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Sample records for frontal accretionary prism

  1. Landward vergence in accretionary prism, evidence for frontal propagation of earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    cubas, Nadaya; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Landward vergence in accretionary wedges is rare and have been described at very few places: along the Cascadia subduction zone and more recently along Sumatra where the 2004 Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman event and the 2011 tsunami earthquake occurred. Recent studies have suggested a relation between landward thrust faults and frontal propagation of earthquakes for the Sumatra subduction zone. The Cascadia subduction zone is also known to have produced in 1700 a Mw9 earthquake with a large tsunami across the Pacific. Based on mechanical analysis, we propose to investigate if specific frictional properties could lead to a landward sequence of thrusting. We show that landward thrust requires very low effective friction along the megathrust with a rather high internal effective friction. We also show that landward thrust appears close to the extensional critical limit. Along Cascadia and Sumatra, we show that to get landward vergence, the effective basal friction has to be lower than 0.08. This very low effective friction is most likely due to high pore pressure. This high pore pressure could either be a long-term property or due to dynamic effects such as thermal pressurization. The fact that landward vergence appears far from the compressional critical limit favors a dynamic effect. Landward vergence would then highlight thermal pressurization due to occasional or systematic propagation of earthquakes to the trench. As a consequence, the vergence of thrusts in accretionary prism could be used to improve seismic and tsunamigenic risk assessment.

  2. Fault structure, properties and activity of the Makran Accretionary Prism and implications for seismogenic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; McNeill, L. C.; Henstock, T.; Bull, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Makran subduction zone is the widest accretionary prism in the world (~400km), generated by convergence between the Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates. It represents a global end-member, with a 7km thick incoming sediment section. Accretionary prisms have traditionally been thought to be aseismic due to the presence of unconsolidated sediment and elevated basal pore pressures. The seismogenic potential of the Makran subduction zone is unclear, despite a Mw 8.1 earthquake in 1945 that may have been located on the plate boundary beneath the prism. In this study, a series of imbricate landward dipping (seaward verging) thrust faults have been interpreted across the submarine prism (outer 70 km) using over 6000km of industry multichannel seismic data and bathymetric data. A strong BSR (bottom simulating reflector) is present throughout the prism (excluding the far east). An unreflective décollement is interpreted from the geometry of the prism thrusts. Two major sedimentary units are identified in the input section, the lower of which contains the extension of the unreflective décollement surface. Between 60%-100% of the input section is currently being accreted. The geometry of piggy-back basin stratigraphy shows that the majority of thrusts, including those over 50km from the trench, are recently active. Landward thrusts show evidence for reactivation after periods of quiescence. Negative polarity fault plane reflectors are common in the frontal thrusts and in the eastern prism, where they may be related to increased fault activity and fluid expulsion, and are rarer in older landward thrusts. Significant NE-SW trending basement structures (The Murray Ridge and Little Murray Ridge) on the Arabian plate intersect the deformation front and affect sediment input to the subduction zone. Prism taper and structure are apparently primarily controlled by sediment supply and the secondary influence of subducting basement ridges. The thick, likely distal, sediment

  3. Effects of Accretionary Prisms on 3-D Long-Period Ground Motion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.

    2014-12-01

    The accretionary prism along the subduction zones such as the Middle America trench or the Nankai trough is considered as an important factor affecting the generation and propagation of long-period ground motions. In Japan, the great earthquake along the Nankai subduction zone which is expected to occur in the near future can generate large long-period ground motions in the metropolitan areas such as Osaka, Nagoya and Tokyo. To investigate the effect of accretionary prism on long-period ground motions, we performed simulations of long-period ground motions for the event (Mw 7.1) that occurred off the Kii peninsula, Japan, at 10:07 on 5 September 2004 (UTC). Our simulation model ranged from the Kinki region to the Kanto region, and included the Osaka, Nobi and Kanto basin. We calculated long-period ground motions for four types of 3-D velocity structure models: (a) model with the accretionary prism (reference model), (b) model where accretionary prism has different 3-D geometry from the reference model, (c) model with the accretionary prism whose velocity, density and Q-value are shifted, (d) model without the accretionary prism. We compared the waveforms calculated for these models and concluded that the accretionary prism along the Nankai subduction zone plays roles in reducing the amplitude of direct waves and extending the duration of coda waves. This is attributed to the trap effect of accretionary prism. Our simulation also suggested that, the edge geometry along the landward side of accretionary prism has major effects on the processes of generation and propagation of long-period ground motions.

  4. Complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, NanTroSEIZE Kumano transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. F.; Park, J.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic reflection data collected over the past 10 years by the Institute for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE) of Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) image a zone of complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism south of Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan. The frontal part of the Nankai prism west of Shionomisaki Canyon (SC) at ~136° E, including the Muroto and Ashizuri Transects off Shikoku, is generally formed of imbricate thrusts with spacing of ~ 1-3 km that dip ~25-35° landward and sole into a prominent décollement. Out-of-sequence thrusts (OOSTs) are usually restricted to the landward margin of this imbricate thrust zone. East of SC, in the Kumano Transect area, the imbricate thrust zone is bounded on its seaward edge by a frontal thrust block that is ~5-6 km wide and consists of several OOSTs. The frontal thrust dips ~5-10° under this ~2-4 km thick block, emplacing this thrust sheet over the trench floor. The number and character of thrusts within the frontal thrust block vary laterally along strike. The 2006 Kumano 3D seismic data set images details of one segment of this complex frontal thrust block. Out-of-sequence faulting has led to underplating of several smaller thrust slices and movement along oblique ramps has led to a complex pattern of faulting that cannot be recognized in even closely-spaced 2D seismic lines. The frontal thrust block is further modified by subduction of seamounts and ridges that have caused large slumps of material from the block.

  5. Fluid expulsion sites on the Cascadia accretionary prism: mapping diagenetic deposits with processed GLORIA imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Bobb; Seke, Erol; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Holmes, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    Point-discharge fluid expulsion on accretionary prisms is commonly indicated by diagenetic deposition of calcium carbonate cements and gas hydrates in near-surface (topographic and lithologic information. We have processed GLORIA imagery from the Oregon continental margin to remove topographic effects. A synthetic side scan image was created initially from Sea Beam bathymetric data and then was subtracted iteratively from the original GLORIA data until topographic features disappeared. The residual image contains high-amplitude backscattering that we attribute to diagenetic deposits associated with fluid discharge, based on submersible mapping, Ocean Drilling Program drilling, and collected samples. Diagenetic deposits are concentrated (1) near an out-of-sequence thrust fault on the second ridge landward of the base of the continental slope, (2) along zones characterized by deep-seated strikeslip faults that cut transversely across the margin, and (3) in undeformed Cascadia Basin deposits which overlie incipient thrust faults seaward of the toe of the prism. There is no evidence of diagenetic deposition associated with the frontal thrust that rises from the dècollement. If the dècollement is an important aquifer, apparently the fluids are passed either to the strike-slip faults which intersect the dècollement or to the incipient faults in Cascadia Basin for expulsion. Diagenetic deposits seaward of the prism toe probably consist dominantly of gas hydrates.

  6. Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chenfeng; Gieskes, Joris M.; Lee, Typhoon; Yui Tzenfu; Chen Hsinwen

    2004-01-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Asian Continental Plate and is one of the most active orogenic belts in the world. Fluids sampled from 9 sub-aerial mud volcanoes distributed along two major geological structures in southwestern Taiwan, the Chishan fault and the Gutingkeng anticline, were analyzed to evaluate possible sources of water and the degree of fluid-sediment interaction at depth in an accretionary prism. Overall, the Taiwanese mud volcano fluids are characterized by high Cl contents, up to 347 mM, suggesting a marine origin from actively de-watering sedimentary pore waters along major structures on land. The fluids obtained from the Gutingkeng anticline, as well as from the Coastal Plain area, show high Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg and NH 4 , but low SO 4 and B concentrations. In contrast, the Chishan fault fluids are much less saline (1/4 seawater value), but show much heavier O isotope compositions (δ 18 O=5.1-6.5 %o). A simplified scenario of mixing between sedimentary pore fluids and waters affected by clay dehydration released at depth can explain several crucial observations including heavy O isotopes, radiogenic Sr contents ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.71136-0.71283), and relatively low salinities in the Chishan fluids. Gases isolated from the mud volcanoes are predominantly CH 4 and CO 2 , where the CH 4 -C isotopic compositions show a thermogenic component of δ 13 C=-38 %o. These results demonstrate that active mud volcano de-watering in Taiwan is a direct product of intense sediment accretion and plate collision in the region

  7. Characterizing structures on borehole images and logging data of the Nankai trough accretionary prism: new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose

    2016-04-01

    IODP has extensively used the D/V Chikyu to drill the Kumano portion of the Nankai Trough, including two well sites within the Kumano Basin. IODP Expeditions 338 and 348 drilled deep into the inner accretionary prism south of the Kii Peninsula collecting a suite of LWD data, including natural gamma ray, electrical resistivity logs and borehole images, suitable to characterize structures (fractures and faults) inside the accretionary prism. Structural interpretation and analysis of logging-while-drilling data in the deep inner prism revealed intense deformation of a generally homogenous lithology characterized by bedding that dips steeply (60-90°) to the NW, intersected by faults and fractures. Multiple phases of deformation are characterized. IODP Expedition borehole images and LWD data acquired in the last decade in previous and results of NantroSEIZE IODP Expeditions (314, 319) were also analyzed to investigate the internal geometries and structures of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. This study focused mainly on the characterization of the different types of structures and their specific position within the accretionary prism structures. New structural constraints and methodologies as well as a new approach to the characterization of study of active structures inside the prism will be presented.

  8. Local Seismicity Recorded by ChilePEPPER: Implications for Dynamic Accretionary Prism Response and Long-term Prism Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, A.; Trehu, A. M.; Tryon, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the dynamic response of the outer accretionary wedge updip from the patch of greatest slip during the Mw8.8 2010 Maule earthquake, 10 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) were deployed from May 2012 to March 2013 in a small array with an inter-instrument spacing of ~12 km . Nine instruments were recovered, with 4 recording data on 3 intermediate-band 3-component seismometers and a differential pressure gauge and 5 recording data from absolute pressure gauges. [note: All instruments were also equipped with a fluid flow meter sensitive to flow rates as low as 0.0001 cm/yr in or out of the sediments. However, no flow signal was detected.] Here we present hypocenters for 569 local events that have S-P times less than 17 seconds (i.e. within ~125 km of the array) using hand-picked arrival times and a 1D velocity model derived from a 2D seismic refraction profile through the region (Moscoso et al 2011, EPSL). We analyze the distribution of seismicity in the context of published slip models, ChilePEPPER high-resolution seismic reflection data, critical taper analysis done by Cubas et al 2013 (EPSL), and offshore gravity data. The data show distinct segmentation within the outer prism. The northern section of the study area is characterized by a lack of seismicity, accretion of nearly all incoming sediment and a prism at critical taper. In contrast, abundant seismicity, significant sediment underthrusting at the deformation front and a prism below critical taper angle characterize the southern part of the study area. Both coseismic slip and post-rupture local seismicity can be related to density anomalies within the upper plate as revealed by free air gravity data corrected for the effects of bathymetry and the subducting plate. [ChilePEPPER - Project Evaluating Prism Post-Earthquake Response

  9. Mechanical behavior in the Nankai inner accretionary prism, IODP Site C0002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R. D., II; Saffer, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control seismogenesis and stress state at subduction zones requires knowledge of fault zone and sediment physical and mechanical properties. As part of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE), Expedition 348 drilled into the Kumano forearc basin and underlying inner accretionary prism at Site C0002, located 35 km landward of the trench. One primary objective was to sample and characterize the mechanical behavior of the inner accretionary prism. Here we report on the frictional and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of mudstone samples and a clay-rich shear zone recovered from 2182-2209 meters below sea floor (mbsf), determined from triaxial deformation tests at confining pressures from 1 to 7 MPa (UCS measurements on mudstones) and 36 MPa (strength of fault zone). Our results show that at a confining pressure of 1 MPa, the wall rock sediments fail at a peak differential stress of 9.1 MPa with a residual stress of 2.8 MPa. A clear peak and evolution to residual strength remains present at 7 MPa, and both the peak and residual strengths of the mudstones increases systematically with confining pressure. At a confining pressure of 36 MPa, the shear zone sediment yields at a differential stress of 25.2 MPa followed by strain-hardening to a maximum stress of 33.1 MPa. The shear zone is frictionally weaker than the surrounding mudstones, with a friction coefficient (μ) of 0.26-0.31, versus µ = 0.45 for the wall rock. The suite of tests defines a UCS for the mudstone of 7.9 MPa. Our friction data suggest that the inner wedge may be weaker than commonly assumed in applications of critical wedge theory to estimate the properties and conditions in accretionary prisms. One key implication is that for a given basal detachment friction coefficient, higher basal pore pressures (or lower wedge pore pressures) would be required to sustain observed taper angles. Additionally, the

  10. Regional Variation of CH4 and N2 Production Processes in the Deep Aquifers of an Accretionary Prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Makoto; Ishikawa, Shugo; Nagai, Kazushige; Hirata, Yuichiro; Ozawa, Kunio; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-29

    Accretionary prisms are mainly composed of ancient marine sediment scraped from the subducting oceanic plate at a convergent plate boundary. Large amounts of anaerobic groundwater and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4) and nitrogen gas (N2), are present in the deep aquifers associated with an accretionary prism; however, the origins of these gases are poorly understood. We herein revealed regional variations in CH4 and N2 production processes in deep aquifers in the accretionary prism in Southwest Japan, known as the Shimanto Belt. Stable carbon isotopic and microbiological analyses suggested that CH4 is produced through the non-biological thermal decomposition of organic matter in the deep aquifers in the coastal area near the convergent plate boundary, whereas a syntrophic consortium of hydrogen (H2)-producing fermentative bacteria and H2-utilizing methanogens contributes to the significant production of CH4 observed in deep aquifers in midland and mountainous areas associated with the accretionary prism. Our results also demonstrated that N2 production through the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter by denitrifying bacteria is particularly prevalent in deep aquifers in mountainous areas in which groundwater is affected by rainfall.

  11. Methane fluxes and inventories in the accretionary prism of southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. H.; Chen, N. C.; Yang, T. F.; Hong, W. L.; Chen, H. W.; Chen, H. C.; Hu, C. Y.; Huang, Y. C.; Lin, S.; Su, C. C.; Liao, W. Z.; Sun, C. H.; Wang, P. L.; Yang, T.; Jiang, S. Y.; Liu, C. S.; Wang, Y.; Chung, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Sediments distributed across marine and terrestrial realms represent the largest methane reservoir on Earth. The degassing of methane facilitated through either geological structures or perturbation would contribute significantly to global climatic fluctuation and elemental cycling. The exact fluxes and processes governing methane production, consumption and transport in a geological system remain largely unknown in part due to the limited coverage and access of samples. In this study, more than 200 sediment cores were collected from offshore and onshore southwestern Taiwan and analyzed for their gas and aqueous geochemistry. These data combined with published data and existing parameters of subduction system were used to calculate methane fluxes across different geochemical transitions and to develop scenarios of mass balance to constrain deep microbial and thermogenic methane production rates within the Taiwanese accretionary prism. The results showed that high methane fluxes tend to be associated with structural features, suggesting a strong structural control on methane transport. A significant portion of ascending methane (>50%) was consumed by anaerobic oxidation of methane at most sites. Gas compositions and isotopes revealed a transition from the predominance of microbial methane in the passive margin to thermogenic methane at the upper slope of the active margin and onshore mud volcanoes. Methane production and consumption at shallow depths were nearly offset with a small fraction of residual methane discharged into seawater or the atmosphere. The flux imbalance arose primarily from the deep microbial and thermogenic production and could be likely accounted for by the sequestration of methane into hydrate forms, and clay absorption.

  12. Strike-slip deformation reflects complex partitioning of strain in the Nankai Accretionary Prism (SE Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco C.; Alves, Tiago M.; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Moore, Gregory F.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested predominant extensional tectonics acting, at present, on the Nankai Accretionary Prism (NAP), and following a parallel direction to the convergence vector between the Philippine Sea and Amur Plates. However, a complex set of thrusts, pop-up structures, thrust anticlines and strike-slip faults is observed on seismic data in the outer wedge of the NAP, hinting at a complex strain distribution across SE Japan. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data reveal three main families of faults: (1) NE-trending thrusts and back-thrusts; (2) NNW- to N-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults; and (3) WNW-trending to E-W right-lateral strike-slip faults. Such a fault pattern suggests that lateral slip, together with thrusting, are the two major styles of deformation operating in the outer wedge of the NAP. Both styles of deformation reflect a transpressional tectonic regime in which the maximum horizontal stress is geometrically close to the convergence vector. This work is relevant because it shows a progressive change from faults trending perpendicularly to the convergence vector, to a broader partitioning of strain in the form of thrusts and conjugate strike-slip faults. We suggest that similar families of faults exist within the inner wedge of the NAP, below the Kumano Basin, and control stress accumulation and strain accommodation in this latter region.

  13. A Long-Term Geothermal Observatory Spanning Subseafloor Gas Hydrates in IODP Hole U1364A, Cascadia Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Davis, E.; Heesemann, M.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.; O'Brien, J. K.; von der Heydt, K.

