

    Detector modules consisting of Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and Front End Electronics (FEE) assembly have been designed in order to provide the two outer layers of the ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) [1] as well as the outer layer of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) [2]. Several prototypes have beenproduced and tested in the SPS and PS beam at CERN to validate the final design. Double-sided, AC-coupled SSD detectors provided by two different manufacturers and also a pair of single-sided SSD have been asssociated to new low-power CMOS ALICE128C ASIC chips in a new detector module assembly. The same detectors have also been associated to current Viking electronics for reference purpose. These prototype detector modules are described and some first results are presented.

  8. Review of input stages used in front end electronics for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplon, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present noise analysis of the input stages most commonly used in front end electronics for particle detectors. Analysis shows the calculation of the input referenced noise related to the active devices. It identifies the type, parallel or series, of the equivalent noise sources related to the input transistors, which is the important input for the further choice of the signal processing method. Moreover we calculate the input impedance of amplifiers employed in applications where the particle detector is connected to readout electronics by means of transmission line. We present schematics, small signal models,a complete set of equations, and results of the major steps of calculations for all discussed circuits.

  9. Considerations on the design of front-end electronics for silicon calorimetry for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Bauer, M.L.; Britton, C.L.; Kennedy, E.J.; Todd, R.A.; Berridge, S.C.; Bugg, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    Some considerations are described for the design of a silicon-based sampling calorimetry detector for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The use of silicon as the detection medium allows fast, accurate, and fine-grained energy measurements - but for optimal performance, the front-end electronics must be matched to the detector characteristics and have the speed required by the high SSC interaction rates. The relation between the signal-to-noise rtio of the calorimeter electronics and the charge collection time, the preamplifier power dissipation, detector capacitance and leakage, charge gain, and signal shaping and sampling was studied. The electrostatic transformer connection was analyzed and found to be unusable for a tightly arranged calorimeter because of stray capacitance effects. The method of deconvolutional sampling was developed as a means for pileup correction following synchronous sampling and analog storage

  10. Front end electronics and first results of the ALICE V0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoccarato, Y., E-mail: y.zoccarato@ipnl.in2p3.f [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Tromeur, W. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Aguilar, S.; Alfaro, R.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Anzo, A.; Belmont, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Combaret, C. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Contreras, G. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508 Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cuautle, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria. Delg. Coyoacan, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ducroux, L. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gonzalez Trueba, L.; Grabski, V. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Grossiord, J.-Y. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Herrera Corral, G. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508 Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-01-21

    This paper gives a detailed description of the acquisition and trigger electronics especially designed for the V0 detector of ALICE at LHC. A short presentation of the detector itself is given before the description of the Front End Electronics (FEE) system, which is completely embedded within the LHC environment as far as acquisition (DAQ), trigger (CTP), and detector control (DCS) are concerned. It is able to detect on-line coincident events and to achieve charge (with a precision of 0.6 pC) and time measurements (with a precision of 100 ps). It deploys quite a simple architecture. It is however totally programmable and fully non-standard in discriminating events coming from Beam-Beam interaction and Beam-Gas background. Finally, raw data collected from the first LHC colliding beams illustrate the performance of the system.

  11. Optimizing read-out of the NECTAr front-end electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiov, S.; Feinstein, F.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Delagnes, E.; Falvard, A.; Gascón, D.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Naumann, C. L.; Nayman, P.; Ribo, M.; Sanuy, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.

    2012-12-01

    We describe the optimization of the read-out specifications of the NECTAr front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The NECTAr project aims at building and testing a demonstrator module of a new front-end electronics design, which takes an advantage of the know-how acquired while building the cameras of the CAT, H.E.S.S.-I and H.E.S.S.-II experiments. The goal of the optimization work is to define the specifications of the digitizing electronics of a CTA camera, in particular integration time window, sampling rate, analog bandwidth using physics simulations. We employed for this work real photomultiplier pulses, sampled at 100 ps with a 600 MHz bandwidth oscilloscope. The individual pulses are drawn randomly at the times at which the photo-electrons, originating from atmospheric showers, arrive at the focal planes of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The timing information is extracted from the existing CTA simulations on the GRID and organized in a local database, together with all the relevant physical parameters (energy, primary particle type, zenith angle, distance from the shower axis, pixel offset from the optical axis, night-sky background level, etc.), and detector configurations (telescope types, camera/mirror configurations, etc.). While investigating the parameter space, an optimal pixel charge integration time window, which minimizes relative error in the measured charge, has been determined. This will allow to gain in sensitivity and to lower the energy threshold of CTA telescopes. We present results of our optimizations and first measurements obtained using the NECTAr demonstrator module.

  12. Optimizing read-out of the NECTAr front-end electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiov, S., E-mail: vorobiov@lpta.in2p3.fr [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); DESY-Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Feinstein, F. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Falvard, A. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Gascon, D. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Glicenstein, J.-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Ribo, M.; Sanuy, A. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2012-12-11

    We describe the optimization of the read-out specifications of the NECTAr front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The NECTAr project aims at building and testing a demonstrator module of a new front-end electronics design, which takes an advantage of the know-how acquired while building the cameras of the CAT, H.E.S.S.-I and H.E.S.S.-II experiments. The goal of the optimization work is to define the specifications of the digitizing electronics of a CTA camera, in particular integration time window, sampling rate, analog bandwidth using physics simulations. We employed for this work real photomultiplier pulses, sampled at 100 ps with a 600 MHz bandwidth oscilloscope. The individual pulses are drawn randomly at the times at which the photo-electrons, originating from atmospheric showers, arrive at the focal planes of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The timing information is extracted from the existing CTA simulations on the GRID and organized in a local database, together with all the relevant physical parameters (energy, primary particle type, zenith angle, distance from the shower axis, pixel offset from the optical axis, night-sky background level, etc.), and detector configurations (telescope types, camera/mirror configurations, etc.). While investigating the parameter space, an optimal pixel charge integration time window, which minimizes relative error in the measured charge, has been determined. This will allow to gain in sensitivity and to lower the energy threshold of CTA telescopes. We present results of our optimizations and first measurements obtained using the NECTAr demonstrator module.

  13. Optimizing read-out of the NECTAr front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobiov, S.; Feinstein, F.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Delagnes, E.; Falvard, A.; Gascón, D.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P.; Ribo, M.; Sanuy, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the optimization of the read-out specifications of the NECTAr front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The NECTAr project aims at building and testing a demonstrator module of a new front-end electronics design, which takes an advantage of the know-how acquired while building the cameras of the CAT, H.E.S.S.-I and H.E.S.S.-II experiments. The goal of the optimization work is to define the specifications of the digitizing electronics of a CTA camera, in particular integration time window, sampling rate, analog bandwidth using physics simulations. We employed for this work real photomultiplier pulses, sampled at 100 ps with a 600 MHz bandwidth oscilloscope. The individual pulses are drawn randomly at the times at which the photo-electrons, originating from atmospheric showers, arrive at the focal planes of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The timing information is extracted from the existing CTA simulations on the GRID and organized in a local database, together with all the relevant physical parameters (energy, primary particle type, zenith angle, distance from the shower axis, pixel offset from the optical axis, night-sky background level, etc.), and detector configurations (telescope types, camera/mirror configurations, etc.). While investigating the parameter space, an optimal pixel charge integration time window, which minimizes relative error in the measured charge, has been determined. This will allow to gain in sensitivity and to lower the energy threshold of CTA telescopes. We present results of our optimizations and first measurements obtained using the NECTAr demonstrator module.

  14. Detector and front-end electronics of a fissile mass flow monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, M.J.; Uckan, T.; Lenarduzzi, R.; Mullens, J.A.; Castleberry, K.N.; McMillan, D.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    A detector and front-end electronics unit with secure data transmission has been designed and implemented for a fissile mass flow monitoring system for fissile mass flow of gases and liquids in a pipe. The unit consists of 4 bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors, pulse-shaping and counting electronics, local temperature sensors, and on-board local area network nodes which locally acquire data and report to the master computer via a secure network link. The signal gain of the pulse-shaping circuitry and energy windows of the pulse-counting circuitry are periodicially self calibrated and self adjusted in situ using a characteristic line in the fissile material pulse height spectrum as a reference point to compensate for drift such as in the detector gain due to PM tube aging. The temperature- dependent signal amplitude variations due to the intrinsic temperature coefficients of the PM tube gain and BGO scintillation efficiency have been characterized and real-time gain corrections introduced. The detector and electronics design, measured intrinsic performance of the detectors and electronics, and the performance of the detector and electronics within the fissile mass flow monitoring system are described

  15. FELIX: A high-throughput network approach for interfacing to front end electronics for ATLAS upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John Thomas; The ATLAS collaboration; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Drake, Gary; Francis, David; Gorini, Benedetto; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Narevicius, Julia; Christian Plessl; Roich, Alexander; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, Jorn; Vandelli, Wainer; Vermeulen, Jos; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning full deployment of a new unified link technology for connecting detector front end electronics on the timescale of the LHC Run 4 (2025). It is estimated that roughly 8000 GBT (GigaBit Transceiver) links, with transfer rates probably up to 9.6 Gbps, will replace existing links used for readout, detector control and distribution of timing and trigger information. In particular the links used for readout are often detector-specific. Already in Run 3 this technology will be deployed in conjunction with new muon detectors, additional muon first-level triggering electronics and new on-detector and off-detector liquid argon calorimeter electronics to be used for first level triggering. A total of roughly 2000 GBT links or GBT-like links (for connecting to off-detector trigger electronics) will be needed. A new class of devices will need to be developed to interface many GBT links to the rest of the trigger, data-acquisition and detector control systems. In this paper we prese...

  16. FELIX: a High-Throughput Network Approach for Interfacing to Front End Electronics for ATLAS Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J; Drake, G; Ryu, S; Zhang, J; Borga, A; Boterenbrood, H; Schreuder, F; Vermeulen, J; Chen, H; Chen, K; Lanni, F; Francis, D; Gorini, B; Miotto, G Lehmann; Schumacher, J; Vandelli, W; Levinson, L; Narevicius, J; Roich, A; Plessl, C

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning full deployment of a new unified optical link technology for connecting detector front end electronics on the timescale of the LHC Run 4 (2025). It is estimated that roughly 8000 GBT (GigaBit Transceiver) links, with transfer rates up to 10.24 Gbps, will replace existing links used for readout, detector control and distribution of timing and trigger information. A new class of devices will be needed to interface many GBT links to the rest of the trigger, data-acquisition and detector control systems. In this paper FELIX (Front End LInk eXchange) is presented, a PC-based device to route data from and to multiple GBT links via a high-performance general purpose network capable of a total throughput up to O(20 Tbps). FELIX implies architectural changes to the ATLAS data acquisition system, such as the use of industry standard COTS components early in the DAQ chain. Additionally the design and implementation of a FELIX demonstration platform is presented and hardware and software aspects will be discussed. (paper)

  17. Fast front-end electronics for semiconductor tracking detectors: Trends and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivetti, Angelo

    2014-11-21

    In the past few years, extensive research efforts pursued by both the industry and the academia have lead to major improvements in the performance of Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Time to Digital Converters (TDCs). ADCs achieving 8–10 bit resolution, 50–100 MHz conversion frequency and less than 1 mW power consumption are the today's standard, while TDCs have reached sub-picosecond time resolution. These results have been made possible by architectural upgrades combined with the use of ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies with minimum feature size of 130 nm or smaller. Front-end ASICs in which a prompt digitization is followed by signal conditioning in the digital domain can now be envisaged also within the tight power budget typically available in high density tracking systems. Furthermore, tracking detectors embedding high resolution timing capabilities are gaining interest. In the paper, ADC's and TDC's developments which are of particular relevance for the design front-end electronics for semiconductor trackers are discussed along with the benefits and challenges of exploiting such high performance building blocks in implementing the next generation of ASICs for high granularity particle detectors.

  18. Status report on front end electronics for the EUSO photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosson, G.; Dzahini, D.; Koang, D.H.; Musico, P.; Pallavicini, M.; Pouxe, J.; Pratolongo, F.; Richer, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we'll give a status report on the design of the front end electronic system which will be used for the EUSO photon detector. For space, mass and power consumption constraints the system will be implemented developing an ASIC chip using a deep submicron technology. Two complementary approaches will be described: a digital one (DFEE) and an analog one (AFEE). The DFEE is able to count the single photoelectrons coming form the detector, store the numbers in a memory buffer and read them out after a trigger using a serial communication line. The AFEE integrate the anode signals, store them in an analog memory and serially send all the values to a single output after a trigger for digitalisation (external to the chip). Since the approaches are complementary the idea is to put both of them in the final front end chip. An overview of the system is given together to the actual status of the design. Results from simulations are shown: the system is feasible and we think to implement some devices this year to extensively test the proposed solutions

  19. Status report on front end electronics for the EUSO photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, G.; Dzahini, D.; Koang, D.H.; Musico, P.; Pallavicini, M.; Pouxe, J.; Pratolongo, F.; Richer, J.P

    2002-12-01

    In this paper we'll give a status report on the design of the front end electronic system which will be used for the EUSO photon detector. For space, mass and power consumption constraints the system will be implemented developing an ASIC chip using a deep submicron technology. Two complementary approaches will be described: a digital one (DFEE) and an analog one (AFEE). The DFEE is able to count the single photoelectrons coming form the detector, store the numbers in a memory buffer and read them out after a trigger using a serial communication line. The AFEE integrate the anode signals, store them in an analog memory and serially send all the values to a single output after a trigger for digitalisation (external to the chip). Since the approaches are complementary the idea is to put both of them in the final front end chip. An overview of the system is given together to the actual status of the design. Results from simulations are shown: the system is feasible and we think to implement some devices this year to extensively test the proposed solutions.

  20. Effects of a metallic front gate on the temperature-dependent electronic property of pentacene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yow-Jon, E-mail: rzr2390@yahoo.com.tw [Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Hou-Yen [Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Liu, Day-Shan [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei 632, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-14

    The effect of a metallic front gate on the temperature-dependent electronic property of pentacene films was investigated in this study. The carrier mobility exhibits strong temperature dependence, implying the dominance of tunneling (hopping) at low (high) temperatures. The room-temperature mobility was drastically increased by capping an In (Au) layer on the pentacene front surface. However, the carrier concentration is not affected. An increase in the phonon energy occurs for In-capped or Au-capped pentacene samples, which corresponds to the abrupt transition to the nonlocal electron–phonon coupling. The enhanced mobility by capping a metal layer is attributed to a change in the electron–phonon coupling. - Highlights: • For the metal-capped and uncapped pentacene films, the mobility was researched. • The mobility was dramatically increased by capping an In (Au) layer. • The induced strain by capping a metal layer is found. • The strain may lead to the electron–phonon coupling variation. • The enhanced mobility is attributed to the weakened electron–phonon coupling.

  1. The front-end data conversion and readout electronics for the CMS ECAL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will require a significant upgrade of the readout electronics for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL). The Very Front-End (VFE) output signal will be sampled at 160 MS/s (i.e. four times the current sampling rate) with 13 bit resolution. Therefore, a high-speed, high-resolution ADC is required. Moreover, each readout channel will produce 2.08 Gb/s, thus requiring fast data transmission circuitry. A new readout architecture, based on two 12 bit, 160 MS/s ADCs, lossless data compression algorithms and fast serial links have been developed for the ECAL upgrade. These functions will be integrated in a single ASIC which is currently under design in a commercial CMOS 65 nm technology using radiation damage mitigation techniques.

  2. The front-end data conversion and readout electronics for the CMS ECAL upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, G.; Cometti, S.

    2018-03-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will require a significant upgrade of the readout electronics for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL). The Very Front-End (VFE) output signal will be sampled at 160 MS/s (i.e. four times the current sampling rate) with a 13 bits resolution. Therefore, a high-speed, high-resolution ADC is required. Moreover, each readout channel will produce 2.08 Gb/s, thus requiring a fast data transmission circuitry. A new readout architecture, based on two 12 bit, 160 MS/s ADCs, lossless data compression algorithms and fast serial links have been developed for the ECAL upgrade. These functions will be integrated in a single ASIC which is currently under design in a commercial CMOS 65 nm technology using radiation damage mitigation techniques.

  3. Actuation stability test of the LISA pathfinder inertial sensor front-end electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mance, Davor; Gan, Li; Weber, Bill; Weber, Franz; Zweifel, Peter

    In order to limit the residual stray forces on the inertial sensor test mass in LISA pathfinder, √ it is required that the fluctuation of the test mass actuation voltage is within 2ppm/ Hz. The actuation voltage stability test on the flight hardware of the inertial sensor front-end electronics (IS FEE) is presented in this paper. This test is completed during the inertial sensor integration at EADS Astrium Friedrichshafen, Germany. The standard measurement method using voltmeter is not sufficient for verification, since the instrument low frequency √ fluctuation is higher than the 2ppm/ Hz requirement. In this test, by using the differential measurement method and the lock-in amplifier, the actuation stability performance is verified and the quality of the IS FEE hardware is confirmed by the test results.

  4. Front-end electronics for the readout of CdZnTe sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, D; Rudge, A

    2006-01-01

    The CERN_DxCTA is a front-end ASIC optimized for the readout of CdZn Te sensors. The chip is implemented in 0.25 mum CMOS technology. The circuit consists of 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain-shaper stage with 20 ns peaking time and two discriminators, allowing two threshold settings. Each discriminator includes a 5-bit trim DAC and is followed by an 18-bit static ripple-counter. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and Cd ZnTe pixel detectors.

  5. The NA62 LAV front-end electronics and the L0 trigger generating firmware

    CERN Document Server

    Gonnella, Francesco; Corradi, Giovanni; Kozhuharov , Venelin ; Martellotti, Silvia; Moulson, Matthew; Raggi, Mauro; Spadaro, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the NA62 experiment is to measure the branching ratio of the decay K + ! p + n ̄ n to within about 10%. The large-angle photon vetoes (LAVs) must detect particles with better than 1 ns time resolution and 10% energy resolution over a very large energy range in order to reject the dominant background: photons coming from p + p 0 decays. A low threshold, large dynamic range, time-over-threshold based solution has been developed for the LAV front end electronics (LAV-FEE). Our custom 32 channel 9U board uses a pair of low threshold discriminators for each channel to produce LVDS logic signals. The achieved time resolution obtained in laboratory, coupled to a readout board based on the HPTDC chip developed at CERN, is 100 ps. For LAV-FEE, a FPGA-based level-0 trigger providing slewing-corrected trigger time with similar precision has also been developed.

  6. The Study of Fault Location for Front-End Electronics System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Wang Dong; Huang Guangming; Zhou Daicui

    2009-01-01

    Since some devices on the latest developed 250 ALICE/PHOS Front-end electronics (FEE) system cards had been partly or completely damaged during lead-free soldering. To alleviate the influence on the performance of FEE system and to locate fault related FPGA accurately, we should find a method for locating fault of FEE system based on the deep study of FPGA configuration scheme. It emphasized on the problems such as JTAG configuration of multi-devices, PS configuration based on EPC series configuration devices and auto re-configuration of FPGA. The result of the massive FEE system cards testing and repairing show that that location method can accurately and quickly target the fault point related FPGA on FEE system cards. (authors)

  7. Front-End Electronics for Verification Measurements: Performance Evaluation and Viability of Advanced Tamper Indicating Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.; Conrad, R.; Morris, S.; Ramuhalli, P.; Sheen, D.; Schanfein, M.; Ianakiev, K.; Browne, M.; Svoboda, J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) continues to expand its use of unattended, remotely monitored measurement systems. An increasing number of systems and an expanding family of instruments create challenges in terms of deployment efficiency and the implementation of data authentication measures. A collaboration between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is working to advance the IAEA's capabilities in these areas. The first objective of the project is to perform a comprehensive evaluation of a prototype front-end electronics package, as specified by the IAEA and procured from a commercial vendor. This evaluation begins with an assessment against the IAEA's original technical specifications and expands to consider the strengths and limitations over a broad range of important parameters that include: sensor types, cable types, and the spectrum of industrial electromagnetic noise that can degrade signals from remotely located detectors. A second objective of the collaboration is to explore advanced tamper-indicating (TI) measures that could help to address some of the long-standing data authentication challenges with IAEA's unattended systems. The collaboration has defined high-priority tampering scenarios to consider (e.g., replacement of sensor, intrusion into cable), and drafted preliminary requirements for advanced TI measures. The collaborators are performing independent TI investigations of different candidate approaches: active time-domain reflectometry (PNNL), passive noise analysis (INL), and pulse-by-pulse analysis and correction (LANL). The initial investigations focus on scenarios where new TI measures are retrofitted into existing IAEA UMS deployments; subsequent work will consider the integration of advanced TI methods into new IAEA UMS deployments where the detector is separated from the front-end electronics. In this paper, project progress

  8. Development of a multi-channel front-end electronics module based on ASIC for silicon strip array detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xingwen; Yan Duo; Su Hong; Qian Yi; Kong Jie; Zhang Xueheng; Li Zhankui; Li Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The silicon strip array detector is one of external target facility subsystems in the Cooling Storage Ring on the Heavy Ion Research Facility at Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR). Using the ASICs, the front-end electronics module has been developed for the silicon strip array detectors and can implement measurement of energy of 96 channels. The performance of the front-end electronics module has been tested. The energy linearity of the front-end electronics module is better than 0.3% for the dynamic range of 0.1∼0.7 V. The energy resolution is better than 0.45%. The maximum channel crosstalk is better than 10%. The channel consistency is better than 1.3%. After continuously working for 24 h at room temperature, the maximum drift of the zero-peak is 1.48 mV. (authors)

  9. Development of pixel front-end electronics using advanced deep submicron CMOS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havranek, Miroslav

    2014-09-01

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R and D of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore's laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key parameters for design of the pixel front-end electronics and thus it is closely related to the content of the thesis. The theoretical background, aspects of chip design, performance of chip prototypes and prospect for design of large pixel chips are comprehensively described in five chapters of the thesis.

  10. Development of pixel front-end electronics using advanced deep submicron CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havranek, Miroslav

    2014-09-15

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R and D of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore's laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key parameters for design of the pixel front-end electronics and thus it is closely related to the content of the thesis. The theoretical background, aspects of chip design, performance of chip prototypes and prospect for design of large pixel chips are comprehensively described in five chapters of the thesis.

  11. The Front-End Electronics for the HADES RPC Wall (ESTRELA-FEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belver, D.; Garzon, J.A.; Gil, A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Koenig, W.; Lange, S.; Marin, J.; Montes, N.; Skott, P.; Traxler, M.; Zapata, M.

    2006-01-01

    A new front-end electronics (FEE) system for RPC timing measurements has been developed for the ESTRELA project, which is part of the upgrade of the HADES experiment at GSI. The RPCs will cover an area of 8 m 2 with 2048 electronic channels. The chain consists on 2 boards: a 4-channel daughterboard (DB) and a 32-channel motherboard (MB). The DB uses a fast 2 GHz amplifier that feeds a discriminator with a constant threshold and an operational amplifier for a charge measurement by a Time-Over-Threshold (ToT) method for the integrated signal (for a slewing correction). The MB is connected to 8 DB, and provides voltage regulation, DACs for signal thresholds and a trigger logic. The MB delivers the differential output signals to an external HPTDC chip. Results are presented for (a) narrow electronic test pulses and for (b) RPC signals from gamma photons, showing a timing jitter around 15 ps/channel (for pulses above 100 fC) and 30-40 ps/channel, respectively. Tests with coincidently firing channels reveal levels of cross-talk below a 1% for a threshold of 25 fC, with a degradation of the time resolution of 10 ps at most

  12. Front-end electronics and data acquisition system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.T.; La Taille, C. de; Suomijärvi, T.; Cao, Z.; Deligny, O.; Dulucq, F.; Ge, M.M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Nguyen Trung, T.; Wanlin, E.; Xiao, G.; Yin, L.Q.; Yun Ky, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, S.S.; Zhu, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a front-end electronics based on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is presented for the future imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). To achieve this purpose, a 16-channel ASIC chip, PARISROC 2 (Photomultiplier ARray Integrated in SiGe ReadOut Chip) is used in the analog signal processing and digitization. The digitized results are sent to the server by a user-defined User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol (UDP/IP) hardcore engine through Ethernet that is managed by a FPGA. A prototype electronics fulfilling the requirements of the Wide Field of View Cherenkov Telescope Array (WFCTA) of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project has been designed, fabricated and tested to prove the concept of the design. A detailed description of the development with the results of the test measurements are presented. By using a new input structure and a new configuration of the ASIC, the dynamic range of the circuit is extended. A highly precise-time calibrating algorithm is also proposed, verified and optimized for the mass production. The test results suggest that the proposed electronics design fulfills the general specification of the future IACTs

  13. Front-end electronics and data acquisition system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.T., E-mail: chenytao@ynu.edu.cn [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming (China); La Taille, C. de [OMEGA (UMS 3605) - IN2P3/CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Suomijärvi, T. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Cao, Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, 100049 Beijing (China); Deligny, O. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Dulucq, F. [OMEGA (UMS 3605) - IN2P3/CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Ge, M.M. [Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming (China); Lhenry-Yvon, I. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Martin-Chassard, G. [OMEGA (UMS 3605) - IN2P3/CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Nguyen Trung, T.; Wanlin, E. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Xiao, G.; Yin, L.Q. [Institute of High Energy Physics, 100049 Beijing (China); Yun Ky, B. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Zhang, L. [Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming (China); Zhang, H.Y. [Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China); Zhang, S.S.; Zhu, Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2015-09-21

    In this paper, a front-end electronics based on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is presented for the future imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). To achieve this purpose, a 16-channel ASIC chip, PARISROC 2 (Photomultiplier ARray Integrated in SiGe ReadOut Chip) is used in the analog signal processing and digitization. The digitized results are sent to the server by a user-defined User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol (UDP/IP) hardcore engine through Ethernet that is managed by a FPGA. A prototype electronics fulfilling the requirements of the Wide Field of View Cherenkov Telescope Array (WFCTA) of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project has been designed, fabricated and tested to prove the concept of the design. A detailed description of the development with the results of the test measurements are presented. By using a new input structure and a new configuration of the ASIC, the dynamic range of the circuit is extended. A highly precise-time calibrating algorithm is also proposed, verified and optimized for the mass production. The test results suggest that the proposed electronics design fulfills the general specification of the future IACTs.

  14. Front-end receiver electronics for a matrix transducer for 3-D transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zili; Blaak, Sandra; Chang, Zu-yao; Yao, Jiajian; Bosch, Johan G; Prins, Christian; Lancée, Charles T; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel A P; Meijer, Gerard C M

    2012-07-01

    There is a clear clinical need for creating 3-D images of the heart. One promising technique is the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). To enable 3-D TEE, we are developing a miniature ultrasound probe containing a matrix piezoelectric transducer with more than 2000 elements. Because a gastroscopic tube cannot accommodate the cables needed to connect all transducer elements directly to an imaging system, a major challenge is to locally reduce the number of channels, while maintaining a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. This can be achieved by using front-end receiver electronics bonded to the transducers to provide appropriate signal conditioning in the tip of the probe. This paper presents the design of such electronics, realizing time-gain compensation (TGC) and micro-beamforming using simple, low-power circuits. Prototypes of TGC amplifiers and micro-beamforming cells have been fabricated in 0.35-μm CMOS technology. These prototype chips have been combined on a printed circuit board (PCB) to form an ultrasound-receiver system capable of reading and combining the signals of three transducer elements. Experimental results show that this design is a suitable candidate for 3-D TEE.

  15. Front-end electronics and trigger systems-Status and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, Helmuth

    2007-01-01

    The past quarter century has brought about a revolution in front-end electronics for large-scale detector systems. Custom integrated circuits specifically tailored to the requirements of large detector systems have provided unprecedented performance and enabled systems that once were deemed impossible. The evolution of integrated circuit readouts in strip detectors is summarized, the present status described, and challenges posed by the sLHC and ILC are discussed. Performance requirements increase, but key considerations remain as in the past: power dissipation, material, and services. Smaller CMOS feature sizes will not reduce the power required for the desired noise levels, but will improve digital power efficiency. Significant improvements appear to be practical in more efficient power distribution. Enhanced digital electronics have provided powerful trigger processors that greatly improve the trigger efficiency. In data readout systems, they also improve data throughput, while reducing power requirements. Concurrently with new developments in high energy physics, detector systems for cosmology and astrophysics have made great strides. As an example, a large-scale readout for superconducting bolometer arrays is described

  16. BPM ANALOG FRONT-END ELECTRONICS BASED ON THE AD8307 LOG AMPLIFIER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. SHURTER; ET AL

    2000-01-01

    Beam position monitor (BPM) signal-processing electronics utilizing the Analog Devices AD8307 logarithmic amplifier has been developed for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at Los Alamos. The low-pass filtered 350 MHz fundamental signal from each of the four microstrip electrodes in a BPM is ''detected'' by an AD8307 log amp, amplified and scaled to accommodate the 0 to +5V input of an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. The resultant four digitized signals represent a linear power relationship to the electrode signals, which are in turn related to beam current and position. As the AD8307 has a potential dynamic range of approximately 92 dB, much attention must be given to noise reduction, sources of which can be digital signals on the same board, power supplies, inter-channel coupling, stray RF and others. This paper will describe the operational experience of this particular analog front-end electronic circuit design

  17. Fast front-end L0 trigger electronics for ALICE FMD-MCP tests and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Efimov, L G; Kasatkan, V; Klempt, W; Kuts, V; Lenti, V; Platanov, V; Rudge, A; Stolyarov, O I; Tsimbal, F A; Valiev, F F; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, L I; Zhigunov, O

    1997-01-01

    We present design details and new measurements of the performance of fast electronics for the Forward Multiplicity Detector for ALICE. These detectors based on sector type Microchannel Plates (MCP) forming several disks gave the very first trigger decision in the experiment (L0). Fast passive summators integrated with the detectors are used for linear summation of up to eight isochronous signal channels from MCP pads belonging to one sector. Two types of microelectronics design thin film summators were produced. We present test results for these summators, working in the frequency range up to 1 Ghz. New low noise preamplifiers have been built to work with these summators. The new design shows a good performance with the usable frequency range extended up to 1 Ghz. An upgrade of the functional scheme for the L0 ALICE pre-trigger design is also presented.Abstract:List of figures Figure 1: ALICE L0 Trigger Front-End Electronics Functional Scheme. Figure 2: UHF design for a fast passive summator based on direct...

  18. A segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics for a PET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Mathot, S; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; Ciocia, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Argentieri, A; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Pasqua, D

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is put on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  19. Performance of the front-end signal processing electronics for the drift chambers of the Stanford Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, A.; Haller, G.M.; Usher, T.; Shypit, R.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reports on the performance of the front-end analog and digital signal processing electronics for the drift chambers of the Stanford Large Detector (SLD) detector at the Stanford Linear Collider. The electronics mounted on printed circuit boards include up to 64 channels of transimpedance amplification, analog sampling, A/D conversion, and associated control circuitry. Measurements of the time resolution, gain, noise, linearity, crosstalk, and stability of the readout electronics are described and presented. The expected contribution of the electronics to the relevant drift chamber measurement resolutions (i.e., timing and charge division) is given

  20. DAQ system for testing RPC front-end electronics of the INO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, K.; Sukhwani, Menka; Kesarkar, Tushar A.; Kumar, Sandeep; Chandratre, V.B.; Das, D.; Shinde, R.R.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is the active detector element in the INO experiment. The in-house developed ANUSPARSH-III ASICs are being used as front-end electronics of the detector. The 2 m X 2 m RPC being used has 64-readout channels on X-side and 64-readout channels on Y-side. In order to test and validate the FE along with the RPC, a 64-channel DAQ system has been designed and developed. The detector parameters to be measured are noise rate, efficiency, hit pattern register and time resolution. The salient features of the DAQ system are: 64-channel LVDS receiver in FPGA, FPGA based parameter calculations and a micro controller for acquiring the processed data from FPGAs and sent through Ethernet and USB interfaces. The DAQ system consists of following parts: Two FPGAs each receiving 32 LVDS channels, FPGA firm-ware, micro controller firm-ware, Ethernet interface, embedded web server hosting data analysis software, USB interface, and Lab-windows based data analysis software. The DAQ system has been tested at TIFR with 1 m X 1 m RPC

  1. Photodetectors and front-end electronics for the LHCb RICH upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassina, L.; LHCb RICH

    2017-12-01

    The RICH detectors of the LHCb experiment provide identification of hadrons produced in high energy proton-proton collisions in the LHC at CERN over a wide momentum range (2-100 GeV/c). Cherenkov light is collected on photon detector planes sensitive to single photons. The RICH will be upgraded (in 2019) to read out every bunch crossing, at a rate of 40 MHz. The current hybrid photon detectors (HPD) will be replaced with multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (customisations of the Hamamatsu R11265 and the H12699 MaPMTs). These 8×8 pixel devices meet the experimental requirements thanks to their small pixel size, high gain, negligible dark count rate (∼50 Hz/cm2) and moderate cross-talk. The measured performance of several tubes is reported, together with their long-term stability. A new 8-channel front-end chip, named CLARO, has been designed in 0.35 μm CMOS AMS technology for the MaPMT readout. The CLARO chip operates in binary mode and combines low power consumption (∼1 mW/Ch), wide bandwidth (baseline restored in ⩽ 25 ns) and radiation hardness. A 12-bit digital register permits the optimisation of the dynamic range and the threshold level for each channel and provides tools for the on-site calibration. The design choices and the characterization of the electronics are presented.

  2. Front-Row Seat at the IPY: The Field Notes Electronic Newsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rithner, P. K.; Zager, S. D.; Garcia-Lavigne, D. N.

    2007-12-01

    As employees of Polar Field Services/VPR, the arctic logistics provider to the US National Science Foundation, we bear witness to the exploration, documentation, and celebration of the International Polar Year (IPY). Our front- row vantage point (logisticians working with field scientists) offers us a rare opportunity to report on developments at the frontiers of polar research and to describe how scientists work in the Arctic. Our reporting mechanism is field notes, a weekly (summer) to monthly (winter) electronic digest of information about the IPY research we support. Each issue showcases a short "cover" piece highlighting science projects or profiling arctic program participants. In addition, field notes offers news updates, short interviews, and blog-style dispatches contributed by researchers and support personnel. Wherever possible, we include URLs so readers may find more information via the Web: we link to an online database of projects we maintain for the NSF, to university Web sites, project blogs, and so on. We aim to inform the interested layperson about the myriad of activity in the IPY. We like to show that arctic science is interesting, relevant--and a great adventure. We've found field notes to be an excellent outreach venue. By no means a slick media outlet, field notes is published "on the side" by a small but dedicated group of employees who are endlessly fascinated by, and who enjoy an engaging perspective on, contemporary arctic research. Newsletter

  3. Calibration and performance test of the Very-Front-End electronics for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.

    2008-05-01

    A Very-Front-End (VFE) card is an important part of the on-detector read-out electronics of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) electromagnetic calorimeter that is made of ∼ 76.000 radiation hard scintillating crystals PbWO 4 and operates on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Almost 16.000 VFE cards that shape, amplify and digitize incoming signals from photodetectors generated by interacting particles. Since any maintenance of any part of the calorimeter is not possible during the 10-year lifetime of the experiment, the extensive screening program was employed throughout the whole manufacture process. As a part of readout electronics quality assurance program, the systems for burn-in and precise calibration of the VFE boards were developed and successfully used at IPN Lyon. In addition to functionality tests, all relevant electrical properties of each card were measured and analyzed in detail to obtain their full characterization and to build a database with all required parameters which will serve for the initial calibration of the whole calorimeter. In order to evaluate the calorimeter performance and also to deliver the most precise calibration constants, several fully equipped super-modules were extensively studied and calibrated during the test beam campaigns at CERN. As an important part of these tests, accurate studies of the electronics noise and relative gains, which are needed for measurement in high energy range, were carried out to optimize amplitude reconstruction procedure and thus improve the precision of the calorimeter energy determination. The heart of the thesis consists of the calibration of all VFE boards, including optimization of the laboratory calibration system and precise analysis of measured values to delivered desired calibration constants. The second half of the thesis is focused on the accurate evaluation and optimization of the read-out electronics in real data taking conditions. The results obtained in the laboratory at IPN Lyon

  4. Radon daughters and work at display devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.; Nyblom, L.

    1986-01-01

    It has been shown that ions and electrically charged particles in the air can be transported in the electrostatic field between a face and a display device to either the face or the screen. Radon daughters can occur as ions, or sitting on charged particles. This prestudy shows that radon daughters were manifold concentrated on the face of a doll placed in front of a display device, or in a electrostatic field of the kind typical for displaying devices. The radiation dose, in the skin from the radon daughters in an ordinary office environment plus the addition caused by work at a display device, is not strong enough to cause skin damages alone. (BoK)

  5. Impact of Shock Front Rippling and Self-reformation on the Electron Dynamics at Low-Mach-number Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongwei; Lu, Quanming; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui

    2018-04-01

    Electron dynamics at low-Mach-number collisionless shocks are investigated by using two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various shock normal angles. We found: (1) The reflected ions and incident electrons at the shock front provide an effective mechanism for the quasi-electrostatic wave generation due to the charge-separation. A fraction of incident electrons can be effectively trapped and accelerated at the leading edge of the shock foot. (2) At quasi-perpendicular shocks, the electron trapping and reflection is nonuniform due to the shock rippling along the shock surface and is more likely to take place at some locations accompanied by intense reflected ion-beams. The electron trapping process has a periodical evolution over time due to the shock front self-reformation, which is controlled by ion dynamics. Thus, this is a cross-scale coupling phenomenon. (3) At quasi-parallel shocks, reflected ions can travel far back upstream. Consequently, quasi-electrostatic waves can be excited in the shock transition and the foreshock region. The electron trajectory analysis shows these waves can trap electrons at the foot region and reflect a fraction of them far back upstream. Simulation runs in this paper indicate that the micro-turbulence at the shock foot can provide a possible scenario for producing the reflected electron beam, which is a basic condition for the type II radio burst emission at low-Mach-number interplanetary shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).

  6. Prometeo: A portable test-bench for the upgraded front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Hofsajer, I; Govender, M; Mellado, B; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Ruan, X; Sandrock, C; Solans, C; Suter, R; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2014-01-01

    Prometeo is the portable test-bench for the full certification of the front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter designed for the upgrade phase-II. It is a high throughput electronics system designed to simultaneously read-out all the samples from 12 channels at the LHC bunch crossing frequency and assess the quality of the data in real-time. The core of the system is a Xilinx Virtex 7 evaluation board extended with a dual QSFP FMC module to read-out and control the front-end boards. The rest of the functionalities of the system are provided by a HV mezzanine board that to turn on the gain of the photo-multipliers, an LED board that sends light to illuminate them, and a 12 channel ADC board that samples the analog output of the front-end. The system is connected by ethernet to a GUI client from which QA tests are performed on the electronics such as noise measurements and linearity response to an injected charge.

