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Sample records for frontal dysfunction underlies

  1. Frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related β-amyloid accumulation by chronic sleep restriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyi; Wu, Huijuan; He, Jialin; Zhuang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Yang; Huang, Liuqing; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2016-08-17

    Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by mitochondria-related β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is increasingly being considered a novel risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. The close relationship between chronic sleep restriction (CSR) and cortical Aβ elevation was confirmed recently. By assessing frontal cortical mitochondrial function (electron microscopy manifestation, cytochrome C oxidase concentration, ATP level, and mitochondrial membrane potential) and the levels of mitochondria-related Aβ in 9-month-old adult male C57BL/6J mice subjected to CSR and as an environmental control (CO) group, we aimed to evaluate the association of CSR with mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related Aβ accumulation. In this study, frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction was significantly more severe in CSR mice compared with CO animals. Furthermore, CSR mice showed higher mitochondria-associated Aβ, total Aβ, and mitochondria-related β-amyloid protein precursor (AβPP) levels compared with CO mice. In the CSR model, mouse frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction was correlated with mitochondria-associated Aβ and mitochondria-related AβPP levels. However, frontal cortical mitochondria-associated Aβ levels showed no significant association with cortical total Aβ and mitochondrial AβPP concentrations. These findings indicated that CSR-induced frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related Aβ accumulation, which was closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction under CSR.

  2. Flexibility, inhibition, and planning : Frontal dysfunctioning in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, R; Brouwer, WH; de Jong, R; Slooff, C

    2000-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests known to reveal abnormalities in patients with frontal lobe damage were used to explore cognitive function in 20 chronic schizophrenic patients. Eleven control subjects, matched on age and NLV-IQ (NLV is the Dutch version of the NART) were also tested. No impairements of pla

  3. Changes in gait while backward counting in demented older adults with frontal lobe dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, Gilles; Kressig, Reto W; Assal, Frédéric; Herrmann, François R; Dubost, Véronique; Beauchet, Olivier

    2007-10-01

    Gait disorders caused by dementia have been associated with frontal lobe dysfunction. Dual-tasking is used to explore the involvement of cortical level in gait control. It has been shown that dual-task induced gait changes that could be related to (1) the efficiency of executive function, (2) the level of difficulty involved in the walking-associated task, or (3) the articulo-motor components comprised in the walking-associated task. A better understanding of dual-task related changes in demented subjects with frontal lobe dysfunction could help us to clarify the role of the frontal lobe in motor gait control. To assess and compare the effects of two mental arithmetic tasks involving similar articulo-motor components but different level of difficulty on the mean values and coefficient of variation (CV) of stride time among demented older adults with impaired executive function. The mean values and coefficients of variation of stride time were measured using a GAITRite-System among 16 demented older adults with impaired executive function while walking with and without forward counting (FC) and backward counting (BC). The mean values and CV of stride time were significantly higher under both dual-task conditions than during a simple walking task (p<0.05). The change in CV of stride time during BC was significantly higher when compared with the change during FC (p=0.015), whereas the change in mean value was not significant (p=0.056). There was no difference between the dual-task and single task condition as far the number of enumerated figures were concerned (p=0.678 for FC and p=0.069 for BC), but significantly fewer figures were enumerated while BC compared with FC (p<0.001). BC provoked more changes in gait parameters than FC with major modification in gait variability related to an inappropriate focusing of attention. These findings suggest that the CV may be a suitable criterion for the assessment of gait control.

  4. Executive Functioning and Dysfunctional Schema Modes in Individuals with Frontal Lobe Lesion and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy; Mega Case Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to investigate the executive functioning like selective attention, cognitive flexibility, processing speed and executive processing abilities in individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy by using a tool Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test [1]. The study also tried to explore emotional problems, cognitive state, specific behavioral responses and coping strategies of individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy. The present study was also designed to develop the reflective understanding of dysfunctional and healthy modes of individuals of frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy measure through Schema Mode Inventory Urdu version [2]. The sample of the present study consisted of 08 cases 04 cases related to frontal lobe lesion and 04 cases of temporal lobe epilepsy. Our finding indicated that the individuals of frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy were found significantly engaged in dysfunctional modes, such as Child Modes, Maladaptive and Punitive Parents Modes. On Stroop Test the Standard Deviation of individuals with frontal lobe lesion (74.18 and temporal lobe epilepsy (59.25 both the values are below the standard value (98 which shows the significant level. The Stroop Test measure executive functioning like selective attention executive processing, cognitive flexibility and inhibition control all these qualities are low and poor in individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy. The individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy were engaged in dysfunctional modes such as Child Modes, Maladaptive and Punitive Parent Modes are positively associated with executive functioning. Individuals with dysfunctional schema modes are lower score on Stroop test.

  5. Frontal brain dysfunction in alcoholism with and without antisocial personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Oscar-Berman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Marlene Oscar-Berman1,2, Mary M Valmas1,2, Kayle s Sawyer1,2, Shalene M Kirkley1, David A Gansler3, Diane Merritt1,2, Ashley Couture11Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Boston Campus, Boston, MA, USA; 2Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Suffolk University, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD often are comorbid conditions. Alcoholics, as well as nonalcoholic individuals with ASPD, exhibit behaviors associated with prefrontal brain dysfunction such as increased impulsivity and emotional dysregulation. These behaviors can influence drinking motives and patterns of consumption. Because few studies have investigated the combined association between ASPD and alcoholism on neuropsychological functioning, this study examined the influence of ASPD symptoms and alcoholism on tests sensitive to frontal brain deficits. The participants were 345 men and women. Of them, 144 were abstinent alcoholics (66 with ASPD symptoms, and 201 were nonalcoholic control participants (24 with ASPD symptoms. Performances among the groups were examined with Trails A and B tests, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, the Ruff Figural Fluency Test, and Performance subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Measures of affect also were obtained. Multiple regression analyses showed that alcoholism, specific drinking variables (amount and duration of heavy drinking, and ASPD were significant predictors of frontal system and affective abnormalities. These effects were different for men and women. The findings suggested that the combination of alcoholism and ASPD leads to greater deficits than the sum of each.  Keywords: alcoholism, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD, frontal brain system, neuropsychological deficits, reward system

  6. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...... retina pathologies, which can be classified as primary and secondary mitochondrial disorders. This review highlights the importance of oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA damage, underlying outer retinal disorders. Indeed, the metabolically active photoreceptors/RPE are highly prone to these hallmarks...... of mitochondrial dysfunction, indicating that mitochondria represent a weak link in the antioxidant defenses of outer retinal cells....

  7. Frontal dysfunctions of impulse control – a systematic review in borderline personality disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eSebastian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary function. Recent findings from behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies suggest related but dissociable components of impulse control along functional domains like selective attention, response selection, motivational control and behavioral inhibition. In addition, behavioral and neural dissociations are seen for proactive versus reactive inhibitory motor control. The prefrontal cortex with its sub-regions is the central structure in executing these impulse control functions. Based on these concepts of impulse control, neurobehavioral findings of studies in BPD and ADHD were reviewed and systematically compared. Overall, BPD patients exhibited prefrontal dysfunctions across impulse control components rather in orbitofrontal, dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, whereas ADHD patients displayed disturbed activity mainly in ventrolateral and medial prefrontal regions. Prefrontal dysfunctions, however, varied depending on the impulse control component and from disorder to disorder. This suggests a dissociation of impulse control related frontal dysfunctions in BPD and ADHD, although only few studies are hitherto available to assess frontal dysfunctions along different impulse control components in direct comparison of these disorders. Yet, these findings might serve as a hypothesis for the future systematic assessment of impulse control components to understand differences and commonalities of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in impulsive disorders.

  8. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal loading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Praveen Kumar Pinnoji; Puneet Mahajan

    2007-08-01

    Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam liner. The foam is taken as elasto-plastic, the brain is assumed to be viscoelastic and all other components are taken as elastic. The contact forces and coup pressures with helmet on the head are much lower than in the absence of the helmet. A parametric study was performed to investigate the effect of liner thickness and density on the contact forces, pressures and energy absorption during impact. For 4 ms-1 velocity, expanded poly styrene (EPS) foam of density 24 kg m-3 gave the lowest contact forces and for the velocities considered, thickness of the foam did not affect the contact forces.

  9. The utility of IFS (INECO Frontal Screening) for the detection of executive dysfunction in adults with bipolar disorder and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Perez, Ana; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo; Torralva, Teresa

    2014-05-15

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults share clinical symptoms. Both disorders present with executive functioning impairment. The detection of executive dysfunction usually requires the administration of an extensive neuropsychological battery. The Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO) Frontal Screening (IFS) is an efficient tool, which has been demonstrated to be useful for the detection of executive deficits in other diseases involving the prefrontal cortex. This study assessed the usefulness of the IFS in detecting the executive dysfunction of BD and ADHD adults, by means of a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis and a multigroup discriminant function analysis. Twenty-four BD, 25 ADHD patients and 25 controls were assessed with a battery that included the IFS and other measures of executive functioning. Our results showed that both patient groups performed significantly lower than controls on the IFS total score. Using a 27.5 point cut-off score, the IFS showed good sensitivity and acceptable specificity to detect executive impairments in BD and ADHD patients. The IFS discriminated between controls and each patient group more reliably than other executive functions measures. Our results suggest that this tool could be a useful instrument to assess executive functions in BD and ADHD patients.

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in rat frontal cortex by chronic NMDA administration can be partially prevented by lithium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helena K; Isaacs-Trepanier, Cameron; Elmi, Nika; Rapoport, Stanley I; Andreazza, Ana C

    2016-05-01

    Chronic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) administration to rats may be a model to investigate excitotoxicity mediated by glutamatergic hyperactivity, and lithium has been reported to be neuroprotective. We hypothesized that glutamatergic hyperactivity in chronic NMDA injected rats would cause mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and that chronic lithium treatment would ameliorate some of these NMDA-induced alterations. Rats treated with lithium for 6 weeks were injected i.p. 25 mg/kg NMDA on a daily basis for the last 21 days of lithium treatment. Brain was removed and frontal cortex was analyzed. Chronic NMDA decreased brain levels of mitochondrial complex I and III, and increased levels of the lipid oxidation products, 8-isoprostane and 4-hydroxynonenal, compared with non-NMDA injected rats. Lithium treatment prevented the NMDA-induced increments in 8-isoprostane and 4-hydroxynonenal. Our findings suggest that increased chronic activation of NMDA receptors can induce alterations in electron transport chain complexes I and III and in lipid peroxidation in brain. The NMDA-induced changes may contribute to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, which plays a role in brain diseases such as bipolar disorder. Lithium treatment prevented changes in 8-isoprostane and 4-hydroxynonenal, which may contribute to lithium's reported neuroprotective effect and efficacy in bipolar disorder.

  11. Frontal lobe dysfunctions in Korsakoff's syndrome and chronic alcoholism: Continuity or discontinuity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brokate, B.; Hildebrandt, H.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Fichtner, H.; Runge, K.; Timm, C.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of long-term heavy alcohol consumption on brain functions is still under debate. The authors investigated a sample of 17 Korsakoff amnesics, 23 alcoholics without Korsakoff's syndrome, and 21 controls with peripheral nerve diseases, matched for intelligence and education. Executive functi

  12. Executive Functioning and Dysfunctional Schema Modes in Individuals with Frontal Lobe Lesion and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy; Mega Case Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sabir Zaman

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to investigate the executive functioning like selective attention, cognitive flexibility, processing speed and executive processing abilities in individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy by using a tool Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test [1]. The study also tried to explore emotional problems, cognitive state, specific behavioral responses and coping strategies of individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy. The present stu...

  13. The frontal aslant tract underlies speech fluency in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a pathway that connects the inferior frontal gyrus with the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA. The FAT was recently identified and introduced as part of a "motor stream" that plays an important role in speech production. In this study, we use diffusion imaging to examine the hypothesis that the FAT underlies speech fluency, by studying its properties in individuals with persistent developmental stuttering, a speech disorder that disrupts the production of fluent speech. We use tractography to quantify the volume and diffusion properties of the FAT in a group of adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. Additionally, we use tractography to extract these measures from the corticospinal tract (CST), a well-known component of the motor system. We compute diffusion measures in multiple points along the tracts, and examine the correlation between these diffusion measures and behavioral measures of speech fluency. Our data show increased mean diffusivity in bilateral FAT of AWS compared with controls. In addition, the results show regions within the left FAT and the left CST where diffusivity values are increased in AWS compared with controls. Last, we report that in AWS, diffusivity values measured within sub-regions of the left FAT negatively correlate with speech fluency. Our findings are the first to relate the FAT with fluent speech production in stuttering, thus adding to the current knowledge of the functional role that this tract plays in speech production and to the literature of the etiology of persistent developmental stuttering.

  14. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses.

  15. Geophysical flows under location uncertainty, Part III: SQG and frontal dynamics under strong turbulence conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Resseguier, Valentin; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Models under location uncertainty are derived assuming that a component of the velocity is uncorrelated in time. The material derivative is accordingly modified to include an advection correction, inhomogeneous and anisotropic diffusion terms and a multiplicative noise contribution. This change can be consitently applied to all fluid dynamics evolution laws. This paper continues to explore benefits of this framework and consequences of specific scaling assumptions. Starting from a Boussinesq model under location uncertainty, a model is developed to describe a mesoscale flow subject to a strong underlying submesoscale activity. As obtained, the geostrophic balance is modified and the Quasi-Geostrophic (QG) assumptions remarkably lead to a zero Potential Vorticity (PV). The ensuing Surface Quasi-Geostrophic (SQG) model provides a simple diagnosis of warm frontolysis and cold frontogenesis.

  16. Computational Architecture of the Parieto-Frontal Network Underlying Cognitive-Motor Control in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Elena; Visco-Comandini, Federica; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2017-01-01

    The statistical structure of intrinsic parietal and parieto-frontal connectivity in monkeys was studied through hierarchical cluster analysis. Based on their inputs, parietal and frontal areas were grouped into different clusters, including a variable number of areas that in most instances occupied contiguous architectonic fields. Connectivity tended to be stronger locally: that is, within areas of the same cluster. Distant frontal and parietal areas were targeted through connections that in most instances were reciprocal and often of different strength. These connections linked parietal and frontal clusters formed by areas sharing basic functional properties. This led to five different medio-laterally oriented pillar domains spanning the entire extent of the parieto-frontal system, in the posterior parietal, anterior parietal, cingulate, frontal, and prefrontal cortex. Different information processing streams could be identified thanks to inter-domain connectivity. These streams encode fast hand reaching and its control, complex visuomotor action spaces, hand grasping, action/intention recognition, oculomotor intention and visual attention, behavioral goals and strategies, and reward and decision value outcome. Most of these streams converge on the cingulate domain, the main hub of the system. All of them are embedded within a larger eye–hand coordination network, from which they can be selectively set in motion by task demands. PMID:28275714

  17. Inferior frontal gyrus preserves working memory and emotional learning under conditions of impaired noradrenergic signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eBecker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compensation has been widely applied to explain neuroimaging findings in neuropsychiatric patients. Functional compensation is often invoked when patients display equal performance and increased neural activity in comparison to healthy controls. According to the compensatory hypothesis increased activity allows the brain to maintain cognitive performance despite underlying neuropathological changes. Due to methodological and pathology-related issues, however, the functional relevance of the increased activity and the specific brain regions involved in the compensatory response remain unclear. An experimental approach that allows a transient induction of compensatory responses in the healthy brain could help to overcome these issues. To this end we used the nonselective beta-blocker propranolol to pharmacologically induce sub-optimal noradrenergic signaling in healthy participants. In two independent fMRI experiments participants received either placebo or propranolol before they underwent a cognitive challenge (experiment 1: working memory; experiment 2: emotional learning: Pavlovian fear conditioning. In experiment 1 propranolol had no effects on working memory performance, but evoked stronger activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. In experiment 2 propranolol produced no effects on emotional memory formation, but evoked stronger activity in the right IFG. The present finding that sub-optimal beta-adrenergic signaling did not disrupt performance and concomitantly increased IFG activity is consistent with, and extends, current perspectives on functional compensation. Together, our findings suggest that under conditions of impaired noradrenergic signaling, heightened activity in brain regions located within the cognitive control network, particularly the IFG, may reflect compensatory operations subserving the maintenance of behavioral performance.

  18. 鼻内镜下额窦开放术治疗慢性额窦炎%Intranasal frontal sinusotomy under nasal en-doscope for chronic frontal sinusitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈昌德; 王文; 黄静江; 王传喜

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨鼻内镜下以钩突上端为标志开放额窦在治疗慢性额窦炎中的应用方法。方法:总结88例慢性额窦炎在鼻内镜下以钩突上端为标志开放额窦。术前仔细阅读鼻窦CT,了解额窦、额隐窝气房发育及病变情况、钩突附着方式,术中以钩突上端为标志准确定位额窦口,清除阻塞额窦口的病变组织,使额窦引流通畅。结果:88例以钩突上端为标志均成功找到额窦开口。术后随访6~12个月,全部病例症状消失或改善,无术后严重并发症发生。结论:鼻内镜下以钩突上端为标志开放额窦是一种解剖结构易辨认、安全有效的术式,适用于大多数额窦病变。%Objective:To explore the treatment methods for chronic frontal si-nusitis by using the mark access of superior attachment of the uncinate process to the frontal sinus .Methods:Eighty-eight patients with chronic fron-tal sinusitis undergone frontal sinus surgery were included .Before procedure , nasal CT findings were examined in great detail to fully understand the struc-ture and lesion condition of the frontal sinus and frontal recess cell as well as the attachment of the uncinate process .Intranasal frontal sinusotomy was per-formed by referring to the tip attachment of the unicinate process ,with remov-al of the diseased tissues around the aperture of frontal sinus to ensure open frontal sinus drainage .Results:Opening of the frontal sinus was successfully anchored in the total 88 cases by the approaches described above .Postopera-tive follow-up from 6 to 12 months showed that all patients had recovered or had partial relief , and no serious postoperative complications occurred . Conclusion:Intranasal frontal sinusotomy under endoscope starting with the superior attachment of the uncinate process ensures easy recognition of the anatomical characteristics of the frontal sinus and safe procedure ,which may be recommendation in most lesions at

  19. Left frontal cortex connectivity underlies cognitive reserve in prodromal Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Duering, Marco; Weiner, Michael; Dichgans, Martin; Ewers, Michael

    2017-03-14

    To test whether higher global functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex (LFC) in Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with more years of education (a proxy of cognitive reserve [CR]) and mitigates the association between AD-related fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET hypometabolism and episodic memory. Forty-four amyloid-PET-positive patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI-Aβ+) and 24 amyloid-PET-negative healthy controls (HC) were included. Voxel-based linear regression analyses were used to test the association between years of education and FDG-PET in MCI-Aβ+, controlled for episodic memory performance. Global LFC (gLFC) connectivity was computed through seed-based resting-state fMRI correlations between the LFC (seed) and each voxel in the gray matter. In linear regression analyses, education as a predictor of gLFC connectivity and the interaction of gLFC connectivity × FDG-PET hypometabolism on episodic memory were tested. FDG-PET metabolism in the precuneus was reduced in MCI-Aβ+ compared to HC (p = 0.028), with stronger reductions observed in MCI-Aβ+ with more years of education (p = 0.006). In MCI-Aβ+, higher gLFC connectivity was associated with more years of education (p = 0.021). At higher levels of gLFC connectivity, the association between precuneus FDG-PET hypometabolism and lower memory performance was attenuated (p = 0.027). Higher gLFC connectivity is a functional substrate of CR that helps to maintain episodic memory relatively well in the face of emerging FDG-PET hypometabolism in early-stage AD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. A Neuropsychological Examination of the Underlying Deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Frontal Lobe Versus Right Parietal Lobe Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Christine J.; Roberts, Ralph J., Jr.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined front and right parietal lobe theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); subjects were 10- to 14-year-old boys with or without ADHD. Found that non-ADHD boys performed better on frontal- and parietal-domain tasks than unmedicated ADHD boys, unmedicated AHDH boys had greater impairments on frontal than parietal tasks, and…

  1. Metabolic Dysfunction Underlying Autism Spectrum Disorder and Potential Treatment Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ning; Rho, Jong M.; Masino, Susan A.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in sociability and communication, and increased repetitive and/or restrictive behaviors. While the etio-pathogenesis of ASD is unknown, clinical manifestations are diverse and many possible genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. As such, it has been a great challenge to identify key neurobiological mechanisms and to develop effective treatments. Current therapies focus on co-morbid conditions (such as epileptic seizures and sleep disturbances) and there is no cure for the core symptoms. Recent studies have increasingly implicated mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. The fact that mitochondria are an integral part of diverse cellular functions and are susceptible to many insults could explain how a wide range of factors can contribute to a consistent behavioral phenotype in ASD. Meanwhile, the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD), used for nearly a century to treat medically intractable epilepsy, has been shown to enhance mitochondrial function through a multiplicity of mechanisms and affect additional molecular targets that may address symptoms and comorbidities of ASD. Here, we review the evidence for the use of metabolism-based therapies such as the KD in the treatment of ASD as well as emerging co-morbid models of epilepsy and autism. Future research directions aimed at validating such therapeutic approaches and identifying additional and novel mechanistic targets are also discussed. PMID:28270747

  2. Metabolic Dysfunction Underlying Autism Spectrum Disorder and Potential Treatment Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ning; Rho, Jong M; Masino, Susan A

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in sociability and communication, and increased repetitive and/or restrictive behaviors. While the etio-pathogenesis of ASD is unknown, clinical manifestations are diverse and many possible genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. As such, it has been a great challenge to identify key neurobiological mechanisms and to develop effective treatments. Current therapies focus on co-morbid conditions (such as epileptic seizures and sleep disturbances) and there is no cure for the core symptoms. Recent studies have increasingly implicated mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. The fact that mitochondria are an integral part of diverse cellular functions and are susceptible to many insults could explain how a wide range of factors can contribute to a consistent behavioral phenotype in ASD. Meanwhile, the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD), used for nearly a century to treat medically intractable epilepsy, has been shown to enhance mitochondrial function through a multiplicity of mechanisms and affect additional molecular targets that may address symptoms and comorbidities of ASD. Here, we review the evidence for the use of metabolism-based therapies such as the KD in the treatment of ASD as well as emerging co-morbid models of epilepsy and autism. Future research directions aimed at validating such therapeutic approaches and identifying additional and novel mechanistic targets are also discussed.

  3. Investigation of human frontal cortex under noxious thermal stimulation of temporo-mandibular joint using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennu, Amarnath; Rawat, Rohit; Manry, Michael T.; Gatchel, Robert; Liu, Hanli

    2013-03-01

    According to American Academy of Orofacial Pain, 75% of the U.S. population experiences painful symptoms of temporo-mandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD) during their lifetime. Thus, objective assessment of pain is crucial for efficient pain management. We used near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a tool to explore hemodynamic responses in the frontal cortex to noxious thermal stimulation of temporomadibular joint (TMJ). NIRS experiments were performed on 9 healthy volunteers under both low pain stimulation (LPS) and high pain stimulation (HPS), using a temperature-controlled thermal stimulator. To induce thermal pain, a 16X16 mm2 thermode was strapped onto the right TMJ of each subject. Initially, subjects were asked to rate perceived pain on a scale of 0 to 10 for the temperatures from 41°C to 47°C. For the NIRS measurement, two magnitudes of temperatures, one rated as 3 and another rated as 7, were chosen as LPS and HPS, respectively. By analyzing the temporal profiles of changes in oxy-hemoglobin concentration (HbO) using cluster-based statistical tests, we were able to identify several regions of interest (ROI), (e.g., secondary somatosensory cortex and prefrontal cortex), where significant differences (p<0.05) between HbO responses to LPS and HPS are shown. In order to classify these two levels of pain, a neural-network-based classification algorithm was used. With leave-one-out cross validation from 9 subjects, the two levels of pain were identified with 100% mean sensitivity, 98% mean specificity and 99% mean accuracy to high pain. From the receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.99 mean area under curve was observed.

  4. [Diagnostic dyspraxia and frontal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, A; Schmitt, A; Poncet, M

    1998-05-01

    A 27-year-old ambidexter woman experienced a clinical and psychometric frontal syndrome associated with a partial callosal syndrome following transcallosal surgery for an intraventricular neurocytoma. She also complained of difficulties with her left hand which realized a particular form of diagnostic dyspraxia: there were specific features of an isolated dysfunction of the control of the realization of a program.

  5. Frontal Sinus Patency after Extended Frontal Sinusotomy Type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbeygi, Mansour; Nadjafi, Ali; Amali, Amin; Saedi, Babak; Sadrehosseini, Seyed Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The surgical management of chronic frontal sinus disorders remains a challenge for rhinologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the result of Draf III in a series of patients who underwent this procedure. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients were included in this study. Demographic data, history of prior surgery, asthma, aspirin sensitivity and Lund–Mackay score were recorded. A visual analog scale was used for frontal-related symptoms. Patients were followed for a mean duration of 17.5 months and the patency of the frontal sinus ostium was closely monitored. Results: Fifteen patients with chronic frontal sinusitis, two patients with mucoceles, two with malignancy, and one with osteoma underwent Draf III. The mean symptoms score significantly decreased from 5.9 to 3. No ostial closure was seen in the follow-up period. Among 15 patients with chronic frontal sinusitis, 12 had patent ostia of whom three had significant stenosis. All patients with mucocele and osteoma had patent ostia in the follow-up period but patients with sinonasal malignancy showed significant stenosis. Conclusion: Draf III frontal sinusotomy is successful in alleviating patient symptoms and the frontal sinus neo-ostium will remain patent in long-term follow-up of most patients. Revision surgery will be required in some cases, which seems to be related to the nature of the underlying chronic sinus diseases. PMID:27738610

  6. Causes of Multiple Organ Dysfunction During Cardiosurgical Operations under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Babayev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal possible causes of postoperative multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS in patients after surgery under extracorporeal circulation (EC, by measuring the level and balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 162 patients who had undergone operations on the heart and thoracic aorta. The levels of interleukins (IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were determined by ELISA. Results. At surgery under EC, MODS was encountered in 5.7%, mortality was 55.6%. The principal causes of MODS were prolonged EC concurrent with bleeding (23%, massive hemorrhage (16%, perioperative myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock (15%, prolonged EC (12%, acute lung injury (12%, disseminated intravascular coagulation (10%, allergic and anaphylactic reactions (9%, and intravascular hemolysis (6%. The levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were substantially increased in all the patients after surgery under EC irrespective of the presence of MODS in the postoperative period. The patients with MODS displayed pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine imbalance due to a preponderance of the proinflammatory activity of a systemic response. During massive hemorrhage (more than 20 ml/kg, the patients with MODS exhibited a reduction in the two pools of cytokines. In the absence of MODS, there was a parallel increase in both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The magnitude of a change in the level of cytokines is related to the volume of blood loss. During prolonged EC (more than 170 min, the patients with MODS had a higher pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio due to the elevated levels of both pools, but the elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines was more pronounced. In the patients without MODS, the values of both groups of interleukins were sigmficantly unchanged with longer duration of EC. Key words: multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, systemic inflammatory reaction, interleukins 6, 8, 10

  7. Age-related dysfunctions of the autophagy lysosomal pathway in hippocampal pyramidal neurons under proteasome stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Elena; Pintado, Cristina; Gavilan, Maria P; Daza, Paula; Sánchez-Aguayo, Inmaculada; Castaño, Angélica; Ruano, Diego

    2015-05-01

    Autophagy plays a key role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, and autophagy deregulation gives rise to severe disorders. Many of the signaling pathways regulating autophagy under stress conditions are still poorly understood. Using a model of proteasome stress in rat hippocampus, we have characterized the functional crosstalk between the ubiquitin proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosome pathway, identifying also age-related modifications in the crosstalk between both proteolytic systems. Under proteasome inhibition, both autophagy activation and resolution were efficiently induced in young but not in aged rats, leading to restoration of protein homeostasis only in young pyramidal neurons. Importantly, proteasome stress inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β in young but activated in aged rats. This age-related difference could be because of a dysfunction in the signaling pathway of the insulin growth factor-1 under stress situations. Present data highlight the potential role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the coordination of both proteolytic systems under stress situation, representing a key molecular target to sort out this deleterious effect.

  8. Autonomic Dysfunction in Early Breast Cancer: Incidence, Clinical Importance, and Underlying Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. We will rev...

  9. Chronic ethanol intake modifies pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes under resting and K+ -stimulated conditions: role of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García-López, María Jesús; Carrera, María Pilar; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2008-07-04

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase (Pcp) is an omega peptidase that removes pyroglutamyl N-terminal residues of peptides such as thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is one of the neuropeptides that has been localized into many areas of the brain and acts as an endogenous neuromodulator of several parameters related to ethanol (EtOH) consumption. In this study, we analysed the effects of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity on mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and their corresponding supernatant under basal and K+ -stimulated conditions, in presence and absence of calcium (Ca2+) to know the regulation of Pcp on TRH. In basal conditions, chronic EtOH intake significantly decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+. However, supernatant Pcp activity is also decreased in presence and absence of calcium. Under K+-stimulated conditions, chronic EtOH intake decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+, whereas supernatant Pcp activity was significantly decreased only in presence of Ca2+. The general inhibitory effect of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity suggests an inhibition of TRH metabolism and an enhancement of TRH neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions, which could be related to putative processes of tolerance to EtOH in which TRH has been involved. Our data may also indicate that active peptides and their degrading peptidases are released together to the synaptic cleft to regulate the neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions of these peptides, through a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism.

  10. Oxytocin system dysfunction as a common mechanism underlying metabolic syndrome and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Dieset, Ingrid; Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Westlye, Lars T; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in using intranasal oxytocin (OT) to treat social dysfunction in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (i.e., psychotic disorders). While OT treatment results have been mixed, emerging evidence suggests that OT system dysfunction may also play a role in the etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which appears in one-third of individuals with psychotic disorders and associated with increased mortality. Here we examine the evidence for a potential role of the OT system in the shared risk for MetS and psychotic disorders, and its prospects for ameliorating MetS. Using several studies to demonstrate the overlapping neurobiological profiles of metabolic risk factors and psychiatric symptoms, we show that OT system dysfunction may be one common mechanism underlying MetS and psychotic disorders. Given the critical need to better understand metabolic dysregulation in these disorders, future OT trials assessing behavioural and cognitive outcomes should additionally include metabolic risk factor parameters.

  11. Cortical dysfunction underlies the development of the split-hand in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Parvathi; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The split-hand phenomenon, a specific feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), refers to preferential wasting of abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) with relative preservation of abductor digiti minimi (ADM). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the split-hand phenomenon remain elusive and resolution of this issue would provide unique insights into ALS pathophysiology. Consequently, the present study dissected out the relative contribution of cortical and peripheral processes in development of the split-hand phenomenon in ALS. Cortical and axonal excitability studies were undertaken on 26 ALS patients, with motor responses recorded over the APB, FDI and ADM muscles. Results were compared to 21 controls. Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), a biomarker of cortical excitability, was significantly reduced across the range of intrinsic hand muscles (APB(SICI ALS) 0.3±2.0%, APB(SICI controls) 16.0±1.9%, P<0.0001; FDI(SICI ALS) 2.7±1.7%, FDI(SICI controls) 14.8±1.9%, P<0.0001; ADM(SICI ALS) 2.6±1.5%, ADM(SICI controls) 9.7±2.2%, P<0.001), although the reduction was most prominent when recorded over APB/FDI. Changes in SICI were accompanied by a significant increase in motor evoked potential amplitude and reduction of cortical silent period duration, all indicative of cortical hyperexcitability, and these were most prominent from the APB/FDI. At a peripheral level, a significant increase in strength-duration time constant and reduction in depolarising threshold electrotonus were evident in ALS, although these changes did not follow a split-hand distribution. Cortical dysfunction contributed to development of the split-hand in ALS, thereby implying an importance of cortical hyperexcitability in ALS pathogenesis.

  12. Cortical dysfunction underlies the development of the split-hand in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi Menon

    Full Text Available The split-hand phenomenon, a specific feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, refers to preferential wasting of abductor pollicis brevis (APB and first dorsal interosseous (FDI with relative preservation of abductor digiti minimi (ADM. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the split-hand phenomenon remain elusive and resolution of this issue would provide unique insights into ALS pathophysiology. Consequently, the present study dissected out the relative contribution of cortical and peripheral processes in development of the split-hand phenomenon in ALS. Cortical and axonal excitability studies were undertaken on 26 ALS patients, with motor responses recorded over the APB, FDI and ADM muscles. Results were compared to 21 controls. Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, a biomarker of cortical excitability, was significantly reduced across the range of intrinsic hand muscles (APB(SICI ALS 0.3±2.0%, APB(SICI controls 16.0±1.9%, P<0.0001; FDI(SICI ALS 2.7±1.7%, FDI(SICI controls 14.8±1.9%, P<0.0001; ADM(SICI ALS 2.6±1.5%, ADM(SICI controls 9.7±2.2%, P<0.001, although the reduction was most prominent when recorded over APB/FDI. Changes in SICI were accompanied by a significant increase in motor evoked potential amplitude and reduction of cortical silent period duration, all indicative of cortical hyperexcitability, and these were most prominent from the APB/FDI. At a peripheral level, a significant increase in strength-duration time constant and reduction in depolarising threshold electrotonus were evident in ALS, although these changes did not follow a split-hand distribution. Cortical dysfunction contributed to development of the split-hand in ALS, thereby implying an importance of cortical hyperexcitability in ALS pathogenesis.

  13. UVA causes dual inactivation of cathepsin B and L underlying lysosomal dysfunction in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Sarah D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2013-06-05

    Cutaneous exposure to chronic solar UVA-radiation is a causative factor in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Recently, we have identified the thiol-dependent cysteine-protease cathepsin B as a novel UVA-target undergoing photo-oxidative inactivation upstream of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in fibroblasts. In this study, we examined UVA effects on a wider range of cathepsins and explored the occurrence of UVA-induced cathepsin inactivation in other cultured skin cell types. In dermal fibroblasts, chronic exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of UVA caused pronounced inactivation of the lysosomal cysteine-proteases cathepsin B and L, effects not observed in primary keratinocytes and occurring only to a minor extent in primary melanocytes. In order to determine if UVA-induced lysosomal impairment requires single or dual inactivation of cathepsin B and/or L, we used a genetic approach (siRNA) to selectively downregulate enzymatic activity of these target cathepsins. Monitoring an established set of protein markers (including LAMP1, LC3-II, and p62) and cell ultrastructural changes detected by electron microscopy, we observed that only dual genetic antagonism (targeting both CTSB and CTSL expression) could mimic UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations, whereas single knockdown (targeting CTSB or CTSL only) did not display 'UVA-mimetic' effects failing to reproduce the UVA-induced phenotype. Taken together, our data demonstrate that chronic UVA inhibits both cathepsin B and L enzymatic activity and that dual inactivation of both enzymes is a causative factor underlying UVA-induced impairment of lysosomal function in dermal fibroblasts.

  14. A Preliminary Study of Sexual Dysfunction in Male Opioid-Dependants under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoudeh Babakhanian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual dysfunction is one of the prevalent problems of opiate-dependent patients. The current preliminarily study examines sexual dysfunction in a group of opiate-dependent patients before and after 6 months of MMT. Methods: The current study is a cross-sectional study. The numbers of 30 opiate-dependent patients were selected of Cheraghiyan clinic in Damghan, Iran. Demographics questionnaire and the International Index of Erectile Function were administered before and after treatment. Results: Erectile function showed an increase and intercourse satisfactions completely improved. Sexual desire and overall satisfaction increased, showing slight improvement while orgasmic function increased showing no improvement. Discussion: The findings revealed the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and improvement of some component in patients after treatment. Future studies are needed to explore the roles of other factors.

  15. Autonomic dysfunction in early breast cancer: Incidence, clinical importance, and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoski, Susan G; Jones, Lee W; Krone, Ronald J; Stein, Phyllis K; Scott, Jessica M

    2015-08-01

    Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease, and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. We will review the effects of antineoplastic therapy on autonomic function, as well as discuss secondary exposures, such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, weight gain/metabolic derangements, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness, which may negatively impact autonomic function in breast cancer patients. Lastly, we review potential strategies to improve autonomic function in this population. The perspective can help guide new therapeutic interventions to promote longevity and cardiovascular health among breast cancer survivors.

  16. Post-void residual urine under 150 ml does not exclude voiding dysfunction in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khayyami, Yasmine; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: It has been claimed that post-void residual urine (PVR) below 150 ml rules out voiding dysfunction in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and provides license to perform sling surgery. The cut-off of 150 ml seems arbitrary, not evidence-based, and so we sough...

  17. Are frontal cognitive and atrophy patterns different in PSP and bvFTD? A comparative neuropsychological and VBM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lagarde

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTD are two clinicohistological entities that share a severe prefrontal syndrome. To what extent do the cognitive syndrome and the location of the underlying brain atrophy unify or segregate these entities? Here, we examined the clinical and radiological patterns of frontal involvement and the neural bases of the cognitive dysfunctions observed in the Richardson form of PSP and the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD. The cognitive profile and grey and white matter volume of PSP (n = 19 and bvFTD (n = 16 patients and control participants (n = 18 were compared using a standard battery of neuropsychological tests and voxel-based morphometry (VBM, respectively. Analyses of correlations between neuropsychological and morphometric data were additionally performed. The severity and qualitative pattern of cognitive dysfunction was globally similar between the two patient groups. Grey matter volume was decreased in widespread frontal areas and in the temporal uncus in bvFTD, while it was decreased in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the thalamus in PSP. We also found an unexpected involvement of the frontal rectal gyrus in PSP patients compared to controls. Correlation analyses yielded different results in the two groups, with no area showing significant correlations in PSP patients, while several frontal and some temporal areas did so in bvFTD patients. In spite of minor neuropsychological and morphological differences, this study shows that the patterns of cognitive dysfunction and atrophy are very similar in PSP and bvFTD. However, executive dysfunction in these diseases may stem from partially divergent cortical and subcortical neural circuits.

  18. Are frontal cognitive and atrophy patterns different in PSP and bvFTD? A comparative neuropsychological and VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Julien; Valabrègue, Romain; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Pineau, Fanny; Le Ber, Isabelle; Vidailhet, Marie; Dubois, Bruno; Levy, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTD) are two clinicohistological entities that share a severe prefrontal syndrome. To what extent do the cognitive syndrome and the location of the underlying brain atrophy unify or segregate these entities? Here, we examined the clinical and radiological patterns of frontal involvement and the neural bases of the cognitive dysfunctions observed in the Richardson form of PSP and the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD). The cognitive profile and grey and white matter volume of PSP (n = 19) and bvFTD (n = 16) patients and control participants (n = 18) were compared using a standard battery of neuropsychological tests and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), respectively. Analyses of correlations between neuropsychological and morphometric data were additionally performed. The severity and qualitative pattern of cognitive dysfunction was globally similar between the two patient groups. Grey matter volume was decreased in widespread frontal areas and in the temporal uncus in bvFTD, while it was decreased in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the thalamus in PSP. We also found an unexpected involvement of the frontal rectal gyrus in PSP patients compared to controls. Correlation analyses yielded different results in the two groups, with no area showing significant correlations in PSP patients, while several frontal and some temporal areas did so in bvFTD patients. In spite of minor neuropsychological and morphological differences, this study shows that the patterns of cognitive dysfunction and atrophy are very similar in PSP and bvFTD. However, executive dysfunction in these diseases may stem from partially divergent cortical and subcortical neural circuits.

  19. Impaired Picture Arrangement subscores (WAIS-III) associated with decreased place orientation and frontal/occipital blood flow in Alzheimer's disease: Implications for social judgment dysfunction. The Osaki-Tajiri Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuka; Meguro, Kenichi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kei; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2016-10-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients manifest not only memory impairment but also deficit of social judgment. However, contrary to frequently recognized deficit, only two neuropsychological tests have been established for assessing "judgment" : the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument domain Abstraction & judgment and the Picture Arrangement subscale of WAIS-III. For the former, we previously reported an association with decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left parietal lobe. Herein, we analyzed the scores of the Picture Arrangement test. Forty-nine AD patients were classified into two groups, i.e., the high and low PA score groups. The (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT investigation was performed with the voxel-based analysis using SPM5. The Mini-Mental State Examination subscores of "place orientation" showed a correlation with the PA scores. The low PA score group exhibited significantly decreased rCBFs in the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (LIFG), Left Superior Frontal Gyrus (LSFG) and Right Occipital Lobe (ROL), compared with the high PA score group. The ability of PA may be associated with the place orientation, which may be necessary to re-arrange the pictures. The ROL was related to visual recognition. The LSFG may be involved in executive function or "frontal reasoning."

  20. Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Action Monitoring Dysfunction: A Possible Substrate Underlying Increased Vulnerability to Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Avram J; Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2010-01-01

    A variable number of tandem repeats (short (S) vs long (L)) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and a functional variant of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs25531) in 5-HTTLPR have been recently associated with increased risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, relative to L/L or LA homozygotes (hereafter referred to as L′ participants), S carriers or Lg-allele carriers (S′ participants) have been found to have a higher probability of developing depression after stressful life events, although inconsistencies abound. Previous research indicates that patients with MDD are characterized by executive dysfunction and abnormal activation within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), particularly in situations requiring adaptive behavioral adjustments following errors and response conflict (action monitoring). The goal of this study was to test whether psychiatrically healthy S′ participants would show abnormalities similar to those of MDD subjects. To this end, 19 S′ and 14 L′ participants performed a modified Flanker task known to induce errors, response conflict, and activations in various ACC subdivisions during functional magnetic resonance imaging. As hypothesized, relative to L′ participants, S′ participants showed (1) impaired post-error and post-conflict behavioral adjustments; (2) larger error-related rostral ACC activation; and (3) lower conflict-related dorsal ACC activation. As similar behavioral and neural dysfunctions have been recently described in MDD patient samples, the current results raise the possibility that impaired action monitoring and associated ACC dysregulation may represent risk factors increased vulnerability to depression. PMID:20090673

  1. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Sakellariou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines.We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted.We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth.

  2. Brain dysfunction in anorexia nervosa: cause or consequence of under-nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa J; Sachdev, Perminder

    2011-05-01

    Imaging studies that demonstrate loss of brain substance help explain why people with anorexia nervosa have cognitive deficits and may help to elucidate the cognitive style found in many patients. It is not known whether a neurobiological vulnerability predisposes to anorexia nervosa or if this is associated with maintenance of symptoms once the illness develops. Evidence emerging from functional neuro-imaging studies raise the possibility of a biological abnormality that may predispose to anorexia nervosa. Studies have found abnormal functioning in the frontal, limbic, occipital, striatal and cerebellar regions that may persist after recovery. However, most recent cross-sectional and prospective studies indicate improved cerebral activity and mixed findings in regards to neurocognitve function with recovery from anorexia nervosa. The elucidation of the neurobiology of anorexia nervosa has benefited from recent advances in neuro-imaging and cognitive neuroscience. Further research is needed to examine the degree to which abnormalities are a consequence of starvation or are caused by a putative anorexia nervosa endophenotype.

  3. Impaired TrkB receptor signaling underlies corticostriatal dysfunction in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Joshua L; Day, Michelle; Peterson, Jayms D; Xie, Zhong; Kress, Geraldine J; Rafalovich, Igor; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Gertler, Tracy S; Flajolet, Marc; Greengard, Paul; Stavarache, Mihaela; Kaplitt, Michael G; Rosinski, Jim; Chan, C Savio; Surmeier, D James

    2014-07-02

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder. The debilitating choreic movements that plague HD patients have been attributed to striatal degeneration induced by the loss of cortically supplied brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here, we show that in mouse models of early symptomatic HD, BDNF delivery to the striatum and its activation of tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB) receptors were normal. However, in striatal neurons responsible for movement suppression, TrkB receptors failed to properly engage postsynaptic signaling mechanisms controlling the induction of potentiation at corticostriatal synapses. Plasticity was rescued by inhibiting p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) signaling or its downstream target phosphatase-and-tensin-homolog-deleted-on-chromosome-10 (PTEN). Thus, corticostriatal synaptic dysfunction early in HD is attributable to a correctable defect in the response to BDNF, not its delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional profile of patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction under physiotherapy treatment -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Pinheiro Bezerra de Menezes Kinote

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the functional profile of patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD receiving physical therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional study carried with 21 patients receiving physiotherapy care during the year of 2007 at the Center for Integrated Medical Care (Núcleo de Atenção Médica Integrada - NAMI, in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Those were submitted to anamnesis (age, presence of pain, affected sites and parafunctional habits and functional assessment (presence of trigger points, movement amplitude and postural evaluation. Results: The age varied from 16 to 56 years, with an average of 31.3 ± 14.85 and female gender was the most affected with 17 (81.0% patients. Of the assessed patients, 13 (61.9% presented pain of moderate intensity, with an average of 5.4 ± 0.50. The most common sites of pain were the temporomandibular joint (TMJ, reported by 15 (71.4%, and cervical region, reported by 13 (61.9% patients. We found that 13 (61.9% assessed patients reported clenching as parafunctional habit. Significant limitation of mouth opening and movements of the cervical region were observed when compared to normal values (p <0.05. The most painful muscles on palpation were upper trapezius (n=19, medial pterygoid (n=15 and the masseter (n=15. The TMJ presented strong pain (degree 3 on palpation in 3 (14.3% patients. In postural assessment, 10 (47.6% had cervical hyperlordosis, 7 (33% had forward head posture and 7 (33% had raised shoulders. Conclusion: Patients with TMJD receiving physical therapy present limitations in TMJ and cervical movement, pain, presence of trigger points and postural changes at a more compromised and symptomatic stage of this dysfunction. In view of this, it becomes necessary to provide early evaluation and treatment with physical therapy.

  5. Removing dysfunctional mitochondria from axons independent of mitophagy under pathophysiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Yao; Cheng, Xiu-Tang; Xie, Yuxiang; Cai, Qian; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2017-10-03

    Chronic mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in major neurodegenerative diseases. Long-term cumulative pathological stress leads to axonal accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Therefore, the early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. We recently investigated the axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer disease (AD)-linked neurons. We demonstrated that remobilizing stressed mitochondria is critical for maintaining axonal mitochondrial integrity. The selective release of the mitochondrial anchoring protein SNPH (syntaphilin) from stressed mitochondria enhances their retrograde transport toward the soma before PARK2/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is activated. This SNPH-mediated response is robustly activated during the early disease stages of ALS-linked motor neurons and AD-related cortical neurons. Our study thus reveals a new mechanism for the maintenance of axonal mitochondrial integrity through SNPH-mediated coordination of mitochondrial stress and motility that is independent of mitophagy.

  6. Dysfunctional Hematopoietic Stem Cell Biology: Underlying Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Geiselhart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is the most common inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. FA patients suffer to varying degrees from a heterogeneous range of developmental defects and, in addition, have an increased likelihood of developing cancer. Almost all FA patients develop a severe, progressive bone marrow failure syndrome, which impacts upon the production of all hematopoietic lineages and, hence, is thought to be driven by a defect at the level of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC. This hypothesis would also correlate with the very high incidence of MDS and AML that is observed in FA patients. In this paper, we discuss the evidence that supports the role of dysfunctional HSC biology in driving the etiology of the disease. Furthermore, we consider the different model systems currently available to study the biology of cells defective in the FA signaling pathway and how they are informative in terms of identifying the physiologic mediators of HSC depletion and dissecting their putative mechanism of action. Finally, we ask whether the insights gained using such disease models can be translated into potential novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the hematologic disorders in FA patients.

  7. Frontal headache induced by osteoma of frontal recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Soo

    2013-01-01

    We reported a case of osteoma involving the frontal recess, which presented as frontal headache and reviewed literatures. Also, this case highlights that sinunasal osteomas can cause pain by local mass effects, referred pain, or prostaglandin E2-mediated mechanisms.

  8. Criminal Responsibility of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Mustafa Talip; Ozcan, Halil; Sahingoz, Sadik; Ogul, Hayri

    2015-10-01

    Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms might be detected due to damage of frontal lobes as detected in damages of many brain regions. Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) occurs as a result of damage in prefrontal region due to various causes. Symptoms due to prefrontal region damage, varies according to the size and location of the lesion. In most of the cases; executive dysfunctions, attention deficits, inconsistencies in social life, impulse control problems, obsessive behaviors and violence behaviors are common clinical signs. Behavioral symptoms seen in FLS can be confused with personality disorders and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. FLS is a neuropsychiatric disorder rarely assessed in forensic psychiatry and in terms of detection of criminal responsibility. In this case report, criminal responsibility in FLS was assessed through a FLS case in which an offense of "threat" was committed and investigated in terms of criminal responsibility.

  9. [Understanding of the psychiatry in palliative care: dysfunction of the rewarding system under the pain state associated with exacerbating pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Daigo; Yamashita, Akira; Narita, Minoru

    2013-11-01

    Recent human brain imaging studies have examined differences in activity in the nucleus accumbens (N.Acc.) in response to heat stimuli between controls and patients with chronic pain, and have revealed that the N.Acc. plays a role in predicting the value of a noxious stimulus and its offset, and in the consequent changes in the motivational state. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of change in the circuitry involved in emotion and motivation in response to chronic pain stimuli were not fully explored. On the other hand, it has been considered that micro RNAs (miRNAs) play important roles as key modulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. We have reported that changes in miRNAs are associated with predicted changes in gene expression of candidate targets in the N.Acc. under neuropathic pain. Therefore, we have introduced a new insight into an epigenetic dysfunction of "mesolimbic motivation/valuation circuitry" under a neuropathic pain-like state. These findings raise intriguing possibilities that miRNA-modulating cellular events along with epigenetic modifications may be associated with neural plasticity and neuronal adaptive responses in mesolimbic motivation/valuation circuitry under which the neuropathic pain may induce negative emotions, exacerbating pain.

  10. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency--an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and liver dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Željko; Guardamagna, Ornella; Nair, Devaki; Soran, Handrean; Hovingh, Kees; Bertolini, Stefano; Jones, Simon; Ćorić, Marijana; Calandra, Sebastiano; Hamilton, John; Eagleton, Terence; Ros, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by deleterious mutations in the LIPA gene. The age at onset and rate of progression vary greatly and this may relate to the nature of the underlying mutations. Patients presenting in infancy have the most rapidly progressive disease, developing signs and symptoms in the first weeks of life and rarely surviving beyond 6 months of age. Children and adults typically present with some combination of dyslipidaemia, hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases, and microvesicular hepatosteatosis on biopsy. Liver damage with progression to fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure occurs in a large proportion of patients. Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are common features, and cardiovascular disease may manifest as early as childhood. Given that these clinical manifestations are shared with other cardiovascular, liver and metabolic diseases, it is not surprising that LAL-D is under-recognized in clinical practice. This article provides practical guidance to lipidologists, endocrinologists, cardiologists and hepatologists on how to recognize individuals with this life-limiting disease. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed with a view to achieving definitive diagnosis using a recently developed blood test for lysosomal acid lipase. Finally, current management options are reviewed in light of the ongoing development of enzyme replacement therapy with sebelipase alfa (Synageva BioPharma Corp., Lexington, MA, USA), a recombinant human lysosomal acid lipase enzyme.

  11. [Nonlinear dynamics of involuntary shaking of the human hand under motor dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, O E; Nozdrachev, A D

    2015-01-01

    Using nonlinear dynamic methods we examined wavelet and multifractal features of involuntary shaking (tremor) arising during the performance the motor task (sustaining effort of fingers under isometric conditions). The wavelet score (the maximum of the global wavelet spectrum) and multifractal parameters (the width and asymmetry of the singularity spectrum) significantly differ in tremor of healthy subjects and patients with akinetic-rigid form of Parkinson's disease. The relations between the change of the patient state connected with the drug relief of parkinsonian symptoms and the variations of the parameter values have been obtained. The suggested analytic approach for noninvasive study of integrative activity of the central nervous system, formed as the motor exit during realization of the motor task, enables not only to estimate quantitatively the degree of deviation of the motor function from the healthy one, but it can help to a clinician to choose the optimal treatment in every particular case.