    2017-12-01

    We report the configuration of and initial results from a 24-thermistor cable installed to 268 m below seafloor (mbsf) in IODP Hole U1364A in the frontal accretionary prism of the Cascadia subduction zone. The thermistor array spans the gas hydrate stability zone and a clear bottom-simulating reflector at 225-230 mbsf. The thermistor string was deployed in July 2016 along with a seismic-strain observatory into the cased section of a pressure-monitoring Advanced CORK (ACORK) that had been installed in 2010 during IODP Expedition 328. Formation pressures are monitored via permeable screens on the outside of solid steel casing that is sealed at the bottom by a bridge plug and cement up to 302 mbsf. All three observatory systems were connected to the Ocean Networks Canada NEPTUNE cabled observatory Clayoquot Slope node in June of 2017, with the thermistor temperatures being logged by ONC every minute. The thermistor array was designed with concentrated vertical spacing around the BSR and two pressure-monitoring screens at 203 and 244 mbsf, with wider thermistor spacing elsewhere to document the geothermal state up to seafloor. The initial six weeks of data logged via the ONC connection show a generally linear temperature gradient, with temperatures of about 15.8°C at the BSR depth, consistent with methane hydrate stability at that depth and pressure. Sensor temperatures at most depths are quite stable over this period, with the exceptions of two sensors at 76 and 256 mbsf that show slowly rising temperatures; these could be due to cellular convection of borehole fluids, sensor degradation, or formation processes, but this requires a longer time series to resolve. We will report updated results after four more months of data recording through November 2017, along with any correlations to the pressure records. The data are freely available to all registered ONC users via the ONC data management and archiving system.

  14. Pressure and Stress Prediction in the Nankai Accretionary Prism: A Critical State Soil Mechanics Porosity-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, Peter B.; Saffer, Demian M.

    2018-02-01

    We predict pressure and stress from porosity in the Nankai accretionary prism with a critical state soil model that describes porosity as a function of mean stress and maximum shear stress, and assumes Coulomb failure within the wedge and uniaxial burial beneath it. At Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1174 and 808, we find that pore pressure in the prism supports 70% to 90% of the overburden (λu = 0.7 to 0.9), for a range of assumed friction angles (5-30°). The prism pore pressure is equal to or greater than that in the underthrust sediments even though the porosity is lower within the prism. The high pore pressures lead to a mechanically weak wedge that supports low maximum shear stress, and this in turn requires very low basal traction to remain consistent with the observed narrowly tapered wedge geometry. We estimate the décollement friction coefficient (μb) to be 0.08-0.38 (ϕb' = 4.6°-21°). Our approach defines a pathway to predict pressure in a wide range of environments from readily observed quantities (e.g., porosity and seismic velocity). Pressure and stress control the form of the Earth's collisional continental margins and play a key role in its greatest earthquakes. However, heretofore, there has been no systematic approach to relate material state (e.g., porosity), pore pressure, and stress in these systems.

  15. Physical properties of the Nankai inner accretionary prism at Site C0002, IODP Expedition 348

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    Kitamura, Manami; Kitajima, Hiroko; Henry, Pierre; Valdez, Robert; Josh, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) Expedition 348 focused on deepening the existing riser hole at Site C0002 to ~3000 meters below seafloor (mbsf) to access the deep interior of the Miocene inner accretionary prism. This unique tectonic environment, which has never before been sampled in situ by ocean drilling, was characterized through riser drilling, logging while drilling (LWD), mud gas monitoring and sampling, and cuttings and core analysis. Shipboard physical properties measurements including moisture and density (MAD), electrical conductivity, P-wave, natural gamma ray, and magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed mainly on cuttings samples from 870.5 to 3058.5 mbsf, but also on core samples from 2163 and 2204 mbsf. MAD measurements were conducted on seawater-washed cuttings ("bulk cuttings") in two size fractions of >4 mm and 1-4 mm from 870.5 to 3058.5 mbsf, and hand-picked intact cuttings from the >4 mm size fractions within 1222.5-3058.5 mbsf interval. The bulk cuttings show grain density of 2.68 g/cm3 and 2.72 g/cm3, bulk density of 1.9 g/cm3 to 2.2 g/cm3, and porosity of 50% to 32%. Compared to the values on bulk cuttings, the intact cuttings show almost the same grain density (2.66-2.70 g/cm3), but higher bulk density (2.05-2.41 g/cm3) and lower porosity (37-18%), respectively. The grain density agreement suggests that the measurements on both bulk cuttings and intact cuttings are of good quality, and the differences in porosity and density are real, but the values from the bulk cuttings are affected strongly by artifacts of the drilling process. Thus, the bulk density and porosity data on handpicked cuttings are better representative of formation properties. Combined with the MAD measurements on hand-picked intact cuttings and discrete core samples from previous expeditions, porosity generally decreases from ~60% to ~20% from the seafloor to 3000 mbsf at Site C0002. Electrical

  16. Geological Study of Active Cold Seeps in the Syn-collision Accretionary Prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogonophoran tube worms, elongated pyrite tubes and authigenic carbonate nodules are used to evaluate the occurrence of potential cold seeps in the syn-collision accretionary prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan. At least two species of pogonophoran tubeworms were found in surface and core sediments. Pyrites occur in three different forms: fillings inside foraminiferal chambers, cements between calcareous microfossils, and elongated tubes. The bottom water off SW Taiwan is aerobic, but authigenic pyrites are found in the surface sediments at several sites, suggesting the existence of local reducing environments enabling the formation of pyrites. These environments are most likely caused by the occurrence of active cold seeps where methane expulses. Authigenic carbonates with highly depleted carbon isotope values (-54 to -43‰ were found at more than 5 locations, in agreement with a methane-derived source for the carbon.

  17. Critically Tapered Wedges and Critical State Soil Mechanics: Porosity-based Pressure Prediction in the Nankai Accretionary Prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.; Saffer, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    We predict pore pressure from porosity measurements at ODP Sites 1174 and 808 in the Nankai Accretionary prism, offshore Japan. For a range of friction angles (5-30 degrees), we estimate that the pore pressure ratio (λ*) ranges from 0.5 to 0.8: the pore pressure supports 50% to 80% of the overburden. Higher friction angles result in higher pressures. For the majority of the scenarios, pressures within the prism parallel the lithostat and are greater than the pressures beneath it. Our results support previous qualitative interpretations at Nankai and elsewhere suggesting that lower porosity above the décollement than below reflects higher mean effective stress there. By coupling a critical state soil model (Modified Cam Clay), which describes porosity as a function of mean and deviator stress, with a stress model that considers the difference in stress states above and below the décollement, we quantitatively show that the prism porosities record significant overpressure despite their lower porosity. As the soil is consumed by the advancing prism, changes in both mean and shear stress drive overpressure generation. Even in the extreme case where only change in mean stress is considered (a vertical end cap model), significant overpressures are generated. The high pressures we predict require an effective friction coefficient (µb') at the décollement of 0.023-0.038. Assuming that the pore pressure at the décollement lies between the values we report for the wedge and the underthrusting sediments, these effective friction coefficients correspond to intrinsic friction coefficients of µb= 0.08-0.38 (f = 4.6 - 21°). These values are comparable to friction coefficients of 0.1-0.4 reported for clay-dominated fault zones in a wide range of settings. By coupling the critical wedge model with an appropriate constitutive model, we present a systematic approach to predict pressure in thrust systems.

  18. Tectonic and Sedimentation Interactions in the East Caribbean Subduction Zone: AN Overview from the Orinoco Delta to the Barbados Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent marine geophysical acquisitions and piston-coring allow to better understand the close interactions between the sand-rich Orinoco turbidite system and the compressional structures of the Barbados prism. Because of the morphologic and tectonic control in the east-Caribbean active margin, the Orinoco turbiditic pattern system does not exhibit a classic fan geometry. The sea-floor geometry between the slope of the front of the Barbados prism and the slope of the South-American margin induces the convergence of the turbidite channels toward the abyssal plain, at the front of the accretionary prism. Also, whereas in most passive margins the turbidite systems are organized upstream to downstream as canyon, then channel-levee, then lobes, here, due to the tectonic control, the sedimentary system is organized as channel-levee, then canyons, then channelized lobes. At the edge of the Orinoco platform, the system has multiple sources with several distributaries and downward the channel courses are complex with frequent convergences or divergences that are emphasized by the effects of the undulating seafloor tectonic morphologies associated with active thrust tectonics and mud volcanism. On top of the accretionary prism, turbidite sediments are filling transported piggy-back basins whose timing of sedimentation vs. deformation is complex. Erosion processes are almost absent on the highly subsiding Orinoco platform and in the upper part of the turbidite system. Erosion processes develop mostly between 2000 and 4000 m of water depth, above the compressional structures of the Barbados prism (canyons up to 3 km wide and 300 m deep). In the abyssal plain, turbiditic channels develop on very long distance (> 1000 km) joining the mid-Atlantic channel (sourced mostly by the Amazon), filling several elongated basins corresponding to transform faults (notably the Barracuda Basin), and finally sourcing the Puerto-Rico trench, the deepest morphologic depression of this region

  19. Distribution of very low frequency earthquakes in the Nankai accretionary prism influenced by a subducting-ridge

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    Toh, Akiko; Obana, Koichiro; Araki, Eiichiro

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) that occurred in the shallow accretionary prism of the eastern Nankai trough during one week of VLFE activity in October 2015. They were recorded very close from the sources by an array of broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs) equipped in Dense Oceanfloor Network system for Earthquakes and Tsunamis 1 (DONET1). The locations of VLFEs estimated using a conventional envelope correlation method appeared to have a large scatter, likely due to effects of 3D structures near the seafloor and/or sources that the method could not handle properly. Therefore, we assessed their relative locations by introducing a hierarchal clustering analysis based on patterns of relative peak times of envelopes within the array measured for each VLFE. The results suggest that, in the northeastern side of the network, all the detected VLFEs occur 30-40 km landward of the trench axis, near the intersection of a splay fault with the seafloor. Some likely occurred along the splay fault. On the other hand, many VLFEs occur closer to the trench axis in the southwestern side, likely along the plate boundary, and the VLFE activity in the shallow splay fault appears less intense, compared to the northeastern side. Although this could be a snap-shot of activity that becomes more uniform over longer-term, the obtained distribution can be reasonably explained by the change in shear stresses and pore pressures caused by a subducting-ridge below the northeastern side of DONET1. The change in stress state along the strike of the plate boundary, inferred from the obtained VLFE distribution, should be an important indicator of the strain release pattern and localised variations in the tsunamigenic potential of this region.

  20. Characterization of structures of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism from integrated analyses of LWD log response, resistivity images and clay mineralogy of cuttings: Expedition 338 Site C0002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Schleicher, Anja

    2014-05-01

    The objective of our research is a detailed characterization of structures on the basis of LWD oriented images and logs,and clay mineralogy of cuttings from Hole C0002F of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. Our results show an integrated interpretation of structures derived from borehole images, petrophysical characterization on LWD logs and cuttings mineralogy. The geometry of the structure intersected at Hole C0002F has been characterized by the interpretation of oriented borehole resistivity images acquired during IODP Expedition 338. The characterization of structural features, faults and fracture zones is based on a detailed post-cruise interpretation of bedding and fractures on borehole images and also on the analysis of Logging While Drilling (LWD) log response (gamma radioactivity, resistivity and sonic logs). The interpretation and complete characterization of structures (fractures, fracture zones, fault zones, folds) was achieved after detailed shorebased reprocessing of resistivity images, which allowed to enhance bedding and fracture's imaging for geometry and orientation interpretation. In order to characterize distinctive petrophysical properties based on LWD log response, it could be compared with compositional changes derived from cuttings analyses. Cuttings analyses were used to calibrate and to characterize log response and to verify interpretations in terms of changes in composition and texture at fractures and fault zones defined on borehole images. Cuttings were taken routinely every 5 m during Expedition 338, indicating a clay-dominated lithology of silty claystone with interbeds of weakly consolidated, fine sandstones. The main mineralogical components are clay minerals, quartz, feldspar and calcite. Selected cuttings were taken from areas of interest as defined on LWD logs and images. The clay mineralogy was investigated on the LWD) data allowed us to characterize structural, petrophysical and mineralogical properties at fracture and

  1. PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    societal issues , given countervailing moral , legal, and ethical interpretations, as well as suspicions PRISM 7, NO. 2 FEATURES | 13 COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL...to tell our story. Additionally, U.S. practi- tioners are bound by asymmetric legal, moral , and ethical constraints that often keep them from being...the founder of SpaceX and Tesla, withdrew from two business councils providing advice to the administration on economic issues . Further driving

  2. Lithologic Controls on Structure Highlight the Role of Fluids in Failure of a Franciscan Complex Accretionary Prism Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, H.; Tobin, H. J.; Goodwin, L. B.

    2015-12-01

    Plate-bounding subduction zone thrust systems are the source of major earthquakes and tsunamis, but their mechanics and internal structure remain poorly understood and relatively little-studied compared to faults in continental crust. Exposures in exhumed accretionary wedges present an opportunity to study seismogenic subduction thrusts in detail. In the Marin Headlands, a series of thrusts imbricates mechanically distinct lithologic units of the Mesozoic Franciscan Complex including pillow basalt, radiolarian chert, black mudstone, and turbidites. We examine variations in distribution and character of structure and vein occurrence in two exposures of the Rodeo Cove thrust, a fossil plate boundary exposed in the Marin Headlands. We observe a lithologic control on the degree and nature of fault localization. At Black Sand Beach, deformation is localized in broad fault cores of sheared black mudstone. Altered basalts, thrust over greywacke, mudstone, and chert, retain their coherence and pillow structures. Veins are only locally present. In contrast, mudstone is virtually absent from the exposure 2 km away at Rodeo Beach. At this location, deformation is concentrated in the altered basalts, which display evidence of extensive vein-rock interaction. Altered basalts exhibit a pervasive foliation, which is locally disrupted by both foliation-parallel and cross-cutting carbonate-filled veins and carbonate cemented breccia. Veins are voluminous (~50%) at this location. All the structures are cut by anastomosing brittle shear zones of foliated cataclasite or gouge. Analyses of vein chemistry will allow us to compare the sources of fluids that precipitated the common vein sets at Rodeo Beach to the locally developed veins at Black Sand Beach. These observations lead us to hypothesize that in the absence of a mechanically weak lithology, elevated pore fluid pressure is required for shear failure. If so, the vein-rich altered basalt at Rodeo Beach may record failure of an

  3. Slipstream: an early Holocene slump and turbidite record from the frontal ridge of the Cascadia accretionary wedge off western Canada and paleoseismic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T.S.; Enkin, Randolph J.; Riedel, Michael; Rogers, Gary C.; Pohlman, John W.; Benway, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Slipstream Slump, a well-preserved 3 km wide sedimentary failure from the frontal ridge of the Cascadia accretionary wedge 85 km off Vancouver Island, Canada, was sampled during Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) John P. Tully cruise 2008007PGC along a transect of five piston cores. Shipboard sediment analysis and physical property logging revealed 12 turbidites interbedded with thick hemipelagic sediments overlying the slumped glacial diamict. Despite the different sedimentary setting, atop the abyssal plain fan, this record is similar in number and age to the sequence of turbidites sampled farther to the south from channel systems along the Cascadia Subduction Zone, with no extra turbidites present in this local record. Given the regional physiographic and tectonic setting, megathrust earthquake shaking is the most likely trigger for both the initial slumping and subsequent turbidity currents, with sediments sourced exclusively from the exposed slump face of the frontal ridge. Planktonic foraminifera picked from the resedimented diamict of the underlying main slump have a disordered cluster of 14C ages between 12.8 and 14.5 ka BP. For the post-slump stratigraphy, an event-free depth scale is defined by removing the turbidite sediment intervals and using the hemipelagic sediments. Nine14C dates from the most foraminifera-rich intervals define a nearly constant hemipelagic sedimentation rate of 0.021 cm/year. The combined age model is defined using only planktonic foraminiferal dates and Bayesian analysis with a Poisson-process sedimentation model. The age model of ongoing hemipelagic sedimentation is strengthened by physical property correlations from Slipstream events to the turbidites for the Barkley Canyon site 40 km south. Additional modelling addressed the possibilities of seabed erosion or loss and basal erosion beneath turbidites. Neither of these approaches achieves a modern seabed age when applying the commonly used regional marine 14C reservoir age of

  4. Mechanical properties of conjugate faults in the Makran accretionary prism estimated from InSAR observations of coseismic deformation due to the 2013 Baluchistan (Mw 7.7) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, R.; Harrington, J.; Wang, T.; Feng, G.; Vasyura-Bathke, H.; Jonsson, S.