  7. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1979-12-01

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  8. Emission of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses from electron bunches formed and accelerated by laser beams with tilted amplitude fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, A.L.; Korobkin, V.V.; Romanovsky, M.Yu.; Shiryaev, O.B.; Trofimov, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of an electron in a standing wave generated by a pair of counterpropagating linearly polarized relativistically intense laser pulses and the emission of electromagnetic radiation by the electron are analyzed. The pulses are assumed to have tilted amplitude fronts and asymmetric focal spots. The analysis of the dynamics is performed by solving numerically the Newton equation with the corresponding Lorentz force, and the emission of radiation is simulated based on the Lienard-Wiechert potentials. The electrons are accelerated by the direct action of the standing wave field and are shown to form a small short bunch. For relativistic intensities, the energies gained by the electrons reach several GeV. It is demonstrated that the radiation emitted by the electrons in the bunch is a single electromagnetic pulse confined to a narrow solid angle and having an attosecond duration. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. The DIALOG Chip in the Front-End Electronics of the LHCb Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, S; Lai, A

    2004-01-01

    We present a custom integrated circuit, named DIALOG, which is a fundamental building block in the front-end architecture of the LHCb Muon detector. DIALOG is realized in IBM 0.25 um technology, using radiation hardening layout techniques. DIALOG integrates important tools for detector time alignment procedures and time alignment monitoring on the front- end system. In particular, it integrates 16 programmable delays, which can be regulated in steps of 1 ns. Many other features, necessary for the Muon trigger operation and for a safe front-end monitoring are integrated: DIALOG generates the information used by the trigger as a combination of its 16 inputs from the Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator (ASD) chips, it generates the thresholds of the ASD, it monitors the rate of all its input channels. We describe the circuit architecture, its internal blocks and its main modes of operation.

  10. Hybrid circuit prototypes for the CMS Tracker upgrade front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchot, G; Honma, A; Kovacs, M; Braga, D; Raymond, M

    2013-01-01

    New high-density interconnect hybrid circuits are under development for the CMS tracker modules at the HL-LHC. These hybrids will provide module connectivity between flip-chip front-end ASICs, strip sensors and a service board for the data transmission and powering. Rigid organic-based substrate prototypes and also a flexible hybrid design have been built, containing up to eight front-end flip chip ASICs. A description of the function of the hybrid circuit in the tracker, the first prototype designs, results of some electrical and mechanical properties from the prototypes, and examples of the integration of the hybrids into detector modules are presented

  11. Performance of the front-end electronics of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J-J; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, [No Value; Chiarusi, T.; Sen, N. Chon; Circella, M.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; de Botton, N.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J-P; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fopma, J.; Fratini, K.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J-L; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; Hoffmann, C.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mazure, A.; Monmarthe, E.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Olivetto, Ch; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavala, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Pineau, J-P; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.

    2010-01-01

    ANTARES is a high-energy neutrino telescope installed in the Mediterranean Sea at a depth of 2475 m. It consists of a three-dimensional array of optical modules, each containing a large photomultiplier tube. A total of 2700 front-end ASICs named analogue ring samplers (ARS) process the phototube

  12. Calibration and performance test of the Very-Front-End electronics for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, CTU, Praha (Czech Republic); Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon - IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: j.blaha@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Cartiglia, N. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN, Torino (Italy); Combaret, C. [Czech Technical University in Prague, CTU, Praha (Czech Republic); Fay, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon - IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Lustermann, W. [Eidgenossische Technische Hoschschule, ETH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Maurelli, G. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon - IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Nardulli, A. [Eidgenossische Technische Hoschschule, ETH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Obertino, M. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN, Torino (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    The Very-Front-End cards processing signal from photodetectors of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter, have been put through extensive test program to guarantee their functionality and reliability. The characteristics of the VFE cards designed for the calorimeter barrel are presented. The results confirm the high quality of the cards production and show that the specifications are fully reached.

  13. Calibration and performance test of the Very-Front-End electronics for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.; Cartiglia, N.; Combaret, C.; Fay, J.; Lustermann, W.; Maurelli, G.; Nardulli, A.; Obertino, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Very-Front-End cards processing signal from photodetectors of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter, have been put through extensive test program to guarantee their functionality and reliability. The characteristics of the VFE cards designed for the calorimeter barrel are presented. The results confirm the high quality of the cards production and show that the specifications are fully reached

  14. Development of a dedicated front-end electronics for straw tube trackers in the P-bar ANDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, D.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Swientek, K.; Terlecki, P.; Tokarz, J.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Korcyl, G.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.

    2016-01-01

    The design and tests of front-end electronics for straw tube trackers in the P-bar ANDA experiment at FAIR are presented. The challenges for the front-end electronics, comprising operation at high counting rate up to 1 MHz per straw tube, are discussed and the proposed architecture comprising a switched gain charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP), a pole-zero cancellation circuit (PZC), a second order variable peaking time shaper, a trimming ion tail cancellation circuit, and a baseline holder (BLH), is described. The front-end provides an analogue output and a discriminator with LVDS differential driver for the Time-of-Arrival (ToA) and Time-over-Threshold (ToT) measurements. A prototype readout ASIC featuring four channels was fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS technology consuming 15.5 mW (analog part) and 12 mW (LVDS) per channel. The results of measurements of peaking time (25–67 ns), gain, noise (ENC 800–2500 el. for various gains), time walk and jitter are presented as well as the first results obtained with prototype straw tubes connected.

  15. Development of a dedicated front-end electronics for straw tube trackers in the bar PANDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyborowski, D.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Korcyl, G.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Swientek, K.; Terlecki, P.; Tokarz, J.

    2016-08-01

    The design and tests of front-end electronics for straw tube trackers in the bar PANDA experiment at FAIR are presented. The challenges for the front-end electronics, comprising operation at high counting rate up to 1 MHz per straw tube, are discussed and the proposed architecture comprising a switched gain charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP), a pole-zero cancellation circuit (PZC), a second order variable peaking time shaper, a trimming ion tail cancellation circuit, and a baseline holder (BLH), is described. The front-end provides an analogue output and a discriminator with LVDS differential driver for the Time-of-Arrival (ToA) and Time-over-Threshold (ToT) measurements. A prototype readout ASIC featuring four channels was fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS technology consuming 15.5 mW (analog part) and 12 mW (LVDS) per channel. The results of measurements of peaking time (25-67 ns), gain, noise (ENC 800-2500 el. for various gains), time walk and jitter are presented as well as the first results obtained with prototype straw tubes connected.

  16. Prometeo: A portable test-bench for the upgraded front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Govender, M; Hofsajer, I; Mellado, B; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Ruan, X; Sandrock, C; Solans, C; Suter, R; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2014-01-01

    Prometeo is a portable test-bench for full certification of the front-end electronics of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter, designed for the upgrade phase-II. It is a high-throughput electronic system designed to simultaneously read out all the digitized samples from 12 channels at the LHC bunch crossing frequency and assess the quality of the data in real-time. The core of the system is a Xilinx Virtex 7 evaluation board extended with a dual QSFP FMC module to read out and control the on-detector electronics. The rest of the functionalities of the system are provided by a HV mezzanine board that supplied the HV to the photo-multipliers, an LED board that sends light to illuminate them, and a 12 channel ADC board that samples the analog trigger output of the front- end. The system is connected by ethernet to a GUI client from which QA tests are performed on the electronics such as noise measurements and linearity response to an injected charge.

  17. FELIX: The New Approach for Interfacing to Front-end Electronics for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)754725; The ATLAS collaboration; Anderson, John Thomas; Borga, Andrea; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Drake, Gary; Donszelmann, Mark; Francis, David; Gorini, Benedetto; Guest, Daniel; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Roich, Alexander; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, J\\"orn; Vandelli, Wainer; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    From the ATLAS Phase-I upgrade and onward, new or upgraded detectors and trigger systems will be interfaced to the data acquisition, detector control and timing (TTC) systems by the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX). FELIX is the core of the new ATLAS Trigger/DAQ architecture. Functioning as a router between custom serial links and a commodity network, FELIX is implemented by server PCs with commodity network interfaces and PCIe cards with large FPGAs and many high speed serial fiber transceivers. By separating data transport from data manipulation, the latter can be done by software in commodity servers attached to the network. Replacing traditional point-to-point links between Front-end components and the DAQ system by a switched network, FELIX provides scaling, flexibility uniformity and upgradability and reduces the diversity of custom hardware solutions in favour of software.

  18. Passive radon daughter dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.G.C.; Johnson, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    On the basis of an extensive review of the recent literature concerning passive radon daughter dosimeters, we have reached the following conclusions: 1) Passive dosimeters for measuring radon are available and reliable. 2) There does not presently exist an acceptable passive dosimeter for radon daughters. There is little if any hope for the development of such a device in the foreseeable future. 3) We are pessimistic about the potential of 'semi-passive dosimeters' but are less firm about stating categorically that these devices cannot be developed into a useful radon daughter dosimeter. This report documents and justifies these conclusions. It does not address the question of the worker's acceptance of these devices because at the present time, no device is sufficiently advanced for this question to be meaningful. 118 refs

  19. Rabbit System. Low cost, high reliability front end electronics featuring 16 bit dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, G.; Droege, T.F.; Nelson, C.A. Jr.; Turner, K.J.; Ohska, T.K.

    1985-10-01

    A new crate-based front end system has been built which features low cost, compact packaging, command capability, 16 bit dynamic range digitization, and a high degree of redundancy. The crate can contain a variety of instrumentation modules, and is designed to be situated close to the detector. The system is suitable for readout of a large number of channels via parallel multiprocessor data acquisition

  20. Design and construction of the front-end electronics data acquisition for the SLD CRID [Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflich, J.; McShurley, D.; Marshall, D.; Oxoby, G.; Shapiro, S.; Stiles, P.; Spencer, E.

    1990-10-01

    We describe the front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) of the SLD at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The design philosophy and implementation are discussed with emphasis on the low-noise hybrid amplifiers, signal processing and data acquisition electronics. The system receives signals from a highly efficient single-photo electron detector. These signals are shaped and amplified before being stored in an analog memory and processed by a digitizing system. The data from several ADCs are multiplexed and transmitted via fiber optics to the SLD FASTBUS system. We highlight the technologies used, as well as the space, power dissipation, and environmental constraints imposed on the system. 16 refs., 10 figs

  1. A Real Time Electronics Emulator with Realistic Data Generation for Reception Tests of the CMS ECAL Front-End Boards

    CERN Document Server

    Romanteau, T; Collard, Caroline; Debraine, A; Decotigny, D; Dobrzynski, L; Karar, A; Regnault, N

    2005-01-01

    The CMS [1] electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) [2] uses 3 132 Front-End boards (FE) performing both trigger and data readout functions. Prior to their integration at CERN, the FE boards have to be validated by dedicated test bench systems. The final one, called "XFEST" (eXtended Front-End System Test) and for which the present developments have been performed, is located at Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet. In this contribution, a solution is described to efficiently test a large set of complex electronics boards characterized by a large number of input ports and a high throughput data rate. To perform it, an algorithm to simulate the Very Front End signals has been emulated. The project firmwares use VHDL embedded into XILINX Field Programmable Gate Array circuits (FPGA). This contribution describes the solutions developed in order to create a realistic digital input patterns real-time emul ator working at 40 MHz. The implementation of a real time comparison of the FE output streams as well as the test bench wil...

  2. Radon and radon daughter monitoring (including thoron daughter monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.; Grealy, G.; Gan, W.

    1982-01-01

    Radon/radon daughter and thoron daughter measurement techniques are outlined. The necessary precautions and critical assessments of each method are also presented with a view to providing a better understanding of the various measurement methods

  3. Design of an FPGA-based embedded system for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics test-bench

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Sandrock, C; Shalyugin, A; Schettino, V; Solans, C; Souza, J; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    The portable test bench (VME based) used for the certification of the Tile calorimeter front-end electronics has been redesigned for the LHC Long Shutdown (2013-2014) improving its portability. The new version is based on a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA that implements an embedded system using a hard core PowerPC 440 microprocessor and custom IP cores. The PowerPC microprocessor runs a light Linux version and handles the IP cores written in VHDL that implement the different functionalities (TTC, G-Link, CAN-Bus) Description of the system and performance measurements of the different components will be shown.

  4. Design of a New Switching Power Supply for the ATLAS TileCal Front-End Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS Hadron Tile Calorimeter. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and improved reliability, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features. We discuss the steps taken to improve the design. We present the results from extensive radiation testing to qualify the design, including SEU sensitivity. We also present our reliability analysis. Production of 2400 new bricks for the detector is in progress, and we present preliminary results from the production checkout.

  5. Design of a New Switching Power Supply for the ATLAS TileCAL Front-End Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter (TileCAL) at the LHC. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and improved reliability, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features in this 300 KHz design. We discuss the steps taken to improve the design. We present the results from extensive radiation testing to qualify the design, including SEU sensitivity. We also present our reliability analysis. Production of 2400 new bricks for the detector is currently in progress, and we present preliminary results from the production checkout.

  6. LHCb: Test Station for the LHCb Muon Front-End Electronic

    CERN Multimedia

    Polycarpo, E

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb Muon Group has developed the CMOS ASIC CARIOCA to readout its Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) and GEM detectors, using a rad-hard IBM 0.25um process. Each ASIC holds 8 identical current-mode ASDB channels with individual input thresholds. The Muon detector contains around 120000 physical channels, requiring production of 20000 front-end chips, roughly. CARIOCA has been developed to process MWPC cathode and anode signals and two different versions have been implemented to overcome the requirement of MWP and GEM chambers operation. The test station has been devised to accomplish bipolar tests and to measure characteristics of both CARIOCA versions.

  7. Forecasting noise and radiation hardness of CMOS front-end electronics beyond the 100 nm frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, V.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Traversi, G.

    2010-01-01

    The progress of industrial microelectronic technologies has already overtaken the 130 nm CMOS generation that is currently the focus of IC designers for new front-end chips in LHC upgrades and other detector applications. In a broader time span, sub-100 nm CMOS processes may become appealing for the design of very compact front-end systems with advanced integrated functionalities. This is especially true in the case of pixel detectors, both for monolithic devices (MAPS) and for hybrid implementations where a high resistivity sensor is connected to a CMOS readout chip. Technologies beyond the 100 nm frontier have peculiar features, such as the evolution of the device gate material to reduce tunneling currents through the thin dielectric. These new physical device parameters may impact on functional properties such as noise and radiation hardness. On the basis of experimental data relevant to commercial devices, this work studies potential advantages and challenges associated to the design of low-noise and rad-hard analog circuits in these aggressively scaled technologies.

  8. A SAR-ADC using unit bridge capacitor and with calibration for the front-end electronics of PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei [School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Tingcun, E-mail: weitc@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Li, Bo; Yang, Lifeng; Xue, Feifei [School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Hu, Yongcai [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert CURIEN, Strasbourg (France)

    2016-05-11

    This paper presents a 12-bit 1 MS/s successive approximation register-analog to digital converter (SAR-ADC) for the 32-channel front-end electronics of CZT-based PET imaging system. To reduce the capacitance mismatch, instead of the fractional capacitor, the unit capacitor is used as the bridge capacitor in the split-capacitor digital to analog converter (DAC) circuit. In addition, in order to eliminate the periodical DNL errors of −1 LSB which often exists in the SAR-ADC using the charge-redistributed DAC, a calibration algorithm is proposed and verified by the experiments. The proposed 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC is designed and implemented using a 0.35 μm CMOS technology, it occupies only an active area of 986×956 μm{sup 2}. The measurement results show that, at the power supply of 3.3/5.0 V and the sampling rate of 1 MS/s, the ADC with calibration has a signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SINAD) of 67.98 dB, the power dissipation of 5 mW, and a figure of merit (FOM) of 2.44 pJ/conv.-step. This ADC is with the features of high accuracy, low power and small layout area, it is especially suitable to the one-chip integration of the front-end readout electronics.

  9. The CBM Experiment at FAIR-New challenges for Front-End Electronics, Data Acquisition and Trigger Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Walter F J

    2006-01-01

    The 'Compressed Baryonic Matter' (CBM) experiment at the new 'Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research' (FAIR) in Darmstadt is designed to study the properties of highly compressed baryonic matter produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the 10 to 45 A GeV energy range. One of the key observables is hidden (J/ψ) and open (D 0 , D ± ) charm production. To achieve an adequate sensitivity extremely high interaction rates of up to 10 7 events/second are required, resulting in major technological challenges for the detectors, front-end electronics and data processing. The front-end electronics will be self-triggered, autonomously detect particle hits, and output hit parameter together with a precise absolute time-stamp. Several layers of feature extraction and event selection will reduce the primary data flow of about 1 TByte/sec to a level of 1 GByte/sec. This new architecture avoids many limitations of conventional DAQ/Trigger systems and is for example essential for open charm detection, which requires the reconstruction of displaced vertices, in a high-rate heavy ion environment

  10. The front-end analog and digital signal processing electronics for the drift chambers of the Stanford Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Freytag, D.R.; Fox, J.; Olsen, J.; Paffrath, L.; Yim, A.; Honma, A.

    1990-10-01

    The front-end signal processing electronics for the drift-chambers of the Stanford Large Detector (SLD) at the Stanford Linear Collider is described. The system is implemented with printed-circuit boards which are shaped for direct mounting on the detector. Typically, a motherboard comprises 64 channels of transimpedance amplification and analog waveform sampling, A/D conversion, and associated control and readout circuitry. The loaded motherboard thus forms a processor which records low-level wave forms from 64 detector channels and transforms the information into a 64 k-byte serial data stream. In addition, the package performs calibration functions, measures leakage currents on the wires, and generates wire hit patterns for triggering purposes. The construction and operation of the electronic circuits utilizing monolithic, hybridized, and programmable components are discussed

  11. Front-end counting mode electronics for CdZnTe sensor readout

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, Danielle; Kaplon, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The development of a front-end circuit optimized for CdZnTe detector readout, implemented in 0.25 mu m CMOS technology, is reported. The ASIC comprises 17 channels of a charge sensitive amplifier with an active feedback, followed by a gain-shaper stage and a discriminator with a 5 bit fine-tune DAC. The signal from the discriminator is sensed by a 25 ns mono-stable circuit and an 18-bit static ripple- counter. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at a maximum counting rate of 2 million counts/second. The amplifier shows a linear sensitivity of 24 mV/fC with 50 ns peaking time and an equivalent noise charge of about 650 e/sup -/, for a detector capacitance of 10 pF. When connected to a 3*3*7 mm/sup 3/ CdZnTe detector the amplifier gain is about 8 mV/keV with a noise around 3.6 keV.

  12. An Electronic Model of the ATLAS Phase-1 Upgrade Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter Front End Crate Baseplane

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, Ryan

    This thesis presents an electrical model of two pairs of interconnects of the ATLAS Phase-1 Upgrade Hadronic Endcap Front End Crate prototype baseplane. Stripline transmission lines of the baseplane are modeled using Keysight Technologies' Electromagnetic Professional's (EMPro) 3D electromagnetic simulation (Finite Element Method) and the connectors are modeled using built-in models in Keysight Technologies' Advanced Design System (ADS). The model is compared in both the time and frequency domain to measured Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) traces and S-parameters. The S-parameters of the model are found to be within $5\\%$ of the measured S-parameters for transmission and reflection, and range from $25\\%$ below to $100\\%$ above for forward and backward crosstalk. To make comparisons with measurements, the cables used to connect the prototype HEC baseplane to the measurement system had to be included in the model. Plots of the S-parameters of a model without these cables are presented for one pair of interconne...

  13. A wide dynamic range BF3 neutron monitor with front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrarini, M.; Varoli, V.; Favalli, A.; Caresana, M.; Pedersen, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a wide dynamic range neutron monitor based on a BF 3 neutron detector. The detector is used in current mode, and front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier are used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many orders of magnitude. The system has been calibrated at the Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude, being able to measure single neutron pulses and showing saturation-free response for a reaction rate up to 10 6 s -1 . It has also proved effective in measuring the PUNITA facility pulse integral fluence.

  14. A wide dynamic range BF{sub 3} neutron monitor with front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrarini, M., E-mail: michele.ferrarini@polimi.i [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Fondazione CNAO, via Caminadella 16, 20123 Milano (Italy); Varoli, V. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Caresana, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a wide dynamic range neutron monitor based on a BF{sub 3} neutron detector. The detector is used in current mode, and front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier are used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many orders of magnitude. The system has been calibrated at the Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude, being able to measure single neutron pulses and showing saturation-free response for a reaction rate up to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. It has also proved effective in measuring the PUNITA facility pulse integral fluence.

  15. The digital ASIC for the digital front end electronics of the SPI astrophysics gamma-ray experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, E.; Mur, M.; Schanne, S.

    1998-01-01

    The SPI spectrometer is one of the gamma-ray astronomy instruments that will be installed on the ESA INTEGRAL satellite, intended to be launched in 2001 by the European Space Agency. The Digital Front-End Electronics sub-system (DFEE) is in charge of the real time data processing of the various measurements produced by the Germanium (Ge) detectors and the Bismuth Germanate (BGO) anti-coincidence shield. The central processing unit of the DFEE is implemented in a digital ASIC circuit, which provides the real time association of the various time signals, acquires the associated energy measurements, and classifies the various types of physics events. The paper gives the system constraints of the DFEE, the architecture of the ASIC circuit, the technology requirements, and the strategy for test and integration. Emphasis is given to the high level language development and simulation, the automatic circuit synthesis approach, and the performance estimation

  16. The OPERA RPCs front end electronics; a novel application of LVDS line receiver as low cost discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsamo, E; Bergnoli, A; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carrara, E; Ciesielski, R; Dal Corso, F; Dusini, S; Garfagnini, A; Kose, U; Longhin, A; Medinaceli, E; Stanco, L

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA spectrometer is built from two large dipoles instrumented with around 1000 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), covering a surface of about 3350 m 2 , and digitally read out by means of almost 27000 strips. The huge number of channels, the inaccessibility of many parts of the detector and the wide uncertainty about the signal amplitude pushed to study a low cost, high sensitivity discriminator, and a very carefully designed layout for the read out system. Here we will present a novel application of LVDS line receiver as discriminator, showing that it exceeds the requirements of a large RPC based detector and offers the intrinsic advantages of a mature technology in terms of costs, reliability and integration scale. We will also present the layout of the read out system showing as the sensitivity and the noise immunity were preserved in a system where the front end electronics is far away from the detector.

  17. The front end electronics of the NA62 Gigatracker: challenges, design and experimental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Ceccucci, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Fiorini, M.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Martoiu, S.; Morel, M.; Perktold, L.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2011-06-01

    The beam spectrometer of the NA62 experiment consists of 3 Gigatracker (GTK) stations. Each station comprises a pixel detector of 16 cm active area made of an assembly of 10 readout ASICs bump bonded to a 200 μm thick pixel silicon sensor, comprising 18000 pixels of 300 μm×300 μm. The main challenge of the NA62 pixel GTK station is the combination of an extremely high kaon/pion beam rate, where the intensity in the center of the beam reaches up to 1.5 Mhit s mm together with an extreme time resolution of 100 ps. To date, it is the first silicon tracking system with this time resolution. To face this challenge, the pixel analogue front end has been designed with a peaking time of 4 ns, with a planar silicon sensor operating up to 300 V over depletion. Moreover, the radiation level is severe, 2×10 1 MeV n cm per year of operation. Easy replacement of the GTK stations is foreseen as a design requirement. The amount of material of a single station should also be less than 0.5% X to minimize the background, which imposes strong constraints on the mechanics and the cooling system. We report upon the design and architecture of the 2 prototype demonstrator chips both designed in 130 nm CMOS technology, one with a constant fraction discriminator and the time stamp digitisation in each pixel (In-Pixel), and the other with a time-over-threshold discriminator and the processing of the time stamp located in the End of Column (EoC) region at the chip periphery. Some preliminary results are presented.

  18. Analyses of electron runaway in front of the negative streamer channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2017-01-01

    X-and γ-ray emissions, observed in correlation with negative leaders of lightning and long sparks of high-voltage laboratory experiments, are conventionally connected with the bremsstrahlung of high-energy runaway electrons (REs). Here we extend a focusing mechanism, analyzed in our previous paper...

  19. Development of Pixel Front-End Electronics using Advanced Deep Submicron CMOS Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Havránek, Miroslav; Dingfelder, Jochen

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R&D; of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore’s laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key pa...

  20. Measurement and modelling of suprathermal electron bursts generated in front of a lower hybrid antenna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunn, J. P.; Fuchs, Vladimír; Petržílka, Václav; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2016), č. článku 036004. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : lower hybrid * scrape off layer * SOL turbulence * Landau damping * suprathermal electrons Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/56/3/036004

  1. Challenges of front-end and triggering electronics for High Granularity Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Puljak, Ivica

    2017-01-01

    A high granularity calorimeter is presently being designed by the CMS Collaboration to replace the existing endcap detectors. It must be able to cope with the very high collision rates, imposing the development of novel filtering and triggering strategies, as well as with the harsh radiation environment of the high-luminosity LHC. In this paper we present an overview of the full electronics architecture and the performance of prototype components and algorithms.

  2. LHCb Scintillating Fiber detector front end electronics design and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, W. E. W.; Pellegrino, A.; Ietswaard, G. C. M.; Verkooijen, J. C.; Carneiro, U.; Massefferi, A.

    2017-03-01

    The on-detector electronics of the LHCb Scintillating Fiber Detector consists of multiple PCBs assembled in a unit called Read Out Box, capable of reading out 2048 channels with an output rate of 70 Gbps. There are three types of boards: PACIFIC, Clusterization and Master Board. The Pacific Boards host PACIFIC ASICs, with pre-amplifier and comparator stages producing two bits of data per channel. A cluster-finding algorithm is then run in an FPGA on the Clusterization Board. The Master Board distributes fast and slow control, and power. We describe the design, production and test of prototype PCBs.

  3. Triggering, front-end electronics, and data acquisition for high-rate beauty experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.; Lankford, A.J.

    1988-04-01

    The working group explored the feasibility of building a trigger and an electronics data acquisition system for both collider and fixed target experiments. There appears to be no fundamental technical limitation arising from either the rate or the amount of data for a collider experiment. The fixed target experiments will likely require a much higher rate because of the smaller cross section. Rates up to one event per RF bucket (50 MHz) appear to be feasible. Higher rates depend on the details of the particular experiment and trigger. Several ideas were presented on multiplicity jump and impact parameter triggers for fixed target experiments. 14 refs., 3 figs

  4. FILTRES: a 128 channels VLSI mixed front-end readout electronic development for microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstotz, F.; Hu, Y.; Michel, J.; Sohler, J.L.; Lachartre, D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a VLSI digital-analog readout electronic chain for silicon microstrip detectors. The characteristics of this circuit have been optimized for the high resolution tracker of the CERN CMS experiment. This chip consists of 128 channels at 50 μm pitch. Each channel is composed by a charge amplifier, a CR-RC shaper, an analog memory, an analog processor, an output FIFO read out serially by a multiplexer. This chip has been processed in the radiation hard technology DMILL. This paper describes the architecture of the circuit and presents test results of the 128 channel full chain chip. (orig.)

  5. Cold front-end electronics and Ethernet-based DAQ systems for large LAr TPC readout

    CERN Document Server

    D.Autiero,; B.Carlus,; Y.Declais,; S.Gardien,; C.Girerd,; J.Marteau; H.Mathez

    2010-01-01

    Large LAr TPCs are among the most powerful detectors to address open problems in particle and astro-particle physics, such as CP violation in leptonic sector, neutrino properties and their astrophysical implications, proton decay search etc. The scale of such detectors implies severe constraints on their readout and DAQ system. We are carrying on a R&D in electronics on a complete readout chain including an ASIC located close to the collecting planes in the argon gas phase and a DAQ system based on smart Ethernet sensors implemented in a µTCA standard. The choice of the latter standard is motivated by the similarity in the constraints with those existing in Network Telecommunication Industry. We also developed a synchronization scheme developed from the IEEE1588 standard integrated by the use of the recovered clock from the Gigabit link

  6. Front-end electronics for high rate, position sensitive neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, B; Harder, J A; Hrisoho, A; Radeka, V; Smith, G C

    2002-01-01

    Advanced neutron detectors for experiments at new spallation sources will require greater counting rate capabilities than previously attainable. This necessitates careful design of both detector and readout electronics. As part of a new instrument for protein crystallography at LANSCE, we are constructing a detector whose concept was described previously (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-46 (1999) 1916). Here, we describe the signal processing circuit, which is well suited for sup 3 He detectors with a continuous interpolating readout. The circuit is based on standard charge preamplification, transmission of this signal over 20 meters or so, followed by sample and hold using a second order gated baseline restorer. This latter unit provides high rate capability without requiring pole-zero and tail cancellation circuits. There is also provision for gain-adjustment. The circuits are produced in surface mounted technology.

  7. A compact front-end electronics module for the SDC strawtube outer tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, M.S.; Alley, G.T.; Leitch, R.M.; Maples, R.A.; Holmes, W.

    1993-01-01

    The challenges of building a detector for the Superconducting Super Collider have been talked about for the last several years. Those challenges are proving to be real and in some cases tougher than expected as prototype subsystem and component development continues within the different collaborations. Not to be daunted, engineers and scientists are using ingenuity and novel designs to meet the challenges. One such area has been in the development of the outer tracker readout electronics for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) detector. The tracker has over 100,000 channels and is composed of strawtubes that are 4 mm in diameter and 4 meters long. The sheer number of channels and small-diameter tubes require a very high density packaging scheme with critical attendant concerns, including power consumption, cooling, and crosstalk. This paper describes the novel approach taken to solve some of these challenges

  8. A GEM-TPC prototype with low-Noise highly integrated front-end electronics for linear collider studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kappler, Steffen; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Müller, Thomas; Ronan, Michael T; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Settles, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Connected to the linear collider project, studies on the readout of time projection chambers (TPCs) based on the gas electron multiplier (GEM) are ongoing. Higher granularity and intrinsically suppressed ion feedback are the major advantages of this technology. After a short discussion of these issues, we present the design of a small and very flexible TPC prototype, whose cylindrical drift volume can be equipped with endcaps of different gas detector types. An endcap with multi-GEM readout is currently set up and successfully operated with a low-noise highly integrated front-end electronics. We discuss results of measurements with this system in high intensity particle beams at CERN, where 99.3 plus or minus 0.2% single-pad-row efficiency could be achieved at an effective gain of 2.5 multiplied by 10**3 only, and spatial resolutions down to 63 plus or minus 3 mum could be demonstrated. Finally, these results are extrapolated to the high magnetic field in a linear collider TPC. 5 Refs.

  9. The front-end electronics for the 1.8-kchannel SiPM tracking plane in the NEW detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, J.; Lorca, D.; Monrabal, F.; Toledo, J.; Esteve, R.

    2015-01-01

    NEW is the first phase of NEXT-100 experiment, an experiment aimed at searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay. NEXT technology combines an excellent energy resolution with tracking capabilities thanks to a combination of optical sensors, PMTs for the energy measurement and SiPMs for topology reconstruction. Those two tools result in one of the highest background rejection potentials in the field. This work describes the tracking plane that will be constructed for the NEW detector which consists of close to 1800 sensors with a 1-cm pitch arranged in twenty-eight 64-SiPM boards. Then it focuses in the development of the electronics needed to read the 1800 channels with a front-end board that includes per-channel differential transimpedance input amplifier, gated integrator, automatic offset voltage compensation and 12-bit ADC. Finally, a description of how the FPGA buffers data, carries out zero suppression and sends data to the DAQ interface using CERN RD-51 SRS's DTCC link specification complements the description of the electronics of the NEW detector tracking plane

  10. The ALICE silicon pixel detector front-end and read-out electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost barrel layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD includes 120 half staves each of which consists of a linear array of 10 ALICE pixel chips bump bonded to two silicon sensors. Each pixel chip contains 8192 active cells, so the total number of pixel cells in the SPD is ≈107. The tight material budget and the limitation in physical dimensions required by the detector design introduce new challenges for the integration of the on-detector electronics. An essential part of the half stave is a low-mass multi-layer flex that carries power, ground, and signals to the pixel chips. Each half stave is read out using a multi-chip module (MCM). The MCM contains three radiation hard ASICs and an 800 Mbit/s custom developed optical link for the data transfer between the detector and the control room. The detector components are less than 3 mm thick. The production of the half-staves and MCMs is currently under way. Test results as well as on overvie...

  11. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER ANALOG FRONT-END ELECTRONICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A new AFE is being developed for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. The new AFE is implemented in a National Instruments Compact RIO (cRIO) module installed a BiRa 4U BiRIO cRIO chassis specifically designed to accommodate the cRIO crate and all the wire-scanner interface, control and motor-drive electronics. A single AFE module provides interface to both X and Y wire sensors using true DC coupled transimpedance amplifiers providing collection of the wire charge signals, real-time wire integrity verification using the normal dataacquisition system, and wire bias of 0V to +/-50V. The AFE system is designed to accommodate comparatively long macropulses (>1ms) with high PRF (>120Hz) without the need to provide timing signals. The basic AFE bandwidth is flat from true DC to 50kHz with a true first-order pole at 50kHz. Numeric integration in the cRIO FPGA provides real-time pulse-to-pulse numeric integration of the AFE signal to compute the total charge collected in each macropulse. This method of charge collection eliminates the need to provide synchronization signals to the wire-scanner AFE while providing the capability to accurately record the charge from long macropulses at high PRF.

  12. Front-end receiver electronics for high-frequency monolithic CMUT-on-CMOS imaging arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurun, Gokce; Hasler, Paul; Degertekin, F

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the design of CMOS receiver electronics for monolithic integration with capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays for highfrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. A custom 8-inch (20-cm) wafer is fabricated in a 0.35-μm two-poly, four-metal CMOS process and then CMUT arrays are built on top of the application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) on the wafer. We discuss advantages of the single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS approach in terms of receive sensitivity and SNR. Low-noise and high-gain design of a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) optimized for a forward-looking volumetric-imaging CMUT array element is discussed as a challenging design example. Amplifier gain, bandwidth, dynamic range, and power consumption trade-offs are discussed in detail. With minimized parasitics provided by the CMUT-on-CMOS approach, the optimized TIA design achieves a 90 fA/√Hz input-referred current noise, which is less than the thermal-mechanical noise of the CMUT element. We show successful system operation with a pulseecho measurement. Transducer-noise-dominated detection in immersion is also demonstrated through output noise spectrum measurement of the integrated system at different CMUT bias voltages. A noise figure of 1.8 dB is obtained in the designed CMUT bandwidth of 10 to 20 MHz.

  13. Tissue Banking, Bioinformatics, and Electronic Medical Records: The Front-End Requirements for Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, K. Stephen; Sarojini, Sreeja; Youssif, Maher; Nalley, Kip; Milinovikj, Natasha; Elloumi, Fathi; Russell, Steven; Pecora, Andrew; Schecter, Elyssa; Goy, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Personalized medicine promises patient-tailored treatments that enhance patient care and decrease overall treatment costs by focusing on genetics and “-omics” data obtained from patient biospecimens and records to guide therapy choices that generate good clinical outcomes. The approach relies on diagnostic and prognostic use of novel biomarkers discovered through combinations of tissue banking, bioinformatics, and electronic medical records (EMRs). The analytical power of bioinformatic platforms combined with patient clinical data from EMRs can reveal potential biomarkers and clinical phenotypes that allow researchers to develop experimental strategies using selected patient biospecimens stored in tissue banks. For cancer, high-quality biospecimens collected at diagnosis, first relapse, and various treatment stages provide crucial resources for study designs. To enlarge biospecimen collections, patient education regarding the value of specimen donation is vital. One approach for increasing consent is to offer publically available illustrations and game-like engagements demonstrating how wider sample availability facilitates development of novel therapies. The critical value of tissue bank samples, bioinformatics, and EMR in the early stages of the biomarker discovery process for personalized medicine is often overlooked. The data obtained also require cross-disciplinary collaborations to translate experimental results into clinical practice and diagnostic and prognostic use in personalized medicine. PMID:23818899

  14. Modules and Front-End Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITk Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High Luminosity LHC, scheduled for 2024. The existing Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The ITk strip detector consists of a four layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel. The basic unit of the detector is the silicon-strip module, consisting of a sensor and one or more hybrid circuits that hold the read-out electronics. The geometries of the barrel and end-cap modules take into account the regions that they have to cover. In the central region, the detectors are rectangular with straight strips, whereas on the forward region the modules require wedge shaped sensors with varying strip length and pitch. The current prototyping phase has resulted in the ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which kicks-off the pre-production readiness phase at the involved institutes. ...

  15. Modules and Front-End Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITk Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High Luminosity LHC, scheduled for 2024. The existing Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The ITk strip detector consists of a four layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel. The basic unit of the detector is the silicon-strip module, consisting of a sensor and one or more hybrid circuits that hold the read-out electronics. The geometries of the barrel and end-cap modules take into account the regions that they have to cover. In the central region, the detectors are rectangular with straight strips, whereas in the forward region the modules require wedge shaped sensors with varying strip length and pitch. The current prototyping phase has resulted in the ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which kicks-off the pre-production readiness phase at the involved institutes. ...

  16. Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    de La Taille, C

    2008-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  17. First test results from the Front-End Board with Cyclone V as a test high-resolution platform for the Auger-Beyond-2015 Front End Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew [University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, Faculty of High-Energy Astrophysics, 90-236 Lodz, Pomorska 149, (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the first results from the Front- End Board (FEB) with the biggest Cyclone{sup R} V E FPGA 5CEFA9F31I7N, supporting 8 channels sampled up to 250 MSps at 14-bit resolution. Considered sampling for the SD is 120 MSps, however, the FEB has been developed with external anti-aliasing filters to keep a maximal flexibility. Six channels are targeted to the SD, two the rest for other experiments like: Auger Engineering Radio Array and additional muon counters. More channels and higher sampling generate larger size of registered events. We used the standard radio channel for a radio transmission from the detectors to the Central Data Acquisition Station (CDAS) to avoid at present a significant modification of a software in both sides: the detector and the CDAS (planned in a future for a final design). Seven FEBs have been deployed in the test detectors on a dedicated Engineering Array in a hexagon. Several variants of the FPGA code were tested for 120, 160, 200 and even 240 MSps DAQ. Tests confirmed a stability and reliability of the FEB design in real pampas conditions with more than 40 deg. C daily temperature variation and a strong sun exposition with a limited power budget only from a single solar panel. (authors)

  18. FELIX: a PCIe based high-throughput approach for interfacing front-end and trigger electronics in the ATLAS upgrade framework

    CERN Document Server

    Schreuder, Frans Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Starting during the upcoming major LHC shutdown (2019-2021), the ATLAS experiment at CERN will move to the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system as the interface between the data acquisition system and the trigger and detector front-end electronics. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network, which will use industry standard technologies to communicate with data collection and processing components. This presentation will describe the FELIX system design as well as reporting on results of the ongoing development program.