  12. Underlying neurological dysfunction in children with language, speech or learning difficulties and a verbal IQ--performance IQ discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, J; Goeleven, A; Zink, I; Loyez, L; Lagae, L; Debruyne, F

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between possible underlying neurological dysfunction and a significant discrepancy between verbal IQ/performance IQ (VIQ-PIQ) in children with language, speech or learning difficulties. In a retrospective study, we analysed data obtained from intelligence testing and neurological evaluation in 49 children with a significant VIQ-PIQ discrepancy (> or = 25 points) who were referred because of language, speech or learning difficulties to the Multidisciplinary University Centre for Logopedics and Audiology (MUCLA) of the University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium. The group of children broke down into a group of 35 children with PIQ > VIQ and a group of 14 children with VIQ > PIQ. In the first group, neurological data were present for 24 children. The neurological history and clinical neurological examination were normal in all cases. Brain MRI was performed in 15 cases and proved to be normal in all children. Brain activity was assessed with long-term video EEG monitoring in ten children. In two children, the EEG results were abnormal: there was an epileptic focus in one child and a manifest alteration in the EEG typical of Landau-Kleffner syndrome in the other. In the second group of 14 children whose VIQ was higher than the PIQ, neurological data were available for ten children. Neurological history and clinical neurological examination were normal in all cases. Brain MRI was performed in five cases and was normal in all children. EEG monitoring was performed in one child. This revealed benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. In a small number of children (9%) with speech, language and learning difficulties and a discrepancy between VIQ and PIQ, an underlying neurological abnormality is present. We recommend referring children with a significant VIQ-PIQ mismatch to a paediatric neurologist. As an epileptic disorder seems to be the most common underlying neurological pathology in this specific group of children, EEG

  13. Tibetan patients with essential hypertension caused by underlying oxidative meta bolism dysfunction and depressed nitric oxide synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李党生; 王雄伟; 符中明; 余军; 达文莉; 彭顺舟; 王先贵

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the role of oxidative metabolism and nitric oxide synthesis for elucid ating their pathophysiological mechanisms in a Tibetan patient with essential hyp ertension. Methods The serum levels of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were assayed in sixty native Tibetans (thirty hypertensive patients and t hirty healthy volunteers as control). Results The levels of T-SOD, T-AOC, NO and NOS were significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.01); MDA was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.01). The level of MDA ha d a strong negative correlation with T-SOD, T-AOC, NO and NOS (r=-0.82, -0.76, -0.79, -0.73, respectively, P<0.001 for all). Conclusion Tibetan patients with essential hypertension (EH) may have underlying oxidative metabolism dysfunction and depressed NO synthesis, both responsible for the hype rtensive process.

  14. Frontal-opercular aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, R W; Raymer, A M; Heilman, K M

    1999-11-01

    The standard nomenclature divides nonfluent aphasic syndromes with relatively spared comprehension into Broca's aphasia and transcortical motor aphasia. We report on a patient with a persistent nonfluent aphasia from a discrete, primarily cortical, frontal-opercular lesion who had impaired syntax but intact repetition and, therefore, did not conform to the traditional classification. Based on this patient's behavior and a review of other cases, we have divided the nonfluent aphasias with intact comprehension into five disorders. (1) Verbal akinesia-exhibiting diminished intention or drive to speak and associated with medial frontal lesions (supplementary motor area and cingulate gyrus) or with lesions damaging the efferent projections from these areas. (2) Disorders of syntax-telegraphic and agrammatic utterances that may be associated with dominant pars opercularis lesions. (3) Phonemic disintegration-a failure to correctly produce phonemes, which may be associated with injury to the opercular primary motor cortex or efferent projections from this area. (4) Defects of lexical access-patients who struggle to find words and are impaired at timed word-generation tasks. Defects of lexical access may be associated with lesions of the pars triangularis and adjacent prefrontal cortex. (5) Mixed defects. According to this model, the traditional patient with Broca's aphasia would exhibit disorders of syntax, phonemic disintegration, and defects of lexical access, whereas the traditional patient with transcortical motor aphasia would have verbal akinesia or defects of lexical access or both. Our patient had defects of lexical access and syntax, but only mild symptoms of phonemic disintegration, suggesting that his opercular primary motor cortex was relatively intact. Our patient's ability to repeat normally while his propositional speech remained telegraphic suggests that different neural mechanisms subserve these functions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Frontal mucocele with intracranial extension causing frontal lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmayer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts that form in paranasal sinuses; although mucoceles themselves are benign, this case report highlights the extensive damage they can cause as their expansion may lead to bony erosion and extension of the mucocele into the orbit and cranium; it also presents a rarely reported instance of frontal sinus mucocele leading to frontal lobe syndrome. A thorough discussion and review of mucoceles is included. A 68-year-old white man presented with intermittent diplopia and a pressure sensation in the right eye. He had a history of chronic sinusitis and had had endoscopic sinus surgery 5 years prior. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontal sinus mucocele, which had caused erosion along the medial wall of the right orbit and the outer and inner tables of the right frontal sinus. The mucocele had protruded both into the right orbit and intracranially, causing mass effect on the frontal lobe, which led to frontal lobe syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic right ethmoidectomy, radial frontal sinusotomy, marsupialization of the mucocele, and transcutaneous irrigation. Paranasal sinus mucoceles may expand and lead to bony erosion and can become very invasive in surrounding structures such as the orbit and cranium. This case not only exhibits a very rare presentation of frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial extension and frontal lobe mass effect causing a frontal lobe syndrome but also demonstrates many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles. Early identification and surgical intervention is vital for preventing and reducing morbidity associated with invasive mucoceles, and the patient must be followed regularly to monitor for recurrence.

  16. Death receptor and mitochondria-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis underlies liver dysfunction in rats exposed to organic pollutants from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghong; Zhou, Zhiwei; Cen, Yanli; Gui, Xiaolin; Zeng, Qibing; Ao, Yunxia; Li, Qian; Wang, Shiran; Li, Jun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants in drinking water impose a substantial risk to the health of human beings, but the evidence for liver toxic effect and the underlying mechanism is scarce. This study aimed to examine the liver toxicity and elucidate the molecular mechanism of organic pollutants in drinking water in normal human liver cell line L02 cells and rats. The data showed that organic extraction from drinking water remarkably impaired rat liver function, evident from the increase in the serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and cholinesterase, and decrease in the serum level of total protein and albumin. Organic extraction dose-dependently induced apoptotic cell death in rat liver and L02 cells. Administration of rats with organic extraction promoted death receptor signaling pathway through the increase in gene and protein expression level of Fas and FasL. Treatment of rats with organic extraction also induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via increasing the expression level of proapoptotic protein, Bax, but decreasing the expression level of antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, resulting in an upregulation of cytochrome c and activation of caspase cascade at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Moreover, organic extraction enhanced rat liver glutathione S-transferases activity and reactive oxygen species generation, and upregulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glutathione S-transferase A1 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Collectively, the results indicate that organic extraction from drinking water impairs liver function, with the involvement of death receptor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in rats. The results provide evidence and molecular mechanisms for organic pollutants in drinking water-induced liver dysfunction, which may help prevent and treat organic extraction-induced liver injury.

  17. Death receptor and mitochondria-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis underlies liver dysfunction in rats exposed to organic pollutants from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghong; Zhou, Zhiwei; Cen, Yanli; Gui, Xiaolin; Zeng, Qibing; Ao, Yunxia; Li, Qian; Wang, Shiran; Li, Jun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants in drinking water impose a substantial risk to the health of human beings, but the evidence for liver toxic effect and the underlying mechanism is scarce. This study aimed to examine the liver toxicity and elucidate the molecular mechanism of organic pollutants in drinking water in normal human liver cell line L02 cells and rats. The data showed that organic extraction from drinking water remarkably impaired rat liver function, evident from the increase in the serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and cholinesterase, and decrease in the serum level of total protein and albumin. Organic extraction dose-dependently induced apoptotic cell death in rat liver and L02 cells. Administration of rats with organic extraction promoted death receptor signaling pathway through the increase in gene and protein expression level of Fas and FasL. Treatment of rats with organic extraction also induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via increasing the expression level of proapoptotic protein, Bax, but decreasing the expression level of antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, resulting in an upregulation of cytochrome c and activation of caspase cascade at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Moreover, organic extraction enhanced rat liver glutathione S-transferases activity and reactive oxygen species generation, and upregulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glutathione S-transferase A1 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Collectively, the results indicate that organic extraction from drinking water impairs liver function, with the involvement of death receptor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in rats. The results provide evidence and molecular mechanisms for organic pollutants in drinking water-induced liver dysfunction, which may help prevent and treat organic extraction-induced liver injury. PMID:26316710

  18. Neural Correlates of Antidepressant-Related Sexual Dysfunction: A Placebo-Controlled fMRI Study on Healthy Males Under Subchronic Paroxetine and Bupropion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Birgit; Seeringer, Angela; Hartmann, Antonie; Grön, Georg; Metzger, Coraline; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like paroxetine in the treatment of depression, imposing a considerable risk on medication adherence and hence therapeutic success. Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, is recommended as an alternative treatment without adverse effects concerning sexual arousal and libido. We investigated the neural bases of paroxetine-related subjective sexual dysfunction when compared with bupropion and placebo. We scanned 18 healthy, heterosexual males in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject design while watching video clips of erotic and nonerotic content under steady-state conditions after taking 20 mg of paroxetine, 150 mg of bupropion, and placebo for 7 days each. Under paroxetine, ratings of subjective sexual dysfunction increased compared with placebo or bupropion. Activation along the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), including subgenual, pregenual, and midcingulate cortices, in the ventral striatum and midbrain was decreased when compared with placebo. In contrast, bupropion let subjective ratings and ACC activations unchanged and increased activity of brain regions including posterior midcingulate cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, and extended amygdala relative to placebo and paroxetine. Brain regions that have been related to the processing of motivational (ventral striatum), emotional, and autonomic components of erotic stimulation (anterior cingulate) in previous studies showed reduced responsiveness under paroxetine in our study. Drug effects on these regions may be part of the mechanism underlying SSRI-related sexual dysfunction. Increased activation under bupropion may point to an opposite effect that may relate to the lack of impaired sexual functioning. PMID:21544071

  19. Focused examination of the intestinal lamina propria yields greater molecular insight into mechanisms underlying SIV induced immune dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Mohan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Gastrointestinal (GI tract is critical to AIDS pathogenesis as it is the primary site for viral transmission and a major site of viral replication and CD4(+ T cell destruction. Consequently GI disease, a major complication of HIV/SIV infection can facilitate translocation of lumenal bacterial products causing localized/systemic immune activation leading to AIDS progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying GI disease we analyzed global gene expression profiles sequentially in the intestine of the same animals prior to and at 21 and 90d post SIV infection (PI. More importantly we maximized information gathering by examining distinct mucosal components (intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria leukocytes [LPL], epithelium and fibrovascular stroma separately. The use of sequential intestinal resections combined with focused examination of distinct mucosal compartments represents novel approaches not previously attempted. Here we report data pertaining to the LPL. A significant increase (±1.7-fold in immune defense/inflammation, cell adhesion/migration, cell signaling, transcription and cell division/differentiation genes were observed at 21 and 90d PI. Genes associated with the JAK-STAT pathway (IL21, IL12R, STAT5A, IL10, SOCS1 and T-cell activation (NFATc1, CDK6, Gelsolin, Moesin were notably upregulated at 21d PI. Markedly downregulated genes at 21d PI included IL17D/IL27 and IL28B/IFNγ3 (anti-HIV/viral, activation induced cytidine deaminase (B-cell function and approximately 57 genes regulating oxidative phosphorylation, a critical metabolic shift associated with T-cell activation. The 90d transcriptome revealed further augmentation of inflammation (CXCL11, chitinase-1, JNK3, immune activation (CD38, semaphorin7A, CD109, B-cell dysfunction (CD70, intestinal microbial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (NLRX1 genes

  20. Improved design for frontal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, N.; Vendrig, R.; Houtzager, K.

    2001-01-01

    The requirements of frontal impact legislation and the comparative evaluations of consumer organizations have improved occupant crash protection. Passenger vehicle bodies have crumple zones developed through rigid flat barrier testing and improved passenger cell stability has resulted from considera

  1. Disfunções orofaciais nos pacientes em tratamento ortodôntico Orofacial dysfunctions in pacient under orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tostes Vieira Maciel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a necessidade de intervenção fonoaudiológica nos pacientes em tratamento na clínica ortodôntica da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. MÉTODOS: foram feitos exames clínicos, aplicação de questionário e análise de prontuários clínicos de 42 pacientes em tratamento ortodôntico na Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. A primeira fase do presente estudo foi composta pela avaliação da posição habitual da língua, função da respiração, deglutição e fala. Em seguida, foram obtidos dados sobre aspectos morfológicos da oclusão dentária e informações sobre a presença de hábitos orais deletérios. RESULTADOS: notou-se que 92% dos examinados apresentavam alterações na mastigação e na deglutição e 52% tinham alguma disfunção na fala. A comparação gráfica das medidas de cada uma das variáveis sugere que há uma tendência maior a ter alteração na mastigação os indivíduos que se encontram em tratamento ordodôntico há um tempo superior ou igual a 19 meses. O mesmo já não é válido para os indivíduos que apresentaram alterações na fala e deglutição. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se com o presente estudo a importância da intervenção fonoaudiológica, especialmente nas alterações da mastigação, na fase inicial do tratamento odontológico.PURPOSE: to evaluate the need for speech therapy intervention in patients treated in the orthodontic clinic of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. METHODS: clinical examinations, application of questionnaire and clinical medical register analysis of 42 patients under orthodontic treatment in the Federal University of Juiz de Fora had been carried out. The first phase of this study was made up by the evaluation of the habitual tongue position, breathing function, deglutition and speech. Soon afterwards, data were obtained on morphologic aspects of the dental occlusion and information on the presence of deleterious oral habits. RESULTS: one noticed that

  2. Treatment of complex maxillary sinus disease through the frontal recess of tears operation under endoscope%鼻内镜下泪前隐窝入路手术治疗复杂上颌窦病变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡煜; 孙敬武

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility, efficacy and complications of the frontal recess of tears operation to completely remove maxillary sinus lesions under endoscope in the complex maxillary sinus disease. Methods From June 2008 to June 2010, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 26 cases getting different types of the complex maxillary sinus disease which were treated by the frontal recess of tears operation. Among 26 cases: 17 cases got inverted papilloma: 4 cases got hemorrhagic and necrotic polyps: 3 cases got recurrent maxillary sinusitis with cysts: 1 case got recurrent nasal polyps: 1 case got maxillary sinus osteoma. All patients underwent CT examination. The cases with inverted papillomaline underwent MR examination. Nasal and other sinus lesions were firstly removed and the natural maxillary sinus ostium were opened and expanded. Then the maxillary sinus lesions were removed by the frontal recess of tears operation. Following this operation , the inferior meatus after fenestration were performed. The complications and postoperative effect were observed. Results In all patients, every maxillary sinus walls were well exposed. The lesions were completely removed. The operations have done well without nasolacrimal duct injury, turbinate atrophy and necrosis, complications such as the facial numbness. All the cases had 12-36 months follow-up. Two cases with inverted papillomaline showed recurrence. One of them got a recurrence in the junction of top of the mouth of the maxillary sinus and the bottom of the orbital after surgery for 3 months. After the surgical removal of the lesions and next 1 year follow-up, no recurrence was found. Another case of them got a local recurrence in the ethmoid sinus involving the orbital ethmoid cardboard after surgery for 7 months. After the surgical removal of the lesions and local orbital cardboard and next 8 months follow-up, no recurrence was observed. The recurrence was not found in all other cases. All

  3. Frontal Function, Disability and Caregiver Burden in Elderly Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Mei Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers of patients with late-life major depressive disorder experience a significant level of general caregiver burden. Disability in patients is possibly one of the origins of caregiver burden. Frontal lobe dysfunction might be the source of disability. This study investigated if frontal lobe dysfunction (body level of patients with late-life major depressive disorder was associated with their disability (individual level, and if it led to a high level of caregiver burden (societal level. Thirty-four unselected pairs of caregivers and their family members with late-life major depressive disorder were recruited. Frontal Assessment Battery and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL were used to assess patients' frontal function and disability, and Caregiver Burden Inventory was used to measure caregiver burden. Frontal Assessment Battery correlated with TIADL (r= −0.47; p<0.006. TIADL score was also associated with two subscales of the Caregiver Burden Inventory: social (r = 0.38, p=0.026 and time-dependent (r= 0.37, p= 0.033. This study supported the hypothesis that frontal lobe dysfunction in elderly patients with depression is associated with their disability in instrumental activities of daily living. Disability is related to social and time-dependent aspects of caregiver burden. Further studies to examine proposed cognitive interventions are suggested to reduce patient disability and caregiver burden.

  4. Hypothalamic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of hypothalamic dysfunction are surgery, traumatic brain injury, tumors, and radiation. Other causes include: Anorexia nervosa or bulimia Bleeding Genetic disorders that cause iron ...

  5. Frontal White Matter Damage Impairs Response Inhibition in Children Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipszyc, Jonathan; Levin, Harvey; Hanten, Gerri; Hunter, Jill; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition, the ability to suppress inappropriate cognitions or behaviors, can be measured using computer tasks and questionnaires. Inhibition depends on the frontal cortex, but the role of the underlying white matter (WM) is unclear. We assessed the specific impact of frontal WM damage on inhibition in 29 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (15 with and 14 without frontal WM damage), 21 children with orthopedic injury, and 29 population controls. We used the Stop Signal Task to measure response inhibition, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function to assess everyday inhibition, and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging to identify lesions. Children with frontal WM damage had impaired response inhibition compared with all other groups and poorer everyday inhibition than the orthopedic injury group. Frontal WM lesions most often affected the superior frontal gyrus. These results provide evidence for the critical role of frontal WM in inhibition. PMID:24618405

  6. Conceptual Models of Frontal Cyclones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, Joe R.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion of weather models uses maps to illustrate the differences among three types of frontal cyclones (long wave, short wave, and troughs). Awareness of these cyclones can provide clues to atmospheric conditions which can lead toward accurate weather forecasting. (AM)

  7. The Ruff Figural Fluency Test: heightened right frontal lobe delta activity as a function of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S; Williamson, John B; Harrison, David W

    2005-06-01

    Research has indicated that the Ruff Figural Fluency Test [RFFT; Ruff, R. M., Light, R. H., & Evans, R. W. (1987). The Ruff Figural Fluency Test: A normative study with adults. Developmental Neuropsychology, 3, 37-51] is sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning. Indeed, research has differentiated between patients with left or right frontal lobe lesions using performance on the RFFT [Ruff, R. M., Allen, C. C., Farrow, C. E., Niemann, H., & Wylie, T. (1994). Figural fluency: Differential impairment in patients with left versus right frontal lobe lesions. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 9, 41-55]. The present investigation used quantitative electroencephalography to test further whether the RFFT was sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning among a group of individuals with no history of head injury. To meet this objective, the RFFT was administered to a group of 45 right-handed men with no history of significant head injury or cerebral dysfunction. Delta magnitude (muV) at three right frontal electrode sites (FP2, F4, F8) was then used to compare those who performed the best (High Fluency) with those who performed the worst (Low Fluency) on the RFFT. The findings indicated heightened right frontal delta magnitude for the Low Fluency group relative to the High Fluency group at the F2 and F8 right frontal electrode sites. Thus, the present findings provide further support for the contention that the RFFT is sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning, even among those with no history of head injury.

  8. Estimation of the cool executive function using frontal electroencephalogram signals in first-episode schizophrenia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yi; Zhao, Yun; Si, Yajing; Ren, Qiongqiong; Ren, Wu; JING, CHANGQIN; Zhang, Hongxing

    2016-01-01

    Background In schizophrenia, executive dysfunction is the most critical cognitive impairment, and is associated with abnormal neural activities, especially in the frontal lobes. Complexity estimation using electroencephalogram (EEG) recording based on nonlinear dynamics and task performance tests have been widely used to estimate executive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Methods The present study estimated the cool executive function based on fractal dimension (FD) values of EEG data recorded f...

  9. 分段仿射变换下基于泊松融合的正面人脸合成%Frontal face synthesizing based on Poisson image fusion under piecewise affine warp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪晓斌; 陈莹

    2016-01-01

    针对目前正面人脸合成算法运算量大或合成图像失真较大的问题,提出一种基于分段仿射变换和泊松融合的正面人脸图像合成算法,将多幅输入图像用分段仿射变换(Piecewise Affine Warp,PAW)映射到正面人脸模板,并根据映射时产生的非刚性形变求得其对应的权重矩阵,进而获取每幅映射图像对应的变形掩膜,依次以这些映射图像为前景图像,以其对应的变形掩膜为泊松掩膜,并以上一次的融合图像为背景图像进行泊松融合,生成一幅平滑自然的正面人脸图像。实验结果表明,相比现有算法,该算法生成的正面人脸图像更加逼近真实正面人脸图像,而且很好地保留了输入人脸的个体信息。%In this paper, a frontal face synthesizing strategy based on Poisson image fusion and Piecewise Affine Warp (PAW)is proposed to solve the problem of large-scale computation cost or transformation distortion in general synthesizing methods. The multiple non-frontal input images are mapped to the frontal face template with PAW. The corresponding weight matrices are calculated according to the magnitude of deformation which can be used to obtain the foreground mask for Poisson fusion. Iterative fusion strategy is designed to synthesize one frontal image from multiple non-frontal images. In each step, the PAW image is used as foreground image. The deformation mask is used as foreground mask, and the fusion image of the previous step is used as background. Experiments show that the synthesized frontal image can per-fectly preserve personal facial details and outperforms others in both subjective and objective evaluations.

  10. Age-Related Increase in Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity and Social Functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Thioux, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; van der Gaag, Christiaan; Ketelaars, Cees; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypoactivation of the inferior frontal gyrus during the perception of facial expressions has been interpreted as evidence for a deficit of the mirror neuron system in children with autism. We examined whether this dysfunction persists in adulthood, and how brain activity in the mirror

  11. Age-Related Increase in Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity and Social Functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Thioux, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; van der Gaag, Christiaan; Ketelaars, Cees; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypoactivation of the inferior frontal gyrus during the perception of facial expressions has been interpreted as evidence for a deficit of the mirror neuron system in children with autism. We examined whether this dysfunction persists in adulthood, and how brain activity in the mirror ne

  12. The IMM Frontal Face Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set consisting of 120 annotated monocular images of 12 different frontal human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the data set can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given in...... in this note. The data set is available in two versions: i) low resolution, given in the zip-file electronic version, ii) high, given in the publication link....

  13. Social cognition in schizophrenia: similarities and differences of emotional perception from patients with focal frontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Ueda, Keita; Namiki, Chihiro; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Takuji; Ohigashi, Yoshitaka; Murai, Toshiya

    2009-06-01

    The structural and functional abnormalities of the frontal lobes, the region implicated in social information processing, have been suspected to underlie social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, multiple structures, including the limbic/paralimbic areas that are also important for social cognition, have been reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which the frontal lobe dysfunction accounts for social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia by comparing with patients who have focal frontal lobe injuries. Social cognitive abilities, focusing on affective aspects, were examined by an emotion intensity recognition task, which is sensitive to the amygdala function, and the emotion attribution tasks, which rely mainly on the frontal lobe function. Individuals with schizophrenia were impaired on the emotion intensity recognition task as well as on the emotion attribution tasks as compared with healthy subjects. By contrast, the frontal lobe-damaged group was defective in the emotion attribution tasks but not in the emotion intensity recognition task. Our results indicated that social cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia can be accounted for partly by their frontal lobe pathology. Other aspects of social cognitive impairments could also be associated with the extra-frontal pathology, such as the amygdala.

  14. Correction of renal dysfunction under the influence of dietary management, exercises and lisinopril in patients with abdominal obesity and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokutova М.К.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to assess the impact of diet therapy, physical activity and an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril on renal dysfunction in patients with abdominal obesity and hypertension. The study involved 14 patients with abdominal obesity, 2-3 degrees in BMI, hypertension, I-II stage, 1 degree, and severe insulin resistance. Men were 9 (64.3% patients, women - 5 (35.7% persons. The average age of the patients was 37,0±1,7 years, mean BMI - 44.7 [35.5; 46.5] kg/m2. BP was between 140-158/90-98 mm Hg. Diroton (lisinopril, Richter Gedeon Ltd, Hungary was administered 1 time per day in the morning at a dose of 10 mg. The effect of diet therapy, exercise and lisinopril on parameteres of renal function (glomerular filtration rate, urine protein, urine albumin, urine І2 microglobulin, urine albumin / creatinine ratio, І2- microglobulin / urine creatinine ratio. After 6 months of treatment there was a significant decrease in body weight (p<0.001 from 123.5 [110.0; 154.0] to 120.0 [105.0; 142.0] kg, with a BMI from 44.7 [35.5; 46.5] to 42.7 [33.9; 45.2] kg/m2 (p <0.001 and waist from 118.0 [105.0; 142.0] to 116.0 [105.0; 135.0] cm (p<0.05. Normalization of blood pressure was achieved in 71,4% (n=10 patients and a significant decrease in blood pressure - in 28,7% (n=4 persons in the 6th week of treatment. The level of GFR was significantly (p<0.01 decreased from 202.2 [156.1; 254.6] to 200.3 [148.8; 220.6] ml/min, the level of І2-mg decreased from 3.4 [1.1, 4.8] to 2.8 [1.4; 3.6] mg/24 h, the І2-mg / Cr urine ratio - from 2.3 [0.9, 4.0] to 1.9 [1.0, 2.7] mg/g, which is a positive point prognosis of obesity-associated nephropathy in these patients. GFR normalized in 2 (14.3% patients, І2-mg and І2-mg / Сr ratio - only in 1 (7.1% patients. GFR decreased in 10 (71.4% patients, І2-mg and І2-mg / Cr ratio – in 12 (85.7% patients. It is the result of complex treatment of diet, exercises and lisinopril. A significant reduction (p<0.01 of leptin

  15. New Perspectives on Frontal Variability in the Southern Ocean Using a Local Identification Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    The frontal structure of the Southern Ocean is investigated using a sophisticated frontal detection methodology, the Wavelet/Higher Order Statistics Enhancement (WHOSE) method, introduced in \\cite{Chapman2014}. This methodology is applied to 21 years of daily gridded sea-surface height (SSH) data to obtain daily maps of the locations of the fronts. By forming `heat-maps' of the frontal occurrence frequency and then approximating these heat-maps by a superposition of simple functions, the time-mean locations of the fronts, as well as a measure of their capacity to meander, are obtained and related to the frontal locations found by previous studies. The spatial and temporal variability of the frontal structure is then considered. The number of fronts is found to be highly variable throughout the Southern Ocean, increasing (`splitting') downstream of large bathymetric features and decreasing (`merging') in regions where the fronts are tightly controlled by the underlying topography. In contrast, frontal meanderi...

  16. The significance of frontal system disorders for medical practice and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, B S

    1994-01-01

    In major chronic diseases, apathy or impaired executive cognitive function (ECF) can reduce the patient's ability to cope with the disease and its treatment and to maintain personal safety, dignity, and goal-directed activity. Psychometric and imaging studies support a causal role for frontal system dysfunction. The view that frontal system dysfunction mediates or aggravates disability in a wide range of psychiatric and nonpsychiatric disorders 1) motivates further research on how ECF deficits interact with specific physical impairments to produce disability; 2) supports policies that base entitlements to care on ECF impairments; and 3) suggests the need for a vigorous search for drugs that prevent or palliate prefrontal dysfunction, especially the syndromes of apathy and impaired ECF.

  17. Erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Kevan

    2008-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common problem affecting sexual function in men. Approximately one in 10 men over the age of 40 is affected by this condition and the incidence is age related. Erectile dysfunction is a sentinel marker for several reversible conditions including peripheral and coronary vascular disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Endothelial dysfunction is a common factor between the disease states. Concurrent conditions such as depression, late-onset hypogonadism, Peyronie's disease and lower urinary tract symptoms may significantly worsen erectile function, other sexual and relationship issues and penis dysmorphophobia. A focused physical examination and baseline laboratory investigations are mandatory. Management consists of initiating modifiable lifestyle changes, psychological and psychosexual/couples interventions and pharmacological and other interventions. In combination and with treatment of concurrent comorbid states, these interventions will often bring about successful resolution of symptoms and avoid the need for surgical interventions.

  18. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  19. Autonomic dysfunction: a possible pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity in children at-risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Denise C; McGrath, Jennifer J; Poirier, Paul; Quality Cohort Collaborative Group

    2015-02-01

    While mounting evidence suggests that sleep plays an important role in the etiology of obesity, the underlying pathogenic pathways are complex and unresolved. Experimental sleep deprivation studies demonstrate sympathovagal imbalance, indicative of diminished parasympathetic activity and/or heightened sympathetic activity, is consequent to poor sleep. Further, obese children exhibit sympathovagal imbalance, particularly during the night, compared to non-obese children. The question remains whether sympathovagal imbalance is one potential pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sympathovagal imbalance contributed to the association between sleep and obesity in children. Participants included 564 children aged 10 to 12 years (M = 11.67, SD = 0.95; 43.5% girls) from the QUALITY Cohort, a longitudinal study of children at-risk for the development of obesity. While children were at-risk due to confirmed parental obesity status, 57.7% of children were of normal body mass index (5-85th percentile). Sleep duration, sleep timing, and sleep disturbances were based on child- and parent-report. Anthropometrics were measured for central adiposity (waist circumference) and body composition (body mass index, fat mass index). Sympathovagal imbalance was derived from heart rate variability spectral analyses. Estimated path coefficients revealed that sympathovagal imbalance partially contributed to the association between poor sleep (later bedtimes, sleep-disordered breathing) and obesity. These findings highlight the importance of better understanding sympathovagal imbalance and its role in the etiology and maintenance of obesity. Future research should consider investigating nocturnal sympathovagal balance in youth.

  20. Conserved Sequence Processing in Primate Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Petkov, Christopher I

    2017-02-01

    An important aspect of animal perception and cognition is learning to recognize relationships between environmental events that predict others in time, a form of relational knowledge that can be assessed using sequence-learning paradigms. Humans are exquisitely sensitive to sequencing relationships, and their combinatorial capacities, most saliently in the domain of language, are unparalleled. Recent comparative research in human and nonhuman primates has obtained behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for evolutionarily conserved substrates involved in sequence processing. The findings carry implications for the origins of domain-general capacities underlying core language functions in humans. Here, we synthesize this research into a 'ventrodorsal gradient' model, where frontal cortex engagement along this axis depends on sequencing complexity, mapping onto the sequencing capacities of different species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Erectile dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that increase blood flow to the penis. The blood ... The pressure of the blood in the chambers makes the ... What are the risk factors for erectile dysfunction? The most .... losing excessive weight and increasing physical activity, may improve the ...

  2. Progression of Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Remodelling under Optimal Medical Therapy in CHF Patients: Role of Individual Genetic Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Rigolli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neurohormonal systems play an important role in chronic heart failure (CHF. Due to interindividual heterogeneity in the benefits of therapy, it may be hypothesized that polymorphisms of neurohormonal systems may affect left ventricular (LV remodelling and systolic function. We aimed to assess whether genetic background of maximally treated CHF patients predicts variations in LV systolic function and volumes. Methods and Results. We prospectively studied 131 CHF outpatients on optimal treatment for at least six months. Echocardiographic evaluations were performed at baseline and after 12 months. Genotype analysis for ACE I/D, β1adrenergic receptor (AR Arg389Gly, β2AR Arg16Gly, and β2AR Gln27Glu polymorphisms was performed. No differences in baseline characteristics were detected among subgroups. ACE II was a significant predictor of improvement of LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume (=.003 and =.002, respectively but not of LV ejection fraction (LVEF; β1AR389 GlyGly was related to improvement of LVEF (=.02 and LV end-systolic volume (=.01. The predictive value of polymorphisms remained after adjustment for other clinically significant predictors (<.05 for all. Conclusions. ACE I/D and β1AR Arg389Gly polymorphisms are independent predictors of reverse remodeling and systolic function recovery in CHF patients under optimal treatment.

  3. Network dysfunction of emotional and cognitive processes in those at genetic risk of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakspear, Michael; Roberts, Gloria; Green, Melissa J; Nguyen, Vinh T; Frankland, Andrew; Levy, Florence; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Mitchell, Philip B

    2015-11-01

    The emotional and cognitive vulnerabilities that precede the development of bipolar disorder are poorly understood. The inferior frontal gyrus-a key cortical hub for the integration of cognitive and emotional processes-exhibits both structural and functional changes in bipolar disorder, and is also functionally impaired in unaffected first-degree relatives, showing diminished engagement during inhibition of threat-related emotional stimuli. We hypothesized that this functional impairment of the inferior frontal gyrus in those at genetic risk of bipolar disorder reflects the dysfunction of broader network dynamics underlying the coordination of emotion perception and cognitive control. To test this, we studied effective connectivity in functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from 41 first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder, 45 matched healthy controls and 55 participants with established bipolar disorder. Dynamic causal modelling was used to model the neuronal interaction between key regions associated with fear perception (the anterior cingulate), inhibition (the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and the region upon which these influences converge, namely the inferior frontal gyrus. Network models that embodied non-linear, hierarchical relationships were the most strongly supported by data from our healthy control and bipolar participants. We observed a marked difference in the hierarchical influence of the anterior cingulate on the effective connectivity from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the inferior frontal gyrus that is unique to the at-risk cohort. Non-specific, non-hierarchical mechanisms appear to compensate for this network disturbance. We thus establish a specific network disturbance suggesting dysfunction in the processes that support hierarchical relationships between emotion and cognitive control in those at high genetic risk for bipolar disorder. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  4. Cephalic Aura after Frontal Lobe Resection

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate cephalic aura more extensive cortical areas need to be excited. Here we report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. MEG showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed on right frontal region, and the latter involved much m...

  5. Oral Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 規子; スズキ, ノリコ; Noriko, SUZUKI

    2004-01-01

    The major oral functions can be categorized as mastication, swallowing, speech and respiratory functions. Dysfunction of these results in dysphagia, speech disorders and abnormal respiration (such as Sleep Apnea). These functions relate to dentistry in the occurrence of : (1) oral preparatory and oral phases, (2) articulation disorders and velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI), and (3) mouth breathing, respiratory and blowing disorders. These disorders are related to oral and maxillofacial diseas...

  6. An Altered Pattern of Myocardial Histopathological and Molecular Changes Underlies the Different Characteristics of Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetic Cardiac Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Radovits

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that both types of diabetes mellitus (DM lead to cardiac structural and functional changes. In this study we investigated and compared functional characteristics and underlying subcellular pathological features in rat models of type-1 and type-2 diabetic cardiomyopathy. Type-1 DM was induced by streptozotocin. For type-2 DM, Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats were used. Left ventricular pressure-volume analysis was performed to assess cardiac function. Myocardial nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry, TUNEL assay, hematoxylin-eosin, and Masson’s trichrome staining were performed. mRNA and protein expression were quantified by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Marked systolic dysfunction in type-1 DM was associated with severe nitrooxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis. These pathological features were less pronounced or absent, while cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was comparable in type-2 DM, which was associated with unaltered systolic function and increased diastolic stiffness. mRNA-expression of hypertrophy markers c-fos, c-jun, and β-MHC, as well as pro-apoptotic caspase-12, was elevated in type-1, while it remained unaltered or only slightly increased in type-2 DM. Expression of the profibrotic TGF-β1 was upregulated in type-1 and showed a decrease in type-2 DM. We compared type-1 and type-2 diabetic cardiomyopathy in standard rat models and described an altered pattern of key pathophysiological features in the diabetic heart and corresponding functional consequences.

  7. G-CSF and cognitive dysfunction in elderly diabetic mice with cerebral small vessel disease: Preventive intervention effects and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhu-Fei; Tao, Ying-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Guo, Qi-Lin; Liu, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yan-Mei; Ji, Gang; Wu, Guo-Feng; Wang, Na-Na; Yang, Hao; Yu, Zhong-Yu; Guo, Jing-Chun; Zhou, Hou-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Although cognitive dysfunction is a common neurological complication in elderly patients with diabetes, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear, and effective preventive interventions have yet to be developed. Thus, this study investigated the preventive effects and mechanisms of action associated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on cognitive dysfunction in elderly diabetic mice with cerebral small vessel disease. This study included 40 male db/db diabetic and wild-type (WT) mice that were categorized into the following four groups at the age of 3 weeks: db/db group (DG), db/db+G-CSF group (DGG), WT group (WG), and WT+G-CSF group (WGG). The mice were fed normal diets for 4 months and then given G-CSF (75 μg/kg) via intraperitoneal injections for 1 month. At 7.5 months of age, the cognitive abilities of the mice were assessed with the Y-maze test and the Social Choice Test; body weight, blood pressure (BP), and blood glucose measurements were obtained throughout the study. Brain imaging and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging analyses were performed with a small animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, autophagosome levels were detected with a transmission electron microscope (TEM), hippocampal neurons were assessed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and protein expressions and distributions were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. (i) The body weight and blood glucose levels of the DG and DGG mice were significantly higher than those of the WG and WGG mice; (ii) social choice and spatial memory capabilities were significantly reduced in DG mice but were recovered by G-CSF in DGG mice; (iii) the MRI scans revealed multiple lacunar lesions and apparent hippocampal atrophy in the brains of DG mice, but G-CSF reduced the number of lacunar lesions and ameliorated hippocampal atrophy; (iv) the MRI-BOLD scans showed a downward trend in whole-brain activity and reductions

  8. Evaluating the safety of frontal sinus trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie S; Schaitkin, Barry M; Gillman, Grant S

    2010-03-01

    The depth of the frontal sinus was measured using axial computed tomography (CT) images to examine the safety of frontal sinus trephination at selected distances from the midline. Review of 200 sinus CT scans. Two hundred sinus CT scans (400 frontal sinuses) were reviewed to measure the frontal sinus depth at 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm from midline. Males had a significantly deeper frontal sinus than females at all measurements points (P trephine instruments (7 mm) and would risk penetration of the posterior table of the sinus. Of all frontal sinuses studied, 9.54% were trephine instruments, surgeons should recognize that up to 15% of nonhypoplastic frontal sinuses may not be sufficiently deep at a given point to allow safe trephination without risking unintentional transgression of the posterior table. This study suggests that trephination routinely carried out at a given predetermined distance from the midline may be an unsafe practice. Careful evaluation of the imaging is essential in every case to avoid inadvertent injury and to help select the safest distance from the midline for frontal sinus trephination.

  9. Human frontal lobes are not relatively large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Robert A; Venditti, Chris

    2013-05-28

    One of the most pervasive assumptions about human brain evolution is that it involved relative enlargement of the frontal lobes. We show that this assumption is without foundation. Analysis of five independent data sets using correctly scaled measures and phylogenetic methods reveals that the size of human frontal lobes, and of specific frontal regions, is as expected relative to the size of other brain structures. Recent claims for relative enlargement of human frontal white matter volume, and for relative enlargement shared by all great apes, seem to be mistaken. Furthermore, using a recently developed method for detecting shifts in evolutionary rates, we find that the rate of change in relative frontal cortex volume along the phylogenetic branch leading to humans was unremarkable and that other branches showed significantly faster rates of change. Although absolute and proportional frontal region size increased rapidly in humans, this change was tightly correlated with corresponding size increases in other areas and whole brain size, and with decreases in frontal neuron densities. The search for the neural basis of human cognitive uniqueness should therefore focus less on the frontal lobes in isolation and more on distributed neural networks.

  10. Minor Functional Deficits in Basic Response Patterns for Reinforcement after Frontal Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2016-10-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major contributor to numerous psychiatric conditions and chronic behavioral dysfunction. Recent studies in experimental brain injury have begun to adopt operant methodologies to assess these deficits, all of which rely on the process of reinforcement. No studies have directly examined how reinforced behaviors are affected by TBI, however. The current study assessed performance under the four most common schedules of reinforcement (fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval) and one higher order schedule assessing motivation (progressive ratio) after bilateral, pre-frontal controlled cortical impact injury. TBI-induced differences on the basic schedules were minor, with the exception of the variable ratio, where increased efficacy (more reinforcers, higher response rates, lower interresponse times) at higher requirements was observed as a result of brain injury. Performance on the progressive ratio schedule showed some gross differences between the groups, in that sham rats became more efficient under this schedule while injured rats perseverated in lever pressing. Further, injured rats were specifically impaired at lower response requirements on the progressive ratio. Taken together, these findings indicate that simple reinforced behaviors are mostly unaffected after TBI, except in the case of variable ratio schedules, but the altered performance on the higher-order progressive ratio schedule suggests changes involving motivation or potentially perseveration. These findings validate operant measures of more complex behaviors for brain injury, all of which rely on reinforcement and can be taken into consideration when adapting and developing novel functional assessments.

  11. Evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases; Pruefung einer potentiellen strahleninduzierten Nebenschilddruesenfunktionsstoerung waehrend einer Radioiodtherapie benigner Schilddruesenerkrankung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Serena Christine

    2011-09-28

    The intention of the present thesis was the evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases. It was to be examined whether a change in the parathyroid function would arise within the first week on treatment. So far there are some minor studies existing describing significant changes in the parathyroid hormone serum level within the first months after radioactive iodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Moreover, it is a fact that external beam-radiotherapy can induce neoplasia and that the risk for the subsequent development of primary hyperparathyroidism doubles or triples after external beam-radiotherapy of the head and neck. Up to now, however, an increased incidence for primary hyperparathyroidism following treatment with radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) could not be proved. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university hospital Giessen-Marburg GmbH, location Marburg, a prospective cohort study was executed on radioactive iodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases with 105 probands (75 women / 30 men, mean age 60.62 ± 14.3 years). According to their thyroid diseases these 105 probands were classified into following subgroups: thyroid adenoma with 23 patients, multifocal thyroid autonomy with 8 patients, disseminated thyroid autonomy with 37 patients as well as the subgroup Graves' hyperthyroidism (without Graves' ophtalmopathy) and accordingly Graves' disease (with Graves' ophtalmopathy) with 37 patients. The serum level of the intact parathyroid hormone was determined directly before starting the radioactive iodine therapy on the admission day and on day 1, 3 and 5 of the radioactive iodine therapy as well as at the ambulant follow-up examination one month after the start of the therapy. In case of 99 of 105 probands the serum level of parathyroid hormone declined on treatment with {sup 131}I with its nadir on day 3 of therapy (decline by 15.71 ng

  12. Relative frontal brain asymmetry and cortisol release after social stress: The role of action orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsing, Rainer; Tops, Mattie; Radtke, Elise Leila; Kuhl, Julius; Quirin, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Social evaluation is a potent stressor and consistently leads to an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. Here, we investigated whether individual differences in action orientation influence the relationship between the cortisol response to social-evaluative threat and relative left frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha asymmetry as a brain marker of approach motivation. Forty-nine participants were exposed to a camera-based variant of the Trier Social Stress Task while salivary cortisol and resting EEG frontal alpha asymmetry were assessed before and after stress induction. Higher relative left frontal activity was associated with higher changes in cortisol levels as measured by the area under curve with respect to increase, particularly in individuals low in action orientation. We discuss the role of the left frontal cortex in coping, the potential role of oxytocin, and negative health consequences when the left-frontal coping process becomes overstrained.

  13. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Boland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic understanding of how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell growth and tumorigenesis is emerging beyond Warburg as an area of research that is under-explored in terms of its significance for clinical management of cancer. Work discussed in this review focuses less on the Warburg effect and more on mitochondria and how dysfunctional mitochondria modulate cell cycle, gene expression, metabolism, cell viability and other more conventional aspects of cell growth and stress responses. There is increasing evidence that key oncogenes and tumor suppressors modulate mitochondrial dynamics through important signaling pathways and that mitochondrial mass and function vary between tumors and individuals but the sigificance of these events for cancer are not fully appreciated. We explore the interplay between key molecules involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion and in apoptosis, as well as in mitophagy, biogenesis and spatial dynamics and consider how these distinct mechanisms are coordinated in response to physiological stresses such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Importantly, we examine how deregulation of these processes in cancer has knockon effects for cell proliferation and growth. Scientifically, there is also scope for defining what mitochondria dysfunction is and here we address the extent to which the functional consequences of such dysfunction can be determined and exploited for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Management of the entered frontal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Emanuela; Rocchi, Giovanni; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Delfini, Roberto

    2004-10-01

    The opening of the frontal sinus is a common occurrence in surgical practice. It may involve many surgical disciplines. The complications that may derive from incorrect treatment of an opened frontal sinus are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, the treatment of patients with injured frontal sinus is not uniform and standardized. Here, we describe our technique of treatment. We propose our treatment modality on the basis of our personal experience, which has been excellent in the past 20 years, that is from the time of the technique's introduction and routine application.

  15. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Horowitz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59% or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. RESULTS: Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%, mucocele (n = 27, 39%, fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%, and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%. Complications included skin infections (n = 6, postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1, telecanthus (n = 4, diplopia (n = 3, nasal deformity (n = 2 and epiphora (n = 1. None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Cranialization of the frontal sinus appears to be a good option for prevention of secondary mucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  16. Rehabilitation for a Patient with Hemiplegia, Ataxia, and Cognitive Dysfunction Caused by Pontine Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Tsunoda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with pontine hemorrhage usually experience severe disturbances of consciousness, pupillary abnormalities, quadriparesis, and respiratory failure. However, little is known regarding cognitive dysfunction in patients with pontine hemorrhage. We report the case of a rehabilitation patient presenting with hemiplegia, ataxia, and cognitive dysfunction caused by a pontine hemorrhage. A 55-year-old, right-handed male suffered sudden onset of vertigo, dysarthria, and hemiplegia on the right side. He was diagnosed with brain stem hemorrhage, and conservative treatment was administered. The vertigo improved, but dysarthria, ataxia, hemiplegia, and gait disorder persisted. He was disoriented with respect to time and place and showed a poor attention span, impaired executive function, and reduced volition. A computed tomography revealed hematomas across the pons on both sides, but no lesions were obvious in the cerebellum and cerebrum. Single-photon emission tomography showed decreased perfusion in the brain stem, bilateral basal ganglia, and frontal and parietal lobes in the left hemisphere. The patient received exercise therapy and cognitive rehabilitation, and home modifications were performed to allow him to continue living at home under the supervision of his family. His symptoms improved, along with enhanced regional cerebral blood flow to the frontal and temporal lobes. These findings suggest that the pontine hemorrhage caused diaschisis resulting in secondary reduction of activity in the cerebral hemisphere and the occurrence of cortical symptoms. Therefore, rehabilitation is necessary, along with active instructions for the family members of patients with severe neurological deficits.

  17. Rehabilitation for a Patient with Hemiplegia, Ataxia, and Cognitive Dysfunction Caused by Pontine Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Tetsuya; Maeshima, Shinichiro; Watanabe, Makoto; Nagai, Ayako; Ueno, Yoshiya; Ozeki, Yasunori; Okamoto, Sayaka; Mizuno, Shiho; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pontine hemorrhage usually experience severe disturbances of consciousness, pupillary abnormalities, quadriparesis, and respiratory failure. However, little is known regarding cognitive dysfunction in patients with pontine hemorrhage. We report the case of a rehabilitation patient presenting with hemiplegia, ataxia, and cognitive dysfunction caused by a pontine hemorrhage. A 55-year-old, right-handed male suffered sudden onset of vertigo, dysarthria, and hemiplegia on the right side. He was diagnosed with brain stem hemorrhage, and conservative treatment was administered. The vertigo improved, but dysarthria, ataxia, hemiplegia, and gait disorder persisted. He was disoriented with respect to time and place and showed a poor attention span, impaired executive function, and reduced volition. A computed tomography revealed hematomas across the pons on both sides, but no lesions were obvious in the cerebellum and cerebrum. Single-photon emission tomography showed decreased perfusion in the brain stem, bilateral basal ganglia, and frontal and parietal lobes in the left hemisphere. The patient received exercise therapy and cognitive rehabilitation, and home modifications were performed to allow him to continue living at home under the supervision of his family. His symptoms improved, along with enhanced regional cerebral blood flow to the frontal and temporal lobes. These findings suggest that the pontine hemorrhage caused diaschisis resulting in secondary reduction of activity in the cerebral hemisphere and the occurrence of cortical symptoms. Therefore, rehabilitation is necessary, along with active instructions for the family members of patients with severe neurological deficits.

  18. Frontal sinus recognition for human identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, Juan Rogelio; Falguera, Fernanda Pereira Sartori; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu

    2008-03-01

    Many methods based on biometrics such as fingerprint, face, iris, and retina have been proposed for person identification. However, for deceased individuals, such biometric measurements are not available. In such cases, parts of the human skeleton can be used for identification, such as dental records, thorax, vertebrae, shoulder, and frontal sinus. It has been established in prior investigations that the radiographic pattern of frontal sinus is highly variable and unique for every individual. This has stimulated the proposition of measurements of the frontal sinus pattern, obtained from x-ray films, for skeletal identification. This paper presents a frontal sinus recognition method for human identification based on Image Foresting Transform and shape context. Experimental results (ERR = 5,82%) have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Insight in psychotic disorder: relation with psychopathology and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atmesh; Sharma, Pranjal; Das, Shyamanta; Nath, Kamal; Talukdar, Uddip; Bhagabati, Dipesh

    2014-01-01

    Through conceptualising poor insight in psychotic disorders as a form of anosognosia, frontal lobe dysfunction is often ascribed a vital role in its pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the relation of insight in patients with psychotic illness to that of psychopathology and frontal lobe function. Forty patients with psychotic disorder were selected from those attending the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The evaluation of insight was carried out using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), that of frontal lobe function by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and psychopathology by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The correlation coefficients were determined. A negative correlation between SAI and BPRS scores means that the BPRS score is opposite to SAI scores. When the SAI total score was compared with the FAB total score, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a positive correlation. Better insight predicted lesser psychopathology and also that poor insight would exist with greater psychopathology. Better insight predicted a higher functional status of frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex in particular. Insight deficits in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses are multidimensional. Integration of different aetiological factors like biological, psychopathological, environmental ones and others are necessary for a better understanding of insight in psychosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Gilad; Amit, Moran; Ben-Ari, Oded; Gil, Ziv; Abergel, Abraham; Margalit, Nevo; Cavel, Oren; Wasserzug, Oshri; Fliss, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. Retrospective case series. Tertiary academic medical center. Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59%) or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%). The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%), mucocele (n = 27, 39%), fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%), and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%). Complications included skin infections (n = 6), postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1), telecanthus (n = 4), diplopia (n = 3), nasal deformity (n = 2) and epiphora (n = 1). None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (Pmucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  1. Relationship between Postural Deformities and Frontal Function in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Satoko; Morita, Akihiko; Teramoto, Hiroko; Akimoto, Takayoshi; Shiota, Hiroshi; Kamei, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Postural deformities and executive dysfunction (ED) are common symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD. Sixty-five patients with sporadic PD were assessed for the severity of postural deformities and executive function. The severity of postural deformities was scored using the United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale item 28 score: no postural deformity (0), mild postural deformities (1), or severe postural deformities (2-4). Executive function was assessed using the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) and an age-controlled standardized BADS score <70 was defined as ED. Age-controlled standardized BADS scores were compared across the three groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Relationship between ED and the severity of postural deformities was assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Age-controlled standardized BADS score significantly differed among the three groups (P = 0.005). ED was significantly related to the severity of postural deformities (P = 0.0005). The severity of postural deformities was associated with a lower age-controlled standardized BADS score and ED, and these findings suggest that postural deformities were associated with frontal dysfunction in patients with PD.

  2. Frontal brain asymmetry, childhood maltreatment, and low-grade inflammation at midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Davidson, Richard J; Graham, Eileen K; Mroczek, Daniel K; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E; van Reekum, Carien M; Miller, Gregory E

    2017-01-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry is thought to reflect variations in affective style, such that greater relative right frontal activity at rest predicts enhanced emotional responding to threatening or negative stimuli, and risk of depression and anxiety disorders. A diathesis-stress model has been proposed to explain how this neuro-affective style might predispose to psychopathology, with greater right frontal activity being a vulnerability factor especially under stressful conditions. Less is known about the extent to which greater relative right frontal activity at rest might be associated with or be a diathesis for deleterious physical health outcomes. The present study examined the association between resting frontal EEG asymmetry and systemic, low-grade inflammation and tested the diathesis-stress model by examining whether childhood maltreatment exposure interacts with resting frontal asymmetry in explaining inflammation. Resting EEG, serum inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen) and self-reported psychological measures were available for 314 middle-aged adults (age M=55.3years, SD=11.2, 55.7% female). Analyses supported the diathesis-stress model and revealed that resting frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly associated with inflammation, but only in individuals who had experienced moderate to severe levels of childhood maltreatment. These findings suggest that, in the context of severe adversity, a trait-like tendency towards greater relative right prefrontal activity may predispose to low-grade inflammation, a risk factor for conditions with inflammatory underpinnings such as coronary heart disease.