    2017-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements allow us to study various mechanical and rheological properties around faults. For example, strain localizations along faults induced by nearby earthquakes observed by InSAR have been explained by the elastic response of compliant fault zones (CFZ) where the elastic moduli is reduced with respect to that of the surrounding rock. We observed similar strain localizations (up to 1-3 cm displacements in the line-of-sight direction of InSAR) along several conjugate faults near the rupture of the 2013 Mw7.7 Baluchistan (Pakistan) earthquake in the accretionary prism of the Makran subduction zone. These conjugate compliant faults, which have strikes of N30°E and N45°W, are located 15-30 km from the mainshock fault rupture in a N-S compressional stress regime. The long-term geologic slip direction of these faults is left-lateral for the N30°E striking faults and right-lateral for the N45°W striking faults. The 2013 Baluchistan earthquake caused WSW-ENE extensional coseismic stress changes across the conjugate fault system and the observed strain localizations shows opposite sense of motion to that of the geologic long-term slip. We use 3D Finite Element modeling (FEM) to study the effects extensional coseismic stresses have on the conjugate CFZs that is otherwise loaded in a compressional regional stress. We use coseismic static displacements due to the earthquake along the FEM domain boundaries to simulate the extensional coseismic stress change acting across the fault system. Around 0.5-2 km wide CFZs with reduction in shear modulus by a factor of 3 to 4 can explain the observed InSAR strain localizations and the opposite sense of motion. The InSAR measurements were also used to constrain the ranges of the length, width and rigidity variations of the CFZs. The FEM solution shows that the N45°W striking faults localize mostly extensional strain and a small amount of left-lateral shear (opposite sense to

  5. Significant strain accumulation between the deformation front and landward out-of-sequence thrusts in accretionary wedge of SW Taiwan revealed by cGPS and SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    High strain accumulation across the fold-and-thrust belt in Southwestern Taiwan are revealed by the Continuous GPS (cGPS) and SAR interferometry. This high strain is generally accommodated by the major active structures in fold-and-thrust belt of western Foothills in SW Taiwan connected to the accretionary wedge in the incipient are-continent collision zone. The active structures across the high strain accumulation include the deformation front around the Tainan Tableland, the Hochiali, Hsiaokangshan, Fangshan and Chishan faults. Among these active structures, the deformation pattern revealed from cGPS and SAR interferometry suggest that the Fangshan transfer fault may be a left-lateral fault zone with thrust component accommodating the westward differential motion of thrust sheets on both side of the fault. In addition, the Chishan fault connected to the splay fault bordering the lower-slope and upper-slope of the accretionary wedge which could be the major seismogenic fault and an out-of-sequence thrust fault in SW Taiwan. The big earthquakes resulted from the reactivation of out-of-sequence thrusts have been observed along the Nankai accretionary wedge, thus the assessment of the major seismogenic structures by strain accumulation between the frontal décollement and out-of-sequence thrusts is a crucial topic. According to the background seismicity, the low seismicity and mid-crust to mantle events are observed inland and the lower- and upper- slope domain offshore SW Taiwan, which rheologically implies the upper crust of the accretionary wedge is more or less aseimic. This result may suggest that the excess fluid pressure from the accretionary wedge not only has significantly weakened the prism materials as well as major fault zone, but also makes the accretionary wedge landward extension, which is why the low seismicity is observed in SW Taiwan area. Key words: Continuous GPS, SAR interferometry, strain rate, out-of-sequence thrust.

  6. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Pieranna; Bonfiglio, Luca; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Cantore, Nicoletta; Carboncini, Maria Chiara; Piccotti, Emily; Rossi, Bruno; Andre, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ) is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error), at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance) became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects) suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi-naturalistic motor

  7. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieranna Arrighi

    Full Text Available Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error, at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi

  8. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  9. Structure and Evolution of the Accretionary Margin of Java-Sumatra. Seismic Data and Numerical Modeling Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, H.; Hindle, D.

    2007-12-01

    We present a numerical model for the evolution of an accretionary prism along a subduction margin. We find the mechanical partitioning of the growing prism into active region, abutting against a deformable backstop, and a relatively undeformed forearc basin is a function of the double tapered basal geometry, where the dip of the detachment is assumed to be opposite above oceanic or continental lithopshere. Varying properties of both materials and detachment can be used to adjust the surface slope and hence geometry of the system, but mechanical partitioning remains essentially the same with the regions becoming broader or narrower. The model appears to closely reproduce the geometry of the Sumatra-Java prism, where a high accretion margin has produced the same distinct mechanical units. Newly prestack depth-migrated marine seismic data reveal the extent and geometry of the active deformation of the deformable backstop, and give indications of some material passing into a subduction channel below the accretionary complex. The deformable backstop appears to be composed of multiple duplex structures, but present day tectonic activity is mostly in the form of transtensive or transpressive deformation, possibly reactivating older dip-slip, accretionary structures. The numerical approach used in the simulation (distinct elements) shows great promise in modelling large deformation in situations such as accretionary prisms, and has also been adapted to incorporate the role of fluid pressure and migration in tandem with large deformation (shortening of the order of 100's of kilometres).

  10. Retroreflective Phase Retardation Prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    resonant cavity of a 1.064 Mm laser. This report shows that it is possible to coat the reflecting surfaces of a porro prism so that incident plane...with controlled phase retardation can be made by coating each reflecting surface of a porro prism with a single dielectric film. The amount of phase...of angle of incidence (n, < n2) S. Phase change on reflection as a function of angle of incidence (n" n ) [RL-0202-’R 6. Porro prism 7. Phase change

  11. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  12. A controllable spin prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakioglu, T

    2009-01-01

    Based on Khodas et al (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 086602), we propose a device acting like a controllable prism for an incident spin. The device is a large quantum well where Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are present and controlled by the plunger gate potential, the electric field and the barrier height. A totally destructive interference can be manipulated externally between the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. The spin-dependent transmission/reflection amplitudes are calculated as the control parameters are changed. The device operates as a spin prism/converter/filter in different regimes and may stimulate research in promising directions in spintronics in analogy with linear optics.

  13. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  14. Accretionary and collisional orogenesis in the south domain of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was the result of long-lived multi-stage tectonic evolution, including Proterozoic to Paleozoic accretion and collision, Mesozoic intracontinental modification, and Cenozoic rapid deformation and uplift. The accretionary and collisional orogenesis of its early history generated a huge orogenic collage consisting of diverse tectonic units including island arcs, ophiolites, accretionary prisms, seamounts, oceanic plateaus and micro-continents. These incorporated orogenic components preserved valuable detailed information on orogenic process and continental crust growth, which make the CAOB a key region to understanding of continental evolution, mantle-crust interaction and associated mineralization. The western CAOB refers to the west region in North Xinjiang of China and circum-Balkash of Kazakhstan, with occurrences of the spectacular Kazakhstan orocline and its surrounding mountain belts. Because orogenic fabrics of this part mostly preserve their original features caused by the interactions among the southern Siberian active margin in the north and the Tarim Craton in the south, the western CAOB can be regarded as an ideal region to study the processes of the accretionary and collisional orogenesis and associated mineralization. Since a large number of researchers have been working on this region, research advances bloom strikingly in a short-time period. Therefore, we, in this special issue, focus on these new study advances on the south domain of the western CAOB, including the Kazakhstan collage system, Tianshan orogenic belt and Beishan region, and it is anticipated that this issue can draw more attention from the international research groups to be interested in the studies on orogenesis of the CAOB.

  15. The PRISM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilyardi, E.

    2003-04-01

    The European Union's PRISM infrastructure project (PRogram for Integrated earth System Modelling) aims at designing a flexible environment to easily assemble and run Earth System Models (http://prism.enes.org). Europe's widely distributed modelling expertise is both a strength and a challenge. Recognizing this, the PRISM project aims at developing an efficient shared modelling software infrastructure for climate scientists, providing them with an opportunity for greater focus on scientific issues, including the necessary scientific diversity (models and approaches). The proposed PRISM system includes 1) the use - or definition - and promotion of scientific and technical standards to increase component modularity, 2) an end-to-end software environment (coupler, user interface, diagnostics) to launch, monitor and analyze complex Earth System Models built around the existing and future community models, 3) testing and quality standards to ensure HPC performance on a variety of platforms and 4) community wide inputs and requirements capture in all stages of system specifications and design through user/developers meetings, workshops and thematic schools. This science driven project, led by 22 institutes* and started December 1st 2001, benefits from a unique gathering of scientific and technical expertise. More than 30 models (both global and regional) have expressed interest to be part of the PRISM system and 6 types of components have been identified: atmosphere, atmosphere chemistry, land surface, ocean, sea ice and ocean biochemistry. Progress and overall architecture design will be presented. * MPI-Met (Coordinator), KNMI (co-coordinator), MPI-M&D, Met Office, University of Reading, IPSL, Meteo-France, CERFACS, DMI, SMHI, NERSC, ETH Zurich, INGV, MPI-BGC, PIK, ECMWF, UCL-ASTR, NEC, FECIT, SGI, SUN, CCRLE

  16. Paleothermal structure of the Nankai inner accretionary wedge estimated from vitrinite reflectance of cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Rina; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Ashi, Juichiro

    2017-08-01

    The paleothermal structure and tectonic evolution of an accretionary prism is basic information for understanding subduction zone seismogenesis. To evaluate the entire paleotemperature profile of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site C0002 located in the off-Kumano region of the Nankai Trough and penetrate the inner accretionary wedge down to 3058.5 m below the seafloor (mbsf), we performed a vitrinite reflectance analysis for cuttings and core samples during IODP expeditions 338 and 348: Nankai Trough seismogenic zone experiment. Although vitrinite reflectance values (Ro) tend to increase with depth, two reversals of these values suggested the existence of thrust fault zones with sufficient displacements to offset the paleothermal structure. The estimated maximum paleotemperatures are 42-70°C at 1200-1300 mbsf, 44-100°C at 1600-2400 mbsf, and 56-115°C at 2600-3000 mbsf, respectively. These temperatures roughly coincide with estimated modern temperatures; however, at a smaller scale, the reconstructed partial paleogeothermal gradient (˜60-150°C/km) recorded at the hanging- and footwall of the presumed thrust fault zone is higher than the modern geothermal gradient (˜30-40°C/km). This high paleogeothermal gradient was possibly obtained prior to subduction, reflecting the large heat flow of the young Philippine Sea Plate.

  17. Mud Gas Logging In A Deep Borehole: IODP Site C0002, Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczko, S.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Maeda, L.

    2014-12-01

    Mud logging, a tool in riser drilling, makes use of the essentially "closed-circuit" drilling mud flow between the drilling platform downhole to the bit and then back to the platform for analyses of gas from the formation in the drilling mud, cuttings from downhole, and a range of safety and operational parameters to monitor downhole drilling conditions. Scientific riser drilling, with coincident control over drilling mud, downhole pressure, and returning drilling mud analyses, has now been in use aboard the scientific riser drilling vessel Chikyu since 2009. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 348, as part of the goal of reaching the plate boundary fault system near ~5000 mbsf, has now extended the deep riser hole (Hole C0002 N & P) to 3058.5 mbsf. The mud gas data discussed here are from two approximately parallel boreholes, one a kick-off from the other; 860-2329 mbsf (Hole C0002N) and 2163-3058 mbsf (Hole C0002P). An approximate overlap of 166 m between the holes allows for some slight depth comparison between the two holes. An additional 55 m overlap at the top of Hole C0002P exists where a 10-5/8-inch hole was cored, and then opened to 12-1/4-inch with logging while drilling (LWD) tools (Fig. 1). There are several fault zones revealed by LWD data, confirmed in one instance by coring. One of the defining formation characteristics of Holes C0002 N/P are the strongly dipping bedding planes, typically exceeding 60º. These fault zones and bedding planes can influence the methane/ethane concentrations found in the returning drilling mud. A focused comparison of free gas in drilling mud between one interval in Hole C0002 P, drilled first with a 10 5/8-inch coring bit and again with an 12 ¼-inch logging while drilling (LWD) bit is shown. Hole C0002N above this was cased all the way from the sea floor to the kick-off section. A fault interval (in pink) was identified from the recovered core section and from LWD resistivity and gamma. The plot of methane and ethane free gas (C1 and C2; ppmv) shows that the yield of free gas (primarily methane) was greater when the LWD bit returned to open the cored hole to a greater diameter. One possible explanation for this is the time delay between coring and LWD operations; approximately 3 days passed between the end of coring and the beginning of LWD (25-28 December 2013).

  18. Calibration of the Wedge Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe

    1957-01-01

    Since the introduction of plotless cruising in this country by Grosenbaugh and the later suggestion of using a wedge prism as an angle gauge by Bruce this method of determining basal area has been widely adopted in the South. One of the factors contributing to the occasionally unsatisfactory results obtained is failure to calibrate the prism used. As noted by Bruce the...

  19. Geometric formula for prism deflection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , governs deflections produced by prisms of refractive index n. The refractive power, n − 1, of most materials is of the order of unity for visible light, which therefore gets deflected through several degrees by a prism. X-rays and neutrons however ...

  20. Simple Tidal Prism Models Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luketina, D.

    1998-01-01

    Simple tidal prism models for well-mixed estuaries have been in use for some time and are discussed in most text books on estuaries. The appeal of this model is its simplicity. However, there are several flaws in the logic behind the model. These flaws are pointed out and a more theoretically correct simple tidal prism model is derived. In doing so, it is made clear which effects can, in theory, be neglected and which can not.

  1. The PRISM concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circeo, L.J. Jr.; Camacho, S.L.; Tixier, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Contaminated soils and buried wastes represent one of the most widespread and costly remediation problems in the United States and other developed countries around the world. This concept of in situ remediation using a plasma arc torch should be directly applicable to many of the contaminated soil remediation needs described the DOE, EPA, and DoD. Plasma Remediation of In Situ Materials (PRISM) could provide a highly efficient, cost-effective, reliable and controllable technique to selectively melt and vitrify any contaminated/buried volume of soils, materials, or objects at any depth underground. If necessary, it could pinpoint underground objects such as buried drums for selective remediation. Plasma arc technology was developed over 30 years ago by NASA for the US space program to simulate reentry temperatures on heat shields. Only recently has this technology begun to emerge as a commercial tool in several industries such as steelmaking, metallurgy, precious metal recovery, and waste disposal. Conceptually, a plasma torch could be used on the ground surface or lowered to the bottom of a small diameter, cased borehole. By raising and operating the torch at progressively higher levels a column of contaminated material would be vitrified and converted into an environmentally safe, glassy residue, highly resistant to leaching. With proper borehole spacing the vitrified columns could be coalesced together to form a contiguous, homogeneous mass of vitrified material which is environmentally safe and highly resistant to leaching

  2. Arc-parallel extension and fluid flow in an ancient accretionary wedge: The San Juan Islands, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Gillaspy, J.R.; Lamb, R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural analysis of the Lopez Structural Complex, a major Late Cretaceous terrane-bounding fault zone in the San Juan thrust system, reveals a sequence of events that provides insight into accretionary wedge mechanics and regional tectonics. After formation of regional ductile flattening and shear-related fabrics, the area was crosscut by brittle structures including: (1) southwest-vergent thrusts, (2) extension veins and normal faults related to northwest-southeast extension, and (3) conjugate strike-slip structures that record northwest-southeast extension and northeast-southwest shortening. Aragonite-bearing veins are associated with thrust and normal faults, but only rarely with strike-slip faults. High-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) minerals constrain the conditions for brittle deformation to ???20 km and formed in an accretionary prism during active subduction, which suggests that these brittle structures record internal wedge deformation at depth and early during uplift of the San Juan nappes. The structures are consistent with orogen-normal shortening and vertical thickening followed by vertical thinning and along-strike extension. The kinematic evolution may be related initially to changes in wedge strength, followed by response to overthickening of the wedge in an unbuttressed, obliquely convergent setting. The change in vein mineralogy indicates that exhumation occurred prior to the strike-slip event. The pressure and temperature conditions and spatial and temporal extent of small faults associated with fluid flow suggest a link between these structures and the silent earthquake process. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  3. Structure and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Central Cuba: Insights into deformation in an accretionary wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despaigne-Díaz, Ana Ibis; García Casco, Antonio; Cáceres Govea, Dámaso; Wilde, Simon A.; Millán Trujillo, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    The Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Cuba, forms part of an accretionary wedge built during intra-oceanic subduction in the Caribbean from the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic. The structure reflects syn-subduction exhumation during thickening of the wedge, followed by extension. Field mapping, metamorphic and structural analysis constrain the tectonic evolution into five stages. Three ductile deformation events (D1, D2 and D3) are related to metamorphism in a compressional setting and formation of several nappes. D1 subduction fabrics are only preserved as relict S1 foliation and rootless isoclinal folds strongly overprinted by the main S2 foliation. The S2 foliation is parallel to sheared serpentinised lenses that define tectonic contacts, suggesting thrust stacks and underthrusting at mantle depths. Thrusting caused an inverted metamorphic structure with higher-grade on top of lower-grade nappes. Exhumation started during D2 when the units were incorporated into the growing accretionary wedge along NNE-directed thrust faults and was accompanied by substantial decompression and cooling. Folding and thrusting continued during D3 and marks the transition from ductile to brittle-ductile conditions at shallower crustal levels. The D4-5 events are related to extension and contributed to the final exhumation (likely as a core complex). D4 is associated with a regional spaced S4 cleavage, late open folds, and numerous extension veins, whereas D5 is recorded by normal and strike-slip faults affecting all nappes. The P-t path shows rapid exhumation during D2 and slower rates during D3 when the units were progressively incorporated into the accretionary prism. The domal shape formed in response to tectonic denudation assisted by normal faulting and erosion at the surface during the final stages of structural development. These results support tectonic models of SW subduction of the Proto-Caribbean crust under the Caribbean plate during the latest Cretaceous and provide

  4. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and geochronology of Neogene trench-slope cover sediments in the south Boso Peninsula, central Japan: Implications for the development of a shallow accretionary complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyonobu, Shun; Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Saito, Saneatsu

    2017-07-01

    The geological structure and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Middle to Late Miocene trench-slope succession in the southern Boso Peninsula, central Japan, were examined to obtain chronological constraints on the accretion and formation of the trench-slope architecture. As a result, trench-slope cover sediments (Kinone and Amatsu Formations) are clearly distinguishable from the Early Miocene Hota accretionary complex (Hota Group). The Hota accretionary complex was deposited below the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) and was affected by intense shearing, forming an east-west trending and south-verging fold and thrust belt. In contrast, the trench-slope cover sediments basically have a homoclinal dip, except at the northern rim where they are bounded by fault contact. They contain many species of calcareous nannofossils and foraminifers, which are indicative of their depositional environment above the CCD, and they show shallowing-upward sedimentary structures. Biostratigraphy revealed that the depositional age of the trench-slope sediments is ca. 15-5.5 Ma, suggesting that there is an approximately 2 myr hiatus beween the Miura Group and the underlying accretionary prism. Based on these results, the age of accretion of the Hota Group is inferred to be between ca. 17-15 Ma, and the group is covered by trench-slope sediments overlain on it after ca. 15 Ma. The timing of accretion and the age of the trench-slope basin tend to be younger southward of the Boso Peninsula. The accretionary system of the Boso Peninsula apparently developed in two stages, in the Middle Miocene and in the Late Miocene to Pliocene.