  19. Updating radon daughter bronchial dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is of value to update radon daughter bronchial dosimetry as new information becomes available. Measurements have now been performed using hollow casts of the human bronchial tree with a larynx to determine convective or turbulent deposition in the upper airways. These measurements allow a more realistic calculation of bronchial deposition by diffusion. Particle diameters of 0.15 and 0.2 μm were used which correspond to the activity median diameters for radon daughters in both environmental and mining atmospheres. The total model incorporates Yeh/Schum bronchial morphometry, deposition of unattached and attached radon daughters, build up and decay of the daughters and mucociliary clearance. The alpha dose to target cells in the bronchial epithelium is calculated for the updated model and compared with previous calculations of bronchial dose

  20. Redox fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.; McKinley, I.; Shea, M.; Smellie, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the investigations of redox fronts performed at the Osamu Utsumi mine. Results obtained by modelling groups on the rate of movement of the redox fronts and on the chemical reactions involved are discussed. Some of the most important rockwater interactions which occur at redox fronts can be modelled reasonably well but the complex redox chemistry of elements like sulphur is poorly simulated. The observed enrichment of many trace elements close to the redox fronts could be of significance for high-level waste repositories, but cannot be quantified by existing models. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. FELIX: a PCIe based high-throughput approach for interfacing front-end and trigger electronics in the ATLAS Upgrade framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Bauer, K.; Borga, A.; Boterenbrood, H.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Drake, G.; Dönszelmann, M.; Francis, D.; Guest, D.; Gorini, B.; Joos, M.; Lanni, F.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Levinson, L.; Narevicius, J.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Roich, A.; Ryu, S.; Schreuder, F.; Schumacher, J.; Vandelli, W.; Vermeulen, J.; Whiteson, D.; Wu, W.; Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade (2019) requires a Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system able to trigger and record data from up to three times the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity. The Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) system provides an infrastructure to achieve this in a scalable, detector agnostic and easily upgradeable way. It is a PC-based gateway, interfacing custom radiation tolerant optical links from front-end electronics, via PCIe Gen3 cards, to a commodity switched Ethernet or InfiniBand network. FELIX enables reducing custom electronics in favour of software running on commercial servers. The FELIX system, the design of the PCIe prototype card and the integration test results are presented in this paper.

  2. FELIX: a PCIe based high-throughput approach for interfacing front-end and trigger electronics in the ATLAS Upgrade framework

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00015561; Bauer, Kevin Thomas; Borga, Andrea; Boterenbrood, Henk; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Drake, Gary; Donszelmann, Mark; Francis, David; Guest, Daniel; Gorini, Benedetto; Joos, Markus; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Narevicius, Julia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Roich, Alexander; Ryu, Soo; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, Jorn; Vandelli, Wainer; Vermeulen, Jos; Whiteson, Daniel; Wu, Weihao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade (2018) requires a Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system able to trigger and record data from up to three times the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity. The Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) system provides an infrastructure to achieve this in a scalable, detector agnostic and easily upgradeable way. It is a PC-based gateway, interfacing custom radiation tolerant optical links from front-end electronics, via FPGA PCIe Gen3 cards, to a commodity switched Ethernet or InfiniBand network. FELIX enables reducing custom electronics in favour of software running on commercial servers. The FELIX system, the design of the PCIe prototype card and the integration test results are presented in this paper.

  3. FELIX: a PCIe based high-throughput approach for interfacing front-end and trigger electronics in the ATLAS Upgrade framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.; Drake, G.; Ryu, S.; Bauer, K.; Guest, D.; Borga, A.; Boterenbrood, H.; Schreuder, F.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Lanni, F.; Dönszelmann, M.; Francis, D.; Gorini, B.; Joos, M.; Miotto, G. Lehmann; Levinson, L.; Narevicius, J.; Roich, A.; Vazquez, W. Panduro

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade (2019) requires a Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system able to trigger and record data from up to three times the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity. The Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) system provides an infrastructure to achieve this in a scalable, detector agnostic and easily upgradeable way. It is a PC-based gateway, interfacing custom radiation tolerant optical links from front-end electronics, via PCIe Gen3 cards, to a commodity switched Ethernet or InfiniBand network. FELIX enables reducing custom electronics in favour of software running on commercial servers. The FELIX system, the design of the PCIe prototype card and the integration test results are presented in this paper.

  4. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  5. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors, front-end electronics, and prototype tracking detectors for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2013-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryonic densities. The matter at the extreme conditions will be studied in collisions of a heavy ion beam with a fixed heavy element target. The present work is devoted to the development of the main component of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The STS has to enable reconstruction of up to 1000 charged particle tracks per nucleus-nucleus interaction at the rate of up to 10 MHz, provide a momentum resolution Δp/p of 1 %, and withstand the radiation load of up to 10 14 n eq /cm 2 (n eq -neutron equivalent). The STS will be based on double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, that will be arranged in 8 planes in the aperture of the dipole magnet. Selftriggering readout electronics will be located on the periphery of the detecting planes, and connected to the sensors with low mass microcables. In the stage of R and D, as well as in the stages of pre-series and series production, characterization of the sensors, of the front-end electronics, and of the complete detector modules has to be performed. In the present work the required techniques were developed, and the performance of the latest detector prototypes was evaluated. A particular attention is paid to evaluation of the signal amplitude, as it is one of the most important detector characteristics. Techniques for measuring the passive electrical characteristics of the sensors were developed. These include: the coupling and the interstrip capacitances, the interstrip resistance, the bias resistance, the strip leakage current, the bulk capacitance, and the bulk leakage current. The techniques will be applied for the quality assurance of the sensors during the pre-series and the series production. Extensive characterization of the prototype readout chip, n-XYTER, was performed. The register settings were optimized, and the dependence of the amplitude response on

  6. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors, front-end electronics, and prototype tracking detectors for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2013-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryonic densities. The matter at the extreme conditions will be studied in collisions of a heavy ion beam with a fixed heavy element target. The present work is devoted to the development of the main component of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The STS has to enable reconstruction of up to 1000 charged particle tracks per nucleus-nucleus interaction at the rate of up to 10 MHz, provide a momentum resolution Δp/p of 1 %, and withstand the radiation load of up to 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} (n{sub eq}-neutron equivalent). The STS will be based on double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, that will be arranged in 8 planes in the aperture of the dipole magnet. Selftriggering readout electronics will be located on the periphery of the detecting planes, and connected to the sensors with low mass microcables. In the stage of R and D, as well as in the stages of pre-series and series production, characterization of the sensors, of the front-end electronics, and of the complete detector modules has to be performed. In the present work the required techniques were developed, and the performance of the latest detector prototypes was evaluated. A particular attention is paid to evaluation of the signal amplitude, as it is one of the most important detector characteristics. Techniques for measuring the passive electrical characteristics of the sensors were developed. These include: the coupling and the interstrip capacitances, the interstrip resistance, the bias resistance, the strip leakage current, the bulk capacitance, and the bulk leakage current. The techniques will be applied for the quality assurance of the sensors during the pre-series and the series production. Extensive characterization of the prototype readout chip, n-XYTER, was performed. The register settings were optimized, and the dependence of the

  7. Evaluation of thoron-daughter instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.L.

    1992-09-01

    Several DOE decontamination and decommissioning sites need to accurately measure thoron-daughter concentrations during decontamination efforts. Because the workers at these sites receive their dose from thoron-daughters rather than thoron gas, the thoron-daughter concentration is the measurement of interest. Some instruments currently used for making radon-daughter concentration measurements also claim the ability to measure thoron-daughter concentrations. This study evaluated the validity of those claims

  8. A protocol for hit and control synchronous transfer for the front-end electronics at the CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinski, K.; Szczygiel, R.; Zabolotny, W.; Lehnert, J.; Schmidt, C.J.; Müller, W.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    The Silicon Tracking System, Muon Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time-Of-Flight among others are the detector systems of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the FAIR facility. These detector systems will be built with tens of thousands of front-end ASICs exposed to high radiation doses and difficult environmental and interference conditions. A CERN's GBTx-based solution was chosen for combining data from multiple front-end ASICs into an optical link before further concentration and preprocessing in the common Data Processing Board data hub. This paper presents the protocol design addressing the DAQ system requirements, simplifying the ASIC's back-end design and presents its adaptation for the STS and MUCH detector's conditions. A specific link synchronization technique, hit data bandwidth optimization and time synchronization method for the self-triggered front-end chip are presented.

  9. A protocol for hit and control synchronous transfer for the front-end electronics at the CBM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasinski, K., E-mail: kasinski@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Electronics, Av. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, R. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Electronics, Av. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Zabolotny, W. [Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Lehnert, J.; Schmidt, C.J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64-291 Darmstadt (Germany); Müller, W.F.J. [FAIR Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64-291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    The Silicon Tracking System, Muon Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time-Of-Flight among others are the detector systems of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the FAIR facility. These detector systems will be built with tens of thousands of front-end ASICs exposed to high radiation doses and difficult environmental and interference conditions. A CERN's GBTx-based solution was chosen for combining data from multiple front-end ASICs into an optical link before further concentration and preprocessing in the common Data Processing Board data hub. This paper presents the protocol design addressing the DAQ system requirements, simplifying the ASIC's back-end design and presents its adaptation for the STS and MUCH detector's conditions. A specific link synchronization technique, hit data bandwidth optimization and time synchronization method for the self-triggered front-end chip are presented.

  10. FELIX: a PCIe based high-throughput approach for interfacing front-end and trigger electronics in the ATLAS upgrade framework

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade requires a Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system able to trigger and record data from up to three times the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity. The FELIX system provides this in a scalable, detector agnostic and easily upgradeable way. It is a PC-based gateway, routing between custom radiation tolerant optical links from front-end electronics, via FPGA PCIe Gen3 cards, and a commodity switched Ethernet or InfiniBand network. FELIX enables reducing custom electronics in favor of software on commercial servers. The FELIX system, results of demonstrator, design and testing of prototype are described.

  11. Dosimetry, measurement and properties of radon daughters and thoron daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.

    1982-03-01

    Various properties of radon and thoron daughter products are examined. Dosimeter methods and instrumentation (TLD and personal alpha dosimeters) are investigated as to performance under varying conditions such as humidity and pure or mixed atmospheric conditions. Optimized counting schemes are determined for the daughters of radon and thoron. An optimized counting scheme was experimentally examined under mine conditions. The optimization procedure takes into account the uncertainties associated with concentration, flow rate and radioactive decay. Measurements were made in two uranium mines at Elliot Lake, Ontario of the charged and unattached fractions of radon daughters in the mines. The physicochemical state of 218 Po in air was determined by measurement of rate of neutralization, diffusion coefficient and fraction born charge. Careful control of experimental conditions made it possible to obtain more precise and detailed quantitative data than previously possible

  12. Two-stream instabilities from the lower-hybrid frequency to the electron cyclotron frequency: application to the front of quasi-perpendicular shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Muschietti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-perpendicular supercritical shocks are characterized by the presence of a magnetic foot due to the accumulation of a fraction of the incoming ions that is reflected by the shock front. There, three different plasma populations coexist (incoming ion core, reflected ion beam, electrons and can excite various two-stream instabilities (TSIs owing to their relative drifts. These instabilities represent local sources of turbulence with a wide frequency range extending from the lower hybrid to the electron cyclotron. Their linear features are analyzed by means of both a dispersion study and numerical PIC simulations. Three main types of TSI and correspondingly excited waves are identified: i. Oblique whistlers due to the (so-called fast relative drift between reflected ions/electrons; the waves propagate toward upstream away from the shock front at a strongly oblique angle (θ ∼ 50° to the ambient magnetic field Bo, have frequencies a few times the lower hybrid, and have wavelengths a fraction of the ion inertia length c∕ωpi. ii. Quasi-perpendicular whistlers due to the (so-called slow relative drift between incoming ions/electrons; the waves propagate toward the shock ramp at an angle θ a few degrees off 90°, have frequencies around the lower hybrid, and have wavelengths several times the electron inertia length c∕ωpe. iii. Extended Bernstein waves which also propagate in the quasi-perpendicular domain, yet are due to the (so-called fast relative drift between reflected ions/electrons; the instability is an extension of the electron cyclotron drift instability (normally strictly perpendicular and electrostatic and produces waves with a magnetic component which have frequencies close to the electron cyclotron as well as wavelengths close to the electron gyroradius and which propagate toward upstream. Present results are compared with previous works in order to stress some features not previously analyzed and to define a more

  13. Design of a new front-end electronics test-bench for the upgraded ATLAS detector's Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureba, C O; Govender, M; Hofsajer, I; Ruan, X; Sandrock, C; Spoor, M

    2015-01-01

    The year 2022 has been scheduled to see an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in order to increase its instantaneous luminosity. The High Luminosity LHC, also referred to as the upgrade Phase-II, means an inevitable complete re-design of the read-out electronics in the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) detector. Here, the new read-out architecture is expected to have the front-end electronics transmit fully digitized information of the detector to the back-end electronics system. Fully digitized signals will allow more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms which will contribute to the required improved triggers at high pile-up. In Phase II, the current Mobile Drawer Integrity ChecKing (MobiDICK) test-bench will be replaced by the next generation test-bench for the TileCal superdrawers, the new Prometeo (A Portable ReadOut ModulE for Tilecal ElectrOnics). Prometeo is a portable, high-throughput electronic system for full certification of the front-end electronics of the ATLAS TileCal. It is designed to interface to the fast links and perform a series of tests on the data to assess the certification of the electronics. The Prometeo's prototype is being assembled by the University of the Witwatersrand and installed at CERN for further developing, tuning and tests. This article describes the overall design of the new Prometeo, and how it fits into the TileCal electronics upgrade. (paper)

  14. Beam front accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.

    1982-01-01

    An intense relativistic electron beam cannot propagate in a metal drift tube when the current exceeds the space charge limit. Very high charge density and electric field gradients (10 2 to 10 3 MV/m) develop at the beam front and the electrons are reflected. When a neutral gas or a plasma is present, collective acceleration of positive ions occur, and the resulting charge neutralization enables the beam to propagate. Experimental results, theoretical understanding, and schemes to achieve high ion energies by external control of the beam front velocity will be reviewed

  15. First Penning-trap mass measurement of the electron capture nuclide {sup 163}Ho and its daughter {sup 163}Dy for the ECHO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Fabian [Institut fuer Kernchemie und Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: TRIGA-SPEC Collaboration; ECHo-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The ECHo (Electron Capture of {sup 163}Ho) project aims to determine the mass of the electron neutrino by measuring the calorimetric spectrum of {sup 163}Ho. To be able to extract the neutrino mass from the spectrum near the endpoint a precise knowledge of the decay Q-value is necessary. The ideal way to measure this in a model independent way is by high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry. The ECHo collaboration has {sup 163}Ho samples available, which were produced by reactor neutron irradiation. Such samples are typically highly contaminated with radioactive and stable species. These were efficiently removed by chemical purification. Ionization by laser ablation allows high-precision Penning-trap mass measurements with sample sizes of 10{sup 16} atoms. From the measured cyclotron frequency ratio of {sup 163}Ho{sup 16}O{sup +} to {sup 163}Dy{sup 16}O{sup +} we determined the Q-value to be 2.5(7) keV. In addition absolute mass measurements using carbon cluster ions as reference were performed with an uncertainty two times lower than literature values. Future measurements at SHIPTRAP (GSI, Darmstadt) and PENTATRAP (MPIK, Heidelberg) are planned with the aim to drastically improve the uncertainty of the Q-value down to a few eV and thus providing the required input for the ECHo project.

  16. Lilavatis Daughters | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Lilavatis Daughters ... The book 'Lilavati's Daughters: The Women Scientists of India' was successfully ... Charusita Chakravarty, one of the stars of our community of women scientists, at a young age of 52, ...

  17. Dynamic study of a compressed electron layer during the hole-boring stage in a sharp-front laser interaction region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the dynamics of a compressed electron layer (CEL when a circularly polarized laser pulse with a sharp front irradiates a high-density foil. A time-dependent model for CEL motion during the hole-boring stage is proposed to describe details of the interaction for any shape of laser pulse. The opacity case, where the laser pulse is totally reflected, is investigated using this model. The results obtained are consistent with the results from particle-in-cell (PIC simulations. A relaxation distance determined by the laser-front steepness is necessary to build a stable CEL state before ions rejoin into the CEL. For the transparent case, the laser-front steepness is important for the formation of the stable CEL state at the back surface of the target. Considering the motion of ions, both the CEL and ion dynamics are important to rebalance the laser pressure and electrostatic charge-separation force as the hole-boring stage changes to the light-sail stage.

  18. Analysis of the dependence of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave in space plasma on the particle momentum along the wave front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erokhin, A. N., E-mail: nerokhin@mx.iki.rssi.ru [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Zol’nikova, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation); Erokhin, N. S. [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear nonstationary second-order equation for the wave phase on the particle trajectory, the dynamics of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave propagating across the external magnetic field in space plasma is analyzed as a function of the electron momentum along the wave front. Numerical calculations show that, for strongly relativistic initial values of the electron momentum component along the wave front g{sub y}(0) (the other parameters of the problem being the same), electrons are trapped into the regime of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration within a certain interval of the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory. It is assumed in the calculations that vertical bar Ψ(0) vertical bar ≤ π. For strongly relativistic values of g{sub y}(0), electrons are immediately trapped by the wave for 19% of the initial values of the phase Ψ(0) (favorable phases). For the rest of the values of Ψ(0), trapping does not occur even at long times. This circumstance substantially simplifies estimations of the wave damping due to particle acceleration in subsequent calculations. The dynamics of the relativistic factor and the components of the electron velocity and momentum under surfatron acceleration is also analyzed. The obtained results are of interest for the development of modern concepts of possible mechanisms of generation of ultrarelativistic particle fluxes in relatively calm space plasma, as well as for correct interpretation of observational data on the fluxes of such particles and explanation of possible reasons for the deviation of ultrarelativistic particle spectra detected in the heliosphere from the standard power-law scalings and the relation of these variations to space weather and large-scale atmospheric processes similar to tropical cyclones.

  19. Analysis of the dependence of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave in space plasma on the particle momentum along the wave front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, A. N.; Zol’nikova, N. N.; Erokhin, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear nonstationary second-order equation for the wave phase on the particle trajectory, the dynamics of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave propagating across the external magnetic field in space plasma is analyzed as a function of the electron momentum along the wave front. Numerical calculations show that, for strongly relativistic initial values of the electron momentum component along the wave front g y (0) (the other parameters of the problem being the same), electrons are trapped into the regime of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration within a certain interval of the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory. It is assumed in the calculations that vertical bar Ψ(0) vertical bar ≤ π. For strongly relativistic values of g y (0), electrons are immediately trapped by the wave for 19% of the initial values of the phase Ψ(0) (favorable phases). For the rest of the values of Ψ(0), trapping does not occur even at long times. This circumstance substantially simplifies estimations of the wave damping due to particle acceleration in subsequent calculations. The dynamics of the relativistic factor and the components of the electron velocity and momentum under surfatron acceleration is also analyzed. The obtained results are of interest for the development of modern concepts of possible mechanisms of generation of ultrarelativistic particle fluxes in relatively calm space plasma, as well as for correct interpretation of observational data on the fluxes of such particles and explanation of possible reasons for the deviation of ultrarelativistic particle spectra detected in the heliosphere from the standard power-law scalings and the relation of these variations to space weather and large-scale atmospheric processes similar to tropical cyclones

  20. Evaluation of the PANDA silicon pixel front-end electronics and investigation of the anti ΛΛ final state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Simone

    2014-04-28

    high precision particle beams for several experiments. The AntiProton Annihilation at Darmstadt (PANDA) experiment is one of the large detectors at FAIR. PANDAs main physics objectives center around the properties of particles and excited particles made from quarks of the first and second quark family. It is a fixed target experiment within the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR), which delivers an intense, phase-space cooled antiproton beam in the momentum range of 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. With the high precision of the HESR, PANDA will be able to perform precise spectroscopic studies of hadronic states in the charm quark mass range. The luminosity will be up to 2.10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, thus enabling very rare processes to be studied. This high luminosity leads to a high particle flux and a high radiation environment which the sub-detectors must withstand. The most highly affected sub-detector of this high radiation environment is the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), the innermost detector of PANDA. The main task of the MVD is the detection of the interaction points of events (vertexing). This vertex finding is crucial for the analysis of short living particles like e.g. D-mesons, particles consisting of a c-quark and a light antiquark. An essential part of the MVD detector is the readout of the semiconductor sensors. The ToPix (Torino Pixel) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the front-end electronics for the MVD sensor, developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Turin, Italy. It measures the spatial coordinate, the time and the deposited charge of incident charged particles. The most recent prototype of this ASIC is the ToPix 3, a version of reduced size and functionality. The Juelich Digital Readout System (JDRS) was adopted and extended to be able to readout this prototype, thus enabling specific test measurements of the prototype. In addition, the performance of PANDA for detecting long lived. particles was studied, and the

  1. Radon daughter control in the Uravan Mineral Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindle, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The control of radon daughter products in mines of the Uravan Mineral Belt is strongly affected by the erratic nature of the ore deposits. Another problem is the frequent necessity of reactivating mine workings that have been inactive for many years. Ventilation holes and other airways are usually too small to provide adequate ventilation to satisfy current requirements, and they are often caved. The greatest change in ventilation systems in recent years has been the trend toward larger-diameter, drilled ventilation raises that provide more ventilation at considerably lower cost. The increase in raise size has aggrevated ground-support and ice-formation, difficulties, but these problems are being solved by lining the raises with shotcrete and grouting the water bearing horizons. Electronic air cleaners have been effectively used to remove radon daughter products from mine air for several years but their utility is limited by the rate of regrowth of the radon daughters after the air is cleaned. 5 figures

  2. A personal dosemeter of radon daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, I.; Richter, M.; Ochec, J.; Dohnal, J.

    1990-01-01

    The OD 88 personal dosemeter for radon daughter products uses an alpha particle track detector and is of active type, with forced air aspiration through the detecting system. The pumping device consists of a miniature membrane pump and an electronic speed controller. The air flow rate is little affected by normal changes in supply voltage and/or pneumatic resistance of the pump circuit. The dosemeter is embedded in a miner's lamp and is fed from its accumulator battery. The pumping device is activated as the lamp is taken out of the charger and deactivated as it is slid into the charger again. The dosemeter head accommodates an AFPC filter on which the radon daughter products deposit. The energy of the alpha particles is reduced by an air layer and a Makrofol decelerating foil. The particles hitting the detector give rise to defects with an intensity proportional to the total linear stopping power at the moment of incidence; ideal tracks 10 μm in size require incident energy of 1.1 to 1.3 MeV. The detector is replaced in a month and worked up in an etching vessel, making use of the higher solubility of the detecting layer of the foil in NaOH at the spot of the alpha particle incidence. (P.A.). 4 figs., 17 refs

  3. Efficient measurement of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1992-01-01

    In environmental control there is an increasing need for efficient measurement of radon and thoron daughters in air. Measuring instruments should be rugged and portable for field use, while also permitting unattended operation for several days. Simple operating procedures should permit evaluation of rapidly changing concentrations over extended periods. These requirements demand careful balance in the design of hardware and measuring procedures. The design principles for a continuous flow-through spectrometer, that has been developed for precision sequential measurement of radon and thoron daughters, are described. Because of the high precision of measurement, this type of instrument should find application in environments from technologically enhanced natural radiation to the very lowest natural background situations. (author)

  4. Design and implementation of an optimal laser pulse front tilting scheme for ultrafast electron diffraction in reflection geometry with high temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pennacchio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast electron diffraction is a powerful technique to investigate out-of-equilibrium atomic dynamics in solids with high temporal resolution. When diffraction is performed in reflection geometry, the main limitation is the mismatch in group velocity between the overlapping pump light and the electron probe pulses, which affects the overall temporal resolution of the experiment. A solution already available in the literature involved pulse front tilt of the pump beam at the sample, providing a sub-picosecond time resolution. However, in the reported optical scheme, the tilted pulse is characterized by a temporal chirp of about 1 ps at 1 mm away from the centre of the beam, which limits the investigation of surface dynamics in large crystals. In this paper, we propose an optimal tilting scheme designed for a radio-frequency-compressed ultrafast electron diffraction setup working in reflection geometry with 30 keV electron pulses containing up to 105 electrons/pulse. To characterize our scheme, we performed optical cross-correlation measurements, obtaining an average temporal width of the tilted pulse lower than 250 fs. The calibration of the electron-laser temporal overlap was obtained by monitoring the spatial profile of the electron beam when interacting with the plasma optically induced at the apex of a copper needle (plasma lensing effect. Finally, we report the first time-resolved results obtained on graphite, where the electron-phonon coupling dynamics is observed, showing an overall temporal resolution in the sub-500 fs regime. The successful implementation of this configuration opens the way to directly probe structural dynamics of low-dimensional systems in the sub-picosecond regime, with pulsed electrons.

  5. Photoionization effects in ionization fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrayas, Manuel; Fontelos, Marco A; Trueba, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects of photoionization processes on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharge. We show that negative fronts accelerate in the presence of photoionization events. The appearance and propagation of positive ionization fronts travelling with constant velocity is explained as the result of the combined effects of photoionization and electron diffusion. The photoionization range plays an important role in the selection of the velocity of the ionization front as we show in this work

  6. Photoionization effects in ionization fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, Manuel [Departamento de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Fontelos, Marco A [Departamento de Matematicas, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, C/Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Trueba, Jose L [Departamento de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-12-21

    In this paper we study the effects of photoionization processes on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharge. We show that negative fronts accelerate in the presence of photoionization events. The appearance and propagation of positive ionization fronts travelling with constant velocity is explained as the result of the combined effects of photoionization and electron diffusion. The photoionization range plays an important role in the selection of the velocity of the ionization front as we show in this work.

  7. Working level measurement of radon daughters and thoron daughters by personal dosimetry and continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.; Leung, H.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of personal alpha dosimeters in mixed radon daughter and thoron daughter atmospheres in Ontario uranium mines is described together with monitoring developments which enable the radon daughter working level to be determined separately. The theoretical bases for continuous and integrated working level measurements based on individual and gross counts are presented in terms of the weighting factor for combining the thoron daughter working level with the radon daughter working level, and in terms of the in-growth time of the air. Implications for the determination of working level in the presence of thoron daughters are discussed

  8. Design of the new front-end electronics for the readout of the upgraded CMS electromagnetic calorimeter for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cometti, Simona

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid detector was originally designed to operate for about ten years, for LHC instantaneous luminosities up to $1 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and integrated luminosity of 500 fb$^{-1}$. The High Luminosity LHC will increase the instantaneous luminosity by about a factor of 5 from current levels and CMS will accumulate an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by about 2035. With such high luminosity the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS will have to cope with a challenging increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing and in radiation levels. The front-end readout electronics will be completely redesigned, with the goals of providing precision timing, low noise and added flexibility in the trigger system. It will use a faster pre-amplifier, increase the sampling frequency from 40 MS/s to 160 MS/s and implement a trigger system that resides entirely off-detector.

  9. A Modular Active Front-End Rectifier with Electronic Phase-Shifting for Harmonic Mitigation in Motor Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zare, Firuz; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an electronic phase-shifting strategy has been optimized for a multi-parallel configuration of line-commutated rectifiers with a common dc-bus voltage used in motor drive application. This feature makes the performance of the system independent of the load profile and maximizes its...

  10. Orphan radon daughters at Denver Radium site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, R.F.; Droullard, R.F.; Davis, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    During 18 mo of sampling airborne radioactively at a National Priority List (open-quotes Superfundclose quotes) site in metroPOlitan Denver, Bureau of mines personnel discovered radon daughters that are not supported by the parent radon gas. We refer to them as open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters because the parent, radon, is not present in sufficient concentration to support the measured daughter products. Measurements of the open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters were made continuously, using the Bureau-developed radon and working-level (radon-daughter) monitors. The data showed high equilibrium ratios, ranging from 0.7 to 3.5, for long periods of time. Repeated, high-volume, 15-min grab samples were made, using the modified Tsivoglou method, to measure radon daughters, to which thoron daughters contributed 26 ± 12%. On average 28 ± 6% of the particulate activity was contributed by thoron daughters. Most samples were mixtures in which the 218 Po concentration was lower than that of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, in agreement with the high-equilibrium factors obtained from the continuous sampling data. In view of the short half-life of radon progeny, we conclude that the source of the orphan daughters is not far from the Superfund sites. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood at this time, but we will discuss its possible significance in evaluating population doses

  11. Firmware Development and Integration for ALICE TPC and PHOS Front-end Electronics A Trigger Based Readout and Control System operating in a Radiation Environment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068589; Rohrich, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    The readout electronics in PHOS and TPC - two of the major detectors of the ALICE experiment at the LHC - consist of a set of Front End Cards (FECs) that digitize, process and buffer the data from the detector sensors. The FECs are connected to a Readout Control Unit (RCU) via two sets of custom made PCB backplanes. For PHOS, 28 FECs are connected to one RCU, while for TPC the number is varying from 18 to 25 FECs depending on location. The RCU is in charge of the data readout, including reception and distribution of triggers and in moving the data from the FECs to the Data Acquisition System. In addition it does low level control tasks. The RCU consists of an RCU Motherboard that hosts a Detector Control System (DCS) board and a Source Interface Unit. The DCS board is an embedded computer running Linux that controls the readout electronics. All the mentioned devices are implemented in commercial grade SRAM based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Even if these devices are not very radiation tolerant, the...

  12. Teenage Daughters as a Cause of Divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan; Ribar, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from the U.S. that couples with daughters are more likely to divorce than couples with sons has not been found for other Western countries. Using 1995-2015 Dutch marriage registry data, we show that daughters are associated with higher divorce risks, but only when they are 13 to 18 years

  13. Performance of a resistive plate chamber equipped with a new prototype of amplified front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marchisone, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. At forward rapidity a muon spectrometer detects muons from low mass mesons, quarkonia, open heavy-flavor hadrons as well as weak bosons. A muon selection based on transverse momentum is made by a trigger system composed of 72 resistive plate chambers (RPCs). For the LHC Run 1 and the ongoing Run 2 the RPCs have been equipped with a non-amplified FEE called ADULT. However, in view of an increase in luminosity expected for Run 3 (2021-2023) the possibility to use an amplified FEE has been explored in order to improve the counting rate limitation and to prevent the aging of the detector, by reducing the charge per hit. A prototype of this new electronics (FEERIC) has been developed and tested first with cosmic rays before equipping one RPC in the ALICE cavern with it. In this talk the most important performance indicators - efficiency, dark current, dark rate, cluster size and total charge - of an RPC equipped with this new FEE will be r...

  14. Development of the control system of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector and of a test environment for quality-assurance of its front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado Pérez, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Within this thesis, the detector control system (DCS) for the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has been developed. The TRD DCS is fully implemented as a detector oriented hierarchy of objects behaving as finite state machines. It controls and monitors over 65 thousand front-end electronics (FEE) units, a few hundred low voltage and one thousand high voltage channels, and other sub-systems such as cooling and gas. Commissioning of the TRD DCS took place during several runs with ALICE using cosmic events. Another part of this thesis describes the development of a test environment for large-scale production quality-assurance of over 4 thousand FEE read-out boards containing in total about 1.2 million read-out channels. The hardware and software components are described in detail. Additionally, a series of performance studies were carried out earlier including radiation tolerance tests of the TRAP chip which is the core component of the TRD FEE.

  15. Development of the control system of the ALICE transition radiation detector and of a test environment for quality-assurance of its front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado Perez, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Within this thesis, the detector control system (DCS) for the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has been developed. The TRD DCS is fully implemented as a detector oriented hierarchy of objects behaving as finite state machines. It controls and monitors over 65 thousand front-end electronics (FEE) units, a few hundred low voltage and one thousand high voltage channels, and other sub-systems such as cooling and gas. Commissioning of the TRD DCS took place during several runs with ALICE using cosmic events. Another part of this thesis describes the development of a test environment for large-scale production quality-assurance of over 4 thousand FEE read-out boards containing in total about 1.2 million read-out channels. The hardware and software components are described in detail. Additionally, a series of performance studies were carried out earlier including radiation tolerance tests of the TRAP chip which is the core component of the TRD FEE. (orig.)

  16. Design and Implementation of an Electronic Front-End Based on Square Wave Excitation for Ultrasonic Torsional Guided Wave Viscosity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rabani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The market for process instruments generally requires low cost devices that are robust, small in size, portable, and usable in-plant. Ultrasonic torsional guided wave sensors have received much attention by researchers for measurement of viscosity and/or density of fluids in recent years. The supporting electronic systems for these sensors providing many different settings of sine-wave signals are bulky and expensive. In contrast, a system based on bursts of square waves instead of sine waves would have a considerable advantage in that respect and could be built using simple integrated circuits at a cost that is orders of magnitude lower than for a windowed sine wave device. This paper explores the possibility of using square wave bursts as the driving signal source for the ultrasonic torsional guided wave viscosity sensor. A simple design of a compact and fully automatic analogue square wave front-end for the sensor is also proposed. The successful operation of the system is demonstrated by using the sensor for measuring the viscosity in a representative fluid. This work provides the basis for design and manufacture of low cost compact standalone ultrasonic guided wave sensors and enlightens the possibility of using coded excitation techniques utilising square wave sequences in such applications.

  17. SPIROC (SiPM Integrated Read-Out Chip) Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchel, Michel; Dulucq, Frédéric; Fleury, Julien; de La Taille, Christophe; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Raux, Ludovic

    2009-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  18. SPIROC (SiPM Integrated Read-Out Chip) Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchel, Michel; Fleury, Julien; de La Taille, Christophe; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Raux, Ludovic

    2007-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  19. Development of the control system of the ALICE transition radiation detector and of a test environment for quality-assurance of its front-end electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado Perez, Jorge

    2008-11-10

    Within this thesis, the detector control system (DCS) for the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has been developed. The TRD DCS is fully implemented as a detector oriented hierarchy of objects behaving as finite state machines. It controls and monitors over 65 thousand front-end electronics (FEE) units, a few hundred low voltage and one thousand high voltage channels, and other sub-systems such as cooling and gas. Commissioning of the TRD DCS took place during several runs with ALICE using cosmic events. Another part of this thesis describes the development of a test environment for large-scale production quality-assurance of over 4 thousand FEE read-out boards containing in total about 1.2 million read-out channels. The hardware and software components are described in detail. Additionally, a series of performance studies were carried out earlier including radiation tolerance tests of the TRAP chip which is the core component of the TRD FEE. (orig.)

  20. Testing and commissioning of the LHCb Outer Tracker front-end electronic and a study for a background estimation in the decay B{sup 0}{sub s} {yields} J/{psi} {phi}; Tests und Inbetriebnahme der LHCb Outer Tracker Front-end Elektronik und eine Studie zur Abschaetzung des Untergrundes im Zerfall B{sup 0}{sub s} {yields} J/{psi} {phi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, Jan

    2009-07-08

    The readout electronic of the LHCb outer tracker measures the drift time of a straw tube. The front-end electronic consists of three radiation hard chips. The ASDBLR preamplifier amplifies and discriminates the charge puls produced by the drift chamber. The OTIS-TDC chip measures the drift time every 25 ns on 32 detector channels. The generated data is send via an optical link with 1.6 GBit/s, making use of the GOL chip. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the testing and commissioning of the outer tracker front-end electronic. Altogether three test systems were developed and operated. The first test system was built to thoroughly check the features of the OTIS-TDC chips on the wafer. The quality of the OTIS board and GOL-Aux board production was checked with another test system. The front-end electronic was also combined and tested to the LHCB readout chain. One of the main goals of the LHCb experiment is the measurement of the CP-violating phase {phi}{sub s}. It can be measured by using the golden decay mode B{sup 0}{sub s} {yields} J/{psi} {phi}. It is vital to have a good knowledge about the background for this decay in order to extract the phase. In this thesis a study was performed to overcome the current limitations due to low Monte-Carlo statistics in this area. (orig.)

  1. Plk1 relieves centriole block to reduplication by promoting daughter centriole maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anil; Kong, Dong; Sharma, Meena; Magidson, Valentin; Loncarek, Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Centrosome overduplication promotes mitotic abnormalities, invasion and tumorigenesis. Cells regulate the number of centrosomes by limiting centriole duplication to once per cell cycle. The orthogonal orientation between a mother and a daughter centriole, established at the time of centriole duplication, is thought to block further duplication of the mother centriole. Loss of orthogonal orientation (disengagement) between two centrioles during anaphase is considered a licensing event for the next round of centriole duplication. Disengagement requires the activity of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), but how Plk1 drives this process is not clear. Here we employ correlative live/electron microscopy and demonstrate that Plk1 induces maturation and distancing of the daughter centriole, allowing reduplication of the mother centriole even if the original daughter centriole is still orthogonal to it. We find that mother centrioles can undergo reduplication when original daughter centrioles are only ∼80 nm apart, which is the distance centrioles normally reach during prophase. PMID:26293378

  2. Lower Hybrid Drift Waves and Electromagnetic Electron Space-Phase Holes Associated With Dipolarization Fronts and Field-Aligned Currents Observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission During a Substorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Contel, O.; Nakamura, R.; Breuillard, H.; Argall, M. R.; Graham, D. B.; Fischer, D.; Retinò, A.; Berthomier, M.; Pottelette, R.; Mirioni, L.; Chust, T.; Wilder, F. D.; Gershman, D. J.; Varsani, A.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Norgren, C.; Ergun, R. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Needell, J.; Chutter, M.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R. J.; Bromund, K. R.; Wei, H. Y.; Plaschke, F.; Anderson, B. J.; Le, G.; Moore, T. E.; Giles, B. L.; Paterson, W. R.; Pollock, C. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Avanov, L. A.; Saito, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Leonard, T.; Jaynes, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze two ion scale dipolarization fronts associated with field-aligned currents detected by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission during a large substorm on 10 August 2016. The first event corresponds to a fast dawnward flow with an antiparallel current and could be generated by the wake of a previous fast earthward flow. It is associated with intense lower hybrid drift waves detected at the front and propagating dawnward with a perpendicular phase speed close to the electric drift and the ion thermal velocity. The second event corresponds to a flow reversal: from southwward/dawnward to northward/duskward associated with a parallel current consistent with a brief expansion of the plasma sheet before the front crossing and with a smaller lower hybrid drift wave activity. Electromagnetic electron phase-space holes are detected near these low-frequency drift waves during both events. The drift waves could accelerate electrons parallel to the magnetic field and produce the parallel electron drift needed to generate the electron holes. Yet we cannot rule out the possibility that the drift waves are produced by the antiparallel current associated with the fast flows, leaving the source for the electron holes unexplained.