  3. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2014-05-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Intraoperative Frontal Alpha-Band Power Correlates with Preoperative Neurocognitive Function in Older Adults

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    Charles M. Giattino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Each year over 16 million older Americans undergo general anesthesia for surgery, and up to 40% develop postoperative delirium and/or cognitive dysfunction (POCD. Delirium and POCD are each associated with decreased quality of life, early retirement, increased 1-year mortality, and long-term cognitive decline. Multiple investigators have thus suggested that anesthesia and surgery place severe stress on the aging brain, and that patients with less ability to withstand this stress will be at increased risk for developing postoperative delirium and POCD. Delirium and POCD risk are increased in patients with lower preoperative cognitive function, yet preoperative cognitive function is not routinely assessed, and no intraoperative physiological predictors have been found that correlate with lower preoperative cognitive function. Since general anesthesia causes alpha-band (8–12 Hz electroencephalogram (EEG power to decrease occipitally and increase frontally (known as “anteriorization”, and anesthetic-induced frontal alpha power is reduced in older adults, we hypothesized that lower intraoperative frontal alpha power might correlate with lower preoperative cognitive function. Here, we provide evidence that such a correlation exists, suggesting that lower intraoperative frontal alpha power could be used as a physiological marker to identify older adults with lower preoperative cognitive function. Lower intraoperative frontal alpha power could thus be used to target these at-risk patients for possible therapeutic interventions to help prevent postoperative delirium and POCD, or for increased postoperative monitoring and follow-up. More generally, these results suggest that understanding interindividual differences in how the brain responds to anesthetic drugs can be used as a probe of neurocognitive function (and dysfunction, and might be a useful measure of neurocognitive function in older adults.

  5. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, Theresa A.; Baker, Matthew J.; Wahba, Mervat; Hauser, Robert A.

    2003-03-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), affects 70% to 80% of patients, and causes significant morbidity and discomfort. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction symptoms in PD include sexual dysfunction, swallowing and gastrointestinal disorders, bowel and bladder abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and derangements of cardiovascular regulation, particularly, orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PD may be caused by an underlying degenerative process that affects the autonomic ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and hypothalamic nuclei. Anti-parkinsonian medications can cause or worsen symptoms of ANS dysfunction. The care of a PD patient with ANS dysfunction relies on its recognition and directed treatment, including coordinated care between the neurologist and appropriate subspecialist. Pharmacotherapy may be useful to treat orthostasis, gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dysfunction.

  6. Decrease in N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the motor area and the frontal lobe in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Abe, K.; Takanashi, M.; Yanagihara, T. [Dept. of Neurology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Watanabe, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Fujita, N.; Hirabuki, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We studied whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a neuronal marker, is reduced in the brain of 14 patients with clinically definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and whether NAA levels in the motor area and frontal lobe correlate with the clinical features, including frontal lobe function. We also studied 14 normal controls were evaluated. We obtained peak integrals in {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for NAA, creatine (Cr), and choline-containing compounds (Cho). Severity of the disease was determined using the manual muscle strength test, and the Norris limb and bulbar scales. In the patients, the NAA/Cr ratio was reduced in the motor area and frontal lobe, while the Cho/Cr ratio was normal throughout the brain. There were significant correlations between the NAA/Cr ratio in the motor area and the Norris limb scale (r = 0.50; P < 0.01) and between the NAA/Cr ratio in the frontal lobe and the number of categories achieved in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (r = 0.71; P < 0.05), implying frontal lobe dysfunction. These correlations suggest that a reduced NAA/Cr ratio is a marker of cortical neuronal loss and dysfunction in ALS. (orig.)

  7. Frontal Sinus Development and Juvenile Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kaitlin; Ross, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of development is an important component of age estimation in juveniles. One area that has not been fully investigated as a possible aging method is the development of the frontal sinus. The frontal sinuses form when the ectocranial table of the frontal bone separates from the endocranial table forming an air pocket in the bone. The endocranial table ceases growth with the brain, while the ectocranial table is displaced anteriorly as the facial bones continue growth. In order to examine growth and the utility of the frontal sinuses for age estimation, 392 radiographs were examined (♀=159 and ♂=233) from the Juvenile Radiograph Database at North Carolina State University and the Patricia Database from Mercyhurst University. The sample included individuals who ranged in age from 0 to 18 years. Anterior view (or AP) radiographs were examined and were grouped based upon the presence or absence of the frontal sinus. Individuals were grouped into four age categories. A one-way ANOVA was performed to test whether developmental phase was related to age. Results from the ANOVA show that developmental phase is significantly related to age (P Anat Rec, 300:1609-1617, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  9. Evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases; Pruefung einer potentiellen strahleninduzierten Nebenschilddruesenfunktionsstoerung waehrend einer Radioiodtherapie benigner Schilddruesenerkrankung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Serena Christine

    2011-09-28

    The intention of the present thesis was the evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases. It was to be examined whether a change in the parathyroid function would arise within the first week on treatment. So far there are some minor studies existing describing significant changes in the parathyroid hormone serum level within the first months after radioactive iodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Moreover, it is a fact that external beam-radiotherapy can induce neoplasia and that the risk for the subsequent development of primary hyperparathyroidism doubles or triples after external beam-radiotherapy of the head and neck. Up to now, however, an increased incidence for primary hyperparathyroidism following treatment with radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) could not be proved. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university hospital Giessen-Marburg GmbH, location Marburg, a prospective cohort study was executed on radioactive iodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases with 105 probands (75 women / 30 men, mean age 60.62 ± 14.3 years). According to their thyroid diseases these 105 probands were classified into following subgroups: thyroid adenoma with 23 patients, multifocal thyroid autonomy with 8 patients, disseminated thyroid autonomy with 37 patients as well as the subgroup Graves' hyperthyroidism (without Graves' ophtalmopathy) and accordingly Graves' disease (with Graves' ophtalmopathy) with 37 patients. The serum level of the intact parathyroid hormone was determined directly before starting the radioactive iodine therapy on the admission day and on day 1, 3 and 5 of the radioactive iodine therapy as well as at the ambulant follow-up examination one month after the start of the therapy. In case of 99 of 105 probands the serum level of parathyroid hormone declined on treatment with {sup 131}I with its nadir on day 3 of therapy (decline by 15.71 ng

  10. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heredero Jung

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid, entre enero de 1990 y diciembre de 2004. Resultados. La edad media de los pacientes revisados es de 34 años. La mayoría son hombres (78% y la causa más frecuente del traumatismo, los accidentes de tráfico. El patrón de fractura más común es el que afecta únicamente a la pared anterior del seno frontal. Las complicaciones descritas son: deformidad estética frontal, sinusitis frontal, mucocele frontal, celulitis fronto-orbitaria, intolerancia al material de osteosíntesis, complicaciones infecciosas del SNC y persistencia de fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Conclusiones. El objetivo ha de estar encaminado a prevenir las complicaciones asociadas a los pacientes con fracturas de seno frontal. Hay que individualizar el protocolo de tratamiento en cada caso. Es recomendable un seguimiento a largo plazo para identificar precozmente las posibles complicaciones.Introduction. Frontal sinus fractures are caused by high velocity impacts. Inappropriate treatment can lead to serious complications, even many years after the trauma. Objectives. To evaluate epidemiological data and associated complications. To standardize the treatment protocol. Materials and methods. the clinical records of 95 patients with frontal sinus fractures treated between January 1990 and December 2004 at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, "12 de Octubre" Hospital (Madrid, Spain, were reviewed. Results. The average age of

  11. Giant Frontal Mucocele Occurring 32 Years after Frontal Bone Fracture: A Case Report

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    Yuuta Kamoshima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant mucoceles of the frontal sinus are rare but their recognition is important in the differential diagnosis of proptosis and fronto-orbital lesions. The authors describe a patient with frontal giant mucocele with intracranial as well as orbit and ethmoid sinus involvement. Thirty-two years after a frontal sinus fracture, a 51-year-old female presented with headache, and left exophthalmos and ophthalmoplegia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a giant frontal sinus mucocele with extension into the left anterior cranial fossa. The mucocele was treated with a transcranial and endoscopic transnasal approach. The frontal sinus was then cranialized with reconstruction of the posterior wall, and finally a wide nasal drainage was performed. The clinical symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery.

  12. Frontal lobe seizures: from clinical semiology to localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; McGonigal, Aileen; Trébuchon, Agnès; Gavaret, Martine; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Giusiano, Bernard; Chauvel, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Frontal lobe seizures are difficult to characterize according to semiologic and electrical features. We wished to establish whether different semiologic subgroups can be identified and whether these relate to anatomic organization. We assessed all seizures from 54 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy that were explored with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) during presurgical evaluation. Semiologic features and concomitant intracerebral EEG changes were documented and quantified. These variables were examined using Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, and semiologic features correlated with anatomic localization. Four main groups of patients were identified according to semiologic features, and correlated with specific patterns of anatomic seizure localization. Group 1 was characterized clinically by elementary motor signs and involved precentral and premotor regions. Group 2 was characterized by a combination of elementary motor signs and nonintegrated gestural motor behavior, and involved both premotor and prefrontal regions. Group 3 was characterized by integrated gestural motor behavior with distal stereotypies and involved anterior lateral and medial prefrontal regions. Group 4 was characterized by seizures with fearful behavior and involved the paralimbic system (ventromedial prefrontal cortex ± anterior temporal structures). The groups were organized along a rostrocaudal axis, representing bands within a spectrum rather than rigid categories. The more anterior the seizure organization, the more likely was the occurrence of integrated behavior during seizures. Distal stereotypies were associated with the most anterior prefrontal localizations, whereas proximal stereotypies occurred in more posterior prefrontal regions. Meaningful categorization of frontal seizures in terms of semiology is possible and correlates with anatomic organization along a rostrocaudal axis, in keeping with current hypotheses of frontal lobe hierarchical organization

  13. Reduced anterior cingulate gyrus volume correlates with executive dysfunction in men with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeszko, P R; Bilder, R M; Lencz, T; Ashtari, M; Goldman, R S; Reiter, G; Wu, H; Lieberman, J A

    2000-06-16

    Although frontal lobe structural and functional abnormalities have been identified in schizophrenia, their relationship remains elusive. Because the frontal lobes are both structurally and functionally heterogeneous, it is possible that some measures of frontal lobe structure may not have accurately identified relevant frontal lobe subregions. The authors hypothesized that the volumes of two dorsal, 'archicortical' subregions (i.e. superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus), but not a ventral, 'paleocortical' subregion (i.e. orbital frontal region) would be significantly and selectively correlated with executive and motor dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia as previously reported for the anterior hippocampal region. Volumes of these frontal lobe subregions were measured from magnetic resonance images based on sulcal anatomy in 20 men and 15 women with first-episode schizophrenia. All patients completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery while clinically stabilized that encompassed six domains of functioning: attention, executive, motor, visuospatial, memory and language. Findings indicated that reduced anterior cingulate gyrus volume was significantly correlated with worse executive functioning in men; among women, there were no significant correlations. Among men, anterior cingulate gyrus volume was significantly more strongly correlated with executive functioning than with attention, visuospatial, memory, language and general intellectual functioning. Neither executive nor motor functioning was significantly more strongly correlated with the dorsal 'archicortical' volumes than with orbital frontal volume. These findings suggest a link between executive deficits and dysfunction of the dorsal 'archicortical' system and implicate sex differences in their relationship in first-episode schizophrenia.

  14. Dementia of Frontal Lobe Type and Amyotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ferrer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia of frontal lobe type may precede motor signs in a number of adult patients with amyotrophy. Neuropathological studies have shown neuron loss, spongiosis and gliosis mainly in layers II and III of the frontal and temporal lobes, together with myelin pallor of the subcortical white matter. Golgi studies revealed loss of dendritic spines on the apical dendrite of layer III pyramidal neurons, decreased numbers of dendrites, amputation and tortuosities of dendrites, and distal and proximal dendritic swellings and enlargements. Calbindin D-28K immunocytochemistry revealed a marked decrease in the number of cortical immunoreactive neurons and loss of immunoreactivity in dendrites of the remaining cells. These features indicate that pyramidal and non-pyramidal neurons in layers II and III are severely damaged, and suggest that cortical processing is seriously impaired in patients with frontal lobe type dementia.

  15. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases.

  16. Hypnosis, memory, and frontal executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvolden, Peter; Woody, Erik Z

    2004-01-01

    According to the dissociated-control hypothesis forwarded by Woody and Bowers (1994), the effects of hypnosis are consistent with attenuated frontal lobe functioning. The present study was designed to compare the performance of participants with high and low hypnotic ability on a variety of memory tasks thought to be sensitive to frontal lobe functioning, as well as some control memory tasks not considered to be sensitive to such functioning. Results generally indicated that participants with high hypnotic ability have more difficulty with tasks sensitive to frontal lobe functioning, including free recall, proactive interference, and source amnesia tasks, both within and outside of the context of hypnosis. These differences, which were not found for nonfrontal tasks, are generally supportive of the dissociated control theory of hypnotic responding.

  17. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C Miotto

    Full Text Available Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR, related-non-structured (RNS, and related-structured words (RS, allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and middle frontal gyrus (MFG during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  18. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Eliane C; Balardin, Joana B; Vieira, Gilson; Sato, Joao R; Martin, Maria da Graça M; Scaff, Milberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Junior, Edson Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL) LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR), related-non-structured (RNS), and related-structured words (RS), allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  19. "Cool" inferior frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus "hot" ventromedial orbitofrontal-limbic dysfunction in conduct disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya

    2011-06-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder overlap behaviorally, clinically, and cognitively. An important question of potential future clinical relevance is whether these two overlapping disorders are mediated by similar or distinct underlying brain substrates. This article reviews the modern neuroimaging literature on brain structure, function, and connectivity in both disorders, shaping out commonalities and differences. Findings show that ADHD is characterized predominantly by abnormalities in inferior frontal, striatal, parietotemporal, and cerebellar regions and networks that mediate "cool"-cognitive, i.e., inhibitory, attention and timing functions associated with the disorder. Conduct disorder, by contrast, has consistently been associated with abnormalities of the "hot" paralimbic system that regulates motivation and affect, comprising lateral orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, superior temporal lobes, and underlying limbic structures, most prominently the amygdala. Direct comparisons in functional imaging show that these associations of cool inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar dysfunction in ADHD and of hot orbitofrontal-paralimbic dysfunction in conduct disorder are disorder-specific. There is, hence, evidence for dissociated underlying pathophysiologies for these two disorders that may have implications for future anatomy-based differential diagnosis and prevention and intervention.

  20. [Diagnosis, treatment and progress after frontal lobe injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quester, R; Klug, N

    2003-06-01

    The comprehensive assessment of a frontal lobe injury is one of the most complex problems in diagnosis and treatment due to the variability of nature, extent and effect of various disorders of higher cerebral functions, i. e. impairment of the ability to act systematically, attention, motivation and emotionality. This brings about considerable differences in assessing and judging the effects of frontal lobe syndromes. Impairments of initiation, planning and carrying out of actions, of impulse control, attention, memory and self-perception often manifest in disorganised and dissocial behaviour which brings about serious effects in many fields of social adaptability. Deeper neurological insights in nature and effects of these deficiencies and improved diagnostical methods and concepts of intensive-care treatment as well as the improved understanding in the necessity of a longterm rehabilitation program have led to the development of specific strategies concerning the dealing with the patient, the counseling of the social environment, especially of the relatives, and the treatment of the patient's symptoms. In the course of acute and rehabilitative treatment the patient normally has to develop strategies of habituation and adaptation to his social environment, furthermore techniques of compensation as well as an improvement of personal resources including attention, memory and planning of actions. The ability of self-control ought to be improved by training of behavioural strategies leading to an increased independence. The success of treatment varies distinctly from individual to individual. As a rule, basic capabilities in the scope of higher brain functions as well as executive and behavioural abilities can be improved. However, a restitutio ad integrum of all dysfunctions is very rare.

  1. Assessing cognitive functioning in ALS: A focus on frontal lobe processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, S M; Yunusova, Y; Ganda, A; Rogaeva, E; Black, S E; Stuss, D T; Zinman, L

    2017-05-01

    It is generally acknowledged that at least 50% of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) will exhibit cognitive deficits outside of the characteristic motor neuron involvement. However, a specific cognitive profile has been difficult to ascertain due to disease-related testing barriers and limitations in the sensitivity and specificity of available assessment methods. This study assessed the level of functioning of extramotor frontal cognitive processes in ALS, and the amount of change in the functioning in these processes over time as disease progresses. Empirical tests validated for a model of frontal lobe functioning were modified into an assessment battery appropriate for individuals with ALS in a clinical setting (the ALS-CFB, Computerised Frontal Battery). Twenty ALS participants and 36 age- and education-matched neurologically healthy controls were tested, and a sub-sample of each group (11 ALS and 20 controls) re-tested after approximately nine months. Compared to standard neuropsychological screening tests that did not show a difference between ALS participants and healthy controls, the ALS-CFB illustrated a profile of extramotor frontal dysfunction involving energisation (preparing the neural system to respond) and executive functions, a profile that may be indicative of the nature of neurodegeneration in ALS.

  2. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy improves frontal control in bipolar disorder: a pilot EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howells Fleur M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive processing in Bipolar Disorder is characterized by a number of attentional abnormalities. Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy combines mindfulness meditation, a form of attentional training, along with aspects of cognitive therapy, and may improve attentional dysfunction in bipolar disorder patients. Methods 12 euthymic BD patients and 9 control participants underwent record of electroencephalography (EEG, band frequency analysis during resting states (eyes open, eyes closed and during the completion of a continuous performance task (A-X version, EEG event-related potential (ERP wave component analysis. The individuals with BD completed an 8-week MBCT intervention and record of EEG was repeated. Results (1 Brain activity, individuals with BD showed significantly decreased theta band power, increased beta band power, and decreased theta/beta ratios during the resting state, eyes closed, for frontal and cingulate cortices. Post MBCT intervention improvement over the right frontal cortex was seen in the individuals with BD, as beta band power decreased. (2 Brain activation, individuals with BD showed a significant P300-like wave form over the frontal cortex during the cue. Post MBCT intervention the P300-like waveform was significantly attenuated over the frontal cortex. Conclusions Individuals with BD show decreased attentional readiness and activation of non-relevant information processing during attentional processes. These data are the first that show, MBCT in BD improved attentional readiness, and attenuated activation of non-relevant information processing during attentional processes.

  3. Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

  4. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  5. Modulation of frontal effective connectivity during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Rachel; Leff, Alex P; Penny, William D; Rothwell, John C; Crinion, Jenny

    2016-10-15

    Noninvasive neurostimulation methods such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can elicit long-lasting, polarity-dependent changes in neocortical excitability. In a previous concurrent tDCS-fMRI study of overt picture naming, we reported significant behavioural and regionally specific neural facilitation effects in left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) with anodal tDCS applied to left frontal cortex (Holland et al., 2011). Although distributed connectivity effects of anodal tDCS have been modelled at rest, the mechanism by which 'on-line' tDCS may modulate neuronal connectivity during a task-state remains unclear. Here, we used Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) to determine: (i) how neural connectivity within the frontal speech network is modulated during anodal tDCS; and, (ii) how individual variability in behavioural response to anodal tDCS relates to changes in effective connectivity strength. Results showed that compared to sham, anodal tDCS elicited stronger feedback from inferior frontal sulcus (IFS) to ventral premotor (VPM) accompanied by weaker self-connections within VPM, consistent with processes of neuronal adaptation. During anodal tDCS individual variability in the feedforward connection strength from IFS to VPM positively correlated with the degree of facilitation in naming behaviour. These results provide an essential step towards understanding the mechanism of 'online' tDCS paired with a cognitive task. They also identify left IFS as a 'top-down' hub and driver for speech change.

  6. Neuronal reduction in frontal cortex of primates after prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mark W; Palmour, Roberta M; Ervin, Frank R; Ptito, Maurice

    2009-01-07

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) show behavioral and intellectual impairments that indicate frontal lobe dysfunction, but the extent of damage to this region has not been clarified by brain imaging studies. This study uses the St Kitts vervet monkey, a species that voluntarily consumes beverage alcohol, to examine the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant vervets were allowed to drink the equivalent of 3-5 standard drinks four times a week during the third trimester. Using unbiased stereology, we estimated neuronal reduction and found significantly fewer cells in the frontal lobes of FASD offspring as well as an increased density of interstitial white matter neurons. These cytoarchitectonic effects are consistent with the behavioral and cognitive changes observed in FASD.

  7. Oxidative and glicolytic metabolism of the frontal cortex (latero-frontal) and of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) in relation with the sexual activity of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Patterson, A; Florez-Lozano, J A; Marin, B

    1976-01-01

    The authors of this paper have ascertained the glycolytic metabolism and the oxidative metabolism (intake of QO2), of the frontal and posterior cortex in female rats at different stages of the sexual cycle, as also in ovariectomized animals, by the intake of glucose and the production of lactates. The results indicate a statistically significant increase of the oxidative metabolism of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) in the estrual and proestrual phases, in comparisons with the diestral phase. The frontal cortex (latero-frontal) did not show any significant difference; moreover, the glycolitic metabolism did not alter in any of the tissues under observation. These findings, seem to suggest possible participation of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) on the regulation of sexual cycle of the rat. The activation of this cortex occurs through the preponderant imbricantion of the tri-carboxylic acid cycle.

  8. Abnormal MEG oscillatory activity during visual processing in the prefrontal cortices and frontal eye-fields of the aging HIV brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony W Wilson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Shortly after infection, HIV enters the brain and causes widespread inflammation and neuronal damage, which ultimately leads to neuropsychological impairments. Despite a large body of neuroscience and imaging studies, the pathophysiology of these HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND remains unresolved. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown greater activation in HIV-infected patients during strenuous tasks in frontal and parietal cortices, and less activation in the primary sensory cortices during rest and sensory stimulation. METHODS: High-density magnetoencephalography (MEG was utilized to evaluate the basic neurophysiology underlying attentive, visual processing in older HIV-infected adults and a matched non-infected control group. Unlike other neuroimaging methods, MEG is a direct measure of neural activity that is not tied to brain metabolism or hemodynamic responses. During MEG, participants fixated on a centrally-presented crosshair while intermittent visual stimulation appeared in their top-right visual-field quadrant. All MEG data was imaged in the time-frequency domain using beamforming. RESULTS: Uninfected controls had increased neuronal synchronization in the 6-12 Hz range within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right frontal eye-fields, and the posterior cingulate. Conversely, HIV-infected patients exhibited decreased synchrony in these same neural regions, and the magnitude of these decreases was correlated with neuropsychological performance in several cortical association regions. CONCLUSIONS: MEG-based imaging holds potential as a noninvasive biomarker for HIV-related neuronal dysfunction, and may help identify patients who have or may develop HAND. Reduced synchronization of neural populations in the association cortices was strongly linked to cognitive dysfunction, and likely reflects the impact of HIV on neuronal and neuropsychological health.

  9. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Page ( 1 ) Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is one of the most common problems of the foot and ankle. It occurs when the posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. As a result, the ...

  10. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Female Sexual Dysfunction February 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors ... Resources Mayo Clinic Cleveland Clinic What is female sexual dysfunction (FSD)? Many women have a low sex ...

  11. Influence of motivation on control hierarchy in the human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Aarts, Esther; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-02-18

    The frontal cortex mediates cognitive control and motivation to shape human behavior. It is generally observed that medial frontal areas are involved in motivational aspects of behavior, whereas lateral frontal regions are involved in cognitive control. Recent models of cognitive control suggest a rostro-caudal gradient in lateral frontal regions, such that progressively more rostral (anterior) regions process more complex aspects of cognitive control. How motivation influences such a control hierarchy is still under debate. Although some researchers argue that both systems work in parallel, others argue in favor of an interaction between motivation and cognitive control. In the latter case it is yet unclear how motivation would affect the different levels of the control hierarchy. This was investigated in the present functional MRI study applying different levels of cognitive control under different motivational states (low vs high reward anticipation). Three levels of cognitive control were tested by varying rule complexity: stimulus-response mapping (low-level), flexible task updating (mid-level), and sustained cue-task associations (high-level). We found an interaction between levels of cognitive control and motivation in medial and lateral frontal subregions. Specifically, flexible updating (mid-level of control) showed the strongest beneficial effect of reward and only this level exhibited functional coupling between dopamine-rich midbrain regions and the lateral frontal cortex. These findings suggest that motivation differentially affects the levels of a control hierarchy, influencing recruitment of frontal cortical control regions depending on specific task demands. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353207-11$15.00/0.

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legido, Agustín; Jethva, Reena; Goldenthal, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Using data of the current prevalence of autism as 200:10,000 and a 1:2000 incidence of definite mitochondrial (mt) disease, if there was no linkage of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and mt disease, it would be expected that 1 in 110 subjects with mt disease would have ASD and 1 in 2000 individuals with ASD would have mt disease. The co-occurrence of autism and mt disease is much higher than these figures, suggesting a possible pathogenetic relationship. Such hypothesis was initially suggested by the presence of biochemical markers of abnormal mt metabolic function in patients with ASD, including elevation of lactate, pyruvate, or alanine levels in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or brain; carnitine level in plasma; and level of organic acids in urine, and by demonstrating impaired mt fatty acid β-oxidation. More recently, mtDNA genetic mutations or deletions or mutations of nuclear genes regulating mt function have been associated with ASD in patients or in neuropathologic studies on the brains of patients with autism. In addition, the presence of dysfunction of the complexes of the mt respiratory chain or electron transport chain, indicating abnormal oxidative phosphorylation, has been reported in patients with ASD and in the autopsy samples of brains. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms linking mt dysfunction and ASD include mt activation of the immune system, abnormal mt Ca(2+) handling, and mt-induced oxidative stress. Genetic and epigenetic regulation of brain development may also be disrupted by mt dysfunction, including mt-induced oxidative stress. The role of the purinergic system linking mt dysfunction and ASD is currently under investigation. In summary, there is genetic and biochemical evidence for a mitochondria (mt) role in the pathogenesis of ASD in a subset of children. To determine the prevalence and type of genetic and biochemical mt defects in ASD, there is a need for further research using the latest genetic technology such as next

  13. [Giant vertebro-basilar aneurysm. Frontal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, A; Mizon, J P; Sevestre, H

    1991-01-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with an apparent frontal syndrome. He also had bilateral trigeminal neuralgia, a pyramidal syndrome of all 4 limbs, balance disturbances, a horizontal nystagmus when looking to the left and a right velopalatine paralysis. CT scan with contrast showed a hyperdense rounded lesion in the left cerebello-pontine angle. Cerebral angiography showed this to be a large aneurysm of the end of the vertebral arteries. The patient died suddenly. Autopsy confirmed the site and presence of the aneurysm. Balance disturbances, the pyramidal syndrome and velopalatine paralysis could all be explained by brain stem compression and the bilateral nature of the trigeminal neuralgia by compression of the trigemino-thalamic tract. The apparent frontal syndrome, the authors suggest could have resulted from subacute raised intracranial pressure.

  14. Treatment of elbow dysfunction under elbow arthroscopy%关节镜手术治疗肘关节伸直受限的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭林; 陈光兴; 段小军; 何锐; 陈昊; 黄宏波; 张颖; 杨柳

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨关节镜下手术治疗肘关节伸直受限的临床疗效.方法 2007年9月至2009年12月收治21例肘关节伸直受限患者,病程中均有慢性肘关节过伸落空损伤史,有过伸受限合并疼痛症状,平均伸直滞缺18.2°(10°~25°).全部采用五通道入路法行关节镜探查手术,术中清理前关节腔,必要时松解前方关节囊,清除肱骨滑车骨赘,行肱骨鹰嘴窝和尺骨鹰嘴成形术.术后常规抗感染、康复训练及预防骨化性肌炎治疗.随访时对比手术前、后的肘关节活动度,并采用Mayo评分表对肘关节功能进行评价,总结术后并发症.术前Mayo评分良13例,中5例,差3例.结果 21例患者术后随访6~29个月(平均19.7个月).21例患者肘关节功能恢复良好,过伸度均得到改善,疼痛症状消失.平均伸直滞缺2.4°(0°~5°).术后Mayo评分优17例,良4例,中0例,差0例.未见神经并发症.结论 肘关节镜下手术具有创伤小、出血少、并发症少的特点,配合合理的康复训练,能有效改善肘关节的功能,是治疗肘关节伸直受限的有效术式.%Objective To evaluate early clinical outcome after arthroscopic treatment of elbow dysfunction. Methods From September 2007 to December 2009, 21 patients with elbow dysfunction were treated with an arthroscopic procedure. All patients had chronic history of elbow dysfunction. Extension lag was 18.2°(10°-25°)combined with pain. All patients underwent five-portals arthroscopic release and debridement. Postoperative care including anti-infectin, rehabilitation and prophylaxis of myositis ossificans were prescribed. All elbows were assessed for increase in ROM and Mayo assessment before and after surgery. Mayo score assessment: ≥ 90 points, excellent; 75-89 points, good; 60-74 points, common; < 60,bad. Complications were evaluated. Results At an average follow-up of 19. 7 months(6-29 months), all patients had improvement of extension and relieve of pain. The

  15. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  16. Betaine prevents homocysteine-induced memory impairment via matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, K; Nakashima, N; Nagao, M; Nomura, T; Kinoshita, S; Hiramatsu, M

    2015-10-01

    Betaine plays important roles that include acting as a methyl donor and converting homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine. Elevated plasma Hcy levels are known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and contribute to impairments of learning and memory. Although it is commonly known that betaine plays an important role in Hcy metabolism, the effects of betaine on Hcy-induced memory impairment have not been investigated. Previously, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of betaine on acute stress and lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment. In the present study, we investigated whether betaine ameliorates Hcy-induced memory impairment and the underlying mechanisms of this putative effect. Mice were treated with Hcy (0.162mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for nine days, and betaine (25mg/kg, s.c.) was administered 30min before the Hcy injections. The memory functions were evaluated using a spontaneous alternation performance test (Y-maze) at seven days and a step-down type passive avoidance test (SD) at nine and ten days after Hcy injection. We found that betaine suppressed the memory impairment induced by repeated Hcy injections. However, the blood concentrations of Hcy were significantly increased in the Hcy-treated mice immediately after the passive avoidance test, and betaine did not prevent this increase. Furthermore, Hcy induces redox stress in part by activating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which leads to BBB dysfunction. Therefore, we tested whether betaine affected MMP-9 activity. Interestingly, treatment with betaine significantly inhibited Hcy-induced MMP-9 activity in the frontal cortex but not in the hippocampus after acute Hcy injection. These results suggest that the changes in MMP-9 activity after betaine treatment might have been partially responsible for the amelioration of the memory deficits and that MMP-9 might be a candidate therapeutic target for HHcy.

  17. Cortical thickness of superior frontal cortex predicts impulsiveness and perceptual reasoning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, C; Kühn, S; Paus, T; Romanowski, A; Banaschewski, T; Barbot, A; Barker, G J; Brühl, R; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Dalley, J W; Flor, H; Ittermann, B; Ivanov, N; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Nees, F; Rietschel, M; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Ströhle, A; Kathmann, N; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Schumann, G; Gallinat, J

    2013-05-01

    Impulsiveness is a pivotal personality trait representing a core domain in all major personality inventories. Recently, impulsiveness has been identified as an important modulator of cognitive processing, particularly in tasks that require the processing of large amounts of information. Although brain imaging studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex to be a common underlying representation of impulsiveness and related cognitive functioning, to date a fine-grain and detailed morphometric analysis has not been carried out. On the basis of ahigh-resolution magnetic resonance scans acquired in 1620 healthy adolescents (IMAGEN), the individual cortical thickness (CT) was estimated. Correlations between Cloninger's impulsiveness and CT were studied in an entire cortex analysis. The cluster identified was tested for associations with performance in perceptual reasoning tasks of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC IV). We observed a significant inverse correlation between trait impulsiveness and CT of the left superior frontal cortex (SFC; Monte Carlo Simulation P<0.01). CT within this cluster correlated with perceptual reasoning scores (Bonferroni corrected) of the WISC IV. On the basis of a large sample of adolescents, we identified an extended area in the SFC as a correlate of impulsiveness, which appears to be in line with the trait character of this prominent personality facet. The association of SFC thickness with perceptual reasoning argues for a common neurobiological basis of personality and specific cognitive domains comprising attention, spatial reasoning and response selection. The results may facilitate the understanding of the role of impulsiveness in several psychiatric disorders associated with prefrontal dysfunctions and cognitive deficits.

  18. Combined endoscopic trephination and endoscopic frontal sinusotomy for management of complex frontal sinus pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Pete S; Citardi, Martin J; Lanza, Donald C

    2005-01-01

    The advances in endoscopic sinus surgery have revolutionized the management of frontal sinus disease. Despite the successes, the purely endoscopic approach has its limitations, especially in patients with alterations in anatomy caused by previous surgical intervention or complex frontal sinus pneumatization patterns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined endoscopic trephination and endoscopic frontal sinusotomy (the above and below approach) in the management of these difficult cases. Chart review was performed on patients undergoing the combined approach from October 1999 to June 2004. Demographic data, symptomatology, comorbidity, previous surgery, and primary pathology were determined. Outcome was assessed based on subjective symptom relief and objective endoscopic patency. Twenty-two patients with a mean age of 49.2 years underwent the combined approach. The primary pathology included mucoceles (15 patients), frontal sinusitis (2 patients), inverted papilloma (2 patients), osteoma (1 patient), fibrous dysplasia (1 patient), and pneumocephalus (1 patient). A total of 25 above and below procedures (22 primary and 3 revision procedures) were performed to manage the pathology. Postoperatively, headaches resolved in 47%, improved in 35%, and remained unchanged in 18% of the patients. Orbital symptoms resolved in 63%, improved in 25%, and remained unchanged in 12% of the patients. Endoscopic patency of the frontal sinusotomy was confirmed in 19 of 22 cases (86%) at a mean follow-up of 16.2 months. Management of complex frontal sinus pathology may require adjunct approaches in conjunction to the standard endoscopic techniques. In this series, the above and below approach was used successfully in 22 patients. The combined approach may serve as an important adjunct for management of complex frontal sinus disease.

  19. The NCAN gene: schizophrenia susceptibility and cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peirong Wang,1 Jun Cai,2 Jianliang Ni,1 Jiangtao Zhang,1 Wei Tang,3 Chen Zhang2 1Department of Psychiatry, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 2Schizophrenia Program, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 3Wenzhou Kangning Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Background: Cognitive dysfunction has been recognized as a cardinal feature of schizophrenia. Elucidating the neurobiological substrates of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia would help identify the underlying mechanism of this disorder. The rs1064395 single nucleotide polymorphism, within the gene encoding neurocan (NCAN, is reported to be associated with schizophrenia in European populations and may influence brain structure in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: In this study, we aimed to explore whether NCAN rs1064395 confers some risk for schizophrenia and cognitive dysfunction in Han Chinese. We recruited 681 patients with schizophrenia and 699 healthy subjects. Two hundred and fifty-four patients were evaluated according to Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS.Results: There were no significant differences in genotype or allele distributions of the rs1064395 polymorphism between the schizophrenia and control groups. Patients showed significantly poorer performance than controls on immediate memory, visuospatial skill, language, attention, delayed memory, and total RBANS score. Patients with the A/A or A/G genotype of rs1064395 had lower scores of immediate memory, visuospatial skill, attention, and total RBANS score than those with the G/G genotype. We performed an expression quantitative trait loci analysis and observed a significant association between rs1064395 and NCAN expression in the frontal (P=0.0022, P=0.022 after Bonferroni correction and cerebellar cortex (P=0.0032, P=0.032 after Bonferroni correction.Conclusion: Our findings indicate

  20. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  1. Crash simulation of UNS electric vehicle under frontal front impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilo, D. D., E-mail: djoksus-2010@yahoo.com; Lukamana, N. I., E-mail: n.indra.lukmana@gmail.com; Budiana, E. P., E-mail: budiana.e@gmail.com; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P., E-mail: danar1405@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Sebelas Maret University has been developing an Electric Vehicle namely SmarT-EV UNS. The main structure of the car are chasis and body. The chasis is made from steel and the body is made from fiberglass composite. To ensure the safety of the car, both static and dynamic tests were carried out to these structures, including their materials, like: tensile test, bending test, and impact test. Another test needed by this vehicle is crashworthiness test. To perform the test, it is needed complex equipments and it is quite expensive. Another way to obtain vehicle crashworthiness behaviour is by simulate it. The purpose of this study was to simulate the response of the Smart-EV UNS electric vehicle main structure when crashing rigid barrier from the front. The crash simulation was done in according to the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) within the speed of the vehicle of 35 mph. The UNS Electric Vehicle was modelled using SolidWorks software, and the simulation process was done by finite element method using ANSYS software. The simulation result showed that the most internal impact energy was absorbed by chassis part. It absorbed 76.2% of impact energy, then the base absorbed 11.3 %, while the front body absorbed 2.5 %, and the rest was absorbed by fender, hood, and other parts.

  2. Crash simulation of UNS electric vehicle under frontal front impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, D. D.; Lukamana, N. I.; Budiana, E. P.; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2016-03-01

    Sebelas Maret University has been developing an Electric Vehicle namely SmarT-EV UNS. The main structure of the car are chasis and body. The chasis is made from steel and the body is made from fiberglass composite. To ensure the safety of the car, both static and dynamic tests were carried out to these structures, including their materials, like: tensile test, bending test, and impact test. Another test needed by this vehicle is crashworthiness test. To perform the test, it is needed complex equipments and it is quite expensive. Another way to obtain vehicle crashworthiness behaviour is by simulate it. The purpose of this study was to simulate the response of the Smart-EV UNS electric vehicle main structure when crashing rigid barrier from the front. The crash simulation was done in according to the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) within the speed of the vehicle of 35 mph. The UNS Electric Vehicle was modelled using SolidWorks software, and the simulation process was done by finite element method using ANSYS software. The simulation result showed that the most internal impact energy was absorbed by chassis part. It absorbed 76.2% of impact energy, then the base absorbed 11.3 %, while the front body absorbed 2.5 %, and the rest was absorbed by fender, hood, and other parts.

  3. Peculiarities of psychological, clinical and instrumental indicators in children with vegetative dysfunction and hypotension under the influence of innovative psychocorrective program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Mitjurjajeva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study the features of psychological state, clinical and instrumental parameters in children with vegetative dysfunction (VD and hypotension influenced by comprehensive treatment with the inclusion of the innovative psychocorrective program with elements of music therapy, visual art therapy and gelotology. Materials and methods. The study included 57 patients with VD and hypotension aged 12 to 17 years, 37 of them received psychotherapy with innovative program “Our drugs — music, laughter, creativity” in comprehensive treatment, 20 children (control group received basic treatment without psychological assistance. General clinical, laboratory, instrumental and psychodiagnostic studies were performed both in main and control groups. Results. Using innovative psychocorrective program in children with VD and hypotension as a part of comprehensive treatment contributed to the improvement of clinical and instrumental data: number of cases with autonomic influences on the heart reduced (from 22.1 to 5.25 %, р < 0.05, orthostatic test autonomic provision was normalized in 40.5 % of children, psychological state improvement was observed in 74.1 % of cases. Conclusions. Innovative psychocorrective program with elements of music therapy, visual art therapy and gelotology can be recommended as a part of comprehensive treatment of children with VD and hypotension in hospital environment and in future psychological support of patients.

  4. Sexual dysfunctions in men treated for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Susanne; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria G E

    2008-01-01

    Patients treated for testicular cancer have increased risk of ejaculatory, orgasmic and erectile dysfunction compared with healthy men. The underlying relations are unclear. This review describes sexual dysfunctions that are associated with various treatment modalities. One meta-analysis and 11...... for understanding sexual dysfunctions in patients with testicular cancer....

  5. Functional organization of the left inferior precentral sulcus: dissociating the inferior frontal eye field and the inferior frontal junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derrfuss, J.; Vogt, V.L.; Fiebach, C.J.; Cramon, D.Y. von; Tittgemeyer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Two eye fields have been described in the human lateral frontal cortex: the frontal eye field (FEF) and the inferior frontal eye field (iFEF). The FEF has been extensively studied and has been found to lie at the ventral part of the superior precentral sulcus. Much less research, however, has focuse

  6. Alopecia frontal fibrosante: relato de seis casos Frontal fibrosing alopecia: report of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Mulinari-Brenner

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia frontal fibrosante é forma progressiva de alopecia cicatricial. Os casos iniciais foram relatados a partir 1994, na Austrália, em pacientes do sexo feminino pós-menopausa. Desde então inúmeros casos foram descritos na literatura sugerindo que ela é mais prevalente do que inicialmente se supunha. Seu curso progressivo se assemelha ao da alopecia androgenética; histologicamente, entretanto, o infiltrado liquenóide é evidente. O artigo relata seis casos brasileiros e discute a alopecia frontal fibrosante dentro do grupo das alopecias cicatriciais, como variante do líquen plano pilar.Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a progressive cicatricial alopecia. The first cases were described in Australia in postmenopausal women, in 1994. Since then, numerous cases were reported, suggesting that frontal fibrosing alopecia is more prevalent than initially thought. Its progressive course in postmenopausal women, clinically resembles androgenetic alopecia; however, histologically, lichenoid infiltrate is evident. This article report six brazilian cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia and discusses them in the context of cicatricial alopecias, as a variant of lichen planopilaris.

  7. Male Sexual Dysfunction and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edey, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in end-stage renal disease. Historically, this cause of considerable morbidity has been under-reported and under-recognized. The ideal approach to diagnosis and management remains unclear due to a paucity of good quality data, but an understanding of the pathophysiology is necessary in order to address the burden of this important complication of CKD. This paper will review the endocrine dysfunction that occurs in renal disease, particularly the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, discuss the causes of erectile dysfunction, infertility, and altered body image and libido in these patients and suggest appropriate treatment interventions. PMID:28382300

  8. Dissociating Parieto-Frontal Networks for Phonological and Semantic Word Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weigel, Anni; Schuschan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    of a dysfunctional area within the network. Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we first tested whether perturbing one area would disrupt behavior. Second, we applied a condition-and-perturb approach, combining parietal offline rTMS with frontal online rTMS to investigate how the functional......TMS was combined with aIFG rTMS. We infer that offline rTMS caused a dysfunction of ANG which increased the functional relevance of aIFG for semantic decisions and sensitized this network to the disruptive effects of aIFG rTMS. The results provide causal evidence that ANG and aIFG contribute to semantics...... and that the functional significance of one area within this network depends on the functional integrity of the other....

  9. Cholesterol Granuloma of the Frontal Sinus: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Manola; Ida, Casorelli; Francesco Luigi, Pietrafesa; Giampiero, Mottola; Domenico, Lacerenza; Giuseppe, Battiloro; Giuseppe, Patitucci; Giulia Anna Carmen, Vita

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol granulomas are common in the mastoid antrum and air cells of the temporal bone. In the paranasal sinuses, especially in the frontal sinus, they have occasionally been mentioned in the literature. The pathogenesis is unknown, but the majority of the authors support the concept of airway obstruction in the cells well pneumatised of temporal bone and paranasal sinuses. The authors report a case of cholesterol granuloma of the frontal sinus treated with radical surgical techniques, and they also recommend an endoscopic approach to frontal sinus to restore or enlarge the nose-frontal canal and promote drainage and ventilation of the frontal sinus. PMID:23150840

  10. Cholesterol Granuloma of the Frontal Sinus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Marco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol granulomas are common in the mastoid antrum and air cells of the temporal bone. In the paranasal sinuses, especially in the frontal sinus, they have occasionally been mentioned in the literature. The pathogenesis is unknown, but the majority of the authors support the concept of airway obstruction in the cells well pneumatised of temporal bone and paranasal sinuses. The authors report a case of cholesterol granuloma of the frontal sinus treated with radical surgical techniques, and they also recommend an endoscopic approach to frontal sinus to restore or enlarge the nose-frontal canal and promote drainage and ventilation of the frontal sinus.

  11. Lack of awareness of erectile dysfunction in many men with risk factors for erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magee Michelle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men with erectile dysfunction often have concurrent medical conditions. Conversely, men with these conditions may also have underlying erectile dysfunction. The prevalence of unrecognized erectile dysfunction in men with comorbidities commonly associated with erectile dysfunction was determined in men invited to participate in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sildenafil citrate. Methods Men ≥30 years old presenting with ≥1 erectile dysfunction risk factor (controlled hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, metabolic syndrome, stable coronary artery disease, diabetes, depression, lower urinary tract symptoms, obesity [body mass index ≥30 kg/m2] or waist circumference ≥40 inches, and not previously diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were evaluated. The screening question, "Do you have erectile dysfunction?," with responses of "no," "yes," and "unsure," and the Erectile Function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF were administered. Results Of 1084 men screened, 1053 answered the screening question and also had IIEF-EF scores. IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction occurred in 71% (744/1053, of whom 54% (399/744 had moderate or severe erectile dysfunction. Of 139 answering "yes," 526 answering "unsure," and 388 answering "no," 96%, 90%, and 36%, respectively, had some degree of erectile dysfunction. The mean±SD (range number of risk factors was 2.9 ± 1.7 (3-8 in the "yes" group, 3.2 ± 1.7 (3-9 in the "unsure" group, and 2.6 ± 1.5 (2-8 in the "no" group. Conclusion Although awareness of having erectile dysfunction was low, most men with risk factors had IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction should be suspected and assessed in men with risk factors, regardless of their apparent level of awareness of erectile dysfunction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00343200.

  12. Seizure semiology of lesional frontal lobe epilepsies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D; Lettori, D; Contaldo, I; Veredice, C; Sacco, A; Vasco, J; Martinelli, D; Chieffo, D; Tartaglione, T; Colosimo, C; Di Rocco, C; Guzzetta, F

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the semiology of seizures in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and to compare them with other paediatric cohorts described in the literature as well as with adult counterparts. We analysed 174 registered seizures of 18 cases under 12 years with lesional epilepsy whose frontal origin was defined by the concordance of neuroimaging and ictal electrographic findings, and confirmed by surgery in the six cases operated on. Seizures were generally short, with a high daily frequency and usually related to sleep. The most characteristic semiological pattern consisted of complex motor seizures, particularly hypermotor. Often seizures corresponded to a mixture of different semiological patterns (tonic, gelastic, automotor, hypermotor, versive) presenting in the same seizure, often as a unique type in the same patient. With regard to several aspects the semiology of FLE in our cohort looks like that reported in adult series, in particular as to the frequency of complex motor seizures. However, our cohort was also characterised by a more protean array of seizure semiology, stressing the occurrence of seizures typically present in adults (versive and complex motor) and of some seizure patterns more characteristic in children such as epileptic spasms; moreover, the rare occurrence of secondarily generalised tonic clonic seizures (SGTCS) was confirmed.

  13. Frontal lobe decortication (frontal lobectomy with ventricular preservation) in epilepsy: anatomical landmarks and surgical technique

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Maria Da Róz

    2016-01-01

    A lobectomia frontal é um procedimento neurocirúrgico frequentemente realizado para o tratamento de tumores cerebrais, epilepsia refratária, e outras patologias que requerem remoção extensa do lobo frontal. Embora seja um procedimento relativamente comum, foram encontrados apenas alguns relatos na literatura acerca da técnica cirúrgica, com pouca consideração acerca da anatomia relevante para esse procedimento. OBJETIVOS: O principal objetivo desta tese é apresentar parâmetros anatômicos e co...

  14. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    OpenAIRE

    S. Heredero Jung; I. Zubillaga Rodríguez; M. Castrillo Tambay; Sánchez Aniceto, G.; J.J. Montalvo Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospit...

  15. Understanding taste dysfunction in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2012-04-01

    Taste dysfunction is a significant but underestimated issue for patients with cancer. Impaired taste results in changes in diet and appetite, early satiety, and impaired social interactions. Nurses can play a key role in educating patients and families on the pathophysiology of taste dysfunction by suggesting interventions to treat the consequences of taste dysfunction, when available, and offering psychosocial support as patients cope with this often devastating consequence of treatment. Taste recognition helps humans identify the nutritional quality of food and signals the digestive tract to begin secreting enzymes. Spoiled or tainted foods typically are recognized by their bad taste. Along with the other sensory systems, taste is crucial for helping patients treated for cancer feel normal. This article will review the anatomy and physiology of taste; define the different types of taste dysfunction, including the underlying pathophysiologic basis related to cancer treatment; and discuss potential nursing interventions to manage the consequences of taste dysfunction.

  16. Frontal lobe neurology and the creative mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cruz De Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Concepts from cognitive neuroscience strongly suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC plays a crucial role in the cognitive functions necessary for creative thinking. Functional imaging studies have repeatedly demonstrated the involvement of PFC in creativity tasks. Patient studies have demonstrated that frontal damage due to focal lesions or neurodegenerative diseases are associated with impairments in various creativity tasks.However, against all odds, a series of clinical observations has reported the facilitation of artistic production in patients with neurodegenerative diseases affecting PFC, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD. An exacerbation of creativity in frontal diseases would challenge neuroimaging findings in controls and patients, as well as the theoretical role of prefrontal functions in creativity processes. To explore this paradox, we reported the history of a FTD patient who exhibited the emergence of visual artistic productions during the course of the disease. The patient produced a large amount of drawings, which have been evaluated by a group of professional artists who were blind to the diagnosis. We also reviewed the published clinical cases reporting a change in the artistic abilities in patients with neurological diseases.We attempted to reconcile these clinical observations to previous experimental findings by addressing several questions raised by our review. For instance, to what extent can the cognitive, conative and affective changes following frontal damage explain changes in artistic abilities? Does artistic exacerbation truly reflect increased creative capacities? These considerations could help to clarify the place of creativity - as it has been defined and explored by cognitive neuroscience - in artistic creation and may provide leads for future lesion studies.

  17. Upstream control of the frontal jet regulating plankton production in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Temel; Mourre, Baptiste; Tintoré, Joaquín.

    2016-09-01

    Using a coupled physical-biological model, we document that a ˜30 km wide meandering jet constitutes a major source of biological enrichment in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) even in the absence of wind forcing and tidal dynamics. The level of enrichment is shown to vary markedly during the year depending on the upstream characteristics of the jet as it exits from the Gibraltar Strait. When its intensity is sufficiently low and characterized by weaker cross-frontal density gradients during winter-spring, the jet is weakly nonlinear and may not fulfill the necessary conditions for frontogenesis. It then remains weakly productive. In the case of stronger jet intensity (>1.1 Sv) accompanied by stronger cross-frontal density and velocity gradients within the Alboran Sea during summer-autumn, the frontal jet becomes strongly nonlinear and ageostrophic with large cross-frontal vorticity changes on the order of planetary vorticity. Under these conditions, upward vertical velocities in the range 10-50 m d-1 supply nutrients into the euphotic layer more effectively and support high-level frontogenesis-induced phytoplankton production on the anticyclonic side of the main jet axis. The strong eddy pumping mechanism also provides a comparable level of plankton production within strongly nonlinear elongated cyclonic eddies along the outer periphery of the frontal jet. The plankton biomass is advected partially by the jet along its trajectory and dispersed within the basin by mesoscale eddies and meanders.

  18. Effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes: a simulation analysis using human body models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes using whole-body human finite element (FE) models representing occupants with different obesity levels. In this study, the geometry of THUMS 4 midsize male model was varied using mesh morphing techniques with target geometries defined by statistical models of external body contour and exterior ribcage geometry. Models with different body mass indices (BMIs) were calibrated against cadaver test data under high-speed abdomen loading and frontal crash conditions. A parametric analysis was performed to investigate the effects of BMI on occupant injuries in frontal crashes based on the Taguchi method while controlling for several vehicle design parameters. Simulations of obese occupants predicted significantly higher risks of injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in frontal crashes compared with non-obese occupants, which is consistent with previous field data analyses. These higher injury risks are mainly due to the increased body mass and relatively poor belt fit caused by soft tissues for obese occupants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a parametric human FE model to investigate the obesity effects on occupant responses in frontal crashes.