  5. PRISMES. The INES microgrid platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barruel, F.; Vervaart, M.; Merten, J. [INES, 73 - Le Bourget-du-lac (FR). Lab. for Solar Systems (L2S)

    2010-07-01

    The massive penetration of fluctuating renewable energies will challenge the low voltage grids. Innovative solutions to address this issue need to be developed and tested. They may consist of intelligent energy management systems and the use of storage systems. For this purpose the PRISMES platform has been designed and implemented at the INES headquarter in Chambery. It is a universal test and development tool, such as stand alone hybrid systems and grid connected PV systems combined with a storage system and loads. This paper describes the PRISMES facility which will start operation in autumn 2008. (orig.)

  6. Frontal ataxia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, C E; Beems, T; Rotteveel, J J

    2004-12-01

    Frontal ataxia may be the result of a unilateral frontal lesion. In this report three cases are presented with ataxia due to right frontal lesions. One case concerns a boy presenting with an unsteady gait and titubation of the trunk, mimicking developmental disequilibrium and with complex partial seizures. It proved to be caused by a small right-sided cavernoma in the middle frontal gyrus. After surgical intervention the symptoms and the seizures disappeared. Two subsequent cases concern teenage patients presenting with headache after an ENT infection and on physical examination mild dysmetric function of the upper limbs and slight disequilibrium, due to right-sided frontal lobe abscesses. After neurosurgical and antibiotic therapy the symptoms were relieved. The frontal origin of ataxia should be considered in children presenting with a "cerebellar syndrome". Frontal gait disorders consist of a clinical pattern of different gait disorders. The syndrome has been mentioned in the literature under different names. Our patients show signs compatible with the term frontal disequilibrium, a clinical pattern of frontal gait disorder. This assumes walking problems characterized by loss of control of motor planning, leading to imbalance. Remarkably, frontal ataxia may mimic developmental delay as demonstrated in the first case and may be the leading mild symptom in extensive frontal lobe damage as demonstrated by the two other cases. We suppose that frontal ataxia is the result of a disturbance in the cerebellar-frontal circuitries and an impairment of executive and planning functions of the basal ganglia-frontal lobe circuitry.

  7. 21 CFR 886.1660 - Gonioscopic prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1660 Gonioscopic prism. (a) Identification. A gonioscopic prism is a device that is a prism intended to be placed on the eye to study the anterior chamber. The device may have angled mirrors to facilitate visualization of anatomical features. (b...

  8. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of frontal lobe epilepsy remains unknown. Complications Status epilepticus. Frontal lobe seizures tend to occur in clusters and may provoke a dangerous condition called status epilepticus — in which seizure activity lasts much longer than ...

  9. Frontal ataxia in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmus, C.E.; Beems, T.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Frontal ataxia may be the result of a unilateral frontal lesion. In this report three cases are presented with ataxia due to right frontal lesions. One case concerns a boy presenting with an unsteady gait and titubation of the trunk, mimicking developmental disequilibrium and with complex partial seizures. It proved to be caused by a small right-sided cavernoma in the middle frontal gyrus. After surgical intervention the symptoms and the seizures disappeared. Two subsequent cases concern teen...

  10. Frontal ataxia in childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, C.E.; Beems, T.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Frontal ataxia may be the result of a unilateral frontal lesion. In this report three cases are presented with ataxia due to right frontal lesions. One case concerns a boy presenting with an unsteady gait and titubation of the trunk, mimicking developmental disequilibrium and with complex partial

  11. Provenance and paleo-weathering of Tertiary accretionary prism-forearc sedimentary deposits of the Andaman Archipelago, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Neeraj

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand the provenance and tectono-sedimentary processes occurring in the Andaman Subduction Zone (ASZ), the Late Cretaceous to Oligocene sedimentary records from the Andaman Islands have been studied. These sedimentary records are considered to have preserved the history of the India-Asia collision, evolution of the Himalayas, climatic development and palaeo-drainage reorganizations on the Indian and Asian plates. About 47 sandstones and mudstones (shales and siltstones) samples were analyzed for whole rock major, trace, and rare earth element compositions. The geochemical results suggest mixing of sediments derived from the mafic igneous sources comprising local ophiolites and volcanic arc of the ASZ and an older Archean to Proterozoic age felsic cratonic source with compositions similar to average granodiorite or upper continental crustal sources. The compositions were dominated by sources of the mafic arc during deposition of the Mithakhari Group, whereas they were controlled by continental sources during deposition of the Andaman Flysch Group. The Hope Town Conglomerate unit of the Mithakhari Group was mainly derived from weathering and erosion of the subaerially exposed local ophiolite thrust sheets, whereas its Namunagarh unit contains significant detritus from volcanic arcs. The Andaman Flysch turbidites were deposited with a greater supply of sediments from first-cycle active continental margin sources probably located in the Tibetan and eastern Myanmar region and recycled quartzose sedimentary sources within the nascent Himalayas. The sediments supplied to both the Mithakhari and the Andaman Flysch Groups were characterized by varying values of CIA, PIA and W. These variable values were either due to non-steady state weathering conditions in the sources or the changing climatic conditions owing to the motion of Indian plate with reference to the equator. The uniformly high CIA and W values in the Andaman Flysch rocks can be related to high precipitation and strong chemical weathering associated with the initiation of the Indian monsoon.

  12. Long-term temperature monitoring at the biological community site on the Nankai accretionary prism off Kii Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Yamano, M.; Kinoshita, M.; Ashi, J.

    2008-12-01

    Nankai subduction zone off Kii Peninsula is one of the most intensively surveyed areas for studies on the seismogenic zone. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys carried out in this area revealed the existence of splay faults that branched from the subduction zone plate boundary [Park et al., 2002]. Along the splay faults, reversal of reflection polarity was observed, indicating elevated pore fluid pressure along the faults. Cold seepages with biological communities were discovered along a seafloor outcrop of one of the splay faults through submersible observations. Long-term temperature monitoring at a biological community site along the outcrop revealed high heat flow carried by upward fluid flow (>180 mW/m2) [Goto et al., 2003]. Toki et al. [2004] estimated upward fluid flow rates of 40-200 cm/yr from chloride distribution of interstitial water extracted from sediments in and around biological community sites along the outcrop. These observation results suggest upward fluid flow along the splay fault. In order to investigate hydrological nature of the splay fault, we conducted long-term temperature monitoring again in the same cold seepage site where Goto et al. [2003] carried out long-term temperature monitoring. In this presentation, we present results of the temperature monitoring and estimate heat flow carried by upward fluid flow from the temperature records. In this long-term temperature monitoring, we used stand-alone heat flow meter (SAHF), a probe-type sediment temperature recorder. Two SAHFs (SAHF-3 and SAHF-4) were used in this study. SAHF-4 was inserted into a bacterial mat, within several meters of which the previous long-term temperature monitoring was conducted. SAHF-3 was penetrated into ordinary sediment near the bacterial mat. The sub-bottom temperature records were obtained for 8 months. The subsurface temperatures oscillated reflecting bottom- water temperature variation (BTV). For sub-bottom temperatures measured with SAHF-3 (outside of the bacterial mat), we found that the effects of the BTV propagated into sediment by conduction only. By correcting the effect of the BTV, conductive heat flow estimated is higher than 100 mW/m2. Sub-bottom temperatures measured within bacterial mat (SAHF-4) except for the topmost sensor could be explained by a conduction model. The heat flow estimated based on the conduction model is similar to that measured with SAHF-3. The temperature of the topmost sensor is slightly higher than that expected from the conduction model. To explain the high temperature, upward fluid flow at a rate of 10-7 m/s order is needed. Heat flow carried by the upward fluid flow is higher than that estimated by Goto et al. [2003]. Heat flow value expected from the distribution of heat flow around this area is 70-80 mW/m2. The high heat flow values inside and outside the bacterial mat estimated in the present and previous studies may reflect upward fluid flow along the splay fault.

  13. Frictional properties of relic fore arc metasediments from Kodiak Island, AK: Implications for slip in the upper accretionary prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.; Rabinowitz, H. S.; Saffer, D. M.; Savage, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    The slip behavior of subduction megathrusts is controlled by the mechanical and frictional properties of the material entrained along the plate interface. The shallow reaches of subduction thrusts (i.e. Events (SSE's), tremor, and very low frequency earthquakes (VLFE). However, there remain few detailed experimental studies of relevant fault materials under in situ conditions to probe the connections between rock frictional properties and fault slip behavior. To quantitatively understand the evolution of frictional properties along the upper part of the megathrust, we conducted a suite of shearing experiments at pressures and temperatures similar to in situ conditions, using exhumed subduction zone fault rocks composed of metamorphosed clay-rich sediments from Kodiak Island, Alaska. The metasediments we tested have experienced maximum burial depths ranging from 4-6 to 10-15 km, and peak temperatures ranging from 100-125 to 280 oC, making them ideal analogs for investigating the evolution of friction across the stability transition and into the seismogenic zone. These samples were powdered and sheared in a triaxial deformation apparatus at conditions ranging from 25 MPa and 20 oC, to 195 MPa and 200 oC. Preliminary results at room temperature show steady state friction values of 0.56 and rate strengthening behavior (a-b 0.002) with Dc of 19 mm. Ongoing work is characterizing the frictional properties across the stability transition in greater detail.

  14. Frictional properties of the Nankai frontal thrust explain recurring shallow slow slip events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Kopf, A.; Roesner, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observations provide evidence for shallow slip reaching to the trench on subduction megathrusts, both in earthquakes and slow slip events (SSE). This is at odds with existing friction studies, which report primarily velocity-strengthening behavior (friction increases with slip velocity) for subduction fault material and synthetic analogs, which leads only to stable sliding. We report on direct shearing experiments on fault rocks from IODP Site C0007, which sampled the frontal thrust of the Nankai accretionary prism. This fault has been implicated in both coseimic slip and recurring SSE. We focus on material from 437.2 meters below seafloor, immediately above a localized shear zone near the base of the fault. In our experiments, a 25 mm diameter cylindrical specimen is loaded in an assembly of two steel plates. After application of normal stress (3, 10, or 17 MPa) and subsequent equilibration, the lower plate is driven at a constant velocity while the upper plate remains stationary; this configuration forces shear to localize between the two plates. After reaching a steady state residual friction coefficient (µss), we conducted velocity-stepping tests to measure the friction rate parameter (a-b), defined as the change in friction for a change in velocity: (a-b) = Δuss/ln(V/Vo), over a range of velocities from 0.1-100 µm s-1. We find that µss ranges from 0.26 to 0.32 and exhibits a slight decrease with normal stress. We observe velocity-weakening behavior at low normal stresses (3-10 MPa) and for low sliding velocities (30 µm s-1. At higher normal stress (17 MPa), we observe dominantly velocity-strengthening, consistent with previously reported measurements for 25 MPa normal stress. Our observation of rate weakening at slip rates matching those of SSE in the outer Nankai forearc provide a potential explanation for periodic strain accumulation and subsequent release during SSE near the trench. The observation of rate weakening behavior only at low normal

  15. Prism. Volume 1, Number 1, December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    strategy, regional security affairs, and global strategic problems. This is the authoritative , official U.S. Department of Defense edition of PRISM...suffer from illiteracy, poor health, and extreme poverty PRISM 1, no. 1 FRoM the FIeld | 89 The country’s maternal mortality and female illiteracy rates...problems. This is the authoritative , official U.S. Department of Defense edition of PRISM. Any copyrighted portions of this journal may not be

  16. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to ...

  17. Analysis of unscrammed events in PRISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The PRISM reactor is presently under pre-application licensing review by the NRC, with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) providing technical assistance. The purpose of this paper is to review the current PRISM design and describe the results from the SSC Code calculations performed at BNL, for a series of unscrammed accidents. 3 refs., 5 figs

  18. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... Defect reconstruction and fixation of the graft: The defect of ... where all loose fragments of fractured frontal bone was removed via the ... Mandible. • Ilium. • Allograft ... pediatric patients owing to skull growth. Thus, autologous ...

  19. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  20. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually increasing...

  1. Behaviour and strength assessment of masonry prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassif Nazeer Thaickavil

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study presenting the cracking behavior and assessment of the compressive strength of masonry prisms. The compressive strength of masonry was determined by performing laboratory tests on 192 masonry prism specimens corresponding to 3 specimens each in 64 groups. The variables considered in the experimental program are type of brick, strength of masonry and height-to-thickness (h/t ratio of the prism specimen. Pressed earth bricks and burnt clay bricks were used for the preparation of masonry prisms. A mathematical model is also proposed for the estimation of compressive strength of masonry prisms by performing a statistical multiple regression analysis on 232 data sets, which includes 64 test data from the present study and 168 test data published in the literature. The model was developed based on the regression analysis of test data of prisms made of a variety of masonry units namely clay bricks, pressed earth bricks, concrete blocks, calcium silicate bricks, stone blocks, perforated bricks and soft mud bricks. The proposed model not only accounts for the wide ranges of compressive strengths of masonry unit and mortar, but also accounts for the influence of volume fractions of masonry unit and mortar in addition to the height-to-thickness ratio. The predicted compressive strength of prisms using the proposed model is compared with 14 models available in published literature. The predicted strength was found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. Keywords: Prism strength, Stack bonded masonry, Running bonded masonry, Masonry unit strength, Cracking

  2. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  3. Objective-prism spectrophotometry of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clowes, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is derived for obtaining low-resolution spectrophotometry of quasars directly from the objective-prism plates on which they were discovered. Measurements with a PDS microdensitometer of approximately 130 quasar candidates in approximately the central 19 square degrees of the UK Schmidt prism plate UJ3682P were used in the application of the procedure. The success of the objective-prism spectrophotometry is demonstrated in a comparison with 12 slit spectra. Redshifts and equivalent widths can be determined with typical discrepancies of 1% and 40% respectively. This work on objective-prism spectrophotometry leads to a quantification of the selection effects that operate in the searches for emission-line objects on objective-prism plates. The quantification successfully explains an apparent discrepancy in the detection efficiencies of the CTIO-4m and Curtis Schmidt surveys for quasars. Spectra of quasars that were observed with the Image Photon Counting System on the Anglo-Australian Telescope are presented. The observations of quasars with broad absorption troughs indicate the ejection of matter with velocities up to approximately 22000kms -1 and with velocity dispersions up to approximately 11000kms -1 . Data on the wavelength dependences of the contrast γ and the grain response function g of the Kodak emulsion IIIaJ are presented. (author)

  4. Porro prism lasers: a new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Porro prism lasers are insensitive to misalignment caused by, for example, shock and temperature variation, making them useful in field applications, for example in target designation and range-finding systems. This property is a result of the property of Porro prisms that they return a reflected beam parallel to the incident beam, regardless of any tilt on the prism. These lasers are generally used in a marginally stable or unstable configuration for low divergence, but in the stable configuration some interesting kaleidoscope modes can be modelled. In previous work on Porro prism resonators we formulated an analytical method of determining which Porro angles resonate and result in petal output modes, as well as the corresponding number of petals. This work has been verified using a numerical model as well as experimentally. We have developed this work further and have investigated the losses associated with a range of Porro angles as well as the effects of these losses on the resulting modes. We conclude by summarizing the design considerations for Porro prism lasers.