  3. Control of radon daughters in underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swent, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses technical developments that may enable uranium mine operators to improve engineering controls of radon daughter concentrations in mines, and developments in regulatory controls. The origin of radon daughters in underground mines is explained. The procedure for sampling and determining the concentration of alpha radiation in sampled air is reviewed. The principal technical development in the last few years has been the perfection and use of a class of meters which determine radon daughter concentrations in an air sample in a matter of two or three minutes without any aging period. A number of underground uranium mine operators are now using ''instant'' type meters and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has approved their use in a number of mines. The difficulty experienced by uranium mine operators in complying with a MSHA regulation which requires that no person be exposed to radon daughter concentrations exceeding 1 Working Level (WL) in any active working place is discussed

  4. Perspective on cancer and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the hazards from radon and its daughters in the environment and the role they may play in contributing to the general cancer burden. Only in exceptional circumstances can one pick out one mutagen or one carcinogen and scientifically determine what its contribution is o our burden of birth defects and cancer. The risks associated with radon and its daughters are examined in light of this philosophy

  5. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  6. Reproductive prognosis in daughters of women with and without endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, T; Hansen, Maj Vadskjær Hjordt; Hartwell, D

    2013-01-01

    Do daughters of women with endometriosis exhibit an increased risk of endometriosis and impaired long-term reproductive prognosis when compared with daughters of women without endometriosis?......Do daughters of women with endometriosis exhibit an increased risk of endometriosis and impaired long-term reproductive prognosis when compared with daughters of women without endometriosis?...

  7. Front-End Electron Transfer Dissociation Coupled to a 21 Tesla FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer for Intact Protein Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Chad R.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Syka, John E. P.; Early, Lee; Mullen, Christopher; Dunyach, Jean-Jacques; English, A. Michelle; Anderson, Lissa C.; Blakney, Greg T.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.; Hunt, Donald F.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry is a key technology for in-depth protein characterization. High-field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) enables high-level interrogation of intact proteins in the most detail to date. However, an appropriate complement of fragmentation technologies must be paired with FTMS to provide comprehensive sequence coverage, as well as characterization of sequence variants, and post-translational modifications. Here we describe the integration of front-end electron transfer dissociation (FETD) with a custom-built 21 tesla FT-ICR mass spectrometer, which yields unprecedented sequence coverage for proteins ranging from 2.8 to 29 kDa, without the need for extensive spectral averaging (e.g., 60% sequence coverage for apo-myoglobin with four averaged acquisitions). The system is equipped with a multipole storage device separate from the ETD reaction device, which allows accumulation of multiple ETD fragment ion fills. Consequently, an optimally large product ion population is accumulated prior to transfer to the ICR cell for mass analysis, which improves mass spectral signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, and scan rate. We find a linear relationship between protein molecular weight and minimum number of ETD reaction fills to achieve optimum sequence coverage, thereby enabling more efficient use of instrument data acquisition time. Finally, real-time scaling of the number of ETD reactions fills during method-based acquisition is shown, and the implications for LC-MS/MS top-down analysis are discussed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Testing and commissioning of the LHCb Outer Tracker front-end electronic and a study for a background estimation in the decay B0s → J/ψ Φ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopf, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The readout electronic of the LHCb outer tracker measures the drift time of a straw tube. The front-end electronic consists of three radiation hard chips. The ASDBLR preamplifier amplifies and discriminates the charge puls produced by the drift chamber. The OTIS-TDC chip measures the drift time every 25 ns on 32 detector channels. The generated data is send via an optical link with 1.6 GBit/s, making use of the GOL chip. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the testing and commissioning of the outer tracker front-end electronic. Altogether three test systems were developed and operated. The first test system was built to thoroughly check the features of the OTIS-TDC chips on the wafer. The quality of the OTIS board and GOL-Aux board production was checked with another test system. The front-end electronic was also combined and tested to the LHCB readout chain. One of the main goals of the LHCb experiment is the measurement of the CP-violating phase Φ s . It can be measured by using the golden decay mode B 0 s → J/ψ Φ. It is vital to have a good knowledge about the background for this decay in order to extract the phase. In this thesis a study was performed to overcome the current limitations due to low Monte-Carlo statistics in this area. (orig.)

  9. Removal of radon daughters from indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonassen, N.

    1985-01-01

    The internal radiological exposure of the general population is largely due to the airborne daughter products of radon and thoron, which are found in two states, attached to aerosols or unattached, of which the latter species according to several dose models have the highest radiological dose efficiency of the two. The radon daughters may be removed from indoor air by a series of processes like ventilation, filtration, plateout, and electrostatic deposition. Ventilation (with radon-free air) is, on the one hand, a very effective measure, but usually involves introduction of colder air, in variance with energy-saving efforts. Internal filtration will not affect the radon concentration but may reduce the level of daughter activities, roughly inversely proportional to the filtration rate. At the same time, however, filtration may also change the aerosol distribution and concentration of the air and, consequently, the partitioning of the radon daughters between the attached and unattached state. This, in turn, influences the rate of deposition of radon daughters both by diffusional plateout and as an effect of an electric field. Experiments are reported demonstrating reductions in the airborne potential alpha energy by factors of 4 to 5 by use of filtration rates of 3-4 times per hour. In case of low aerosol concentrations, however, the corresponding reduction in radiological dose to critical parts of the respiratory tract may be much smaller, due to the shift toward higher fractions of the radon daughters being in the unattached state caused by the filtration. The possibility of using electrostatic deposition of radon daughters is also discussed

  10. Adult Daughters' Descriptions of Their Mother-Daughter Relationship in the Context of Chronic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Mentes, Janet C; Moon, Ailee; Pieters, Huibrie C; Phillips, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe, from the perspective of the adult daughter, the mother-daughter relationship in the context of chronic conflict. Grounded theory methodology was used. An online recruitment strategy was used to identify a sample of adult daughters (N = 13) who self-identified as having an abusive relationship with their aging mother. Data collection was completed through semi-structured telephone interviews. Daughters framed their relationship around their perceptions of past childhood injustices. These injustices invoked strong negative emotions. Daughters had equally strong motivations for sustaining the relationship, driven by desire to reconcile their negative experience through seeking validation and futile-hoping as well as a sense of obligation to do due diligence. Together these factors created an environment of inevitable confrontation and a relationship defined by chronic conflict. Findings from the study provide theoretical insights to the conceptualization of aggression, power relationships, and the development of elder abuse and neglect.

  11. Unattached radon daughter atoms and radon daughter equilibrium ratios in uranium mines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holaday, D.A.

    1972-01-01

    Uranium mines in Colorado and New Mexico were surveyed for airborne concentrations of radon (10043922) and radon daughters. A procedure for measuring individual daughters and the fraction of each existing as free atoms was developed and used for field monitoring. Samples were taken in working areas and particle counts were made. The data was analyzed to determine the ratio of radon to radon daughters as well as the ratios among the radon daughters. The author concludes that since the radon to working level ratios have not changed much in 20 years, using the ratio as the basis for estimating relative biological hazard is just as uncertain now as then. The large number of daughters present as free atoms indicate that the lung radiation doses calculated using any of the lung models need reexamination

  12. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.

    1983-01-01

    Some aspects of the behavior of radon and its short-lived daughters in vivo are described and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and time after a meal is demonstrated. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon produced from skeletally-deposited radium was observed and a similar effect in exhalation rate of environmental radon by persons containing no radium was noted. Persons living in houses with elevated concentrations of radon may contain sufficient activity for its detection by external gamma-ray counting. Some of the activity observed is due to inhaled daughter-products in the chest, and some to daughter-products associated with and produced by the decay of radon throughout the body. 3 references, 8 figures. (MF)

  13. Teenage Daughters as a Cause of Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Kabátek, Jan; Ribar, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from the U.S. that couples with daughters are more likely to divorce than couples with sons has not been found for other Western countries. Using 1995-2015 Dutch marriage registry data, we show that daughters are associated with higher divorce risks, but only when they are 13 to 18 years old. There are no detectable gender differences before or after those ages. These age-specific findings are at odds with son-preference and selection explanations for differences in divorce risks. In...

  14. A Complete Readout Chain of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the HL-LHC: from FATALIC Front-End Electronics to Signal Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Senkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a front-end readout system, an ASIC called FATALIC, proposed for the high-luminosity phase LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Based on 130 nm CMOS technology, FATALIC performs the full signal processing, including amplification, shaping and digitisation.

  15. Do Parents Discriminate against Their Heavyweight Daughters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christian S.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to support the parental prejudice hypothesis by having students report on their parents' attitudes. Results from two studies indicate that heavyweight women were more likely to pay their own way through college, irrespective of their parents' income. The selection bias against fat women was strongest for daughters of political…

  16. Vocational Preferences of Daughters of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Eldon M.; Goodman, Ronald E.

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the vocational interests of daughters of alcoholics. Mixed support was provided for the assumption that their vocational choices are nonperson oriented. Data did support the prediction of high scores on the realistic and intellectual scales of Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory. (SJL)

  17. White piedra in a mother and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B

    2009-07-01

    White Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair caused by Trichosporon asahii. It is also known as trichomycosis nodosa or trichomycosis nodularis. We report two cases of White Piedra in a mother and her daughter for the rarity of such occurrence.

  18. Occupational exposure to radon daughters in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented for radon daughter concentrations in 70 premises of either factory-type or office-type in Cornwall. It is concluded that attention may need to be directed to offices in parts of the UK, the principal reason being their generally low ventilation rates. (U.K.)

  19. Laboratory measurements of the influence of air treatment devices on radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajala, M.; Janka, K.; Graeffe, G.; Kulmala, V.; Lehtimaeki, M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents laboratory measurements in which the effect of air cleaners on radon decay products has been studied. Experiments show that both a high-efficiency particulate air filter and an electrostatic precipitator substantially decrease the total airborne radon daughter concentration leading to a situation where most of the decay products are unattached. However, in some situations the concentration of fine particles generated by the corona discharge in the electronic air cleaner becomes high enough to increase the total radon daughter concentration and decrease the free decay product concentration. Impurities in the air may have a notable role in the formation of these condensation nuclei. (Author)

  20. The front-end electronics and slow control of large area SiPM for the SST-1M camera developed for the CTA experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aguilar, J.A.; Bilnik, W.; Borkowski, J.; Mandát, Dušan; Pech, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr

    Roč. 830, Sep (2016), s. 219-232 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015046; GA MŠk LE13012; GA MŠk LG14019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CTA * SiPM * G-APD * preamplifier * front-end * slow-control * compensation Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  1. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  2. Factors influencing indoor concentrations of radon and daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hengde

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between indoor concentrations of 222 Rn and its daughters and some influencing factors is discussed and expressions of concentrations are derived with relation to radon exhalation rate from indoor surfaces, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities on indoor surfaces. Experimental methods for determining radon exhalation rate, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities are also mentioned

  3. A field method for monitoring thoron-daughter working level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Dhandayatham, R.; Raghavayya, M.; Nambiar, P.P.V.J.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of working level, generally used for radon daughters, has been extended to the daughter products of thoron. Accordingly, thorondaughter working level (TWL) has been defined as the alpha energy released from the ultimate decay of 100 pCi/1 each of the short-lived decay products of thoron. In order to facilitate the evaluation of inhalation hazard in thorium handling areas, a simple field method has been suggested to measure the thoron-daughter working level. A comparison of the potential alpha energies from radon-daughters and that from thoron-daughter is included. (K.B.)

  4. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. If the subject moved to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon, the result would be an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend of the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. The author reports a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. 8 figures.

  5. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. Movement of the subject to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon would result in an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend on the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. We report a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. (author).

  6. Radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E. S.; Frels, T.; Miller, E. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Street, J.

    2018-01-01

    Radiopure materials for detector components in rare event searches may be contaminated after manufacturing with long-lived 210Pb produced by the decay of atmospheric radon. Charged radon daughters deposited on the surface or implanted in the bulk of detector materials have the potential to cause noticeable backgrounds within dark matter regions of interest. Understanding the mechanics governing these background signals is therefore a paramount concern in dark matter experiments in order to distinguish a real signal from internal detector backgrounds. Teflon (i.e. PTFE) is a specific material of interest because it makes up the walls of the inner detector of many liquid noble detectors such as the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment. The rate of radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon can be orders of magnitude larger than the plate-out rate onto other materials. Mitigation of plate-out onto Teflon and steel by proximity to other materials is demonstrated.

  7. Aging mothers' and their adult daughters' perceptions of conflict behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, K L

    1995-12-01

    Aging parents tend to perceive greater compatibility between themselves and offspring than do off-spring, but there is little research examining differences in perceptions of conflicts. Ninety-six older mothers (M age = 76) and their daughters (M age = 44) together selected a conflictual incident, then individually rated the degree to which they and the other person had engaged in destructive, constructive, or avoidant conflict behaviors. Mothers and daughters reported using constructive approaches more than other approaches. Mothers claimed to engage in constructive behaviors more than daughters recognized. Daughters reported engaging in destructive and avoidant behaviors more than mothers realized. Mothers also thought daughters felt better about the incident than daughters reported feeling about it. Findings suggest older mothers' underestimate daughters' negative behaviors and feelings in conflict situations.

  8. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrió Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

  9. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2024. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  10. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2013-01-01

    This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  11. Shared Vision between Fathers and Daughters in Family Businesses: The Determining Factor That Transforms Daughters into Successors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Kessler Overbeke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Family businesses are critical to the United States economy, employing 63% of the workforce and generating 57% of GDP (University of Vermont, 2014. Family business continuity, however, remains elusive as approximately 70% of family businesses do not survive the second generation (Poza, 2013. In order to augment our understanding of how next generation leaders are chosen in family businesses, we examine daughter succession. Using a sample of pairs of family business fathers and daughters and drawing on an earlier study of the dearth of successor daughters in family businesses (Overbeke, Bilimoria, & Perelli, 2013, we reveal that shared vision between fathers and daughters is central to daughter succession. Self-efficacy and gender norms influence shared vision and when fathers and daughters share a vision for the future of the company, daughters are likely to be transformed into successors.

  12. Shared vision between fathers and daughters in family businesses: the determining factor that transforms daughters into successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeke, Kathy K; Bilimoria, Diana; Somers, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Family businesses are critical to the United States economy, employing 63% of the workforce and generating 57% of GDP (University of Vermont, 2014). Family business continuity, however, remains elusive as approximately 70% of family businesses do not survive the second generation (Poza, 2013). In order to augment our understanding of how next generation leaders are chosen in family businesses, we examine daughter succession. Using a sample of pairs of family business fathers and daughters and drawing on an earlier study of the dearth of successor daughters in family businesses (Overbeke et al., 2013), we reveal that shared vision between fathers and daughters is central to daughter succession. Self-efficacy and gender norms influence shared vision and when fathers and daughters share a vision for the future of the company, daughters are likely to be transformed into successors.

  13. African American mother-daughter communication about sex and daughters' sexual behavior: does college racial composition make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mia Smith

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the influence of African American mothers' communication about sexual topics on the sexual attitudes and behavior of their college-enrolled daughters. Daughters were enrolled at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) or a predominantly White institution (PWI) to assess whether and how college racial context might affect daughters' sexual attitudes and behavior. Findings indicated that daughters at the HBCU had less permissive attitudes about premarital sex than their counterparts at the PWI. This result was especially true for daughters of mothers with more conservative attitudes about premarital sex and who discussed such topics infrequently. Last, the combination of positive mother-daughter communication and fewer discussions about sexual topics resulted in lower levels of sexual experience among the daughters. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Shared vision between fathers and daughters in family businesses: the determining factor that transforms daughters into successors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeke, Kathy K.; Bilimoria, Diana; Somers, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Family businesses are critical to the United States economy, employing 63% of the workforce and generating 57% of GDP (University of Vermont, 2014). Family business continuity, however, remains elusive as approximately 70% of family businesses do not survive the second generation (Poza, 2013). In order to augment our understanding of how next generation leaders are chosen in family businesses, we examine daughter succession. Using a sample of pairs of family business fathers and daughters and drawing on an earlier study of the dearth of successor daughters in family businesses (Overbeke et al., 2013), we reveal that shared vision between fathers and daughters is central to daughter succession. Self-efficacy and gender norms influence shared vision and when fathers and daughters share a vision for the future of the company, daughters are likely to be transformed into successors. PMID:26074830

  15. New read-out electronics for ICARUS-T600 liquid Argon TPC. Description, simulation and tests of the new front-end and ADC system arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Bagby, L.; Bellini, V.; Bonesini, M.; Braggiotti, A.; Castellani, L.; Centro, S.; Cervi, T.; Cocco, A.G.; Fabris, F.; Falcone, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Fichera, F.; Franciotti, D.; Galet, G.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Guida, R.; Ketchum, W.; Marchini, S.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Menon, G.; Montanari, C.; Nessi, M.; Nicoletto, M.; Pedrotta, R.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Rampazzo, G.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Scaramelli, A.; Sergiampietri, F.; Spanu, M.; Torti, M.; Tortorici, F.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Zani, A.; Zatti, P.G.

    The ICARUS T600, a liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) detector mainly devoted to neutrino physics, underwent a major overhauling at CERN in 2016-2017, which included also a new design of the read-out electronics, in view of its operation in Fermilab on the Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) beam from 2019. The new more compact electronics showed capability of handling more efficiently the signals also in the intermediate Induction 2 wire plane with a significant increase of signal to noise (S/N), allowing for charge measurement also in this view. The new front-end and the analog to digital conversion (ADC) system are presented together with the results of the tests on 50 liters liquid argon TPC performed at CERN with cosmic rays.

  16. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Misfits of War: First World War Nurses in the Daughters of Mars by Thomas Keneally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branach-Kallas Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is an analysis of the representation of Australian nurses in Thomas Keneally 2012 First World War novel, The Daughters of Mars. Inspired by rigorous research, Keneally fictionalizes the lives of two nursing sisters in the Middle East, on a hospital ship in the Dardanelles, as well as in hospitals and casualty clearing stations on the Western Front. His novel thus reclaims an important facet of the medical history of the First World War. The author of the article situates her analysis in the context of historical research on the First World War and the Australian Anzac myth, illuminating the specifically Australian elements in Keneally’s portrait of the Durance sisters. She demonstrates that The Daughters of Mars celebrates the achievements of “Anzac girls”, negotiating a place for them in the culture of commemoration. Yet, at the same time, Keneally attempts to include his female protagonists in the “manly” world of Anzac values, privileging heroism over victimization. Consequently, they become “misfits of war”, eagerly accepting imperial and nationalist ideologies. Thus, in a way characteristic of Australian First World War literature, The Daughters of Mars fuses the tropes of affirmation and desolation.

  18. A Complete Readout Chain of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the HL-LHC: from FATALIC Front-End Electronics to Signal Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Senkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast programme of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen in 2024. We present here one of the front-end readout options, an ASIC called FATALIC, which is proposed for the high-luminosity phase LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Based on a 130 nm CMOS technology, FATALIC performs the complete signal processing, including amplification, shaping and digitisation. Hereby we describe the full characterisation of FATALIC and also the signal reconstruction up to the observables of interest for physics: the energy and the arrival time of the particle. The Optimal Filtering signal reconstruction method is adapted to fully exploit the FATALIC three-range layout. Additionally, we present the performance in terms of resolution of the whole chain measured using the charge injection system designed for calibration. Finally, the results of the signal reconstruction used on real data collected during a preliminary beam test at CERN are discussed.

  19. Lung pathology and exposure to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1980-01-01

    The data presented suggest that the primary carcinogen of lung cancer in uranium miners is cigarette smoking because the incidence of lung cancer in noncigarette smokers is insignificant. In cigarette-smoking uranium miners, however, the incidence of cancer in those exposed to significant amounts of radon daughters is higher than in the smoking, nonmining population. This suggests that radon is an additive carcinogen if the lung has been injured by the cigarette-smoking carcinogen. Preliminary studies measuring DNA, T cells, and rosette inhibition immunological studies indicate closer monitoring of uranium miners' health during this occupation may be justified

  20. The mother-daughter love affair across the generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockars, L; Sirola, R

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between mother and daughter is the basis for all love relationships throughout life. Through the eyes and hands of the mother, the intimate and caring nature of love is transmitted from generation to generation. Mother-daughter love is also the beginning of heterosexual love and of sensual pleasure. However, sexuality separates and alienates mother and daughter. As a consequence, the daughter's identification with the mother becomes the most important transmitter of love. We review psychoanalytic studies of the development and fate of the mother-daughter love relationship, with particular attention to the change of the daughter's early love for the mother to identification with the mother and falling in love with a man, and to the significance of sexuality in this developmental process.

  1. Effects of high-energy particle showers on the embedded front-end electronics of an electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Repond, J.; Smith, J.; Trojand, D.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Benyamna, M.; Carloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Fabbri, R.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Garutti, E.; Gottlicher, P.; Gunter, C.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Marchesini, I.; Meyer, N.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Wattimena, N.; Wendt, O.; Feege, N.; Haller, J.; Richter, S.; Samson, J.; Eckert, P.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Tadday, A.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Kawagoe, K.; Uozumi, S.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.M.; Bartsch, V.; Salvatore, F.; Laktineh, I.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Frey, A.; Kiesling, C.; Simon, F.; Bonis, J.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Marcisovsky, M.; Sicho, P.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.

    2011-01-01

    Application Specific Integrated Circuits, ASICs, similar to those envisaged for the readout electronics of the central calorimeters of detectors for a future lepton collider have been exposed to high-energy electromagnetic showers. A salient feature of these calorimeters is that the readout electronics will be embedded into the calorimeter layers. In this article it is shown that interactions of shower particles in the volume of the readout electronics do not alter the noise pattern of the ASICs. No signal at or above the MIP level has been observed during the exposure. The upper limit at the 95% confidence level on the frequency of faked signals is smaller than 1x10^{-5} for a noise threshold of about 60% of a MIP. For ASICs with similar design to those which were tested, it can thus be largely excluded that the embedding of the electronics into the calorimeter layers compromises the performance of the calorimeters.

  2. An updated front-end data link design for the Phase-2 upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Silverstein, Samuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a new design of the advanced Link Daughter Board (DB) for the front-end electronics upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) for Phase-II. The new TileCal front-end comprises 1024 “mini-drawers” (MD) installed in 256 calorimeter modules. Each MD serves up to 12 PMT channels, with ADCs and calibration provided by one “main board” (MB) per MD. The DB is connected to the MB through a dense, high-speed FMC connector, and provides bi-directional multi-Gb/s optlcal links to the off-detector electronics for timing, control, and continuous high-speed readout of the ADC channels on the MB. The DB is designed for redundancy and fault-tolerance, and previous versions have already been successfully tested at CERN and elsewhere. The new revision includes Kintex Ultrascale+ FPGAs for improved link timing and radiation tolerance, an expanded role for the rad-tolerant GBTx ASICs, and a simpler design requiring fewer components and optical links.

  3. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations

  5. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J

    1988-02-01

    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues.

  6. [The mother's role in breasfeeding her primiparous daughter: "the togetherness"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Rita Marinho; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Mamede, Marli Villela

    2004-01-01

    The authors' disquietudes are related to the structure for supporting women to breastfeed within their family environment. It is a qualitative study aiming at understanding the significance of breastfeeding among mothers and primiparous daughters, as well as identifying how the mother perceive herself as a means of support for her primiparous daughter and vice versa. The historic social construction of women for maternity has been used as a theoretical referential. The sample was made up of 10 women--five primiparous daughters and their mothers. The participation of the mother in her daughter's maternity was "to be along with her", sharing knowledge and life experiences.

  7. Design of front end electronics and a full scale 4k pixel readout ASIC for the DSSC X-ray detector at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdinger, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to design a large scale readout ASIC for the 1-Mega pixel DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector system which is being developed by an international collaboration for the European XFEL (EuXFEL). Requirements for the DSSC detector include single photon detection down to 0.5 keV combined with a large dynamic range of up to 10000 photons at frame rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The detector core concepts include full parallel readout, signal compression on the sensor or ASIC level, filtering, immediate digitization and local storage within the pixel. The DSSC is a hybrid pixel detector, each sensor pixel mates to a dedicated ASIC pixel, which includes the entire specified signal processing chain along with auxiliary circuits. One ASIC comprises 4096 pixels and a full periphery including biasing and digital control. This thesis presents the design of the ASIC, its components and integration are described in detail. Emphasis is put on the design of the analog front-end. The first full format ASIC (F1) has been fabricated within the scope of this thesis along with numerous test chips. Furthermore, the EuXFEL and the DSSC detector system are presented to create the context for the ASIC, which is the core topic of this thesis.

  8. Design of front end electronics and a full scale 4k pixel readout ASIC for the DSSC X-ray detector at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdinger, Florian

    2016-11-22

    The goal of this thesis was to design a large scale readout ASIC for the 1-Mega pixel DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector system which is being developed by an international collaboration for the European XFEL (EuXFEL). Requirements for the DSSC detector include single photon detection down to 0.5 keV combined with a large dynamic range of up to 10000 photons at frame rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The detector core concepts include full parallel readout, signal compression on the sensor or ASIC level, filtering, immediate digitization and local storage within the pixel. The DSSC is a hybrid pixel detector, each sensor pixel mates to a dedicated ASIC pixel, which includes the entire specified signal processing chain along with auxiliary circuits. One ASIC comprises 4096 pixels and a full periphery including biasing and digital control. This thesis presents the design of the ASIC, its components and integration are described in detail. Emphasis is put on the design of the analog front-end. The first full format ASIC (F1) has been fabricated within the scope of this thesis along with numerous test chips. Furthermore, the EuXFEL and the DSSC detector system are presented to create the context for the ASIC, which is the core topic of this thesis.

  9. Einstein's daughter the search for Lieserl

    CERN Document Server

    Zackheim, Michele

    1999-01-01

    A thoroughly gripping and groundbreaking investigation into the mysterious fate of Albert Einstein's illegitimate daughter. Albert Einstein fell in love with Mileva Maric, the woman who would become his first wife, when they were students at the Zurich Polytechnic Institute. When Maric conceived a child out of wedlock, she went home to her family in Serbia to have the child. Lieserl Maric Einstein was born in 1902. Though Einstein and Maric married the following year, Lieserl was left in the care of her grandparents and never became a part of the Einstein family. In fact, her very existence was unknown until the recent discovery of a cache of letters between Einstein and Maric. The final reference to Lieserl comes in a September 1903 letter, when, at the age of approximately eighteen months, she simply disappears. What happened to Einstein's daughter is the most potent mystery to emerge from the mythology that surrounds one of the century's legendary figures, owing in large part to the careful and apparent...

  10. A Multi-Pulse Front-End Rectifier System with Electronic Phase-Shifting for Harmonic Mitigation in Motor Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zare, Firuz; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an electronic phase-shifting strategy has been optimized for a multi-parallel configuration of line-commutated rectifiers with a common dc-bus voltage used in motor drive application. This feature makes the performance of the system independent of the load profile and maximizes its...

  11. Characterizing Ion Flows Across a Dipolarization Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, H.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2017-12-01

    In light of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) moving to study predominately symmetric magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail, it is of interest to investigate various methods for determining the relative location of the satellites with respect to the x line or a dipolarization front. We use a 2.5 dimensional PIC simulation to explore the dependence of various characteristics of a front, or flux bundle, on the width of the front in the dawn-dusk direction. In particular, we characterize the ion flow in the x-GSM direction across the front. We find a linear relationship between the width of a front, w, and the maximum velocity of the ion flow in the x-GSM direction, Vxi, for small widths: Vxi/VA=w/di*1/2*(mVA2)/Ti*Bz/Bxwhere m, VA, di, Ti, Bz, and Bx are the ion mass, upstream Alfven speed, ion inertial length, ion temperature, and magnetic fields in the z-GSM and x-GSM directions respectively. However, once the width reaches around 5 di, the relationship gradually approaches the well-known theoretical limit for ion flows, the upstream Alfven speed. Furthermore, we note that there is a reversal in the Hall magnetic field near the current sheet on the positive y-GSM side of the front. This reversal is most likely due to conservation of momentum in the y-GSM direction as the ions accelerate towards the x-GSM direction. This indicates that while the ions are primarily energized in the x-GSM direction by the front, they transfer energy to the electromagnetic fields in the y-GSM direction. The former energy transfer is greater than the latter, but the reversal of the Hall magnetic field drags the frozen-in electrons along with it outside of the front. These simulations should better able researchers to determine the relative location of a satellite crossing a dipolarization front.

  12. Radon-daughter chamber instrumentation system reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, R.; Johnson, L.

    1985-01-01

    The radon-daughter chamber instrumentation system collects environmental data from the radon-daughter chamber. These data are then recorded on a Tandberg system tape cartridge and transmitted to the HP-1000 computer for processing. Generators which inject radon and condensation nuclei into the chamber are also included with the instrumentation system

  13. Heritability of menopausal age in mothers and daughters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, Kristel M.; Kok, Helen S.; Pearson, Peter L.; Dubas, Judith S.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; te Velde, Egbert R.; van Noord, Paulus A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the heritability of age at natural menopause from mother-daughter pairs. Design: Two-generation families were selected to study heritability of menopausal age. Setting: Subjects were drawn from a population-based study. Patient(s): One hundred sixty-four mother-daughter pairs

  14. Mother/Daughter Relationship: Psychological Implication of Love in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper re-examines Toni Morrison's Beloved to identify an example of the types of mother/daughter relationship that existed between black mothers and their daughters and the implications of such relationship on the Black American society. The paper is a psychoanalytic reading, utilizing Melanie Klein's Object ...

  15. The Maternal Gift: Mothers' Investment in Their Daughters' Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the degree to which mothers participate in decisions surrounding their daughters' university choices in the English higher education sector, based on a gendered PhD study involving mother and adult daughter pairings in southern England. Examples are given of how extended middle-class mothering practices are enabling their…

  16. Reduction of radon daughter concentrations in structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    A structure was identified in Salt Lake City wherein uranium mill tailings had been used in the construction and where unusually high levels of radon daughter concentrations (RDC's) existed. The physical and radiological characteristics of the structure were assessed. Ventilation techniques were investigated to assess their effectiveness in reducing RDC's. A preferred set of equipment was identified, installed in the structure and operated to reduce RDC's. Parametric studies were conducted to determine if supplying fresh air or recirculating air through electrostatic precipitators is more effective in reducing RDC's. Fresh air was found to be more effective in reducing RDC's. RDC's have been reduced to levels at or near the target of 0.03 working level under optimal ventilation conditions. Natural gas consumption with the new equipment is about 39% higher than with the original equipment. Electrical energy usage and electrical demand are respectively 50 and 44% higher with the new equipment than with the original equipment. 16 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Mortality and indoor radon daughter concentrations in 13 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; Wigle, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine if lung cancer and general mortality rates in 13 Canadian cities were significantly correlated with average indoor radon daughter concentrations. The radon daughter measurements were obtained from a study of 10,000 homes chosen in a statistically valid grab sample basis. Cancer deaths by year of death, sex, age, and cause were retrieved for each of the cities for the period 1957-1976. Age specific and age standardized mortality rates were calculated. The results showed no evidence of any substantial association between general or lung cancer mortality rates and indoor radon daughter concentrations. The limitations of this study and the feasibility of a common international program of epidemiology of radon daughter exposure are discussed. A proposal is made for the use of case control studies of lung cancer to assess the relative importance of smoking, occupational and domestic exposure to radon daughters

  18. New ICRP recommendations on occupational limits for radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ICRP has recommended in 1959 for the first time a maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for the occupational exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters. Since this time more realistic dosimetric models for radon daughters have been developed. Taking into account epidemiological and new dosimetric findings the ICRP has adopted in March this year new recommendations on occupational limits for inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their short-lived daughters. This report will be published this year as ICRP Publication 32 (ICRP 1981). The recommended limits for radon daughters were derived from the basic dose and risk limits as they were proposed by ICRP in its new basic recommendations (ICRP Publ. 26, 1977). In the following this basic system of dose limitation is shortly outlined before the special recommendations for radon daughters are described

  19. Light-Front QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.

    2004-11-30

    In these lectures, I survey a number of applications of light-front methods to hadron and nuclear physics phenomenology and dynamics, including light-front statistical physics. Light-front Fock-state wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom. Nonperturbative methods for computing LFWFs in QCD are discussed, including string/gauge duality which predicts the power-law fall-off at high momentum transfer of light-front Fock-state hadronic wavefunctions with an arbitrary number of constituents and orbital angular momentum. The AdS/CFT correspondence has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders derivation of counting rules for exclusive processes. One can also compute the hadronic spectrum of near-conformal QCD assuming a truncated AdS/CFT space. Given the LFWFs, one can compute form factors, heavy hadron decay amplitudes, hadron distribution amplitudes, and the generalized parton distributions underlying deeply virtual Compton scattering. The quantum fluctuations represented by the light-front Fock expansion leads to novel QCD phenomena such as color transparency, intrinsic heavy quark distributions, diffractive dissociation, and hidden-color components of nuclear wavefunctions. A new test of hidden color in deuteron photodisintegration is proposed. The origin of leading-twist phenomena such as the diffractive component of deep inelastic scattering, single-spin asymmetries, nuclear shadowing and antishadowing is also discussed; these phenomena cannot be described by light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. Part of the anomalous NuTeV results for the weak mixing angle {theta}{sub W} could be due to the non-universality of nuclear antishadowing for charged and neutral currents.

  20. Effects of high-energy particle showers on the embedded front-end electronics of an electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adloff, C.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Marčišovský, Michal; Šícho, Petr; Vrba, Václav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 654, č. 1 (2011), s. 97-109 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09042; GA MŠk LA08032 Grant - others:EC(XE) RII3-CT-2006-026126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : lepton collider * electromagnetic calorimeter * embedded electronics * fake hits Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://arxiv.org/pdf/arXiv:1102.3454v2

  1. An Updated Front-End Data Link Design for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Silverstein, Samuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a new design for the advanced Link Daughter Board (DB) for the front-end electronics upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter. The DB provides control, configuration and continuous ADC readout for the front-end, as well as bi-directional multi-GB/s optical links to the off-detector readout system. The DB will operate in high luminosity LHC conditions with limited detector access, so the design is fault tolerant with a high level of redundancy to avoid single-point failure modes. The DB is divided longitudinally, with an FPGA serving the ADC channels on its respective side. The new design is based on the new Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale+ FPGA family, which provides improved high-speed link timing performance as well as better signal compatibility with the CERN-developed GBTx link and timing distribution ASICs. Two GBTx ASICs each provide redundant phase-adjusted, LHC synchronous clocks, parallel control buses and remote JTAG configuration access to both FPGAs on the DB.

  2. Spatially hybrid computations for streamer discharges with generic features of pulled fronts: I. Planar fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chao; Ebert, Ute; Hundsdorfer, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Streamers are the first stage of sparks and lightning; they grow due to a strongly enhanced electric field at their tips; this field is created by a thin curved space charge layer. These multiple scales are already challenging when the electrons are approximated by densities. However, electron density fluctuations in the leading edge of the front and non-thermal stretched tails of the electron energy distribution (as a cause of X-ray emissions) require a particle model to follow the electron motion. But present computers cannot deal with all electrons in a fully developed streamer. Therefore, super-particle have to be introduced, which leads to wrong statistics and numerical artifacts. The method of choice is a hybrid computation in space where individual electrons are followed in the region of high electric field and low density while the bulk of the electrons is approximated by densities (or fluids). We here develop the hybrid coupling for planar fronts. First, to obtain a consistent flux at the interface between particle and fluid model in the hybrid computation, the widely used classical fluid model is replaced by an extended fluid model. Then the coupling algorithm and the numerical implementation of the spatially hybrid model are presented in detail, in particular, the position of the model interface and the construction of the buffer region. The method carries generic features of pulled fronts that can be applied to similar problems like large deviations in the leading edge of population fronts, etc.

  3. Development of a Low-power, Low-cost, Front-end Electronics Module for Large-Scale Distributed Neutrino Detectors. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltzberg, David

    2009-01-01

    Final technical report for Advanced detector research program award at UCLA. To date, only two objects have been observed using neutrino messengers. However, each observation illustrates the incisive power of neutrino observations for both astrophysics and for particle physics. The first source observed with neutrinos was the Sun by Ray Davis and collaborators using a chlorine nuclear target. Until then, only electromagnetic emissions produced near the surface of the Sun had been studied. With neutrinos, the hydrogen-burning core of the Sun is directly observed - we now know even with its predicted intensity. Because neutrinos are so deeply penetrating, they give a direct window on the most energetic processes in the universe, unobscured by photospheres, fireballs and materials opaque to light. The solar neutrino observations largest impact however was felt by particle physicists. This experiment and follow-up experiments with water, heavy water, and gallium all observed the well-known deficit of the predicted number of electron-type neutrinos. After several decades of research using both astrophysical and accelerator observations inspired by this result, the effect is now known to be due the transformation of electron-type neutrinos into one of the two other flavors of neutrinos. These observations were the first and strongest data that showed particle physicists that the mass (propagating) eigenstates and weak eigenstates of neutrinos and their weak eigenstates are not identical. In addition, this transformation was the first indication that neutrinos have a small, but non-zero mass. The second, and latest, discovery of a cosmic neutrinos source was the explosion of supernova SN1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud. In a type IIa supernova, 99% of the energy is expected to be released in the form of neutrinos since no other energy could escape the dense environment. The observations of SN1987a confirmed the theoretical models of this type of stellar core collapse

  4. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection on gender role attitudes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Fuse

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to a noticeable daughter preference over the past few decades. This emergence of daughter preference is surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals' gender preferences are shaped by their gender role attitudes and evaluate whether daughter preference is a reflection of convergence or a persistent divergence in gender roles in Japan. METHODS I use data from the Single Persons subset of the 11th Japanese National Fertility Survey conducted by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research in 1997. Using multinomial logistic regression, I estimate the relationship between Japanese singles' gender role attitudes and their type of gender preference for children. RESULTS Findings suggest that the effect of gender role attitudes on one's child gender preference differs for men and women. Overall, while daughter preference is associated with nontraditional gender role attitudes for men, daughter preference is associated with traditional attitudes for women. CONCLUSIONS Traditionalism is still driving gender preference, though in a different way for men and women. Emerging daughter preference may not simply be a reflection of improvements in women's status, but in fact it is likely that persistent divergence in gender roles remain in Japan.