  19. Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Szűcs, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

  20. A Cost–Benefit Analysis to Assess the Effectiveness of Frontal Center Curtain Airbag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyeong Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Several new varieties of airbags are under consideration for development. However, their commercialization decision must be backed by a positive Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA outcome. In this study, we propose a CBA framework for the frontal center curtain airbag, a newly designed safety system intended to reduce the injury risk of rear-seat passengers. The proposed CBA covers not only economic benefits of the producer but also the effectiveness in sustainable reduction of the fatal and injury rate. In this context, with accumulated field data on road traffic accidents, a forecasting method reflecting the reduced casualties and the market share of vehicle sales associated with frontal center curtain airbag is utilized. Our results suggest that the use of frontal center curtain airbags helps to reduce the number of casualties with a Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS of 3 or above by 87.4%. Furthermore, both the initial market penetration rate and price of the frontal center curtain airbag significantly influence its socioeconomic benefits. By evaluating the effectiveness of the frontal center curtain airbag, our study can contribute to the decision making for its commercialization.

  1. Increased Frontal Gyrification Negatively Correlates with Executive Function in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabayashi, Daiki; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishiyama, Shimako; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2017-04-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies of gyrification, a possible marker of early neurodevelopment, in schizophrenia patients have reported inconsistent results. In addition, it remains unclear whether aberrant gyrification in schizophrenia patients, if present, is associated with cognitive impairment, which is one of the core features of schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 62 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 57 healthy control subjects. Using FreeSurfer software, local gyrification index (LGI) of the entire cortex was compared between the groups. The relationship between LGI and performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was also examined in a subgroup of patients (n= 28). Compared with the controls, the patients showed a significantly higher LGI in a wide range of bilateral frontal regions as well as in the right inferior parietal and bilateral occipital regions. The number of WCST categories archived in patients was negatively correlated with the LGI mainly in the rostral middle frontal and anterior cingulate regions in the right hemisphere. Our findings suggested a widespread hypergyrification pattern in schizophrenia patients, which supported early neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Our results also suggested that executive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients may be at least partly related to aberrant neurodevelopment, especially in the right frontal regions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J; Ndung'u, Michael N; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J L; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Allan, Louise M; Oakley, Arthur E; O'Brien, John T; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with disrupted end-feet juxtaposed to microvessels. To explore whether this was associated with the disrupted gliovascular interactions or blood-brain barrier damage, we assessed the co-localization of GFAP and AQP4 immunoreactivities in post

  3. Estimation of the cool executive function using frontal electroencephalogram signals in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Zhao, Yun; Si, Yajing; Ren, Qiongqiong; Ren, Wu; Jing, Changqin; Zhang, Hongxing

    2016-11-25

    In schizophrenia, executive dysfunction is the most critical cognitive impairment, and is associated with abnormal neural activities, especially in the frontal lobes. Complexity estimation using electroencephalogram (EEG) recording based on nonlinear dynamics and task performance tests have been widely used to estimate executive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The present study estimated the cool executive function based on fractal dimension (FD) values of EEG data recorded from first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during the performance of three cool executive function tasks, namely, the Trail Making Test-A (TMT-A), Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B), and Tower of Hanoi tasks. The results show that the complexity of the frontal EEG signals that were measured using FD was different in first-episode schizophrenia patients during the manipulation of executive function. However, no differences between patients and controls were found in the FD values of the EEG data that was recorded during the performance of the Tower of Hanoi task. These results suggest that cool executive function exhibits little impairment in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

  4. Treatment of Frontal Hyperhidrosis With Botulinum Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Esra Koku Aksu

    Full Text Available Focal hyperhidrosis is usually localized to the axillae, palms and soles. Less frequently, hyperhidrosis may be confined to the forehead and may have negative impact on patient’s quality of life. A 34-year-old man presented to our clinic with the complaint of frontal hyperhidrosis. He was treated with botulinum toxin A. Thirty points were marked over the forehead and at each injection point, 0.15 ml (3U botulinum toxin A were injected intracutaneously. Hyperhidrosis was significantly reduced and the effect lasted for 12 months. Skindex-29, a quality-of-life measure for skin disease, was administered to the patient at the beginning and at the end of second week of botulinum toxin A injection. There was a significant improvement on the Skindex-29 scale at the end of the treatment. There was no any side effect detected during and after the treatment. Botulinum toxin A treatment is considered to be effective and safe for frontal hyperhidrosis.

  5. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    2012-01-01

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  6. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    2012-01-01

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  7. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  8. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Iida, Akihiko; Matsubara, Michitaka [Nagoya City Rehabilitation and Sports Center (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with {sup 15}O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO{sub 2} between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO{sub 2} of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO{sub 2} of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the

  9. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Comminuted Frontal Sinus Fracture Reconstructed With Titanium Mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kilic, Korhan; Altas, Enver; Gozeler, Mustafa Sitki; Ucuncu, Harun

    2016-03-01

    Frontal sinus fractures (FSF) are relatively uncommon maxillofacial injuries. The most common cause of FSF is motor vehicle accidents with 62% percentage. Management of FSF depends on type of fracture, associated injuries, and involvement of naso-frontal duct. In this report, the authors presented a patient with comminuted fracture of anterior wall of frontal sinus reconstructed with titanium mesh. A 40-year-old man presented with depression of the frontal bone, facial pain, and epistaxis consisting of a motor vehicle accident. Computerized tomography scan revealed multiple comminuted fractures of anterior wall of frontal sinus and fractures of left orbital medial and superior walls. Titanium mesh was used for reconstruction. Postoperative course was uneventful. The titanium mesh, which is easy to handle with no complications, may provide excellent frontal contour after comminuted anterior wall fractures.

  11. Auditory aura in frontal opercular epilepsy: sounds from afar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep; So, Norman K

    2015-06-01

    Auditory auras are typically considered to localize to the temporal neocortex. Herein, we present two cases of frontal operculum/perisylvian epilepsy with auditory auras. Following a non-invasive evaluation, including ictal SPECT and magnetoencephalography, implicating the frontal operculum, these cases were evaluated with invasive monitoring, using stereoelectroencephalography and subdural (plus depth) electrodes, respectively. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures showed an ictal onset involving the frontal operculum in both cases. A typical auditory aura was triggered by stimulation of the frontal operculum in one. Resection of the frontal operculum and subjacent insula rendered one case seizure- (and aura-) free. From a hodological (network) perspective, we discuss these findings with consideration of the perisylvian and insular network(s) interconnecting the frontal and temporal lobes, and revisit the non-invasive data, specifically that of ictal SPECT.

  12. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed.

  13. Pott's Puffy Tumor Arising from Frontal Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hyun Koo [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Pott's puffy tumor is an extremely rare and potentially life-threatening complication of frontal sinusitis. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with mild tenderness on the glabellar area and diplopia. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. Following sinus trephination and long-term antibiotic therapy, the patient achieved a complete recovery.

  14. Distinct contributions by frontal and parietal cortices support working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Wayne E; Curtis, Clayton E

    2017-07-21

    Although subregions of frontal and parietal cortex both contribute and coordinate to support working memory (WM) functions, their distinct contributions remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that perturbations to topographically organized human frontal and parietal cortex during WM maintenance cause distinct but systematic distortions in WM. The nature of these distortions supports theories positing that parietal cortex mainly codes for retrospective sensory information, while frontal cortex codes for prospective action.

  15. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2009-01-01

    Many tests of specific ‘executive functions’ show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matche...

  16. Modeling Cognitive Dysfunction in Neurofibromatosis-1

    OpenAIRE

    Diggs-Andrews, Kelly A.; David H Gutmann

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction, including significant impairments in learning, behavior, and attention, is found in over 10% of children in the general population. However, in the common inherited cancer predisposition syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), the prevalence of these cognitive deficits approaches 70%. As a monogenic disorder, NF1 provides a unique genetic tool to identify and mechanistically dissect the molecular and cellular bases underlying cognitive dysfunction. In this review, we ...

  17. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging.Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction fol...

  18. Evaluation and Decision Making in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Alok T; Govindaraj, Satish

    2016-08-01

    Management of frontal sinusitis can be challenging for even the most experienced otolaryngologists. A thorough understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the frontal sinus is essential to properly manage disease affecting the frontal sinus. Being able to distinguish acute viral from acute bacterial and acute from chronic sinusitis is crucial because these distinctions guide appropriate management. Nasal endoscopy can confirm diagnosis, and radiologic imaging, including computed tomography and MRI, is often a necessary adjunct that aids in determining appropriate therapeutic decisions. One must be aware of the many procedures used in the surgical treatment of frontal sinusitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Frontal and Parietal Cortices Show Different Spatiotemporal Dynamics across Problem-solving Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    Arithmetic problem-solving can be conceptualized as a multistage process ranging from task encoding over rule and strategy selection to step-wise task execution. Previous fMRI research suggested a frontal-parietal network involved in the execution of complex numerical and nonnumerical tasks, but evidence is lacking on the particular contributions of frontal and parietal cortices across time. In an arithmetic task paradigm, we evaluated individual participants' "retrieval" and "multistep procedural" strategies on a trial-by-trial basis and contrasted those in time-resolved analyses using combined EEG and MEG. Retrieval strategies relied on direct retrieval of arithmetic facts (e.g., 2 + 3 = 5). Procedural strategies required multiple solution steps (e.g., 12 + 23 = 12 + 20 + 3 or 23 + 10 + 2). Evoked source analyses revealed independent activation dynamics within the first second of problem-solving in brain areas previously described as one network, such as the frontal-parietal cognitive control network: The right frontal cortex showed earliest effects of strategy selection for multistep procedural strategies around 300 msec, before parietal cortex activated around 700 msec. In time-frequency source power analyses, memory retrieval and multistep procedural strategies were differentially reflected in theta, alpha, and beta frequencies: Stronger beta and alpha desynchronizations emerged for procedural strategies in right frontal, parietal, and temporal regions as function of executive demands. Arithmetic fact retrieval was reflected in right prefrontal increases in theta power. Our results demonstrate differential brain dynamics within frontal-parietal networks across the time course of a problem-solving process, and analyses of different frequency bands allowed us to disentangle cortical regions supporting the underlying memory and executive functions.

  20. Image-guided frontal trephination: a minimally invasive approach for hard-to-reach frontal sinus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharek, Mark A; Fong, Karen J; Hwang, Peter H

    2006-10-01

    Peripherally located frontal sinus pathology may be unreachable with standard endoscopic techniques. Patients with superiorly or laterally based lesions often undergo osteoplastic flap with or without obliteration. Image-guided frontal trephination (IGFT) can localize pathology and provide excellent exposure. We present 13 patients in whom this technique was applied. Medical records of 13 patients undergoing IGFT were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' mean age was 49.2 years, (range 14-79); follow-up time was 29.9 months (range 12-39). Indications for IGFT were superiorly or laterally based mucoceles (3), fibrous dysplasia or osteoma (3), type 4 frontal cells (3), and frontal recess stenosis or ossification (4). In five patients, IGFT was combined with endoscopic transethmoid frontal sinusotomy; eight patients were treated through a trephination approach, and three patients underwent trephination with unilateral frontal sinus obliteration. One patient required revision; all others remain symptom free. IGFT offers an attractive alternative to osteoplastic flap.

  1. Frictionally decaying frontal warm-core eddies

    CERN Document Server

    Rubino, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of nonstationary, nonlinear, axisymmetric, warm-core geophysical surface frontal vortices affected by Rayleigh friction is investigated semi-analytically using the nonlinear, nonstationary reduced-gravity shallow-water equations. In this frame, it is found that vortices characterized by linear distributions of their radial velocity and arbitrary structures of their section and azimuthal velocity can be described exactly by a set of nonstationary, nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The first-order problem (i.e., that describing vortices characterized by a linear azimuthal velocity field and a quadratic section) consists of a system of 4 differential equations, and each further order introduces in the system three additional ordinary differential equations and two algebraic equations. In order to illustrate the behavior of the nonstationary decaying vortices, the system's solution for the first-order and for the second-order problem is then obtained numerically using a Runge-Kutta m...

  2. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  3. Directed forgetting in frontal patients' episodic recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Pilar; Van der Linden, Martial; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2007-03-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a group of patients with lesions of the prefrontal cortex in directed forgetting in episodic memory, i.e. the capacity to actively forget irrelevant information. Four lists of 24 intermixed to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-forgotten (TBF) words were presented for retention. Restricted (TBR only) and unrestricted (TBR and TBF) recall were tested. The results showed that prefrontal patients presented with a general reduction in episodic memory but a normal ability to selectively recall the TBR items during restricted and unrestricted recall. These results are consistent with previous reports of intact directed forgetting in frontal patients and are discussed in terms of their implications for the current debate on the neural substrate of executive functions.

  4. Lin28a protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis by alleviating mitochondrial dysfunction under high glucose/high fat conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Lin28a in protecting against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis under high glucose/high fat (HG/HF conditions.Primary cardiomyocytes which were isolated from neonatal mouse were randomized to be treated with lentivirus carrying Lin28a siRNA, Lin28acDNA 72 h before H/R (9 h/2 h. Cardiomyocytes biomarkers release (LDH and CK, cardiomyocytes apoptosis, mitochondria biogenesis and morphology, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production, ATP content and inflammatory cytokines levels after H/R injury in high glucose/high fat conditions were compared between groups. The target proteins of Lin28a were examined by western blot analysis.Our results revealed that Lin28a cDNA transfection (overexpression significantly inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptotic index, improved mitochondria biogenesis, increased ATP production and reduced ROS production as compared with the H/R group in HG/HF conditions. Lin28a siRNA transfection (knockdown rendered the cardiomyocytes more susceptible to H/R injury as evidenced by increased apoptotic index, impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, decreased ATP production and increased ROS level. Interestingly, these effects of Lin28a were blocked by pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Lin28a overexpression increased, while Lin28a knockdown inhibited IGF1R, Nrf-1, Tfam, p-IRS-1, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-p70s6k, p-AMPK expression levels after H/R injury in HG/HF conditions. Moreover, pretreatment with wortmannin abolished the effects of Lin28a on the expression levels of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-p70s6k, p-AMPK.The present results suggest that Lin28a inhibits cardiomyocytes apoptosis by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and function under high glucose/high fat conditions. The mechanism responsible for the effects of Lin28a is associated with the PI3K/Akt dependent pathway.

  5. Lin28a protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis by alleviating mitochondrial dysfunction under high glucose/high fat conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Niu, Xiaolin; Hu, Jianqiang; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Shuhong; Wang, Jiaxing; Yu, Wenjun; Wang, Chen; Sun, Dongdong; Wang, Haichang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Lin28a in protecting against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis under high glucose/high fat (HG/HF) conditions. Primary cardiomyocytes which were isolated from neonatal mouse were randomized to be treated with lentivirus carrying Lin28a siRNA, Lin28acDNA 72 h before H/R (9 h/2 h). Cardiomyocytes biomarkers release (LDH and CK), cardiomyocytes apoptosis, mitochondria biogenesis and morphology, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ATP content and inflammatory cytokines levels after H/R injury in high glucose/high fat conditions were compared between groups. The target proteins of Lin28a were examined by western blot analysis. Our results revealed that Lin28a cDNA transfection (overexpression) significantly inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptotic index, improved mitochondria biogenesis, increased ATP production and reduced ROS production as compared with the H/R group in HG/HF conditions. Lin28a siRNA transfection (knockdown) rendered the cardiomyocytes more susceptible to H/R injury as evidenced by increased apoptotic index, impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, decreased ATP production and increased ROS level. Interestingly, these effects of Lin28a were blocked by pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Lin28a overexpression increased, while Lin28a knockdown inhibited IGF1R, Nrf-1, Tfam, p-IRS-1, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-p70s6k, p-AMPK expression levels after H/R injury in HG/HF conditions. Moreover, pretreatment with wortmannin abolished the effects of Lin28a on the expression levels of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-p70s6k, p-AMPK. The present results suggest that Lin28a inhibits cardiomyocytes apoptosis by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and function under high glucose/high fat conditions. The mechanism responsible for the effects of Lin28a is associated with the PI3K/Akt dependent pathway.

  6. [Female sexual dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Mijal

    2009-09-01

    Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.

  7. Endothelial dysfunction: EDCF revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAUL M Vanhoutte

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cells can initiate contraction (constriction) of the vascular smooth muscle cells that surround them. Such endothelium-dependent, acute increases in contractile tone can be due to the withdrawal of the production of nitric oxide, to the production of vasoconstrictor peptides (angiotensin Ⅱ, endothelin-1), to the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals(superoxide anions) and/or the release of vasoconstrictor metabolites of arachidonic acid. The latter have been termed endothelium-derived contracting factor (EDCF) as they can contribute to moment-to-moment changes in contractile activity of the underlying vascular smooth muscle cells. To judge from animal experiments, EDCF-mediated responses are exacerbated when the production of nitric oxide is impaired as well as by aging, spontaneous hypertension and diabetes. To judge from human studies, they contribute to the blunting of endothelium-dependent vasodilatations in aged subjects and essential hypertensive patients. Since EDCF causes vasoconstriction by activation of the TP-receptors on the vascular smooth muscle cells, selective antagonists at these receptors prevent endothelium-dependent contractions, and curtail the endothelial dysfunction in hypertension and diabetes.

  8. Successful reversal of propionic acidaemia associated cardiomyopathy: evidence for low myocardial coenzyme Q10 status and secondary mitochondrial dysfunction as an underlying pathophysiological mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruteau, J; Hargreaves, I; Krywawych, S; Chalasani, A; Land, J M; Davison, J E; Kwok, M K; Christov, G; Karimova, A; Ashworth, M; Anderson, G; Prunty, H; Rahman, S; Grünewald, S

    2014-07-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a rare complication in propionic acidaemia (PA). Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. We present a child of Pakistani consanguineous parents, diagnosed with late-onset PA at 18months of age. He presented a mild phenotype, showed no severe further decompensations, normal growth and psychomotor development on a low protein diet and carnitine supplementation. At 15years, a mildly dilated left ventricle was noticed. At 17years he presented after a 2-3month history of lethargy and weight loss with severe decompensated dilated cardiomyopathy. He was stabilised on inotropic support and continuous haemofiltration; a Berlin Heart biventricular assist device was implanted. He received d,l-hydroxybutyrate 200mg/kg/day, riboflavin and thiamine 200mg/day each and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Myocardial biopsy showed endocardial fibrosis, enlarged mitochondria, with atypical cristae and slightly low respiratory chain (RC) complex IV activity relative to citrate synthase (0.012, reference range 0.014-0.034). Myocardial CoQ10 was markedly decreased (224pmol/mg, reference range 942-2738), with a marginally decreased white blood cell level (34pmol/mg reference range 37-133). The dose of CoQ10 was increased from 1.5 to 25mg/kg/day. Cardiomyopathy slowly improved allowing removal of the external mechanical cardiac support after 67days. We demonstrate for the first time low myocardial CoQ10 in cardiomyopathy in PA, highlighting secondary mitochondrial impairment as a relevant causative mechanism. According to these findings, a high-dose CoQ10 supplementation could be a potential adjuvant therapeutic to be considered in PA-related cardiomyopathy.

  9. White matter hyperintensities among older adults are associated with futile increase in frontal activation and functional connectivity during spatial search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Lockhart

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control.

  10. White Matter Hyperintensities among Older Adults Are Associated with Futile Increase in Frontal Activation and Functional Connectivity during Spatial Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Disbrow, Elizabeth A.; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control. PMID:25793922

  11. Frontal oscillatory dynamics predict feedback learning and action adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, I. van de; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Cohen, M.X.

    2011-01-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation ta

  12. An orbital fistula complicating anaerobic frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H.J.F. Peeters; G.M. Bleeker

    1982-01-01

    textabstractA patient is described with an orbital fistula complicating frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. The fistula was excised, but a fortnight later an acute exacerbation occurred. From the discharging pus a Staphylococcus aureus was cultured and from mucosa obtained durin

  13. Frontal Oscillatory Dynamics Predict Feedback Learning and Action Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Cohen, Michael X.

    2011-01-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation task, participants learned to press a button after…

  14. Is the Frontal Assessment Battery reliable in ALS patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Raaphorst; E. Beeldman; B. Jaeger; B. Schmand; L.H. van den Berg; J.G. Weikamp; H.J. Schelhaas; M. de Visser; R.J. de Haan

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of frontal functions in ALS patients is important because of the overlap with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We investigated the applicability and reliability of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) within a cohort of predominantly prevalent ALS patients.

  15. UNIFIED THEORETICAL MOMENT EXPRESSIONS FOR ELUTION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FRONTAL CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGGengliang; TAOZuyi

    1992-01-01

    The unified theoretical moment expressions for elution chromatography and frontal chromatography when the sorption process is described by a linear model were derived. The moment expressions derived by previous authors can be obtained from these unified theoretical moment expressions. In this paper, a mathematical analysis has been carried out so as to set up a unified theoretical basis for elution and frontal chromatography.

  16. Non-frontal model based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-frontal model based approach which ensures that a face recognition system always gets to compare images having similar view (or pose). This requires a virtual suspect reference set that consists of non-frontal suspect images having pose similar to the surveillance vie

  17. An orbital fistula complicating anaerobic frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H.J.F. Peeters; G.M. Bleeker

    1982-01-01

    textabstractA patient is described with an orbital fistula complicating frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. The fistula was excised, but a fortnight later an acute exacerbation occurred. From the discharging pus a Staphylococcus aureus was cultured and from mucosa obtained durin

  18. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Bo; Su

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smo-king, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide(NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease.

  19. Frontal Cardiac area in patent ductus arteriosus patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul Natinal University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-03-15

    Cardiac mensuration by radiographic frontal cardiac area method was carried out on 21 patent ductus arteriosus patients, 15 females and 6 males. Formula used in this study is as follows. Frontal cardiac area = {pi}/4 X long diameter X broad diameter. Increase of frontal cardiac area in patent ductus arteriosus patients seems to be evident but the degree of the cardiomegaly is variable. Comparing to normal data by Choo and Kim, frontal cardiac area in patent ductus arteriosus patients in this series is increased in 15.9% to 98.1%. After surgical ligation of the ductus arteriosus, significant decrease of the frontal cardiac area is observed and the average is 12.5%.

  20. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management.

  1. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be comfortable with your sexuality, improve your self-esteem and accept your body. Try practicing these healthy ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/female-sexual-dysfunction/basics/definition/CON-20027721 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  2. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  3. Basal ganglia dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ganglia dysfunction. They include: Dystonia (muscle tone problems) Huntington disease (disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 20. Review Date 5/30/2016 Updated by: Amit M. ...

  4. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Pamela

    1989-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life.

  5. Expert cognitive control and individual differences associated with frontal and parietal white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R Edward; Anderson, Elaine J; Husain, Masud

    2010-12-15

    Although many functional imaging studies have reported frontal activity associated with "cognitive control" tasks, little is understood about factors underlying individual differences in performance. Here we compared the behavior and brain structure of healthy controls with fighter pilots, an expert group trained to make precision choices at speed in the presence of conflicting cues. Two different behavioral paradigms--Eriksen Flanker and change of plan tasks--were used to assess the influence of distractors and the ability to update ongoing action plans. Fighter pilots demonstrated superior cognitive control as indexed by accuracy and postconflict adaptation on the Flanker task, but also showed increased sensitivity to irrelevant, distracting choices. By contrast, when pilots were examined on their ability to inhibit a current action plan in favor of an alternative response, their performance was no better than the control group. Diffusion weighted imaging revealed differences in white matter radial diffusivity between pilots and controls not only in the right dorsomedial frontal region but also in the right parietal lobe. Moreover, analysis of individual differences in reaction time costs for conflict trials on the Flanker task demonstrated significant correlations with radial diffusivity at these locations, but in different directions. Postconflict adaptation effects, however, were confined to the dorsomedial frontal locus. The findings demonstrate that in humans expert cognitive control may surprisingly be mediated by enhanced response gain to both relevant and irrelevant stimuli, and is accompanied by structural alterations in the white matter of the frontal and parietal lobe.

  6. Development of a neurofeedback protocol targeting the frontal pole using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Akihide; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Homae, Fumitaka; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakakibara, Eisuke; Kawasaki, Shingo; Nishimura, Yukika; Koike, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-11-01

    Neurofeedback has been studied with the aim of controlling cerebral activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used for measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in cortical surface areas with high temporal resolution. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful for neurofeedback, which requires real-time feedback of repeated brain activation measurements. However, no study has specifically targeted neurofeedback, using near-infrared spectroscopy, in the frontal pole cortex. We developed an original near-infrared spectroscopy neurofeedback system targeting the frontal pole cortex. Over a single day of testing, each healthy participant (n = 24) received either correct or incorrect (Sham) feedback from near-infrared spectroscopy signals, based on a crossover design. Under correct feedback conditions, significant activation was observed in the frontal pole cortex (P = 0.000073). Additionally, self-evaluation of control and metacognitive beliefs were associated with near-infrared spectroscopy signals (P = 0.006). The neurofeedback system developed in this study might be useful for developing control of frontal pole cortex activation. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. Frontal variant of Alzheimer's disease and typical Alzheimer's disease: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Fernández-Calvo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical heterogeneity is one of the characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Hence, the atypical frontal or dysexecutive presentation is becoming increasingly well-known, although the underlying factors are still unknown. In this study, the neuropsychological performance of two groups of patients with AD (frontal variant--ADfv--and typical--TAD were compared. The ADfv group (n = 13 was selected due to the existence of frontal hypoperfusion on a simple photon emission computer tomography (SPECT. The results revealed that the ADfv group displayed a severe dysexecutive disorder, more severe neuropsychiatric symptomatology (disinhibition and apathy, more functional impairment, and it generated a higher caregiver overload than the TAD group without frontal impairment (n = 47. Despite the facts that the ADfv group's performance was poorer in all the neuropsychological tests, significant group differences were only found in the processing speed and visuoconstruction tasks. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the processing speed and mental flexibility scores significantly predicted a diagnosis of ADfv. The existence of the grasp reflex, anosognosia, and the absence of apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele (APOE e4 were also more prevalent in the ADfv group. This group had a predominance of males and it was more likely to have a positive family history of AD. To conclude, the study suggests that ADfv represents a subtype of AD that seems to have different clinical, neuropsychological, and genetic characteristics from TAD.

  8. Early-stage psychotherapy produces elevated frontal white matter integrity in adult major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychotherapy has demonstrated comparable efficacy to antidepressant medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Metabolic alterations in the MDD state and in response to treatment have been detected by functional imaging methods, but the underlying white matter microstructural changes remain unknown. The goal of this study is to apply diffusion tensor imaging techniques to investigate psychotherapy-specific responses in the white matter. METHODS: Twenty-one of forty-five outpatients diagnosed with major depression underwent diffusion tensor imaging before and after a four-week course of guided imagery psychotherapy. We compared fractional anisotropy in depressed patients (n = 21 with healthy controls (n = 22, and before-after treatment, using whole brain voxel-wise analysis. RESULTS: Post-treatment, depressed subjects showed a significant reduction in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. As compared to healthy controls, depressed subjects demonstrated significantly increased fractional anisotropy in the right thalamus. Psychopathological changes did not recover post-treatment, but a novel region of increased fractional anisotropy was discovered in the frontal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: At an early stage of psychotherapy, higher fractional anisotropy was detected in the frontal emotional regulation-associated region. This finding reveals that psychotherapy may induce white matter changes in the frontal lobe. This remodeling of frontal connections within mood regulation networks positively contributes to the "top-down" mechanism of psychotherapy.

  9. Trauma of the Frontal Region Is Influenced by the Volume of Frontal Sinuses. A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srbislav S. Pajic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses. By modifying the reference model, three additional models were generated: a model without sinuses, with hypoplasic, and with hyperplasic sinuses. A 7.7 kN force was applied perpendicularly to the forehead of each model, in order to simulate a frontal impact. The results demonstrated that the distribution of impact stress in frontal region depends on the frontal sinus volume. The anterior sinus wall showed the highest fragility in case with hyperplasic sinuses, whereas posterior wall/inner plate showed more fragility in cases with hypoplasic and undeveloped sinuses. Well-developed frontal sinuses might, through absorption of the impact energy by anterior wall, protect the posterior wall and intracranial contents.

  10. Increased frontal electroencephalogram theta amplitude in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestad KA

    2016-09-01

    =0.038 compared to controls. Significant differences were also observed for secondary variables: lower values for relative parietooccipital delta and frontocentral alpha activity among AN patients than among controls.Conclusion: We observed slight excess frontal theta and lower relative alpha and delta amplitudes among AN patients than among controls. This pattern is possibly related to a slight frontal lobe dysfunction in AN, or it may reflect increased attention/vigilance or another state-related change in patients with AN compared to healthy controls. Keywords: anorexia, EEG, frontal theta, alpha, delta, eating disorders

  11. Relationship between Cognitive Performance and Motor Dysfunction in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Varalta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot cross-sectional study was to extensively investigate the relationships between cognitive performance and motor dysfunction involving balance and gait ability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Twenty subjects with Parkinson’s disease underwent a cognitive (outcomes: Frontal Assessment Battery-Italian version, Montreal overall Cognitive Assessment, Trail Making Test, Semantic Verbal Fluency Test, and Memory with Interference Test and motor (outcomes: Berg Balance Scale, 10-Meter Walking Test, 6-Minute Walking Test, Timed Up and Go Test performed also under dual task condition, and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale assessment. Our correlation analyses showed that balance skills are significantly correlated with executive functions, cognitive impairment, and ability to switch attention between two tasks. Furthermore, functional mobility showed a significant correlation with cognitive impairment, verbal fluency, and ability to switch attention between two tasks. In addition, the functional mobility evaluated under the dual task condition showed a significant correlation with cognitive impairment and ability to switch attention between two tasks. These findings might help early identification of cognitive deficits or motor dysfunctions in patients with Parkinson’s disease who may benefit from rehabilitative strategies. Future prospective larger-scale studies are needed to strengthen our results.

  12. Effects of centric relation prematurities of the frontal teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottner, Kurt; Richter, Ernst-Jürgen; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Nägerl, Hans; Proff, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Centric relation prematurities of frontal teeth are frequently found with patients who have severe orthodontic anomalies or received extensive restorative treatment. They can cause a range of symptoms ranging from loosening of the teeth to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The objective of this work has been to derive a mathematical description of the mandibular and periodontal forces generated by anterior prematurities for different incisor relations. In order to quantify the effect of contact area (location and inclination) and the tooth inclination, a two-dimensional mathematical approach was used. Vectorisation of the forces and bending moments makes it possible to predict under which conditions the load increase mainly affecting the anterior teeth can and may cause localized pain and eventually loosening and flaring/crowding of the upper/lower incisors and under which conditions the temporomandibular joint will suffer a large increase in retrusive force, which potentially leads to TMD. For 10 patients with anterior prematurities, analysis of the incisor relation was carried out. For all cases the conclusions drawn from the mathematical model were in full agreement with the reported symptoms, which could be successfully treated.

  13. Prescriptive proprioceptive insoles and dental orthotics change the frontal plane position of the atlas (C1), mastoid, malar, temporal, and sphenoid bones: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, Brian A

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this series of case studies was to determine if the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas could be altered using dental orthotics, prescriptive insoles, or both concurrently. The cranial radiographs of four patients were reviewed for the study. Three of the patients were diagnosed as having a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction and a preclinical clubfoot deformity. The fourth patient was diagnosed as having a TMJ dysfunction, a preclinical clubfoot deformity and a Catetgory II sacral occipital subluxation, as designated in the chiropractic's Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT). Each patient had a series of four cranial radiographs taken using a modified orthogonal protocol. In two patients, improvement towards orthogonal was achieved when using both prescriptive dental orthotics and prescriptive insoles concurrently. Improvement towards orthogonal was less apparent when using only the prescriptive dental orthotic. No improvement or a negative frontal plane shift was noted when using only the prescriptive proprioceptive insoles. In the third patient, the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas increased (away from orthogonal) when using the generic proprioceptive insoles alone or in combination with a prescriptive dental orthotic. In the fourth patient, the frontal plane position of the cranial bones improved using the dental orthotic. However, the proprioceptive insoles, when used alone or in combination with the dental orthotic, increased the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas. This study demonstrates that changes in the frontal plane position of the cranial and atlas bones can occur when using proprioceptive insoles and/or dental orthotics.

  14. Cirurgia de osteoma de seio frontal Surgery of frontal sinus osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira Fobe

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os osteomas do seio frontal correspondem a 57% dos osteomas dos seios paranasais, com incidência variando de 0,01% a 3%. A remoção cirúrgica nos osteomas frontais é indicada nos pacientes sintomáticos. Nos pacientes assintomáticos pode-se adotar a conduta conservadora ou cirúrgica em todos os pacientes independente da sua localização ou extensão. Cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de osteoma de seio frontal foram operados entre 1995 e 1999. A idade média foi 38,4 anos (extremos de 12 a 55 anos, sendo 3 homens e 2 mulheres. O período de sintomatologia variou de 6 meses a 3 anos com média de 10,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentaram cefaléia. Um paciente apresentou epistaxe. Os exames complementares realizados foram: radiografia simples e tomografia computadorizada de seios paranasais com cortes axiais e coronais. Em dois pacientes o diâmetro do osteoma foi maior que 3 cm, e menor que 3 cm em três. A decisão da técnica cirúrgica entre coronal e supraciliar foi estética, reservando-se a abordagem supraciliar para um paciente com calvície, apesar do tumor ser volumoso com extensão para seio etmoidal. Nenhuma dificuldade técnica intra-operatória foi atribuída à escolha da abordagem. O óstio nasofrontal não foi obstruído no intra-operatório. O seguimento pós-operatório mínimo foi de dois anos. Em todos os casos a remoção foi total sem recidiva ou resíduos tumorais. Os sintomas clínicos, achados radiológicos e abordagens cirúrgicas são discutidos. Não ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias.Frontal sinus osteomas are 57% of all paranasal sinus osteomas, with an incidence of 00.1 to 3%. Surgical removal of the frontal sinus osteomas is done in symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients can be managed conservatively or submitted to surgery in spite of its location or extension. Five patients having the diagnosis of frontal sinus osteoma were operated on between 1995 and 1999. Medium age was 38.4 years (from 12

  15. Frontal sinus parameters in computed tomography and sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mitra; Bakhtavar, Khadijeh; Moarefdoost, Jhale; Kamali, Artin; Rafeifar, Shahram

    2016-03-01

    The frontal sinus is a sturdy part of the skull that is likely to be retrieved for forensic investigations. We evaluated frontal sinus parameters in paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) images for sex determination. The study was conducted on 200 normal paranasal sinus CT images of 100 men and 100 women of Persian origin. We categorized the studied population into three age groups of 20-34, 35-49 and ⩾ 50 years. The number of partial septa in the right frontal sinus and the maximum height and width were significantly different between the two sexes. The highest precision for sex determination was for the maximum height of the left frontal sinus (61.3%). In the 20-34 years age-group, height and width of the frontal sinus were significantly different between the two sexes and the height of the left sinus had the highest precision (60.8%). In the 35-49 years age-group, right anterior-posterior diameter had a sex determination precision of 52.3%. No frontal sinus parameter reached a statistically significant level for sex determination in the ⩾ 50 years age-group. The number of septa and scallopings were not useful in sex determination. Frontal sinus parameters did not have a high precision in sex determination among Persian adults.

  16. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of specific 'executive functions' show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage.

  17. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of specific ‘executive functions’ show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage. PMID:19903732

  18. Aphasia induced by gliomas growing in the ventrolateral frontal region: assessment with diffusion MR tractography, functional MR imaging and neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, Alberto; Nava, Simone; Ferrè, Francesca; Castelli, Gianmarco; Aquino, Domenico; Ciaraffa, Francesca; Broggi, Giovanni; DiMeco, Francesco; Piacentini, Sylvie

    2012-02-01

    Lesions in the ventrolateral region of the dominant frontal lobe have been historically associated with aphasia. Recent imaging results suggest that frontal language regions extend beyond classically defined Broca's area to include the ventral precentral gyrus (VPCG) and the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Frontal gliomas offer a unique opportunity to identify structures that are essential for speech production. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the correlation between language deficits and lesion location in patients with gliomas. Nineteen patients with glioma and 10 healthy subjects were evaluated with diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance (MR) tractography, functional MR (verb generation task) and the Aachener Aphasie Test. Patients were divided into two groups according to lesion location with respect to the ventral precentral sulcus: (i) anterior (n=8) with glioma growing in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and underlying white matter; (ii) posterior (n=11) with glioma growing in the VPCG and underlying white matter. Virtual dissection of the AF, frontal intralobar tract, uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior frontal occipital fasciculus (IFOF) was performed with a deterministic approach. Seven posterior patients showed aphasia classified as conduction (4), Broca (1), transcortical motor (1) and an isolated deficit of semantic fluency; one anterior patient had transcortical mixed aphasia. All posterior patients had invasion of the VPCG, however only patients with aphasia had also lesion extension to the AF as demonstrated by tractography dissections. All patients with language deficits had high grade glioma. Groups did not differ regarding tumour volume. A functional pars opercularis was identified with functional MR imaging (fMRI) in 17 patients. Gliomas growing in the left VPCG are much more likely to cause speech deficits than gliomas infiltrating the IFG, including Broca's area. Lesion extension to the AF connecting frontal to parietal

  19. Convergent evidence of the contribution of TP53 genetic variation (Pro72Arg) to metabolic activity and white matter volume in the frontal lobe in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Vicente; Papiol, Sergi; Sanz, Javier; Rosa, Araceli; Arias, Bárbara; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Calama, Julia; Hernández, Ana I; Bécker, Joemir; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2011-05-01

    Abnormalities in white matter (WM) volumes and integrity in schizophrenia, together with post-mortem studies showing reduced expression of oligodendrocyte/myelination genes and apoptotic processes taking place in oligodendrocytes, suggest the interest of major regulators of apoptosis as candidate genes for some features related to myelin integrity in schizophrenia. Protein p53, encoded by TP53 gene, has a central role in the control of apoptosis and is involved in oligodendrocyte development. TP53 gene polymorphisms may account for variability in WM features, metabolic activity and biochemical markers of neuronal integrity and membrane turnover. Pro72Arg and Ins16bp polymorphisms at TP53 gene were analyzed in 20 DSM-IV schizophrenia patients. T1/T2-weighted sequences of these patients were acquired using a 1.5T Philips Gyroscan system. Scans were transformed into Talairach space and segmented into gray matter (GM), WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using Statistical Parametric Mapping under a ROI approach. Likewise dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) metabolic activity was measured using a procedure based on MRI/PET image fusion. In 13 of these patients proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to examine N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) levels in dorsolateral-medial prefrontal cortex (DLMPFC). MRI data were adjusted for age and brain volume using regression parameters from a healthy control group (n=45). Patients Pro/Arg heterozygous (Pro72Arg polymorphism) showed a generalized deficit in whole-brain WM that was especially prominent in frontal lobe and a lower metabolic activity in the DLPFC as compared to Pro/Pro homozygous. Pro/Arg subjects also showed decreased NAA/Cho and increased Cho/Cr ratios in right DLMPFC. TP53 genetic variability influences WM volumes in frontal lobes and it seems to modulate the metabolic activity in this region. Our results suggest that TP53 might influence aspects of myelin and white matter integrity

  20. The Possible Link between GABAergic Dysfunction and Cognitive Decline in a Patient with Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tatsuhiro; Kakimoto, Akihiro; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Kono, Satoshi; Bunai, Tomoyasu; Hosoi, Yasushi; Sakao-Suzuki, Makiko; Konishi, Takashi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Ouchi, Yasuomi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IHP) is accompanied by cognitive impairment. We report the case of a 70-year-old IHP patient with cognitive disturbance. Brain computed tomography showed bilateral calcification in basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Neuropsychological assessment revealed low scores for intelligence, memory, and perseverative errors. Brain positron emission tomography showed a significant reduction in [(18)F]-Fludeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in bilateral frontal, left temporal and parietal cortices, along with a marked reduction in [(11)C]-flumazenil binding in left frontal, temporal, parietal, and bilateral cerebellum. These findings suggest cognitive impairment in IHP may be ascribed to GABAergic dysfunction, thus leading to, or coexisting with, cerebral hypometabolism.

  1. Equivalence of oblique and frontal illumination in perspective shape from shading

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, CK; Yuen, SY

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that any oblique illumination shape-from-shading problem under perspective projection for Lambertian reflection and a single distant light source can be converted to an equivalent frontal illumination problem by a simple nonlinear intensity transformation which is equivalent to a rectification in stereo vision. Remarkably, it involves no approximation of depth. The method is evaluated on perspective shape-from-shading involving wide range of oblique angles. © 2007 I...

  2. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    . Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...... that better response inhibition (i.e. lower false alarm rate) of negative faces would be associated with higher FA in right IFG, right preSMA, and bilateral SLF in adolescents....

  3. The Behavior Of Asymmetric Frontal Couplings With Permanent Magnets In Magnetic Powder And High Temperature Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DOBROTA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is the comparative analysis of the behavior of frontal couplings with Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets in difficult environments, specific to metallurgy – such as environments with magnetic powders and high temperature – in two constructive variants: symmetric couplings and asymmetric couplings (with divided poles. The results show the superior performance of asymmetric couplings under the given conditions

  4. Decreased frontal lobe function in people with Internet addiction disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Shunke Zhou; Fatema Esmail; Lingjiang Li; Zhifeng Kou; Weihui Li; Xueping Gao; Zhiyuan Wang; Changlian Tan; Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed that frontal lobe and brainstem functions were abnormal in on-line game addicts. In this study, 14 students with Internet addiction disorder and 14 matched healthy controls underwent proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure cerebral function. Results demonstrated that the ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine decreased, but the ratio of cho-line-containing compounds to creatine increased in the bilateral frontal lobe white matter in people with Internet addiction disorder. However, these ratios were mostly unaltered in the brainstem, suggesting that frontal lobe function decreases in people with Internet addiction disorder.

  5. Functionalized polymer networks: synthesis of microporous polymers by frontal polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N S Pujari; A R Vishwakarma; T S Pathak; A M Kotha; S Ponrathnam

    2004-12-01

    A series of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)–ethylene dimethacrylate (EGDM) copolymers of varying compositions were synthesized by free-radically triggered thermal frontal polymerization (FP) as well as by suspension polymerization (SP) using azobisisobutyronitrile [AIBN] as initiator. The two sets of copolymers were characterized by IR spectroscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry, for determination of epoxy number and specific surface area. Frontal polymerization was more efficient, yielding greater conversions at much shorter reaction times. The self-propagating frontal polymerization also generates microporous material with narrow pore size distribution. It yields higher internal pore volume and surface area than suspension polymerization, surface morphologies are, however, inferior.

  6. Frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial and intraorbital extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral Cagigal, Beatriz; Barrientos Lezcano, Javier; Floriano Blanco, Raúl; García Cantera, José Miguel; Sánchez Cuéllar, Luis Antonio; Verrier Hernández, Alberto

    2006-11-01

    Frontal sinus mucoceles can present with a multitude of different symptoms including ophthalmic disturbances. Even benign, they have a tendency to expand by eroding the surrounding bony walls that displaces and destroys structures by pressure and bony resorption. A 32-year-old man with diplopia, proptosis of the right eye and headache was presented. The diagnosis was frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial and intraorbital extension. Possible clinical manifestations of mucoceles, diagnostic imaging techniques and treatment used are discussed. Frontal mucoceles are benign and curable, early recognition and management of them is of paramount importance, because they can cause local, orbital or intracranial complications.

  7. Alteraciones de memoria en daño cerebral frontal

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Rodríguez, Irene de la; Noreña, David de

    2007-01-01

    El córtex frontal está implicado en importantes procesos de memoria, pero tiene un papel diferente al de las estructuras temporales y diencefálicas mediales. Mientras que el daño en estas estructuras produce una grave amnesia anterógrada, en el daño frontal se manifiestan una serie de problemas y distorsiones concretas como las fabulaciones, la amnesia de la fuente, el déficit de memoria prospectiva o las alteraciones en el recuerdo libre. El lóbulo frontal no está implicado en el almacenamie...

  8. Fibromyalgia is characterized by altered frontal and cerebellar structural covariance brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L.; Cahalan, Christine; Garcia, Ronald G.; Vangel, Mark G.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Edwards, Robert R.; Napadow, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Altered brain morphometry has been widely acknowledged in chronic pain, and recent studies have implicated altered network dynamics, as opposed to properties of individual brain regions, in supporting persistent pain. Structural covariance analysis determines the inter-regional association in morphological metrics, such as gray matter volume, and such structural associations may be altered in chronic pain. In this study, voxel-based morphometry structural covariance networks were compared between fibromyalgia patients (N = 42) and age- and sex-matched pain-free adults (N = 63). We investigated network topology using spectral partitioning, which can delineate local network submodules with consistent structural covariance. We also explored white matter connectivity between regions comprising these submodules and evaluated the association between probabilistic white matter tractography and pain-relevant clinical metrics. Our structural covariance network analysis noted more connections within the cerebellum for fibromyalgia patients, and more connections in the frontal lobe for healthy controls. For fibromyalgia patients, spectral partitioning identified a distinct submodule with cerebellar connections to medial prefrontal and temporal and right inferior parietal lobes, whose gray matter volume was associated with the severity of depression in these patients. Volume for a submodule encompassing lateral orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, postcentral, lateral temporal, and insular cortices was correlated with evoked pain sensitivity. Additionally, the number of white matter fibers between specific submodule regions was also associated with measures of evoked pain sensitivity and clinical pain interference. Hence, altered gray and white matter morphometry in cerebellar and frontal cortical regions may contribute to, or result from, pain-relevant dysfunction in chronic pain patients. PMID:25844321

  9. Fibromyalgia is characterized by altered frontal and cerebellar structural covariance brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered brain morphometry has been widely acknowledged in chronic pain, and recent studies have implicated altered network dynamics, as opposed to properties of individual brain regions, in supporting persistent pain. Structural covariance analysis determines the inter-regional association in morphological metrics, such as gray matter volume, and such structural associations may be altered in chronic pain. In this study, voxel-based morphometry structural covariance networks were compared between fibromyalgia patients (N = 42 and age- and sex-matched pain-free adults (N = 63. We investigated network topology using spectral partitioning, which can delineate local network submodules with consistent structural covariance. We also explored white matter connectivity between regions comprising these submodules and evaluated the association between probabilistic white matter tractography and pain-relevant clinical metrics. Our structural covariance network analysis noted more connections within the cerebellum for fibromyalgia patients, and more connections in the frontal lobe for healthy controls. For fibromyalgia patients, spectral partitioning identified a distinct submodule with cerebellar connections to medial prefrontal and temporal and right inferior parietal lobes, whose gray matter volume was associated with the severity of depression in these patients. Volume for a submodule encompassing lateral orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, postcentral, lateral temporal, and insular cortices was correlated with evoked pain sensitivity. Additionally, the number of white matter fibers between specific submodule regions was also associated with measures of evoked pain sensitivity and clinical pain interference. Hence, altered gray and white matter morphometry in cerebellar and frontal cortical regions may contribute to, or result from, pain-relevant dysfunction in chronic pain patients.

  10. Hidden prenatal malnutrition in the rat: role of β₁-adrenoceptors on synaptic plasticity in the frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Osvaldo; Pérez, Hernán; Valladares, Luis; Morgan, Carlos; Gatica, Arnaldo; Burgos, Héctor; Olivares, Ricardo; Hernández, Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    Moderate reduction in the protein content of the mother's diet (hidden malnutrition) does not alter body and brain weights of rat pups at birth, but leads to dysfunction of neocortical noradrenaline systems together with impaired long-term potentiation and visuo-spatial memory performance. As β₁-adrenoceptors and downstream protein kinase signaling are critically involved in synaptic long-term potentiation and memory formation, we evaluated the β₁-adrenoceptor density and the expression of cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase Fyn, in the frontal cortex of prenatally malnourished adult rats. In addition, we also studied if β₁-adrenoceptor activation with the selective β₁ agonist dobutamine could improve deficits of prefrontal cortex long-term potentiation presenting these animals. Prenatally malnourished rats exhibited half of β₁-adrenoceptor binding, together with a 51% and 65% reduction of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase α and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase α expression, respectively, as compared with eutrophic animals. Administration of the selective β₁ agonist dobutamine prior to tetanization completely rescued the ability of the prefrontal cortex to develop and maintain long-term potentiation in the malnourished rats. Results suggest that under-expression of neocortical β₁-adrenoceptors and protein kinase signaling in hidden malnourished rats functionally affects the synaptic networks subserving prefrontal cortex long-term potentiation. β₁-adrenoceptor activation was sufficient to fully recover neocortical plasticity in the PKA- and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-deficient undernourished rats, possibly by producing extra amounts of cAMP and/or by recruiting alternative signaling cascades. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. Voiding dysfunction - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a child who is toilet trained the sudden onset of daytime wetting with frequency or urgency is alarming to the parents. Initially this subject was subdivided into a number of descriptive clinical conditions which led to a lot of confusion in recognition and management. Subsequently, the term elimination dysfunction was coined by Stephen Koff to emphasise the association between recurrent urinary infection, wetting, constipation and bladder overactivity. From a urodynamic point of view, in voiding dysfunction, there is either detrusor overactivity during bladder filling or dyssynergic action between the detrusor and the external sphincter during voiding. Identifying a given condition as a ′filling phase dysfunction′ or ′voiding phase dysfunction′ helps to provide appropriate therapy. Objective clinical criteria should be used to define voiding dysfunction. These include bladder wall thickening, large capacity bladder and infrequent voiding, bladder trabeculation and spinning top deformity of the urethra and a clinically demonstrated Vincent′s curtsy. The recognition and treatment of constipation is central to the adequate treatment of voiding dysfunction. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimuation for the treatment of detrusor overactivity, biofeedback with uroflow EMG to correct dyssynergic voiding, and behavioral therapy all serve to correct voiding dysfunction in its early stages. In established neurogenic bladder disease the use of Botulinum Toxin A injections into the detrusor or the external sphincter may help in restoring continence especially in those refractory to drug therapy. However in those children in whom the upper tracts are threatened, augmentation of the bladder may still be needed.

  12. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal–frontal function in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J. Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to “keep their distance” from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal–frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body (“personal space”. Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS, was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal–frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  13. Neurogenic voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Petros; Apostolidis, Apostolos

    2017-05-01

    This review aims to analyze and discuss all recently published articles associated with neurogenic voiding discussion providing readers with the most updated knowledge and trigger for further research. They include the proposal of a novel classification system for the pathophysiology of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) which combines neurological defect in a distinct anatomic location, and data on bowel dysfunction, autonomic dysreflexia and urine biomarkers; review of patient-reported outcome measures in NLUTD; review of the criteria for the diagnosis of clinically significant urinary infections; novel research findings on the pathophysiology of NLUTD; and review of data on minimally and more invasive treatments. Despite the extended evidence base on NLUTD, there is a paucity of high-quality new research concerning voiding dysfunction as opposed to storage problems. The update aims to inform clinicians about new developments in clinical practice, as well as ignite discussion for further clinical and basic research in the aforementioned areas of NLUTD.

  14. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  15. Longitudinal evidence for diminished frontal cortex function in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Lars; Salami, Alireza; Andersson, Mikael; Eriksson, Johan; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Kauppi, Karolina; Lind, Johanna; Pudas, Sara; Persson, Jonas; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional estimates of age-related changes in brain structure and function were compared with 6-y longitudinal estimates. The results indicated increased sensitivity of the longitudinal approach as well as qualitative differences. Critically, the cross-sectional analyses were suggestive of age-related frontal overrecruitment, whereas the longitudinal analyses revealed frontal underrecruitment with advancing age. The cross-sectional observation of overrecruitment reflected a select elderly sample. However, when followed over time, this sample showed reduced frontal recruitment. These findings dispute inferences of true age changes on the basis of age differences, hence challenging some contemporary models of neurocognitive aging, and demonstrate age-related decline in frontal brain volume as well as functional response. PMID:21156826

  16. Aging, episodic memory feeling-of-knowing, and frontal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchay, C; Isingrini, M; Espagnet, L

    2000-04-01

    Groups of normal old and young adults made episodic memory feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgments and took 2 types of episodic memory tests (cued recall and recognition). Neuropsychological tests of executive and memory functions thought to respectively involve the frontal and medial temporal structures were also administered. Age differences were observed on the episodic memory measures and on all neuropsychological tests. Compared with young adults, older adults performed at chance level on FOK accuracy judgments. Partial correlations indicated that a composite measure of frontal functioning and FOK accuracy were closely related. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the composite frontal functioning score accounted for a large proportion of the age-related variance in FOK accuracy. This finding supports the idea that the age-related decline in episodic memory FOK accuracy is mainly the result of executive or frontal limitations associated with aging.