  5. Transient performance of S-prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubberley, A.E.; Boardman, C.E.; Gamble, R.E.; Hiu, M.M.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. Based on the success of the previous DOE sponsored Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program GE has continued to develop and assess the technical viability and economic potential of an up-rated plant called SuperPRISM (S-PRISM). This paper presents the results of transient analyses performed to assess the ability of S-PRISM to accommodate severe accident initiator events. A unique safety capability of S-PRISM is accommodation of the ''higher probability'' accident initiators that led to core melt accidents in prior large LMRs. These events, the Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events, are thus the focus of passive safety confirmation analyses. The events included in this assessment are: Unprotected Loss of Flow, Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink, Unprotected Loss of Flow and Heat sink, Unprotected Transient Overpower and Unprotected Safe Shutdown Earthquake. (author)

  6. Plutons and accretionary episodes of the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1999-01-01

    The Klamath Mountains consist of various accreted terranes and include many plutons that range in composition from gabbro to granodiorite. Some of the plutons (preaccretionary plutons) were parts of terranes before the terranes accreted; others (accretionary plutons) intruded during or after the accretion of their host terrane(s). This report attempts to (1) graphically illustrate how the Klamath Mountains grew by the accretion of allochthonous oceanic terranes during early Paleozoic to Cretaceous times, (2) identify the plutons as either preaccretionary or accretionary, and (3) genetically relate the plutonic intrusions to specific accretionary episodes. The eight accretionary episodes portrayed in this report are similar to those shown by Irwin and Mankinen (1998) who briefly described the basis for the timing of the episodes and who illustrated the ~110 degrees of clockwise rotation of the Klamath Mountains since Early Devonian time. Each episode is named for the accreting terrane. In all episodes (Figs. 1-8), the heavy black line represents a fault that separates the accreting oceanic rocks on the left from earlier accreted terranes on the right. The preaccretionary plutons are shown within the accreting oceanic crustal rocks to the left of the heavy black line, and the accretionary plutons in most instances are shown intruding previously accreted terranes to the right. Episodes earlier than the Central Metamorphic episode (Fig. 1), and that may have been important in the formation of the early Paleozoic nucleous of the province (the Eastern Klamath terrane), are not known. The 'Present Time' distribution of the accreted terranes and plutons is shown at a large scale in Figure 9. The schematic vertical section (Fig. 10) depicts the terranes as a stack of horizontal slabs that include or are intruded by vertical plutons. Note that at their base the ~170 Ma preaccretionary plutons of the Western Hayfork subterrane are truncated by the ~164 Ma Salt Creek

  7. Structural styles and zircon ages of the South Tianshan accretionary complex, Atbashi Ridge, Kyrgyzstan: Insights for the anatomy of ocean plate stratigraphy and accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Miao; Xiao, Wenjiao; Orozbaev, Rustam; Bakirov, Apas; Sakiev, Kadyrbek; Pak, Nikolay; Ivleva, Elena; Zhou, Kefa; Ao, Songjian; Qiao, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhixin

    2018-03-01

    The anatomy of an ancient accretionary complex has a significance for a better understanding of the tectonic processes of accretionary orogens and complex because of its complicated compositions and strong deformation. With a thorough structural and geochronological study of a fossil accretionary complex in the Atbashi Ridge, South Tianshan (Kyrgyzstan), we analyze the structure and architecture of ocean plate stratigraphy in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The architecture of the Atbashi accretionary complex is subdivisible into four lithotectonic assemblages, some of which are mélanges with "block-in-matrix" structure: (1) North Ophiolitic Mélange; (2) High-pressure (HP)/Ultra-high-pressure (UHP) Metamorphic Assemblage; (3) Coherent & Mélange Assemblage; and (4) South Ophiolitic Mélange. Relationships between main units are tectonic contacts presented by faults. The major structures and lithostratigraphy of these units are thrust-fold nappes, thrusted duplexes, and imbricated ocean plate stratigraphy. All these rock units are complicatedly stacked in 3-D with the HP/UHP rocks being obliquely southwestward extruded. Detrital zircon ages of meta-sediments provide robust constraints on their provenance from the Ili-Central Tianshan Arc. The isotopic ages of the youngest components of the four units are Late Permian, Early-Middle Triassic, Early Carboniferous, and Early Triassic, respectively. We present a new tectonic model of the South Tianshan; a general northward subduction polarity led to final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean in the End-Permian to Late Triassic. These results help to resolve the long-standing controversy regarding the subduction polarity and the timing of the final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean. Finally, our work sheds lights on the use of ocean plate stratigraphy in the analysis of the tectonic evolution of accretionary orogens.

  8. GE advanced liquid metal reactor S-PRISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation covers the following topics: Incentive for developing S-PRISM; Design and safety approach; Design description and competitive potential; Previous Licensing interactions; Planned approach to Licensing S-PRISM

  9. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    reciprocal to Mesolimbic dopamine activity (mood). The study aims to explore interpersonal differences in coping associated with neural properties. Method: Neuroeconomic literature search of how neural centers of Rc2/L shape risk attitude2 or coping. Results: General risk attitude is a right skewed...... to the classical tempers. In prospect, differentiating the Frontal integration pattern by temper (General risk attitude) opens an evidence-based pathway for individually tailored neural training towards advanced social objectives as multidisciplinary collaboration and healthy living. References 1. Larsen T...

  10. Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic Peri-Pacific Accretionary Evolution of the Mongolian Collage System: Insights From Geochemical and U-Pb Zircon Data From the Ordovician Sedimentary Wedge in the Mongolian Altai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y. D.; Schulmann, K.; Kröner, A.; Sun, M.; Lexa, O.; Janoušek, V.; Buriánek, D.; Yuan, C.; Hanžl, P.

    2017-11-01

    Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic accretionary processes of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt have been evaluated so far mainly using the geology of ophiolites and/or magmatic arcs. Thus, the knowledge of the nature and evolution of associated sedimentary prisms remains fragmentary. We carried out an integrated geological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological study on a giant Ordovician metasedimentary succession of the Mongolian Altai Mountains. This succession is characterized by dominant terrigenous components mixed with volcanogenic material. It is chemically immature, compositionally analogous to graywacke, and marked by significant input of felsic to intermediate arc components, pointing to an active continental margin depositional setting. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages suggest a source dominated by products of early Paleozoic magmatism prevailing during the Cambrian-Ordovician and culminating at circa 500 Ma. We propose that the Ordovician succession forms an "Altai sedimentary wedge," the evolution of which can be linked to the geodynamics of the margins of the Mongolian Precambrian Zavhan-Baydrag blocks. This involved subduction reversal from southward subduction of a passive continental margin (Early Cambrian) to the development of the "Ikh-Mongol Magmatic Arc System" and the giant Altai sedimentary wedge above a north dipping subduction zone (Late Cambrian-Ordovician). Such a dynamic process resembles the tectonic evolution of the peri-Pacific accretionary Terra Australis Orogen. A new model reconciling the Baikalian metamorphic belt along the southern Siberian Craton with peri-Pacific Altai accretionary systems fringing the Mongolian microcontinents is proposed to explain the Cambro-Ordovician geodynamic evolution of the Mongolian collage system.

  11. Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…

  12. Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C1-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262

  13. An improved prism for use in laser resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J.

    1981-08-01

    The use of compound total internal reflection prisms rather than Porro prisms in polarisation coupled lasers is proposed. Performance advantages resulting from the use of these prisms include higher output without the need to bias the Pockels cell, ability to give a larger range of output coupling and independence of performance on the refractive index of the prism. In conventional Q-switched lasers the use of the prism at the Pockels cell end of the resonator instead of the usual 100% reflecting mirror also leads to some advantages including better hold-off, elimination of the need to bias the Pockels cell and insensitivity in one plane to angular misalignment.

  14. LATE TRIASSIC OBLIQUE EXTRUSION OF UHP/HP COMPLEXES IN THE ATBASHI ACCRETIONARY COMPLEX OF SOUTH TIANSHAN, KYRGYZSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiao Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhumation and tectonic emplacement of eclogites and blueschists take place in forearc accretionary complexes by either forearc- or backarc-directed extrusion, but few examples have been well analysed in detail. Here we present an example of oblique wedge extrusion of UHP/HP rocks in the Atbashi accretionary complex of the Kyrgyz South Tianshan.

  15. Pediatric frontal mucocele secondary to a bifid frontal sinus septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikaitis, Christina M; Purzycki, Adam R; Couture, Daniel; David, Lisa R

    2010-09-01

    A mucocele is a mucus-containing sac lined with epithelium that arises within a sinus when its drainage is compromised. The frontal sinus is the most common location, with frontal mucocele development occurring when the nasofrontal duct becomes obstructed because of polyps, bone tumors, prior surgery, sinusitis, trauma, or anatomic variation. We report an unusual case of a sterile pediatric frontal mucocele presenting as a slowly enlarging forehead mass due to a bifid frontal sinus septum. A 9-year-old girl presented to the craniofacial clinic for evaluation of a right frontal mass that had been slowly growing over the past year. She was otherwise healthy and had no history of previous trauma or sinus infections. Computed tomography (CT) scan results revealed a localized frontal fluid collection with protrusion and thinning of the anterior frontal bone between 2 midline bony septii. Surgical cranialization of the frontal sinus was performed. The anatomy of her lesion seen both on CT scan and intraoperatively likely explains this unusual case presentation. Instead of the usual inciting event of an intact frontal sinus drainage system becoming blocked, this patient seemed to have a primary developmental lack of any drainage system that led to her mucocele. During formation of her frontal sinus, she developed a bifid septum within the midline that excluded a portion of her frontal sinus from the lateral nasofrontal ducts. With mucus-producing epithelium trapped within these bony confines, pressure began to mount with expansion and thinning of the bone both anteriorly and posteriorly. The lack of any infectious symptoms and sterile culture results may support that this space developed primarily and was never in continuity with the external drainage system. Only 4 other patients have been reported with asymptomatic forehead swelling as the only presenting symptom, with the age ranging from 33 to 79 years. This patient represents the first clinical report of a congenital

  16. Multivariable control for the PRISM ALMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the application of state variable control design methods in the conceptual design of two key system level controllers in the PRISM ALMR. The PRISM plant concept consists of three power blocks, each made up of three identical reactors and steam generator modules connected to one turbine. Operation of these physically distributed systems is directed by a hierarchy of controllers at the system, power block, and plant levels. The system level controllers in this paper are the reactivity controllers for movement of the six control rods in each of the nine reactor modules, and the feedwater control of the three parallel steam generators in each of the three power blocks. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  17. Automated analysis of objective-prism spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, P.C.; Irwin, M.J.; Bunclark, P.; Bridgeland, M.T.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Smith, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    A fully automated system for the location, measurement and analysis of large numbers of low-resolution objective-prism spectra is described. The system is based on the APM facility at the University of Cambridge, and allows processing of objective-prism, grens or grism data. Particular emphasis is placed on techniques to obtain the maximum signal-to-noise ratio from the data, both in the initial spectral estimation procedure and for subsequent feature identification. Comparison of a high-quality visual catalogue of faint quasar candidates with an equivalent automated sample demonstrates the ability of the APM system to identify all the visually selected quasar candidates. In addition, a large population of new, faint (msub(J)approx. 20) candidates is identified. (author)

  18. Prisms to Shift Pain Away: Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Exploration of CRPS with Prism Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophe, Laure; Chabanat, Eric; Delporte, Ludovic; Revol, Patrice; Volckmann, Pierre; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Rossetti, Yves

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is an invalidating chronic condition subsequent to peripheral lesions. There is growing consensus for a central contribution to CRPS. However, the nature of this central body representation disorder is increasingly debated. Although it has been repeatedly argued that CRPS results in motor neglect of the affected side, visual egocentric reference frame was found to be deviated toward the pain, that is, neglect of the healthy side. Accordingly, prism adaptation has been successfully used to normalize this deviation. This study aimed at clarifying whether 7 CRPS patients exhibited neglect as well as exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms of this manifestation and of the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation. Pain and quality of life, egocentric reference frames (visual and proprioceptive straight-ahead), and neglect tests (line bisection, kinematic analyses of motor neglect and motor extinction) were repeatedly assessed prior to, during, and following a one-week intense prism adaptation intervention. First, our results provide no support for visual and motor neglect in CRPS. Second, reference frames for body representations were not systematically deviated. Third, intensive prism adaptation intervention durably ameliorated pain and quality of life. As for spatial neglect, understanding the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation deserves further investigations.

  19. Evaluations of 1990 PRISM design revisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Aronson, A.L.; Kennett, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    Analyses of the 1990 version of the PRISM Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design are presented and discussed. Most of the calculations were performed using BNL computer codes, particularly SSC and MINET. In many cases, independent BNL calculations were compared against analyses presented by General Electric when they submitted the PRISM design revisions for evaluation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The current PRISM design utilizes the metallic fuel developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) which facilitates the passive/''inherent'' shutdown mechanism that acts to shut down reactor power production whenever the system overheats. There are a few vulnerabilities in the passive shutdown, with the most worrisome being the positive feedback from sodium density decreases or sodium voiding. Various postulated unscrammed events were examined by GE and/or BNL, and much of the analysis discussed in this report is focused on this category of events. For the most part, the BNL evaluations confirm the information submitted by General Electric. The principal areas of concern are related to the performance of the ternary metal fuel, and may be resolved as ANL continues with its fuel development and testing program

  20. PRISM reactor. An option for plutonium disposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlinger, Sebastian; Friess, Friederike; Kuett, Moritz [IANUS, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) is sodium cooled fast reactor model. The energy output depends on the core configuration, however with an energy output of approximately 300 MWe, the PRISM reactor belongs to the class of small modular reactors. Beside using the reactor as a breeder reactor or for the transmutation of nuclear waste, it might also be used as a burner reactor for separated plutonium. This includes for example U.S.-American excess weapon-grade plutonium as well as separated reactor-grade plutonium. Recently, there has been an ongoing discussion in GB to use the PRISM reactor to dispose their excess civilian plutonium. Depending on the task, the core configuration varies slightly. We will present different layouts and the matching MCNP models, these models can then be used to conduct depletion calculations. From these results, analysis of the change in the plutonium isotopics in the spent fuel, the amount of fissioned plutonium, and the possible annual plutonium throughputs is possible.

  1. Structural overprint of a late Paleozoic accretionary system in north-central Chile (34°-35°S during post-accretional deformation Modificación estructural de un sistema acrecional del Paleozoico tardío en el centro-norte de Chile (34°-35°S, durante deformación posacrecional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne P Willner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Coastal Cordillera of central Chile a coherently preserved architecture of a late Paleozoic accretionary prism is exposed at 36°-35°S in cióse spatial association with a neighbouring área at 34°-35°S, where it is strongly modified by post-accretional processes. Syn- and post-accretional struetures can be distinguished relatively easily in this región studying the deviations from the original architecture. South of 35°S a transitional contact between two major units is observed, which reflects a continuous change of the mode of accretion in the accretionary wedge before -305 Ma: the structurally overlying metagreywacke of the Eastern Series exhibits struetures typical of frontal accretion, Le., subvertical chevron folds of bedding planes with an axial-plane foliation Sr With increasing finite strain structurally downwards, open F2 folds develop associated with a S2-foliation which becomes gradually flattened as it rotates into a subhorizontal orientation. S2 is the penetrative transposition foliation in the structurally underlying Western Series. It affeets the continent-derived metagreywacke series as well as metabasite intercalations of oceanic origin and was formed during basal accretion. This principal evolution of the accretionary system places firm constraints on the original architecture also in regions where it was destructed after accretion. Accretion ceased at -225 Ma, when a major tectonic change from a convergent to an extensional/strike-slip regime oceurred. Although the development of the margin in central Chile is largely characterized by extensión during Mesozoic and Cenozoic times, two pronounced episodes involving shortening of the forearc particularly affected the Western Series north of 35°S: 1. Expressions of strike-slip activity during Jurassic times involve local steepening of the originally flat S2-foliation planes, local rotation of the stretching lineation L2 into the N-S direction, tight upright folding

  2. Origami by frontal photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zeang; Wu, Jiangtao; Mu, Xiaoming; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H Jerry; Fang, Daining

    2017-04-01

    Origami structures are of great interest in microelectronics, soft actuators, mechanical metamaterials, and biomedical devices. Current methods of fabricating origami structures still have several limitations, such as complex material systems or tedious processing steps. We present a simple approach for creating three-dimensional (3D) origami structures by the frontal photopolymerization method, which can be easily implemented by using a commercial projector. The concept of our method is based on the volume shrinkage during photopolymerization. By adding photoabsorbers into the polymer resin, an attenuated light field is created and leads to a nonuniform curing along the thickness direction. The layer directly exposed to light cures faster than the next layer; this nonuniform curing degree leads to nonuniform curing-induced volume shrinkage. This further introduces a nonuniform stress field, which drives the film to bend toward the newly formed side. The degree of bending can be controlled by adjusting the gray scale and the irradiation time, an easy approach for creating origami structures. The behavior is examined both experimentally and theoretically. Two methods are also proposed to create different types of 3D origami structures.

  3. Brain Activity Stimulated by Prism Adaptation Tasks Utilized for the Treatment of Unilateral Spatial Neglect: A Study with fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Taniguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the neurological basis for efficacy of prism adaptation therapy, which is used for the treatment of poststroke unilateral spatial neglect (USN. Study subjects were 6 USN-positive (+, 6 USN-negative patients, and 6 healthy volunteer control subjects. USN was identified by the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT. During the tasks, brain activity was assessed with fNIRS via changes in oxyHb concentration per unit length. There was no significant difference in the number of errors in the task between the 3 groups. However, in the USN(+ group there was a significantly greater reduction in oxyHb levels in the right parietal association cortex during the prism adaptation task than in the other 2 groups (<0.05. There was an immediate improvement in USN symptoms as well as a significant increase in oxyHb levels during the prism adaptation in the channels covering the right frontal and parietal lobes in 2 patients in the USN(+ group (<0.05. This result suggested that decreased activity in the right parietal association cortex, which is related to spatial perception, during the prism adaptation task and task-induced reorganization of the right frontal and parietal areas were involved in improvement in USN symptoms.

  4. Dynamics of Earthquake Faulting in Subduction Zones: Inference from Pseudotachylytes and Ultracataclasites in an Ancient Accretionary Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ujiie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The fault rocks in ancient accretionary complexes exhumed from seismogenic depths may provide an invaluable opportunity to examine the mechanisms and mechanics of seismic slip in subduction thrusts and splay faults. In order to understand the dynamics of earthquake faulting in subduction zones, we analyzed pseudotachylytes and ultracataclasites from the Shimanto accretionary complex in southwest Japan. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.s01.21.2007

  5. Interaction between hydrocarbon seepage, chemosynthetic communities, and bottom water redox at cold seeps of the Makran accretionary prism: insights from habitat-specific pore water sampling and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fischer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between fluid seepage, bottom water redox, and chemosynthetic communities was studied at cold seeps across one of the world's largest oxygen minimum zones (OMZ located at the Makran convergent continental margin. Push cores were obtained from seeps within and below the core-OMZ with a remotely operated vehicle. Extracted sediment pore water was analyzed for sulfide and sulfate concentrations. Depending on oxygen availability in the bottom water, seeps were either colonized by microbial mats or by mats and macrofauna. The latter, including ampharetid polychaetes and vesicomyid clams, occurred in distinct benthic habitats, which were arranged in a concentric fashion around gas orifices. At most sites colonized by microbial mats, hydrogen sulfide was exported into the bottom water. Where macrofauna was widely abundant, hydrogen sulfide was retained within the sediment.