  5. Health hazards due to radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Qureshi, I.E.; Tufail, M.

    1993-01-01

    The health hazards liked to radon and its daughters have become a matter of great public concern. When inhaled, a fraction of radon is dissolved into the lung fluid, from where it is transported to other parts of the body. The radiation damage is caused to the lungs due to alpha decay of radon during its transit time within the respiratory tract. Radon daughters are found to be even more dangerous than radon itself. These daughters attach themselves to dust particles present in the air. Some of the aerosols so produced enter the lungs and enter the blood stream. It has now been confirmed that radon and its daughters contribute about 70% of the internal dose received by an individual from natural radiation sources. The danger of indoor radon and its daughters is even higher for energy-saving houses and those having poor ventilation systems. This paper briefly describes the health hazards due to radon and its daughters. Different methods employed for the measurement of concentrations of radon and their daughters are described. The experience gained from the nation-wide surveys carried out in different countries is also given. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  6. Radon/radon-daughter measurement methods and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radon-daughter measurement equipment and techniques have been continuously improved over the last 25 years. Improvements have been in the areas of accuracy, time and convenience. We now have miniaturized scalers and detectors available for measuring the alpha particle count rates from aerosol samples collected on filter papers. We also have small lightweight efficient pumps for conveniently collecting samples and we have various counting methods which allow us to choose between making very precise measurements or nominal measurements. Radon-daughter measurement methods used in uranium mines and mills are discussed including a personal radon-daughter-exposure integrating device which can be worn by miners

  7. Review of epidemiological studies on hazards of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Stewart, C.G.; Johnson, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A review, with nearly 100 references, of the biological effects of radon and radon daughters is presented. Calculations of the relative dose from daughter products, as well as of the variation in dose with such things as unattached fraction, particle size, age and breathing rate are discussed. Estimates of annual risk of lung cancer in miners after inhalation of thoron daughters are given, and compared with hazards of employment in various US industries. The implications of these epidemiological studies for future regulations are discussed

  8. Lawson Wilkins: recollections by his daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Elizabeth Wilkins

    2014-01-01

    Lawson Wilkins is well known as the "father" of the field of pediatric endocrinology, and his scientific accomplishments and legacy are thoroughly documented in this edition and elsewhere. Less well known, though, is what the man himself was like. Here, his daughter, Elizabeth McMaster, recalls the personal side of Dr. Wilkins including his upbringing as the son of a prominent Baltimore doctor, his medical education, establishment of a successful pediatric practice, and eventually the founding of the endocrine clinic at Johns Hopkins. Interwoven with anecdotes and reminiscences, this account provides a vivid sense of Wilkins' personality and life, from his boisterous nature and devotion to his family and career, to the tragic personal losses he endured. He was a man who threw himself fully into everything he did, whether it was making his own liqueur during Prohibition, collecting specimens from abnormally large circus performers as part of his earliest endocrine research, arranging raucous, impromptu singing parties, sailing the Chesapeake with friends, writing a definitive textbook of Pediatric Endocrinology, training a legion of fellows, or the pioneering work for which he is still known today.

  9. Impact of Behavioral Symptoms in Dementia Patients on Depression in Daughter and Daughter-in-Law Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juwon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Hyunjoo; Seong, Sujeong; Park, Soowon; Lee, Jun-Young

    2017-01-01

    One caregiver relationship that has been neglected in caregiver depression research is the daughter-in-law. Compared with Western countries, in which those who are closer in familial relationships such as the spouse or child usually take care of the patient, in many Asian countries, the daughter-in-law often assumes the caretaker role. However, not much research has been done on how this relationship may result in different caregiver outcomes. We sought to identify whether the association between patient characteristics and caregiver depressive symptoms differs according to the familial relationship between caregiver and patient. Ninety-five daughter (n = 47) and daughter-in-law (n = 48) caregivers of dementia patients were asked to report their own depressive symptoms and patient behavioral symptoms. Patients' cognitive abilities, daily activities, and global dementia ratings were obtained. Hierarchical linear regression was employed to determine predictors of depressive symptoms. Daughters-in-law had marginally higher depressive scores. After adjusting for caregiver and patient characteristics, in both groups, greater dependency in activities of daily living and more severe and frequent behavioral symptoms predicted higher caregiver depressive scores. However, greater severity and frequency of behavioral symptoms predicted depression to a greater degree in daughters compared with daughters-in-law. Although behavioral symptoms predicted depression in both caregiver groups, the association was much stronger for daughters. This suggests that the emotional relationship between the daughter and patient exacerbates the negative effect of behavioral symptoms on caregiver depression. The familial relationship between the caregiver and dementia patient should be considered in managing caregiver stress.

  10. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  11. Do mothers affect daughter's behaviors? Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors in Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Lemia H; Vaccaro, Joan A; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate 169 Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads and their associations with health behaviors for eating healthy, engaging in physical activity, daughters perceived body weight, time spent with computer/video, and time viewing television. Female students aged 10-14 years were selected from private and public schools in the State of Kuwait. Results demonstrated that daughters exhibited similar behaviors to their mothers in their perceived eating behavior, physical activity, computer/video game use, and TV screen time. Future research is essential to determine the role of mothers in effective health behavior intervention strategies for female Kuwaiti adolescents.

  12. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, K.J.; Balbus, S.A.; Fristrom, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence

  13. Radon and its daughters in various British mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, J.C.; Laidlaw, A.J.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1975-11-01

    The results of surveys of radon and radon daughter concentrations in a large number of mines, other than coal mines, in Great Britain are presented. Measurement methods are described, and estimates of the average radon daughter concentrations are given. A comparison is made between the results of radon and radon daughter determination. The radon daughter exposure of about 40% of the non-coal miners covered by a survey in 1973 was estimated to be above the recommended limit of 4 WLM in a year. Recommendations were made for reducing this exposure and for radiological surveillance. A follow-up survey shows some improvement partly due to the implementation of these recommendations, and by October 1975, the number of miners estimated to have an annual exposure above the recommended limit had fallen to about 30% of those included in the survey. (author)

  14. Instrumentation for collecting and measuring radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essling, M.A.; Hengde, W.; Markun, F.; Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.; Miranda, J.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A new sampling can is described for collecting an air sample for determination of its radon content. Instruments which are employed for the continuous monitoring of radon or its daughters in houses are described and their performances discussed

  15. Comparison of two methods for investigating indoor radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Raes, F.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamics of radon daughters in realistic indoor environments has been investigated experimentally at the Universities of Gottingen and Gent. Both studies yielded the important result that the fraction of unattached radon daughters is higher than is assumed in earlier studies. Reineking-Porstendorfer and Vanmarcke-Raes adopted quite different methodologies to determine the unattached fraction. In this paper the methodologies are compared by means of joint measurements performed in a house with elevated radon concentrations. The results for the attachment rate, the deposition rate of the unattached daughters and the unattached fraction differ significantly, while the results for the deposition rate of the attached daughters and the equilibrium factor broadly agree. (author)

  16. Factors Associated with Parental Intent not to Circumcise Daughters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Daughters in Enugu State of Nigeria: An Application of the Theory ... dichotomized into two categories and logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the ..... The impact of perceived cost and rewards.

  17. A mother with variant Turner syndrome and two daughters with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and two daughters with trisomy X: a case report ... has been reported, spontaneous pregnancy is rare with risk ... phenotype and includes learning disabilities, speech delays, .... X arise in maternal meiosis make this explanation less likely.

  18. Residential radon daughter monitor based on alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.

    1980-05-01

    The radioactive daughters of radon-222 pose a serious indoor air quality problem in some circumstances. A technique for measuring the concentrations of these radioisotopes in air is presented. The method involves drawing air through a filter; then, for two time intervals after sampling, counting the alpha decays from polonium-218 and polonium-214 on the filter. The time intervals are optimized to yield the maximum resolution between the individual daughter concentrations. For a total measurement time of 50 minutes, individual daughter concentrations of 1.0 nanocuries per cubic meter are measured with an uncertainty of 20%. A prototype of a field monitor based on this technique is described, as is a field test in which the prototype was used to measure radon daughter concentrations as a function of ventilation conditions in an energy-efficient house

  19. Predicting radon/radon daughter concentrations in underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer programme is outlined for the calculation of radon/radon daughter concentrations in air. This computer model is used to predict the radon/radon daughter concentrations in Working Level (WL) at the workplace and at the various junctions at either end of the branches in a typical ventilation network proposed for the Jabiluka mine in the Northern Territory

  20. Doses and affects of radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    Radon and its short-lived daughters are one of the main contributors to the natural exposures of ionizing radiation to man. Their sources, levels and characteristics are described. By inhalation of radon and its daughters tissues in the lung are irritated by α-particles leading to an increased risk of lung cancer. Methods of calculation of doses and risks using the dosimetric approach and the epidemiological approach are described and discussed. (Author)

  1. Background concentrations of radon and radon daughters in Canadian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Vasudev, P.; Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Prantl, F.A.; Taniguchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of radon and radon daughters were carried out in 14 Canadian cities on a total of 9999 homes selected in a statistically random manner. The geometric means of the different cities varied from 0.14 to 0.88 pCi/l. for radon and 0.0009 to 0.0036 Working Levels for radon daughters. The radon originates from natural radioactivity in the soil surrounding the homes. (author)

  2. Study of the violation of the T and CP symmetries in the reactions Λb0 → Λ0 + a vector meson. Validation of the Front-end electronics for the PreShower detector of the LHCb experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, E.

    2007-11-01

    This thesis probes the beauty baryon physics in the framework of the LHCb experiment. The present study deals with the Λ b 0 → Λ 0 V decays where V is a vector meson such as J/Ψ(μ + μ - ), φ(K + K - ), ω(π + π - π0) or the ρ 0 - ω 0 (π + π - ) mixing. These processes allow to test independently the CP symmetry, which violation has not been observed yet in the baryonic sector, and the T symmetry, which experimental proofs are limited. Among the possible perspectives, a precise measurement of the Λ b 0 lifetime could contribute to the resolution of the raising theoretical-experimental puzzle. A phenomenological model of the Λ b 0 → Λ 0 V decays has been performed, from which branching ratios and angular distributions have been estimated. An advanced study of the reconstruction and the selection of these reactions by the LHCb apparatus shows that the channel Λ b 0 → Λ 0 J/Ψ is the dominant channel on both statistics and purity aspects. The Λ b 0 lifetime measure is the most imminent result; the constrains on asymmetries due to CP and T violation require several data taking years. Besides, an instrumental work has been achieved on the read-out electronics, called Front-End, of the experiment pre-shower. This contribution takes into account the validation of the prototype boards and the development of tools required by the qualification of the 100 production boards. (author)

  3. Radiation hardness on very front-end for SPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Xavier; Graciani, Ricardo; Gascon, David; Garrido, Lluis; Bota, Sebastia; Herms, Atila; Comerma, Albert; Riera, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    The calorimeter front-end electronics of the LHCb experiment will be located in a region, which is not protected from radiation. Therefore, all the electronics must be qualified to stand some defined radiation levels. The procedure, measurements and results of an irradiation test for every component of the very front-end SPD detector, which is part of the LHCb calorimeter are presented here. All the tested components, except a custom made ASIC, are commercially available

  4. Stationary flow near fronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Steinacker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1906, the Austrian scientist Max Margules published a paper on temperature stratification in resting and non-accelerated moving air. The paper derives conditions for stationary slopes of air mass boundaries and was an important forerunner of frontal theories. Its formulation of relations between changes in density and geostrophic wind across the front is basically a discrete version of the thermal wind balance equation. The paper was highly influential and is still being cited to the present day. This paper accompanies an English translation of Margules’ seminal paper. We conclude here our “Classic Papers” series of the Meteorologische Zeitschrift.

  5. Electron acceleration in a wavy shock front

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandas, Marek; Karlický, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 531, July (2011), A55/1-A55/8 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300030701; GA MŠk(CZ) ME09009; GA ČR GA205/09/0170; GA ČR GAP209/10/1680 Grant - others:EU(XE) EC FP7 SWIFF 263340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : shock waves * acceleration of particles * magnetic fields * solar radio radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  6. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S.

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations

  7. Scavenging of radon daughters by precipitation from the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinami, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Inst. of Hygienic and Environmental Sciences (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    By the continuous measurement of the radon daughters concentration in the rain and snow water and atmosphere and the data analysis, the following results were obtained. The radon daughters concentration was almost constant in the rain and snow water in spite of the length during weather without precipitation. It has not tendency to show the high concentration of radon daughters in precipitation and snow during beginning of them. When the precipitation intensity is constant, it`s concentration does not change during precipitation and snowfall. The concentration does not depend on the amount of precipitation, but on the precipitation intensity. We did not observe a correlation between the radon daughters concentration in the rain and snow water and that in the surface air. The atmospheric concentration was decreased by precipitation and snowfall, but that of rain and snow water did not decrease. The above results seems to show that the contribution of washout under the cloud to radon daughters in rain and snow water is small and that of rainout in the cloud is large. This result is agreement with the Jacob`s experimental results. (S.Y.)

  8. Front propagation in flipping processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, T; Ben-Avraham, D; Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2008-01-01

    We study a directed flipping process that underlies the performance of the random edge simplex algorithm. In this stochastic process, which takes place on a one-dimensional lattice whose sites may be either occupied or vacant, occupied sites become vacant at a constant rate and simultaneously cause all sites to the right to change their state. This random process exhibits rich phenomenology. First, there is a front, defined by the position of the leftmost occupied site, that propagates at a nontrivial velocity. Second, the front involves a depletion zone with an excess of vacant sites. The total excess Δ k increases logarithmically, Δ k ≅ ln k, with the distance k from the front. Third, the front exhibits ageing-young fronts are vigorous but old fronts are sluggish. We investigate these phenomena using a quasi-static approximation, direct solutions of small systems and numerical simulations

  9. On the radiation dose to lung tissues from radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.

    1980-04-01

    The work of Harley and Pasternak on calculating dose conversion factors for radon daughters is re-examined. It is found that their estimates of the deposit of radon daughters on the lung airways are too low and the factor for converting from equilibrium activity of radon daughters on the airways to dose to basal cells is too high; these are re-calculated. However, it is shown that inter-subject variability of the depth of the basal cells leads to considerable uncertainty in the individual dose. Finally average dose conversion factors are re-calculated for atmospheres which may be charactersitic of underground mines; the dose conversion factors range from 8 mGy/WLM to 40 mGy/WLM as calculated from the Weibel lung model and from 3 mGy/WLM to 17 mGy/WLM as calculated from the Landahl lung model

  10. Environmental radon and radon daughter dosimetry in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, R.B.

    1979-04-01

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's program to determine safety and costs related to decommissioning nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Individual dose factors for the inhalation of radon and its daughter products are calculated for use in environmental dose assessments. The calculated committed dose equivalent factors for 222 Rn and its daughters are tabulated for lungs, bronchi tract and other organs. An activity median aerodynamic diameter of 0.1 μm was used. The dose to an individual is calculated by multiplying the estimated intake from inhalation for a particular radionuclide by the corresponding dose factor. A working level month-to-dose conversion factor is calculated to be 1 rad/WLM to the epithelial tissue of the T-B region, assuming 100% daughter equilibrium and 10% free 218 Po ions. This value is in reasonable agreement with recently reported values

  11. Atmospheric radon daughters concentration inside and outside of cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tsuguo; Okabe, Shigeru; Aoki, Masayoshi; Imamura, Takakazu; Iwata, Yoshitomo; Tamura, Yukihide; Tsuboguchi, Masayasu

    1987-01-01

    The measurements of the atmospheric radon daughters concentration in and out of the cloud were carried out on the top of the mountain, and in the upper air of the sea by using the airplane. The difference of the concentrations between inside and outside of the stratus measured on the top of the mountain was not clear. The atmospheric radon daughters concentration at the top of the mountain decreased when the amount of precipitation at that point was large. Concerning the cumulus investigated by using the airplane, the concentration in the cloud was a little higher than the concentration out of the cloud. Results of the measurements show that the cloud seems to be constructed of the various air masses whose radon daughters concentrations are different from each other even though it appears to be uniform. (author)

  12. Dowry calculations: daughter's rights in her parental family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishwar, M

    1993-01-01

    The practice of dowry in India has become identified as the primary cause of women's oppression. It sets families apart in the fight over dowry payments and results in violence against daughters including infanticide. Daughter's get their share of inheritance at the time of marriage under traditional Hindu law. The Dowry Prohibition Act outlaws this practice. On the other hand, customary law allowed entitlements to women which Victorian norms bypassed, thereby paving the way for the disinheritance of women. The ownership of land was vested exclusively in men, and, as land became scarce and women's labor became devalued, women came to be treated as mere dependents and considered as a liability. With the entrance of men into government service as policemen and bank and postal clerks, their status increased, while women continued working in the peasant economy. Government job holders received the biggest dowries because of their access to economic opportunities. Under the Hindu Succession Act, fathers were allowed to will away property in whosoever's favor, which led to the disinheritance of daughters in favor of sons. Inheritance laws increasingly moved in favor of men and against women. Changing marriage patterns also emerged, as paying exorbitant dowries was perceived as a way of upward social mobility. The wife inherited everything at the expense of daughters, and widows automatically got a pension after the husband. Therefore, the wife's right had a stronger social sanction than the rights of daughters in parental property, especially the right to live in the parental home and take care of old parents, should be the solution to this injustice. Thus, parents would look at daughters in the same light as sons, and the culture of women's devaluation would come to an end.

  13. Health hazards from radon daughters in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, O.; Edling, C.

    1980-01-01

    To clarify the possible etiological role for lung cancer from exposure to the low levels of radon and its daughters in dwellings, a case-control study was made, comparing cases of lung cancer with controls with respect to residency in different types of houses. This pilot study was restricted to include only people who lived in typically rural areas. The results support the hypothesis that radon and radon daughter exposure in dwellings is pertinent to the question of the etiology of lung cancer

  14. The radon daughter radiation hazard in controlled recirculation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.; Burton, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    In deep South African gold mines, controlled recirculation systems with air cooling are being used to an increasing extent to improve the thermal environment. Recirculation causes some air to reside in the working area for a longer time than would have occurred without recirculation. Since radon daughters grow spontaneously from radon there is some concern that, with the extended residence time, the potential radiation hazard could increase to an unacceptable level. This paper describes the results obtained from a theoretical model of a controlled recirculation system. Guidelines for the design of recirculation systems to control the radon daughter radiation, and to keep it within acceptable limits are provided. 3 refs., 5 figs

  15. EXPLORING FATHER-DAUGHTER RELATIONSHIP IN THE ABHIJNANSAKUNTALAM AND HAMLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Naveen K. MEHTA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Shakespearian dramas, the kingly authority merges with the authority of a father. Shakespeare uses the father-daughter relationship fundamentally to discredit the practice of possession and the attitude of cupidity which was under attack in the Renaissance. During the world’s famous Indian dramatist Kalidasa period, the father was considered to be the head of the family. Kalidasa's immortal works also suggest that counsels of parents and teachers must be obeyed without any hesitation. The present paper is an attempt to explore the intricacies of the father-daughter relationship in the „Abhijnansakuntalam” and „Hamlet”, „Prince of Denmark”

  16. Compact detector for radon and radon daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, H.W.; Oswald, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides an improved compact track registration detector for radon gas. The detector comprises a housing having an open mouth, a bottom, and side walls; track registration means, supported inside the housing, which forms damage tracks along paths traversed by alpha particles; a microporous filter positioned across the mouth of the housing to prevent entry of radon daughters and particulate matter; and a cap that may be placed on the mouth of the housing to retain the filter. The housing has internal wall surfaces dimensioned to optimize the registration of alpha particles from radon and radon daughters present in the housing

  17. Plasma structures in front of a floated emissive electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, S.; Sato, N.

    1993-01-01

    A particle simulation with plasma source is carried out on plasma structures generated by an electron emissive electrode floated in a collisionless plasma. When low-temperature, high-density thermal electrons are emitted, there appears a negative potential dip in front of the electrode, which is always accompanied by a low-frequency oscillation. On the other hand, three regimes of plasma structures appear for an electron beam injection. When a high-flux electron beam is injected, an electron sheath is generated in front of the electrode. The sheath reflects ions flowing to the electrode, providing an increase in the plasma density. When a low-flux electron beam is injected, no electron sheath is generated. When an intermediate-flux beam is injected, the electron sheath structure appears periodically in time. The lifetime of the sheath is proportional to the system length. These results of beam injection are almost consistent with those of a Q-machine experiment

  18. Guanylic nucleotide starvation affects Saccharomyces cerevisiae mother-daughter separation and may be a signal for entry into quiescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagot Isabelle

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guanylic nucleotides are both macromolecules constituents and crucial regulators for a variety of cellular processes. Therefore, their intracellular concentration must be strictly controlled. Consistently both yeast and mammalian cells tightly correlate the transcription of genes encoding enzymes critical for guanylic nucleotides biosynthesis with the proliferation state of the cell population. Results To gain insight into the molecular relationships connecting intracellular guanylic nucleotide levels and cellular proliferation, we have studied the consequences of guanylic nucleotide limitation on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle progression. We first utilized mycophenolic acid, an immunosuppressive drug that specifically inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step in de novo GMP biosynthesis. To approach this system physiologically, we next developed yeast mutants for which the intracellular guanylic nucleotide pools can be modulated through changes of growth conditions. In both the pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that guanylic nucleotide limitation generated a mother-daughter separation defect, characterized by cells with two unseparated daughters. We then showed that this separation defect resulted from cell wall perturbations but not from impaired cytokinesis. Importantly, cells with similar separation defects were found in a wild type untreated yeast population entering quiescence upon nutrient limitation. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that guanylic nucleotide limitation slows budding yeast cell cycle progression, with a severe pause in telophase. At the cellular level, guanylic nucleotide limitation causes the emergence of cells with two unseparated daughters. By fluorescence and electron microscopy, we demonstrate that this phenotype arises from defects in cell wall partition between mother and daughter cells. Because cells with two unseparated

  19. Centriole amplification by mother and daughter centrioles differs in multiciliated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jord, Adel; Lemaître, Anne-Iris; Delgehyr, Nathalie; Faucourt, Marion; Spassky, Nathalie; Meunier, Alice

    2014-12-04

    The semi-conservative centrosome duplication in cycling cells gives rise to a centrosome composed of a mother and a newly formed daughter centriole. Both centrioles are regarded as equivalent in their ability to form new centrioles and their symmetric duplication is crucial for cell division homeostasis. Multiciliated cells do not use the archetypal duplication program and instead form more than a hundred centrioles that are required for the growth of motile cilia and the efficient propelling of physiological fluids. The majority of these new centrioles are thought to appear de novo, that is, independently from the centrosome, around electron-dense structures called deuterosomes. Their origin remains unknown. Using live imaging combined with correlative super-resolution light and electron microscopy, we show that all new centrioles derive from the pre-existing progenitor cell centrosome through multiple rounds of procentriole seeding. Moreover, we establish that only the daughter centrosomal centriole contributes to deuterosome formation, and thus to over ninety per cent of the final centriole population. This unexpected centriolar asymmetry grants new perspectives when studying cilia-related diseases and pathological centriole amplification observed in cycling cells and associated with microcephaly and cancer.

  20. Active learning of Pareto fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campigotto, Paolo; Passerini, Andrea; Battiti, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces the active learning of Pareto fronts (ALP) algorithm, a novel approach to recover the Pareto front of a multiobjective optimization problem. ALP casts the identification of the Pareto front into a supervised machine learning task. This approach enables an analytical model of the Pareto front to be built. The computational effort in generating the supervised information is reduced by an active learning strategy. In particular, the model is learned from a set of informative training objective vectors. The training objective vectors are approximated Pareto-optimal vectors obtained by solving different scalarized problem instances. The experimental results show that ALP achieves an accurate Pareto front approximation with a lower computational effort than state-of-the-art estimation of distribution algorithms and widely known genetic techniques.

  1. Geochemistry of Natural Redox Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, B.A.

    1999-05-01

    Redox fronts are important geochemical boundaries which need to be considered in safety assessment of deep repositories for radioactive waste. In most cases, selected host-rock formations will be reducing due to the presence of ferrous minerals, sulphides, etc. During construction and operation of the repository, air will be introduced into the formation. After repository closure, oxidising conditions may persist locally until all oxygen is consumed. In the case of high-level waste, radiolysis of water may provide an additional source of oxidants. Oxidising conditions within a repository are thus possible and potentially have a strong influence on the mobility of many elements. The rate of movement of redox fronts, the boundary between oxidising and reducing environments, and their influence on migrating radionuclides are thus important factors influencing repository performance. The present report is a review of elemental behaviour at natural redox fronts, based on published information and work of the author. Redox fronts are geochemically and geometrically variable manifestations of a global interface between generally oxidising geochemical milieux in contact with the atmosphere and generally reducing milieux in contact with rocks containing ferrous iron, sulphide and/or organic carbon. A classification of redox fronts based on a subdivision into continental near-surface, marine near-surface, and deep environments is proposed. The global redox interface is often located close to the surface of rocks and sediments and, sometimes, within bodies of water. Temperature conditions are close to ambient. A deeper penetration of the global redox front to depths of several kilometres is found in basins containing oxidised sediments (red beds) and in some hydrothermal circulation systems. Temperatures at such deep redox fronts may reach 200 o C. Both near-surface and deep redox fronts are sites of formation of economic deposits of redox-sensitive elements, particularly of

  2. Analytical Estimates of the Dispersion Curve in Planar Ionization Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L.; Betelu, Santiago; Fontelos, Marco A.

    2009-01-01

    Fingers from ionization fronts for a hydrodynamic plasma model result from a balance between impact ionization and electron diffusion in a non-attaching gas. An analytical estimation of the size of the fingers and its dependence on both the electric field and electron diffusion coefficient can be done when the diffusion is low and the electric field is strong.

  3. Mother centrioles do a cartwheel to produce just one daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieyan V; Megraw, Timothy L

    2014-07-28

    In this issue of Developmental Cell, Fong et al. (2014) present evidence for a model of centriole duplication whereby the cartwheel-the starting building block in centriole biogenesis-assembles within the lumen of the mother centriole before templating the daughter centriole to ensure a single duplication event per cell cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Peoples' perception of mother-daughter sexual communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peoples' perception of mother-daughter sexual communication patterns and adolescent girls reproductive health in Enugu North ... become vulnerable to reproductive health problems such as teenage pregnancy, STDs, and HIV/AIDS. ... improved sexual communication skills on sexuality education were recommended.

  5. Limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughters in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughter concentrations in Swedish homes are described. The application of the Swedish provisional limitation system in use since 1980 is also reported. As a background the radon source and the international and national recommedations in other countries are reviewed. (author)

  6. Randon daughter exposure of the U.K. population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, K.D.

    1980-01-01

    The highest dose to the body tissues from natural radioactivity is that to the bronchial epithelium arising predominantly from the short-lived daughters of 222 Rn with a lesser contribution from the daughters of 220 Rn. This paper discusses the estimation of current United Kingdom population exposure to these nuclides. At present the exposure for an average member of the population of the UK is 0.15 WLM y -1 when the winter ventilation rate is 0.8 h -1 . This will increase to 0.58 WLM y -1 if the winter ventilation rate is reduced to 0.2 h -1 . The use of electrostatic precipitators would decrease the measured WL but would not affect the unattached fraction of 222 Rn daughter products, which determines the dose to the epithelium. Other methods of reducing 222 Rn daughter concentrations under investigation include prevention of the ingress of 222 Rn from the subsoil and the coating of construction materials with a radon barrier

  7. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  8. Size distribution of radon daughter particles in uranium mine atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Hinchliffe, L.; Sladowski, R.

    1975-01-01

    The size distribution of radon daughters was measured in several uranium mines using four compact diffusion batteries and a round jet cascade impactor. Simultaneously, measurements were made of uncombined fractions of radon daughters, radon concentration, working level, and particle concentration. The size distributions found for radon daughters were log normal. The activity median diameters ranged from 0.09 μm to 0.3 μm with a mean value of 0.17 μm. Geometric standard deviations were in the range from 1.3 to 4 with a mean value of 2.7. Uncombined fractions expressed in accordance with the ICRP definition ranged from 0.004 to 0.16 with a mean value of 0.04. The radon daughter sizes in these mines are greater than the sizes assumed by various authors in calculating respiratory tract dose. The disparity may reflect the widening use of diesel-powered equipment in large uranium mines. (U.S.)

  9. An Exploration of Mothers' Attitudes towards Their Daughters' Menarche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Clare; Harden, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Menarche is a significant milestone for young women, representing an important juncture between girlhood and maturation. The limited literature that exists suggests that a mother's reaction to her daughter's first periods can shape her experiences and perceptions of menstruation which, in turn, may impact on her self-image and, consequently,…

  10. Dissident Daughters? The Psychic Life of Class Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Valerie; George, Rosalyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper arose through a chance meeting between the two authors who are feminist mothers of teenage and 20 years plus daughters. We were attending an Economic and Social Research Council-funded seminar focusing on "new femininities" in the light of post-feminism and their worth and currency within the new politics of consumption and lifestyle.…

  11. Factors associated with parental intent not to circumcise daughters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored intention of parents not to circumcise daughters in Enugu State, Nigeria using theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework. A survey of 1345 parents was carried out using structured questionnaire with FGM question items based on TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm (SN), perceived ...

  12. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  13. Development and implementation of radon daughter measurement in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Mohamed, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a programme was developed to study radon daughter risks and to carry out field and experimental measurements. The Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority lead the implementation of this programme in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency through the coordination project EGY/9/020 and EGY/9/030. Several national authorities participated also in this study such as Nuclear Materials Corporation. This work involved the preparation and calibration of equipment, establishment of measuring techniques, survey in some cities and mines countrywide, and preparation of regulations for radiation safety of the workers who may be exposed to high levels of radon daughters. The study shows that there is no major environmental problem for the public due to exposure to radon daughter. Occupational problem may be probable in some underground mines with bad ventilation. Reported values for radon daughter levels in units of working level ranged from 0-0.26 in some buildings and ruins in the Egyptian cities and from 0-3 working level in underground phosphate and uranium mine in the Egyptian Eastern Desert

  14. Biological basis of inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Since inhalation exposure by radon and its daughters is very specific type of internal exposure, it is necessary to understand its characteristic nature. The specificity originates from the nuclear feature of radon daughters and the biological micro-environment in the respiratory tract. Inhaled radon and its daughters exist in the respiratory tract as ions attached to air dusts and deposit on the mucus surface of the respiratory tract by various mechanisms such as impaction, sedimentation and diffusion. Deposition of radon daughters is predominant around the site of the fourth generation according to Weibel's model. Deposited particles with radon daughters are cleared by muco-ciliary transportation. Its speed is estimated to be about 1.0 cm/min, at the upper region. Alpha decay will happen during transportation in the respiratory tract. Radon has no tissue affinity metabolically. Therefore, the irradiation is limited to the epithelial cells of respiratory tract. The cell components within 30-70 micron in depth are irradiated with alpha particle. Biological effectiveness of alpha radiation is very high compared with beta or gamma radiation. The target cell for carcinogenesis by radon exposure is considered to be the basal cell of epithelium. Lung cancer induced by radon inhalation is recognized to be squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, or oat-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The modification factors which influence the effect of radon exposure are co-inhalation of ore dust and smoking habit. According to epidemiological studies on lung cancer which occurred in uranium miners, it is suggested that the smoking habit strongly promotes lung cancer induction. (author)

  15. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.; Samet, J.M.; Cross, F.T.; Hess, T.; Muller, J.; Thomas, D.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime

  16. Giving Our Daughters What We Never Received: African American Mothers Discussing Sexual Health With Their Preadolescent Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Sheila R

    2018-04-01

    African American girls experience disparate rates of pregnancy and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus, when compared to their non-Hispanic White counterparts. Among African American girls, current pregnancy rates are equal to the national crisis levels of teen pregnancy reported in 1990. This qualitative elicitation study was conducted to gain insight into the ways in which African American mothers and their daughters, between the ages of 9 and 14, communicate about sexual health. Early sexual health communication between mothers and daughters is known to enhance the sexual health outcomes of girls. A series of four focus groups and three in-depth interviews were conducted between July and September 2014. The theory of planned behavior was the organizing framework. Theoretical constructs that guided this study were attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms. Results showed that what African American women share with their daughters about sexual health stems from their personal faith, values, and experiences. Findings from this study can inform interventions to provide support for this understudied population. Moreover, there are implications for health-care providers, particularly school nurses, who are in an ideal position to help increase mothers' self-efficacy to engage in sexual health conversations with their young daughters.

  17. Latina Daughters' Childbearing Attitudes: The Role of Maternal Expectations and Education Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Romo, Laura F.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls' and their mothers' expectations for their daughters' college attainment, mother-daughter communication about education, and daughters' early childbearing attitudes were examined in 146 U.S.-raised Latina girls (mean age = 14.4 years) and their mostly immigrant mothers. Through structural equation modeling, we…

  18. "Front" hotshet izvinitsja / Aleksandr Ikonnikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ikonnikov, Aleksandr

    2003-01-01

    Põhiliselt vene rahvusest noori ühendava liikumise "Front" esindajad kavatsevad kohtuda USA suursaadikuga Eestis ja vabandada kevadel suursaatkonna ees vägivallatsemisega lõppenud meeleavalduse pärast

  19. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  20. Kinetics of a plasma streamer ionization front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccogna, Francesco; Pellegrini, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    A streamer is a non-linear and non-local gas breakdown mode. Its large-scale coherent structures, such as the ionization front, are the final results of a hierarchical cascade starting from the single particle dynamics. Therefore, this phenomenon covers, by definition, different space and time scales. In this study, we have reproduced the ionization front formation and development by means of a particle-based numerical methodology. The physical system investigated concerns of a high-voltage ns-pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge. Different reduced electric field regimes ranging from 50 to 500 Td have been considered for two gases: pure atomic Ar and molecular N2. Results have shown the detailed structure of the negative streamer: the leading edge, the head, the interior and the tail. Its dynamical evolution and the front propagation velocity have been calculated for the different cases. Finally, the deviation of the electron energy distribution function from equilibrium behavior has been pointed out as a result of a fast and very localized phenomenon.

  1. Latina Mother–Daughter Dyads: Relations Between Attachment and Sexual Behavior Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Frank R.; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and nonsubstance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mother’s substance abuse all influenced the daughter’s sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed. PMID:19399605

  2. Influence of radon daughter exposure rate, unattachment fraction, and disequilibrium on occurrence of lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Busch, R.H.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Groups of male, specific-pathogen-free (SPF), Wistar rats were exposed to several concentrations of radon daughters and uranium ore dust to clarify the roles of exposure rate, unattached RaA daughters, and the degree of radon daughter disequilibrium, in the development of respiratory system disease. Modelled, human dosimetric data indicate that the dose to sensitive tissues of the respiratory tract increases with increasing radon daughter unattachment fraction and degree of disequilibrium. Data bearing on these developments as well as updated results of experiments designed to test the role of radon daughter exposure rate on lung tumour incidence are reported. (author)

  3. Influence of various room parameters upon radon daughter equilibrium indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, G.S.; Mazumdar, S.C.; Ashraf, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    The parameters such as ventilation rate, attachment rate to aerosols and deposition processes, which influence the radon daughter equilibrium indoors, are discussed and the validity of the theoretical model checked by experiments. In agreement with the model calculations, the experimental data show, that the equilibrium factor F in rooms is mainly influenced by the rate of attachment to aerosols and the plateout of radon daughters. The equilibrium factor varies between 0.3 and 0.4 at an attachment rate of 300 h -1 . The influence of ventilation upon the free fraction of RaA( 218 Pp)-atoms is also investigated. This is in good agreement with the results of the measurements carried out in different types of rooms at the University Campus of Rajshahi. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Develop generic equations to determine radon daughters concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Jerby, B.