  17. Management of erectile dysfunction in hypertension:Tips and tricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margus; Viigimaa; Charalambos; Vlachopoulos; Antonios; Lazaridis; Michael; Doumas

    2014-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects approximately one third of the adult population worldwide. The vascular origin of erectile dysfunction is now widely accepted in the vast majority of cases. Erectile dysfunction is frequently encountered in patients with arterial hypertension and greatly affects their quality of life of hypertensive patients and their sexual partners. Therefore, the management of erectile dysfunction in hypertensive patients is of paramount importance. Unfortunately, erectile dysfunction remains under-reported, under-recognized, and under-treated in hypertensive patients, mainly due to the lack of familiarity with this clinical entity by treating physicians. This review aims to discuss the more frequent problems in the management of hypertensive patients with erectile dysfunction and propose ways to overcome these problems in everyday clinical practice.

  18. Giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matushita, Joao Paulo, E-mail: jpauloejulieta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Matushita, Julieta S.; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem Dr. Matsushita, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Matushita, Cristina S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho; Simoes, Luiz Antonio Monteiro; Carvalho Neto, Lizando Franco de

    2013-06-15

    The authors report the case of a giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus in a 54-year-old male patient. This tumor location is rare, and this is the third case reported in the literature with radiographic documentation and histopathological confirmation. The patient underwent surgery, with curettage of frontal sinus and placement of a prosthesis. He died because a voluntary abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids. (author)

  19. Clinical and tomography evolution of frontal osteomyelitis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Crisóstomo Lima Verde1, , , , ,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The frontal osteomyelitis is a complication of rhinosinusitis which can evolve to acute or chronicle. There is inflammatory reaction by the increasing of intraosseous pressure, ischemia and local necrosis, leading to bone abscess formation. There is no drainage, it will occur detachment of the periosteum, soft tissue invasion and worsening of ischemia with subsequent bone sequestration. Method: Case report of an inpatient in an emergency service of another institution by the complication of rhinosinusitis who was referred to the Otorhinolaryngology Service of University Hospital Professor Edgard Santos of Federal University of Bahia. Case Report: Male patient, 16 years-old, presented himself to the ER of another institution with cephalea, vomits and fever which evolved to periorbital edema and frontal to the left, moving to palpebral fluctuation and frontal. Subjected to frontal and palpebral abscess drainage, with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with no improvement. He was referred to our service keeping edema and fluctuation in region frontal and light edema in left periorbital region. The nasal endoscopy showed edema in meatus to the left and the computerized tomography showed fronto-ethmoid sinusitis to the left and signs of frontal osteomyelitis with bone sequestration and epidural empyema. Subjected to sinasal endoscopy surgery, external Access or removal of the frontal one affected and epidural empyema drainage. Evolved to the remission of the disease. Final Considerations: Failure in the diagnosis and rhinosinusitis complication treatment can lead to sequalae and fatal complications. The diagnosis of the frontal osteomyelitis is confirmed by the clinical suspicion and confirmed by radiological examination. The surgery is indicated when the evolution is insidious, there is bone sequestration and intracranial complications.

  20. Basic characteristics of post-frontal shower precipitation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Weusthoff

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For the post-frontal precipitation field, a rain rate analysis was carried out based on the radar composite RZ of the German Weather Service. Two different approaches were followed: an Eulerian- and a Lagrangian-type analysis. Rain rate distributions and their diurnal cycle were investigated and the instantaneous rain rates per individual cell, embedded in an enclosed rain area, were determined. The rain amount per individual cell within a rain area increases with the total cell number. A comparison of the tracks of the rain areas with the 925 hPa wind field revealed a movement with the mean wind direction. Furthermore, the life cycle of the rain areas was investigated with respect to related rain amounts as well as to the area. For single-cell-tracks the mean temporal development of the area integrated rain rate (AIRR shows a parabola shape, while the area time series is better represented by a sine function. The resulting functions only depend on the life time of the track. This result reveals a simple underlying law for an apparently chaotic precipitation process.

  1. Sexual dysfunctions in men treated for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Susanne; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria G E

    2008-01-01

    original works were examined. About one third of the patients experience one or more sexual problems in relation to the treatment. Only retroperitoneal surgery can cause a specific sexual dysfunction, namely loss of ejaculation ability or ejaculatory functioning. Psychosexual causes are important......Patients treated for testicular cancer have increased risk of ejaculatory, orgasmic and erectile dysfunction compared with healthy men. The underlying relations are unclear. This review describes sexual dysfunctions that are associated with various treatment modalities. One meta-analysis and 11...... for understanding sexual dysfunctions in patients with testicular cancer....

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, C A; Corti, O; Brice, A

    2014-05-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders (ND) include a wide spectrum of diseases characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunctions or degeneration. With an estimated cost of 135 billion € in 2010 in the European Union (Olesen et al., 2012), they put an enormous economic as well as social burden on modern societies. Hence, they have been the subject of a huge amount of research for the last fifty years. For many of these diseases, our understanding of their profound causes is incomplete and this hinders the discovery of efficient therapies. ND form a highly heterogeneous group of diseases affecting various neuronal subpopulations reflecting different origins and different pathological mechanisms. However, some common themes in the physiopathology of these disorders are emerging. There is growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunctions play a pivotal role at some point in the course of neurodegeneration. In some cases (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), impairment of mitochondrial functions probably occurs late in the course of the disease. In a subset of ND, current evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunctions play a more seminal role in neuronal demise. Parkinson's disease (PD) presents one of the strongest cases based in part on post-mortem studies that have shown mitochondrial impairment (e.g. reduced complex I activity) and oxidative damage in idiopathic PD brains. The occurrence of PD is largely sporadic, but clinical syndromes resembling sporadic PD have been linked to specific environmental insults or to mutations in at least 5 distinct genes (α-synuclein, parkin, DJ-1, PINK1 and LRRK2). It is postulated that the elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the selective dopaminergic degeneration in familial and environmental Parkinsonism should provide important clues to the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for idiopathic PD. Hence, numerous cellular and animal models of the disease have been generated that mimic these

  3. Asymmetric frontal cortical activity and negative affective responses to ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carly K; Gravens, Laura C; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2011-06-01

    Ostracism arouses negative affect. However, little is known about variables that influence the intensity of these negative affective responses. Two studies fill this void by incorporating work on approach- and withdrawal-related emotional states and their associated cortical activations. Study 1 found that following ostracism anger related directly to relative left frontal cortical activation. Study 2 used unilateral hand contractions to manipulate frontal cortical activity prior to an ostracizing event. Right-hand contractions, compared to left-hand contractions, caused greater relative left frontal cortical activation during the hand contractions as well as ostracism. Also, right-hand contractions caused more self-reported anger in response to being ostracized. Within-condition correlations revealed patterns of associations between ostracism-induced frontal asymmetry and emotive responses to ostracism consistent with Study 1. Taken together, these results suggest that asymmetrical frontal cortical activity is related to angry responses to ostracism, with greater relative left frontal cortical activity being associated with increased anger.

  4. Generalized anxiety modulates frontal and limbic activation in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlund Michael W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety is relatively common in depression and capable of modifying the severity and course of depression. Yet our understanding of how anxiety modulates frontal and limbic activation in depression is limited. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and two emotional information processing tasks to examine frontal and limbic activation in ten patients with major depression and comorbid with preceding generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD and ten non-depressed controls. Results Consistent with prior studies on depression, MDD/GAD patients showed hypoactivation in medial and middle frontal regions, as well as in the anterior cingulate, cingulate and insula. However, heightened anxiety in MDD/GAD patients was associated with increased activation in middle frontal regions and the insula and the effects varied with the type of emotional information presented. Conclusions Our findings highlight frontal and limbic hypoactivation in patients with depression and comorbid anxiety and indicate that anxiety level may modulate frontal and limbic activation depending upon the emotional context. One implication of this finding is that divergent findings reported in the imaging literature on depression could reflect modulation of activation by anxiety level in response to different types of emotional information.

  5. Unusual case of frontal mucocele presenting with forehead ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntaş Kakşi, S; Kakşi, M; Balevi, A; Özdemir, M; Çakır, A

    2014-11-15

    Paranasal mucoceles are benign slow-growing paranasal sinus lesions, which usually develop following the obstruction of the sinus ostiu. They most frequently occur in the frontal sinus. Frontal mucoceles are expansive lesions usually causing visual clinical signs and symptoms such as diminution of vision, visual field defects, diplopia, orbital swelling, retroorbital pain, displacement of eye globe, ptosis, and proptosis. When the frontal mucocele extends intracranially, it can manifest with meningitis, meningoencephalitis, intracranial abscess, seizures, or cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Very rarely it can cause forehead swelling. We report an 80-year-old woman presenting with a forehead skin ulcer and painless subcutaneous forehead induration. Histopathologic examination revealed mucin deposition and inflammation. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed a mass originating from the frontal sinus with frontal bony defect and frontocutaneous fistula. Surgical excision of the mass confirmed the mucocele diagnosis. In this article, we present a case of frontocutaneous fistula and skin ulcer, which is an unexpected complication of frontal mucocele. We propose that in the case of a localized non-healing ulcerated forehead skin lesions, mucocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  6. Athletes in a Slump: Neurophysiological Evidence from Frontal Theta Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingu Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the neurophysiological differences in athletes who suffer from a slump and other athletes who do not. Eighteen high school student athletes participated in this experiment. A subjective questionnaire was conducted to identify athletes in a slump (i.e., the slump group and not in a slump (i.e., the no-slump group. EEG data was recorded at 4 regions (left prefrontal, right prefrontal, left frontal, and right frontal. A two-way (2 groups x 4 regions ANOVA was performed on the dependent variable (i.e., frontal theta power. The findings of this study demonstrated that participants in the no-slump group showed higher frontal theta activity than their counterparts in the slump group. From the findings of this study, it is suggested that mental fatigue may cause low frontal theta activity in athletes who experience a slump. The present study makes an important contribution to the current literature by being the first to report that EEG theta power over frontal regions can be used as a marker of athletes suffering from a slump.

  7. Dimensions of working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukrop, R.; Matuschek, E.; Ruhrmann, S.; Brockhaus, A.; Tendolkar, I.; Bertsch, A.; Klosterkötter, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying structure of eight working memory tests used to assess prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia research [Letter-Number Span (LNS), Digit-Symbol Test (DST), Trail-Making Test B (TMT-B), Delayed Response Task (DRT) for spatial working memory, Sub

  8. Diastolic dysfunction in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiese, Signe Skovgaard; Halgreen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Development of esophageal varices, ascites, and hepatic nephropathy is among the major complications of cirrhosis. The presence of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, which includes a left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD), seems to deteriorate the course of the disease and the prognosis. Increased st...

  9. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  10. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  11. Frontal alpha asymmetry as a pathway to behavioural withdrawal in depression: Research findings and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesulola, Emmanuel; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Agnew, Linda L; Wilson, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Depression has been described as a process of behavioural withdrawal from overwhelming aversive stressors, and which manifests itself in the diagnostic symptomatology for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The underlying neurobiological pathways to that behavioural withdrawal are suggested to include greater activation in the right vs the left frontal lobes, described as frontal EEG asymmetry. However, despite a previous meta-analysis that provided overall support for this EEG asymmetry hypothesis, inconsistencies and several methodological confounds exist. The current review examines the literature on this issue, identifies inconsistencies in findings and discusses several key research issues that require addressing for this field to move towards a defensible theoretical model of depression and EEG asymmetry. In particular, the position of EEG asymmetry in the brain, measurement of severity and symptoms profiles of depression, and the effects of gender are considered as potential avenues to more accurately define the specific nature of the depression-EEG asymmetry association.

  12. Acute phencyclidine treatment induces extensive and distinct protein phosphorylation in rat frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmowski, Pawel; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Williamson, James

    2014-01-01

    assessment of the regulated proteins biological function revealed that PCP perturbs key processes in the frontal cortex including calcium homeostasis, organization of cytoskeleton, endo/exocytosis, and energy metabolism. This study on acute PCP treatment provides the largest proteomics and phosphoproteomics......Phencyclidine (PCP), a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, induces psychotomimetic effects in humans and animals. Administration of PCP to rodents is used as a preclinical model for schizophrenia; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the symptoms remain largely unknown....... Acute PCP treatment rapidly induces behavioral and cognitive deficits; therefore, post-translational regulation of protein activity is expected to play a role at early time points. We performed mass-spectrometry- driven quantitative analysis of rat frontal cortex 15, 30, or 240 min after...

  13. Levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide,cholecystokinin and calcitonin gene-related peptide in plasma and jejunum of rats following traumatic brain injury and underlying significance in gastrointestinal dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Hang; Ji-Xin Shi; Jie-Shou Li; Wei Wu; Wei-Qin Li; Hong-Xia Yin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the alterations of brain-gut peptides following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to explore the underlying significance of these peptides in the complicated gastrointestinal dysfunction.METHODS: Rat models of focal traumatic brain injury were established by impact insult method, and divided into 6 groups (6 rats each group) including control group with sham operation and TBI groups at postinjury 3, 12, 24, 72 h, and d 7. Blood and proximal jejunum samples were taken at time point of each group and gross observations of gastrointestinal pathology were recorded simultaneously. The levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in plasma, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in both plasma and jejunum were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to determine the levels of VTP in jejunum. RESULTS: Gastric distension, delayed gastric emptying and intestinal dilatation with a large amount of yellowish effusion and thin edematous wall were found in TBI rats through 12 h and 72 h, which peaked at postinjury 72 h. As compared with that of control group (247.8±29.5 ng/L), plasma VIP levels were significantly decreased at postinjury 3, 12 and 24 h (106.7±34.1 ng/L, 148.7±22.8 ng/L, 132.8±21.6 ng/L,respectively), but significantly increased at 72 h (405.0±29.8 ng/L) and markedly declined on d 7 (130.7±19.3 ng/L).However, Plasma levels CCK and CGRP were significantly increased through 3 h and 7 d following TBT (126-691% increases), with the peak at 72 h. Compared with control (VIP, 13.6±1.4 ng/g; CGRP, 70.6±17.7 ng/g); VIP and CGRP levels in jejunum were significantly increased at 3 h after TBI (VIP, 35.4±5.0 ng/g; CGRP, 103.8±22.1 ng/g), anddeclined gradually at 12 h and 24 h (VIP, 16.5±1.8 ng/g, 5.5±1.4 ng/g; CGRP, 34.9±9.7 ng/g, 18.5±7.7 ng/g), but were significantly increased again at 72 h (VIP, 48.7±9.5 ng/g; CGRP, 142.1±24.3 ng/g), then declined in various degrees on d 7 (VIP, 3.8±1

  14. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol...

  15. Modeling cognitive dysfunction in neurofibromatosis-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs-Andrews, Kelly A; Gutmann, David H

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive dysfunction, including significant impairments in learning, behavior, and attention, is found in over 10% of children in the general population. However, in the common inherited cancer predisposition syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), the prevalence of these cognitive deficits approaches 70%. As a monogenic disorder, NF1 provides a unique genetic tool to identify and dissect mechanistically the molecular and cellular bases underlying cognitive dysfunction. In this review, we discuss Nf1 fly and mouse systems that mimic many of the cognitive abnormalities seen in children with NF1. Further, we describe discoveries from these models that have uncovered defects in the regulation of Ras activity, cAMP generation, and dopamine homeostasis as key mechanisms important for cognitive dysfunction in children with NF1.

  16. Functional Neuroanatomical Correlates of The Frontal Assessment Battery Performance in Alzheimer Disease: A FDG-PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Byun, Min Soo; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Choe, Young Min; Yi, Dahyun; Han, Ji Young; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to elucidate the functional neuroanatomical correlates of Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) performances by applying [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to a large population of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). The FAB was administered to 177 patients with AD, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglc) was measured by FDG-PET scan. Correlations between FAB scores and rCMglc were explored using both region-of-interest-based (ROI-based) and voxel-based approaches. The ROI-based analysis showed that FAB scores correlated with the rCMglc of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Voxel-based approach revealed significant positive correlations between FAB scores and rCMglc which were in various cortical regions including the temporal and parietal cortices as well as frontal regions, independent of age, gender, and education. After controlling the effect of global disease severity with Mini-Mental State Examination score, significant positive correlation was found only in the bilateral prefrontal regions. Although FAB scores are influenced by temporoparietal dysfunction due to the overall progression of AD, it likely reflects prefrontal dysfunction specifically regardless of global cognitive state or disease severity in patients with AD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Intracranial pressure monitoring for special patterns of frontal lobe contusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ji-rong; CAI Xue-jian; WANG Biao; WANG Yu-hai; SHI Zhong-hua; LIU Bing; CAI Sang; XU Qin-yi

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect and indications of intracranial pressure(ICP)monitoring for frontal lobe contusion patients.Methods:During January 2005-December 2008,34 cases of frontal lobe contusion received ICP monitoring in our department(monitoring group).Different treatment protocols were adopted according to the results of ICP.Meanwhile 46 cases of same type of head-injured patients who did not undergo ICP monitoring served as control group.Results:We found that ICP elevated dramatically within 24 hours after head injury if the contusions were located in frontal longitudinal dehiscence,bilateral undersurface of frontal lobe or dispersed in bilateral lobe.After half a year follow-up and on the basis of Glasgow Coma Scale assessment,the monitoring group showed better outcome than the control group with good recovery in 24 cases(70.6%),moderate disability in 7 cases(20.6%),severe disability in 2(5.88%)and death in 1(2.94%).The outcome of control group displayed good condition in 25 cases(54.3%),moderate disabilities in 8(17.4%),severe disability in 7(15.2%),and death in 6(13.0%).Conclusions:Frontal lobe contusions are vulnerable and complex head injuries,especially when the contusions are located in frontal longitudinal dehiscence,bilateral undersurface of frontal lobe or diffused in bilateral lobes.These patients should undergo ICP monitoring regardless of their consciousness status.If ICP elevates over 25 mm Hg,the craniotomy is mandatory and will markedly reduce the mortality and disability of these patients.

  18. Multiple parietal-frontal pathways mediate grasping in macaque monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbawie, Omar A.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Qi, Huixin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2011-01-01

    The nodes of a parietal-frontal pathway that mediates grasping in primates are in anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Nevertheless, multiple somatosensory and motor representations of the hand, respectively in parietal and frontal cortex, suggest that additional pathways remain unrealized. We explored this possibility in macaque monkeys by injecting retrograde tracers into grasp zones identified in M1, PMv, and area 2 with long train electrical stimulation. The M1 grasp zone was densely connected with other frontal cortex motor regions. The remainder of the connections originated from somatosensory areas 3a and S2/PV, and from the medial bank and fundus of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The PMv grasp zone was also densely connected with frontal cortex motor regions, albeit to a lesser extent than the M1 grasp zone. The remainder of the connections originated from areas S2/PV and aspects of the inferior parietal lobe such as PF, PFG, AIP, and the tip of the IPS. The area 2 grasp zone was densely connected with the hand representations of somatosensory areas 3b, 1, and S2/PV. The remainder of the connections was with areas 3a and 5 and the medial bank and fundus of the IPS. Connections with frontal cortex were relatively weak and concentrated in caudal M1. Thus, the three grasp zones may be nodes of parallel parietal-frontal pathways. Differential points of origin and termination of each pathway suggest varying functional specializations. Direct and indirect connections between those parietal-frontal pathways likely coordinate their respective functions into an accurate grasp. PMID:21832196

  19. Pathophysiology of muscle dysfunction in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Agustí, Alvar; Roca, Josep

    2013-05-01

    Muscle dysfunction often occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may involve both respiratory and locomotor (peripheral) muscles. The loss of strength and/or endurance in the former can lead to ventilatory insufficiency, whereas in the latter it limits exercise capacity and activities of daily life. Muscle dysfunction is the consequence of complex interactions between local and systemic factors, frequently coexisting in COPD patients. Pulmonary hyperinflation along with the increase in work of breathing that occur in COPD appear as the main contributing factors to respiratory muscle dysfunction. By contrast, deconditioning seems to play a key role in peripheral muscle dysfunction. However, additional systemic factors, including tobacco smoking, systemic inflammation, exercise, exacerbations, nutritional and gas exchange abnormalities, anabolic insufficiency, comorbidities and drugs, can also influence the function of both respiratory and peripheral muscles, by inducing modifications in their local microenvironment. Under all these circumstances, protein metabolism imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammatory events, as well as muscle injury may occur, determining the final structure and modulating the function of different muscle groups. Respiratory muscles show signs of injury as well as an increase in several elements involved in aerobic metabolism (proportion of type I fibers, capillary density, and aerobic enzyme activity) whereas limb muscles exhibit a loss of the same elements, injury, and a reduction in fiber size. In the present review we examine the current state of the art of the pathophysiology of muscle dysfunction in COPD.

  20. Multiple sclerosis and sexual dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Ni Guo; Si-Yuan He; Hong-Liang Zhang; Jiang Wu; Yi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterized by episodic and progressive neurologic dysfunction resulting from inflammatory and autoimmune reactions.The underlying pathogenesis of MS remains largely unclear.However,it is currently accepted as a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease.Among other clinical manifestations,sexual dysfunction (SD) is a painful but still underreported and underdiagnosed symptom of the disorder.SD in MS patients may result from a complex set of conditions and may be associated with multiple anatomic,physiologic,biologic,medical and psychological factors.SD arises primarily from lesions affecting the neural pathways involved in physiologic function.In addition,psychological factors,the side effects of medications and physical symptoms such as fatigue,muscular weakness,menstrual changes,pain and concerns about bladder and bowel incontinence may also be involved.Since MS primarily affects young people,SD secondary to MS may have a great impact on quality of life.Thus,maintaining a healthy sexual life with MS is an important priority.The treatment of SD requires multidisciplinary teamwork and cooperation among specialists,individual patients,partners and the society.

  1. What Is a Dysfunctional School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not a school is dysfunctional depends largely on how dysfunctionality in schools is defined and measured. Dysfunctionality, as any construct, is subject to definition and interpretation, and it is thus always marked by perspectivism. But regardless of the definition games occasionally played by academics, some form of reality takes…

  2. Lesson Nine Sinus node dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 吴文烈

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sinus node dysfunction most often is found in the elderly as an isolated phenomenon. Although interruption of the blood supply to the sinus node may produce dysfunction, the correlation between obstruction of the sinus node artery and clinical evidence of sinus node dysfunction is poor.

  3. Alterations in cortical thickness and neuronal density in the frontal cortex of Albert Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B; Harvey, T

    1996-06-07

    Neuronal density, neuron size, and the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortical surface area were measured in the right pre-frontal cortex of Albert Einstein and five elderly control subjects. Measurement of neuronal density used the optical dissector technique on celloidin-embedded cresyl violet-stained sections. The neurons counted provided a systematic random sample for the measurement of cell body cross-sectional area. Einstein's cortex did not differ from the control subjects in the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortex or in mean neuronal size. Because Einstein's cortex was thinner than the controls he had a greater neuronal density.

  4. The cone dysfunction syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshiha, Jonathan; Dubis, Adam M; Hardcastle, Alison J; Michaelides, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The cone dysfunction syndromes are a heterogeneous group of inherited, predominantly stationary retinal disorders characterised by reduced central vision and varying degrees of colour vision abnormalities, nystagmus and photophobia. This review details the following conditions: complete and incomplete achromatopsia, blue-cone monochromatism, oligocone trichromacy, bradyopsia and Bornholm eye disease. We describe the clinical, psychophysical, electrophysiological and imaging findings that are characteristic to each condition in order to aid their accurate diagnosis, as well as highlight some classically held notions about these diseases that have come to be challenged over the recent years. The latest data regarding the genetic aetiology and pathological changes observed in the cone dysfunction syndromes are discussed, and, where relevant, translational avenues of research, including completed and anticipated interventional clinical trials, for some of the diseases described herein will be presented. Finally, we briefly review the current management of these disorders. PMID:25770143

  5. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Leary

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier front, and thus the flow of the glacier. These conclusions are robust against changes in the basal boundary condition and the choice of calving criterion, as well as variations in the glacier size or level of crevassing.

  6. Nontraumatic frontal lobe hemorrhages: Clinical-computed tomographic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.

    1988-12-01

    Correlation of lesion location and appearance with clinical sequelae in 25 patients with CT-proven frontal lobe hematomas reveals 10 of 25 hematomas were located above the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles. Nine of the 10 patients were normotensive. All presented with contralateral motor and sensory deficits. Four of 25 hematomas were situated inferior to the frontal horns. All these patients were hypertensive, rapidly became comatose and exhibited hemiplegia, hemianestesia and gaze preference contralateral to the hemiplegia. Five patients had frontal hematomas which extended inward from the interhemispheric fissure or caval-septal region. All were normotensive. All had anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysms on angiography. Four patients had hematomas involving both the frontal and temporal region. All were normotensive with no known cause for hemorrhage. Two patients had bifrontal hematomas; one had butterfly appearance extending across the interhemispheric fissure and the other was midline but had no interhemispheric blood. Both were normotensive. One had an anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

  7. Attentional inhibition in patients with focal frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Carrie R; Bauer, Russell M; Filoteo, J Vincent; Grande, Laura; Roper, Steven N; Gilmore, Robin

    2005-05-01

    Patients with unilateral, frontal lobe damage and matched controls performed an identity negative priming task as a measure of inhibition in selective attention. Control participants demonstrated a normal negative priming effect, as evidenced by slower reaction times when a previously to-be-ignored item became the target on a subsequent trial (distractor suppression). On the other hand, patients with left medial frontal lobe damage showed positive priming in the distractor suppression condition suggesting facilitation of distractor information. Patients with right frontal lobe damage showed an unreliable pattern of negative priming, some demonstrating an absence of negative priming and others demonstrating enhanced negative priming in the distractor suppression condition. Neither patient group nor controls demonstrated slower responses on a target-to-distractor condition included to evaluate a noninhibitory (i.e., episodic retrieval) account of negative priming. Taken together, our results suggest that (a) the negative priming effect represents active inhibition of a distractor representation, rather than a noninhibitory mismatch between retrieval episodes, and (b) that the frontal lobes, especially the left frontal lobes, contribute to this active inhibition.

  8. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Martin

    2012-01-01

    While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier f...

  9. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is defined as abnormal uterine bleeding that results from an ovarian endocrinopathy. It may be associated with ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. The diagnosis of DUB depends on a thorough history and physical examination to exclude organic disorders. In older women, endometrial biopsy should be done before starting therapy. The treatment depends on an understanding of the menstrual cycle. In less urgent cases, anovulatory cycles are managed using progester...

  10. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    MN, Anil Kumar; Pai, NB; Rao, S; Rao, TSS; Goyal, N.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic di...

  11. Male Gender Role Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Daig, Isolde

    2010-01-01

    Background: Men have a higher alcohol and cigarette consumption than women, they use more drugs, they have twice as high a suicide rate and only a minority of men attend on preventive medical checkups. Hypotheses: The central questions of the present study pertained to the identification of dysfunctional aspects of a male self concept and the possible correlations with risk behaviour of men in different age stages. One possible explanation for this high risk behaviour may be higher mascul...

  12. Orexin A promotes histamine, but not norepinephrine or serotonin, release in frontal cortex of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-yuan HONG; Zhi-li HUANG; Wei-min QU; Naomi EGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of orexin A on release of histamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the frontal cortex of mice. Methods: Samples for measuring histamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin contents were collected by in vivo microdialysis of the frontal cortex of anesthetized mice. The histamine,noradrenaline, and serotonin content in dialysates were measured by HPLC techniques. Results: Intracrebroventricular injection of orexin A at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 pmol per mouse promoted histamine release from the frontal cortex in a dose-dependent manner. At the highest dose given, 200 pmol, orexin A significantly induced histamine release, with the maximal magnitude being 230% over the mean basal release. The enhanced histamine release was sustained for 140 min, and then gradually returned to the basal level. However, no change in nore pinephrine or serotonin release was observed under application of the same dose of orexin A. Conclusion: These results suggest that the arousal effect of orexin A is mainly mediated by histamine, not by norepinephrine or serotonin.

  13. Electrical Capacitance Tomography Measurement of the Migration of Ice Frontal Surface in Freezing Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Suo, X. M.; Zhou, S. S.; Meng, S. Q.; Chen, S. S.; Mu, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    The tracking of the migration of ice frontal surface is crucial for the understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms in freezing soil. Owing to the distinct advantages, including non-invasive sensing, high safety, low cost and high data acquisition speed, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is considered to be a promising visualization measurement method. In this paper, the ECT method is used to visualize the migration of ice frontal surface in freezing soil. With the main motivation of the improvement of imaging quality, a loss function with multiple regularizers that incorporate the prior formation related to the imaging objects is proposed to cast the ECT image reconstruction task into an optimization problem. An iteration scheme that integrates the superiority of the split Bregman iteration (SBI) method is developed for searching for the optimal solution of the proposed loss function. An unclosed electrodes sensor is designed for satisfying the requirements of practical measurements. An experimental system of one dimensional freezing in frozen soil is constructed, and the ice frontal surface migration in the freezing process of the wet soil sample containing five percent of moisture is measured. The visualization measurement results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the ECT visualization method

  14. Sensitivity of medial and lateral knee contact force predictions to frontal plane alignment and contact locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Christopher M; Brandon, Scott C E; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2017-03-12

    Musculoskeletal models are increasingly used to estimate medial and lateral knee contact forces, which are difficult to measure in vivo. The sensitivity of contact force predictions to modeling parameters is important to the interpretation and implication of results generated by the model. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sensitivity of knee contact force predictions to simultaneous errors in frontal plane knee alignment and contact locations under different dynamic conditions. We scaled a generic musculoskeletal model for N=23 subjects' stature and radiographic knee alignment, then perturbed frontal plane alignment and mediolateral contact locations within experimentally-possible ranges of 10° to -10° and 10 to -10mm, respectively. The sensitivity of first peak, second peak, and mean medial and lateral knee contact forces to knee adduction angle and contact locations was modeled using linear regression. Medial loads increased, and lateral loads decreased, by between 3% and 6% bodyweight for each degree of varus perturbation. Shifting the medial contact point medially increased medial loads and decreased lateral loads by between 1% and 4% bodyweight per millimeter. This study demonstrates that realistic measurement errors of 5mm (contact distance) or 5° (frontal plane alignment) could result in a combined 50% BW error in subject specific contact force estimates. We also show that model sensitivity varies between subjects as a result of differences in gait dynamics. These results demonstrate that predicted knee joint contact forces should be considered as a range of possible values determined by model uncertainty.

  15. Thyroid dysfunction and subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moon Kyoung

    2015-12-01

    The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. Moreover, the thyroid gland continuously interacts with the ovaries, and the thyroid hormones are involved in almost all phases of reproduction. Thyroid dysfunctions are relatively common among women of reproductive age, and can affect fertility in various ways, resulting in anovulatory cycles, high prolactin levels, and sex hormone imbalances. Undiagnosed and untreated thyroid disease can be a cause of subfertility. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), also known as mild thyroid failure, is diagnosed when peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within the normal reference laboratory range, but serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are mildly elevated. Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) is characterized by the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, which include anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. SCH and TAI may remain latent, asymptomatic, or even undiagnosed for an extended period. It has also been demonstrated that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation has a significant impact on thyroid function, particularly in women with TAI. In the current review, we describe the interactions between thyroid dysfunctions and subfertility, as well as the proper work-up and management of thyroid dysfunctions in subfertile women.

  16. Gait and risk of falls associated with frontal cognitive functions at different stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Stella, Florindo; de Andrade, Larissa Pires; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Gobbi, Sebastião; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2012-09-01

    The decline in frontal cognitive functions contributes to alterations of gait and increases the risk of falls in patients with dementia, a category which included Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to compare the gait parameters and the risk of falls among patients at different stages of AD, and to relate these variables with cognitive functions. This is a cross-sectional study with 23 patients with mild and moderate AD. The Clinical Dementia Rating was used to classify the dementia severity. The kinematic parameters of gait (cadence, stride length, and stride speed) were analyzed under two conditions: (a) single task (free gait) and (b) dual task (walking and counting down). The risk of falls was evaluated using the Timed Up-and-Go test. The frontal cognitive functions were evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and the Symbol Search Subtest. The patients who were at the moderate stage suffered reduced performance in their stride length and stride speed in the single task and had made more counting errors in the dual task and still had a higher fall risk. Both the mild and the moderate patients exhibited significant decreases in stride length, stride speed and cadence in the dual task. Was detected a significant correlation between CDT, FAB, and stride speed in the dual task condition. We also found a significant correlation between subtest Similarities, FAB and cadence in the dual task condition. The dual task produced changes in the kinematic parameters of gait for the mild and moderate AD patients and the gait alterations are related to frontal cognitive functions, particularly executive functions.

  17. Hypnosis decouples cognitive control from conflict monitoring processes of the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Tobias; Jamieson, Graham; Gruzelier, John

    2005-10-01

    Hypnosis can profoundly alter sensory awareness and cognitive processing. While the cognitive and behavioral phenomena associated with hypnosis have long been thought to relate to attentional processes, the neural mechanisms underlying susceptibility to hypnotic induction and the hypnotic condition are poorly understood. Here, we tested the proposal that highly hypnotizable individuals are particularly adept at focusing attention at baseline, but that their attentional control is compromised following hypnosis due to a decoupling between conflict monitoring and cognitive control processes of the frontal lobe. Employing event-related fMRI and EEG coherence measures, we compared conflict-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and control-related activity in the lateral frontal cortex (LFC) during Stroop task performance between participants of low and high hypnotic susceptibility, at baseline and after hypnotic induction. The fMRI data revealed that conflict-related ACC activity interacted with hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility, in that highly susceptible participants displayed increased conflict-related neural activity in the hypnosis condition compared to baseline, as well as with respect to subjects with low susceptibility. Cognitive-control-related LFC activity, on the other hand, did not differ between groups and conditions. These data were complemented by a decrease in functional connectivity (EEG gamma band coherence) between frontal midline and left lateral scalp sites in highly susceptible subjects after hypnosis. These results suggest that individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility are linked with the efficiency of the frontal attention system, and that the hypnotized condition is characterized by a functional dissociation of conflict monitoring and cognitive control processes.

  18. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Sana; Ali, Asad; Duggan, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of childhood death in resource-poor countries, killing approximately 760,000 children younger than 5 years each year. Although deaths due to diarrhea have declined dramatically, high rates of stunting and malnutrition have persisted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination with resultant intestinal inflammation and villous blunting. These histological changes were first described in the 1960s, but the clinical effect of EED is only just being recognized in the context of failure of nutritional interventions and oral vaccines in resource-poor countries. We review the existing literature regarding the underlying causes of and potential interventions for EED in children, highlighting the epidemiology, clinical and histologic classification of the entity, and discussing novel biomarkers and possible therapies. Future research priorities are also discussed.

  19. Sexual dysfunction with antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisant, L M; Carr, A A; Bottini, P B; Solursh, D S; Solursh, L P

    1994-04-11

    The relationship of antihypertensive drugs have a long history of association with sexual dysfunction; however, this relationship is poorly documented. There appears to be a higher rate of sexual dysfunction in untreated hypertensive men compared with normotensive men. Sexual dysfunction increases with age and is associated with physical and emotional symptoms. There are few studies assessing sexual dysfunction with female and African-American hypertensive patients. Sexual dysfunction is associated with impairment of quality of life and noncompliance. Since group data may hide individual drug effects, baseline data should be collected on all patients before initiating therapy with any antihypertensive agent. Although questionnaires may not provide objective information on sexual dysfunction, the response rate to direct questioning may be less than the response rate on a questionnaire and may be affected by the gender or race of the interviewer. Research protocols using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design should assess sexual dysfunction in men and women in a standardized fashion.

  20. [Mental time dysfunction in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Kuroda, Takeshi; Futamura, Akinori; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2015-03-01

    Mental time is altered by a number of factors and the underlying neural processing involved is highly complicated. Recent research suggests that mental time in patients with particular neurological diseases is perceptually shorter than in normal individuals. This review introduces mental time dysfunction and a model for processing of mental time in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Although the two diseases show the same dysfunction of mental time in behavior, we expect the underlying neural mechanism to vary in each disease. It is possible that the dysfunction of mental time in Parkinson's disease is caused by the abnormal striatum acting as a pacemaker, while that in Alzheimer's disease is caused by abnormal hippocampal memory.

  1. Lower trait frontal theta activity in mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guaraci Ken Tanaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of mindfulness meditation on theta-band activity are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal theta differences between long- and short-term mindfulness practitioners before, during, and after mindfulness meditation. Twenty participants were recruited, of which 10 were experienced Buddhist meditators. Despite an acute increase in the theta activity during meditation in both the groups, the meditators showed lower trait frontal theta activity. Therefore, we suggested that this finding is a neural correlate of the expert practitioners’ ability to limit the processing of unnecessary information (e.g., discursive thought and increase the awareness of the essential content of the present experience. In conclusion, acute changes in the theta band throughout meditation did not appear to be a specific correlate of mindfulness but were rather related to the concentration properties of the meditation. Notwithstanding, lower frontal theta activity appeared to be a trait of mindfulness practices.

  2. Frontal crash simulation of vehicles against lighting columns using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia A. Abdel-Nasser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many severe and fatal crashes that result from vehicles colliding with street columns such as lighting columns. These cause extremely high impact forces and deformation on the frontal area of the car. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the frontal crash simulation of vehicle against lighting columns to examine injury risk and potential of safety. In particular, various FE models are used to perform contact–impact nonlinear dynamic analysis of lighting columns with vehicle. In this paper Abaqus explicit code is used to numerically simulate the crash of the vehicle with present columns and other lighting columns fabricated from a new suggested material. The acceleration, contact force and deformed energy at the frontal region of the vehicle are traced. It is found that the lighting columns with new suggested material have impact properties to decelerate the vehicle and absorb higher energy during impact.

  3. Neuropsychological and electrophysiological indices of neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Stein; Barder, Helene E; Hellvin, Tone; Løvdahl, Hans; Malt, Ulrik F

    2008-12-01

    There are conflicting findings regarding the nature and degree of neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar II disorder (BD II). The aim of this study was to describe different levels of neurocognitive functioning in BD II by combining behavior-based methods (neuropsychological testing) and event-related potentials (ERP). Twenty-five consecutively referred outpatients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for BD II and 28 matched controls performed a neuropsychological test battery targeting working memory/attention, executive functions, verbal and visual memory, and psychomotor speed. In addition, ERPs for measuring early and controlled stages of information processing were recorded using a duration mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm and a three-tone auditory oddball paradigm. Compared to controls, BD II patients' performance was significantly impaired on all neuropsychological measures, except for phonemic verbal fluency, with moderate to strong effect sizes ranging from 0.62 to 1.34. The ERP results indicate dysfunctions in early stages of information processing, showing a significant MMN latency increase and attenuated frontal amplitudes in BD II patients. Female patients showed increased P3a latency compared to female controls, but no group differences were found for P3b latency or amplitude, the ERP component expressing controlled information processing. The functional significance of neuropsychological impairment is discussed. Differences regarding some aspects of executive function may be related to psychomotor speed, and not primarily to dysexecutive functioning. ERP results must be interpreted with caution, but the differences found in MMN latency and amplitudes may be related to fronto-temporal circuitry underlying pre-attentive stimulus change detection as measured by MMN, and are discussed in relation to previous research on MMN in other neuropsychiatric conditions.

  4. [Frontal osteoma with orbital extension. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constans, J P; Meder, J F; Justiniano, P; Michalski, M; Fredy, D

    1984-01-01

    Fronto ethmoidal osteoma are rare slow growth benign tumors. Exceptional ophthalmological and neurological complications can occur. The authors report a case of 32 years old man with eye compression by a giant frontal sinus osteoma. This lesion was responsible for a vertical diplopia and moderate proptosis. Plain skull X-Ray show a well defined opacity filling the whole left frontal sinus and C.T. scan delimited precisely orbital extension. Neurosurgical exposure enabled a complete extraction of the tumor and satisfying recovery. The authors have compared this case to those described in literature and insist on the importance of the pre-operative C.T. scan.

  5. Cortical neuron loss in post-traumatic higher brain dysfunction using (123)I-iomazenil SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaaki; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    In patients with higher brain dysfunction (HBD) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), diagnostic imaging of cortical neuron loss in the frontal lobes was studied using SPECT with (123)I-iomazenil (IMZ), as a radioligand for central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR). Statistical imaging analysis using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) for (123)I-IMZ SPECT was performed in 17 patients. In all patients with HBD defined by neuropsychological tests, cortical neuron loss was indicated in the bilateral medial frontal lobes in 14 patients (83 %). A comparison between the group of 17 patients and the normal database demonstrated common areas of cortical neuron loss in the bilateral medial frontal lobes involving the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). In an assessment of cortical neuron loss in the frontal medial cortex using the stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE) method (level 3), significant cortical neuron loss was observed within bilateral MFG in 9 patients and unilateral MFG in 4, and bilateral ACG in 12 and unilateral ACG in 3. Fourteen patients showed significant cortical neuron loss in bilateral MFG or ACG. In patients with MTBI, HBD seemed to correlate with selective cortical neuron loss within the bilateral MFG or ACG where the responsible lesion could be. 3D-SSP and SEE level 3 analysis for (123)I-IMZ SPECT could be valuable for diagnostic imaging of HBD after MTBI.

  6. Diabetic bladder dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiming Liu; Firouz Daneshgari

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review studies on diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD),a common and bothersome complication of diabetes mellitus.Data sources We performed a search of the English literature through PubMed.The key words used were "diabetes" and "bladder dysfunction" or "cystopathy".Our own data and perspective are included in the discussion.Study selection Studies containing data relevant to DBD were selected.Because of the limited length of this article,we also referenced reviews that contain comprehensive amalgamations of relevant literature.Results The classic symptoms of DBD are decreased bladder sensation,increased bladder capacity,and impaired bladder emptying with resultant elevated post-void residual urine.However,recent clinical and experimental evidence indicate a strong presence of storage problems such as urge incontinence in diabetes.Recent studies of DBD in animal models of type 1 diabetes have revealed temporal effects of diabetes,causing an early phase of compensatory bladder function and a later phase of decompensated bladder function.The pathophysiology of DBD is multifactorial,including disturbances of the detrusor,urothelium,autonomic nerves,and urethra.Polyuria and hyperglycemia play important but distinctive roles in induction of bladder dysfunction in type 1 diabetes.Polyuria causes significant bladder hypertrophy in the early stage of diabetes,whereas oxidative stress in the bladder caused by chronic hyperglycemia may play an important role in the late stage failure of bladder function.Conclusions DBD includes time-dependent and mixed manifestations.The pathological alterations include muscle,nerve,and urothelium.Polyuria and hyperglycemia independently contribute to the pathogenesis of DBD.Treatments for DBD are limited.Future clinical studies on DBD in type 1 and type 2 diabetes should be investigated separately.Animal studies of DBD in type 2 diabetes are needed,from the natural history to mechanisms.Further understanding of the molecular

  7. Functional organization of the left inferior precentral sulcus: dissociating the inferior frontal eye field and the inferior frontal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrfuss, J; Vogt, V L; Fiebach, C J; von Cramon, D Y; Tittgemeyer, M

    2012-02-15

    Two eye fields have been described in the human lateral frontal cortex: the frontal eye field (FEF) and the inferior frontal eye field (iFEF). The FEF has been extensively studied and has been found to lie at the ventral part of the superior precentral sulcus. Much less research, however, has focused on the iFEF. Recently, it was suggested that the iFEF is located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. A similar location was proposed for the inferior frontal junction area (IFJ), an area thought to be involved in cognitive control processes. The present study used fMRI to clarify the topographical and functional relationship of the iFEF and the IFJ in the left hemispheres of individual participants. The results show that both the iFEF and the IFJ are indeed located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. Nevertheless, the activations were spatially dissociable in every individual examined. The IFJ was located more towards the depth of the inferior precentral sulcus, close to the junction with the inferior frontal sulcus, whereas the iFEF assumed a more lateral, posterior and superior position. Furthermore, the results provided evidence for a functional double dissociation: the iFEF was activated only in a comparison of saccades vs. button presses, but not in a comparison of incongruent vs. congruent Stroop conditions, while the opposite pattern was found at the IFJ. These results provide evidence for a spatial and functional dissociation of two directly adjacent areas in the left posterior frontal lobe.

  8. Depression and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Antoine; Kparker, Ashay; Niederberger, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) clearly are associated. Although urologists and psychiatrists have long recognized that antidepressant medications affect erectile function negatively, the interplay between the two conditions remains underappreciated. Psychiatrists may be reluctant to question a patient in detail about ED, and urologists seldom perform a formal assessment of the presence of depression in patients who have ED. This article gives a quick overview of the relationship between these two conditions and provides the clinician with the knowledge required to effectively manage ED with comorbid depression.

  9. Sexual and gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Rathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual and gonadal dysfunction/infertility are quite common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Forty percent of male and 55% of female dialysis patients do not achieve orgasm. The pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction is multifactorial. It is usually a combination of psychological, physiological, and other comorbid factors. Erectile dysfunction in males is mainly due to arterial factors, venous leakage, psychological factors, neurogenic factors, endocrine factors, and drugs. Sexual dysfunction in females is mainly due to hormonal factors and manifests mainly as menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, lack of vaginal lubrication, and failure to conceive. Treatment of gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is multipronged and an exact understanding of underlying pathology is essential in proper management of these patients.

  10. Resección del tabique intersinusal frontal para el manejo de sinusitis frontal crónica unilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar S,Rodolfo; Sedano M,Cecilia; Naser G,Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    La sinusitis frontal crónica es un problema complejo, de difícil manejo quirúrgico debido a la anatomía del seno frontal y el alto índice de recidiva posquirúrgica. La resección del tabique intersinusal ha sido descrita escasamente en la literatura, pero es una técnica sencilla que aprovecha el drenaje del seno contralateral sano, evitando intervenir directamente el ostium comprometido, en especial en casos de estenosis u obliteración que probablemente se reproducirán después de permeabilizar...

  11. Self-regulation of frontal-midline theta facilitates memory updating and mental set shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eEnriquez-Geppert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Frontal-midline (fm theta oscillations as measured via the electroencephalogram (EEG have been suggested as neural working language of executive functioning. Their power has been shown to increase when cognitive processing or task performance is enhanced. Thus, the question arises whether learning to increase fm-theta amplitudes would functionally impact the behavioral performance in tasks probing executive functions (EFs. Here, the effects of neurofeedback, a learning method to self-up-regulate fm-theta over frontal-midline electrodes, on the four most representative EFs, memory updating, set shifting, conflict monitoring, and motor inhibition are presented. Before beginning and after completing an individualized, eight-session gap-spaced neurofeedback intervention, the three-back, letter/number task-switching, Stroop, and stop-signal tasks were tested while measuring the EEG. Self-determined up-regulation of fm-theta and its putative role for executive functioning were compared to an active control group, the so-called pseudo-neurofeedback group. Task-related fm-theta activity after training differed significantly between groups. More importantly, though, after neurofeedback significantly enhanced behavioral performance was observed. The training group showed higher accuracy scores in the three-back task and reduced mixing and shifting costs in letter/number task-switching. However, this specific protocol type did not affect performance in tasks probing conflict monitoring and motor inhibition. Thus, our results suggest a modulation of proactive but not reactive mechanisms of cognitive control. In sum, the modulation of fm-theta via neurofeedback may serve as potent treatment approach for executive dysfunctions.

  12. The rat retrosplenial cortex as a link for frontal functions: A lesion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anna L; Nelson, Andrew J D; Hindley, Emma; Davies, Moira; Aggleton, John P; Vann, Seralynne D

    2017-09-29

    Cohorts of rats with excitotoxic retrosplenial cortex lesions were tested on four behavioural tasks sensitive to dysfunctions in prelimbic cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, or both. In this way the study tested whether retrosplenial cortex has nonspatial functions that reflect its anatomical interactions with these frontal cortical areas. In Experiment 1, retrosplenial cortex lesions had no apparent effect on a set-shifting digging task that taxed intradimensional and extradimensional attention, as well as reversal learning. Likewise, retrosplenial cortex lesions did not impair a strategy shift task in an automated chamber, which involved switching from visual-based to response-based discriminations and, again, included a reversal (Experiment 2). Indeed, there was evidence that the retrosplenial lesions aided the initial switch to response-based selection. No lesion deficit was found on an automated cost-benefit task that pitted size of reward against effort to achieve that reward (Experiment 3). Finally, while retrosplenial cortex lesions affected matching-to-place task in a T-maze, the profile of deficits differed from that associated with prelimbic cortex damage (Experiment 4). When the task was switched to a nonmatching design, retrosplenial cortex lesions had no apparent effect on performance. The results from the four experiments show that many frontal tasks do not require the retrosplenial cortex, highlighting the specificity of their functional interactions. The results show how retrosplenial cortex lesions spare those learning tasks in which there is no mismatch between the internal and external representations used to guide behavioural choice. In addition, these experiments further highlight the importance of the retrosplenial cortex in solving tasks with a spatial component. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In search of autobiographical memories: A PET study in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolino, Pascale; Chételat, Gaël; Matuszewski, Vanessa; Landeau, Brigitte; Mézenge, Florence; Viader, Fausto; de la Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2007-09-20

    Patients suffering from frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fv-FTD) undergo autobiographical amnesia encompassing all time periods. We previously demonstrated in a group of 20 fv-FTD patients that this impairment involved deficits in executive function and semantic memory for all periods as well as new episodic learning and behavioural changes for the most recent period covering the last 12 months [Matuszewski, V., Piolino, P., de la Sayette, V., Lalevée, C., Pélerin, A., Dupuy, B., et al. (2006). Retrieval mechanisms for autobiographical memories: Insights from the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia, Neuropsychologia, 44, 2386-2397]. The aim of the present study was to unravel the neural bases of this impairment by mapping in a subgroup of patients correlations between resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET and measures of autobiographical memory (AM) using the TEMPau task which is designed to gauge personal event recollection across five life time periods. Like in our previous report, the group of patients was impaired regardless of time periods compared to healthy subjects providing generic memories instead of event specific sensory-perceptual-affective details, i.e., episodic memories. New data showed that the patients were also impaired in sense of reliving and self-perspective during retrieval. The cognitivo-metabolic correlations between the AM score and resting normalized FDG-Uptake were computed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and controlling for age and dementia severity. They revealed that AM deficits were mainly subserved by the dysfunction of left-sided orbitofrontal and also temporal neocortical areas whatever the period. Additional analysis showed that specific memories were associated with left orbitofrontal areas whereas generic memories were mainly associated with the left temporal pole. This study supports the view that fv-FTD patients undergo a breakdown of generative processes which relies

  14. Frontal dynamics in a California Current System shallow front: 1. Frontal processes and tracer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallã S-Sanz, E.; Johnston, T. M. S.; Rudnick, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The three-dimensional dynamics in a shallow front are examined using density and current data from two surveys 100 km offshore of Monterey Bay, California. Survey 1 is forced by down-front winds, and both surveys have considerable cross-front density gradients and flow curvature. The maximum Rossby numbers on the dense side reached maxima of +0.60 in survey 1 and +0.45 in survey 2. Downwelling occurs in regions of confluence (frontogenesis) associated with potential vorticity (PV) change and thermal wind imbalance. Streamers of particulate matter and PV are advected southeastward by the frontal jet and downward. Nonlinear Ekman currents advect dense water over light water in the presence of down-front winds, which leads to upwelling along the front and downwelling on the light side of the front. At sites of active ageostrophic secondary circulation (ASC), induced by frontogenesis or Ekman effects, the observed cross-front ageostrophic velocity is consistent with the diagnosed vertical velocity. Furthermore, in survey 2, ageostrophic divergence may play an important role at the curved front, presumably counteracting quasi-geostrophic frontogenesis due to isopycnal confluence. Downward frictional vertical PV flux below the surface extracts PV from the pycnocline and reinforces the frontogenetic vertical PV flux. PV destruction at the surface is inferred from a low PV anomaly below the mixed layer in survey 2. Since the magnitude of the frontogenetic ASC is only twice the magnitude of Ekman suction, external forcing may have a considerable impact on the vertical heat and PV fluxes.