    Numerical modeling of pore water profiles was performed in order to assess rates of fluid advection and bioirrigation. While the magnitude of upward fluid flow decreased from 11 cm yr−1 to <1 cm yr−1 and the sulfate/methane transition (SMT deepened with increasing distance from the central gas orifice, the fluxes of sulfate into the SMT did not significantly differ (6.6–9.3 mol m−2 yr−1. Depth-integrated rates of bioirrigation increased from 120 cm yr−1 in the central habitat, characterized by microbial mats and sparse macrofauna, to 297 cm yr−1 in the habitat of large and few small vesicomyid clams. These results reveal that chemosynthetic macrofauna inhabiting the outer seep habitats below the core-OMZ efficiently bioirrigate and thus transport sulfate down into the upper 10 to 15 cm of the sediment. In this way the animals deal with the lower upward flux of methane in outer habitats by stimulating rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM with sulfate high enough to provide hydrogen sulfide for chemosynthesis. Through bioirrigation, macrofauna engineer their geochemical environment and fuel upward sulfide flux via AOM. Furthermore, due to the introduction of oxygenated bottom water into the sediment via bioirrigation, the depth of the sulfide sink gradually deepens towards outer habitats. We therefore suggest that – in addition to the oxygen levels in the water column, which determine whether macrofaunal communities can develop or not – it is the depth of the SMT and thus of sulfide production that determines which chemosynthetic communities are able to exploit the sulfide at depth. We hypothesize that large vesicomyid clams, by efficiently expanding the sulfate zone down into the sediment, could cut off smaller or less mobile organisms, as e.g. small clams and sulfur bacteria, from the sulfide source.

  6. Lithological discrimination of accretionary complex (Sivas, northern Turkey) using novel hybrid color composites and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Mutlu; Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Özyavaş, Aziz

    2018-02-01

    One of the most appropriate approaches to better understand and interpret geologic evolution of an accretionary complex is to make a detailed geologic map. The fact that ophiolite sequences consist of various rock types may require a unique image processing method to map each ophiolite body. The accretionary complex in the study area is composed mainly of ophiolitic and metamorphic rocks along with epi-ophiolitic sedimentary rocks. This paper attempts to map the Late Cretaceous accretionary complex in detail in northern Sivas (within İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone in Turkey) by the analysis of all of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) bands and field study. The new two hybrid color composite images yield satisfactory results in delineating peridotite, gabbro, basalt, and epi-ophiolitic sedimentary rocks of the accretionary complex in the study area. While the first hybrid color composite image consists of one principle component (PC) and two band ratios (PC1, 3/4, 4/6 in the RGB), the PC5, the original ASTER band 4 and the 3/4 band ratio images were assigned to the RGB colors to generate the second hybrid color composite image. In addition to that, the spectral indices derived from the ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) bands discriminate clearly ultramafic, siliceous, and carbonate rocks from adjacent lithologies at a regional scale. Peridotites with varying degrees of serpentinization illustrated as a single color were best identified in the spectral indices map. Furthermore, the boundaries of ophiolitic rocks based on fieldwork were outlined in detail in some parts of the study area by superimposing the resultant maps of ASTER maps on Google Earth images of finer spatial resolution. Eventually, the encouraging geologic map generated by the image analysis of ASTER data strongly correlates with lithological boundaries from a field survey.

  7. Modeling laser brightness from cross Porro prism resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew; Burger, Liesl; Litvin, Igor Anatolievich

    2006-08-01

    Laser brightness is a parameter often used to compare high power laser beam delivery from various sources, and incorporates both the power contained in the particular mode, as well as the propagation of that mode through the beam quality factor, M2. In this study a cross Porro prism resonator is considered; crossed Porro prism resonators have been known for some time, but until recently have not been modeled as a complete physical optics system that allows the modal output to be determined as a function of the rotation angle of the prisms. In this paper we consider the diffraction losses as a function of the prism rotation angle relative to one another, and combine this with the propagation of the specific modes to determine the laser output brightness as a function of the prism orientation.

  8. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Joseph Maclean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prism adaptation (PA is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN – a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuo-motor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuo-motor aftereffect has been used to study visuo-motor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided space. In order to optimize PA’s use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch, then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late. Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an early error-related negativity (ERN, and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  9. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Stephane J; Hassall, Cameron D; Ishigami, Yoko; Krigolson, Olav E; Eskes, Gail A

    2015-01-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN)-a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuomotor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuomotor aftereffect has been used to study visuomotor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided) space. In order to optimize PA's use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch), then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss) and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late). Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an error-related negativity (ERN), and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  10. Distance 2-Domination in Prisms of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Ferran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A set of vertices D of a graph G is a distance 2-dominating set of G if the distance between each vertex u ∊ (V (G − D and D is at most two. Let γ2(G denote the size of a smallest distance 2-dominating set of G. For any permutation π of the vertex set of G, the prism of G with respect to π is the graph πG obtained from G and a copy G′ of G by joining u ∊ V(G with v′ ∊ V(G′ if and only if v′ = π(u. If γ2(πG = γ2(G for any permutation π of V(G, then G is called a universal γ2-fixer. In this work we characterize the cycles and paths that are universal γ2-fixers.

  11. PENGUKURAN KINERJA UMKM MENGGUNAKAN PERFORMANCE PRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Agelina Purnomo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available UMKM XYZ merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang pengolahan keripik buah nangka. Pada proses observasi langsung di lapangan, perusahaan mempunyai masalah dalam melakukan pengukuran kinerja. Pengukuran kinerja yang dilakukan hanya berdasarkan Net Profit Margin (rasio laba bersih dibandingkan dengan pendapatan tiap tahunnya. Pengukuran yang dilakukan oleh perusahaan tidak cukup representatif menilai kinerja perusahaan secara keseluruhan. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan alat ukur kinerja yang tepat dan fleksibel, yaitu dengan metode Performance Prism. Proses penentuan Key Performance Indicator (KPI kinerja berdasarkan persetujuan dari pihak manajer perusahaan. Dengan periode dasar (tahun 2015 didapatkan hasil bahwa terdapat 25 Key Performance Indicator yang terdiri dari: 2 KPI Investor, 8 KPI Konsumen, 4 KPI Suplier, 6 KPI Karyawan, dan 5 KPI Masyarakat Sekitar dengan nilai total kinerja keseluruhan sebagai pembanding dengan periode pengukuran adalah 2,232 (kategori cukup sehingga perlu ditingkatkan lagi pada periode selanjutnya berdasarkan saran-saran pada periode dasar.

  12. PRISM: Enmeshment of illness and self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Fiona; Sharpe, Louise; Schrieber, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) is a recently developed tool purported to assess burden of suffering due to illness. The nature of the PRISM task suggests a conceptual link to the illness self-schema construct hypothesised to be present in some individuals with chronic illness. This study investigates the relationship between PRISM and schema as measured by cognitive bias. 43 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) completed an information-processing task involving endorsement of positive and negative illness words as descriptors of themselves, followed by free recall of the words. The outcome measures were endorsement and recall bias for negative illness words. Patients also completed the PRISM task and were assessed on other physical and psychological variables. PRISM did not correlate significantly with age, depression, functional impairment or disease activity. In a multiple regression analysis, only recall bias made an independent contribution to PRISM. Illness self-schema appears to play a significant role in determining the way in which SLE patients complete the PRISM task. This is discussed in light of a schema enmeshment model recently proposed in the cognitive bias literature. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Spatial compression impairs prism-adaptation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Scriven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviours, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control processes in prism-adaptation may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced strategic control might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because a the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or b pathologically increased error detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether strategic control and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard prism adaptation. Each participant completed three prism-adaptation procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During prism-adaptation, visual-feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced strategic control and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms.

  14. Accuracy assessment of ALOS optical instruments: PRISM and AVNIR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadono, Takeo; Shimada, Masanobu; Iwata, Takanori; Takaku, Junichi; Kawamoto, Sachi

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the updated results of calibration and validation to assess the accuracies for optical instruments onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi"), which was successfully launched on January 24th, 2006 and it is continuously operating very well. ALOS has an L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar called PALSAR and two optical instruments i.e. the Panchromatic Remotesensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type-2 (AVNIR-2). PRISM consists of three radiometers and is used to derive a digital surface model (DSM) with high spatial resolution that is an objective of the ALOS mission. Therefore, geometric calibration is important in generating a precise DSM with stereo pair images of PRISM. AVNIR-2 has four radiometric bands from blue to near infrared and uses for regional environment and disaster monitoring etc. The radiometric calibration and image quality evaluation are also important for AVNIR-2 as well as PRISM. This paper describes updated results of geometric calibration including geolocation determination accuracy evaluations of PRISM and AVNIR-2, image quality evaluation of PRISM, and validation of generated PRISM DSM. These works will be done during the ALOS mission life as an operational calibration to keep absolute accuracies of the standard products.

  15. Plant Reliability - an Integrated System for Management (PR-ISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aukeman, M.C.; Leininger, E.G.; Carr, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Toledo Edison Company, located in Toledo, Ohio, United States of America, recently implemented a comprehensive maintenance management information system for the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station. The system is called PR-ISM, meaning Plant Reliability - An Integrated System for Management. PR-ISM provides the tools needed by station management to effectively plan and control maintenance and other plant activities. The PR-ISM system as it exists today consists of four integrated computer applications: equipment data base maintenance, maintenance work order control, administrative activity tracking, and technical specification compliance. PR-ISM is designed as an integrated on-line system and incorporates strong human factors features. PR-ISM provides each responsible person information to do his job on a daily basis and to look ahead towards future events. It goes beyond 'after the fact' reporting. In this respect, PR-ISM is an 'interactive' control system which: captures work requirements and commitments as they are identified, provides accurate and up-to-date status immediately to those who need it, simplifies paperwork and reduces the associated time delays, provides the information base for work management and reliability analysis, and improves productivity by replacing clerical tasks and consolidating maintenance activities. The functional and technical features of PR-ISM, the experience of Toledo Edison during the first year of operation, and the factors which led to the success of the development project are highlighted. (author)

  16. Dynamic changes in brain activity during prism adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jacques; Schwartz, Sophie; Rossetti, Yves; Spiridon, Mona; Rode, Gilles; Boisson, Dominique; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-01-07

    Prism adaptation does not only induce short-term sensorimotor plasticity, but also longer-term reorganization in the neural representation of space. We used event-related fMRI to study dynamic changes in brain activity during both early and prolonged exposure to visual prisms. Participants performed a pointing task before, during, and after prism exposure. Measures of trial-by-trial pointing errors and corrections allowed parametric analyses of brain activity as a function of performance. We show that during the earliest phase of prism exposure, anterior intraparietal sulcus was primarily implicated in error detection, whereas parieto-occipital sulcus was implicated in error correction. Cerebellum activity showed progressive increases during prism exposure, in accordance with a key role for spatial realignment. This time course further suggests that the cerebellum might promote neural changes in superior temporal cortex, which was selectively activated during the later phase of prism exposure and could mediate the effects of prism adaptation on cognitive spatial representations.

  17. The IMM Frontal Face Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set consisting of 120 annotated monocular images of 12 different frontal human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the data set can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given...

  18. Frontal assessment battery and frontal atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tatsuhiro; Miyata, Jun; Obi, Tomokazu; Kubota, Manabu; Yoshizumi, Miho; Yamazaki, Kinya; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Murai, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine the potential utility of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) in assessing cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the association between the FAB score and regional gray matter volume, and ascertained whether the regional brain alterations related to cognitive impairments occur in relatively mild stage of ALS. Materials and Methods Twenty?four ALS patients with a Mini?Mental State Examination score of >23, a normal score ...

  19. Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tiansi

    2012-01-01

    Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...

  20. Strongly-Refractive One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal prisms can separate a beam of polychromatic electromagnetic waves into constituent wavelength components and can utilize unconventional refraction properties for wavelength dispersion over significant portions of an entire photonic band rather than just near the band edges outside the photonic band gaps. Using a ID photonic crystal simplifies the design and fabrication process and allows the use of larger feature sizes. The prism geometry broadens the useful wavelength range, enables better optical transmission, and exhibits angular dependence on wavelength with reduced non-linearity. The properties of the 1 D photonic crystal prism can be tuned by varying design parameters such as incidence angle, exit surface angle, and layer widths. The ID photonic crystal prism can be fabricated in a planar process, and can be used as optical integrated circuit elements.

  1. Negative index effects from a homogeneous positive index prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sherman W.; Epstein, Ariel

    2017-12-01

    Cellular structured negative index metamaterials in the form of a right triangular prism have often been tested by observing the refraction of a beam across the prism hypotenuse which is serrated in order to conform to the cell walls. We show that not only can this negative index effect be obtained from a homogeneous dielectric prism having a positive index of refraction, but in addition, for sampling at the walls of the cellular structure, the phase in the material has the illusory appearance of moving in a negative direction. Although many previous reports relied on refraction direction and phase velocity of prism structures to verify negative index design, our investigation indicates that to unambiguously demonstrate material negativity additional empirical evidence is required.

  2. MEGARA Optics: stain removal in PBM2Y prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre-Aguirre, D; Izazaga-Pérez, R; Carrasco, E; Villalobos-Mendoza, B; De Paz, A Gil; Gallego, J; Iglesias, J

    2017-01-01

    MEGARA is the new integral-field and multi-object optical spectrograph for the GTC. For medium and high resolution, the dispersive elements are volume phase holographic gratings, sandwiched between two flat windows and two prisms of high optical precision. The prisms are made of Ohara PBM2Y optical glass. After the prisms polishing process, some stains appeared on the surfaces. For this, in this work is shown the comparative study of five different products (muriatic acid, paint remover, sodium hydroxide, aqua regia and rare earth liquid polish) used for trying to eliminate the stains of the HR MEGARA prisms. It was found that by polishing with the hands the affected area, and using a towel like a kind of pad, and polish during five minutes using rare earth, the stains disappear completely affecting only a 5% the rms of the surface quality. Not so the use of the other products that did not show any apparent result. (paper)

  3. Metamorphic complexes in accretionary orogens: Insights from the Beishan collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Yang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The sources of ancient zircons and the tectonic attributions and origins of metamorphic complexes in Phanerozoic accretionary orogens have long been difficult issues. Situated between the Tianshan and Inner Mongolia orogens, the Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) plays a pivotal role in understanding the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), particularly the extensive metamorphic and high-strained complexes on the southern margin. Despite their importance in understanding the basic architecture of the southern CAOB, little consensus has been reached on their ages and origins. Our new structural, LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Baidunzi, Shibandun, Qiaowan and Wutongjing metamorphic complexes resolve current controversial relations. The metamorphic complexes have varied lithologies and structures. Detrital zircons from five para-metamorphic rocks yield predominantly Phanerozoic ages with single major peaks at ca. 276 Ma, 286 Ma, 427 Ma, 428 Ma and 461 Ma. Two orthogneisses have weighted mean ages of 294 ± 2 Ma and 304 ± 2 Ma with no Precambrian inherited zircons. Most Phanerozoic zircons show positive εHf(t) values indicating significant crustal growth in the Ordovician, Silurian and Permian. The imbricated fold-thrust deformation style combined with diagnostic zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the metamorphic rocks developed in a subduction-accretion setting on an arc or active continental margin. This setting and conclusion are supported by the nearby occurrence of Ordovician-Silurian adakites, Nb-rich basalts, Carboniferous-Permian ophiolitic mélanges, and trench-type turbidites. Current data do not support the presence of a widespread Precambrian basement in the evolution of the BOC; the accretionary processes may have continued to the early Permian in this part of the CAOB. These relationships have meaningful implications for the interpretation of the tectonic attributions and origins of other

  4. Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Igor A.; Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    A model to describe the transverse field distribution of the output beam from porro prism resonators is proposed. The model allows the prediction of the output transverse field distribution by assuming that the main areas of loss are located at the apexes of the porro prisms. Experimental work on a particular system showed some interested correlations between the time domain behavior of the resonator and the transverse field output. These findings are presented and discussed.

  5. Beam pointing direction changes in a misaligned Porro prism resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jyh-Fa; Leung, Chung-Yee

    1988-07-01

    The relative change of the beam pointing direction for a misaligned Porro prism resonator has been analyzed, using an oscillation axis concept for the Porro prism resonator to find the beam direction. Expressions for the beam tilting angles are presented which show that the angular misalignment in the horizontal direction will result in beam tilting in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is found.

  6. The modular ALMR (PRISM) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The modular reactor concept, PRISM (power reactor, innovative, small module), originated by General Electric in conjunction with the integral fast reactor (IFR) metal fuel being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is the reference US Department of Energy advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR). The reference ALMR is unique in several ways; for example, it can produce (or breed) substantially more fissile material than it consumes. It is also unique in that it has the capability to utilize as fuel the long-life radioactive actinides (primarily plutonium, and the minor actinides, neptunium, americium, and curium) present as waste in light water reactor (LWR) spent fuels. This capability provides a means for converting long-life actinide radioactive wastes to elements whose lifetimes and thus storage needs are much shorter, namely, hundreds of years. This could clearly focus and potentially alleviate a controversial aspect (waste disposal) of the nuclear option. While it does not change the need for, or timing of, an initial high-level waste (HLW) repository, the conversion of actinides could change in a dramatic way the time period required for safe storage of nuclear waste and potentially the number and criteria for future repositories. This work considers the potential for utilizing LWR actinides in the ALMR fuel cycle

  7. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Meuleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB by using the Control Test Master (CTM, the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC, quality flagging (QF and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF, and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b helping the understanding of the Earth’s complex mechanisms.