    2011-06-01

    Measurements of radon daughter concentrations in air are very important to determine the human dose from background radiation. Therefore, many studies tried to find measurements methods depending on many specific parameters such as measurement time, air pumping period and sample volume. In this study a general equations to determine radon daughter's concentrations in air was found using direct samples. The Equations results were closed to the results obtained from other well known methods. Many measurements with different places and various conditions were performed; the results showed that the new equations are able to be used with an error less than 10%, The relative error can be reduced by increasing the pumping rate or measuring high concentration cases.(author)

  5. Methodology and monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, M.G.

    1984-02-01

    Methods are described for monitoring radon and thoron gases and their daughter products in occupational and non-occupational environments. Grab-sampling, continuous monitoring, integrated measurements and personal dosimetry are discussed. Errors in different measurement methods are compared. Calibration aspects of measurement techniques are described and procedures for interlaboratory calibration are suggested. An account of unattached fraction and plateout of radon daughters is included. Sampling strategies for occupational and non-occupational environments are discussed and a table of regulations and recommendations for monitoring radiation in countries of the OECD is provided. Radiation protection training requirements are identified. Where sufficient information and consensus of opinion exist, guidelines on apparatus, methods and procedures for monitoring are developed

  6. The measurement of airborne rodon daughter concentrations in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, C.W.; Lee, J.K.; Moon, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    A simple method for determining the airborne concentration of radon daughter products has been developed, which is based on gross alpha counting of the air filter collections at several time intervals after completion of air sampling. The concentration of each nuclide is then obtained from an equation involving the alpha disintegrations, the sampling time, and the known numerical coefficients. The state of radioactive disequilibrium is also inventigated. The atmosphere sampled in the TRIGA Mark-III reactor room was largely in disequilibrium. The extent of radioactive disequilibrium between radon daughter products seems likely depend on sampling times associated with turbulence conditions. The data obtained here will certainly provide useful information on the evaluation of internal exposure and calibration of effluent monitoring instruments. (author)

  7. Decommissioning/closeout of Malargue site: measurement of radon daughter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Cadena, Guadalberto

    2000-01-01

    In Malargue complex there are about 700,000 mt of uranium tailings disposed off during 32 years of operation of the Malargue facility. The objective of the Malargue Site is to undertake the necessary actions to execute remediation programs. A summary of measurements of concentrations of radon daughter taken in different buildings of the city and in the field shows the influence of radon source. The results obtain for concentrations of radon daughter indicate that they do not differ significantly between each others. The environmental remediation of uranium mill tailings at Malargue Site is a requirement of Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) and of the Mendoza province and a commitment to reduce the doses as low as reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into account (ALARA concept). (author)

  8. Radiation exposure due to radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    Underground miners working over long periods of time in mines with a high content of radon and radon daughters belong to that group of occupationally exposed persons who are subject to the greatest somatic risk, with values especially high if the permissible dose limits are exceeded. Follwing an overview of the permissible limits currently in use for radon and radon daughters as well as the results of examinations performed in nationally-owned underground mining of the G.D.R., considerations are presented on the measuring quantities requisite for statistical, control and safety measurements in this field. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the measuring procedures and instruments to be employed for practical work. (author)

  9. Ionization front accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    In a recently proposed linear collective accelerator, ions are accelerated in a steep, moving potential well created at the head of an intense relativistic electron beam. The steepness of the potential well and its motion are controlled by the external ionization of a suitable background gas. Calculations concerning optimum choices for the background gas and the ionization method are presented; a two-step photoionization process employing Cs vapor is proposed. In this process, a super-radiant light source is used to excite the gas, and a UV laser is used to photoionize the excited state. The appropriate line widths and coupled ionization growth rate equations are discussed. Parameter estimates are given for a feasibility experiment, for a 1 GeV proton accelerator, and for a heavy ion accelerator (50 MeV/nucleon uranium). (auth)

  10. A computer method for simulating the decay of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The analytical equations representing the decay of a series of radioactive atoms through a number of daughter products are well known. These equations are for an idealized case in which the expectation value of the number of atoms which decay in a certain time can be represented by a smooth curve. The real curve of the total number of disintegrations from a radioactive species consists of a series of Heaviside step functions, with the steps occurring at the time of the disintegration. The disintegration of radioactive atoms is said to be random but this random behaviour is such that a single species forms an ensemble of which the times of disintegration give a geometric distribution. Numbers which have a geometric distribution can be generated by computer and can be used to simulate the decay of one or more radioactive species. A computer method is described for simulating such decay of radioactive atoms and this method is applied specifically to the decay of the short half life daughters of radon 222 and the emission of alpha particles from polonium 218 and polonium 214. Repeating the simulation of the decay a number of times provides a method for investigating the statistical uncertainty inherent in methods for measurement of exposure to radon daughters. This statistical uncertainty is difficult to investigate analytically since the time of decay of an atom of polonium 218 is not independent of the time of decay of subsequent polonium 214. The method is currently being used to investigate the statistical uncertainties of a number of commonly used methods for the counting of alpha particles from radon daughters and the calculations of exposure

  11. Radon and radon daughters in South African underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Radon and the radon daughters are the radionuclides which primarily determine the level of the radiation hazard in underground uranium mines and to a smaller extent in non-uranium mines. Radon is a gas, and its daughters adsorb on aerosol particles which are of respirable size. The hazard thus arises from the alpha decay of radon and its daughters in contact with lung tissue. Radon is itself part of the uranium decay chain. The major radionuclide, 238 U, decays successively through thirteen shorter-lived radionuclides to 206 Pb. Radon is the only gaseous decay product at room temperature; the other twelve are solids. The main hazard presented by the uranium decay chain is normally determined by the radon concentration because gaseous transport can bring alpha emitters close to sensitive tissue. There is no such transport route for the other alpha emitters, and the level of beta and gamma radiation caused by the uranium decay chain generally presents a far lower external radiation hazard. Radon itself is the heaviest of the noble gases, which are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Its chemical reactions are of no concern in regard to its potential hazard in mines as it may be considered inert. It does, however, have a solubility ten times higher than oxygen in water, and this can play a significant part in assisting the movement of the gas from the rock into airways. Radon continuously emanates into mine workings from uranium ores and from the uranium present at low concentrations in practically any rock. It has been found that the control of the exposure level is most effectively achieved by sound ventilation practices. In South African mines the standard of ventilation is generally high and exposure to radon and radon daughters is at acceptably low levels

  12. Development of diffusion-based radon daughter dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.; Khan, A.; Leung, H.

    1983-07-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the possible application of the mechanisms of thermophoresis and electrostatic collection via electrets to the collection of radon daughters with reference to personal alpha dosimeters for use in uranium mines. The potential advantage accruing from adoption of either one of these collection mechanisms is that collection is passive and does not depend upon the use of a pump (active), and is, therefore, intrinsically much more reliable

  13. Daughters Taking Over the Family Business : A Gender Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinidis, Christina; Cornet, Annie

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the succession process as perceived and lived by daughters taking over the family business, with a gender perspective. Despite the rich literature on the succession process in family firms, few studies use a gender approach, though an increasing number of ventures are launched, taken over and managed by women, largely contributing to the economic development. In line with Dumas (1998), Barbot et al. (2005) and Vera & Dean (2005), our research aims at analyzing the succ...

  14. Barber-Say syndrome in a father and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nathalie; Houtmeyers, Philippe; Janssens, Sandra; Blondeel, Philllip

    2010-10-01

    We report on a father to daughter transmission of Barber-Say syndrome (BSS), a rare, congenital disorder characterized by severe generalized hypertrichosis, macrostomia, ocular telecanthus, bulbous nose and atrophic skin. These two cases further support the autosomal dominant inheritance. Both presented with the typical BSS symptoms but the phenotypic expression in the father was milder. Treatment is challenging for both patients and doctors, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Construction of radon/radon daughter calibraton chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.; Gan, T.H.; Leach, V.A.; Saddlier, J.; Solomon, S.B.; Tam, K.K.; Travis, E.; Wykes, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radon/radon daughter test chamber is a copper lined room 1.65x1.75x2.75m with an effective volume of 8000 litres. The air residence time is controlled by circulating the air in the chamber through absolute filters which remove 99.9% of particulates. Radon is drawn into the chamber from a 17 μCi 226 RaCl source using the pressure differential across the blowers (<3 psi)

  16. Size distribution of radon daughter particles in uranium mine atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Hinchliffe, L.; Sladowski, R.

    1977-07-01

    An investigation of the particle size distribution and other properties of radon daughters in uranium mines was reported earlier but only summaries of the data were presented. This report consists mainly of tables of detailed measurements that were omitted in the original article. The tabulated data include the size distributions, uncombined fractions and ratios of radon daughters as well as the working levels, radon concentrations, condensation nuclei concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. The measurements were made in 27 locations in four large underground mines in New Mexico during typical mining operations. The size distributions of the radon daughters were log normal. The activity median diameters ranged from 0.09 μm to 0.3 μm with a mean of 0.17 μm. Geometric standard deviations were from 1.3 to 4 with a mean of 2.7. Uncombined fractions expressed in accordance with the ICRP definition ranged from 0.004 to 0.16 with a mean of 0.04

  17. A homeostatic clock sets daughter centriole size in flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Mustafa G.; Steinacker, Thomas L.; Novak, Zsofia A.; Baumbach, Janina; Muschalik, Nadine

    2018-01-01

    Centrioles are highly structured organelles whose size is remarkably consistent within any given cell type. New centrioles are born when Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) recruits Ana2/STIL and Sas-6 to the side of an existing “mother” centriole. These two proteins then assemble into a cartwheel, which grows outwards to form the structural core of a new daughter. Here, we show that in early Drosophila melanogaster embryos, daughter centrioles grow at a linear rate during early S-phase and abruptly stop growing when they reach their correct size in mid- to late S-phase. Unexpectedly, the cartwheel grows from its proximal end, and Plk4 determines both the rate and period of centriole growth: the more active the centriolar Plk4, the faster centrioles grow, but the faster centriolar Plk4 is inactivated and growth ceases. Thus, Plk4 functions as a homeostatic clock, establishing an inverse relationship between growth rate and period to ensure that daughter centrioles grow to the correct size. PMID:29500190

  18. Father-daughter relationship and the severity of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, N; Sommerfeld, E; Wolf, M; Zubery, E; Zalsman, G

    2015-01-01

    Mother-daughter relationship was the focus of studies on the development of eating disorders (ED) for many years. This study aimed to examine the association between the father-daughter relationship and ED and depressive symptoms. Fifty-three women diagnosed with ED were compared to a psychiatric control group (n=26) and to healthy participants (n=60) regarding their perception of their fathers and the relationship with them. Assessments were done using the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, the Body Shape Questionnaire, the Eating Attitude Test, and the Beck Depression Inventory as well as narrative-based methods. Fathers' negative attributes were significantly associated with ED and depressive symptom. Two profiles of father-daughter relationship were found, the "caring and benevolent" relationship and the "overprotective and avoidant" one. In the latter, patients displayed significantly higher levels of food-restraint, more concerns about eating and about their body shape and appearance, and higher levels of depression. Negative perception of the father's parenting style as well as the quality of the relationship with him are crucial for the understanding of the development and persistence of ED. Therapeutic programs for ED should focus not only on the relationship with the mother but must also address the relationship with the father. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental pulmonary carcinogenesis by radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Fumiaki

    1989-01-01

    Information on experimental pulmonary carcinogenesis by radon and its daughters has come mostly from experiments carried out in France and United States of America. In rats a dose response relation was estimated to be linear with dose at low dose region. Studies of rats exposed daily to radon and radon daughters indicated that the frequency of pulmonary cancer at total exposure greater than 3000 WLM was greater when the exposure rates were low. At low total exposures the dose-rate effect was less apparent. Cigarette smoke increased the pulmonary cancer in rats but decreased in dogs. The decrease may be due to a decrease of absorbed doses with increased secretion of mucus and to an enhancement of mucociliary clearance. After inhalation of 222 Ru at equilibrium with radon daughters, rats were inoculated intrapleurally with asbestos fibres or glass fibres. The additive co-carcinogenic effects of this type of insult were demonstrated by the increased incidence of malignant thoracic tumours. As for species differences, dogs and hamsters are relatively resistant to cancer induction and rats are sensitive. While bronchogenic carcinomas are the most frequently observed radiation-induced pulmonary cancer in humans, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas are the most frequent type in most animal species. (author)

  20. Radon-daughter exposures in energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.; Ingersoll, J.G.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1981-10-01

    A radon concentration of 1 pCi/1 (37 Bq/m 3 ) appears to lie in the range that is typical for air inside US residential buildings. Moreover, some US residences have concentrations higher than 1 pCi/1, sometimes by an order of magnitude, implying significant individual risk to occupants. For typical radon daughter equilibrium ratios, this concentration corresponds to a radon daughter exposure rate of 0.2 working level months (WLM) per year. This exposure rate may account for a significant lung cancer incidence if data on lung cancers per unit exposure in miners are applicable to such low exposures. Reductions in air exchange rates may rise the typical exposure rate and even increase it to unacceptable levels in some cases. Measures that reduce energy use by reducing natural infiltration or mechanical ventilation in new or retrofit buildings are therefore undergoing severe scrutiny. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has performed measurements in buildings specifically designed to use energy efficiently or utilize solar heating. In many of these buildings radon concentrations appear to arise primarily from soil underlying the buildings. Measures to control higher levels, e.g., by mechanical ventilation with heat recuperation, appear to be economical. However, to evaluate energy-saving programs adequately requires a much more comprehensive characterization of radon sources (for example, by geographical area) and a much fuller understanding of the dynamics of radon and its daughters indoors than now exist

  1. Modeling beam-front dynamics at low gas pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.; Yu, S.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of space charge neutralization at the front of an intense self-focused electron beam pulse exhibits important differences in different gas pressure regimes. At very low pressures, the beam front is in the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) where all secondary electrons are expelled from the beam region by the radial electric field without causing significant additional ionization. We estimate the upper pressure boundary of this regime by considering the distance scale length for cascade (avalanche) ionization. Data from the FX-25 diode experiments indicate a critical transition pressure (P/sub c/) that agrees with this estimate and with its scaling among various gas types. Normal mobility-limited treatments (local conductivity models) of the secondary electrons at the beam front are not justified until the gas pressure is 10 to 50 times higher than P/sub c/, due to runaway of these secondary electrons in the strong space-charge electric field at the lower pressures. The main conclusion of this study is that a non-local phase space (Boltzmann) treatment of the secondary electrons is required to accurately describe these different beam front regimes and the transitions between them; such a code model is currently under development

  2. Rapid determination of radon daughters and of artificial radionuclides in air by online gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1993-01-01

    For the determination of airborne radionuclide concentrations in real time, a fixed filter device was constructed which fits directly onto a germanium detector with standard nuclear electronics and a multichannel analyzer buffer connected via a data line to a personal computer for remote control and on-line spectrum evaluation. The on-line gamma-ray spectrometer was applied to the study of radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air and to the rapid detection of only contamination of the environmental air by artificial radionuclides. At Munich-Neuherberg, depending on the meteorological conditions, the measured air concentrations of 214 Pb, the first gamma-ray-emitting member of the 222 Rn decay series, varied from about 1 to 50 Bq m -3 . For the artifical radionuclides 60 Co, 131 I and 137 Cs the detection limits were determined as a function of the varying natural radon daughter concentrations at sampling and counting times of 1 h or 1 day. For these radionuclides minimum detectable air activity concentrations of 0.3 or 0.001 Bq m -3 , respectively, were obtained at low radon daughter levels. At high radon daughter levels the respective detection limits were found to be higher by a factor of only about 2. (orig.)

  3. Rapid determination of radon daughters and of artificial radionuclides in air by online gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1993-04-01

    For the determination of airborne radionuclide concentrations in real time, a fixed filter device was constructed which fits directly onto a germanium detector with standard nuclear electronics and a multichannel analyzer buffer connected via a data line to a personal computer for remote control and on-line spectrum evaluation. The on-line gamma-ray spectrometer was applied to the study of radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air and to the rapid detection of only contamination of the environmental air by artificial radionuclides. At Munich-Neuherberg, depending on the meteorological conditions, the measured air concentrations of [sup 214]Pb, the first gamma-ray-emitting member of the [sup 222]Rn decay series, varied from about 1 to 50 Bq m[sup -3]. For the artifical radionuclides [sup 60]Co, [sup 131]I and [sup 137]Cs the detection limits were determined as a function of the varying natural radon daughter concentrations at sampling and counting times of 1 h or 1 day. For these radionuclides minimum detectable air activity concentrations of 0.3 or 0.001 Bq m[sup -3], respectively, were obtained at low radon daughter levels. At high radon daughter levels the respective detection limits were found to be higher by a factor of only about 2. (orig.).

  4. Characteristic wave fronts in magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, V.V.; Sharma, V.D.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on the process of steepening or flattening of the characteristic wave fronts in a plane and cylindrically symmetric motion of an ideal plasma is investigated. This aspect of the problem has not been considered until now. Remarkable differences between plane, cylindrical diverging, and cylindrical converging waves are discovered. The discontinuity in the velocity gradient at the wave front is shown to satisfy a Bernoulli-type equation. The discussion of the solutions of such equations reported in the literature is shown to be incomplete, and three general theorems are established. 18 refs

  5. Chapter 9: Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  6. Generation to generation: discrimination and harassment experiences of physician mothers and their physician daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Diane K; Zucker, Alyssa N; Mercurio, Andrea E; Landry, Laura J; Rich, Michael; Shrier, Lydia A

    2007-01-01

    To examine bias and sexual harassment experiences of physician mothers and their physician daughters; correlations of these experiences with career satisfaction, stress at work, stress at home, and percentage of women in specialty; and influences of the mother on her daughter's experiences. A convenience sample of 214 families with mother and daughter physicians was sent a 56-item survey that included questions on bias and sexual harassment experiences. Statistical comparisons were made within 136 dyads where both mother and daughter returned the questionnaire. Eighty-four percent of mothers and 87% of daughters responded. Mothers and daughters reported similarly high rates and severity of sexual harassment before medical school, while in residency/fellowship, while in practice/work setting, and by teachers and supervisors. Daughters reported higher rates of harassment during medical school and by patients, mothers by colleagues. Gender and racial/ethnic discrimination was lower for daughters compared with their mothers, but gender discrimination was still substantial. Compared with other daughters, daughters who experienced discrimination or sexual harassment reported lower career satisfaction and more stress at work and at home and worked in specialties with fewer women. Gender discrimination and sexual harassment remain entrenched in medical education and professional workplaces. Maternal role models and mentors were not as protective as anticipated. Leadership of medical institutions and professional associations must deal more effectively with persistent discrimination and harassment or risk the loss of future leaders.

  7. Linear stability analysis of double ablation fronts in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez, C.; Sanz, J.; Ibanez, L. F.; Olazabal-Loume, M.

    2011-01-01

    A linear stability theory of double ablation fronts is developed for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion targets. The so-called electron radiative ablation front [S. Fujioka et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 195001 (2004)] is studied with a self-consistent model. Numerical results are presented as well as an analytical approach for the radiation dominated regime of very steep double ablation front structure. Dispersion relation formula is tackled by means of a sharp boundary model.

  8. Align the Front End First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of management styles and front-end analysis focuses on a review of Douglas McGregor's theories. Topics include Theories X, Y, and Z; leadership skills; motivational needs of employees; intrinsic and extrinsic rewards; and faulty implementation of instructional systems design processes. (LRW)

  9. Crack Front Segmentation and Facet Coarsening in Mixed-Mode Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Cambonie, Tristan; Lazarus, Veronique; Nicoli, Matteo; Pons, Antonio J.; Karma, Alain

    2015-12-01

    A planar crack generically segments into an array of "daughter cracks" shaped as tilted facets when loaded with both a tensile stress normal to the crack plane (mode I) and a shear stress parallel to the crack front (mode III). We investigate facet propagation and coarsening using in situ microscopy observations of fracture surfaces at different stages of quasistatic mixed-mode crack propagation and phase-field simulations. The results demonstrate that the bifurcation from propagating a planar to segmented crack front is strongly subcritical, reconciling previous theoretical predictions of linear stability analysis with experimental observations. They further show that facet coarsening is a self-similar process driven by a spatial period-doubling instability of facet arrays.

  10. Application of a Light-Front Coupled Cluster Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabysheva, S.S.; Hiller, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    As a test of the new light-front coupled-cluster method in a gauge theory, we apply it to the nonperturbative construction of the dressed-electron state in QED, for an arbitrary covariant gauge, and compute the electron's anomalous magnetic moment. The construction illustrates the spectator and Fock-sector independence of vertex and self-energy contributions and indicates resolution of the difficulties with uncanceled divergences that plague methods based on Fock-space truncation. (author)

  11. Collective acceleration investigations with the ionization front accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.; Poukey, J.W.; VanDevender, J.P.; Owyoung, A.; Pearlman, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    Part I of a three part program to demonstrate feasibility of the Ionization Front Accelerator (IFA) has been completed and is successful. Experiments describing intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) propagation in Cs are reported. The threshold pressure for electron beam ionization of Cs is found to agree with earlier theoretical predictions. These results experimentally establish Cs as a feasible working gas for the IFA. Numerical simulation results are also reported which demonstrate controlled potential well motion and collective ion acceleration with the IFA

  12. Migration of uranium daughter radionuclides in natural sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colley, S.; Thomson, J.

    1991-01-01

    An irregular concentration/depth profile of uranium in deep-sea turbidities, previously elucidated, has been exploited to obtain in-situ effective diffusion coefficients for the long-lived members of the 238 U natural series. The findings are relevant to the assessment of deep-sea sediments as potential repositories for high-level radioactive waste, because waste actinides decay through the same chains of daughter radionuclides as natural actinides. This work was part of the CEC Mirage project-Second phase, Natural analogues research area

  13. Some measurements of radon and its daughters in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; May, H.A.; Plondke, N.J.; Keefe, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The bare soil in the unpaved crawl space of a house is the source of unusually high levels (greater than or equal to 185 Bq m -3 ) of radon in the air of some houses (46% of those investigated), although the radium content of the soil is normal (approx. 40 Bq kg -1 ). High concentrations can also be found in the air in the basement sump. Measurements made with an Environmental Working Level Monitor in two houses showed that the average annual concentration of radon daughters may be in the region of 0.01 WL

  14. Commentary on Becoming a Daughter: Trauma is a powerful teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veach, Patricia McCarthy

    2006-06-01

    Personal life crises profoundly impact genetic counselor practice. In this commentary, themes from Matloff's (in press) article, Becoming a Daughter are highlighted and expanded upon. These themes include: personal impact of a life crisis, and professional impact vis a vis empathy countertransference, self-disclosure, nondirectiveness, and self-confidence. Strategies that help genetic counselors manage personal life crises within their clinical practice and also promote their professional development are emphasized, including normalization of life crises, self-reflection, boundary-setting, and use of peer supervision and consultation.

  15. Ventilation cost impact of reduced radon-daughter working levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Published information on costs of radon-daughter control in uranium mines was analyzed to develop estimates of the cost per ton for any level of radiation exposure control. All data were converted to 1967 cost of living index to provide a common analysis base. Results of the analysis show that the cost per ton increases exponentially as the radiation level is lowered. A linear relationship with the cost of living index is assumed, and equations and graphs are provided to estimate control cost per ton for any exposure control level and cost of living index

  16. Measurement of airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughter products by alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Ryan, M.T.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of naturally occurring uranium-238 and thorium-232 produces radon-222 and radon-220 isotopes which can escape into the atmosphere. If these radon gases become concentrated in air, their daughter products may present an inhalation hazard to man. The airborne concentrations of radon-222 can usually be measured very accurately in the presence of normal airborne concentrations of radon-220 and its daughters. In contrast, the measurements of the airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughters are usually complicated by the presence of radon-222 and its daughters even at normally occurring airborne concentrations. The complications involved in these measurements can be overcome in most situations by using an alpha particle spectrometer to distinguish the activity of radon-222 daughters from that due to radon-220 daughters collected on a filter. A practical spectrometer for field measurements of alpha particle activity on a filter is discussed

  17. Attitude of Israeli mothers with vaccination of their daughters against human papilloma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Aharon, Osnat; Palickshvili, Sharon; Gurman, Vicky

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine whether the model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) succeeds in predicting mothers' intention to vaccinate their daughters against the human papilloma virus infection. Questionnaires were distributed among convenience sample of 103 mothers of daughters 18 years and younger. Approximately 65% of mothers intend to vaccinate their daughters. Behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and level of knowledge had a significant positive effect on mothers' intention to vaccinate their daughters. High levels of religiosity were found to negatively affect mothers' intention to vaccinate their daughters. The TRA combined with level of knowledge and level of religiosity succeeds in predicting mothers' behavioral intentions regarding vaccinating daughters. This indicates the significance of nurses' roles in imparting information and increasing awareness among mothers. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Influence of random daughter exposure rate, unattachment fraction, and disequilibrium on occurrence of lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Busch, R.H.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Groups of male, specific-pathogen-free (SPF), Wistar rats were exposed to several concentrations of radon daughters and uranium ore dust to clarify the roles of exposure rate, unattached RaA daughters, and the degree of radon daughter disequilibrium, in the development of respiratory system disease. Modeled, human-dosimetric data indicate that the dose to sensitive tissues of the respiratory tract increases with increasing radon-daughter unattachment fraction and degree of disequilibrium. Experimental verification of these dose-effect relationships is needed to protect the health of workers and of the public exposed to radon-daughter environments. Data bearing on these relationships as well as updated results of experiments designed to test the role of radon-daughter exposure rate on lung-tumor incidence are reported. 13 references, 3 tables

  19. Older Parents Benefit More in Health Outcome From Daughters' Than Sons' Emotional Care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Brasher, Melanie Sereny; Gu, Danan; Vaupel, James W

    2016-12-01

    To examine whether older parents in China would benefit more from daughters' care than from sons' emotional care. Analysis of the unique data sets of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey conducted in 2002, 2005, and 2008-2009 in 22 provinces. As compared with having son(s), having daughter(s) is significantly more beneficial at older ages in China, with regard to maintaining higher cognitive capacity and reducing mortality risk. Such daughter advantages in providing emotional care to older parents are more profound among the oldest-old aged 80+ as compared with the young-old aged 65 to 79 and surprisingly more profound in rural areas as compared with urban areas, even though son preference is much more common among rural residents. We describe how educational campaigns aimed at informing the public about the benefits of daughter(s) for older parents' health outcome could help promote gender equality and reduce traditional son preference, especially in rural China.

  20. Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yecheng; Huang Zhanyun; She Chengye

    1992-01-01

    Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor is introduced in this paper. With the single-chip microcomputer automation comes into effect in the process from sampling to measuring of radon and radon daughters. The concentrations of radon and radon daughters can be easily shown when the conversion coefficients are pre-settled before the measurement. Moreover, the principle and design are briefly discussed according to the characteristics of the monitor

  1. Control of daughter centriole formation by the pericentriolar material: Control of centriole duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Loncarek, Jadranka; Hergert, Polla; Magidson, Valentin; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    Controlling the number of its centrioles is vital for the cell as supernumerary centrioles result in multipolar mitosis and genomic instability1,2. Normally, just one daughter centriole forms on each mature (mother) centriole3,4; however, a mother centriole can produce multiple daughters within a single cell cycle5,6. The mechanisms that prevent centriole ‘overduplication’ are poorly understood. Here we use laser microsurgery to test the hypothesis that attachment of the daughter centriole to...

  2. Mother - Daughter Relationship’s links to Daughter’s Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    ONAYLI, Selin; ERDUR-BAKER, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relation of mother - daughter relationship to an adult daughter’s self- esteem and life satisfaction. 426 university students with a mean age of 21.62 (SD= 2.35) participated in the study. Adult Mother - Daughter Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were administered. The canonical correlation analysis revealed that three indicators of mother - daughter relationship (connectedness, interdependency, and trust in hierarchy) ...

  3. A radionuclide generator for the production of 211Pb and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atcher, R.W.; Friedman, A.M.; Huizenga, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    211 Pb and its daughters are produced in a generator system which utilizes the distillation of the intermediate daughter 219 Rn from 223 Ra. The radium is precipitated as the stearate to isolate the parent while allowing the gaseous daughter to emanate. While the yield of the system is low, approximately 10%, the radionuclidic purity is extremely high. No measurable 223 Ra is found in the product. 223 Ra is separated from its parent, 227 Ac, by cation exchange. (author) 7 refs

  4. Differential sensor in front photopyroelectric technique: II. Experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, R; Moreno, I; Araujo-Andrade, C; MarIn, E; Cruz-Orea, A; Pichardo-Molina, J L

    2009-01-01

    We describe the differential cell design and the experimental (optical and electronic) setup for the differential front photopyroelectric technique, whose theory has been developed in the first part of this paper (Ivanov et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 085106). We will show first how the direct (non-differential) front photopyroelectric theory described in our previous paper reproduces well the experimental results. The usefulness of the differential technique is demonstrated by means of experimental measurements of the thermal effusivity in binary ethanol-water and glycerol-water mixtures, based on a theoretical methodology that simplifies the measurement procedure and diminishes the experimental uncertainty.

  5. Differential sensor in front photopyroelectric technique: II. Experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, R; Moreno, I; Araujo-Andrade, C [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calz. Solidaridad Esquina Paseo de la Bufa s/n, CP 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); MarIn, E [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada-Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, CP 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Orea, A [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, CP 07360, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pichardo-Molina, J L, E-mail: rumen@fisica.uaz.edu.m [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Loma del Campestre, CP 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2009-06-21

    We describe the differential cell design and the experimental (optical and electronic) setup for the differential front photopyroelectric technique, whose theory has been developed in the first part of this paper (Ivanov et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 085106). We will show first how the direct (non-differential) front photopyroelectric theory described in our previous paper reproduces well the experimental results. The usefulness of the differential technique is demonstrated by means of experimental measurements of the thermal effusivity in binary ethanol-water and glycerol-water mixtures, based on a theoretical methodology that simplifies the measurement procedure and diminishes the experimental uncertainty.

  6. Communication about sex and HPV among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Vélez, Camille; Gonzalez, Velda J; Diaz-Toro, Elba C; Calo, William A; Savas, Lara S; Pattatucci, Angela; Fernández, María E

    2017-08-01

    Although opportunities to vaccinate against human papillomavirus (HPV) are available, vaccination rates in Puerto Rico remain low. Communication between parents and adolescents about sexual topics may influence decisions about HPV vaccination uptake, particularly among young women; yet, few studies have addressed this issue. This qualitative study explored Puerto Rican mothers' and daughters' communication on sex-related topics, and HPV, including the HPV vaccine. Thirty participants, including 9 mothers and 21 daughters, participated in seven focus groups. Participants were divided into groups of mothers and daughters, and further stratified by vaccination status. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify emergent themes. Focus group data revealed four main themes: (1) limited parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics; (2) daughters' discomfort discussing sex-related topics with their parents; (3) parental focus on abstinence; and, (4) limited parent-daughter communication about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Although daughters in this study struggled with feelings of embarrassment, invasion of privacy, encouragement of abstinence, and the fear of parents' reaction to them being sexually active prior to marriage, they also recognized the need to increase the parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics including HPV and the HPV vaccine. Educational efforts should target both daughters and parents to increase communication skills and self-efficacy and to enable them to discuss sexual health in open and nonjudgmental conversations.

  7. Measurements of the deposition rates of radon daughters on indoor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Essling, M.A.; Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deposition rates of radon daughters on indoor surfaces have been measured by exposing the window of a proportional counter to the air of a house with high concentrations of radon and its daughters. Deposition velocities for unattached 218 Po (RaA) and 214 Pb (RaB) of approximately 4 mm sec - 1 were obtained by dividing the deposition rates by the concentrations of unattached daughters in the air. These results agree with those obtained by other workers but are dependent on the assumptions made about the fractions of the daughters which are attached to the atmospheric aerosol

  8. Cell cycle phases in the unequal mother/daughter cell cycles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Chlebowicz-Sledziewska, E; Fangman, W L

    1984-11-01

    During cell division in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mother cells produce buds (daughter cells) which are smaller and have longer cell cycles. We performed experiments to compare the lengths of cell cycle phases in mothers and daughters. As anticipated from earlier indirect observations, the longer cell cycle time of daughter cells is accounted for by a longer G1 interval. The S-phase and the G2-phase are of the same duration in mother and daughter cells. An analysis of five isogenic strains shows that cell cycle phase lengths are independent of cell ploidy and mating type.

  9. Like mother like daughter: putamen activation as a mechanism underlying intergenerational risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colich, Natalie L; Ho, Tiffany C; Ellwood-Lowe, Monica E; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Sacchet, Matthew D; LeMoult, Joelle L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2017-09-01

    Having a depressed mother is one of the strongest predictors for developing depression in adolescence. Given the role of aberrant reward processing in the onset and maintenance of depression, we examined the association between mothers' and their daughters' neural response to the anticipation of reward and loss. Fifteen non-depressed mothers with a history of recurrent depression and their never-disordered daughters, and 23 mothers without past or current depression and their never-disordered daughters, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the monetary incentive delay task. To assess mother-daughter concordance, we first identified ROIs involved in the anticipation of reward and loss across all mother-daughter pairs. Within each of these ROIs, we examined the association between mothers' and daughters' neural response, and the interaction between group status and mothers' neural response in predicting daughters' neural response. We found a significant association between mothers' and daughters' putamen response to the anticipation of loss, regardless of mother's depression history. Furthermore, pubertal stage moderated the association between mother-daughter putamen concordance. Our findings suggest a unique role of the putamen in the maternal transmission of reward learning and have important implications for understanding disorders characterized by disturbances in reward learning and processing, such as major depression. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Occupational studies of radon daughters and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.W.; Ballew, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer mortality has been established. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the major studies of the health effects due to exposure to the decay products of radon gas and to discuss their potential implications with regard to risk associated with indoor radon. There has been much recent interest in the health hazards associated with radon largely motivated by the discovery of high levels of this radioactive gas in the Reading Prong (a geological area in Pennsylvania and New Jersey) and subsequently throughout the United States. Although at least three studies in the U.S. have been initiated to better estimate the lung cancer risks from low level indoor radon exposure, the results will not be known for several years. Consequently, present knowledge concerning such risks is almost entirely derived from studies of underground exposure to miners. Those studies effectively exclude women and children; therefore, assumptions must be made with regard to risk to a large segment of the population. Before discussing current health studies of radon daughter exposure, some background information is presented

  11. Metrology and monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The principles of measurement and monitoring are described as applied to radon- and thoron gases and their daughter products in occupational and non-occupational environments. Various methods of measurement, such as grab-sampling, continuous monitoring, integrated measurements and personal dosimetry are discussed. Uncertainties in different measurement methods are compared. An account of unattached fraction and plateout of radon daughters is included. General principles and guidelines for monitoring are presented for the purposes of practical radiation protection as well as research applications. Calibration aspects of measurement instruments are described and procedures for interlaboratory calibration are suggested. Sampling strategies for occupational and non-occupational environments are discussed and radiation protection training requirements are identified. Where sufficient information and consensus exist, guidelines on apparatus, methods and procedures for monitoring are provided. A summary of regulations in force or being developed and recommendations for monitoring radiation exposure to radon and its decay products in countries of the OECD is provided, together with cost estimates for national indoor radon surveys

  12. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  13. Light front quantum chromodynamics: Towards phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Light front dynamics; quantum chromodynamics; deep inelastic scattering. PACS Nos 11.10. ... What makes light front dynamics appealing from high energy phenomenology point of view? .... given in terms of Poincarй generators by. MВ = W P ...

  14. Front Propagation in Stochastic Neural Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Webber, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effects of extrinsic multiplicative noise on front propagation in a scalar neural field with excitatory connections. Using a separation of time scales, we represent the fluctuating front in terms of a diffusive-like displacement

  15. Mother-daughter dyadic approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Fischl, Andrea Rodgers; Choi, Jessica; Schmitt, Patricia L; White, Neil H; Becker, Dorothy; Downs, Julie; Hannan, Margaret; Thurheimer, Jennifer; Sereika, Susan M

    2014-12-29

    Preconception counseling (PC) significantly and inexpensively reduces risks of reproductive-health complications for women with diabetes. Our validated technology-based preconception counseling intervention, READY-Girls , is tailored for female teens with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes and targets decision-making regarding effective family planning and seeking PC. Our teen-focused research was instrumental in changing the American Diabetes Association's Practice Recommendations to specify that preconception counseling should "Start at puberty…". This directive requires support from well-informed mothers of teens. Our goal is to provide both teen girls and their mothers with preconception counseling knowledge, and provide mothers with sex-communication training. Evaluation should focus on mother-daughter dyads. This feasibility study explored mother's and daughter's awareness and knowledge of diabetes and pregnancy, and preconception counseling; and compared mother-daughter responses using dyadic analyses. A mixed-method design was conducted with 10 mothers of daughters with T1D. Mothers were given READY-Girls intervention and completed knowledge and support questionnaires. Their responses were compared to those of their daughter's who were participating in a large randomized, control intervention trial with READY-Girls . The major theme from one-on-one interviews was, "I know nothing about diabetes/pregnancy risks and PC". Mother's and daughter's perceptions of having limited knowledge were confirmed by low knowledge scores. Mothers perceived giving higher levels of support compared to their daughter's perceptions of receiving support. Mothers can play a vital role in initiating discussions regarding reproductive-health with their daughters and reinforcing preconception counseling. Mother-daughter team approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes is feasible. Mother-daughter dyadic analyses can be important to explore

  16. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M; Rosebrock, Adam P; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R

    2009-10-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  17. Daughter-Specific Transcription Factors Regulate Cell Size Control in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M.; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:19841732

  18. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Talia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  19. Seabirds and fronts: a brief overview

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Oceanographic fronts are the sites of enhanced physical and biological activity, including locally concentrated feeding by marine birds. Two general hypotheses relating marine birds to fronts have been developed. The first is that enhanced primary production at fronts increases prey supply through increased animal growth, reproduction, or immigration. The second is that prey patches develop at fronts either through behavioural responses of prey to thermal or salinity gradients, or through int...

  20. Fluctuation charge effects in ionization fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L; Baltanas, J P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of charge fluctuations on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharges. We show that fronts accelerate when random charge creation events are present. This effect might play a similar role to photoionization in order to make the front move faster

  1. Fluctuation charge effects in ionization fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain); Baltanas, J P [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-05-21

    In this paper, we study the effects of charge fluctuations on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharges. We show that fronts accelerate when random charge creation events are present. This effect might play a similar role to photoionization in order to make the front move faster.

  2. Traveling interface modulations and anisotropic front propagation in ammonia oxidation over Rh(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafti, Matías [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 64 y Diag. 113 (1900), La Plata (Argentina); Institut für Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Leibniz-Universität Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3a, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Borkenhagen, Benjamin; Lilienkamp, Gerhard [Institut für Energieforschung und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universität Clausthal, Leibnizstr. 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lovis, Florian; Smolinsky, Tim; Imbihl, Ronald, E-mail: imbihl@pci.uni-hannvover.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Leibniz-Universität Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3a, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2015-11-14

    The bistable NH{sub 3} + O{sub 2} reaction over a Rh(110) surface was explored in the pressure range 10{sup −6}–10{sup −3} mbar and in the temperature range 300–900 K using photoemission electron microscopy and low energy electron microscopy as spatially resolving methods. We observed a history dependent anisotropy in front propagation, traveling interface modulations, transitions with secondary reaction fronts, and stationary island structures.