  15. Neuropsychological outcome following frontal lobectomy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Robyn M; Floden, Darlene P; Ferguson, Lisa; Mahmoud, Shamseldeen; Mullane, Audrina; Jones, Stephen; Jehi, Lara; Bingaman, William; Najm, Imad M

    2017-02-14

    This retrospective cohort study characterized cognitive and motor outcomes in a large sample of adults who underwent frontal lobe resections for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Ninety patients who underwent unilateral frontal lobe resection for epilepsy (42 language-dominant hemisphere/48 nondominant hemisphere) between 1989 and 2014 completed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations that included measures of verbal and nonverbal intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, and motor functioning. Objective methods were used to assess meaningful change across a wide range of abilities and to identify factors associated with neuropsychological decline following frontal lobectomy. Detailed postoperative neuroimaging analysis was conducted to characterize region, extent, and volume of resection. Forty-eight percent of patients did not demonstrate meaningful postoperative declines in cognition and an additional 42% demonstrated decline in 1 or 2 cognitive domains. When cognitive decline was observed, it usually occurred on measures of intelligence, visuomotor processing speed, or executive functioning. Side and site of resection were unrelated to cognitive outcome, but played a role in decline of contralateral manual dexterity following supplementary motor area resection. Higher preoperative ability, older age at surgery, absence of a malformation of cortical development on MRI, and poor seizure outcome were related to cognitive decline on some measures, but had poor sensitivity in identifying at-risk patients. The vast majority of patients who undergo frontal lobectomy for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy demonstrate good cognitive and motor outcomes. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. What's the fuss over human frontal lobe evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2013-09-01

    Evolutionary neuroscientists seek to understand what makes the human neocortex special aside from its extraordinary expansion. New analyses find that the frontal lobes of humans are not relatively enlarged given our species' brain size. But are statistical cut-offs masking biologically meaningful changes in the size of the human prefrontal cortex? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Frontal fibroserende alopeci er en variant af lichen planopilaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gameza, Vitaly A; Deleuran, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a scarring alopecia which typically affects the frontotemporal region of the scalp. Loss of hair in the other areas of the skin is present in the majority of cases. The condition is overrepresented among postmenopausal women, but men and premenopausal women can be af...

  18. Confabulation and Delusional Denial: Frontal Lobe and Lateralized Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various forms of confabulation, and conditions that often give rise to these disorders. Asserts that confabulatory states frequently are associated with cerebral damage that involves the right hemisphere, notably, the frontal (often bilaterally) and parietal lobes - areas intimately involved in arousal, attention, information regulation,…

  19. Proactive and Reactive Control by the Medial Frontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit eStuphorn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior requires the ability to flexibly control actions. This can occur either proactively to anticipate task requirements, or reactively in response to sudden changes. In this article, we describe the behavioral and physiological evidence for dual mechanisms of control in response inhibition in the medial frontal cortex in the context of the stop signal or countermanding task.

  20. Research and Application of Dynamic Equation for Full Frontal Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Tian∗

    2015-01-01

    Full frontal impact theory needs researching and exploring to satisfy the primary safety design of occupant restraint system, avoiding the increasingly “engineering” trend in order to develop and design safety vehicle. After occupant restraint system is simulated by using linear elastic stiffness k, the occupant⁃vehicle frontal rigid barrier impact model is established. Dynamic equation of dummy chest coupling vehicle is built for full frontal impact based on ordinary vehicle deceleration by Hooke law, and the equation is solved by comparing coefficient and satisfying boundary qualifications. While relative vehicle characteristic parameters are kept unchanging, the actual vehicle deceleration is fitted to the simplified equivalent square wave ( ESW ) , tipped equivalent square wave (TESW) and equivalent dual trapezoids wave (EDTW). Phase angle ϕ and amplitude A of dynamic equations based on ESW, TESW and EDTW are calculated and deduced. The results show that:the dynamic equation of dummy chest coupling vehicle can be well utilized to instruct the primary safety design of full frontal impact for objective vehicle to satisfy chest deceleration demands and the equation based on TESW is best for this design.

  1. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Meyer, T.; Peeters, F.P.M.L.; Merckelbach, H.L.G.J.; Smeets, T.

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relat

  2. Frontal fibroserende alopeci er en variant af lichen planopilaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gameza, Vitaly A; Deleuran, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a scarring alopecia which typically affects the frontotemporal region of the scalp. Loss of hair in the other areas of the skin is present in the majority of cases. The condition is overrepresented among postmenopausal women, but men and premenopausal women can...

  3. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest that early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present…

  4. Frontal theta activity reflects distinct aspects of mental fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Edmund; Rasch, Björn; Sänger, Jessica; Hoffmann, Sven; Schneider, Daniel; Rinkenauer, Gerhard; Heuer, Herbert; Gutberlet, Ingmar

    2014-02-01

    Longer lasting performance in cognitively demanding tasks leads to an exhaustion of cognitive resources and to a state commonly described as mental fatigue. More specifically, the allocation and focusing of attention become less efficient with time on task. Additionally, the selection of even simple responses becomes more error prone. With respect to the recorded EEG, mental fatigue has been reported to be associated with an increase in frontal theta and frontal and occipital alpha activity. The present study focused on the time course of changes in behavior and in the EEG to characterize fatigue-related processes. Participants performed a spatial stimulus-response-compatibility task in eight blocks for an overall duration of 4h. Error rates increased continuously with time on task. Total alpha power was larger at the end compared to the beginning of the experiment. However, alpha power increased rapidly and reached its maximal amplitude already after 1h, whereas frontal theta showed a continuous increase with time on task, possibly related to increased effort to keep the performance level high. Time frequency analyses revealed power changes in the theta band induced by task relevant information that might be assigned to a drain of executive control capacities. Thus, frontal theta turned out to be a reliable marker of distinct changes in cognitive processing with increasing fatigue.

  5. Frontal sinus mini-trephination for acute sinusitis complicated by intracranial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, D L; Mahadevan, M

    2007-10-01

    Acute bacterial sinusitis is common in the pediatric population. Intracranial spread of infection is a rare but life-threatening complication of acute sinusitis. Due to the infrequent presentation of this complication, there are no well-defined management protocols for the acute sinusitis. We present three pediatric cases where children presented with intracranial sepsis, and the underlying source of infection was from the paranasal sinuses. In all cases, endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in the acute setting, with the use of frontal sinus mini-trephines playing a significant role. We describe our experience and review the available literature.

  6. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review.

  7. Disturbed small-world networks and neurocognitive function in frontal lobe low-grade glioma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Huang

    dysfunction in frontal lobe LGG patients.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birke Bartosch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C is characterized by metabolic disorders and a microenvironment in the liver dominated by oxidative stress, inflammation and regeneration processes that lead in the long term to hepatocellular carcinoma. Many lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunctions, including modification of metabolic fluxes, generation and elimination of oxidative stress, Ca2+ signaling and apoptosis, play a central role in these processes. However, how these dysfunctions are induced by the virus and whether they play a role in disease progression and neoplastic transformation remains to be determined. Most in vitro studies performed so far have shown that several of the hepatitis C virus (HCV proteins localize to mitochondria, but the consequences of these interactions on mitochondrial functions remain contradictory, probably due to the use of artificial expression and replication systems. In vivo studies are hampered by the fact that innate and adaptive immune responses will overlay mitochondrial dysfunctions induced directly in the hepatocyte by HCV. Thus, the molecular aspects underlying HCV-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions and their roles in viral replication and the associated pathology need yet to be confirmed in the context of productively replicating virus and physiologically relevant in vitro and in vivo model systems.

  9. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. Methods. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. Results. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024. A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman’s r = -0.297; p = 0.001. Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017. Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  10. [Hyperlexia in an adult patient with lesions in the left medial frontal lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Kumabe, T; Endo, K; Fujii, T; Yoshimoto, T

    2000-04-01

    A 69-year-old right-handed woman developed a transcortical motor aphasia with hyperlexia following resection of a glioma in the left medial frontal lobe. Neurological examination revealed grasp reflex in the right hand and underutilization of the right upper extremity. An MRI demonstrated lesions in the left medial frontal lobe including the supplementary motor area and the anterior part of the cingulate gyrus, which extended to the anterior part of the body of corpus callosum. Neuropsychologically she was alert and cooperative. She demonstrated transcortical motor aphasia. Her verbal output began with echolalia. Furthermore hyperlexia was observed in daily activities and during examinations. During conversation she suddenly read words written on objects around her which were totally irrelevant to the talk. When she was walking in the ward with an examiner she read words written on a trash bag that passed by and signboards which indicated a name of a room. Her conversation while walking was intermingled with reading words, which was irrelevant to the conversation. She also read time on analog clocks, which were hung on a wall in a watch store. In a naming task, she read words written on objects first and named them upon repeated question about their names. When an examiner opened a newspaper in front of her without any instructions she began reading until the examiner prohibited it. Then she began reading again when an examiner turned the page, although she remembered that she should not read it aloud. She showed mild ideomotor apraxia of a left hand. Utilization behavior, imitation behavior, hypergraphia, or compulsive use of objects was not observed throughout the course. Hyperlexic tendency is a prominent feature of this patient's language output. Hyperlexia was often reported in children with pervasive developmental disorders including autism. There are only a few reports about hyperlexia in adults and some of them were related to diffuse brain dysfunction

  11. Impact and injury patterns in between-rails frontal crashes of vehicles with good ratings for frontal crash protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Richard M; Cui, Chongzhen; Digges, Kennerly H; Cao, Libo; Kan, Cing-Dao Steve

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated (1) what are the key attributes of the between-rail, frontal crash, (2) what are the types of object contacted, and (3) what is the type of resulting trauma. The method was to study with both weighted and in-depth case reviews of NASS-CDS crash data with direct damage between the longitudinal rails in frontal crashes. Individual case selection was limited to belted occupants in between-rail, frontal impacts of good-rated, late-model vehicles equipped with air bags.This paper evaluates the risk of trauma for drivers in cars and LTVs in between-rail, frontal crashes, and suggests the between-rail impact is more dangerous to car drivers. Using weighted data-representing 227,305 tow-away crashes-the resulting trauma to various body regions was analyzed to suggest greatest injury is to the chest, pelvis/thigh/knee/leg, and foot/ankle. This study analyzed the type of object that caused the direct damage between the rails, including small tree or post, large tree or pole, and another vehicle; and found that the struck object was most often another vehicle or a large tree/pole. Both the extent of damage and the occupant compartment intrusion were explored, and suggest that 64% of the serious injuries are associated with increasing intrusion. Individual NASS cases were reviewed to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanical particulars in the between-rail crash.

  12. Patterns of prefrontal dysfunction in alcoholics with and without Korsakoff’s syndrome, patients with Parkinson’s disease, and patients with rupture and repair of the anterior communicating artery

    OpenAIRE

    Dirksen, Courtney L; Howard, Julie A.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    This study compared patterns of frontal-lobe dysfunction in alcoholics with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS: n = 9), non-Korsakoff alcoholics (AL: n = 28), patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD: n = 18), and patients with rupture and repair of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA: n = 4) relative to healthy non-neurological control (NC) participants (n = 70). The tests administered were sensitive to functions of dorsolateral prefrontal and orbito-frontal subsystems. Measures included perseverativ...

  13. 考虑材料变形路径及应变率的车身前端吸能结构优化%Optimization of Frontal Energy-absorbing Structures Under Considering the Material Deformation Path and Strain Rate Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金轮; 兰凤崇; 陈吉清

    2013-01-01

    For studying the effects of high-strength steel sheets of different strengths and thicknesses on the frontal crash performance of vehicle, an optimization is conducted by combining the design of experiment, Kriging surrogate model and adaptive response surface method with maximizing specific energy absorption of front-end energy absorbing structure as objective, the material and thickness of major panels as design variables, and taking the deformation path and strain rate effects into consideration, with optimum matching scheme of high-strength steel sheets obtained. After optimization, the occupant injury indicators such as vehicle acceleration and brake pedal intrusion etc are reduced and the crashworthiness of vehicle body structure is improved. Meanwhile this study also verifies the feasibility of optimization based on adaptive response surface method.%为了研究不同厚度及强度的高强度钢板对车辆正面碰撞性能的影响,以车身前端主要吸能结构的比吸能最大化为目标,构件的材料和厚度为设计变量,并考虑材料的变形路径和应变率效应,通过试验设计、近似模型与自适应响应面法相结合进行优化,得到了高强度钢板最优的匹配方案.优化后降低了车辆加速度和制动踏板侵入量等乘员伤害指标,提高了车体结构的耐撞性.本研究同时验证了基于自适应响应面法进行优化的可行性.

  14. Frontal white matter volume is associated with brain enlargement and higher structural connectivity in anthropoid primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Bert Smaers

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated the importance of the frontal lobe and its 'executive' connections to other brain structures as crucial in explaining primate neocortical adaptations. However, a representative sample of volumetric measurements of frontal connective tissue (white matter has not been available. In this study, we present new volumetric measurements of white and grey matter in the frontal and non-frontal neocortical lobes from 18 anthropoid species. We analyze this data in the context of existing theories of neocortex, frontal lobe and white versus grey matter hyperscaling. Results indicate that the 'universal scaling law' of neocortical white to grey matter applies separately for frontal and non-frontal lobes; that hyperscaling of both neocortex and frontal lobe to rest of brain is mainly due to frontal white matter; and that changes in frontal (but not non-frontal white matter volume are associated with changes in rest of brain and basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei functionally linked to 'executive control'. Results suggest a central role for frontal white matter in explaining neocortex and frontal lobe hyperscaling, brain size variation and higher neural structural connectivity in anthropoids.

  15. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  16. Cycling and erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Šibli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: For many years medical studies have implicated bicycle riding is causing erectile dysfunction (ED in association with higher perineal pressure. This review focuses upon epidemiological studies assesing the impact of cycling on ED, pathogenesis of ED in cyclists  as well as on research considering changes of perineal pressure, hemodynamics, and nerve conduction when cycling. Investigestors were also interested in different saddle sizes, materials and geometry and also in the impact of saddle and riders position on changes to the perineum. Research on female cyclists is very limited but indicates similar genitourinary disorders as in male cyclists. We also review  research on preventative and therapeutic options regarding bicycle riding and ED.

  17. Absolute Theta Power in the Frontal Cortex During a Visuomotor Task: The Effect of Bromazepam on Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Mariana; Peressuti, Caroline; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Bromazepam is a benzodiazepine, which has been widely employed in the treatment of anxiety. We investigated the electrophysiological changes in absolute theta power within the frontal cortex when individuals performed a visuomotor task under bromazepam. The sample of 17 healthy individuals was randomized into 2 experimental conditions, under which bromazepam 6 mg and placebo were administered on different days. All subjects were right -handed, with no mental or physical illness and were not using any psychoactive or psychotropic substance during the entire period of the study. We found an increase in reaction time under bromazepam compared with placebo . With regard to the electrophysiological variable, we found a lower theta power value in the prefrontal cortex prior to task execution, compared with after. We therefore suggested that this could be an increase of neural activity in this region, because of the subjects' readiness to perform the task, that is, because of their higher alertness. The right lateral frontal region showed lower theta power under bromazepam for pre- and post-finger movement. This could have occurred because of more effort to execute the task. In the left frontal region: premovement did not demonstrate any difference between conditions, possibly because the proposed task was simple to execute. In conclusion, theta power plays an important role in the analysis of visuomotor performance, assuming that bromazepam causes impairment on sustained attention and sensory perception. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  18. Dysfunctional anger and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Sexual offenses with or without aggression attract attention from the popular media and the scientific community. Empirical research suggests a relationship between anger and sexual violence. This article describes the key themes of dysfunctional anger and sexual violence, and how dysfunctional anger relates to sexual fantasies, sexual offending, and sexual recidivism. The implications of the findings for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  19. Defining sphincter of oddi dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P

    1996-01-01

    Sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysmotility may give rise to pain. The golden standard for the demonstration of SO dysfunction is endoscopic manometry. A number of abnormalities are observed in patients with postcholecystectomy pain and in patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. Criteria for defi...... for defining SO dysfunction and the possible mechanisms for the precipitation of pain are discussed....

  20. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  1. Global NOAA CoastWatch Chlorophyll Frontal Product from MODIS/Aqua (NCEI Accession 0110333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS/Aqua chlorophyll frontal products: the NOAA Okeanos operational production system produces near real-time chlorophyll frontal products (magnitude and...

  2. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L

    2014-01-01

    implications of muscle dysfunction in cancer patients. The efficacy of exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate cancer-related muscle dysfunction is also discussed. DESIGN: We identified 194 studies examining muscular outcomes in cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Muscle...... dysfunction is evident across all stages of the cancer trajectory. The causes of cancer-related muscle dysfunction are complex, but may involve a wide range of tumor-, therapy- and/or lifestyle-related factors, depending on the clinical setting of the individual patient. The main importance of muscle...... dysfunction in cancer patients lies in the correlation to vital clinical end points such as cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, therapy complications and quality of life (QoL). Such associations strongly emphasize the need for effective therapeutic countermeasures to be developed and implemented...

  3. Further evidence of complex motor dysfunction in drug naive children with autism using automatic motion analysis of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria; Perego, Paolo; Piccinini, Luigi; Mani, Elisa; Rossi, Agnese; Bellina, Monica; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-05-01

    In order to increase the knowledge of locomotor disturbances in children with autism, and of the mechanism underlying them, the objective of this exploratory study was to reliably and quantitatively evaluate linear gait parameters (spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters), upper body kinematic parameters, walk orientation and smoothness using an automatic motion analyser (ELITE systems) in drug naïve children with Autistic Disorder (AD) and healthy controls. The children with AD showed a stiffer gait in which the usual fluidity of walking was lost, trunk postural abnormalities, highly significant difficulties to maintain a straight line and a marked loss of smoothness (increase of jerk index), compared to the healthy controls. As a whole, these data suggest a complex motor dysfunction involving both the cortical and the subcortical area or, maybe, a possible deficit in the integration of sensory-motor information within motor networks (i.e., anomalous connections within the fronto-cerebello-thalamo-frontal network). Although the underlying neural structures involved remain to be better defined, these data may contribute to highlighting the central role of motor impairment in autism and suggest the usefulness of taking into account motor difficulties when developing new diagnostic and rehabilitation programs.

  4. The morphology of midcingulate cortex predicts frontal-midline theta neurofeedback success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eEnriquez-Geppert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans differ in their ability to learn how to control their own brain activity by neurofeedback. However, neural mechanisms underlying these inter-individual differences, which may determine training success and associated cognitive enhancement, are not well understood. Here, it is asked whether neurofeedback success of frontal-midline (fm theta, an oscillation related to higher cognitive functions, could be predicted by the morphology of brain structures known to be critically involved in fm-theta generation. Nineteen young, right-handed participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of T1-weighted brain images, and took part in an individualized, eight-session neurofeedback training in order to learn how to enhance activity in their fm-theta frequency band. Initial training success, measured at the second training session, was correlated with the final outcome measure. We found that the inferior, superior and middle frontal cortices were not associated with training success. However, volume of the midcingulate cortex as well as volume and concentration of the underlying white matter structures act as predictor variables for the general responsiveness to training. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical foundation for the ability to learn to control one’s own brain activity.

  5. The role of the frontal cortex in memory: an investigation of the Von Restorff effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhalal, Anat; Davelaar, Eddy J.; Usher, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from neuropsychology and neuroimaging indicate that the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in human memory. Although frontal patients are able to form new memories, these memories appear qualitatively different from those of controls by lacking distinctiveness. Neuroimaging studies of memory indicate activation in the PFC under deep encoding conditions, and under conditions of semantic elaboration. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the PFC enhances memory by extracting differences and commonalities in the studied material. To test this hypothesis, we carried out an experimental investigation to test the relationship between the PFC-dependent factors and semantic factors associated with common and specific features of words. These experiments were performed using Free-Recall of word lists with healthy adults, exploiting the correlation between PFC function and fluid intelligence. As predicted, a correlation was found between fluid intelligence and the Von-Restorff effect (better memory for semantic isolates, e.g., isolate “cat” within category members of “fruit”). Moreover, memory for the semantic isolate was found to depend on the isolate's serial position. The isolate item tends to be recalled first, in comparison to non-isolates, suggesting that the process interacts with short term memory. These results are captured within a computational model of free recall, which includes a PFC mechanism that is sensitive to both commonality and distinctiveness, sustaining a trade-off between the two. PMID:25018721

  6. Approaching dysphoric mood: state-effects of mindfulness meditation on frontal brain asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Philipp M; Bostanov, Vladimir; Hautzinger, Martin; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2013-04-01

    Meditation-based interventions reduce the relapse risk in recurrently depressed patients. Randomized trials utilizing neurophysiologic outcome measures, however, have yielded inconsistent results with regard to a prophylactic effect. Although frontal brain asymmetry, assessed through electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha activity (8-13 Hz), is indicative of approach vs. withdrawal-related response dispositions and represents a vulnerability marker of depression, clinical trials have provided mixed results as to whether meditation has beneficial effects on alpha asymmetry. Inconsistencies might have arisen since such trials relied on resting-state recordings, instead of active paradigms under challenge, as suggested by contemporary notions of alpha asymmetry. We examined two groups of remitted, recurrently depressed females. In a "mindfulness support group", EEG was recorded during neutral rest, and rest following a negative mood induction. Subsequently, participants received initial meditation instructions. EEG was then obtained during an active period of guided mindfulness meditation and rest following the active period. In a "rumination challenge group", EEG was obtained during the same resting conditions, whereas in the active period, initial meditation instructions were followed by a rumination challenge. A significant shift in mid-frontal asymmetry, yielding a pattern indicative of approach motivation, was observed in the mindfulness support group, specifically during the meditation period. This indicates that mindfulness meditation may have a transient beneficial effect, which enables patients to take an approach-related motivational stance, particularly under circumstances of risk.

  7. Frontal tDCS modulates orbitofrontal reality filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, A L; David, A W; Bikson, M; Schnider, A

    2014-04-18

    Orbitofrontal reality filtering denotes a memory control mechanism necessary to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality. Its failure induces reality confusion as evident in confabulation and disorientation. In the present study, we explored the influence of orbitofrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on reality filtering. Twenty healthy human subjects made a reality filtering task, while receiving cathodal, anodal, or sham stimulation over the frontal pole in three sessions separated by at least 1week. Computational models predicted that this montage can produce polarity-specific current flow across the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In agreement with our hypothesis, we found that cathodal tDCS over the frontal pole specifically impaired reality filtering in comparison to anodal and sham stimulation. This study shows that reality filtering, an orbitofrontal function, can be modulated with tDCS.

  8. Frontal and oblique tectonics in the Brazilian Shield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GinaldoA.daC.Campanha; BenjamimBleydeBritoNeves

    2004-01-01

    The Brazilian shield was assembled from a few Archean and Paleoproterozoic cratonic nuclei surrounded by Pan-African-Brasiliano mobile belts of Neoproterozoic age. While some of these mobile belts display a typical frontal collision tectonic style, others are dominated by transcurrent regimes, clearly indicating oblique collisional systems. This paper is an attempt to determine the mean orientation of the principal horizontal compressive stresses for each mobile belt, considering either the frontal or oblique convergence character. From these general observations a scheme with WNW - ESE to NWSE trends of the main compressive stress is proposed. We suggest that this trend represents the mean displacement vectors, according to a coherent kinematic picture for the amalgamation of the West Gondwana during the final stages of convergence of the Brasiliano belts, where WNW-ESE to NW-SE are the main directions of final closure.

  9. Changes in social emotion recognition following traumatic frontal lobe injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Teresa Martins; Luis Faísca; Francisco Esteves; Cláudia Sim(a)o; Mariline Gomes Justo; Angélica Muresan; Alexandra Reis

    2012-01-01

    Changes in social and emotional behaviour have been consistently observed in patients with traumatic brain injury. These changes are associated with emotion recognition deficits which represent one of the major barriers to a successful familiar and social reintegration. In the present study, 32 patients with traumatic brain injury, involving the frontal lobe, and 41 age- and education-matched healthy controls were analyzed. A Go/No-Go task was designed, where each participant had to recognize faces representing three social emotions (arrogance, guilt and jealousy). Results suggested that ability to recognize two social emotions (arrogance and jealousy) was significantly reduced in patients with traumatic brain injury, indicating frontal lesion can reduce emotion recognition ability. In addition, the analysis of the results for hemispheric lesion location (right, left or bilateral) suggested the bilateral lesion sub-group showed a lower accuracy on all social emotions.

  10. Neuronal correlates of metacognition in primate frontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans are metacognitive: they monitor and control their cognition. Our hypothesis was that neuronal correlates of metacognition reside in the same brain areas responsible for cognition, including frontal cortex. Recent work demonstrated that non-human primates are capable of metacognition, so we recorded from single neurons in the frontal eye field, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and supplementary eye field of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that performed a metacognitive visual-oculomotor task. The animals made a decision and reported it with a saccade, but received no immediate reward or feedback. Instead, they had to monitor their decision and bet whether it was correct. Activity was correlated with decisions and bets in all three brain areas, but putative metacognitive activity that linked decisions to appropriate bets occurred exclusively in the SEF. Our results offer a survey of neuronal correlates of metacognition and implicate the SEF in linking cognitive functions over short periods of time. PMID:22884334

  11. Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia: Role of Dermoscopy in Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rubegni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA is more common in postmenopausal women, but it can occur in younger women. Some authors consider FFA to be a distinct frontal variant of lichen planopilaris. From a clinical point of view, this relatively uncommon condition is characterized by progressive frontotemporal recession due to inflammatory destruction of hair follicles. Dermoscopy can be very useful, as the differential diagnosis between traction alopecia, alopecia areata, FFA and cicatricial marginal alopecia may be difficult. It is not clear whether or not treatment alters the natural history of the disease – the disease stabilized with time in most of the patients with or without continuing treatment. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old woman with FFA and discuss the relevance of dermoscopy in the differential diagnosis of this disease.

  12. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucharev, Vasily; Munneke, Moniek A M; Smidts, Ale; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-08-17

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex by theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces conformity, as indicated by reduced conformal adjustments in line with group opinion. Both the extent and probability of conformal behavioral adjustments decreased significantly relative to a sham and a control stimulation over another brain area. The posterior part of the medial frontal cortex has previously been implicated in behavioral and attitudinal adjustments. Here, we provide the first interventional evidence of its critical role in social influence on human behavior.

  13. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present much conflicting evidence, little is known about its effects on children's frontal lobe development. Using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), the findings suggest that Spanish-English bilingual children (n=13, ages 7-13) had greater activation in left prefrontal cortex during a non-verbal attentional control task relative to age-matched English monolinguals. In contrast, monolinguals (n=14) showed greater right prefrontal activation than bilinguals. The present findings suggest early bilingualism yields significant changes to the functional organization of children's prefrontal cortex for attentional control and carry implications for understanding how early life experiences impact cognition and brain development. PMID:26743118

  14. Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia: Role of Dermoscopy in Differential Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubegni, P.; Mandato, F.; Fimiani, M.

    2010-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is more common in postmenopausal women, but it can occur in younger women. Some authors consider FFA to be a distinct frontal variant of lichen planopilaris. From a clinical point of view, this relatively uncommon condition is characterized by progressive frontotemporal recession due to inflammatory destruction of hair follicles. Dermoscopy can be very useful, as the differential diagnosis between traction alopecia, alopecia areata, FFA and cicatricial marginal alopecia may be difficult. It is not clear whether or not treatment alters the natural history of the disease - the disease stabilized with time in most of the patients with or without continuing treatment. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old woman with FFA and discuss the relevance of dermoscopy in the differential diagnosis of this disease. PMID:21173926

  15. Analysis of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Hui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To analyze the injuries of motorcyclists involved in fatal motorcycle frontal crashes. Methods: A survey group involving multi-discipline experts was built to randomly collect data on fatal motor-cycle frontal collision accidents that occurred in Chongqing during 2006-2010. The sampled information included medi-cal or autopsy reports, blood alcohol concentration (BAC level, helmet use, accident witness, field sketch as well as field photos. The motorcyclist injuries were scored accord-ing to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS 2005. The involved riders with a BAC level≥20 mg/ml were attributed to alco-hol use. Data were processed statistically with nonparamet-ric test via software SPSS 11.0. Results: A total of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes were sampled and further analyzed. The age of motorcy-clists enrolled in this investigation showed nominal distri-bution and the middle-aged (30-39 years occupied the high-est percentage of fatalities. There were only 14 motorcyclists (16.3% wearing helmets at the moment of collision. And 12.8% of these motorcyclist crashes were attributable to alcohol use. Impact injury was the main fatal cause, accounting for 72% of motorcyclist deaths, followed by tumbling injury (26% and run-over (2%. Respectively 84%, 22% and 19% of motorcyclists who sustained head, chest and abdominal trauma died. Extremity injury was the most frequently ob-served injury type. Conclusions: This investigation is helpful to build accident prevention programs and develop protection de-vices which may effectively mitigate injuries and prevent deaths following motorcycle frontal collision accidents. Further investigations on motorcycle collision accidents are still needed. Key words: Motorcycles; Mortality; Accidents, traffic; Wounds and injuries

  16. Frontal Lobe Lipoma Associated with Cortical Dysplasia and Abnormal Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskan, Ozdil; Geyik, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Intracranial lipomas (ICLs) are rare lesions, the vast majority encountered as incidental findings on imaging studies. ICLs are generally pericallosal midline lesions and thought to be asymptomatic and can be accompanied by additional intracranial congenital malformations. We describe a 17-year old male with an unusual case of ICL on the frontal lobe associated with cortical dysplasia and abnormal vasculature mimicking arteriovenous malformation on magnetic resonance images. PMID:25489889

  17. Analysis of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes in Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui; HUANG Wei; YANG Guang-yu; CHEN Rong; LIU Sheng-xiong; YU Yong-min; YIN Zhi-yong; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the injuries of motorcyclists involved in fatal motorcycle frontal crashes.Methods: A survey group involving multi-discipline experts was built to randomly collect data on fatal motorcycle frontal collision accidents that occurred in Chongqing during 2006-2010.The sampled information included medical or autopsy reports,blood alcohol concentration (BAC)level,helmet use,accident witness,field sketch as well as field photos.The motorcyclist injuries were scored according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2005.The involved riders with a BAC level≥20 mg/ml were attributed to alcohol use.Data were processed statistically with nonparametric test via software SPSS 11.0.Results:A total of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes were sampled and further analyzed.The age of motorcyclists enrolled in this investigation showed nominal distribution and the middle-aged (30-39 years) occupied the highest percentage of fatalities.There were only 14 motorcyclists (16.3%) wearing helmets at the moment ofcollision.And 12.8% of these motorcyclist crashes were attributable to alcohol use.Impact injury was the main fatal cause,accounting for 72% of motorcyclist deaths,followed by tumbling injury (26%) and run-over (2%).Respectively 84%,22% and 19%of motorcyclists who sustained head,chest and abdominal trauma died.Extremity injury was the most frequently observed injury type.Conclusions: This investigation is helpful to build accident prevention programs and develop protection devices which may effectively mitigate injuries and prevent deaths following motorcycle frontal collision accidents.Further investigations on motorcycle collision accidents are still needed.

  18. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone in a teenager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Washington, DC (United States); Rushing, Elisabeth J. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Yaun, Amanda [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Washington, DC (United States); Santi, Mariarita [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Neuropathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-01-15

    We report a skull chondromyxoid fibroma with symptomatic intracranial extension causing initial misdiagnosis as a psychiatric disorder in a 14-year-old child. CT performed for work-up of the patient's ''stuffy nose'' revealed a large calcified frontal bone mass with extensive intracranial growth. We present this child with the diagnosis of intracranial chondromyxoid fibroma with detailed neuroimaging and neuropathology correlations. (orig.)

  19. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

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  15. Methylphenidate ('Ritalin') can ameliorate abnormal risk-taking behavior in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shibley; Robbins, Trevor W; Hodges, John R; Mehta, Mitul A; Nestor, Peter J; Clark, Luke; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2006-03-01

    The frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia is a significant neurological condition worldwide. There exist few treatments available for the cognitive and behavioural sequelae of fvFTD. Previous research has shown that these patients display risky decision-making, and numerous studies have now demonstrated pathology affecting the orbitofrontal cortex. The present study uses a within-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure to investigate the effects of a single dose of methylphenidate (40 mg) upon a range of different cognitive processes including those assessing prefrontal cortex integrity. Methylphenidate was effective in 'normalizing' the decision-making behavior of patients, such that they became less risk taking on medication, although there were no significant effects on other aspects of cognitive function, including working memory, attentional set shifting, and reversal learning. Moreover, there was an absence of the normal subjective and autonomic responses to methylphenidate seen in elderly subjects. The results are discussed in terms of the 'somatic marker' hypothesis of impaired decision-making following orbitofrontal dysfunction.

  16. Correlations between measures of executive attention and cortical thickness of left posterior middle frontal gyrus - a dichotic listening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundervold Arvid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frontal lobe has been associated to a wide range of cognitive control functions and is also vulnerable to degeneration in old age. A recent study by Thomsen and colleagues showed a difference between a young and old sample in grey matter density and activation in the left middle frontal cortex (MFC and performance on a dichotic listening task. The present study investigated this brain behaviour association within a sample of healthy older individuals, and predicted a positive correlation between performance in a condition requiring executive attention and measures of grey matter structure of the posterior left MFC. Methods A dichotic listening forced attention paradigm was used to measure attention control functions. Subjects were instructed to report only the left or the right ear syllable of a dichotically presented consonant-vowel syllable pair. A conflict situation appears when subjects are instructed to report the left ear stimulus, caused by the conflict with the bottom-up, stimulus-driven right ear advantage. Overcoming this processing conflict was used as a measure of executive attention. Thickness and volumes of frontal lobe regions were derived from automated segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance image acquisitions. Results The results revealed a statistically significant positive correlation between the thickness measure of the left posterior MFC and performance on the dichotic listening measures of executive attention. Follow-up analyses showed that this correlation was only statistically significant in the subgroup that showed the typical bottom-up, stimulus-driven right ear advantage. Conclusion The results suggest that the left MFC is a part of an executive attention network, and that the dichotic listening forced attention paradigm may be a feasible tool for assessing subtle attentional dysfunctions in older adults.

  17. Frontal and striatal alterations associated with psychopathic traits in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L; Baker, Laura A; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-03-30

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated a range of structural deficits in adults with psychopathy, but little is known about structural correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents. Here we examined structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 14-year-old adolescents (n=108) using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in brain tissue volumes associated with psychopathic traits in this otherwise healthy developmental population. We found that greater levels of psychopathic traits were correlated with increased brain tissue volumes in the left putamen, left ansa peduncularis, right superiomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, and right medial temporal regions and reduced brain tissues volumes in the right middle frontal cortex, left superior parietal lobule, and left inferior parietal lobule. Post hoc analyses of parcellated regional volumes also showed putamen enlargements to correlate with increased psychopathic traits. Consistent with earlier studies, findings suggest poor decision-making and emotional dysregulation associated with psychopathy may be due, in part, to structural anomalies in frontal and temporal regions whereas striatal structural variations may contribute to sensation-seeking and reward-driven behavior in psychopathic individuals. Future studies will help clarify how disturbances in brain maturational processes might lead to the developmental trajectory from psychopathic tendencies in adolescents to adult psychopathy.

  18. Relationships between foot type and dynamic rearfoot frontal plane motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuter Vivienne H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI provides an easily applicable, validated method for quantifying static foot posture. However there is limited evidence relating to the ability of the FPI to predict dynamic foot function. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dynamic rearfoot motion and FPI scores in pronated and normal foot types. Methods 40 participants were recruited with equal numbers of pronated and normal foot types as classified by their FPI score. Three dimensional rearfoot motion was collected for each of the participants. Dynamic maximum rearfoot eversion was correlated with the total FPI score across all participants and within the normal and pronated foot types. Linear correlations were performed between components of the total FPI scores measuring frontal plane rearfoot position and maximum rearfoot eversion. The capacity of the total FPI score to predict maximum frontal plane motion of the rearfoot was investigated using linear regression analysis. Results The correlation between the total FPI score and maximum rearfoot eversion was strongly positive (r = 0.92, p 2 = 0.85, p Conclusions The results of this study suggest the FPI has strong predictive ability for dynamic rearfoot function. This will assist in clinical screening and research by allowing easy classification by functional foot type. Positive correlations between frontal plane rearfoot measurements and maximum rearfoot eversion suggest the FPI may identify dominant planar components of dynamic rearfoot motion and warrants further investigation.

  19. Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning.

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    Peterson, David A; Thaut, Michael H

    2007-02-02

    Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken version of the AVLT or the conventional AVLT word list sung. Learning-related changes in coherence (LRCC) were measured by comparing the EEG during word encoding on correctly recalled trials to the immediately preceding trial on which the same word was not recalled. There were no significant changes in coherence associated with conventional verbal learning. However, musical verbal learning was associated with increased coherence within and between left and right frontal areas in theta, alpha, and gamma frequency bands. It is unlikely that the different patterns of LRCC reflect general performance differences; the groups exhibited similar learning performance. The results suggest that verbal learning with a musical template strengthens coherent oscillations in frontal cortical networks involved in verbal encoding.

  20. Alcoholism, Korsakoff’s Syndrome and the Frontal Lobes

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    R. R. Jacobson

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A subset of the diffuse cerebral changes and psychometric deficits found in chronic alcoholics is similar to that seen in the frontal lobe syndrome. Certain features of alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (AKS also point to cortical involvement, and this may have a basis in alcohol neurotoxicity. Twenty-five patients with AKS and 24 non-Korsakoff alcoholic controls were compared using an automated CT brain scan program. In addition to evidence of their diencephalic lesions (wide third ventricles, AKS patients revealed widespread cerebral damage with greater Sylvian and interhemispheric fissure (IHF size than alcoholics. Korsakoffs were also inferior to alcoholics in performance on a category sorting test, in which non-perseverative error scores correlated significantly with IHF size. The principle of distinguishing between selective memory decline and global intellectual decline (GID was applied to 38 patients with AKS. Indices were developed for each type of deficit and much variation found in their distributions. The degree of GID correlated significantly with IHF size, showing similar trends with other cortical measures. These results suggest a cortical substrate for the degree of GID and a frontal substrate for category sorting deficits; with a probable basis in alcohol neurotoxicity rather than thiamine deficiency, which is not known to impair cortical structure. A new model is proposed of the pathophysiology of alcoholic brain damage and AKS which includes recent work on neurotransmitter sources and thalamo-frontal connections.

  1. Frontal theta reflects uncertainty and unexpectedness during exploration and exploitation.

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    Cavanagh, James F; Figueroa, Christina M; Cohen, Michael X; Frank, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the exploitation/exploration trade-off in reinforcement learning, previous theoretical and empirical accounts have suggested that increased uncertainty may precede the decision to explore an alternative option. To date, the neural mechanisms that support the strategic application of uncertainty-driven exploration remain underspecified. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to assess trial-to-trial dynamics relevant to exploration and exploitation. Theta-band activities over middle and lateral frontal areas have previously been implicated in EEG studies of reinforcement learning and strategic control. It was hypothesized that these areas may interact during top-down strategic behavioral control involved in exploratory choices. Here, we used a dynamic reward-learning task and an associated mathematical model that predicted individual response times. This reinforcement-learning model generated value-based prediction errors and trial-by-trial estimates of exploration as a function of uncertainty. Mid-frontal theta power correlated with unsigned prediction error, although negative prediction errors had greater power overall. Trial-to-trial variations in response-locked frontal theta were linearly related to relative uncertainty and were larger in individuals who used uncertainty to guide exploration. This finding suggests that theta-band activities reflect prefrontal-directed strategic control during exploratory choices.

  2. Frontal slab composite magnetic resonance neurography of the brachial plexus: implications for infraclavicular block approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, David T; McIntee, Diane; Tsuruda, Jay S; Colletti, Patrick; Tatevossian, Ray

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is an imaging method by which nerves can be selectively highlighted. Using commercial software, the authors explored a variety of approaches to develop a three-dimensional volume-rendered MRN image of the entire brachial plexus and used it to evaluate the accuracy of infraclavicular block approaches. With institutional review board approval, MRN of the brachial plexus was performed in 10 volunteer subjects. MRN imaging was performed on a GE 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance scanner (General Electric Healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI) using a phased array torso coil. Coronal STIR and T1 oblique sagittal sequences of the brachial plexus were obtained. Multiple software programs were explored for enhanced display and manipulation of the composite magnetic resonance images. The authors developed a frontal slab composite approach that allows single-frame reconstruction of a three-dimensional volume-rendered image of the entire brachial plexus. Automatic segmentation was supplemented by manual segmentation in nearly all cases. For each of three infraclavicular approaches (posteriorly directed needle below midclavicle, infracoracoid, or caudomedial to coracoid), the targeting error was measured as the distance from the MRN plexus midpoint to the approach-targeted site. Composite frontal slabs (coronal views), which are single-frame three-dimensional volume renderings from image-enhanced two-dimensional frontal view projections of the underlying coronal slices, were created. The targeting errors (mean +/- SD) for the approaches-midclavicle, infracoracoid, caudomedial to coracoid-were 0.43 +/- 0.67, 0.99 +/- 1.22, and 0.65 +/- 1.14 cm, respectively. Image-processed three-dimensional volume-rendered MNR scans, which allow visualization of the entire brachial plexus within a single composite image, have educational value in illustrating the complexity and individual variation of the plexus. Suggestions for improved guidance during

  3. Functional impairment of the frontal lobe in methamphetamine dependent patients detected on FDG-PET and WCST

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    Kim, Yang Tae; Kwon, Do Hoon [Bugok National Hostipal, Changnyeong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Woo; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Kang, Seong Min; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daeug (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    There are mounting evidences from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies to support the view that patients with substance dependence have abnormalities in prefrontal cortex. However, functional deficits in prefrontal cortex has not been adequately studied in methamphetamine dependence. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine whether methamphetamine dependent patients have metabolic abnormalities and executive dysfunction. Twenty-one abstinent methamphetamine dependent patients who were hospitalized in Bugok National Hospital underwent resting FDG-PET, after which they completed computerized versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Brain PET images were obtained 30 minutes after intravenous injection of 370 MBq of 18F-FDG. Significant differences of glucose metabolism were estimated for every voxel using t-statistics on SPM2 implemented in Matlab between methamphetamine dependent patients and age-matched normal controls. FDG-PET revealed significant hypometabolism in the left inferior frontal white matter (Talairach coordinates (x, y, z): -34, 7, 31) in methamphetamine dependent patients compared to the normal controls (uncorrect p<0.001, t>3.39). The nearest gray matter region was the left inferior frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9). Methamphetamine dependent patients completed significantly fewer categories (3.662.19) and made more perseveration errors (22.0411.94) and total errors (44.5719.70) on the WCST compared to the normal controls (p<0.01). These data suggest that patients with methamphetamine dependence have functional impairments in prefrontal cortex.

  4. Evidence of cognitive dysfunction after soccer playing with ball heading using a novel tablet-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha R Zhang

    Full Text Available Does frequent head-to-ball contact cause cognitive dysfunctions and brain injury to soccer players? An iPad-based experiment was designed to examine the impact of ball-heading among high school female soccer players. We examined both direct, stimulus-driven, or reflexive point responses (Pro-Point as well as indirect, goal-driven, or voluntary point responses (Anti-Point, thought to require cognitive functions in the frontal lobe. The results show that soccer players were significantly slower than controls in the Anti-Point task but displayed no difference in Pro-Point latencies, indicating a disruption specific to voluntary responses. These findings suggest that even subconcussive blows in soccer can result in cognitive function changes that are consistent with mild traumatic brain injury of the frontal lobes. There is great clinical and practical potential of a tablet-based application for quick detection and monitoring of cognitive dysfunction.

  5. Evidence of cognitive dysfunction after soccer playing with ball heading using a novel tablet-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Marsha R; Red, Stuart D; Lin, Angela H; Patel, Saumil S; Sereno, Anne B

    2013-01-01

    Does frequent head-to-ball contact cause cognitive dysfunctions and brain injury to soccer players? An iPad-based experiment was designed to examine the impact of ball-heading among high school female soccer players. We examined both direct, stimulus-driven, or reflexive point responses (Pro-Point) as well as indirect, goal-driven, or voluntary point responses (Anti-Point), thought to require cognitive functions in the frontal lobe. The results show that soccer players were significantly slower than controls in the Anti-Point task but displayed no difference in Pro-Point latencies, indicating a disruption specific to voluntary responses. These findings suggest that even subconcussive blows in soccer can result in cognitive function changes that are consistent with mild traumatic brain injury of the frontal lobes. There is great clinical and practical potential of a tablet-based application for quick detection and monitoring of cognitive dysfunction.

  6. Sarcomere Dysfunction in Nemaline Myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Josine M; Ottenheijm, Coen A C

    2017-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is among the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathies (incidence 1:50.000). Hallmark features of NM are skeletal muscle weakness and the presence of nemaline bodies in the muscle fiber. The clinical phenotype of NM patients is quite diverse, ranging from neonatal death to normal lifespan with almost normal motor function. As the respiratory muscles are involved as well, severely affected patients are ventilator-dependent. The mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM are currently poorly understood. Therefore, no therapeutic treatment is available yet.Eleven implicated genes have been identified: ten genes encode proteins that are either components of thin filament, or are thought to contribute to stability or turnover of thin filament proteins. The thin filament is a major constituent of the sarcomere, the smallest contractile unit in muscle. It is at this level of contraction - thin-thick filament interaction - where muscle weakness originates in NM patients.This review focusses on how sarcomeric gene mutations directly compromise sarcomere function in NM. Insight into the contribution of sarcomeric dysfunction to muscle weakness in NM, across the genes involved, will direct towards the development of targeted therapeutic strategies.

  7. [Hypothalamic dysfunction in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande-Lee, Simone; Velloso, Licio A

    2012-08-01

    Obesity, defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair life quality, is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It results from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. The control of energy balance in animals and humans is performed by the central nervous system (CNS) by means of neuroendocrine connections, in which circulating peripheral hormones, such as leptin and insulin, provide signals to specialized neurons of the hypothalamus reflecting body fat stores, and induce appropriate responses to maintain the stability of these stores. The majority of obesity cases are associated with central resistance to both leptin and insulin actions. In experimental animals, high-fat diets can induce an inflammatory process in the hypothalamus, which impairs leptin and insulin intracellular signaling pathways, and results in hyperphagia, decreased energy expenditure and, ultimately, obesity. Recent evidence obtained from neuroimaging studies and assessment of inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid of obese subjects suggests that similar alterations may be also present in humans. In this review, we briefly present the mechanisms involved with the loss of homeostatic control of energy balance in animal models of obesity, and the current evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction in obese humans.

  8. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Initially known as multiple system organ failure, the term multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was first described in the 1960s in adults with bleeding, respiratory failure, and sepsis. It is defined as "the development of potentially reversible physiologic derangement involving two or more organ systems not involved in the disorder that resulted in ICU admission, and arising in the wake of a potentially life threatening physiologic insult."(3) There are many risk factors predisposing to MODS; however, the most common risk factors are shock due to any cause, sepsis, and tissue hypoperfusion. A dysregulated immune response, or immuneparalysis, in which the homeostasis between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory reaction is lost is thought to be key in the development of MODS. The clinical course and evolution of MODS is dependent on a combination of acquired and genetic factors. There are several nonspecific therapies for the prevention and resolution of MODS, mostly care is supportive. Mortality from MODS in septic pediatric patients varies between 11% and 54%. © 2013 Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. Markers of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin P Davies

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED, the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients.

  10. DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION: A REVIEW

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    Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Diastolic heart failure is an underestimated pathology. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that HF with a preserved ejection fraction will become the more common form of HF which clinicians will encounter. Symptomatic treatment focuses on the reduction in pulmonary congestion and the improvement in LV filling. Specific treatment is actually lacking, but encouraging data are emerging concerning the use of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis blockers, nitric oxide donors, or, very recently, new agents specifically targeting actin–myosin cross-bridges. It is generally considered to have a somewhat better prognosis than systolic HF, but frequency of hospitalizations is comparable in systolic and diastolic HF. 1 Despite the recognition of its importance, definition and diagnostic criteria of diastolic dysfunction and diastolic HF remain controversial. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This review focus of definition, diagnosis and management of diastolic heart failure with it prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We have studied various guidelines, articles, reviews using given keywords, along with our experience in management of diastolic heart failure in 2015. The articles and the references were reviewed keeping in mind about the simplified management offered to the patient.

  11. Psychoanalysis: a dysfunctional family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskurth, P

    1998-01-01

    The discussion opens with an account of the author's mother's bizarre family in which a strong, charismatic grandmother maintained absolute control over her large family by encouraging a neurotic dependence in them through daily reports of their complaints. Getting interested in psychoanalysis in an effort to understand the dynamics of this dysfunctional family, the author, a biographer, turned to the study of Melanie Klein, becoming entranced by her ideas. Her research also revealed how Klein had discouraged her followers from developing ideas that diverged in any way from her own. Her portrait of the pioneer analyst provoked intense indignation. A similar pattern of absolute loyalty to his person and theories was to be found in Freud's Secret Committee, formed primarily as a means of getting rid of Jung who had been showing disturbing signs of independence. When Ferenczi and Rank began to pursue independent lines of enquiry in their work, they too were though to be undermining the foundations of classical psychoanalysis. Finally, the author concludes that though there have been sorry incidents in psychoanalysis, we should be mature enough to accept both the contributions of the early pioneers and the realizations that new ideas must be permitted to evolve.

  12. Small female rib cage fracture in frontal sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Greg; Lessley, David; Ash, Joseph; Poplin, Jerry; McMurry, Tim; Sochor, Mark; Crandall, Jeff

    2017-01-02

    The 2 objectives of this study are to (1) examine the rib and sternal fractures sustained by small stature elderly females in simulated frontal crashes and (2) determine how the findings are characterized by prior knowledge and field data. A test series was conducted to evaluate the response of 5 elderly (average age 76 years) female postmortem human subjects (PMHS), similar in mass and size to a 5th percentile female, in 30 km/h frontal sled tests. The subjects were restrained on a rigid planar seat by bilateral rigid knee bolsters, pelvic blocks, and a custom force-limited 3-point shoulder and lap belt. Posttest subject injury assessment included identifying rib cage fractures by means of a radiologist read of a posttest computed tomography (CT) and an autopsy. The data from a motion capture camera system were processed to provide chest deflection, defined as the movement of the sternum relative to the spine at the level of T8.  A complementary field data investigation involved querying the NASS-CDS database over the years 1997-2012. The targeted cases involved belted front seat small female passenger vehicle occupants over 40 years old who were injured in 25 to 35 km/h delta-V frontal crashes (11 to 1 o'clock). Peak upper shoulder belt tension averaged 1,970 N (SD = 140 N) in the sled tests. For all subjects, the peak x-axis deflection was recorded at the sternum with an average of -44.5 mm or 25% of chest depth. The thoracic injury severity based on the number and distribution of rib fractures yielded 4 subjects coded as Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3 (serious) and one as AIS 5 (critical). The NASS-CDS field data investigation of small females identified 205 occupants who met the search criteria. Rib fractures were reported for 2.7% of the female occupants. The small elderly test subjects sustained a higher number of rib cage fractures than expected in what was intended to be a minimally injurious frontal crash test condition. Neither field studies nor

  13. Predictions Shape Confidence in Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Maxine T; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-10-05

    It is clear that prior expectations shape perceptual decision-making, yet their contribution to the construction of subjective decision confidence remains largely unexplored. We recorded fMRI data while participants made perceptual decisions and confidence judgments, manipulating perceptual prior expectations while controlling for potential confounds of attention. Results show that subjective confidence increases as expectations increasingly support the decision, and that this relationship is associated with BOLD activity in right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG). Specifically, rIFG is sensitive to the discrepancy between expectation and decision (mismatch), and higher mismatch responses are associated with lower decision confidence. Connectivity analyses revealed expectancy information to be represented in bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and sensory signals to be represented in intracalcarine sulcus. Together, our results indicate that predictive information is integrated into subjective confidence in rIFG, and reveal an occipital-frontal network that constructs confidence from top-down and bottom-up signals. This interpretation was further supported by exploratory findings that the white matter density of right orbitofrontal cortex negatively predicted its respective contribution to the construction of confidence. Our findings advance our understanding of the neural basis of subjective perceptual processes by revealing an occipitofrontal functional network that integrates prior beliefs into the construction of confidence. Perceptual decision-making is typically conceived as an integration of bottom-up and top-down influences. However, perceptual decisions are accompanied by a sense of confidence. Confidence is an important facet of perceptual consciousness yet remains poorly understood. Here we implicate right inferior frontal gyrus in constructing confidence from the discrepancy between perceptual judgment and its prior probability. Furthermore, we place right

  14. [Characteristics of postpartum thyroid dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argatska, A; Nonchev, B; Obretsova, M; Pehlivanov, B

    2015-01-01

    The risk factors and mechanisms for the development of postpartum thyroid dysfunction have been widely discussed. However data on patients suffered spontaneous or induced abortion during early pregnancy are scarce. To reveal the characteristics of thyroid dysfunction in women after an abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy. A total of 28 women (18 euthyroid, 10 with thyroid dysfunction), mean age 30.46 ± 1.01 years following abortion in the first trimester have been included in the study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodthyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyreoglobulin antibodies (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) were measured and ultrasound assessment of the thyroid was performed 3 and 9 months after the interruption of pregnancy. Hypothyroidism was found in 6 of the women with thyroid dysfunction and thyrotoxicosis--in 4. Clinical features of thyroid dysfunction were observed in 3 patients while in the remaining 7 cases, diagnosis was made on the basis of hormonal levels. Positive titers of thyroid autoantibodies were detected in the majority of the cases with functional disordes. In 6 patients thyroid dysfunction was transient and in 4 hormonal abnormalities persisted on by the 9th month after the abortion. The comparative analysis showed that the volume of the thyroid gland and the degree of hypoehogenicity were significantly higher in patients with thyroid dysfunction compared to euthyroid women. Thyroid dysfunction after abortion in the first trimester is mainly of autoimmune pathogenesis and its characteristics do not differ from those of postpartum thyroiditis. In the majority of patients these disorders are subclinical and may remain unrecognized. A close active follow up of patients at increased risk of functional thyroid disorders after an abortion is required in order to prevent morbidity and identify the cases developing permanent thyroid dysfunction.