  8. Frontal fibrosing alopecia treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Raymond; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-11-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a rare dermatologic disease that causes scarring and hair loss and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. FFA patients typically present with hair loss in the frontal scalp region and eyebrows which may be associated with sensations of itching or burning. FFA is a clinically distinct variant of lichen planopilaris (LPP) that affects predominantly postmenopausal women, although men and premenopausal women may also be affected. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are necessary to prevent definitive scarring and permanent hair loss. Data from retrospective studies indicate that 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5aRIs) are effective in stabilizing the disease. In our clinical experience, we have seen optimal results treating FFA patients with oral finasteride in conjunction with hydroxychloroquine, topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus) and excimer laser in patients with signs of active inflammation.

  9. Forearc Basin Stratigraphy and Interactions With Accretionary Wedge Growth According to the Critical Taper Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Forearc basins are important constituents of sediment traps along subduction zones; the basin stratigraphy records various events that the basin experienced. Although the linkage between basin formation and accretionary wedge growth suggests that mass balance exerts a key control on their evolution, the interaction processes between basin and basement remain poorly understood. This study performed 2-D numerical simulations in which basin stratigraphy was controlled by changes in sediment fluxes with accretionary wedge growth according to the critical taper concept. The resultant stratigraphy depended on the degree of filling (i.e., whether the basin was underfilled or overfilled) and the volume balance between the sediment flux supplied to the basin from the hinterland and the accommodation space in the basin. The trenchward progradation of deposition with onlapping contacts on the trenchside basin floor occurred during the underfilled phase, which formed a wedge-shaped sedimentary unit. In contrast, the landward migration of the depocenter, with the tilting of strata, was characteristic for the overfilled phase. Condensed sections marked stratigraphic boundaries, indicating when sediment supply or accommodation space was limited. The accommodation-limited intervals could have formed during the end of wedge uplift or when the taper angle decreased and possibly associated with the development of submarine canyons as conduits for bypassing sediments from the hinterland. Variations in sediment fluxes and their balance exerted a strong influence on the stratigraphic patterns in forearc basins. Assessing basin stratigraphy could be a key to evaluating how subduction zones evolve through their interactions with changing surface processes.

  10. The response to prism deviations in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, P M; Horwood, A M; Houston, S M; Turner, J E

    1999-09-23

    Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors [2]. This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported [1] when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities [3]. According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only) [4] [5], predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results [6], discounts previous hypotheses.

  11. PRISM, Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion Data Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Jones, J. M.; Stephens, C. D.; Ng, P.

    2016-12-01

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the U.S., calls for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records by providing batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform-independent (coded in Java), open-source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a graphical user interface (GUI) for manual review and processing. To facilitate the use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and GUI components) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. Input to PRISM currently is limited to data files in the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) V0 format, so that all retrieved acceleration time series need to be converted to this format. Output products include COSMOS V1, V2 and V3 files as: (i) raw acceleration time series in physical units with mean removed (V1), (ii) baseline-corrected and filtered acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series (V2), and (iii) response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra and common earthquake-engineering intensity measures (V3). A thorough description of the record processing features supported by PRISM is presented with examples and validation results. All computing features have been

  12. Simulated Prism Therapy in Virtual Reality produces larger after-effects than standard prism exposure in normal healthy subject - Implications for Neglect Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality is an important area of exploration within computer-based cognitive rehabilitation of visual neglect. Virtual reality will allow for closer monitoring of patient behaviour during prism adaptation therapy and perhaps change the way we induce prismatic after......-effects. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effect of two different prism simulation conditions in virtual reality to a standard exposure to prism goggles after one session of Prism Adaptation Therapy in healthy subjects. METHOD: 20 healthy subjects were subjected to one session of prism adaptation therapy under...... training for rehabilitation of hemi spatial attentional deficits such as visual neglect....

  13. Containment performance of S-prism under severe BDB conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.E.; Dubberley, A.E.; Hui, M.; Iwashige, K.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. Based on the success of the previous DOE sponsored Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program GE has continued to develop and assess the technical viability and economic potential of an up-rated modular Fast Reactor called Super PRISM (S-PRISM). S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. An additional feature of S-PRISM involves the use an innovative containment system that reduces the required design basis containment pressure by a factor of two through the use of a controlled venting system. The performance of this innovative containment system is evaluated and described in this paper. (author)

  14. Prism-based single-camera system for stereo display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cui, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Hongsheng; Fan, Heyu; Wu, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    This paper combines the prism and single camera and puts forward a method of stereo imaging with low cost. First of all, according to the principle of geometrical optics, we can deduce the relationship between the prism single-camera system and dual-camera system, and according to the principle of binocular vision we can deduce the relationship between binoculars and dual camera. Thus we can establish the relationship between the prism single-camera system and binoculars and get the positional relation of prism, camera, and object with the best effect of stereo display. Finally, using the active shutter stereo glasses of NVIDIA Company, we can realize the three-dimensional (3-D) display of the object. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can make use of the prism single-camera system to simulate the various observation manners of eyes. The stereo imaging system, which is designed by the method proposed by this paper, can restore the 3-D shape of the object being photographed factually.

  15. The Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, J.; Andres, B.; Brown, S.; Donaldson, G.; Harrington, B.; Johnston, V.; Jones, S.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Skagen, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). PRISM is being implemented by a Canada-United States Shorebird Monitoring and Assessment Committee formed in 2001 by the Canadian Shorebird Working Group and the U.S. Shorebird Council. PRISM provides a single blueprint for implementing the shorebird conservation plans recently completed in Canada and the United States. The goals of PRISM are to (1) estimate the size of breeding population of 74 shorebird taxa in North America; (2) describe the distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships for each of these taxa; (3) monitor trends in shorebird population size; (4) monitor shorebird numbers at stopover locations, and; (5) assist local managers in meeting their shorebird conservation goals. PRISM has four main components: arctic and boreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding surveys, temperate non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys. Progress on, and action items for, each major component are described. The more important major tasks for immediate action are carrying out the northern surveys, conducting regional analyses to design the program of migration counts, and evaluating aerial photographic surveys for migration and winter counts.

  16. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  17. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  18. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  19. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Right-Angle Prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A right-angle prism was used to enhance the acoustic signal of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS system. The incident laser beam was parallelly inverted by the right-angle prism and passed through the gap between two tuning fork prongs again to produce another acoustic excitation. Correspondingly, two pairs of rigid metal tubes were used as acoustic resonators with resonance enhancement factors of 16 and 12, respectively. The QEPAS signal was enhanced by a factor of 22.4 compared with the original signal, which was acquired without resonators or a prism. In addition, the system noise was reduced a little with double resonators due to the Q factor decrease. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was greatly improved. Additionally, a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA of 5.8 × 10−8 W·cm−1·Hz−1/2 was achieved for water vapor detection in the atmosphere.

  20. PRISM: An innovative liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, G.B.; Boardman, C.E.; Olich, E.E.; Switick, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative sodium-cooled reactor concept employing small certified reactor modules coupled with a standardized steam generator system. The total plant employs nine PRISM reactors (power reactor inherently safe module) in three 415 MWe power blocks. The PRISM design concept utilizes inherent safety characteristics and modularity to improve licensability, reduce owner's risk, and reduce costs. The relatively small size of each reactor module facilitates the use of passive, inherent self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features, which permit design simplification and reduction of safety-related systems. It is proposed that a single PRISM module be used in a full-scale integrated reactor safety test. Results from the test would be used to obtain NRC certification of the standard design

  1. Intricacies of Feedback in Computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method for treatment of attentional disorders, such as neglect e.g. 1,2. The method involves repeated pointing at specified targets with or without prism glasses using a specifically designed wooden box. The aim of this study was to ascertain...... whether the PAT method can be executed with similar effect using a computer with a touch screen.   62 healthy subjects were subjected to two experimental conditions: 1) pointing out at targets using the original box, 2) pointing out at targets on a computer attached touch screen. In both conditions......, the subjects performed a pre-test consisting of 30 targets without feedback, then an exposure-test of 90 targets with prism glasses and feedback, and finally a post-test of 60 targets, with no glasses and no feedback. Two experiments were carried out, 1) the feedback was provided by showing a cross...

  2. Cerebellar inactivation impairs memory of learned prism gaze-reach calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Scott A; Hathaway, Emily N; Taylor, Jordan A; Thach, W Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Three monkeys performed a visually guided reach-touch task with and without laterally displacing prisms. The prisms offset the normally aligned gaze/reach and subsequent touch. Naive monkeys showed adaptation, such that on repeated prism trials the gaze-reach angle widened and touches hit nearer the target. On the first subsequent no-prism trial the monkeys exhibited an aftereffect, such that the widened gaze-reach angle persisted and touches missed the target in the direction opposite that of initial prism-induced error. After 20-30 days of training, monkeys showed long-term learning and storage of the prism gaze-reach calibration: they switched between prism and no-prism and touched the target on the first trials without adaptation or aftereffect. Injections of lidocaine into posterolateral cerebellar cortex or muscimol or lidocaine into dentate nucleus temporarily inactivated these structures. Immediately after injections into cortex or dentate, reaches were displaced in the direction of prism-displaced gaze, but no-prism reaches were relatively unimpaired. There was little or no adaptation on the day of injection. On days after injection, there was no adaptation and both prism and no-prism reaches were horizontally, and often vertically, displaced. A single permanent lesion (kainic acid) in the lateral dentate nucleus of one monkey immediately impaired only the learned prism gaze-reach calibration and in subsequent days disrupted both learning and performance. This effect persisted for the 18 days of observation, with little or no adaptation.

  3. Cyclicity, episodicity, and continuity in accretionary wedge evolution: insights from geophysical imaging and physical analogue experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, N.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical profiles across active convergent margins reveal different styles and locations of sediment accretion, thrust slices dipping successively steeper towards the hinterland, splay faults, and blind thrusts as well as accumulation spaces e. g. thrust top basins and larger basins formed by regional subsidence, of very variable size and position. Morphologically, the continental slope at most margins can be sub-divided in a lower, middle, and upper slope, with often the middle slope being the most shallowly inclined, suggesting segmented wedges. Beneath the forearc, a subduction channel of a few hundred meters to a few km thickness marks a layer of material transport into greater depth that also hosts the plate interface and décollement zone. The petrographical composition of accretionary wedges and subduction channels as well as related pressures and temperatures are accessible through deep drilling or sampling fossil accretionary complexes now exhumed. The structure, lithology, and tectonic history of forearcs as identified from geophysical and geology field observations hint to parameters possibly controlling material transfer at convergent margins. Among them, sediment supply, which itself is largely controlled by climate, width of the subduction channel, and interplate frictional properties, which also exhibit control on plate coupling and therefore the seismic potential of a forearc, are suggested to be of major importance. These parameters further may undergo temporal fluctuation, e.g. when climate changes or when different material is entering the trench and therefore potentially also the subduction channel. High resolution monitoring of material flux and the evolution of fault zone kinematics of analogue experimental wedges made of granular materials exhibiting frictional behaviour equivalent to that of upper crustal rocks shows that accretionary cycles proceed as a chain of sub-processes, i.e. the development of a thrust slice from initial failure

  4. Modeling laser brightness from cross porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available , independent of the angle of incidence. Thus an initial planar wavefront remains planar after reflection. This property was initially exploited in Michelson interferometers to relax the tolerances on mis-alignment, and then proposed in 1962 by Gould et al1... 20 25 30 35 0 20 40 60 80 100 Prism Angle (Degrees) Nu mb er o f P et als divisions. These relationships lead to the following equation for the allowed angles of rotation of the prism edges relative to one another for repeatability...

  5. Petal–like modes in Porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available , and then proposed in 1962 by Gould et al [1] as a means to overcome misalignment problems in optical resonators employing Fabry–Perot cavities by replacing the end face mirrors with crossed roof prisms. Lasers based on this principle have been developed over... of America OCIS codes: (140.4780) Optical resonators; (260.0260) Physical optics; (140.3410) Laser resonators; (230.5480) Prisms; (140.0140) Lasers and laser optics References and links 1. G. Gould, S. Jacobs, P. Rabinowitz and T. Shultz, “Crossed Roof...

  6. Assessment of prism responses to loss of flow events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Sands, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), with Brookhaven national Laboratory providing technical support, is continuing a preapplication review of the 471 MWt, advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), PRISM by General Electric. The revised design has been evaluated using the SSC code, for a series of loss of flow events (LOF) with and without gas expansion modules (GEMs). These devices have a net worth of 69 cents and have reduced the seriousness of the LOF in PRISM. However, it was found that the extremely low probability case of an instantaneous loss of 4 EM pumps without scram could lead to sodium boiling even with the GEMs

  7. Anomalous refraction of light colors by a metamaterial prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mário G

    2009-05-15

    A prism of glass separates white light into its spectral components in such a manner that colors associated with shorter wavelengths are more refracted than the colors associated with longer wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate that this property is not universal, and that a lossless metamaterial prism with a suitable microstructure may enable a broadband regime of anomalous dispersion, where the spectral components of light are separated in an unconventional way, so that "violet light" is less refracted than "red light." This phenomenon is fundamentally different from conventional anomalous dispersion effects, which are invariably accompanied by significant loss and are typically very narrow band.

  8. Characteristics of Fluid Force Reduction for Two Different Square Prisms in a Tandem Arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Ki Deok; Kang, Chang Whan; Park, Kwon Ho [Gyeongsang Nat’l Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The Characteristics of the flow fields of a square prism having a small square prism were investigated by measuring of lift and drag on the square prism and visualizing the flow field using PIV. The experimental parameters were the width ratios(H/B=0.2~0.6) of small square prisms to the prism width and the gap ratios (G/B=0~3) between the prism and the small square prism. The drag reduction rate of the square prism initially increased and then decreased with the G/B ratio for the same H/B ratio, and increased with the H/B ratio for the same G/B ratio. The maximum drag reduction rate of 98.0% was observed at H/B=0.6 and G/B=1.0. The lift reduction rate of the square prism was not affected by the width and gap ratios; the total average value was approximately 66.5%. In case of a square prism having a small square prism, the stagnation regions were represented in the upstream and downstream sides of the square prism.

  9. An assessment of the Crossed Porro Prism Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, B. A.; Fueloep, K.; Seymour, R.

    1980-08-01

    Lasers with crossed porro prism resonators for military laser rangefinder and designator applications are studied. Properties of these devices are reviewed and advantages over normal mirror resonators are examined. The theory of operating is treated and the mechanical stability and other features of the laser are examined and compared to standard mirror resonators.

  10. Stress effects in prism coupling measurements of thin polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agan, S.; Ay, F.; Kocabas, A.; Aydinli, A.

    Due to the increasingly important role of some polymers in optical waveguide technologies, precise measurement of their optical properties has become important. Typically, prism coupling to slab waveguides made of materials of interest is used to measure the relevant optical parameters. However,

  11. Experience with basal area estimation by prisms in lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe

    1957-01-01

    Estimation of basal area by prisms offers intriguing possibilities for reducing time and effort in making stand inventories. Increased inventory efficiency is a particular need in stands that are relatively low in value due to small stems, predominance of low value species or heavy defect. In the Pacific Northwest, lodgepole pine characteristically forms dense low-...

  12. A new ASE filter: the 20-fold prism monochromator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Freriks, J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    1999-01-01

    A new ASE filter is presented, consisting of 20 dispersion prisms and two spatial filters. The transmission of the filter is measured with a ring-dye laser. The 1 width of the filter is 0.23 nm. The transmission is approximately 80% for the transmitted wavelengths. The rejection is in the order of .

  13. Prism adaptation for spatial neglect after stroke: translational practice gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A M; Goedert, Kelly M; Basso, Julia C

    2012-10-01

    Spatial neglect increases hospital morbidity and costs in around 50% of the 795,000 people per year in the USA who survive stroke, and an urgent need exists to reduce the care burden of this condition. However, effective acute treatment for neglect has been elusive. In this article, we review 48 studies of a treatment of intense neuroscience interest: prism adaptation training. Due to its effects on spatial motor 'aiming', prism adaptation training may act to reduce neglect-related disability. However, research failed, first, to suggest methods to identify the 50-75% of patients who respond to treatment; second, to measure short-term and long-term outcomes in both mechanism-specific and functionally valid ways; third, to confirm treatment utility during the critical first 8 weeks poststroke; and last, to base treatment protocols on systematic dose-response data. Thus, considerable investment in prism adaptation research has not yet touched the fundamentals needed for clinical implementation. We suggest improved standards and better spatial motor models for further research, so as to clarify when, how and for whom prism adaptation should be applied.

  14. Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean

  15. THz Photonic Band-Gap Prisms Fabricated by Fiber Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Xu, Lipeng; Stecher, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We suggest a novel form of polymeric based 3D photonic crystal prisms for THz frequencies which could be fabricated using a standard fiber drawing technique. The structures are modeled and designed using a finite element analyzing technique. Using this simulation software we theoretically study...