  3. Monitoring employee exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.; Lokan, K.H.

    1979-06-01

    Practical methods for measuring the concentration in air of radon and radon daughter are reviewed, and straightforward procedures are described for reliable field measurements. Typical field data, and sample calculations are provided, together with suitable procedures for calculating and reporting cumulative radon daughter exposures

  4. Communication strategies to reduce cancer disparities: Insights from African-American mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Wilson Genderson, Maureen; Ports, Katie A; Carlyle, Kellie E

    2015-12-01

    Mothers and daughters share a powerful and unique bond, which has potential for the dissemination of information on a variety of women's health issues, including the primary and secondary prevention of breast and cervical cancer. This study presents formative research from a long-term project examining the potential of mother-daughter communication in promoting cancer screening among African American women. Thirty-two mother-daughter pairs (N = 64) completed orally administered surveys regarding their cancer knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and barriers to care. This study compares the attitudes and beliefs of low-income, urban, African American mothers and their adolescent daughters regarding cervical and breast cancer screening. Both mothers and daughters had fairly high levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer. In addition, there was a high concordance rate between mothers' and daughters' responses, suggesting a potential sharing of health knowledge between mother and daughter. These results have implications for selecting communication strategies to reduce health disparities, and support that the mother-daughter dyad could be a viable unit to disseminate targeted screening information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. How My Daughter Taught Me to Teach: The Importance of Active Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt-Gierut, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how her daughter, who was diagnosed with a profound hearing loss when she was a year old, taught her to teach, and demonstrates the importance of active communication. Teaching her daughter English as her second language has posed many challenges, but has also revealed successful strategies that the author has…

  6. Conflict management of mothers and daughters belonging to individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, N P

    1999-12-01

    Research on the mother-daughter relationship during adolescence is mostly conducted in Western and European cultures where individualism is stressed. To examine ethnic/cultural differences and similarities in this relationship, 80 dyads of British (white) and Pakistani mothers and their adolescent daughters were studied. On the basis of the theories of cultural variability dimension and conflict face negotiation, it was hypothesized that mothers and daughters from the two cultures would use different styles of handling disagreements/conflicts. That is, Pakistani mothers and daughters would use an avoiding style, whereas British mothers and daughters would use either a dominating or compromising style, to a greater degree. It was also argued that Pakistani daughters and mothers will express more intimacy and relational harmony, will exhibit greater connectedness and mutuality and demonstrate lesser individuality and self-assertion compared to their British counterparts. However, it appeared that both the groups used an avoiding style equally, although the British group used a dominating style more than Pakistani group. As hypothesized, Pakistani mothers and daughters expressed more intimacy, relational harmony, connectedness and mutuality and lesser individuality than British mothers and daughters. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  7. Marital and Parent-Child Relationships in Families with Daughters Who Have Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…

  8. A Healthy Lifestyle Program for Latino Daughters and Mothers: The BOUNCE Overview and Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma N.; Knox, Brook; Scherer, Rhonda; Maldonado, Gabriela; Sharma, Shreela V.; Alastuey, Lisa; Bush, Jill A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Few family-based healthy lifestyle programs for Latinos have been conducted, especially family programs targeting mother-daughter dyads. Purpose: To assess the acceptability and feasibility of the Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition Counseling and Exercise (BOUNCE) program designed for Latino mother-daughter pairs. Methods: 92…

  9. Mother Daughter Relationships: From Infancy to Adulthood. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    Topics related to characteristics of mother/daughter relationships in contemporary patriarchal societies are discussed in this seminar paper. The first section describes cases intended to illustrate ways patriarchal social structures limit contemporary mother/daughter relationships, provides a brief historical contrast, and suggests possible…

  10. Caring for a Daughter with Intellectual Disabilities in Managing Menstruation: A Mother's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane

    2012-01-01

    Background: The concerns of mothers and their experiences while providing help to their daughters with intellectual disability (ID) and considerable support needs during menstruation have rarely been addressed. This qualitative study explored mothers' experiences and perceptions of managing their daughters' menstruation. Method: Twelve Taiwanese…

  11. Adolescent Daughters' Romantic Competence: The Role of Divorce, Quality of Parenting, and Maternal Romantic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were…

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Mothers' Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters against HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John B.; Smith, Sandi; Dennis, Leslie K.; Andsager, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed mothers' intentions to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Experience with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), beliefs about the vaccine encouraging sexual activity, and perception of daughters' risk for HPV were also examined for a relationship with…

  13. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive

  14. Bio-mathematical models for radon daughters inhalation. The ModeLung software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomulescu, Vlad C.; Rusu, Mircea

    2002-01-01

    Radon and its decay daughters are the most important sources for natural irradiation of population. ModeLung software is based on the human respiratory tract compartment model and is computing radiation doses on several internal organs and tissues for subjects inhaling radon daughters attached to aerosols. Radiation doses are presented for several subjects performing different types of activity under specific environmental conditions. (authors)

  15. Reciprocity in Intergenerational Support: A Comparison of Chinese and German Adult Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Beate; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Zheng, Gang; Shi, Shaohua

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how Chinese and German adult daughters evaluate the norm of reciprocity and the unbalanced exchange of support in relation to their aging parents. Women from rural and urban China (n = 292) and from Germany (n = 264) have participated in this study. Results show that for the German daughters, differently from rural Chinese…

  16. Evaluation and control of radon daughter hazards in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holaday, D.A.

    1974-11-01

    This monograph discusses primarily those health hazards to uranium miners which are produced by exposure to ionizing radiation. Emphasis is placed on the areas of evaluation of exposures to the radioactive gas radon-222 and its short-lived transformation products, and methods of controlling such exposures. A limited discussion of the biological effects of radon and radon daughters is undertaken, and some procedures are given for evaluating hazards created by other common contaminants of mine atmospheres. A large amount of information exists on these topics, some of which is unpublished or is not readily available. While efforts were made to obtain data from all sources, undoubtedly some valuable work was overlooked. The monograph is an endeavor to assemble pertinent information and make it available to those who are concerned with producing uranium at minimal risks. Where they were available, a variety of procedures for evaluating hazards are given, and examples of systems for controlling hazards are included. 154 references

  17. The attachment of radon daughters to submicron aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.G.; Bigu, J.

    1984-04-01

    A study of the effects of aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution and relative humidity on the Working Level and the radon daughter concentration was conducted in a 3000 L radon environmental chamber. Typical values of the aerosol concentration varied in the 1 x 10 3 particles/cm 3 to 4.5 x 10 5 particles/cm 3 range. Various size distributions of aerosols that have mean diffusional aerodynamic diameters of .025 μm, .045 μm and .090 μm were tested. A good correlation was found between the Working Level and the aerosol concentration as well as the relative humidity. Most of the activity seems to be associated with particles of diameter between .05 μm and .2 μm. The results presented here are in agreement with work done by other investigators in the health physics field

  18. Cross Cultural Conflicts in Not Without my Daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyoningsih Setyoningsih

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and analyze the cultural conflicts between the main characters in the novel Not Without my Daughter (NW. The analysis was carried out through the following process. The first procedure related to problems of classification i.e. cross cultural conflicts. The next phase of data analysis related to the colletion data of cross cultural conflicts in NW. The last phase is presentation the result of the analysis that had been conducted in this research. Having analyzed the data, the researcher concludes  that cultural conflicts occured in NW because of  stereotype, prejudice, and ethnocentrism. Cultural conflicts can be prevented if we increase our awareness of our own attitudes and learn to be sensitive to cross-cultural differences. However, if we develop intercultural sensitivity, it does not mean that we need to lose our cultural identities-but rather that we recognize cultural influences within ourselves and within others.

  19. Assessment of radon-daughter deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1996-01-01

    Since some decades it is known, that most of the radiation dose to the lung is due to the inhalation of the short-lived decay products of 222 Rn. Their deposition in the respiratory tract strongly depends on the attachment rate to aerosol-particles present in the indoor air and their plate-out rate to the surfaces, instead of measuring the activity size distribution of the airborne decay products, knowledge on the respiratory tract retention has been incorporated in the design of a measurement system, called bronchial dosemeter, to assess the lung dose directly. The simulation of the deposition characteristics of the short-lived radon daughters in the nasal cavity and the bronchial tree is based on the comparison of the model of the respiratory tract with results from screen penetration theory. A bronchial dosemeter consisting of three sampling heads has been built and calibrated. Additionally, an outline of future activities will be given. (author)

  20. From mother to daughter. Psychic disease: genetic or environmental influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Infrasca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of genetic versus environmental influences in psychiatric disorders is widely discussed in biomedical literature, but remains still controversial. Familiarity has been observed in some disesase, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic attack disorder. In this study we analyse three generations of women, for a total of 4 women (a mother, her two daughters, and a granddaughter followed by our Psychiatric Department for depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of the study was to assess wheather there are similarities among the clinical status of the four women, and verify the relationship among those disorders. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI was administered to all the patients and the scores obtained were compared. We found out that the many aspects and psychological traits were present in all the four women. These similarities suggest the presence of a dynamic trans-generational transmission.

  1. Dosimetry of radon and its daughters by two SSNT detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faj, Z.; Planinic, J.

    1991-01-01

    Disintegration, ventilation and deposition (plateout effect) were considered as removal processes for radon and its daughters in the air and their concentration equations were used in deriving a relationship between the equilibrium factor (F) and track densities of the bare SSNT detector (D) and the filtered one (D 0 ). Using the calibrated sensitivity coefficient of the LR-115 detector, k=2.64x10 -3 m, and the measured average track densities (D,D 0 ) in a single house living room in Osijek during the year 1989, the radon concentration c 0 =40.15 Bq.m -3 , equilibrium factor F=0.46 and effective dose equivalent H E =1.48 mSv.y -1 were obtained. (author)

  2. Analysis of Father and Daughter in Absalom, Absalom!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Shuang

    2016-01-01

    William Faulkner is a world-famous American novelist. Absalom, Absalom! is a story which happened in the southern United States, and it tells a family’s experience of rising and falling from 1860 to 1910. Faulkner gave a very vivid depiction and description of the characters to profoundly show the conflict between people and people, and the conflict between people and their inner world, touching the universal problems which are related to the condition of human beings. Through Sutpen, the representative of the old South, Faulkner showed his attitudes towards the old South, the racism. In his eyes, the old South was destined to fail and to decay because of the evil and rotten racism and tradition of this land. While through Judith, the daughter of Sutpen, Faulkner made the readers see the hope and future of a new world, the new South after civil war.

  3. Meaning of becoming mother and son/daughter through massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez Doren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Revealing the experience of mothers when massaging their children to know the phenomenon in the context of a mother-child healthy development. Method: This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach carried out with 11 women who massaged their children and answered the guiding question: What did the experience of massaging your child mean to you? Results: The experience of massaging their children meant the development of their being a mother and of being a son/daughter, in addition to developing the attachment relationship between them. The massage can operationalize this integrality, become a tool of communication, stimulation and promotion of secure attachment, by promoting the loving interaction between mother and child. Conclusion: This practice should be considered as an option in the programs that promote the comprehensive health of the mother and child.

  4. Reducing radon daughter background in alpha continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.; McFarland, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors are instruments designed to sample aerosols which may contain alpha-emitting radionuclides and, in near-real time, to monitor the sample for alpha emissions. This process is subject to interference from radon decay products. The usual method for overcoming this interference is by signal processing or data processing in such a manner as to accurately subtract a portion of the background from the transuranic count. An innovative alternative approach has been jointly developed in a collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Texas A ampersand M University. The concept is to attempt to physically remove a portion of the interfering radon daughters from the incoming sample by a diffusion screen before the sample is collected. The results of laboratory tests indicate that a very high removal efficiency for unattached radon progeny can be obtained without excessive loss of efficiency for collection of the contaminant aerosols of concern. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Studies on deposition of radon daughters on glass surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loerinc, M.; Feher, I.; Palfalvi, J.

    1998-01-01

    In a certain village in Northern Hungary, in some houses the radon concentration was found to be in the order of kBq.m -3 . In an attempt to decide whether an earthquake or the near-by mining activity is to blame, past radon concentration was studied making use of radon daughters embedded in the surface layer of glass sheets. In the investigation several conclusions were reached: drastic changes in Rn concentration could be excluded, ie., the high Rn concentration existed over the last 50 years; the continuing deposition of dirt on the glass surface and the occasional cleaning had no significant effect; the effect of corrosion processes at the glass surface should be further investigated. (A.K.)

  6. Daughter Species Abundances in Comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Adam; Cochran, Anita; Dello Russo, Neil; Kelley, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We present analysis of high spectral resolution optical spectra of C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) acquired with the Tull Coude spectrometer on the 2.7-meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory and the ARCES spectrometer mounted on the 3.5-meter Astrophysical Research Consortium Telescope at Apache Point Observatory. Both Tull Coude and ARCES provide high spectral resolution (R=30,000-60,000) and a large spectral range of approximately 3500-10000 Angstroms. We obtained two observation epochs, one in February 2015 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 AU, and another in May 2015 at a heliocentric distance of 1.9 AU. Another epoch in late August 2015 at a heliocentric distance of 3.0 AU is scheduled. We will present production rates of the daughter species CN, C3, CH, C2, and NH2. We will also present H2O production rates derived from the [OI]6300 emission, as well as measurements of the flux ratio of the [OI]5577 Angstrom line to the sum of the [OI]6300 and [OI]6364 Angstrom lines (sometimes referred to as the oxygen line ratio). This ratio is indicative of the CO2 abundance of the comet. As we have observations at several heliocentric distances, we will examine how production rates and mixing ratios of the various species change with heliocentric distance. We will compare our oxygen line measurements to observations of CO2 made with Spitzer, as well as our other daughter species observations to those of candidate parent molecules made at IR wavelengths.

  7. Fast Mechanically Driven Daughter Cell Separation Is Widespread in Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxue; Halladin, David K; Theriot, Julie A

    2016-08-30

    Dividing cells of the coccoid Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus undergo extremely rapid (millisecond) daughter cell separation (DCS) driven by mechanical crack propagation, a strategy that is very distinct from the gradual, enzymatically driven cell wall remodeling process that has been well described in several rod-shaped model bacteria. To determine if other bacteria, especially those in the same phylum (Firmicutes) or with similar coccoid shapes as S. aureus, might use a similar mechanically driven strategy for DCS, we used high-resolution video microscopy to examine cytokinesis in a phylogenetically wide range of species with various cell shapes and sizes. We found that fast mechanically driven DCS is rather rare in the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram positives), observed only in Staphylococcus and its closest coccoid relatives in the Macrococcus genus, and we did not observe this division strategy among the Gram-negative Proteobacteria In contrast, several members of the high-G+C Gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Brachybacterium faecium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Mycobacterium smegmatis) with diverse shapes ranging from coccoid to rod all undergo fast mechanical DCS during cell division. Most intriguingly, similar fast mechanical DCS was also observed during the sporulation of the actinobacterium Streptomyces venezuelae Much of our knowledge on bacterial cytokinesis comes from studying rod-shaped model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis Less is known about variations in this process among different bacterial species. While cell division in many bacteria has been characterized to some extent genetically or biochemically, few species have been examined using video microscopy to uncover the kinetics of cytokinesis and daughter cell separation (DCS). In this work, we found that fast (millisecond) DCS is exhibited by species in two independent clades of Gram-positive bacteria and is particularly prevalent

  8. CT detection of daughter nodules in hepatocellular carcinoma after lipiodol infusion via the hepatic artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Hajime; Ohgami, Syoichi; Katsuragi, Masami

    1985-02-01

    The detectability of daughter nodules in 80 hepatocellular carcinomas was compared between CT assisted by Lipiodol Ultra Fluid (Lipiodol) infused via the hepatic artery and IHA (Infusion hepatic angiography). Lipiodol infused via the hepatic artery was selectively accumulated in the tumor vessels and the tumors and small daughter nodules appeared as markedly high density areas by CT. 18 cases in which the daughter nodules were detected were identified only by CT. Furthermore, in 38 cases CT demonstrated superior detectability of the daughthr nodules than IHA. In 15 cases the daughter nodules were newly detected in areas other than the invaded area where the primary tumor existed. This method is very effective in the diagnosis of daughter nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma. (author).

  9. Internal causes of radon and its daughters upward migration and cluster phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Zhou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Qiu Yuande; Hou Xinsheng; Wu Yunping; Zu Xiulan; Wang Xiaoqin

    1999-01-01

    Radon and its daughters have a very big specific gravity. But under laboratory conditions, they have the ability to migrate upward. The phenomenon can't be interpreted by an external cause but by an internal cause. The mechanism is that radon and most of its daughters and parents are decaying bodies able to radiate α-particles. After deceleration, 4He can combine with radon and its daughters and parents to form clusters. When the buoyancy of air is greater than the gravity of the clusters, self-ascending occurs. Accordingly, the distance that Rn covered during 3.825 days (Rn half-life) should not be regarded as Rn and its daughters migrating distance, but should be calculated according to all effects. That clusters can be formed by 4He, Rn and its daughters are valuable to study because of the similarity between Rn and heavy metal particles

  10. Emanation of 232U and its radioactive daughter products from respirable size particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuddihy, R.G.; Griffith, W.C.; Hoover, M.D.; Kanapilly, G.M.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1978-01-01

    This study is to develop a model for the emanation of 232 U and its radioactive daughter products from particles of Th-U fuel material. The radiation doses to internal organs following inhalation of these particles can only be calculated by knowing the rate of emanation of the daughters from particles in the lung and the subsequent excretion or translocation of the daughters to other organs. The emanation mechanisms are recoil of the daughter nuclei from the particle during alpha decay of the parent, diffusion of inert gas daughters from the particle and dissolution of the particle itself in biological fluids. Experiments to evaluate these mechanisms will involve ThO 2 and UO 2 particles in the size range 0.1 to 1.0 μm MMAD uniformly labeled with 232 U. The influence of the material temperature history on emanation will be investigated by heat treating particles at 600 and 1400 0 C

  11. Studies on the migration rule and mechanism of radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Zhou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Qiu Yuande; Hou Xinsheng; Wu Yunping; Zu Xiulan; Wang Xiaoqin

    2000-01-01

    By using very precise, highly sensitive, static accumulated, easily repeated CD-1 α-cup, the migration rule and mechanism of radon and its daughters was studied. Significant results were obtained: (1) Under laboratory conditions, the vertical component of migration of radon and its daughters was much greater than the horizontal component, the former was over 90% and the latter was less than 10%. (2) Despite the very big specific gravity of radon and its daughters, the descending component of migration was less than 45%, while the ascending component was more than 45%. (3) After α-particles (emitted from radon and its daughters) being slowed down. 4 He combined with the radon and its daughters to form clusters. When the density of the cluster was less than that of the air, the self-ascending would occur

  12. Hydrodynamic instabilities in an ablation front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piriz, A R; Portugues, R F

    2004-01-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of an ablation front is studied for situations in which the wavelength of the perturbations is larger than the distance to the critical surface where the driving radiation is absorbed. An analytical model is presented, and it shows that under conditions in which the thermal flux is limited within the supercritical region of the ablative corona, the front may behave like a flame or like an ablation front, depending on the perturbation wavelength. For relatively long wavelengths the critical and ablation surfaces practically lump together into a unique surface and the front behaves like a flame, whereas for the shortest wavelengths the ablation front substructure is resolved

  13. Hydrodynamic instabilities in an ablation front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piriz, A R; Portugues, R F [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of an ablation front is studied for situations in which the wavelength of the perturbations is larger than the distance to the critical surface where the driving radiation is absorbed. An analytical model is presented, and it shows that under conditions in which the thermal flux is limited within the supercritical region of the ablative corona, the front may behave like a flame or like an ablation front, depending on the perturbation wavelength. For relatively long wavelengths the critical and ablation surfaces practically lump together into a unique surface and the front behaves like a flame, whereas for the shortest wavelengths the ablation front substructure is resolved.

  14. 'He supported me 100%': Mexican-immigrant fathers, daughters, and adolescent sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Samari, Goleen

    2018-02-19

    First and second generation Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. face social and economic disadvantage and sexual health disparities. Although fathers can support child and adolescent development, the literature has portrayed Mexican-origin immigrant fathers as emotionally distant and sexist. This study aims to treat migration as a social determinant of health to examine father-daughter relationships and adolescent sexual health in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Integrating qualitative data from life history interviews with 21 Mexican-origin young women in immigrant families with quantitative data on first and second generation Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study describes father-daughter relationships, examines the association between father-daughter relationships and daughters' early sexual initiation, and considers the impact of migration on the father-daughter relationship and sexual health among Mexican-origin young women. Qualitative data identify four types of father-daughter relationships: 'good,' hostile, distant, and conflicted. Supporting the qualitative patterns, quantitative data find that positive or 'good' father-daughter relationship quality is significantly associated with reduced risk of early sexual initiation. Importantly, father-daughter separation across borders and economic inequality facing immigrant families is associated with hostile or distant father-daughter relationship quality and increased risk of early sexual initiation. Reports of good father-daughter relationships are common and may protect against early sexual initiation in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Policies that keep families together and reduce economic inequality among immigrants may also reduce sexual health disparities among immigrant adolescents.

  15. Examining the Impact of Maternal Health, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Daughter's Self-Rated Health Over Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. [Adult mother-daughter relationships and psychological well-being: attachment to mothers, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kotomi

    2008-06-01

    This study examined how daughter's reported quality of their mother-daughter relationships during childhood and adulthood is related to their psychological well-being (depressive symptoms and self-esteem). A cross-sectional sample of 363 women, age 26 to 35 years, completed questionnaires. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on the daughters' marital and parental status. Regression estimates suggested that among single daughters and married daughters with children, childhood attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) significantly contributed to psychological well-being, even after controlling for the effects of current closeness and excessive dependence. Current closeness, and excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother contributed to the psychological well-being of single daughters and married daughters without children, even after controlling for the effects of childhood attachment.

  17. Comparison of five-minute radon-daughter measurements with long-term radon and radon-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Thomas, V.W.

    1983-01-01

    Five-minute air filter radon daughter measurements were made in 84 buildings in Edgemont, South Dakota, in which annual average radon daughter concentrations have been determined from six 100-hour Radon Progeny Integrating Sampling Unit (RPISU) measurements. Averaging radon concentrations were also determined in 50 of these buildings using Terradex Track Etch detectors. The standard deviation of the difference between the (natural) logarithms of the RPISU annual averages and the logarithms of the air filter measurements (SD-ln) was found to be 0.52. This SD-ln is considerably smaller than the SD-ln of 0.71 between the RPISU annual averages and the air filter measurements reported by ALARA at Grand Junction, Colorado; presumably because a considerable number of air filter measurements in Edgemont were disregarded because of short turnover times or high wind speeds. Using the SD-ln of 0.52 it can be calculated that there would only be a 5% probability in Edgemont that the RPISU annual average would be greater than 0.015 WL if the five-minute measurement were equal to 0.010 WL. This indicates that the procedure used in Edgemont of clearing buildings from remedial action if the five-minute measurement were less than 0.010 WL was reasonable. There was about a 28% probability that the RPISU annual average would be less than 0.015 WL if the five-minute measurement were 0.033 WL, indicating that the procedure of performing an engineering assessment if the average of two five-minute measurements was greater than 0.033 WL was also reasonable. Comparison indicates that the average of two RPISU measurements taken six months apart would provide a dependable estimate of the annual average

  18. Dipolarization Fronts from Reconnection Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnov, M. I.; Swisdak, M. M.; Merkin, V. G.; Buzulukova, N.; Moore, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Dipolarization fronts observed in the magnetotail are often viewed as signatures of bursty magnetic reconnection. However, until recently spontaneous reconnection was considered to be fully prohibited in the magnetotail geometry because of the linear stability of the ion tearing mode. Recent theoretical studies showed that spontaneous reconnection could be possible in the magnetotail geometries with the accumulation of magnetic flux at the tailward end of the thin current sheet, a distinctive feature of the magnetotail prior to substorm onset. That result was confirmed by open-boundary full-particle simulations of 2D current sheet equilibria, where two magnetotails were separated by an equilibrium X-line and weak external electric field was imposed to nudge the system toward the instability threshold. To investigate the roles of the equilibrium X-line, driving electric field and other parameters in the reconnection onset process we performed a set of 2D PIC runs with different initial settings. The investigated parameter space includes the critical current sheet thickness, flux tube volume per unit magnetic flux and the north-south component of the magnetic field. Such an investigation is critically important for the implementation of kinetic reconnection onset criteria into global MHD codes. The results are compared with Geotail visualization of the magnetotail during substorms, as well as Cluster and THEMIS observations of dipolarization fronts.

  19. Intergenerational abortion tendency between mothers and teenage daughters: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Farrugia, M Michèle; Vigod, Simone N; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G

    2018-01-29

    A teenage woman's sexual health practices may be influenced by her mother's experience. We evaluated whether there is an intergenerational tendency for induced abortion between mothers and their teenage daughters. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study involving daughters born in Ontario between 1992 and 1999. We evaluated the daughters' data for induced abortions between age 12 years and their 20th birthday. We assessed each mother's history of induced abortion for the period from 4 years before her daughter's birth to 12 years after (i.e., when her daughter turned 12 years of age). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate a daughter's risk of having an induced abortion in relation to the mother's history of the same procedure. We adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for maternal age and world region of origin, mental or physical health problems in the daughter, mother- daughter cohabitation, neighbourhood-level rate of teen induced abortion, rural or urban residence, and income quintile. A total of 431 623 daughters were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability of teen induced abortion was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8%-10.4%) among daughters whose mother had an induced abortion, and 4.2% (95% CI 4.1%-4.3%) among daughters whose mother had no induced abortion, for an adjusted HR of 1.94 (95% CI 1.86-2.01). The adjusted HR of a teenaged daughter having an induced abortion in relation to number of maternal induced abortions was 1.77 (95% CI 1.69-1.85) with 1 maternal abortion, 2.04 (95% CI 1.91-2.18) with 2 maternal abortions, 2.39 (95% CI 2.19-2.62) with 3 maternal abortions and 2.54 (95% CI 2.33-2.77) with 4 or more maternal abortions, relative to none. We found that the risk of teen induced abortion was higher among daughters whose mother had had an induced abortion. Future research should explore the mechanisms for intergenerational induced abortion. © 2018 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  20. Hydrodynamic stability theory of double ablation front structures in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez Vico, C.

    2012-11-01

    For moderate-Z materials, the hydrodynamic structure of the ablation region formed by the irradiation of high intensity laser beams differs from that of low-Z materials (hydrogenic ablators). In particular, the role played by the radiative energy flux becomes non-negligible for increasing atomic number material and ended up forming a second ablation front. This structure of two separated ablation fronts, called double ablation (DA) front, was confirmed in the simulations carried out by Fujioka et al. In this work a linear stability theory of DA fronts is developed for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Two models are proposed. First, a sharp boundary model where the thin front approximation is assumed for both ablation fronts. The information about the corona region that permits to close the sharp boundary model is obtained from a prior self-consistent analysis of the electronic-radiative ablation (ERA) front. Numerical results are presented as well as an analytical approach for the radiation dominated regime of very steep double ablation front structure. Second, a self-consistent numerical method where the finite length of the ablation fronts is considered. Accurate hydrodynamic profiles are taken into account in the theoretical model by means of a fitting parameters method using one-dimensional simulation results. Numerical dispersion relation is compared to the analytical sharp boundary model showing an excellent agreement for the radiation dominated regime, and the stabilization due to smooth profiles. 2D simulations are presented to validate the linear stability theory

  1. Conversion of electromagnetic waves at the ionisation front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegotov, M V

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that a weak electromagnetic pulse interacting with a copropagating ionisation front is converted in the general case into three electromagnetic pulses with higher and lower frequencies, which propagate in different directions. The coefficients of conversion to these pulses (for intensities) were found as functions of the frequency. The electromagnetic energy is shown to decrease during this conversion because of the losses for the residual electron energy. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  2. Front-end data processing the SLD data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, B.S.

    1986-07-01

    The data acquisition system for the SLD detector will make extensive use of parallel at the front-end level. Fastbus acquisition modules are being built with powerful processing capabilities for calibration, data reduction and further pre-processing of the large amount of analog data handled by each module. This paper describes the read-out electronics chain and data pre-processing system adapted for most of the detector channels, exemplified by the central drift chamber waveform digitization and processing system

  3. A Full Front End Chain for Drift Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarello, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Corvaglia, A.; Grancagnolo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Panareo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Pepino, A., E-mail: aurora.pepino@le.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Primiceri, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Tassielli, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois (United States); Università Marconi, Roma (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    We developed a high performance full chain for drift chamber signals processing. The Front End electronics is a multistage amplifier board based on high performance commercial devices. In addition a fast readout algorithm for Cluster Counting and Timing purposes has been implemented on a Xilinx-Virtex 4 core FPGA. The algorithm analyzes and stores data coming from a Helium based drift tube and represents the outcome of balancing between efficiency and high speed performance.

  4. The 3He spectral function in light-front dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A distorted spin-dependent spectral function for 3He is considered for the extraction of the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions in the neutron from semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized 3He at finite momentum transfers, where final state interactions are taken into account. The generalization of the analysis to a Poincaré covariant framework within the light-front dynamics is outlined.

  5. Front Propagation in Stochastic Neural Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effects of extrinsic multiplicative noise on front propagation in a scalar neural field with excitatory connections. Using a separation of time scales, we represent the fluctuating front in terms of a diffusive-like displacement (wandering) of the front from its uniformly translating position at long time scales, and fluctuations in the front profile around its instantaneous position at short time scales. One major result of our analysis is a comparison between freely propagating fronts and fronts locked to an externally moving stimulus. We show that the latter are much more robust to noise, since the stochastic wandering of the mean front profile is described by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process rather than a Wiener process, so that the variance in front position saturates in the long time limit rather than increasing linearly with time. Finally, we consider a stochastic neural field that supports a pulled front in the deterministic limit, and show that the wandering of such a front is now subdiffusive. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  6. The daughter centriole controls ciliogenesis by regulating Neurl-4 localization at the centrosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukil, Abdelhalim; Tormanen, Kati

    2017-01-01

    The two centrioles of the centrosome differ in age and function. Although the mother centriole mediates most centrosome-dependent processes, the role of the daughter remains poorly understood. A recent study has implicated the daughter centriole in centriole amplification in multiciliated cells, but its contribution to primary ciliogenesis is unclear. We found that manipulations that prevent daughter centriole formation or induce its separation from the mother abolish ciliogenesis. This defect was caused by stabilization of the negative ciliogenesis regulator CP110 and was corrected by CP110 depletion. CP110 dysregulation may be caused by effects on Neurl-4, a daughter centriole–associated ubiquitin ligase cofactor, which was required for ciliogenesis. Centrosome-targeted Neurl-4 was sufficient to restore ciliogenesis in cells with manipulated daughter centrioles. Interestingly, early during ciliogenesis, Neurl-4 transiently associated with the mother centriole in a process that required mother–daughter centriole proximity. Our data support a model in which the daughter centriole promotes ciliogenesis through Neurl-4–dependent regulation of CP110 levels at the mother centriole. PMID:28385950

  7. Biological effects of daily inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.F.; Stuart, B.O.; Filipy, R.E.

    1973-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters, C57BL mice, and specific-pathogen-free rats were exposed simultaneously in groups of 16 animals each for 90 hours per week to aerosols consisting of radon plus 3000--6000 Working Levels of radon-daughters with and without 18 mg/m 3 carnotite uranium ore dust. Condensation nuclei concentrations ranged from 2000--4000 per ml and from 90,000--120,000 per ml in the chamber without and with uranium ore dust, respectively. At 4 months of exposure only one of the rodents remained alive. Histopathology of radon-daughter exposed mice includes acute interstitial pneumonitis, severe pulmonary congestion, and supperative rhinitis; mice inhaling radon-daughters with ore showed these lesions plus macrophage proliferation, alveolar septal cell hyperplasia, and bronchial epithelial hyperplasia. Hamsters inhaling radon-daughters showed proliferating lesions characterized by alveolar septal thickening, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, septal fibrosis, and occasionally adenomatoid metaplasia and squamous metaplasia. Hamsters inhaling radon-daughters with ore dust showed similar effects plus granulomatous response and intense septal fibrosis. Rats inhaling radon-daughters showed lesions similar to those of hamsters but more focalized with classic radiation pneumonitis; rats exposed to radon-daughters with ore showed similar lesions, with greater consolidation and pneumoconiosis. These findings will be discussed in relation to pulmonary pathology in uranium miners

  8. Biomedical applications of radionuclide generators with equal decay constants for parent and daughter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to an article by Spencer and Hosain (Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isotopes; 27:57 (1976)) on the theoretical aspects of radionuclide generator systems in which the parent and daughter nuclides have equal decay constants in which it was suggested that 'it would be possible to use an appropriate chemical compound of a parent and introduce it in a biological system to study the behaviour of the daughter element'. It is here pointed out that this suggestion assumes that in any biological system the daughter radionuclide produced by the decay of the parent nuclide in vivo will readily enter the general 'metabolic' pool of the daughter element. However studies are cited which have shown that virtually all the daughter radionuclide in many such systems remain within the skeleton and thus it is asserted that the assumption that a daughter radionuclide produced by the decay of a parent nuclide in vivo provides a true tracer for the behaviour of the daughter element is not generally valid, and considerable caution would have to be used in the interpretation of results obtained by this type of study. In a reply, the original authors say that the point made is germane but that the concept was well known to them and hence the use of the expression 'an appropriate chemical compound of a parent...' in their original paper. (U.K.)

  9. Technical evaluation of a radon daughter continuous monitor in an underground uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Grenier, M.

    1982-07-01

    An evaluation of a radon daughter monitor was carried out in an underground uranium mine. The monitor operates on continuous sampling and time integrating principles. Experimental and theoretical data were compared. Experimental results show that the monitor underestimates the Working Level, a fact which is partly attributed to plate-out of decay products in the monitor sampling head. However, a correction factor experimentally determined by standard calibration procedures can be programmed into the monitor to take into account losses by plate-out and other losses. Although the monitor was originally designed for radon daughters, it can equally be used in thoron daughter atmospheres and radon daughter/thoron daughter mixtures such as those encountered in some Canadian uranium mines. An analytical procedure is outlined to allow the calculation of Working Levels in radon daughter/thoron daughter atmospheres from the monitor α-count rate. The memory capability of the monitor should make it quite useful and flexible in underground and surface environments in the uranium mining industry

  10. Young Daughter Cladodes Affect CO2 Uptake by Mother Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIMIENTA-BARRIOS, EULOGIO; ZAÑUDO-HERNANDEZ, JULIA; ROSAS-ESPINOZA, VERONICA C.; VALENZUELA-TAPIA, AMARANTA; NOBEL, PARK S.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. • Methods Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. • Key Results Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. • Conclusions Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM. PMID:15567805

  11. An exploratory study of mother-daughter physicians: an intergenerational comparison of professional and personal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Diane K; Shrier, Lydia A

    2005-12-01

    Physician daughters of physician mothers may experience unique advantages in their career development and in combining career and family. The objective of this exploratory study, the first on mother-daughter physicians, was to compare the professional and personal characteristics of physician mothers and their physician daughters. Two hundred fourteen families with at least one mother-daughter physician pair were identified through a nationwide search; 84% of the mothers and 87% of the daughters contacted returned a 56-item questionnaire. Data were analyzed to compare professional and personal characteristics of the subset of mothers and daughters who had both responded (n = 136 pairs). Compared to their physician mothers, physician daughters were less satisfied with their career, less likely to feel in control of their work environment, more likely to report moderate or severe daily stress at work, and less likely to want their children to become physicians or to want to become physicians again if they were to relieve their lives. They were also less likely to want to change specialties. Physician daughters were more likely than their physician mothers to be 30 years or older when they had their first child, to have taken parental leave, and to have a spouse who took parental leave and less likely to experience their caregiving as a hindrance to their professional work and advancement. Despite the availability of a physician mother role model, physician daughters reported less career satisfaction and more work-related stress than their physician mothers. These findings warrant further exploration and support the need for new work-family paradigms in medicine.

  12. The upgraded Tevatron front end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, M.; Zagel, J.; Smith, P.; Marsh, W.; Smolucha, J.

    1990-01-01

    We are replacing the computers which support the CAMAC crates in the Fermilab accelerator control system. We want a significant performance increase, but we still want to be able to service scores of different varieties of CAMAC cards in a manner essentially transparent to console applications software. Our new architecture is based on symmetric multiprocessing. Several processors on the same bus, each running identical software, work simultaneously at satisfying different pieces of a console's request for data. We dynamically adjust the load between the processors. We can obtain more processing power by simply plugging in more processor cards and rebooting. We describe in this paper what we believe to be the interesting architectural features of the new front-end computers. We also note how we use some of the advanced features of the Multibus TM II bus and the Intel 80386 processor design to achieve reliability and expandability of both hardware and software. (orig.)