  15. Vulnerability of the medial frontal corticospinal projection accompanies combined lateral frontal and parietal cortex injury in rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, R J; Ge, J; Stilwell-Morecraft, K S; McNeal, D W; Hynes, S M; Pizzimenti, M A; Rotella, D L; Darling, W G

    2015-03-01

    Concurrent damage to the lateral frontal and parietal cortex is common following middle cerebral artery infarction, leading to upper extremity paresis, paresthesia, and sensory loss. Motor recovery is often poor, and the mechanisms that support or impede this process are unclear. Since the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is commonly spared following stroke, we investigated the spontaneous long-term (6 and 12 month) effects of lateral frontoparietal injury (F2P2 lesion) on the terminal distribution of the corticospinal projection (CSP) from intact, ipsilesional supplementary motor cortex (M2) at spinal levels C5 to T1. Isolated injury to the frontoparietal arm/hand region resulted in a significant loss of contralateral corticospinal boutons from M2 compared with controls. Specifically, reductions occurred in the medial and lateral parts of lamina VII and the dorsal quadrants of lamina IX. There were no statistical differences in the ipsilateral CSP. Contrary to isolated lateral frontal motor injury (F2 lesion), which results in substantial increases in contralateral M2 labeling in laminae VII and IX (McNeal et al. [2010] J. Comp. Neurol. 518:586-621), the added effect of adjacent parietal cortex injury to the frontal motor lesion (F2P2 lesion) not only impedes a favorable compensatory neuroplastic response but results in a substantial loss of M2 CSP terminals. This dramatic reversal of the CSP response suggests a critical trophic role for cortical somatosensory influence on spared ipsilesional frontal corticospinal projections, and that restoration of a favorable compensatory response will require therapeutic intervention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolinson, P Gunnar; Kozar, Albert J; Cibor, Greg

    2003-02-01

    The sacroiliac (SI) joint is a common source of low back pain in the general population. Because it is the link between the lower extremities and the spine, it sustains even higher loads during athletic activity, predisposing athletes to a greater probability of joint dysfunction and pain. The diagnosis and treatment of SI joint dysfunction remains controversial, due to complex anatomy and biomechanics, and a lack of universally accepted nomenclature and terminology, consistently reliable clinical tests and imaging studies, and consistently effective treatments. This article clarifies these issues by presenting a model of SI joint anatomy and function, a systematic approach to the diagnosis of dysfunction, and a comprehensive treatment plan.

  17. Strapping for temporomandibular joint dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD is a common problem seen in many of the dental clinics. Management of this depends on an accurate diagnosis of the cause for the TMJD. Physical therapy and rehabilitation play a vital role in the management of these dysfunctions. Physical therapy is useful in treating post-traumatic stiffness of the TMJ while strapping of the TMJ for a dysfunction along with conventional physical therapy is of benefit in terms of reduction in click, decrease in pain, and an improvement in function.

  18. Strapping for temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; John, Sandhya Mary; Unni, Amith

    2008-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) is a common problem seen in many of the dental clinics. Management of this depends on an accurate diagnosis of the cause for the TMJD. Physical therapy and rehabilitation play a vital role in the management of these dysfunctions. Physical therapy is useful in treating post-traumatic stiffness of the TMJ while strapping of the TMJ for a dysfunction along with conventional physical therapy is of benefit in terms of reduction in click, decrease in pain, and an improvement in function.

  19. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T; Akers, Katherine G; Rice, James P; Maes, Levi I; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Savage, Daniel D

    2010-12-01

    Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that alterations in frontal cortex function, structural plasticity, and related social behaviors are persistent consequences of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development [24]. Fetal-ethanol-related reductions in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and Arc and alterations in dendritic spine density in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex suggest a dissociation reminiscent of that described by Kolb et al. [38] in which these aspects of frontal cortex undergo reciprocal experience-dependent changes. In addition to providing a brief review of the available data on social behavior and frontal cortex function in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats, the present paper presents novel data on social-experience-related IEG expression in four regions of frontal cortex (Zilles LO, VLO, Fr1, Fr2) that are evaluated alongside our prior data from AID and Cg3. Social experience in normal rats was related to a distinct pattern of IEG expression in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex, with generally greater expression observed in ventrolateral frontal cortex. In contrast, weaker expression was observed in all aspects of frontal cortex in ethanol-exposed rats, with the exception of an experience-related increase in the medial agranular cortex. Behaviors related to social investigation and wrestling/boxing were differentially correlated with patterns of activity-related IEG expression in the regions under investigation for saccharin- and ethanol-exposed rats. These observations suggest that recruitment and expression of IEGs in frontal cortex following social experience are potentially important for understanding the long-term consequences of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure on frontal cortex function, synaptic plasticity, and related behaviors.

  20. Self versus family ratings of the frontal systems behaviour scale and measured executive functions: adult outcomes following childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Robert D; McLellan, Tracey L; McKinlay, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently occurs during childhood and adolescence with long-term neuropsychological and behavioral effects. Greater personal awareness of injury is associated with better outcomes. However, personal awareness is often assessed using ratings obtained from family members or significant others. Surprisingly, the accuracy of family-ratings compared with self-ratings has not been well studied in the TBI population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine self versus family-ratings of frontal dysfunction and secondly, the association between self/family reported frontal dysfunction and measured executive function outcomes. A total of 60 participants, approximately 10 years post-TBI, comprised 3 groups including; moderate/severe TBI (N=26; mean age 22.9, SD=3.0), mild TBI (N=20; mean age, 21.7, SD=2.7), and control (N=14: mean age, 21.6, SD=3.7). Neuropsychological testing was used to obtain domain scores for executive function and working memory/attention for each participant, and nominated family members and participants with TBI were asked to complete the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale (FrSBe), consisting of three sub-scales; apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction. Using the FrSBe there was no significant difference between the groups in executive function score, but the moderate/severe and mild groups had significantly lower working memory/attention scores compared with the control group (p<0.05). Repeated measures analysis of variance showed higher self-ratings on all sub-scales compared with family in each group (p<0.05). Scores on executive function and working memory/attention domains correlated with self, but not family reported executive dysfunction. Self-rated executive dysfunction explained 36% of the variance in executive function (p<0.001). While agreement between self-rated and family-rated total FrSBe scores was significant in all groups (p<0.001), our results showed that self-ratings were of higher

  1. Self versus family ratings of the frontal systems behaviour scale and measured executive functions: adult outcomes following childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Barrett

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI frequently occurs during childhood and adolescence with long-term neuropsychological and behavioral effects. Greater personal awareness of injury is associated with better outcomes. However, personal awareness is often assessed using ratings obtained from family members or significant others. Surprisingly, the accuracy of family-ratings compared with self-ratings has not been well studied in the TBI population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine self versus family-ratings of frontal dysfunction and secondly, the association between self/family reported frontal dysfunction and measured executive function outcomes. A total of 60 participants, approximately 10 years post-TBI, comprised 3 groups including; moderate/severe TBI (N=26; mean age 22.9, SD=3.0, mild TBI (N=20; mean age, 21.7, SD=2.7, and control (N=14: mean age, 21.6, SD=3.7. Neuropsychological testing was used to obtain domain scores for executive function and working memory/attention for each participant, and nominated family members and participants with TBI were asked to complete the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale (FrSBe, consisting of three sub-scales; apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction. Using the FrSBe there was no significant difference between the groups in executive function score, but the moderate/severe and mild groups had significantly lower working memory/attention scores compared with the control group (p<0.05. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed higher self-ratings on all sub-scales compared with family in each group (p<0.05. Scores on executive function and working memory/attention domains correlated with self, but not family reported executive dysfunction. Self-rated executive dysfunction explained 36% of the variance in executive function (p<0.001. While agreement between self-rated and family-rated total FrSBe scores was significant in all groups (p<0.001, our results showed that self-ratings were of

  2. Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Classification of Renal Dysfunction in Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Weir, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal dysfunction is one of the most common complications of cirrhosis with high morbidity and mortality. Summary In subjects with cirrhosis, renal dysfunction can present either as a direct consequence of cirrhosis (e.g. hepatorenal syndrome Type I and Type II) or secondary to etiologies other than cirrhosis (chronic kidney disease due to diabetic nephropathy, prerenal azotemia). Or, patients with cirrhosis may have renal dysfunction resulting directly from cirrhosis; and an underlying chronic kidney disease. Key Messages Given the challenges in the differential diagnosis of renal dysfunction and insufficient accuracy of serum creatinine and creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate estimating equations in cirrhosis, there is an urgent need for more accurate biomarkers of renal dysfunction in this population. This review will discuss novel concepts for the diagnosis and classification of renal dysfunction in cirrhosis to overcome at least some of the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Additionally, a new classification will be proposed for renal dysfunction in cirrhosis. PMID:24107793

  3. Role of Osteoplastic Frontal Sinus Obliteration in the Era of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Silverman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determining the indications for osteoplastic frontal sinus obliteration (OFSO for the treatment of inflammatory frontal sinus disease. Study Design. Retrospective case series from a single tertiary care facility. Methods. Thirty-four patients who underwent OFSO for chronic frontal sinusitis ( and frontal sinus mucocele ( comprised our study group. Data reviewed included demographics, history of prior frontal sinus operation(s, imaging, diagnosis, and operative complications. Results. The age range was 19 to 76 years. Seventy percent of patients with chronic frontal sinusitis underwent OFSO as a salvage surgery after previous frontal sinus surgery failures, while 30% underwent OFSO as a primary surgery. For those in whom OFSO was a salvage procedure, the failed surgeries were endoscopic approaches to the frontal sinus (69%, Lynch procedure (12%, and OFSO outside this study period (19%. For patients with frontal sinus mucocele, 72% had OFSO as a first-line surgery. Within the total study population, 15% of patients presented for OFSO with history of prior obliteration, with a range of 3 to 30 years between representations. Conclusions. Osteoplastic frontal sinus obliteration remains a key surgical treatment for chronic inflammatory frontal sinus disease both as a salvage procedure and first-line surgical therapy.

  4. Cognitive dysfunction in spinocerebellar ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    Full Text Available Abstract Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs comprise a heterogeneous group of complex neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by the presence of progressive cerebellar ataxia, associated or otherwise with ophthalmoplegia, pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal features, pigmentary retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Objective: To verify the presence of cognitive dysfunction among the main types of SCA described in the literature. Methods: the review was conducted using the search system of the PUBMED and OMIM databases. Results: Cognitive dysfunction occurs in a considerable proportion of SCA, particularly in SCA 3, which is the most frequent form of SCA worldwide. Dementia has been described in several other types of SCA such as SCA 2, SCA 17 and DRPLA. Mental retardation is a specific clinical feature of SCA 13. Conclusions: The role of the cerebellum in cognitive functions has been observed in different types of SCAs which can manifest varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction, dementia and mental retardation.

  5. Executive Dysfunction in Geriatric Depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockwood, Kathryn A; Alexopoulos, George S; van Gorp, Wilfred G

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological presentation of geriatric depression and to determine whether depression-related executive dysfunction is more pronounced during advanced age. METHOD...

  6. Lateral frontal cortex volume reduction in Tourette syndrome revealed by VBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittfoth Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural changes have been found predominantly in the frontal cortex and in the striatum in children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. The influence of comorbid symptomatology is unclear. Here we sought to address the question of gray matter abnormalities in GTS patients with co-morbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM in twenty-nine adult actually unmedicated GTS patients and twenty-five healthy control subjects. Results In GTS we detected a cluster of decreased gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, but no regions demonstrating volume increases. By comparing subgroups of GTS with comorbid ADHD to the subgroup with comorbid OCD, we found a left-sided amygdalar volume increase. Conclusions From our results it is suggested that the left IFG may constitute a common underlying structural correlate of GTS with co-morbid OCD/ADHD. A volume reduction in this brain region that has been previously identified as a key region in OCD and was associated with the active inhibition of attentional processes may reflect the failure to control behavior. Amygdala volume increase is discussed on the background of a linkage of this structure with ADHD symptomatology. Correlations with clinical data revealed gray matter volume changes in specific brain areas that have been described in these conditions each.

  7. Frontal Theta Dynamics during Response Conflict in Long-Term Mindfulness Meditators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Han-Gue; Malinowski, Peter; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness meditators often show greater efficiency in resolving response conflicts than non-meditators. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the improved behavioral efficiency are unclear. Here, we investigated frontal theta dynamics—a neural mechanism involved in cognitive control processes—in long-term mindfulness meditators. The dynamics of EEG theta oscillations (4–8 Hz) recorded over the medial frontal cortex (MFC) were examined in terms of their power (MFC theta power) and their functional connectivity with other brain areas (the MFC-centered theta network). Using a flanker-type paradigm, EEG data were obtained from 22 long-term mindfulness meditators and compared to those from 23 matched controls without meditation experience. Meditators showed more efficient cognitive control after conflicts, evidenced by fewer error responses irrespective of response timing. Furthermore, meditators exhibited enhanced conflict modulations of the MFC-centered theta network shortly before the response, in particular for the functional connection between the MFC and the motor cortex. In contrast, MFC theta power was comparable between groups. These results suggest that the higher behavioral efficiency after conflicts in mindfulness meditators could be a function of increased engagement to control the motor system in association with the MFC-centered theta network. PMID:28638334

  8. Frontal Theta Dynamics during Response Conflict in Long-Term Mindfulness Meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Han-Gue; Malinowski, Peter; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness meditators often show greater efficiency in resolving response conflicts than non-meditators. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the improved behavioral efficiency are unclear. Here, we investigated frontal theta dynamics-a neural mechanism involved in cognitive control processes-in long-term mindfulness meditators. The dynamics of EEG theta oscillations (4-8 Hz) recorded over the medial frontal cortex (MFC) were examined in terms of their power (MFC theta power) and their functional connectivity with other brain areas (the MFC-centered theta network). Using a flanker-type paradigm, EEG data were obtained from 22 long-term mindfulness meditators and compared to those from 23 matched controls without meditation experience. Meditators showed more efficient cognitive control after conflicts, evidenced by fewer error responses irrespective of response timing. Furthermore, meditators exhibited enhanced conflict modulations of the MFC-centered theta network shortly before the response, in particular for the functional connection between the MFC and the motor cortex. In contrast, MFC theta power was comparable between groups. These results suggest that the higher behavioral efficiency after conflicts in mindfulness meditators could be a function of increased engagement to control the motor system in association with the MFC-centered theta network.

  9. Acute renal dysfunction in liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is common in liver diseases, either as part of multiorgan involvement in acute illness or secondary to advanced liver disease. The presence of renal impairment in both groups is a poor prognostic indicator. Renal failure is often multifactorial and can present as pre-renal or intrinsic renal dysfunction. Obstructive or post renal dysfunction only rarely complicates liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome (MRS) is a unique form of renal failure associated with advanced liver disease or cirrhosis, and is characterized by functional renal impairment without significant changes in renal histology. Irrespective of the type of renal failure, renal hypoperfusion is the central pathogenetic mechanism, due either to reduced perfusion pressure or increased renal vascular resistance. Volume expansion, avoidance of precipitating factors and treatment of underlying liver disease constitute the mainstay of therapy to prevent and reverse renal impairment. Splanchnic vasoconstrictor agents, such as terlipressin, along with volume expansion, and early placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be effective in improving renal function in HRS. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS) in selected patients may be life saving while awaiting liver transplantation.

  10. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly identified and its long

  11. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  12. Executive cognitive dysfunction and ADHD in cocaine dependence: searching for a common cognitive endophenotype for addictive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cocaine dependent individuals (CDI present executive cognitive function (ECF deficits, but the impact of psychiatric comorbidities such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD on neuropsychological functioning is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if CDI with ADHD (CDI+ADHD would have a distinct pattern of executive functioning when compared with CDI without ADHD (CDI. Methods: we evaluated 101 adults, including 69 cocaine dependent subjects and 32 controls. ECF domains were assessed with Digits Forward (DF, Digits Backward (DB, Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB. DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were used for diagnosis and previous ADHD symptoms (in the childhood were retrospectively assessed by the Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS. Results: there were no significant differences between CDI+ADHD, CDI and controls in estimated IQ, socioeconomic background, education (in years and premorbid IQ (p>0.05. SCWT and WCST scores did not differ across groups. Nevertheless, CDI and CDI+ADHD performed more poorly than controls in total score of the FAB. Also, CDI+ADHD did worse than CDI on DF, DB, Conceptualization/FAB, and Mental flexibility/FAB. We did not find correlations between cocaine use variables and neuropsychological functioning, but previous ADHD symptoms assessed by WURS were negatively associated with DF (p=0.016 and with the total score of the FAB. Conclusion: CDI+TDAH presented more pronounced executive alterations than CDI and CDI exhibited poorer cognitive functioning than controls. Pre-existing ADHD symptoms may have a significant negative impact on executive dysfunction in CDI. It remains to be investigated by future studies if symptoms such as impulsivity or a pre-existing ECF dysfunction could represent underlying cognitive endophenotypes that would substantially increase the risk for acquiring addictive disorders.

  13. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani S. Durvasula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall. Dementia occurs in a relatively small proportion of HIV infected individuals, though milder NP deficits are observed in 30-50% of persons with advanced disease. Recent evidence suggests that drug users, especially stimulant users, are at risk for accelerated progression of their HIV disease, including a greater risk of neuropsychological dysfunction. Methamphetamine may potentiate HIV Tat protein mediated neurotoxicity giving rise to striatal proinflammatory cytokine stimulation and activation of redox-regulated transcription factors. Oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction is another candidate process underlying the synergistic effects of stimulant use and HIV. Damage to neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems which are affected by both stimulant use and HIV is an alternate explanation. Methamphetamine has also been shown to impede the effectiveness of HAART, which could then in turn allow for more rapid HIV disease progression. A greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood, anxiety and substance use disorders are also observed in HIV positive samples relative to the general population. The changing nature of the HIV pandemic is an ongoing challenge to investigators and clinicians working in this field. Emerging issues requiring additional attention are study of the interactive effects of normal aging and HIV on neurocognition as well as study of the effects of co

  14. Functional role of frontal alpha oscillations in creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R; Foulser, A Alban; Mellin, Juliann M; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent electroencephalography (EEG) data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a functional role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10 Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40 Hz-tACS was used instead of 10 Hz-tACS to rule out a general "electrical stimulation" effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal 40 Hz stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence of mirror neurons in human inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Neal, Alice; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Friston, Karl J; Frith, Chris D

    2009-08-12

    There is much current debate about the existence of mirror neurons in humans. To identify mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans, we used a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either executed or observed a series of actions. Here we show that in the IFG, responses were suppressed both when an executed action was followed by the same rather than a different observed action and when an observed action was followed by the same rather than a different executed action. This pattern of responses is consistent with that predicted by mirror neurons and is evidence of mirror neurons in the human IFG.

  16. Clinical insights into pragmatic theory: frontal lobe deficits and sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S; Pearce, S

    1996-04-01

    The validity of psycholinguistic theories of sarcasm was explored by examining subjects with mainly frontal lobe (FL) damage and concomitant concreteness of thought. The majority of FL subjects could interpret consistent verbal exchanges but not literally contradictory (sarcastic) verbal exchanges which implied that the literal meaning of a sarcastic comment needs to be rejected in order for the inference to be detected. Subsidiary analyses confirmed that failure on sarcasm tasks was associated with poor conceptual skills. Ability to process attitude was not associated with success at recognizing sarcasm. This suggested that attitude is not pivotal to the detection of sarcastic inference.

  17. Lóbulo Frontal y Psicoanálisis

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo Beteta

    1994-01-01

    Se trata de establecer mediante una atractiva hipótesis de trabajo, las relaciones entre los lóbulo frontales y las bases neurobiológicas de la teoría freudiana del psicoanálisis. Se presenran y discuten las aproximaciones psicofisiológicas y clínicas, en la interpretación de estas relaciones, llegando al análisis final de las "disoluciones" orgánicas y funcionales del cerebro, pasando revista a los síntomas de la demencia y cuadros clínicos diferenciales, por los cuales se puede llegar a la ...

  18. tACS phase locking of frontal midline theta oscillations disrupts working memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankim Subhash Chander

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Frontal midline theta (FMT oscillations (4-8Hz are strongly related to cognitive and executive control during mental tasks such as memory processing, arithmetic problem solving or sustained attention. While maintenance of temporal order information during a working memory (WM task was recently linked to FMT phase, a positive correlation between FMT power, WM demand and WM performance was shown. However, the relationship between these measures is not well understood, and it is unknown whether purposeful FMT phase manipulation during a WM task impacts FMT power and WM performance. Here we present evidence that FMT phase manipulation mediated by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS can block WM demand-related FMT power increase and disrupt normal WM performance. Methods: 20 healthy volunteers were assigned to one of two groups (group A, group B and performed a 2-back task across a baseline block (block 1 and an intervention block (block 2 while 275-sensor magnetoencephalography (MEG was recorded. After no stimulation was applied during block 1, participants in group A received tACS oscillating at their individual FMT frequency over the prefrontal cortex (PFC while group B received sham stimulation during block 2. After assessing and mapping phase locking values (PLV between the tACS signal and brain oscillatory activity across the whole brain, FMT power and WM performance were assessed and compared between blocks and groups. Results: During block 2 of group A but not B, FMT oscillations showed increased PLV across task-related cortical areas underneath the frontal tACS electrode. While WM task-related FMT power increase (FMTpower and WM performance were comparable across groups in block 1, tACS resulted in lower FMTpower and WM performance compared to sham stimulation in block 2. Conclusion: tACS-related manipulation of FMT phase can disrupt WM performance and influence WM task-related FMT power increase. This finding may have

  19. [Subclinical pulmonary dysfunction: an unrecognized diabetes complication?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Carlos; Stern, Ervin; Fink, Gershon

    2002-03-01

    The diabetic patient is susceptible to a series of chronic complications and at risk of premature death. The micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes are very well known. Despite the scarce information on the implications of diabetes for pulmonary function, supporting evidence suggests that the respiratory system is also affected by diabetes. Both collagen and microvascular abnormalities have been proposed as the underlying defects rendering diabetic patients susceptible to respiratory dysfunction. The findings in the few clinical studies that have addressed this question to date are controversial. In this article we review the literature published on this subject.

  20. Cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects are consistent with frontal cortico-subcortical and fronto-parietal neuropsychological models of brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Natalia; Łojek, Emilia; Kijanowska-Haładyna, Beata; Nestorowicz, Jakub; Harasim, Andrzej; Pluta, Agnieszka; Sobańska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Three neuropsychological theories have been developed according to a possible existence of a similar pattern of cognitive decline in elderly individuals and patients with brain damage. The respective neuropsychological theories attribute age-related deficits to: (a) dysfunction of the frontal lobes, (b) temporo-parietal dysfunction, or (c) decline of right-hemisphere functions. In the present study, we examined which of these theories best explains the cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects older than 80 years of age (old elderly). Thirty normal old elderly subjects, 14 patients with subcortical vascular dementia, 14 with mild Alzheimer's disease, 15 with damage of the right hemisphere of the brain, and 20 young elderly controls participated. A test battery covering the main cognitive domains was administered to all participants. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed five groups of individuals with different cognitive patterns across the whole sample. Old elderly subjects were assigned to four groups according to: (a) preserved overall cognitive performance, (b) processing speed decline, (c) attention decline, or (d) executive impairment. The results of the study are most congruent with models emphasizing frontal-lobe cortical-subcortical and fronto-parietal changes in old age. The results also indicate considerable heterogeneity in the cognitive patterns of normal old elderly adults.

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction in myofibrillar myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Amy E; Grady, John P; Rocha, Mariana C; Alston, Charlotte L; Rygiel, Karolina A; Barresi, Rita; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Doug M

    2016-10-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) are characterised by focal myofibrillar destruction and accumulation of myofibrillar elements as protein aggregates. They are caused by mutations in the DES, MYOT, CRYAB, FLNC, BAG3, DNAJB6 and ZASP genes as well as other as yet unidentified genes. Previous studies have reported changes in mitochondrial morphology and cellular positioning, as well as clonally-expanded, large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions and focal respiratory chain deficiency in muscle of MFM patients. Here we examine skeletal muscle from patients with desmin (n = 6), ZASP (n = 1) and myotilin (n = 2) mutations and MFM protein aggregates, to understand how mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to the underlying mechanisms causing disease pathology. We have used a validated quantitative immunofluorescent assay to study respiratory chain protein levels, together with oxidative enzyme histochemistry and single cell mitochondrial DNA analysis, to examine mitochondrial changes. Results demonstrate a small number of clonally-expanded mitochondrial DNA deletions, which we conclude are due to both ageing and disease pathology. Further to this we report higher levels of respiratory chain complex I and IV deficiency compared to age matched controls, although overall levels of respiratory deficient muscle fibres in patient biopsies are low. More strikingly, a significantly higher percentage of myofibrillar myopathy patient muscle fibres have a low mitochondrial mass compared to controls. We concluded this is mechanistically unrelated to desmin and myotilin protein aggregates; however, correlation between mitochondrial mass and muscle fibre area is found. We suggest this may be due to reduced mitochondrial biogenesis in combination with muscle fibre hypertrophy.

  2. Endothelial dysfunction in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Maria Dolores; Aldasoro, Martin; Ortega, Joaquin; Vila, José María

    2013-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a chronic multifunctional disease characterized by an accumulation of fat. Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction, as defined by an imbalance between relaxing and contractile endothelial factors, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of these cardiometabolic diseases. Diminished bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) contributes to endothelial dysfunction and impairs endothelium- dependent vasodilatation. But this is not the only mechanism that drives to endothelial dysfunction. Obesity has been associated with a chronic inflammatory process, atherosclerosis, and oxidative stress. Moreover levels of asymmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), are elevated in obesity. On the other hand, increasing prostanoid-dependent vasoconstriction and decreasing vasodilator prostanoids also lead to endothelial dysfunction in obesity. Other mechanisms related to endothelin-1 (ET-1) or endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) have been proposed. Bariatric surgery (BS) is a safe and effective means to achieve significant weight loss, but its use is limited only to patients with severe obesity including morbid obesity. BS also proved efficient in endothelial dysfunction reduction improving cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities associated with morbid obesity such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. This review will provide a brief overview of the mechanisms that link obesity with endothelial dysfunction, and how weight loss is a cornerstone treatment for cardiovascular comorbidities obesity-related. A better understanding of the mechanisms of obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction may help develop new therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in dementia patients with frontal lobe symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Mala; Geitung, Jonn-Terje (Dept. of Geriatrics, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen (Norway)), e-mail: mnaik@broadpark.no; Lundervold, Arvid (Dept. of Biomedicine, Univ. of Bergen (Norway)); Nygaard, Harald (Olaviken Hospital (Norway))

    2010-07-15

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent MRI technique demonstrating white matter tracts in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease and this method has been used to demonstrate the loss of axonal fibers and myelin and decrease of fiber density in this condition. Purpose: To study a possible correlation between frontal lobe symptoms in patients with dementia and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter/fascicles in the frontal lobes. Material and Methods: The study included 23 patients with dementia and frontal lobe symptoms and 20 controls (10 Alzheimer patients without frontal lobe symptoms and 10 normal controls). Clinical tests and MRI with DTI were performed. FA in subcortical white matter of both the frontal lobes was analyzed and correlated with clinical frontal score tests. Results: We found a significant correlation between frontal score results and reduction in FA in the frontal lobes. The FA in the study group was significantly lower than the FA in the control group. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is a probable correlation between the extent of frontal lobe symptoms and FA in fascicles/white matter tissue in the frontal lobes

  4. The differential relationship between trait anxiety, depression, and resting frontal α-asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Relatively larger resting right frontal cortical brain activation has been labeled as a risk factor for emotion-related disorders. In light of this framework, the present studies' aim was twofold. First, we wanted to determine whether a relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and frontal asymmetry does already manifest in a sample of so far healthy individuals showing a large symptom range. This could be expected if frontal asymmetry constitutes a risk factor for depression and anxiety. Second, we aimed to investigate whether symptoms of depression and anxiety are independently related to frontal asymmetry, or whether either anxiety or depression is superior in predicting the relationship with frontal asymmetry. To address these questions, trait-like resting frontal α-asymmetry by means of EEG, as well as trait anxiety and depressive symptoms by questionnaire were measured from 43 healthy students (28 female). Results indicate that higher symptom severity of depression and anxiety were both significantly correlated with relatively larger right frontal cortical activation. However, in a regression analysis, frontal asymmetry was predicted by anxiety only. Controlling for depression and mood, anxiety explained 13% of variance, while controlling for mood and anxiety, depression did explain asymmetry. In conclusion, although both anxiety and depression add to the relationship, relatively larger right frontal cortical activity might be influenced more strongly by symptoms of anxiety. Moreover, as this effect is present already in healthy individuals, the findings might further support the notion that right frontal cortical asymmetry constitutes a risk factor for anxiety or depression.

  5. 糖尿病引起内皮祖细胞损伤机制研究进展%The underlying mechanisms of dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells caused by diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯沃霖; 刘芳

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from bone marrow,play crucial roles in the maintenance of endothelial cell integrity and in the neovascularization of ischemic tissue.The mechanisms of EPCs impairment in diabetes include increased production of reactive oxygen species,reduced bioavailability of endothelial nitric oxide synthase,activated process of inflammation and inhibited signaling pathways of angiogenesis related proteins.These multiple abnormalities contribute to defective angiogenesis,resulting in cardiovascular complications,delayed wound healing and ascending risk of lower limb amputation in diabetes.By exploring new targets acting on dysfunction of diabetic EPCs,new approaches to prevent and cure cardiovascular events and foot disorders could be found through improving EPCs function in patients with diabetes.%内皮祖细胞来源于骨髓细胞,在维持内皮细胞完整性和缺血组织的血管新生方面起关键作用.糖尿病可引起内皮祖细胞功能障碍,其机制包括促进活性氧簇产生,降低内皮型一氧化氮合酶活性,刺激炎性反应,抑制与血管新生有关的蛋白信号通路等,最终导致血管新生障碍,这是糖尿病患者出现心血管并发症、伤口愈合延迟甚至面临截肢危险的重要原因.探索作用于受损糖尿病内皮祖细胞功能的新靶点,可通过改善内皮祖细胞功能,开拓治疗糖尿病心血管病变和足病的新途径.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility-related male hormonal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrins, Martin; Niederberger, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of infertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men requires an understanding of the hormonal basis of spermatogenesis. The best method for accurately determining male androgenization status remains elusive. Treatment of hormonal dysfunction can fall into two categories - empirical and targeted. Empirical therapy refers to experience-based treatment approaches in the absence of an identifiable aetiology. Targeted therapy refers to the correction of a specific underlying hormonal abnormality. However, the tools available for inferring the intratesticular hormonal environment are unreliable. Thus, understanding the limitations of serum hormonal assays is very important for determining male androgen status. Furthermore, bulk seminal parameters are notoriously variable and consequently unreliable for measuring responses to hormonal therapy. In the setting of azoospermia owing to spermatogenic dysfunction, hormonal therapy - relying on truly objective parameters including the return of sperm to the ejaculate or successful surgical sperm retrieval - is a promising treatment. This approach to the treatment of fertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men contrasts with the current state of its counterpart in female reproductive endocrinology. Treatment of male hormonal dysfunction has long emphasized empirical therapy, whereas treatment of the corollary female dysfunction has been directed at specific deficits.

  7. Epidemiology and care of female sexual dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    McCool, Megan Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction can have a negative impact on the well-being of an individual. For women, sexual dysfunction encompasses sexual interest / arousal disorder, female orgasmic disorder and genitopelvic pain / penetration disorder. Although sexual dysfunction has been identified as a significant public health problem, research on sexual dysfunction has primarily focused on men rather than women. Comprehensive epidemiological data on female sexual dysfunction and information on current levels o...

  8. Contemporary management of frontal sinus mucoceles: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courson, Andy M; Stankiewicz, James A; Lal, Devyani

    2014-02-01

    To analyze trends in the surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles through meta-analysis. Meta-analysis and case series. A systematic literature review on surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles was conducted. Studies were divided into historical (1975-2001) and contemporary (2002-2012) groups. A meta-analysis of these studies was performed. The historical and contemporary cohorts were compared (surgical approach, recurrence, and complications). To study evolution in surgical management, a senior surgeon's experience over 28 years was analyzed separately. Thirty-one studies were included for meta-analysis. The historical cohort included 425 mucoceles from 11 studies. The contemporary cohort included 542 mucoceles from 20 studies. More endoscopic techniques were used in the contemporary versus historical cohort (53.9% vs. 24.7%; P = contemporary). In the historical cohort, higher recurrence was noted in the external group (P = 0.03). Results from endoscopic and open approaches are comparable. Although endoscopic techniques are being increasingly adopted, comparison with our series shows that more cases could potentially be treated endoscopically. Frequent use of open approaches may reflect efficacy, or perhaps lack of expertise and equipment required for endoscopic management. Most contemporary authors favor endoscopic management, limiting open approaches for specific indications (unfavorable anatomy, lateral disease, and scarring). N/A. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Frontal destabilization of Stonebreen, Edgeøya, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, Tazio; Kääb, Andreas; Schellenberger, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    In consideration of the strong atmospheric warming that has been observed since the 1990s in polar regions there is a need to quantify mass loss of Arctic ice caps and glaciers and their contribution to sea level rise. In polar regions a large part of glacier ablation is through calving of tidewater glaciers driven by ice velocities and their variations. The Svalbard region is characterized by glaciers with rapid dynamic fluctuations of different types, including irreversible adjustments of calving fronts to a changing mass balance and reversible, surge-type activities. For large areas, however, we do not have much past and current information on glacier dynamic fluctuations. Recently, through frequent monitoring based on repeat optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data, a number of zones of velocity increases have been observed at formerly slow-flowing calving fronts on Svalbard. Here we present the dynamic evolution of the southern lobe of Stonebreen on Edgeøya. We observe a slowly steady retreat of the glacier front from 1971 until 2011, followed by a strong increase in ice surface velocity along with a decrease of volume and frontal extension since 2012. The considerable losses in ice thickness could have made the tide-water calving glacier, which is grounded below sea level some 6 km inland from the 2014 front, more sensitive to surface meltwater reaching its bed and/or warm ocean water increasing frontal ablation with subsequent strong multi-annual ice-flow acceleration.

  10. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a review of eleven patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Fernandes, Iolanda; Selores, Manuela; Machado, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a primary lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia with a distinctive clinical pattern of progressive frontotemporal hairline recession. Our purpose was to describe the clinical and histopathological features as well as the response to treatment of eleven cases of FFA diagnosed at the Trichology Consultation, over three years. A retrospective case note review was performed of eleven adult patients with FFA. The clinical data as well the histopathologic findings and laboratory tests were accessed. The patients were treated with different drugs, depending on the stage of the disease. The age of onset of the alopecia ranged from 45 to 80 years. Ten patients (90.9%) were postmenopausal women. All patients had progressive and symmetrical alopecia localized to the frontal and temporal hairline. Seven patients (63.6%) had marked decreased to complete loss of eyebrows and in four patients axillar alopecia was also evident. Laboratory investigations were normal. Scalp biopsy specimens from the anterior hairline showed similar findings. No significant improvement was observed in the majority of cases. Differential diagnosis should take into account several other conditions. It seems there is no effective treatment proven with an appropriate level of evidence in the management of FFA.

  11. Evaluation of chest injury mechanisms in nearside oblique frontal impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraeus, Johan; Lindquist, Mats; Wistrand, Sofie; Sibgård, Elin; Pipkorn, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Despite the use of seat belts and modern safety systems, many automobile occupants are still seriously injured or killed in car crashes. Common configurations in these crashes are oblique and small overlap frontal impacts that often lead to chest injuries.To evaluate the injury mechanism in these oblique impacts, an investigation was carried out using mathematical human body model simulations. A model of a simplified vehicle interior was developed and validated by means of mechanical sled tests with the Hybrid III dummy. The interior model was then combined with the human body model THUMS and validated by means of mechanical PMHS sled tests. Occupant kinematics as well as rib fracture patterns were predicted with reasonable accuracy.The final model was updated to conform to modern cars and a simulation matrix was run. In this matrix the boundary conditions, ΔV and PDOF, were varied and rib fracture risk as a function of the boundary conditions was evaluated using a statistical framework.In oblique frontal impacts, two injury producing mechanisms were found; (i) diagonal belt load and (ii) side structure impact. The second injury mechanism was found for PDOFs of 25°-35°, depending on ΔV. This means that for larger PDOFs, less ΔV is needed to cause a serious chest injury.

  12. Retrieval of frontal cloudiness microstructure characteristics from satellite radiometeric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhanov, V.; Dorman, B.; Kryvobok, A.

    This paper presents results of consecutive numerical simulation of the NOAA satellite signal reflectance of frontal mixed stratiform clouds for channels of AVHRR in visible and near infrared regions of spectrum The simulation is based on the next models a The time-dependent numerical microphysical model of stratiform frontal clouds with 3 forms of ice crystals needles plates columnes b Models of computations of scattering characteristics of drop and crystal systems Simulations of scattering characteristics of liquid drops are based on the Mie theory Simulations of scattering properties of randomly oriented ice crystals are based on the geometric optics and far-field diffraction approximation Computations were realized in visible and near-infrared part of spectrum lambda 1 0 55 mu m lambda 2 1 6 mu m lambda quad 3 quad quad 3 6 quad mu m c The Discrete Ordinate Method DOM for simulation of solar radiation transfer in not uniform clouds Simulations of CR cloud reflrctance show that CR lambda 1 and CR lambda 2 change synchronously with the cloud intrgral optical thickness IOT which is detrmined basically with liquid water content LWC The channel lambda quad 3 3 6 mu m is less sensible to the optical thickness CR lambda 2 and CR lambda 3 are very different in a great LWC region but become close in a region of significant crystallization and precipitation The comparison CR lambda 1 CR lambda quad 2 CR lambda 3 gives

  13. FRONTAL COLUMELLAR FLAP IN UNILATERAL CLEFT LIP REPAIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors modified the design of Mohler's method of cleft lip repair, and attempted to make this method more reasonable, standard and surgically applicable, yield better outcome and to broaden the indications. In the modified Mohler technique, wherein designing and dissecting of the flap and the orbicular oris muscle are done separately, the author created an equilateral triangle flap (side≤6mm) from the frontal part of the columella.The flap is rotated and displaced downwards so that the atrophic philtral dimple is lengthened, the philtral column is reconstructed in such a way that the involved side of the Cupid's bow peak is restored to the normal position. From 1998 to 2000, the authors used this modified method to correct unilateral cleft lips in 38 patients. The results showed that the skin of the frontal columella and that of the philtral dimple were structurely similar, and so is ideal material for repairing the atrophied philtral dimple. The modified Mohler method for unilateral cleft lips can produce a better lip contour and broaden the indications.

  14. Corticofugal GABAergic projection neurons in the mouse frontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei eTomioka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cortical projection neurons are classified by hodology in corticocortical, commissural and corticofugal subtypes. Although cortical projection neurons had been regarded as only glutamatergic neurons, recently corticocortical GABAergic projection neurons has been also reported in several species. Here we demonstrate corticofugal GABAergic projection neurons in the mouse frontal cortex. We employed viral-vector-mediated anterograde tracing, classical retrograde tracing, and immunohistochemistry to characterize neocortical GABAergic projection neurons. Injections of the Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus into glutamate decarboxylase 67-Cre knock-in mice revealed neocortical GABAergic projections widely to the forebrain, including the cerebral cortices, caudate putamen, ventral pallidum, lateral globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. Minor GABAergic projections were also found in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, diagonal band of Broca, medial globus pallidus, substantial nigra, and dorsal raphe nucleus. Retrograde tracing studies also demonstrated corticofugal GABAergic projection neurons in the mouse frontal cortex. Further immunohistochemical screening with neurochemical markers revealed the majority of corticostriatal GABAergic projection neurons were positive for somatostatin-immunoreactivity. In contrast, corticothalamic GABAergic projection neurons were not identified by representative neurochemical markers for GABAergic neurons. These findings suggest that corticofugal GABAergic projection neurons are heterogeneous in terms of their neurochemical properties and target nuclei, and provide axonal innervations mainly to the nuclei in the basal ganglia.

  15. Development of the Himalayan frontal thrust zone: Salt Range, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dan M.; Lillie, Robert J.; Yeats, Robert S.; Johnson, Gary D.; Yousuf, Mohammad; Zamin, Agha Sher Hamid

    1988-01-01

    The Salt Range is the active frontal thrust zone of the Himalaya in Pakistan. Seismic reflection data show that a 1 km offset of the basement acted as a buttress that caused the central Salt Range-Potwar Plateau thrust sheet to ramp to the surface, exposing Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata. The frontal part of the thrust sheet was folded passively as it overrode the subthrust surface on a ductile layer of Eocambrian salt. Lack of internal deformation of the rear part of the thrust sheet is due to decoupling of sediments from the basement along this salt layer. Early to middle Pliocene (˜4.5 Ma) conglomerate deposition in the southern Potwar Plateau, previously interpreted in terms of compressional deformation, may instead document uplift related to basement normal faulting. Stratigraphic evidence, paleomagnetic dating of unconformities, and sediment-accumulation rates suggest that the thrust sheet began to override the basement offset from 2.1 to 1.6 Ma. Cross-section balancing demonstrates at least 20 to 23 km of shortening across the ramp. The rate of Himalayan convergence that can be attributed to underthrusting of Indian basement beneath sediments in the Pakistan foreland is therefore at least 9-14 mm/yr, about 20%-35% of the total plate convergence rate.

  16. Sensitivity of electrophysiological activity from medial frontal cortex to utilitarian and performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Yeung, Nick; Holroyd, Clay B; Schurger, Aaron; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2004-07-01

    A recent study has reported the observation in humans of an event-related brain potential component that is sensitive to the value of outcomes in a gambling task. This component, labeled medial frontal negativity (MFN), was most pronounced following monetary losses as opposed to monetary gains. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the MFN and the error-related negativity (ERN), a component elicited by feedback indicating incorrect choice performance. We argue that the two components can be understood in terms of a recently proposed theory that predicts the occurrence of such scalp negativities following stimuli that indicate that ongoing events are worse than expected. The results from two experiments using a gambling task demonstrate that the sensitivity of the MFN/ERN to the utilitarian and performance aspect of the feedback depends on which aspect is most salient. The results are consistent with the view that the two components are manifestations of the same underlying cognitive and neural process.

  17. A novel thermodynamic state recursion method for description of nonideal nonlinear chromatographic process of frontal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; OuYang, Liangfei; Liang, Heng; Li, Nan; Geng, Xindu

    2012-06-01

    A novel thermodynamic state recursion (TSR) method, which is based on nonequilibrium thermodynamic path described by the Lagrangian-Eulerian representation, is presented to simulate the whole chromatographic process of frontal analysis using the spatial distribution of solute bands in time series like as a series of images. TSR differs from the current numerical methods using the partial differential equations in Eulerian representation. The novel method is used to simulate the nonideal, nonlinear hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) processes of lysozyme and myoglobin under the discrete complex boundary conditions. The results show that the simulated breakthrough curves agree well with the experimental ones. The apparent diffusion coefficient and the Langmuir isotherm parameters of the two proteins in HIC are obtained by the state recursion inverse method. Due to its the time domain and Markov characteristics, TSR is applicable to the design and online control of the nonlinear multicolumn chromatographic systems.

  18. Acute phencyclidine treatment induces extensive and distinct protein phosphorylation in rat frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmowski, Pawel; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Williamson, James

    2014-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP), a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, induces psychotomimetic effects in humans and animals. Administration of PCP to rodents is used as a preclinical model for schizophrenia; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the symptoms remain largely unknown....... Acute PCP treatment rapidly induces behavioral and cognitive deficits; therefore, post-translational regulation of protein activity is expected to play a role at early time points. We performed mass-spectrometry- driven quantitative analysis of rat frontal cortex 15, 30, or 240 min after...... the administration of PCP (10 mg/kg). We identified and quantified 23 548 peptides, including 4749 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 2604 proteins. A total of 352 proteins exhibited altered phosphorylation levels, indicating that protein phosphorylation is involved in the acute response to PCP. Computational...

  19. Complementary roles for primate frontal and parietal cortex in guarding working memory from distractor stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Simon Nikolas; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-07-02

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal cortex are important for maintaining behaviorally relevant information in working memory. Here, we challenge the commonly held view that suppression of distractors by PFC neurons is the main mechanism underlying the filtering of task-irrelevant information. We recorded single-unit activity from PFC and the ventral intraparietal area (VIP) of monkeys trained to resist distracting stimuli in a delayed-match-to-numerosity task. Surprisingly, PFC neurons preferentially encoded distractors during their presentation. Shortly after this interference, however, PFC neurons restored target information, which predicted correct behavioral decisions. In contrast, most VIP neurons only encoded target numerosities throughout the trial. Representation of target information in VIP was the earliest and most reliable neuronal correlate of behavior. Our data suggest that distracting stimuli can be bypassed by storing and retrieving target information, emphasizing active maintenance processes during working memory with complementary functions for frontal and parietal cortex in controlling memory content.

  20. Split Rib Cranioplasty for Frontal Osteoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, Vaner; Kayaci, Selim; Bedir, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Osteomas are benign bone tumors. They generally lead to a local thickness on the frontal bone in calvarium. When they occur on the forehead, they often cause a cosmetic disorder without any neurological symptoms. The significant problem is the repair method of the cranium defect. Case Presentation The rib of a 34-year-old female was split and used for a small cranium defect of 3 × 3.5 cm. The preferred method and the obtained results were presented under the guidance of the literature. Conclusions Along with the technological advancement, different materials are employed according to the size of the cranium defect and the age of the case. The application of split costa cranioplasty for the small cranium defects in the region of patient’s face is the method with the least possibility of complications, and its cosmetic and functional results are quite promising. PMID:27656291

  1. Irreformable hyponatremia: a case report of pituitary dysfunction with liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jing; CHEN Yan; WANG Liang-jing

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of pituitary dysfunction is very difficult in inpatients with liver cirrhosis, because the symptoms are intricate and similar. We here report a case of a male patient complaining of fatigue and anorexia for more than two years. On duration of hospital stay, hyponatremia was irreformable. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary revealed the presence of cystic pituitary and abnormal signal in the left frontal lobe. The patient was also suspected to be infective endocarditis. Recognition of this unusual complication of this condition is important for the patients with chronic liver disease.

  2. Executive Dysfunction Is the Primary Cognitive Impairment in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Mast, Benjamin; Duff, Kevin; Ferman, Tanis J.; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive difficulties appear to be a more prevalent clinical feature in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) than previously thought, and significant cognitive impairment is prevalent in a majority of patients PSP patients not considered clinically demented. The neurocognitive performance of 200 patients with PSP across multiple sites was examined with a variety of commonly used neuropsychological tests. Results indicate primary executive dysfunction (e.g., 74% impaired on the Frontal Assessment Battery, 55% impaired on Initiation/Perseveration subscale of the Dementia Rating Scale), with milder difficulties in memory, construction, and naming. These results have important clinical implications for providers following patients with PSP. PMID:23127882

  3. Dysfunctional Audit Behaviors: An Exploratory Study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to draw attention of auditing researchers and practitioners in Pakistan towards occurrences of dysfunctional audit behaviors among auditors. This is a timely and important accounting text; first, it provides comprehensible explanation of when, how and why auditors resort dysfunctional audit behavior. Second, the organizational behavior and industrial psychology literatures provide the basis for developing and testing a model that may identifies emotional intelligence as moderator in the relationship between professional skepticism, under reporting of time and premature sign off behaviors. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM will be used to analyze data. Findings will bring practical implications to researchers and audit practitioners wanting to obtain a broader understanding of the underlying determinants of dysfunctional audit behaviors.

  4. Smoking to self-medicate attentional and emotional dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehricke, Jean-G; Loughlin, Sandra E; Whalen, Carol K; Potkin, Steven G; Fallon, James H; Jamner, Larry D; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2007-11-01

    Individuals with attentional and emotional dysfunctions are most at risk for smoking initiation and subsequent nicotine addiction. This article presents converging findings from human behavioral research, brain imaging, and basic neuroscience on smoking as self-medication for attentional and emotional dysfunctions. Nicotine and other tobacco constituents have significant effects on neural circuitry underlying the regulation of attention and affect. Age, sex, early environment, and exposure to other drugs have been identified as important factors that moderate both the effects of nicotine on brain circuitry and behavior and the risk for smoking initiation. Findings also suggest that the effects of smoking differ depending on whether smoking is used to regulate attention or affect. Individual differences in the reinforcement processes underlying tobacco use have implications for the development of tailored smoking cessation programs and prevention strategies that include early treatment of attentional and emotional dysfunctions.

  5. SPECT abnormalities with unilateral arm dystonia in a young mentally retarded apprentice cook: contralateral thalamo-cortical dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Fukutake, Toshio; Arai, Kimihito; Kikkawa, Yuriko; Hattori, Takamichi

    2003-06-01

    We report a young, mentally retarded apprentice cook with a 2-month history of right upper extremity dystonia, for whom diazepam therapy was efficacious. We evaluated brain perfusion by single photon emission tomography (SPECT) before and after diazepam treatment. The abnormal hyperperfusion in the left thalamus and hypoperfusion in the left frontal cortex were normalized on the second SPECT under the successful diazepam treatment. These findings were indicative of functional changes in the left thalamus and left frontal cortex.

  6. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2006-01-01

    1.--Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging. 2.--Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress was investigated using PC12 cells and dissociated brain cells of animals treated with piracetam. 3.--Piracetam treatment at concentrations between 100 and 1000 microM improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production of PC12 cells following oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and serum deprivation. Under conditions of mild serum deprivation, piracetam (500 microM) induced a nearly complete recovery of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Piracetam also reduced caspase 9 activity after SNP treatment. 4.--Piracetam treatment (100-500 mg kg(-1) daily) of mice was also associated with improved mitochondrial function in dissociated brain cells. Significant improvement was mainly seen in aged animals and only less in young animals. Moreover, the same treatment reduced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in aged mouse brain only, which are elevated as an adaptive response to the increased oxidative stress with aging. 5.--In conclusion, therapeutically relevant in vitro and in vivo concentrations of piracetam are able to improve mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress and/or aging. Mitochondrial stabilization and protection might be an important mechanism to explain many of piracetam's beneficial effects in elderly patients.

  7. [Unilateral frontal sinus aspergillosis: the combined endoscopic and mini-trephination approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, V; Portmann, D; Boudard, Ph

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillosis is a common fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses. Localization in the frontal sinus is usually secondary to involvement of one of the other sinuses. Isolated frontal sinus aspergillosis is rare and only 5 cases are described in literature. We report a case of a patient with a frontal sinus aspergilloma associated with ipsilateral chronic ethmoidal and maxillary sinusitis, successfully treated with a combined endoscopic and mini-trephination approach "Lemoyne technique". The endoscopic approach to the frontal sinus is considered the best way to deal with frontal sinus aspergilloma, but it is sometimes not sufficient to guarantee the complete removal of the fungus ball. In such cases a mini-trephination of the frontal sinus with associated irrigation provides a more accurate visualization and toilette of the sinus.

  8. Obesity and pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Kalaivani; Monga, Ash

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of pelvic floor disorders. Patients with obesity present with a range of urinary, bowel and sexual dysfunction problems as well as uterovaginal prolapse. Urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction are more prevalent in patients with obesity. Uterovaginal prolapse is also more common than in the non-obese population. Weight loss by surgical and non-surgical methods plays a major role in the improvement of these symptoms in such patients. The treatment of symptoms leads to an improvement in their quality of life. However, surgical treatment of these symptoms may be accompanied by an increased risk of complications in obese patients. A better understanding of the mechanism of obesity-associated pelvic floor dysfunction is essential.

  9. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Keane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive, neurodegenerative condition that has increasingly been linked with mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of the electron transport chain. This inhibition leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of cellular energy levels, which can consequently cause cellular damage and death mediated by oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. A number of genes that have been shown to have links with inherited forms of PD encode mitochondrial proteins or proteins implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction, supporting the central involvement of mitochondria in PD. This involvement is corroborated by reports that environmental toxins that inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain have been shown to be associated with PD. This paper aims to illustrate the considerable body of evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction with neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of PD patients and to highlight the important need for further research in this area.

  10. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  11. Sexual dysfunctions in psoriatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabela Sarbu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder with a worldwide occurrence characterized by well-defined infiltrated erythematous papules and plaques, covered by silvery white or yellowish scales. It is a physically, socially and emotionally invalidating disorder that affects 1-2% of the population. Sexual health is an important part of general health and sexual dysfunctions can negatively affect self-esteem, confidence, interpersonal relationships and the quality of life. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI, Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI and the Impact of Psoriasis on Quality of Life (IPSO questionnaire are all questionnaires used to assess the quality of life of patients with psoriasis and each has one question regarding sexual dysfunction. Several scales were also designed to particularly assess sexual satisfaction in men and women. The aim of this paper is to perform an overview of the existing studies on sexual dysfunction in psoriatic patients.

  12. Unique transcriptome patterns of the white and grey matter corroborate structural and functional heterogeneity in the human frontal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Mills

    Full Text Available The human frontal lobe has undergone accelerated evolution, leading to the development of unique human features such as language and self-reflection. Cortical grey matter and underlying white matter reflect distinct cellular compositions in the frontal lobe. Surprisingly little is known about the transcriptomal landscape of these distinct regions. Here, for the first time, we report a detailed transcriptomal profile of the frontal grey (GM and white matter (WM with resolution to alternatively spliced isoforms obtained using the RNA-Seq approach. We observed more vigorous transcriptome activity in GM compared to WM, presumably because of the presence of cellular bodies of neurons in the GM and RNA associated with the nucleus and perinuclear space. Among the top differentially expressed genes, we also identified a number of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs, specifically expressed in white matter, such as LINC00162. Furthermore, along with confirmation of expression of known markers for neurons and oligodendrocytes, we identified a number of genes and splicing isoforms that are exclusively expressed in GM or WM with examples of GABRB2 and PAK2 transcripts, respectively. Pathway analysis identified distinct physiological and biochemical processes specific to grey and white matter samples with a prevalence of synaptic processes in GM and myelination regulation and axonogenesis in the WM. Our study also revealed that expression of many genes, for example, the GPR123, is characterized by isoform switching, depending in which structure the gene is expressed. Our report clearly shows that GM and WM have perhaps surprisingly divergent transcriptome profiles, reflecting distinct roles in brain physiology. Further, this study provides the first reference data set for a normal human frontal lobe, which will be useful in comparative transcriptome studies of cerebral disorders, in particular, neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Assessing and conceptualizing frontal EEG asymmetry: An updated primer on recording, processing, analyzing, and interpreting frontal alpha asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ezra E; Reznik, Samantha J; Stewart, Jennifer L; Allen, John J B

    2017-01-01

    Frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha asymmetry is widely researched in studies of emotion, motivation, and psychopathology, yet it is a metric that has been quantified and analyzed using diverse procedures, and diversity in procedures muddles cross-study interpretation. The aim of this article is to provide an updated tutorial for EEG alpha asymmetry recording, processing, analysis, and interpretation, with an eye towards improving consistency of results across studies. First, a brief background in alpha asymmetry findings is provided. Then, some guidelines for recording, processing, and analyzing alpha asymmetry are presented with an emphasis on the creation of asymmetry scores, referencing choices, and artifact removal. Processing steps are explained in detail, and references to MATLAB-based toolboxes that are helpful for creating and investigating alpha asymmetry are noted. Then, conceptual challenges and interpretative issues are reviewed, including a discussion of alpha asymmetry as a mediator/moderator of emotion and psychopathology. Finally, the effects of two automated component-based artifact correction algorithms-MARA and ADJUST-on frontal alpha asymmetry are evaluated.

  14. Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Bisulli, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Tassi, Laura; Licchetta, Laura; Mostacci, Barbara; Stipa, Carlotta; Mainieri, Greta; Bernabè, Giorgia; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura. Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime. Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant. This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Let me change your mind… Frontal brain activity in a virtual T-maze

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry, a construct invented by Richard Davidson, linking positive and negative valence as well as approach and withdrawal motivation to lateralized frontal brain activation has been investigated for over thirty years. The frontal activation patterns described as relevant were measured via alpha-band frequency activity (8-13 Hz) as a measurement of deactivation in electroencephalography (EEG) for homologous electrode pairs, especially for the electrode position F4/ F3 to account fo...

  16. Brief assessment of executive impairment in elderly with stroke: Validation of Frontal Assessment Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito-Santo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Goals: Stroke potentiates the development of executive dysfunction, leading to impairment in performance of daily activities. The neuropsychological assessment of executive functions is important to develop adequate rehabilitation strategies. Thus, describing the normative data, diagnostic accuracy, psychometric properties and factor analysis of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, a brief and easy to administer instrument, in a clinical sample with stroke are objectives of this study. Methods: Being part of the Aging Trajectories of Institutionalized Elderly, this research has a sample 112 elderly people with a medical diagnosis of stroke and a control subgroup of 157 elderly people. The subjects have ages between 60 and 100 years old (M = 78.20, SD = 7.57, mostly females (n = 194. The measurements used include interviews and neuropsychological tests grouped in executive functioning measures, cognitive measures of reference and clinical measures of control. Results: The variables age and education affect the scores obtained in the clinical subgroup, having the variable gender no impact on these. Using a cutoff score of 7, the FAB had a sensitivity of 83.4% and a specificity of 66.1% for screening stroke (AUC = 0.64; showed a Cronbach's α of 0.79, and strong correlations with executive tests (Stroop test, Rey Complex Figure, Attentional-Executive factor of Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Switching in the verbal fluency tests. The confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor structure. Conclusions: The FAB presents good internal consistency, convergent, and construct when used for elderly with stroke. Due to some limitations of the study, which may explain the weak discriminant validity, further investigations are encouraged because FAB has showed promising psychometric properties.

  17. NEURAL CORRELATES FOR APATHY: FRONTAL - PREFRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTICAL - SUBCORTICAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional invovlement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in every day life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC and basal ganglia; emotional affective apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; cognitive apathy may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of autoactivation may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to grey matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies and a reduced speedness in action decsion, major resposnible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control.We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  18. Thyroid Dysfunction and its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Agnihotri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present review article is on thyroid dysfunctions which can be hypo or hyper thyroidism. Along with the ongoing allopathic treatment options, one can go for the alternative therapies or natural cures. Various nutritional supplements including iodine, botanicals like guggul and many more play an effective role in the management of thyroid dysfunction apart from the pharmaceuticals like synthetic T3 and T4 hormones and procaine thyroid. Along with these, homeopathy and yoga are equally important. The discussion suggests and emphasizes the importance of improving the lifestyle and nutritional diet; and further providing spiritual support along with natural thyroid medication.

  19. Does stress induce bowel dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ming; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Kao, John Y

    2014-08-01

    Psychological stress is known to induce somatic symptoms. Classically, many gut physiological responses to stress are mediated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. There is, however, a growing body of evidence of stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) release causing bowel dysfunction through multiple pathways, either through the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous systems, or directly on the bowel itself. In addition, recent findings of CRF influencing the composition of gut microbiota lend support for the use of probiotics, antibiotics, and other microbiota-altering agents as potential therapeutic measures in stress-induced bowel dysfunction.

  20. Reference structures for assessment of frontal head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepa, I; Huggare, J

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the study was to test (a) the validity of the supra-orbital line as a substitute for the interpupillary line, and (b) the reproducibility of two different approaches of assessing cranio- and cervico-vertical relationships on frontal cephalograms. The material consisted of natural head position frontal cephalograms of 21 healthy Finnish students and 11 Danish young adults prepared according to a method described previously, modified in the Danish sample by addition of spectacles with a wire to indicate the interpupillary line. The cephalograms were analysed manually twice by two investigators with an interval of one week. The following reference lines were selected: (1) orbital line (ORB): a tangent to the extreme cranial point on the supra-orbital margins; (2) cranial line (CR): the line drawn through crista galli and anterior nasal spine; (3) cervical line (CER): a line drawn through the midpoints of atlas (half the distance between the most median points on the tubercle of the transverse ligament), and C4 (half the distance between the most concave points of the lateral masses); (4) the main course of the upper cervical spine (SPINE): a subjective impression of the spinal inclination; (5) the interpupillary line (IP); and (6) the true vertical and horizontal lines (VER, HOR). The angles were measured to the nearest 0.5 degrees. Intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility was calculated. The supra-orbital line almost coincided with the interpupillary line as the mean inclination between the lines was only 0.5 degrees. Both intra- and inter-examiner errors were less for ORB and CER than for CR and the line indicating the main course of the upper cervical spine (SPINE). The intra-examiner reproducibility s(i) for ORB/HOR and CR/VER was 0.4 and 0.8 degrees respectively, and for CER/VER and SPINE/VER 0.8 degrees and 1.0 degrees. Based on these results, the supra-orbital line and the cervical line (defined as the mid-transversal line between the atlas and the

  1. Management of frontal sinusitis after frontal craniotomy%经额开颅手术后额窦炎的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元隆; 江常震; 梅文忠; 吴喜跃; 康德智; 王晨阳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes of frontal sinusitis after craniotomy and the strategy of frontal sinusitis by neural endoscopic .Methods A total of 11 patients with frontal sinusitis after craniotomy were admitted from November 2012 to December 2013,with the symptom of headache , purulence stuff and upper eyelid discharging .The onset time was 3.9 years on average .MRI showed frontal sinusitis and all of the patients received neural endoscopic frontal sinus neostomy .Results The following up from 6 to 13 months showed the symptoms of frontal sinusitis disappeared and did not relapse .Conclusions The frontal sinusitis after surgical operation may be related to the mishandling of frontal sinus , especially bone wax to be addressed to the frontal sinus ramming leading to frontal sinus mucosa secretion obstruction and poor drainage .Neural endoscopic treatment of frontal sinusitis is a way of minimally invasive surgery.Good operation effect can be obtained by endoscopic removal of bone wax ,inflammatory granulation tissue, and the enlargement of frontal sinus aperture after exposure to the fronta sinus.%目的:探讨开颅手术后额窦炎的原因及神经内镜下处理额窦炎的效果。方法2012年11月~2013年12月收治的11例经额开颅手术后额窦炎患者,主要表现为头痛、流脓涕和眼睑上方流脓,发病时间平均3.9年;MRI表现为额窦炎;均行神经内镜下额窦造口术。结果患者术后额窦炎症状均消失,随访6~13个月,未见复发。结论经额开颅手术后出现额窦炎可能与手术中额窦处理不当有关,特别是骨蜡将额窦夯实致额窦粘膜分泌物阻塞,引流不畅。神经内镜下处理额窦炎是一种微创有效的手术方式,内镜下暴露至额窦后清除骨蜡、炎性肉芽组织及扩大额窦口,能获得良好的手术效果。

  2. Anger under control: neural correlates of frustration as a function of trait aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Pawliczek

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21 and one reporting low (n=18 trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression.

  3. Frontal mucocele with an accompanying orbital abscess mimicking a fronto-orbital mucocele: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkuzu Guzin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucoceles are slowly expanding cystic lesions with respiratory epithelium containing mucus most commonly affecting the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses. They are caused by obstruction of sinus ostium. Mucoceles exert pressure on the bony boundaries and due to the proximity to the brain and orbit extension to these areas are common. Case presentation A case of a frontal mucocele with an accompanying orbital abscess mimicking a fronto-orbital mucocele is reported. A 77 year old female patient suffering from left sided proptosis and pain around the left eye was admitted to our department. She had a history of left frontal sinus mucocele one year ago that was offered an osteoplastic frontal sinus surgery that the patient refused. Patient had limitation of eye movements. Fundoscopic examination revealed a minimal papilledema. Coronal computerized tomography and orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed a frontal mucocele with suspicious erosion of the orbital roof and a superiorly localized extraconal mass displacing the orbit lateroinferiorly. Frontal and orbital masses had similar intensities. Thus surgery was planned for a fronto-orbital mucocele. During surgery no defect was found on the orbital roof. Frontal mucocele and orbital cystic mass was removed separately. Pathological examination showed a frontal mucocele and an orbital abscess wall. Postoperatively eye movements returned to normal and papilledema resolved. Conclusion Fronto-orbital mucoceles are commonly encountered pathologies, but frontal mucocele with an orbital abscess is a rarely seen and should be kept in mind because their treatments differ.

  4. Assessment of frontal sinus dimensions to determine sexual dimorphism among Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Belaldavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex identification of unknown individuals is important in forensic sciences. At times when only skull remains are found and other means of identification fails, radiographs of frontal sinus can be used for identification. Frontal sinus morphology is unique to individual and can be used effectively in person identification; whereas its use in determining sexual dimorphism is limited. Aim: To determine sexual dimorphism among Indians by evaluating frontal sinus pattern using postero-anterior radiograph. Materials and Methods: The right and left areas, maximum height and width of frontal sinus were determined in 300 digital postero-anterior view radiographs obtained from 150 males and 150 females aged between 18-30 years. The measurements were carried out by transferring the image to Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 extended. Comparison of values were done using student′s t-test and accuracy of sex determination was assessed through Logistic regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and forty seven males and 142 females show presence of frontal sinus with seven individuals showing unilateral/bilateral absence of frontal sinuses. The mean values of the frontal sinus height, width and area are greater in males. Right frontal sinus is larger than the left sinus in both the sex. The mathematical model based on logistic regression analysis gives an average concordance index for sex determination of 64.6%. Thus, frontal sinus provides average accuracy in sex determination among Indian population. This may be due to its greater variation in morphology.

  5. Obliteración de fracturas de seno frontal con colgajos pediculados

    OpenAIRE

    J. Pefaure; M. Mackfarlane; G. Bustos-Martínez; C. Angrigiani

    2014-01-01

    El compromiso del seno frontal con fractura de sus paredes es un tipo de lesión infrecuente, en torno al 5-12% de todas las fracturas faciales. Suele asociarse a lesiones intracraneales, oftalmológicas y a otras fracturas máxilofaciales y cuando conlleva fractura de la pared posterior de seno frontal requiere tratamiento inmediato, siendo necesaria la obliteración del seno frontal debido a la comunicación con meninges y lóbulo frontal, con el riesgo infeccioso que ello representa. Tratamos 18...

  6. An unusual association of headache, epilepsy, and late-onset Kleist’s pseudodepression syndrome in frontal lobe cavernoma of the cerebral left hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirchiglia D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Domenico Chirchiglia,1 Attilio Della Torre,1 Domenico Murrone,2 Pasquale Chirchiglia,3 Rosa Marotta4 1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurophysiopathology Unit, University of Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 2Neurosurgery Department, Di Venere Hospital, Bari, 3School of Medicine, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 4Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy Abstract: Cerebral cavernous angioma or cavernoma is a benign vascular malformation, usually asymptomatic. It is infrequent and often its discovery is incidental, a so-called incidentaloma. However, these lesions can be symptomatic, causing headaches, epilepsy, cerebral hemorrhage and other neurological signs depending on the brain area involved. Frontal localization is responsible for psychiatric disorders, particularly the prefrontal region, leading to prefrontal syndrome, a condition common in all frontal lobe tumors. Psychopathological syndrome can be depression-type, pseudodepression syndrome or maniac-type, pseudomaniac syndrome. Surgical treatment of lesions like this may not always be possible due to their location in eloquent areas. In this study, we describe an unusual association of migraine-like headache, epilepsy and frontal lobe pseudodepression late-onset syndrome in the same patient. We have considered this case interesting mainly for the rarity of both a headache with migraine features and for the late onset of pseudodepression syndrome. Pathophysiology underlying migraine-like headache and that concerning the late-onset pseudodepression frontal lobe syndrome seems to be unclear. This case leads to further hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for headache syndromes and psychopathological disorders, in the specific case when caused by a cerebral frontal lobe lesion. Keywords: cerebral cavernoma, cavernous angioma, headache, frontal syndrome, pseudodepression syndrome 

  7. Structural Evolution of a Warm Frontal Precipitation Band During GCPEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Brian A.; Naeger, Aaron; Molthan, Andrew; Nesbitt, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    A warm frontal precipitation band developed over a few hours 50-100 km to the north of a surface warm front. The 3-km WRF was able to realistically simulate band development, although the model is somewhat too weak. Band genesis was associated with weak frontogenesis (deformation) in the presence of weak potential and conditional instability feeding into the band region, while it was closer to moist neutral within the band. As the band matured, frontogenesis increased, while the stability gradually increased in the banding region. Cloud top generating cells were prevalent, but not in WRF (too stable). The band decayed as the stability increased upstream and the frontogenesis (deformation) with the warm front weakened. The WRF may have been too weak and short-lived with the band because too stable and forcing too weak (some micro issues as well).

  8. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irle, E; Exner, C; Thielen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the long-term outcome of subjects with severe and refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy during the 1970s. Special emphasis was given to the analysis of specific lesion sites. METHOD: Sixteen OCD...... resonance imaging scans. RESULTS: The leukotomized OCD subjects showed significant improvement of obsessive-compulsive symptoms; subjects with frontostriatal lesions tended to have improved most. The subjects with combined diagnoses of OCD and obsessive personality disorder (N = 3) had improved...... but not obsessive personality disorder. Lesions of the ventral striatum were significantly related to the occurrence of substance dependence, suggesting a role of this area in human addictive behavior....

  9. Lóbulo Frontal y Psicoanálisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Beteta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de establecer mediante una atractiva hipótesis de trabajo, las relaciones entre los lóbulo frontales y las bases neurobiológicas de la teoría freudiana del psicoanálisis. Se presenran y discuten las aproximaciones psicofisiológicas y clínicas, en la interpretación de estas relaciones, llegando al análisis final de las "disoluciones" orgánicas y funcionales del cerebro, pasando revista a los síntomas de la demencia y cuadros clínicos diferenciales, por los cuales se puede llegar a la interpretación freudiana de la psicopatía, la farmacodependencia y el síndrome del terrorismo.

  10. Optimal Occupant Kinematics and Crash Pulse for Automobile Frontal Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a lumped-parameter model of the occupant-vehicle system, optimal kinematics of the occupant in frontal impact are investigated. It is found that for the minimization of the peak occupant deceleration, the optimal kinematics move the occupant at a constant deceleration. Based on this the optimal vehicle crash pulse is investigated. The optimal crash pulse for passive restraint systems is found to be: a positive impulse at the onset, an immediate plunge followed by a gradual rebound, and finally a positive level period. The relation of the peak occupant deceleration to the impact speed, crash deformation, and vehicle interior rattlespace is established. The optimal crash pulse for active and pre-acting restraint systems is discussed.

  11. Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex: one decade on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Adam R; Robbins, Trevor W; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-04-01

    In our TICS Review in 2004, we proposed that a sector of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) in humans is critical for inhibiting response tendencies. Here we survey new evidence, discuss ongoing controversies, and provide an updated theory. We propose that the rIFC (along with one or more fronto-basal-ganglia networks) is best characterized as a brake. This brake can be turned on in different modes (totally, to outright suppress a response; or partially, to pause), and in different contexts (externally, by stop or salient signals; or internally, by goals). We affirm inhibition as a central component of executive control that relies upon the rIFC and associated networks, and explain why rIFC disruption could generally underpin response control disorders.

  12. Neurobehavioral Management of Behavioral Anomalies in Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Sharma, Vibha; Singh, Tej Bahadur

    2009-01-01

    Neurobehavioral approach uses behavioral paradigm towards comprehensive rehabilitation by identifying the neurological or neuropsychological constraints that can interfere with learning and behavior of an individual. The present case study highlights the role of functional skills approach in neurobehavioral management towards cognitive rehabilitation to manage behavioral deficits in a 55-year-old man with nicotine dependence having frontal lobe lesions owing to gliosis of fronto-temporal brain regions. Based on detailed neuropsychological and behavioral assessment, a behavioral package was made involving techniques like behavioral counseling, chaining, shaping and operant methods and was carried out with the patient daily (with the help of primary caregiver) over a period of 2 months. Results showed improvement in his self-care and decrease in behavioral problems, on 12-month follow-up. PMID:21938104

  13. Neurobehavioral management of behavioral anomalies in frontal lobe syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Shahzadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobehavioral approach uses behavioral paradigm towards comprehensive rehabilitation by identifying the neurological or neuropsychological constraints that can interfere with learning and behavior of an individual. The present case study highlights the role of functional skills approach in neurobehavioral management towards cognitive rehabilitation to manage behavioral deficits in a 55-year-old man with nicotine dependence having frontal lobe lesions owing to gliosis of fronto-temporal brain regions. Based on detailed neuropsychological and behavioral assessment, a behavioral package was made involving techniques like behavioral counseling, chaining, shaping and operant methods and was carried out with the patient daily (with the help of primary caregiver over a period of 2 months. Results showed improvement in his self-care and decrease in behavioral problems, on 12-month follow-up.

  14. DHEA and frontal fibrosing alopecia: molecular and physiopathological mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Neide Kalil

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) promotes fibrosis, differentiating epithelial cells and quiescent fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and increasing expression of extracellular matrix. Recent investigations have shown that PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor*) is a negative regulator of fibrotic events induced by TGFβ1. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an immunomodulatory hormone essential for PPAR functions, and is reduced in some processes characterized by fibrosis. Although scarring alopecia characteristically develops in the female biological period in which occurs decreased production of DHEA, there are no data in the literature relating its reduction to fibrogenic process of this condition. This article aims to review the fibrogenic activity of TGFβ1, its control by PPAR and its relation with DHEA in the frontal fibrosing alopecia. PMID:28099600

  15. Cognitive Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Tulay Koca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary symptom of fibromyalgia is widespread pain with muscle tenderness to light palpation. Howeover many patients report a wide range of symptoms including pain, dyscognition, sleep disturbances, fatigue and mood disorders (frequently depression. Such symptoms seem to be related to one another. Besides, a decrease in concentration and memory disorder has recognised as an independent symptom yet; added into literature under the terms and lsquo;dyscognition' and and lsquo;fibrofog'. Recently clinicians interested in investigations about dyscognition in fibromyalgia syndrome. Cognitive symptoms may be exacerbated by the presence of depression, anxiety, sleep dysorders, endocrine disregulations and pain; but the relationship is unclear. Additionally some of recent studies suggest that insulin resistance may represent a risk factor for memory impairment in these patients. There is lack of standardized tests, treatment methods and studies for understanding pathophysiologic pathways of cognitive problems (memory, concentration in fibromyalgia.

  16. In search for animal models of female sexual dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, E.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) is a disorder that affects around 40% of the population. Low sexual arousal and low sexual desire are the most common problems. The mechanisms underlying the disorder are still unclear. The aims of this thesis were 1) the search for animal models of FSD, 2) the develo

  17. Biomarkers of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna eAndrosova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly surgical patients frequently experience postoperative delirium (POD and the subsequent development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD. Clinical features include deterioration in cognition, disturbance in attention and reduced awareness of the environment and result in higher morbidity, mortality and greater utilization of social financial assistance. The aging Western societies can expect an increase in the incidence of POD and POCD. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been studied on the molecular level albeit with unsatisfying small research efforts given their societal burden. Here, we review the known physiological and immunological changes and genetic risk factors, identify candidates for further studies and integrate the information into a draft network for exploration on a systems level. The pathogenesis of these postoperative cognitive impairments is multifactorial; application of integrated systems biology has the potential to reconstruct the underlying network of molecular mechanisms and help in the identification of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers.

  18. Sepsis-induced brain dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Nicolas; Kandelman, Stanislas; Mantz, Jean; Chrétien, Fabrice; Sharshar, Tarek

    2013-02-01

    Systemic infection is often revealed by or associated with brain dysfunction, which is characterized by alteration of consciousness, ranging from delirium to coma, seizure or focal neurological signs. Its pathophysiology involves an ischemic process, secondary to impairment of cerebral perfusion and its determinants and a neuroinflammatory process that includes endothelial activation, alteration of the blood-brain barrier and passage of neurotoxic mediators. Microcirculatory dysfunction is common to these two processes. This brain dysfunction is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and long-term cognitive disability. Its diagnosis relies essentially on neurological examination that can lead to specific investigations, including electrophysiological testing or neuroimaging. In practice, cerebrospinal fluid analysis is indisputably required when meningitis is suspected. Hepatic, uremic or respiratory encephalopathy, metabolic disturbances, drug overdose, sedative or opioid withdrawal, alcohol withdrawal delirium or Wernicke's encephalopathy are the main differential diagnoses. Currently, treatment consists mainly of controlling sepsis. The effects of insulin therapy and steroids need to be assessed. Various drugs acting on sepsis-induced blood-brain barrier dysfunction, brain oxidative stress and inflammation have been tested in septic animals but not yet in patients.

  19. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was compl

  20. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  1. Ageing with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study with postal survey was to describe changes in the patterns of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and bowel management in a population of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) followed for two decades. In 1996, a validated questionnaire on bowel function was sent to the...

  2. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Gibson, R.J.; Eilers, J.G.; Waltimo, T.; Bots, C.P.; Michelet, M.; Sollecito, T.P.; Rouleau, T.S.; Sewnaik, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Fliedner, M.C.; Silverman, S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools, prevalen

  3. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; Brennan, Mike T.; Leeuw, Irma M. Verdonck-de; Gibson, Rachel J.; Eilers, June G.; Waltimo, Tuomas; Bots, Casper P.; Michelet, Marisol; Sollecito, Thomas P.; Rouleau, Tanya S.; Sewnaik, Aniel; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Fliedner, Monica C.; Silverman, Sol; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction and Huntington disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a chronic autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disease. The gene coding Huntingtin has been identified, but the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease are still not fully understood. This paper reviews the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis of HD.

  5. Cognitive dysfunction in senior pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2008-02-01

    Aging pets can experience declines in memory, learning, perception, and awareness. These pets may be disoriented, forget previously learned behaviors, develop new fears and anxiety, or change their interactions with people. When these changes are due to cognitive dysfunction, behavioral and environmental adjustments along with medical therapy can slow the progression and keep pets active longer.

  6. Assessing mitochondrial dysfunction in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Martin D; Nicholls, David G

    2011-04-15

    Assessing mitochondrial dysfunction requires definition of the dysfunction to be investigated. Usually, it is the ability of the mitochondria to make ATP appropriately in response to energy demands. Where other functions are of interest, tailored solutions are required. Dysfunction can be assessed in isolated mitochondria, in cells or in vivo, with different balances between precise experimental control and physiological relevance. There are many methods to measure mitochondrial function and dysfunction in these systems. Generally, measurements of fluxes give more information about the ability to make ATP than do measurements of intermediates and potentials. For isolated mitochondria, the best assay is mitochondrial respiratory control: the increase in respiration rate in response to ADP. For intact cells, the best assay is the equivalent measurement of cell respiratory control, which reports the rate of ATP production, the proton leak rate, the coupling efficiency, the maximum respiratory rate, the respiratory control ratio and the spare respiratory capacity. Measurements of membrane potential provide useful additional information. Measurement of both respiration and potential during appropriate titrations enables the identification of the primary sites of effectors and the distribution of control, allowing deeper quantitative analyses. Many other measurements in current use can be more problematic, as discussed in the present review.

  7. Comparative ultrastructural features of excitatory synapses in the visual and frontal cortices of the adult mouse and monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alexander; Luebke, Jennifer I; Medalla, Maria

    2017-03-03

    The excitatory glutamatergic synapse is the principal site of communication between cortical pyramidal neurons and their targets, a key locus of action of many drugs, and highly vulnerable to dysfunction and loss in neurodegenerative disease. A detailed knowledge of the structure of these synapses in distinct cortical areas and across species is a prerequisite for understanding the anatomical underpinnings of cortical specialization and, potentially, selective vulnerability in neurological disorders. We used serial electron microscopy to assess the ultrastructural features of excitatory (asymmetric) synapses in the layers 2-3 (L2-3) neuropil of visual (V1) and frontal (FC) cortices of the adult mouse and compared findings to those in the rhesus monkey (V1 and lateral prefrontal cortex [LPFC]). Analyses of multiple ultrastructural variables revealed four organizational features. First, the density of asymmetric synapses does not differ between frontal and visual cortices in either species, but is significantly higher in mouse than in monkey. Second, the structural properties of asymmetric synapses in mouse V1 and FC are nearly identical, by stark contrast to the significant differences seen between monkey V1 and LPFC. Third, while the structural features of postsynaptic entities in mouse and monkey V1 do not differ, the size of presynaptic boutons are significantly larger in monkey V1. Fourth, both presynaptic and postsynaptic entities are significantly smaller in the mouse FC than in the monkey LPFC. The diversity of synaptic ultrastructural features demonstrated here have broad implications for the nature and efficacy of glutamatergic signaling in distinct cortical areas within and across species.

  8. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Fracture Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Bauer, Douglas C; Collet, Tinh-Hai

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Associations between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and fractures are unclear and clinical trials are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of subclinical thyroid dysfunction with hip, nonspine, spine, or any fractures. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: The databases of MEDLI...

  9. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases...

  10. Expression of BDNF and TrkB Phosphorylation in the Rat Frontal Cortex During Morphine Withdrawal are NO Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregud, Danil I; Yakovlev, Alexander A; Stepanichev, Mikhail Yu; Onufriev, Mikhail V; Panchenko, Leonid F; Gulyaeva, Natalia V

    2016-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates pharmacological effects of opiates including dependence and abstinence. Modulation of NO synthesis during the induction phase of morphine dependence affects manifestations of morphine withdrawal syndrome, though little is known about mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Neurotrophic and growth factors are involved in neuronal adaptation during opiate dependence. NO-dependent modulation of morphine dependence may be mediated by changes in expression and activity of neurotrophic and/or growth factors in the brain. Here, we studied the effects of NO synthesis inhibition during the induction phase of morphine dependence on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) as well as their receptors in rat brain regions after spontaneous morphine withdrawal in dependent animals. Morphine dependence in rats was induced within 6 days by 12 injections of morphine in increasing doses (10-100 mg/kg), and NO synthase inhibitor L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (10 mg/kg) was given 1 h before each morphine injection. The expression of the BDNF, GDNF, NGF, IGF1, and their receptors in the frontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and midbrain was assessed 40 h after morphine withdrawal. L-NAME treatment during morphine intoxication resulted in an aggravation of the spontaneous morphine withdrawal severity. Morphine withdrawal was accompanied by upregulation of BDNF, IGF1, and their receptors TrkB and IGF1R, respectively, on the mRNA level in the frontal cortex, and only BDNF in hippocampus and midbrain. L-NAME administration during morphine intoxication decreased abstinence-induced upregulation of these mRNAs in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and midbrain. L-NAME prevented from abstinence-induced elevation of mature but not pro-form of BDNF polypeptide in the frontal cortex. While morphine abstinence did not affect Trk

  11. Ejaculatory dysfunction in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Kenneth Jackson; Nutt, Max; McVary, Kevin T

    2016-08-01

    The link between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and sexual dysfunction is well established. Sexual dysfunction can encompass both ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Ejaculatory dysfunction can consist of premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, anejaculation, decreased force of ejaculation and pain upon ejaculation. The impact of different medical and surgical therapies on ejaculatory function will be reviewed. We reviewed the various categories of LUTS treatment including the canonical epidemiology and pathophysiology as well as the surgical and medical treatments for LUTS/BPH. We note that most surgeries and several medical treatments have a certain but ill-defined negative impact on ejaculatory function. Several MISTs and selected medical therapies appear to have little impact on EjD. Both EjD and BPH are very common disorders in men under the care of an urologist. It is well documented that there is a clinical association between these two entities. Unfortunately many of the medical treatments and almost all surgical treatment impact the ejaculatory function of the patient. The surgical treatment of BPH often leads to retrograde ejaculation while medical treatment leads to anejaculation.

  12. Primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma in a dog treated with surgical excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Janet A; Pagano, Candace J; Boudreaux, Bonnie B

    2017-01-01

    An 8-year-old castrated male mixed breed dog was presented for a squamous cell carcinoma of the left frontal sinus. A partial craniectomy was performed and polytetrafluoroethylene mesh was placed over the craniectomy site. The dog recovered well with a good cosmetic outcome. Histopathology confirmed primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. Age-related changes of frontal-midline theta is predictive of efficient memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Z; Tóth, B; Boha, R; File, B; Molnár, M

    2014-07-25

    Frontal areas are thought to be the coordinators of working memory processes by controlling other brain areas reflected by oscillatory activities like frontal-midline theta (4-7 Hz). With aging substantial changes can be observed in the frontal brain areas, presumably leading to age-associated changes in cortical correlates of cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to test whether altered frontal-midline theta dynamics during working memory maintenance may underlie the capacity deficits observed in older adults. 33-channel EEG was recorded in young (18-26 years, N=20) and old (60-71 years, N=16) adults during the retention period of a visual delayed match-to-sample task, in which they had to maintain arrays of 3 or 5 colored squares. An additional visual odd-ball task was used to be able to measure the electrophysiological indices of sustained attentional processes. Old participants showed reduced frontal theta activity during both tasks compared to the young group. In the young memory maintenance-related frontal-midline theta activity was shown to be sensitive both to the increased memory demands and to efficient subsequent memory performance, whereas the old adults showed no such task-related difference in the frontal theta activity. The decrease of frontal-midline theta activity in the old group indicates that cerebral aging may alter the cortical circuitries of theta dynamics, thereby leading to age-associated decline of working memory maintenance function.

  14. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions, associat

  15. Rhinorrhoea from a frontal encephalocele after reduction of high intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cem; Gulsen, Salih; Altinors, Nur; Caner, Hakan

    2008-12-01

    Acquired non-traumatic frontal sinus encephaloceles are very rare lesions that are usually caused by a tumour or hydrocephalus. We present a 31-year-old woman with a frontal sinus encephalocele who developed rhinorrhoea after a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt to treat her hydrocephalus and underwent radiotherapy for a tectum tumour.

  16. Developmental Alterations of Frontal-Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kate Dimond; Welsh, Robert C.; Stern, Emily R.; Angstadt, Mike; Hanna, Gregory L.; Abelson, James L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by abnormalities of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry that appear near illness onset and persist over its course. Distinct frontal-striatal-thalamic loops through cortical centers for cognitive control (anterior cingulate cortex) and emotion processing (ventral medial frontal…

  17. Personal Identification in Forensic Science Using Uniqueness of Radiographic Image of Frontal Sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Shital Sudhakar; Gadgil, Rajeev Madhusudan; Bhoosreddy, Ajay Ramesh; Shah, Karan Rajendra; Shirsekar, Vinayak Umesh

    2015-07-01

    Frontal sinus pattern matching is a useful means of forensic identification. By the use of radiographs forensic scientists have recognized that there are diverse anatomical variations in the structure of the frontal sinus. Radiographs are a diagnostic tool, widely used in dental practices, hospitals and other health disciplines. Most health institutions possess the facility to store radiographs over long periods of time. Frontal sinus pattern matching technique can be applied in cases where ante mortem frontal sinus radiographs are available and dental matching cannot be carried out. Frontal sinus pattern matching technique may also be used to corroborate identifications based on other techniques such as fingerprints, teeth, or circumstantial evidence. The present study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of using the radiographic image of the frontal sinus for personal identification in studied population group. The results concluded that the appearance of the radiographic image of the frontal sinus is unique for each individual. On this evidence it is proposed that frontal sinus pattern matching can be used for personal identification when other methods have failed.

  18. The functional role of individual-alpha based frontal asymmetry in stress responding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Meyer, T.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Smeets, T.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetry in frontal electrical activity has been suggested to index tendencies in affective responding and thus may be associated with hormonal stress responses. To assess the functional role of frontal asymmetry (FA) in stress, we measured FA at rest and following exposure to acute stress induced

  19. Endoscopic- Assisted Trephination approach for repair of Frontal Sinus posterior wall fracture in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrats, Luis A; Torre-León, Carlos; Almodóvar, Gustavo; Portela, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    A 9 year-old male sustained multiple maxillofacial fractures after falling from a two-store building. Frontal sinuses suffered a bilateral non-displaced linear fractures extending into the anterior and posterior walls. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at this time showed a small encephalocele extending into the right frontal sinus. Operative repair was performed using an Endoscopic-Assisted Trephination approach.

  20. Development of compatibility assessments for full-width and offset frontal impact test procedures in FIMCAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adolph, T.; Schwedhelm, H.; Lazaro, I.; Versmissen, A.C.M.; Edwards, M.; Thomson, R.; Johannsen, H.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the project FIMCAR (Frontal Impact and Compatibility Assessment Research) was to define an integrated set of test procedures and associated metrics to assess a vehicle's frontal impact protection, which includes self-And partner-protection. For the development of the set, two different f

  1. Development of compatibility assessments for full-width and offset frontal impact test procedures in FIMCAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adolph, T.; Schwedhelm, H.; Lazaro, I.; Versmissen, A.C.M.; Edwards, M.; Thomson, R.; Johannsen, H.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the project FIMCAR (Frontal Impact and Compatibility Assessment Research) was to define an integrated set of test procedures and associated metrics to assess a vehicle's frontal impact protection, which includes self-And partner-protection. For the development of the set, two different

  2. Does depth of the frontal sinus affect near-infrared spectroscopy measurement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Frederik; Vedel, Anne G; Langkilde, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method that reflects real-time cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) by the use of two adhesive optodes placed on the forehead of the patient. Frontal sinuses vary anatomically and a large frontal sinus might compromise the NIRS signal since the NIRS...

  3. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  4. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions,

  5. Impaired List Learning Is Not a General Property of Frontal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael P.; Stuss, Donald; Gillingham, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: List-learning tasks are frequently used to provide measures of "executive functions" that are believed necessary for successful memory performance. Small sample sizes, confounding anomia, and incomplete representation of all frontal regions have prevented consistent demonstration of distinct regional frontal effects on this task.…

  6. Developmental Alterations of Frontal-Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kate Dimond; Welsh, Robert C.; Stern, Emily R.; Angstadt, Mike; Hanna, Gregory L.; Abelson, James L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by abnormalities of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry that appear near illness onset and persist over its course. Distinct frontal-striatal-thalamic loops through cortical centers for cognitive control (anterior cingulate cortex) and emotion processing (ventral medial frontal…

  7. Endocrine dysfunction following immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Bhavana; Nabhan, Fadi; Shah, Manisha H

    2017-10-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) represent an important milestone in the modern era of antineoplastic therapy and have ushered optimism amongst oncologists and patients alike. These agents, however, are associated with significant potential toxicities, the importance of which cannot be overstated. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management strategies of immune-related endocrinopathies associated with ICI use are described in this case-based review. An increasing number of ICI have shown promise in the management of various malignancies in the recent years. These include cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitors, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibodies, and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies. Several endocrinopathies, including hypophysitis, thyroid dysfunction, hyperglycemia, and primary adrenal insufficiency, have been associated with the use of these agents. Toxicities may range from mild transient laboratory abnormalities to potentially life-threatening ones, warranting immediate therapeutic intervention. Combination ICI therapies may be associated with a greater risk of endocrine dysfunction when compared with monotherapy. The clinical presentation and laboratory assessment of these patients often pose a diagnostic challenge as they may be confused by the symptoms related to their underlying malignancy or potential associated acute illnesses. ICI use is associated with serious endocrinopathies that may have a nonspecific initial presentation. A constant eye for these symptoms and a systematic approach to diagnosis are essential for prompt initiation of therapy and prevention of significant complications.

  8. TOWARD THE QUESTION OF ISCHEMIC MYOCARDIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kalyuzhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the review have analyzed papers published on the problem of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. They begin with a definition of the term “ischemia” (derived from two Greek words: ischō, meaning to hold back, and haima, meaning blood - a condition at which the arterial blood flow is insufficient to provide enough oxygen to prevent intracellular respiration from shifting from the aerobic to the anaerobic form. The poor rate of ATP generation from this process causes a decrease in cellular ATP, a concomitant rise in ADP, and ultimately, to depression inotropic (systolic and lusitropic (diastolic function of the affected segments of the myocardium. But with such simplicity of basic concepts, the consequences of ischemia so diverse. Influence of an ischemia on myocardial function so unequally at different patients, which is almost impossible to find two identical cases (as in the case of fingerprints. It depends on the infinite variety of lesions of coronary arteries, reperfusion (time and completeness of restoration of blood flow and reactions of a myocardium which, apparently, has considerable flexibility in its response. Ischemic myocardial dysfunction includes a number of discrete states, such as acute left ventricular failure in angina, acute myocardial infarction, ischemic cardiomyopathy, stunning, hibernation, pre- and postconditioning. There are widely differing underlying pathophysiologic states. The possibility exists that several of these states can coexist.

  9. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaganathan Mabalirajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma.

  10. The relationship between Impulse Control Disorders and cognitive dysfunctions in Parkinson's Disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Raimo, Simona; Barone, Paolo

    2017-02-24

    Impulse Control Disorders (ICD) are associated with impairment in cognitive flexibility and cortical inhibition. In Parkinson's Disease (PD) the relationship between ICD and cognitive dysfunctions is still unclear: some studies found different cognitive profiles between Parkinsonians with and without ICD, whereas others did not. Moreover, findings from studies on ICD in PD are conflicting on which cognitive function is altered. A meta-analysis of 34 studies was performed to shed light on relationship between ICD and cognitive dysfunctions and to reveal the cognitive function compromised in Parkinsonians with ICD. Data were analyzed in global cognitive functioning, memory, executive functions, attention/working memory, language, and visuospatial functions. Significant relationship between ICD and dysfunction of abstraction ability/concept formation, set-shifting, visuospatial/constructional abilities and decision-making was found. These findings suggested that people affected by PD with specific frontal dysfunctions are more vulnerable to develop ICD when they take antiparkinsonian drug. Evaluation of specific cognitive functions in routine clinical practice might help to detect those people with PD susceptible to ICD before treating them with antiparkinsonian drugs.

  11. Executive dysfunction and the relation with behavioral problems in children with 47,XXY and 47,XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, S; Swaab, H

    2015-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that having an extra X chromosome is associated with abnormal structure and function of brain areas in the frontal lobe, which is crucially involved in executive functioning. However, there is little of knowledge of the type and severity of executive dysfunction, and the impact on emotional and behavioral problems. The present study aims to provide in this. In total, 40 children (23 boys with 47,XXY and 17 girls with 47,XXX) with an extra X chromosome and 100 non-clinical controls (47 boys and 53 girls) participated in the study. The participants were 9-18 years old. Processing speed and executive functioning were assessed using the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Testbattery (ANT) and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Problems in emotional and behavioral functioning were assessed with the Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Children with an extra X chromosome showed deficits in inhibition, mental flexibility, sustained attention and visual working memory. Parental report showed high levels of everyday manifestations of executive dysfunction. More severe inhibition difficulties were associated with higher levels of thought problems, aggression and rule breaking behavior. Boys and girls with an extra X chromosome could not be differentiated based on severity of executive dysfunction, however, girls had lower information processing speed than boys. These findings suggest that executive dysfunction may be part of the phenotype of children with an extra X chromosome, impacting the ability to function adequately in everyday life. Furthermore, children with impairments in inhibition may have more problems in regulating their thinking, emotions and behavior.

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning improves postoperative cognitive dysfunction by reducing oxidant stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-Xin; Rao, Jin; Li, Yuan-Hai

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a crucial public health issue that has been increasingly studied in efforts to reduce symptoms or prevent its occurrence. However, effective advances remain lacking. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning has proved to protect vital organs, such as the heart, liver, and brain. Recently, it has been introduced and widely studied in the prevention of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, with promising results. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain controversial. This review summarizes and highlights the definition and application of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning, the perniciousness and pathogenetic mechanism underlying postoperative cognitive dysfunction, and the effects that hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning has on postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Finally, we conclude that hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning is an effective and feasible method to prevent, alleviate, and improve postoperative cognitive dysfunction, and that its mechanism of action is very complex, involving the stimulation of endogenous antioxidant and anti-inflammation defense systems.

  13. Iatrogenic fracture of the superomedial orbital rim during frontal trephine irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Douglas; Zener, Rebecca; Rotenberg, Brian W

    2014-12-01

    Frontal sinus trephination (FST) has numerous applications in the treatment of acute and chronic sinus disease. This procedure involves making an incision at the medial aspect of the supraorbital rim and then drilling the sinus's anterior table. Placement of a frontal trephine allows for irrigation of the frontal recess in order to evacuate the frontal sinus in a minimally invasive manner. Orbital injury is a rare complication of FST. We present a case of previously unreported orbital compartment syndrome secondary to iatrogenic fracture of the superomedial orbital rim as a complication of frontal trephine irrigation. We also review the literature on the applications of FST and its associated complications, and we discuss orbital compartment syndrome as a complication of sinus surgery.

  14. Microphysical Ice Crystal Properties in Mid-Latitude Frontal Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlage, Romy; Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Minikin, Andreas; Weigel, Ralf; Molleker, Sergej; Klingebiel, Marcus; Borrmann, Stephan; Luebke, Anna; Krämer, Martina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schäfler, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds modulate the climate by reflection of shortwave solar radiation and trapping of longwave terrestrial radiation. Their net radiative effect can be positive or negative depending on atmospheric and cloud parameters including ice crystal number density, size and shape. Latter microphysical ice crystal properties have been measured during the mid-latitude cirrus mission ML-CIRRUS with a set of cloud instruments on the new research aircraft HALO. The mission took place in March/April 2014 with 16 flights in cirrus formed above Europe and the Atlantic. The ice clouds were encountered at altitudes from 7 to 14 km in the typical mid-latitude temperature range. A focus of the mission was the detection of frontal cirrus linked to warm conveyor belts (WCBs). Within WCBs, water vapor is transported in the warm sector of an extra-tropical cyclone from the humid boundary layer to the upper troposphere. Cirrus cloud formation can be triggered in the WCB outflow region at moderate updraft velocities and additionally at low updrafts within the high pressure system linked to the WCB. Due to their frequent occurrence, WCBs represent a major source for regions of ice supersaturation and cirrus formation in the mid-latitudes. Here, we use data from the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with detection for POLarization (CAS-POL) and the Cloud Combination Probe (CCP), combining a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) and a greyscale Cloud Imaging Probe (CIPgs) to investigate the ice crystal distribution in the size range from 0.5 µm to 1 mm. We derive microphysical cirrus properties in mid-latitude warm front cirrus. Further, we investigate their variability and their dependence on temperature and relative humidity. Finally, we compare the microphysical properties of these frontal cirrus to cirrus clouds that formed at low updrafts within high pressure systems or at high updraft velocities in lee waves. We quantify statistically significant differences in cirrus properties formed in these

  15. COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTIONS IN DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of our study was to examine cognitive status, short – term memory, delayed recall and the retention of visual information in diabetics with polyneuropathy and to establish the impacts of some risk factors on cognitive performance.Contingent and methods: We assessed 47 diabetic patients with polyneuropathy, using the Mini Mental State Examination, 10 words test, the Benton visual retention test and the Hamilton scale.Results: Global cognitive dysfunction, decline in verbal memory and visual retention and tendency for depressive mood were observed. We found statistically significant interaction of ageing, sex, severity of pain, duration and late onset of diabetes mellitus (DM on cognitive functioning. Therapy association on cognition was not found.Conclusions: Our study confirms the hypothesis of global cognitive dysfunction, associated with diabetic polyneuropathy. The interactions of sex and pain severity require further study. We arise a hypothesis of asymmetrical brain injury in diabetics.

  16. Dysfunctional Reward Processing in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon, Roee; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia - diminished pleasure and/or decreased reactivity to pleasurable stimuli - is a core feature of depression that frequently persists after treatment. As a result, extensive effort has been directed towards characterizing the psychological and biological processes that mediate dysfunctional reward processing in depression. Reward processing can be parsed into sub-components that include motivation, reinforcement learning, and hedonic capacity, which, according to preclinical and neuroimaging evidence, involve partially dissociable brain systems. In line with this, recent findings indicate that behavioral impairments and neural abnormalities in depression vary across distinct reward-related constructs. Ultimately, improved understanding of precise reward-related dysfunctions in depression promises to improve diagnostic and therapeutic efforts in depression. PMID:26258159

  17. [Sexual dysfunction following pelvic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, K

    1997-11-01

    In male, sexual dysfunction was a common complication that occurred after radical pelvic surgery: radical protectomy, radical cysto-, prostatectomy. Upon the recent pelvic neuroanatomical findings and preservation of these nerves, it is now possible to perform successful cancer operation on the rectum, prostate or bladder with preservation of sexual function in the group of early cancer patients. Depending on the location and severity of these nerve injury, this could result in temporary or permanent erectile and ejaculation dysfunction. In female, the total hysterectomy for cervical cancer sacrifices or injuries the faculty of pregnancy or sexual intercourse. The oophorectomies causes a deficiency of female hormones. But recently the numbers of patients with a small or early stages cancer of uterine or ovary are increasing and we have become to be able to save the functions of these organs in many patients well with minimum local excision or partial resection of them.

  18. Neck pain causes respiratory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapreli, Eleni; Vourazanis, Evangelos; Strimpakos, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a presumptive mechanism for the development of changes in respiratory function due to chronic neck pain. The patient with neck pain presents a number of factors that could constitute a predisposition of leading to a respiratory dysfunction: (a) the decreased strength of deep neck flexors and extensors, (b) the hyperactivity and increased fatigability of superficial neck flexors, (c) the limitation of range of motion, (d) the decrease in proprioception and disturbances in neuromuscular control, (e) the existence of pain and (f) the psychosocial influence of dysfunction. The possible connection of neck pain and respiratory function could have a great impact on various clinical aspects notably patient assessment, rehabilitation and pharmacological prescription.

  19. Drug-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, S A

    1982-01-01

    Commonly used drugs that may cause sexual dysfunction are reviewed. The anatomy and physiology of the normal sexual response are reviewed. The influence of drugs on neurogenic, hormonal, and vascular mechanisms may result in diminished libido, impotence, ejaculatory and orgasmic difficulties, inhibited vaginal lubrication, menstrual irregularities, and gynecomastia in men or painful breast enlargement in women. Parasympatholytic agents, which interfere with cholinergic transmission, may affect erectile potency, while adrenergic inhibiting agents may interfere with ejaculatory control. Central nervous system depressants or sedating drugs, drugs producing hyperprolactinemia, and antiandrogenic drugs also may affect the normal sexual response. Drugs such as antihypertensive and antipsychotic agents may induce sexual dysfunction that can result in patient noncompliance. Usually, drug-induced side effects are reversible with discontinuation of the offending agent.

  20. Early detection of tubular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1991-11-01

    The determination of low-molecular-weight proteins in urine as a tool for early detection of damage to the proximal tubules is briefly discussed. Beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein and alpha 1-microglobulin are at present the most widely used markers for tubular dysfunction. The determination of beta 2-microglobulin has earlier been the method of choice, but due to its instability at low pH there are certain disadvantages. Available data indicate that alpha 1-microglobulin may replace beta 2-microglobulin for screening purposes. The low-molecular-weight proteins are at present the best markers for early detection of tubular dysfunction; other constituents are not as well suited for this, even if the determination of urine enzymes has its supporters.