  13. Le front oriental de Lille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Poncelet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available De la porte d’eau de la Basse Deûle jusqu’au fort Saint-Sauveur, le front oriental de Lille, fortifié à l’époque espagnole, glisse ses courtines dans les entrelacs du périphérique et des gares. L’enjeu urbain actuel consiste à s’appuyer sur ces murs historiques pour « passer malgré tout » à travers cet écheveau urbain et retisser les fils de la continuité des promenades au cœur de la ville. Moins connus que le front occidental de la reine des citadelles, ces anciens espaces militaires sont une chance pour l’urbanisme de demain dont les opérations en cours de la Porte de Gand et de la Basse Deûle témoignent déjà.The east wall, at Lille, fortified during the period of Spanish occupation, extends from the Porte d'Eau de la Basse-Deûle to the Saint-Sauveur fort. Its curtain walls emerge today in a landscape of ring roads and railway territories. The issue today is to profit from these historic walls in order to make some sense of the urban chaos and to reinstate some urban continuity in the city-centre walkways. Although they are not as well known as the western wall of this major fortified city, these former military properties are an exciting opportunity for tomorrow's town-planners, as the operations already underway at the Porte de Gand et de la Basse Deûle suggest.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the control of indoor radon daughter levels in new structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, J.E. Jr.; Guimond, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of its assessment of the radiological impact of the phosphate industry in Florida, the US Environmental Protection Agency has surveyed residences built atop uraniferous reclaimed phosphate mining land. These surveys have shown elevated radon daughter levels to exist in structures built on this land. In order to allow safer use of this land for residential construction, various state-of-the-art radon daughter control technologies were evaluated by the Agency. These included forced ventilation, polymeric sealants, excavation, crawl space construction, and improved slab quality. From a cost-effectiveness evaluation, improved slab quality and crawl space construction were determined to best satisfy the criteria for optimal radon daughter control

  15. Radon daughter exposure estimation and its relation to the exposure limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1981-10-01

    Under current Atomic Energy Control Regulations, the annual limit for individual exposure to radon daughters is 4 WLM. The Regulations do not specify how the exposure is to be determined nor to what accuracy the measurements should be made. This paper discusses the historical and conventional grab-sampling and time-weighting methods for assigning exposures to radon daughters in uranium mines in Canada. As a further step in the evolution of exposure assignments, the system of personal radon daughter dosimetry is introduced as the more accurate means of assigning individual exposures and of adhering to the intent of the exposure limit

  16. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Rogers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  17. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, C T; Prior, G; Gilardoni, S; Neuffer, D; Snopok, P; Alekou, A; Pasternak, J

    2013-01-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  18. UK standards for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has issued formal advice on the standards to be adopted in the UK for control of exposures to radon daughters in existing dwellings and for changes in building procedures for future dwellings. The standards are based on those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but adapted to circumstances in the United Kingdom. The matters taken into account by the Board when formulating its advice include the conversion from measured concentrations of radon to effective dose equivalent and the implied levels of risk, the comparison of these levels with risks from other causes, the numbers of dwellings in which various annual doses are likely to be exceeded, the geographical distribution of these dwellings, the likely costs and effectiveness of various remedial measures and the degree of domestic disruption. The action level for existing dwellings selected by the Board was the same, 20 mSv per annum, as that recommended by the ICRP, but the upper bound for new dwellings of 5 mSv per annum was lower than that suggested by the ICRP

  19. UK standards for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has issued formal advice on the standards to be adopted in the UK for control of exposures to radon daughters in existing dwellings and for changes in building procedures for future dwellings. The standards are based on those recommended by the international commission on radiological protection but adapted to circumstances in the United Kingdom. The matters taken into account by the Board when formulating its advice, and which are discussed in the paper, include the conversion from measured concentrations of radon to effective dose equivalent and the implied levels of risk, the comparison of these levels with risks from other causes, the numbers of dwellings in which various annual doses are likely to be exceeded, the geographical distribution of these dwellings, the likely costs and effectiveness of various remedial measures and the degree of domestic disruption. The action level for existing dwellings selected by the Board was the same, 20 mSv per annum, as that recommended by the ICRP, but the upper bound for new dwellings of 5 mSv per annum was lower than that suggested by the ICRP [fr

  20. Transmitting Ainu traditional food knowledge from mothers to their daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki-Goodman, Masami

    2017-11-01

    Since 2004, research has been conducted in the Ainu Indigenous community of the Saru River Region of Biratori in Northern Japan examining traditional food use knowledge. The purpose was to improve the socio-cultural environment for the Ainu People by implementing interventions meant to reintroduce traditional Ainu food use, so that they can live with dignity and in harmony with non-Ainu people in the heterogeneous community where Japanese cultural values dominate. Ten years after the start of this research, a series of interviews was conducted with Ainu mothers and daughters active in the community to evaluate the result of the interventions because, in accordance with culturally established Ainu gender roles, the Ainu women prepare the Ainu dishes. The interviews indicated that the community of both Ainu and non-Ainu people shared traditional Ainu food as a communal food at community events organized by the Ainu members of the community. The people in the community now identify traditional Ainu dishes with Ainu names, indicating the establishment of culinary and linguistic boundaries between Ainu traditional food and mainstream Japanese food. This also signals that the Ainu People have begun to establish a basis for reconstructing their unique ethnic identity, once suppressed by the government's former assimilation policy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Phenomena associated with rain deposition of radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Since Rn daughter nuclides generated from Rn gas in the air are generally absorbed on aerosol, its radioactivities are apt to deposit onto the ground with raindrop. Here, the effects of raining on the radiation level were investigated. The amount of precipitation was determined using a highly sensitive rain gauge (the nominal sensitivity of 0.0043 mm) and air radioactive level was measured using a scintillation monitor of 2``{phi}x2``NaI(Tl) which was set at 1.5 m height above the ground. The rising of {gamma}-radiation level associated with rainfall was expressed as percentage of the base line activity. The radiation level increased depending on the intervals between the successive rainfalls and the increase of radioactivity from base line was greater when the rainfall interval was less than 12 hours. Therefore, the amount of radiation deposit was suggested to be small when the rainfall interval is short. Ordinarily, the increase of air radiation level caused by rain deposition was thought to be within a range of 20-50%. (M.N.)

  2. Fast Mechanically Driven Daughter Cell Separation Is Widespread in Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dividing cells of the coccoid Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus undergo extremely rapid (millisecond daughter cell separation (DCS driven by mechanical crack propagation, a strategy that is very distinct from the gradual, enzymatically driven cell wall remodeling process that has been well described in several rod-shaped model bacteria. To determine if other bacteria, especially those in the same phylum (Firmicutes or with similar coccoid shapes as S. aureus, might use a similar mechanically driven strategy for DCS, we used high-resolution video microscopy to examine cytokinesis in a phylogenetically wide range of species with various cell shapes and sizes. We found that fast mechanically driven DCS is rather rare in the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram positives, observed only in Staphylococcus and its closest coccoid relatives in the Macrococcus genus, and we did not observe this division strategy among the Gram-negative Proteobacteria. In contrast, several members of the high-G+C Gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Brachybacterium faecium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Mycobacterium smegmatis with diverse shapes ranging from coccoid to rod all undergo fast mechanical DCS during cell division. Most intriguingly, similar fast mechanical DCS was also observed during the sporulation of the actinobacterium Streptomyces venezuelae.

  3. Observation and modeling of 222Rn daughters in liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frodyma, N.; Pelczar, K.; Wójcik, M.

    2014-01-01

    The results of alpha spectrometric measurements of the activity of 222 Rn daughters dissolved in liquefied nitrogen are presented. A direct detection method of ionized alpha-emitters from the 222 Rn decay chain ( 214 Po and 218 Po) in a cryogenic liquid in the presence of an external electric field is shown. Properties of the radioactive ions are derived from a proposed model of ion production and transport in the cryogenic liquid. Ionic life-time of the ions was found to be on the order of 10 s in liquid nitrogen (4.0 purity class). The presence of positive and negative ions was observed. - Highlights: • A direct detection method of the alpha-emitters in a cryogenic liquid is shown. • We examine electrostatic drifting of the radioactive ions in liquid nitrogen. • The ions belong to the Radon-222 decay chain; Radon-222 is dissolved in the liquid. • The model of the ions production and behaviour in the liquid is proposed. • The ion production significantly depends on the nuclear decay type (alpha or beta)

  4. Maternal borderline personality disorder symptoms and parenting of adolescent daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Stepp, Stephanie D; Scott, Lori N; Whalen, Diana J; Beeney, Joseph F; Hipwell, Alison E

    2014-08-01

    Maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms are associated with poorer parenting. However, most studies conducted are with young children. In the current study, the authors examined associations between maternal BPD symptoms and parenting in an urban community sample of 15-to 17-year-old girls (n = 1,598) and their biological mothers. Additionally, the authors tested the impact of adolescent temperament on these associations. Mothers reported on their own psychopathology and their daughters' temperament. Adolescent girls reported on mothers' parenting methods in terms of psychological and behavioral control. Results demonstrated that maternal BPD symptoms were associated with aspects of psychological and behavioral control, even after controlling for maternal depression and alcohol use severity. After examining specific BPD components that may account for these associations, the authors found that affective/behavioral dysregulation, but not interpersonal dysregulation or identity disturbance, uniquely accounted for parenting. Adolescent temperament did not moderate these associations. BPD symptoms, particularly affective/behavioral dysregulation, are important targets when conducting parenting interventions.

  5. Occupational radon daughter exposure in underground workplaces in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Kolstad, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Occupational doses from radon daughter exposure in different underground environments in Norway have been estimated. Monitoring programs have been undertaken in mines, hydroelectric power stations, defence installations and tunnels. Based on these measurements the average effective dose equivalent and the corresponding collective effective dose equivalent have been estimated. Hydroelectric power stations is the largest group. In 1984 and 1985 measurements were performed in about 130 of the appr. 150 facilities in Norway. The average radon concentration was about 270 Bq/m 3 , and the corresponding average annual effective dose equivalent between 2 and 2.5 mSv. In 1984 there were about 19 mines in operations in Norway. Based on the measurements, the average radon concentration in mines is 260 Bq/m 3 , and the corresponding average annual effective dose equivalent 3.4 mSv. However, at the time being there are only 10 mines in operation and the number of miners has been reduced from about 1400 in 1984 to about 900 in 1990. The measurements show that the average level of radon in defence installations and tunnels is less than in mines and hydroelectric power stations. The total collective effective dose equivalent for workers underground in Norway is estimated in this paper to be between 5 and 7 manSv. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Do daughters really cause divorce? Stress, pregnancy, and family composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoudi, Amar; Nobles, Jenna

    2014-08-01

    Provocative studies have reported that in the United States, marriages producing firstborn daughters are more likely to divorce than those producing firstborn sons. The findings have been interpreted as contemporary evidence of fathers' son preference. Our study explores the potential role of another set of dynamics that may drive these patterns: namely, selection into live birth. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the characteristic female survival advantage may begin before birth. If stress accompanying unstable marriages has biological effects on fecundity, a female survival advantage could generate an association between stability and the sex composition of offspring. Combining regression and simulation techniques to analyze real-world data, we ask, How much of the observed association between sex of the firstborn child and risk of divorce could plausibly be accounted for by the joint effects of female survival advantage and reduced fecundity associated with unstable marriage? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we find that relationship conflict predicts the sex of children born after conflict was measured; conflict also predicts subsequent divorce. Conservative specification of parameters linking pregnancy characteristics, selection into live birth, and divorce are sufficient to generate a selection-driven association between offspring sex and divorce, which is consequential in magnitude. Our findings illustrate the value of demographic accounting of processes which occur before birth-a period when many outcomes of central interest in the population sciences begin to take shape.

  7. Daughter-Initiated Cancer Screening Appeals to Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, M; Genderson, M W

    2016-12-01

    Youth-initiated health interventions may provide a much needed avenue for intergenerational dissemination of health information among families who bear the greatest burden from unequal distribution of morbidity and mortality. The findings presented in this paper are from a pilot study of the feasibility and impact of female youth-initiated messages (mostly daughters) encouraging adult female relatives (mostly mothers) to obtain cancer screening within low-income African American families living in a Southern US state. Results are compared between an intervention and control group. Intervention group youth (n = 22) were exposed to a 60-min interactive workshop where they were assisted to prepare a factual and emotional appeal to their adult relative to obtain specific screening. The face-to-face workshops were guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Control group girls (n = 18) were only provided with a pamphlet with information about cancer screening and specific steps about how to encourage their relative to obtain screening. Intervention youth (86 %) and adults (82 %) reported that the message was shared while 71 % in the control group reported sharing or receiving the message. Importantly, more women in the intervention group reported that they obtained a screen (e.g., mammogram, Pap smear) directly based on the youth's appeal. These findings can have major implications for youth-initiated health promotion efforts, especially among hard-to-reach populations.

  8. Measurement of simulated lung deposition of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonassen, N.; Jensen, B.

    1992-01-01

    A measurement system for the lung deposition of radon daughters based on respiratory models was suggested by Hopke et al. By choosing suitable mesh size and flow velocities it is possible to design a multiple-wire screen sampler simulating deposition in the respiratory tract of aerosols over the size range 0.5-1000 nm. This paper describes a preliminary investigation where simulated deposition in the nasal tract and in the bronchii (for mouth breathing as well as nasal breathing) is determined. The measurements were performed in atmospheres where the normalised exposure rate (equilibrium factor) was varied by changing the aerosol loading of the air as well as by enhanced electrostatic plateout. The general results of the measurements are that the energy deposited in the nose with nasal breathing and in the bronchii with mouth breathing varies as the calculated dose while the energy deposited in the bronchii with nasal breathing follows the exposure. It is also demonstrated that the energy deposited for a fixed value of the radon concentration may vary by a factor of 2-7 depending on the treatment of the air. (author)

  9. From rockstar researcher to selfless mentor: a daughter's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Garsow, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Carlos Castillo-Chavez's tenure at Cornell University with Simon Levine, also marks the beginning of my life as his daughter. I was nine months old when I arrived to Ithaca, and my recollections of my father in elementary school and middle school were of him furiously writing equations at his desk, or outside on the chalk board in our shed, or on napkins, notepads or anything he could get his hands on at restaurants; but more likely than not, away. When I was young, my father was becoming the researcher that today makes him a three-time Presidential honoree, a member of Barak Obama's Presidential Committee on the National Medal of Science, and of course, the purpose of this volume. Even in those early days, he was away a lot--either traveling to conferences or increasingly as an invited lecturer, or at the office. Of course, I was still (and am) a daddy's little girl, bonded forever by a shared obsession with the same movies (The Godfather, My Name is Nobody, The Man from Snowy River); the same TV shows (Law and Order); and all things sports related, but I also knew that my father was a very busy man and his time was limited. So I would watch him work, often with my own little extra homework he would give me to keep me entertained, peck him on the check and let him know that I would take over his job when I was old enough.

  10. Some problems of parametric neutron activation analysis based on the use of radioactive daughters of longer-lived mothers with low mother/daughter half-life ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical and practical aspects of the use of radioactive daughters originated from the decay of longer-lived radioactive mothers in parametric activation analysis, when the ratio: mother half-life to daughter half-life is less than 10, are discussed. The mother-daughter relationships: 47 Ca/ 47 Sc; 95 Zr/ 95 Nb; 140 Ba/ 140 La; 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 115 Cd/ 115m In are selected as models for the study. The cases when the radionuclide of interest is formed through both direct and indirect routes are also analyzed. As illustrative example, the direct reaction and the reaction chain: 47 Ti(n,p) 47 Sc/ 46 Ca(n,γ) 47 Ca(β - ) 47 Sc are evaluated with respect to the determination of the elements involved and their reciprocal interferences. (author)

  11. New Technique for Barium Daughter Ion Identification in a Liquid Xe-136 Double Beta Decay Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbank, William

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses long-standing issues of fundamental interest in elementary particle physics. The most important outcome of this work is a new limit on neutrinoless double beta decay. This is an extremely rare and long-sought-after type of radioactive decay. If discovered, it would require changes in the standard model of the elementary constituents of matter, and would prove that neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same, a revolutionary concept in particle physics. Neutrinos are major components of the matter in the universe that are so small and so weakly interacting with other matter that their masses have not yet been discovered. A discovery of neutrinoless double beta decay could help determine the neutrino masses. An important outcome of the work on this project was the Colorado State University role in operating the EXO-200 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and in analysis of the data from this experiment. One type of double beta decay of the isotope "1"3"6Xe, the two-neutrino variety, was discovered in this work. Although the other type of double beta decay, the neutrinoless variety, was not yet discovered in this work, a world's best sensitivity of 1.9x10"2"5 year half-life was obtained. This result rules out a previous claim of a positive result in a different isotope. This work also establishes that the masses of the neutrinos are less than one millionth of that of electrons. A unique EXO-200 analysis, in which the CSU group had a leading role, has established for the first time ever in a liquid noble gas the fraction of daughter atoms from alpha and beta decay that are ionized. This result has important impact on other pending studies, including nucleon decay and barium tagging. Novel additional discoveries include multiphoton ionization of liquid xenon with UV pulsed lasers, which may find application in calibration of future noble liquid detectors, and studies of association and dissociation reactions of Ba"+ ions in gaseous xenon. Through

  12. Exploration the Supportive Needs and Coping Behaviors of Daughter and Daughter in-Law Caregivers of Stroke Survivors, Shiraz-Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamzadeh, Sakineh; Tengku Aizan, Hamid; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Hamidon, Basri; Rahimah, Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    The period of hospital stay and the first month after discharge have been found to be the most problematic stages for family caregivers of stroke survivors. It is just at home that patients and caregivers actually understand the whole consequences of the stroke. The adult offspring often have more different needs and concerns than spousal caregivers. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the needs of this particular group of caregivers. Therefore, this qualitative content analysis study aimed to explore the supportive needs and coping behaviors of daughter and daughter in-law caregivers (DILs) of stroke survivors one month after the patient's discharge from the hospital in Shiraz, Southern of Iran. This is a qualitative content analysis study using semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sampling of seventeen daughter and daughter in-law caregivers. The data revealed seven major themes including information and training, financial support, home health care assistance need, self-care support need, adjusting with the cultural obligation in providing care for a parent in-law, and need for improving quality of hospital care. Also, data from the interview showed that daughter and daughter in-law caregivers mostly used emotional-oriented coping strategies, specially religiosity, to cope with their needs and problems in their care-giving role. The results of this qualitative study revealed that family caregivers have several unmet needs in their care-giving role. By providing individualized information and support, we can prepare these family caregivers to better cope with the home care needs of stroke survivors and regain control over aspects of life.

  13. Lower hybrid waves at the shock front: a reassessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Walker

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary process occurring at a collisionless shock is the redistribution of the bulk upstream energy into other degrees of freedom. One part of this process results in the acceleration of electrons at the shock front. Accelerated electrons are observed at the terrestrial and other planetary shocks, comets, and their effects are observed in astrophysical phenomena such as supernova remnants and jets in the form of X-ray bremsstrahlung radiation. One of the physical models for electron acceleration at supercritical shocks is based on low-hybrid turbulence due to the presence of reflected ions in the foot region. Since lower hybrid waves propagate almost perpendicular to the magnetic field they can be simultaneously in resonance with both the unmagnetised ions (ω=Vik⊥ and magnetised electrons (ω=Vek||. In this paper, Cluster observations of the electric field are used to study the occurrence of lower hybrid waves in the front of the terrestrial bow shock. It is shown that the lower hybrid waves exist as isolated wave packets. However, the very low level of the observed lower hybrid turbulence is too small to impart significant energisation to the electron population.

  14. Lower hybrid waves at the shock front: a reassessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Walker

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary process occurring at a collisionless shock is the redistribution of the bulk upstream energy into other degrees of freedom. One part of this process results in the acceleration of electrons at the shock front. Accelerated electrons are observed at the terrestrial and other planetary shocks, comets, and their effects are observed in astrophysical phenomena such as supernova remnants and jets in the form of X-ray bremsstrahlung radiation. One of the physical models for electron acceleration at supercritical shocks is based on low-hybrid turbulence due to the presence of reflected ions in the foot region. Since lower hybrid waves propagate almost perpendicular to the magnetic field they can be simultaneously in resonance with both the unmagnetised ions (ω=Vik and magnetised electrons (ω=Vek||. In this paper, Cluster observations of the electric field are used to study the occurrence of lower hybrid waves in the front of the terrestrial bow shock. It is shown that the lower hybrid waves exist as isolated wave packets. However, the very low level of the observed lower hybrid turbulence is too small to impart significant energisation to the electron population.

  15. Concern as motivation for protection: an investigation of mothers' concern about daughters' breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Lindsay; Silk, Kami J; Yun, Doshik; Bowman, Nicholas David; Anderson, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    The present study surveyed mothers with daughters (N = 386) to investigate how mothers' concern about their daughters' breast cancer risk influenced intentions to engage in preventive behaviors. Using protection motivation theory as a framework, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and level of concern were posited to influence protective behavioral intention in distinct ways. Results from regression analyses indicate that self-efficacy, response efficacy, and mothers' concern are significant predictors of intentions to engage in preventive behaviors with daughters. In addition, a content analysis of mothers' open-ended reasons for their concern about their daughters' breast cancer risk yield a list of specific concerns and trends that vary by concern level and individual comment valence. The authors discuss implications for incorporating mothers' concerns into breast cancer prevention messages as a novel strategy for campaign designers.

  16. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscoe, R.J.; Steenland, K.; Halperin, W.E.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, are a continuing cause for concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the US Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of US veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality ratio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled

  17. The PHENIX Drift Chamber Front End Electroncs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancake, C.; Velkovska, J.; Pantuev, V.; Fong, D.; Hemmick, T.

    1998-04-01

    The PHENIX Drift Chamber (DC) is designed to operate in the high particle flux environment of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and provide high resolution track measurements. It is segmented into 80 keystones with 160 readout channels each. The Front End Electronics (FEE) developed to meet the demanding operating conditions and the large number of readout channels of the DC will be discussed. It is based on two application specific integrated circuits: the ASD8 and the TMC-PHX1. The ASD8 chip contains 8 channels of bipolar amplifier-shaper-discriminator with 6 ns shaping time and ≈ 20 ns pulse width, which satisfies the two track resolution requirements. The TMC-PHX1 chip is a high-resolution multi-hit Time-to-Digital Converter. The outputs from the ASD8 are digitized in the Time Memory Cell (TMC) every (clock period)/32 or 0.78 ns (at 40 MHz), which gives the intrinsic time resolution of the system. A 256 words deep dual port memory keeps 6.4 μs time history of data at 40 MHz clock. Each DC keystone is supplied with 4 ASD8/TMC boards and one FEM board, which performs the readout of the TMC-PHX1's, buffers and formats the data to be transmitted over the Glink. The slow speed control communication between the FEM and the system is carried out over ARCNET. The full readout chain and the data aquisition system are being tested.

  18. The control system for the CMS tracker front-end

    CERN Document Server

    Drouhin, F; Ljuslin, C; Maazouzi, C; Marchiero, A; Marinelli, N; Paillard, C; Siegrist, P; Tsirou, A L; Verdini, P G; Walsham, P; Zghiche, A

    2002-01-01

    The CMS Tracker uses complex, programmable embedded electronics for the readout of the Silicon sensors, for the control of the working point of the optical transmitters, for the phase adjustment of the 40 MHz LHC clock and for the monitoring of the voltages, currents and temperatures. In order to establish reliable, noise-free communication with the outside world the control chain has been designed to operate over a ribbon of optical fibers. The optical links, the Front End Controller board that carries their support electronics, the Clocking and Control Unit module receiving the signals over the high-speed link and fanning them out to the front- ends have recently become available. A multi-layered software architecture to handle these devices, and the front-ends, in a way transparent to the end-user, interfaced to an Oracle database for the retrieval of the parameters to be downloaded with the intent of building and operating a small-scale prototype of the control system for the CMS Tracker. The paper descri...

  19. Parents and Daughters in Two Novels by Arab American Authors: “Khalas, Let Her Go”

    OpenAIRE

    Ismet Bujupaj

    2016-01-01

    Multiple intersecting pressures bear upon immigrant parent-child, and especially immigrant mother-daughter relationships depicted in Randa Jarrar’s novel, A Map of Home, and Mohja Kahf ’s novel, The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf. Each of these novels is a Bildungsroman story, the protagonist of each being a budding artist. As the growing daughters struggle toward autonomy and parents react from complex pressures upon them, the reader gains insight on the interconnected structural and psychologi...

  20. Normal Pubertal Development in Daughters of Women With PCOS: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Gnatuk, Carol L; Estes, Stephanie J; Brindle, Eleanor; Vesper, Hubert W; Botelho, Julianne C; Lee, Peter A; Dodson, William C

    2017-01-01

    Daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are thought to be at increased risk for developing stigmata of the syndrome, but the ontogeny during puberty is uncertain. We phenotyped daughters (n = 76) of mothers with PCOS and daughters (n = 80) from control mothers for reproductive and metabolic parameters characteristic of PCOS. We performed a matched case/control study at Penn State Hershey Medical Center that included non-Hispanic, white girls 4 to 17 years old. We obtained birth history, biometric, ovarian ultrasounds, whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan for body composition, 2-hour glucose challenged salivary insulin levels, and two timed urinary collections (12 hours overnight and 3 hours in the morning) for gonadotropins and sex steroids. We measured integrated urinary levels of adrenal (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) and ovarian [testosterone (TT)] steroids. Other endpoints included integrated salivary insulin levels and urinary luteinizing hormone levels. There were no differences in detection rates or mean levels for gonadotropins and sex steroids in timed urinary collections between PCOS daughters and control daughters, nor were there differences in integrated salivary insulin levels. Results showed that 69% of Tanner 4/5 PCOS daughters vs 31% of control daughters had hirsutism defined as a Ferriman-Gallwey score >8 (P = 0.04). There were no differences in body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry between groups in the three major body contents (i.e., bone, lean body mass, and fat) or in ovarian volume between groups. Matched for pubertal stage, PCOS daughters have similar levels of urinary androgens and gonadotropins as well as glucose-challenged salivary insulin levels. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  1. Parental smoking during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes in the daughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Michels, Karin B; Tobias, Deirdre K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to parental smoking may have long-term impact on the development of disease in adulthood. We examined the association of parental smoking during pregnancy with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the daughter. METHODS: We included 15,665 singleton pregnancies....../day) during pregnancy was associated with higher risk of gestational diabetes in the daughter. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms....

  2. Second workshop on radon and radon daughters in urban communities associated with uranium mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A second meeting of Atomic Energy Control Board staff, federal and provincial government representatives, and consultants was held to discuss progress in reducing the concentrations of radon and its daughter products in houses in communities like Bancroft, Elliot Lake, Port Hope, and Uranium City. Participants discussed successful and unsuccessful remedial techniques, possible sources of radon, and methods of measuring radon and radon daughters in buildings

  3. Depression impacts the physiological responsiveness of mother–daughter dyads during social interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, Marlissa C.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Swartz, Holly A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal depression is associated with increased risk of psychiatric illness in offspring. While risk may relate to depressed mothers' difficulties regulating emotions in the context of interacting with offspring, physiological indicators of emotion regulation have rarely been examined during mother–child interactions—and never among mother–adolescent dyads in which both mother and adolescent have histories of major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods We examined changes in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), an indicator of parasympathetic (vagal) function that has been related to depression, stress, social engagement, and emotion regulation, in 46 mother–daughter dyads (23 in which both mother and daughter had an MDD history and 23 never-depressed controls). Hierarchical linear models evaluated changes in HF-HRV while mother–daughter dyads engaged in discussions about shared pleasant events and relationship conflicts. Results While control dyads displayed positive slopes (increases) in HF-HRV during both discussions, MDD dyads displayed minimal change in HF-HRV across discussions. Among controls, HF-HRV slopes were positively correlated between mothers and daughters during the pleasant events' discussion. In contrast, HF-HRV slopes were negatively correlated between MDD mothers and daughters during both discussions. Conclusions Vagal responses observed in control mother–daughter dyads suggest a pattern of physiological synchrony and reciprocal positive social engagement, which may play a role in adolescent development of secure social attachments and healthy emotion regulation. In contrast, MDD mothers and daughters displayed diminished and discordant patterns of vagal responsiveness. More research is needed to understand the development and consequences of these patterns of parasympathetic responses among depressed mother–daughter dyads. PMID:28060443

  4. Depression impacts the physiological responsiveness of mother-daughter dyads during social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, Marlissa C; Cyranowski, Jill M; Wright, Aidan G C; Swartz, Holly A

    2017-02-01

    Maternal depression is associated with increased risk of psychiatric illness in offspring. While risk may relate to depressed mothers' difficulties regulating emotions in the context of interacting with offspring, physiological indicators of emotion regulation have rarely been examined during mother-child interactions-and never among mother-adolescent dyads in which both mother and adolescent have histories of major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined changes in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), an indicator of parasympathetic (vagal) function that has been related to depression, stress, social engagement, and emotion regulation, in 46 mother-daughter dyads (23 in which both mother and daughter had an MDD history and 23 never-depressed controls). Hierarchical linear models evaluated changes in HF-HRV while mother-daughter dyads engaged in discussions about shared pleasant events and relationship conflicts. While control dyads displayed positive slopes (increases) in HF-HRV during both discussions, MDD dyads displayed minimal change in HF-HRV across discussions. Among controls, HF-HRV slopes were positively correlated between mothers and daughters during the pleasant events' discussion. In contrast, HF-HRV slopes were negatively correlated between MDD mothers and daughters during both discussions. Vagal responses observed in control mother-daughter dyads suggest a pattern of physiological synchrony and reciprocal positive social engagement, which may play a role in adolescent development of secure social attachments and healthy emotion regulation. In contrast, MDD mothers and daughters displayed diminished and discordant patterns of vagal responsiveness. More research is needed to understand the development and consequences of these patterns of parasympathetic responses among depressed mother-daughter dyads. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Love Relationships between Mother and Daughter in Beloved and Annie John

    OpenAIRE

    Kusumoto, Jitsuko; クスモト, ジツコ; 楠元, 実子

    2009-01-01

    For minority and female, especially young daughters such as Denver inBeloved by Toni Morrison, or Annie in Annie John by Jamaica Kincaid, itis difficult to build own identities under the suppression and the solitudethey face. For them, the love and affection from and to their mothersbecome a crucial factor in their mental growth. This paper focuses on thedevelopment of two daughters' identities though love relationships withtheir mothers. We will examine the characteristics of love and emotio...

  6. Time-dependent wave front propagation simulation of a hard x-ray split-and-delay unit: Towards a measurement of the temporal coherence properties of x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roling

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For the European x-ray free electron laser (XFEL a split-and-delay unit based on geometrical wavefront beam splitting and multilayer mirrors is built which covers the range of photon energies from 5 keV up to 20 keV. Maximum delays between Δτ=±2.5  ps at hν=20  keV and up to Δτ=±23  ps at hν=5  keV will be possible. Time-dependent wave-optics simulations have been performed by means of Synchrotron Radiation Workshop software for XFEL pulses at hν=5  keV. The XFEL radiation was simulated using results of time-dependent simulations applying the self-amplified spontaneous emission code FAST. Main features of the optical layout, including diffraction on the beam splitter edge and optics imperfections measured with a nanometer optic component measuring machine slope measuring profiler, were taken into account. The impact of these effects on the characterization of the temporal properties of XFEL pulses is analyzed. An approach based on fast Fourier transformation allows for the evaluation of the temporal coherence despite large wavefront distortions caused by the optics imperfections. In this way, the fringes resulting from time-dependent two-beam interference can be filtered and evaluated yielding a coherence time of τ_{c}=0.187  fs (HWHM for real, nonperfect mirrors, while for ideal mirrors a coherence time of τ_{c}=0.191  fs (HWHM is expected.

  7. Wave front sensing for next generation earth observation telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvit, J.-M.; Thiebaut, C.; Latry, C.; Blanchet, G.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution observations systems are highly dependent on optics quality and are usually designed to be nearly diffraction limited. Such a performance allows to set a Nyquist frequency closer to the cut off frequency, or equivalently to minimize the pupil diameter for a given ground sampling distance target. Up to now, defocus is the only aberration that is allowed to evolve slowly and that may be inflight corrected, using an open loop correction based upon ground estimation and refocusing command upload. For instance, Pleiades satellites defocus is assessed from star acquisitions and refocusing is done with a thermal actuation of the M2 mirror. Next generation systems under study at CNES should include active optics in order to allow evolving aberrations not only limited to defocus, due for instance to in orbit thermal variable conditions. Active optics relies on aberration estimations through an onboard Wave Front Sensor (WFS). One option is using a Shack Hartmann. The Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor could be used on extended scenes (unknown landscapes). A wave-front computation algorithm should then be implemented on-board the satellite to provide the control loop wave-front error measure. In the worst case scenario, this measure should be computed before each image acquisition. A robust and fast shift estimation algorithm between Shack-Hartmann images is then needed to fulfill this last requirement. A fast gradient-based algorithm using optical flows with a Lucas-Kanade method has been studied and implemented on an electronic device developed by CNES. Measurement accuracy depends on the Wave Front Error (WFE), the landscape frequency content, the number of searched aberrations, the a priori knowledge of high order aberrations and the characteristics of the sensor. CNES has realized a full scale sensitivity analysis on the whole parameter set with our internally developed algorithm.

  8. Stability of cosmological deflagration fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín

    2014-05-01

    In a cosmological first-order phase transition, bubbles of the stable phase nucleate and expand in the supercooled metastable phase. In many cases, the growth of bubbles reaches a stationary state, with bubble walls propagating as detonations or deflagrations. However, these hydrodynamical solutions may be unstable under corrugation of the interface. Such instability may drastically alter some of the cosmological consequences of the phase transition. Here, we study the hydrodynamical stability of deflagration fronts. We improve upon previous studies by making a more careful and detailed analysis. In particular, we take into account the fact that the equation of motion for the phase interface depends separately on the temperature and fluid velocity on each side of the wall. Fluid variables on each side of the wall are similar for weakly first-order phase transitions, but differ significantly for stronger phase transitions. As a consequence, we find that, for large enough supercooling, any subsonic wall velocity becomes unstable. Moreover, as the velocity approaches the speed of sound, perturbations become unstable on all wavelengths. For smaller supercooling and small wall velocities, our results agree with those of previous works. Essentially, perturbations on large wavelengths are unstable, unless the wall velocity is higher than a critical value. We also find a previously unobserved range of marginally unstable wavelengths. We analyze the dynamical relevance of the instabilities, and we estimate the characteristic time and length scales associated with their growth. We discuss the implications for the electroweak phase transition and its cosmological consequences.

  9. Stability of cosmological detonation fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín

    2014-05-01

    The steady-state propagation of a phase-transition front is classified, according to hydrodynamics, as a deflagration or a detonation, depending on its velocity with respect to the fluid. These propagation modes are further divided into three types, namely, weak, Jouguet, and strong solutions, according to their disturbance of the fluid. However, some of these hydrodynamic modes will not be realized in a phase transition. One particular cause is the presence of instabilities. In this work we study the linear stability of weak detonations, which are generally believed to be stable. After discussing in detail the weak detonation solution, we consider small perturbations of the interface and the fluid configuration. When the balance between the driving and friction forces is taken into account, it turns out that there are actually two different kinds of weak detonations, which behave very differently as functions of the parameters. We show that the branch of stronger weak detonations are unstable, except very close to the Jouguet point, where our approach breaks down.

  10. Up front in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A picture is drawn of the current supply side of the front-end fuel cycle production capacities in the CIS. Uranium production has been steadily declining, as in the West. Market realities have been reflected in local costs of production since the break-up of the former Soviet Union and some uneconomic mines have been closed. In terms of actual production, Kazakhstan, Russia and Uzbekistan, remain among the top five uranium producers in the world. Western government action has been taken to restrict the market access for natural uranium from the CIS. Reactors in the CIS continue to be supplied with fabricated fuel solely by Russian, though Western fuel fabricators have reduced Russian supplies to Eastern Europe. Russia's current dominance in conversion and enrichment services in both the CIS and Eastern Europe is likely to continue as long as the present surplus low enriched uranium stocks last and surplus production capacity exists. Market penetration in the West has been limited by government action but Russia in 1993 still held about 20% of the world's conversion market and nearly 19% of the enrichment market. (6 figures, 2 tables, 4 references) (UK)

  11. Application of up-front licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, S.D.; Snell, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    AECL has been pioneering 'up-front' licensing of new reactor designs. The CANDU 3 design has been formally reviewed by AECB staff for a number of years. The CANDU 9 design has just started the up-front licensing process. The process gives designers, regulators and potential customers early confidence in the licensability of future plants. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Application of up-front licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, S D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Snell, V G [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    AECL has been pioneering `up-front` licensing of new reactor designs. The CANDU 3 design has been formally reviewed by AECB staff for a number of years. The CANDU 9 design has just started the up-front licensing process. The process gives designers, regulators and potential customers early confidence in the licensability of future plants. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Through the EU's Back and Front Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen......Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen...

  14. Control of a laser front wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaoka, K.; Wakaida, I.

    1996-01-01

    We controlled the laser wave front through a laser beam simulation experiment propagating through medium. Thus, we confirmed that the RMS, defined as the quadratic mean of the laser beam wave front, dropped to the 1/3 - 1/6 of the pre-control value

  15. Nuclear Physics on the Light Front

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    High energy scattering experiments involving nuclei are typically analyzed in terms of light front variables. The desire to provide realistic, relativistic wave functions expressed in terms of these variables led me to try to use light front dynamics to compute nuclear wave functions. The progress is summarized here.

  16. Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1982-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed

  17. End-Users, Front Ends and Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Donna E.

    1989-01-01

    The increase in end-user searching, the advantages and limitations of front ends, and the role of the librarian in end-user searching are discussed. It is argued that librarians need to recognize that front ends can be of benefit to themselves and patrons, and to assume the role of advisors and educators for end-users. (37 references) (CLB)

  18. Domestic and personal determinants of the contamination of individuals by household radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Kardatzke, D.R.; Toohey, R.E.; Essling, M.E.; Pagnamenta, A.

    1986-01-01

    Radon daughters were counted by gamma spectroscopy from 180 adult residents of eastern Pennsylvania during the winter of 1983-84. Body radon daughter contamination is an index of relative individual respiratory exposures to radon daughters. These can be related to household radon levels, and to personal risk factors such as sex and tobacco smoking. Over 75% of this Pennsylvania population appeared to have environmentally enhanced radon daughter contamination; 59% had counting rates greater than 2 s.d. above background. House radon levels were the major determinants of radon daughters contamination in the 112 subjects for which both sets of measurements were available (p<.001). Both sex (<.02) and cigarette smoking (p<.005) were found to significantly modify that relationship, after nonlinear adjustment for travel times. Using a logarithmic model, for a given radon level body contamination by radon daughters in females was 2-3.5x higher than in males. Nonsmokers had 2-4x higher levels of contamination than smokers. For female nonsmokers relative to male smokers (which in general corresponds to the population of major concern relative to the population from which risk estimates have been derived), the excesses multiply. These results are for total contamination, both internal and external

  19. Contribution of radon in natural gas to the dose from aiborne radon-daughters in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.J.; Moore, R.E.; Rohwer, P.S.

    1973-01-01

    Data have been obtained on the radon concentration in natural gas supplied to several metropolitan areas in the United States. The average value of 20 pCi/l was selected to estimate the contribution of this source of natural radioactivity to doses from radon-daughters received by individuals in homes. Radon-daughter concentrations in the home atmosphere were calculated by use of computer programs for an 8000 ft 3 house in which 27 ft 3 of gas per day was used for cooking in an unvented kitchen range. The total estimated dose to the bronchial epithelium included contributions from radon plus daughters in the outside ventilation air, each of which was assumed to be present at a concentration of 0.13 pCi/l, and from the radon plus daughters in the natural gas. The latter contribution averaged approximately 3 percent of the total dose. There was a 3.5 percent decrease in the estimated total dose when the air change rate increased from 0.25 to 2.0 per hour. We conclude that radon and radon-daughters entering the home with natural gas produce a negligible fraction of the total dose to the respiratory system of home occupants from airborne radon-daughters

  20. Like daughter, like son? Fertility decline and the transformation of gender systems in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keera Allendorf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND An important question for population research is whether fertility decline transforms gender systems. OBJECTIVE This paper contributes to answering this broad question by examining how fertility decline may change the relative value and roles of daughters versus sons in families. First, I outline theoretical pathways, suggesting that a key factor is the gender composition of families. As fertility declines, the proportion of families with children of only one gender increases, which may facilitate greater gender symmetry between daughters and sons. Second, I explore how fertility decline may be transforming the relative value and roles of sons and daughters in practice in one place. METHODS The analysis draws primarily on semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents living in one Indian village. RESULTS In recent decades, fertility has declined to at least replacement levels. Respondents also perceive changes in the gender system, including less son preference, more equal schooling for sons and daughters, more freedom in marriage and pre-marital relationships, and perhaps greater daughter support of parents in old age. CONCLUSIONS The results describe changes in the relative value, treatment, and behavior of sons and daughters that are consistent with the theorized effects of fertility decline. Future research is needed, however, to determine whether fertility decline makes a unique causal contribution to changes in the gender system.