  16. Design of airborne imaging spectrometer based on curved prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Xiangli, Bin; Zhou, Jinsong; Wei, Xiaoxiao

    2011-11-01

    A novel moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer spreading from visible wavelength to near infrared wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, which combines curved prisms with the Offner configuration, is introduced. Compared to conventional imaging spectrometers based on dispersive prism or diffractive grating, this design possesses characteristics of small size, compact structure, low mass as well as little spectral line curve (smile) and spectral band curve (keystone or frown). Besides, the usage of compound curved prisms with two or more different materials can greatly reduce the nonlinearity inevitably brought by prismatic dispersion. The utilization ratio of light radiation is much higher than imaging spectrometer of the same type based on combination of diffractive grating and concentric optics. In this paper, the Seidel aberration theory of curved prism and the optical principles of Offner configuration are illuminated firstly. Then the optical design layout of the spectrometer is presented, and the performance evaluation of this design, including spot diagram and MTF, is analyzed. To step further, several types of telescope matching this system are provided. This work provides an innovational perspective upon optical system design of airborne spectral imagers; therefore, it can offer theoretic guide for imaging spectrometer of the same kind.

  17. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  18. Asymmetric Frontal Brain Activity and Parental Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, R.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tops, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts

  19. The frontal lobes and inhibitory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Seiki

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies using traditional tasks of inhibitory functions, such as the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and the Go/No-Go Task have revealed that the frontal lobe is responsible for several types of inhibitory functions. However, the detailed psychological nature of the inhibitory functions and the precise location of their critical foci within the frontal lobe remain to be investigated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides spatial and temporal resolution that allowed us to illuminate at least 4 frontal regions involved in inhibitory functions: the dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and rostral parts of the frontal lobe and the presupplementary motor area (preSMA). The ventrolateral part of the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere was activated during response inhibition. The preSMA in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition of proactive interference immediately after the dimension changes of the WCST. The rostral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition long after the dimension changes. The dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated at the dimension changes in the first time, but not in the second time. These findings provide clues to our understanding of functional differentiation of inhibitory functions and their localization in the frontal lobe. (author)

  20. Superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism for neutron spin encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F., E-mail: fankli@indiana.edu; Parnell, S. R.; Wang, T.; Baxter, D. V. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Hamilton, W. A. [Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Maranville, B. B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Semerad, R. [Ceraco Ceramic Coating GmbH, Ismaning 85737 (Germany); Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi Technology Inc., Redwood City, California 94063 (United States); Pynn, R. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    A magnetic Wollaston prism can spatially split a polarized neutron beam into two beams with different neutron spin states, in a manner analogous to an optical Wollaston prism. Such a Wollaston prism can be used to encode the trajectory of neutrons into the Larmor phase associated with their spin degree of freedom. This encoding can be used for neutron phase-contrast radiography and in spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME). In this paper, we show that magnetic Wollaston prisms with highly uniform magnetic fields and low Larmor phase aberration can be constructed to preserve neutron polarization using high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The Meissner effect of HTS films is used to confine magnetic fields produced electromagnetically by current-carrying HTS tape wound on suitably shaped soft iron pole pieces. The device is cooled to ∼30 K by a closed cycle refrigerator, eliminating the need to replenish liquid cryogens and greatly simplifying operation and maintenance. A HTS film ensures that the magnetic field transition within the prism is sharp, well-defined, and planar due to the Meissner effect. The spin transport efficiency across the device was measured to be ∼98.5% independent of neutron wavelength and energizing current. The position-dependent Larmor phase of neutron spins was measured at the NIST Center for Neutron Research facility and found to agree well with detailed simulations. The phase varies linearly with horizontal position, as required, and the neutron beam shows little depolarization. Consequently, the device has advantages over existing devices with similar functionality and provides the capability for a large neutron beam (20 mm × 30 mm) and an increase in length scales accessible to SESAME to beyond 10 μm. With further improvements of the external coupling guide field in the prototype device, a larger neutron beam could be employed.

  1. Superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism for neutron spin encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Parnell, S. R.; Hamilton, W. A.; Maranville, B. B.; Wang, T.; Semerad, R.; Baxter, D. V.; Cremer, J. T.; Pynn, R.

    2014-05-01

    A magnetic Wollaston prism can spatially split a polarized neutron beam into two beams with different neutron spin states, in a manner analogous to an optical Wollaston prism. Such a Wollaston prism can be used to encode the trajectory of neutrons into the Larmor phase associated with their spin degree of freedom. This encoding can be used for neutron phase-contrast radiography and in spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME). In this paper, we show that magnetic Wollaston prisms with highly uniform magnetic fields and low Larmor phase aberration can be constructed to preserve neutron polarization using high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The Meissner effect of HTS films is used to confine magnetic fields produced electromagnetically by current-carrying HTS tape wound on suitably shaped soft iron pole pieces. The device is cooled to ˜30 K by a closed cycle refrigerator, eliminating the need to replenish liquid cryogens and greatly simplifying operation and maintenance. A HTS film ensures that the magnetic field transition within the prism is sharp, well-defined, and planar due to the Meissner effect. The spin transport efficiency across the device was measured to be ˜98.5% independent of neutron wavelength and energizing current. The position-dependent Larmor phase of neutron spins was measured at the NIST Center for Neutron Research facility and found to agree well with detailed simulations. The phase varies linearly with horizontal position, as required, and the neutron beam shows little depolarization. Consequently, the device has advantages over existing devices with similar functionality and provides the capability for a large neutron beam (20 mm × 30 mm) and an increase in length scales accessible to SESAME to beyond 10 μm. With further improvements of the external coupling guide field in the prototype device, a larger neutron beam could be employed.

  2. An evaluation of factors influencing pore pressure in accretionary complexes: Implications for taper angle and wedge mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D.M.; Bekins, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    At many subduction zones, accretionary complexes form as sediment is off-scraped from the subducting plate. Mechanical models that treat accretionary complexes as critically tapered wedges of sediment demonstrate that pore pressure controls their taper angle by modifying basal and internal shear strength. Here, we combine a numerical model of groundwater flow with critical taper theory to quantify the effects of sediment and de??collement permeability, sediment thickness, sediment partitioning between accretion and underthrusting, and plate convergence rate on steady state pore pressure. Our results show that pore pressure in accretionary wedges can be viewed as a dynamically maintained response to factors which drive pore pressure (source terms) and those that limit flow (permeability and drainage path length). We find that sediment permeability and incoming sediment thickness are the most important factors, whereas fault permeability and the partitioning of sediment have a small effect. For our base case model scenario, as sediment permeability is increased, pore pressure decreases from near-lithostatic to hydrostatic values and allows stable taper angles to increase from ??? 2.5?? to 8??-12.5??. With increased sediment thickness in our models (from 100 to 8000 m), increased pore pressure drives a decrease in stable taper angle from 8.4??-12.5?? to 15?? to <4??) with increased sediment thickness (from <1 to 7 km). One key implication is that hydrologic properties may strongly influence the strength of the crust in a wide range of geologic settings. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. The effect of compliant prisms on subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Gabriel C.; Dunham, Eric M.; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Tobin, Harold J.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes generate tsunamis by coseismically deforming the seafloor, and that deformation is largely controlled by the shallow rupture process. Therefore, in order to better understand how earthquakes generate tsunamis, one must consider the material structure and frictional properties of the shallowest part of the subduction zone, where ruptures often encounter compliant sedimentary prisms. Compliant prisms have been associated with enhanced shallow slip, seafloor deformation, and tsunami heights, particularly in the context of tsunami earthquakes. To rigorously quantify the role compliant prisms play in generating tsunamis, we perform a series of numerical simulations that directly couple dynamic rupture on a dipping thrust fault to the elastodynamic response of the Earth and the acoustic response of the ocean. Gravity is included in our simulations in the context of a linearized Eulerian description of the ocean, which allows us to model tsunami generation and propagation, including dispersion and related nonhydrostatic effects. Our simulations span a three-dimensional parameter space of prism size, prism compliance, and sub-prism friction - specifically, the rate-and-state parameter b - a that determines velocity-weakening or velocity-strengthening behavior. We find that compliant prisms generally slow rupture velocity and, for larger prisms, generate tsunamis more efficiently than subduction zones without prisms. In most but not all cases, larger, more compliant prisms cause greater amounts of shallow slip and larger tsunamis. Furthermore, shallow friction is also quite important in determining overall slip; increasing sub-prism b - a enhances slip everywhere along the fault. Counterintuitively, we find that in simulations with large prisms and velocity-strengthening friction at the base of the prism, increasing prism compliance reduces rather than enhances shallow slip and tsunami wave height.

  4. Suffering Quantified? Feasibility and Psychometric Characteristics of 2 Revised Versions of the Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PhD Ad J.J.M. Vingerhoets; PhD Marjet G.B.G. Blokhorst; MSc Jolene L.M. Reimus; MSc Annemieke M.A. van Nunen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2008-01-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) assesses suffering. In this article, the authors explored the feasibility and psychometric qualities of 2 revised versions of the PRISM-PRISM-R1 and PRISM-R2-that they used in 3 studies of participants with different medical problems.

  5. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Horowitz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59% or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. RESULTS: Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%, mucocele (n = 27, 39%, fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%, and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%. Complications included skin infections (n = 6, postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1, telecanthus (n = 4, diplopia (n = 3, nasal deformity (n = 2 and epiphora (n = 1. None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Cranialization of the frontal sinus appears to be a good option for prevention of secondary mucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  6. Thermo-hydraulics of the Peruvian accretionary complex at 12°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, Nina; Pecher, Ingo

    1999-01-01

    Coupled heat and fluid transport at the Peruvian convergent margin at 12°S wasstudied with finite element modelling. Structural information was available from two seismicreflection lines. Heat production in the oceanic plate, the metamorphic basement, and sedimentswas estimated from literature. Porosity, permeability, and thermal conductivity for the modelswere partly available from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 112; otherwise we used empiricalrelations. Our models accounted for a possible permeability anisotropy. The decollement was bestmodelled as a highly permeable zone (10−13 m2). Permeabilities of thePeruvian accretionary wedge adopted from the model calculations fall within the range of 2 to7×10−16 m2 at the ocean bottom to a few 10−18 m2 at the base and need to be anisotropic. Fluid expulsion at the sea floor decreases graduallywith distance from the deformation front and is structure controlled. Small scale variations of heatflux reflected by fluctuations of BSR depths across major faults could be modelled assuming highpermeability in the faults which allow for efficient advective transport along those faults.

  7. Characteristic analysis of a polarization output coupling Porro prism resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailong; Meng, Junqing; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    An Electro-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser with a crossed misalignment Porro prism resonator for space applications has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The phase shift induced by the combination of different wave plates and Porro prism azimuth angles have been studied for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching. The relationship of the effective output coupling reflectivity and the employed Q-switch driving voltage is explored by using Jones matrix optics. In the experiment, the maximum output pulse energy of 93 mJ with 14-ns pulse duration is obtained at the repetition rate of 20 Hz and the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 16.8%. The beam quality factors are M 2 x = 2.5 and M 2y = 2.2, respectively.

  8. Train integrity detection risk analysis based on PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuan

    2018-04-01

    GNSS based Train Integrity Monitoring System (TIMS) is an effective and low-cost detection scheme for train integrity detection. However, as an external auxiliary system of CTCS, GNSS may be influenced by external environments, such as uncertainty of wireless communication channels, which may lead to the failure of communication and positioning. In order to guarantee the reliability and safety of train operation, a risk analysis method of train integrity detection based on PRISM is proposed in this article. First, we analyze the risk factors (in GNSS communication process and the on-board communication process) and model them. Then, we evaluate the performance of the model in PRISM based on the field data. Finally, we discuss how these risk factors influence the train integrity detection process.

  9. Transient safety performance of the PRISM innovative liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Rhow, S.K.; Wu, T.

    1988-01-01

    The PRISM sodium-cooled reactor concept utilizes passive safety characteristics and modularity to increase performance margins, improve licensability, reduce owner's risk and reduce costs. The relatively small size of each reactor module (471 MWt) facilitates the use of passive self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features, which permit design simplification and reduction of safety-related systems. Key to the transient performance is the inherent negative reactivity feedback characteristics of the core design resulting from the use of metal (U-Pu-Zr) swing, and very low control rod runout worth. Selected beyond design basis events relying only on these core design features are analyzed and the design margins summarized to demonstrate the advancement in reactor safety achieved with the PRISM design concept

  10. Optofluidic laser scanner based on a rotating liquid prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Daniel; Lehmann, Lukas; Zappe, Hans

    2016-03-20

    We demonstrate an electrowetting-actuated optofluidic system based on a rotatable liquid prism implemented as a two-dimensional laser scanner. The system is fabricated through a novel technology using a patterned flexible polymeric foil on which a high density of electrodes is structured and which is subsequently inserted into a cylindrical housing. The resulting radial electrode array is used for electrowetting actuation of two fluids filled into the cylinder, which allows a controllable tilt and orientation of the planar liquid interface and thus represents a tunable rotating prism. Finite element simulations and subsequent experimental verification show that this highly planar and precisely positionable liquid/liquid interface may be actuated to a deflection angle of ±6.4°, with a standard deviation of ±0.18°, and rotated 360° about the vertical axis. Power consumption is limited to several microwatts, and switching times of several hundred milliseconds were determined.

  11. Design of partially optically stable reflector systems and prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    The characteristics and design method of the total optically stable (TOS) reflector systems/prisms were introduced in an early paper (Tsai and Lin in Appl. Opt. 47:4158-4163, 2008), where only two types of TOS reflector system exist, namely preservation or retroreflection. In this paper, we introduce the partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, which is only optically stable about a specific directional vector; nevertheless, the exiting light ray is not restricted to preservation or retroreflection. The proposed paper also presents an analytic method for the design of POS reflector systems comprised of multiple reflectors. Furthermore, it is shown that a POS prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces with specific conditions at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system with multiple reflectors.

  12. Hyperbolic prisms and foams in Hele-Shaw cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tufaile, A.P.B. [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-03

    The propagation of light in foams creates patterns which are generated due to the reflection and refraction of light. One of these patterns is observed by the formation of multiple mirror images inside liquid bridges in a layer of bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell. We are presenting the existence of these patterns in foams and their relation with hyperbolic geometry and Sierpinski gaskets using the Poincare disk model. The images obtained from the experiment in foams are compared to the case of hyperbolic optical elements. -- Highlights: → The chaotic scattering of light in foams generating deltoid patterns is based on hyperbolic geometry. → The deltoid patterns are obtained through the Plateau borders in a Hele-Shaw cell. → The Plateau borders act like hyperbolic prism. → Some effects of the refraction and reflection of the light rays were studied using a hyperbolic prism.

  13. Ferromanganese nodules from MANOP Sites H, S, and R-Control of mineralogical and chemical composition by multiple accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, J.; Lyle, M.; Finney, B.; Piper, D.Z.; Murphy, K.; Conard, R.; Pisias, N.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical composition of ferromanganese nodules from the three nodule-bearing MANOP sites in the Pacific can be accounted for in a qualitative way by variable contributions of distinct accretionary processes. These accretionary modes are: 1. (1) hydrogenous, i.e., direct precipitation or accumulation of colloidal metal oxides in seawater, 2. (2) oxic diagenesis which refers to a variety of ferromanganese accretion processes occurring in oxic sediments; and 3. (3) suboxic diagenesis which results from reduction of Mn+4 by oxidation of organic matter in the sediments. Geochemical evidence suggests processes (1) and (2) occur at all three MANOP nodule-bearing sites, and process (3) occurs only at the hemipelagic site, H, which underlies the relatively productive waters of the eastern tropical Pacific. A normative model quantitatively accounts for the variability observed in nearly all elements. Zn and Na, however, are not well explained by the three end-member model, and we suggest that an additional accretionary process results in greater variability in the abundances of these elements. Variable contributions from the three accretionary processes result in distinct top-bottom compositional differences at the three sites. Nodule tops from H are enriched in Ni, Cu, and Zn, instead of the more typical enrichments of these elements in nodule bottoms. In addition, elemental correlations typical of most pelagic nodules are reversed at site H. The three accretionary processes result in distinct mineralogies. Hydrogenous precipitation produces ??MnO2. Oxic diagenesis, however, produces Cu-Ni-rich todorokite, and suboxic diagenesis results in an unstable todorokite which transforms to a 7 A?? phase ("birnessite") upon dehydration. The presence of Cu and Ni as charge-balancing cations influence the stability of the todorokite structure. In the bottoms of H nodules, which accrete dominantly by suboxic diagenesis, Na+ and possibly Mn+2 provide much of the charge balance for

  14. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment. METHODS: Twelve patients with acquired, documented HVFD were eligible to be included. All patients underwent specific vision-targeted, health-related QOL questionnaire and monocular and binocular Goldmann perimetry before commencing prism therapy. Patients were fitted with monocular prisms on the side of the HVFD with the base-in the direction of the field defect creating a peripheral optical exotropia and field expansion. After the treatment period, QOL questionnaires and perimetry were repeated. RESULTS: Twelve patients were included in the treatment group, 10 of whom were included in data analysis. Overall, there was significant improvement within multiple vision-related, QOL functioning parameters, specifically within the domains of general health (p < 0.01), general vision (p < 0.05), distance vision (p < 0.01), peripheral vision (p < 0.05), role difficulties (p < 0.05), dependency (p < 0.05), and social functioning (p < 0.05). Visual field expansion was shown when measured monocularly and binocularly during the study period in comparison with pretreatment baselines. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HVFD demonstrate decreased QOL. Monocular sector prisms can improve the QOL and expand the visual field in these patients.

  15. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2011-02-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment.

  16. Corpus callosum lipoma with frontal encephalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, V.R.K.; Ravi Mandalam, K.; Gupta, A.K.; Kumar, S.; Joseph, S.; Unni, M.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomographic and plain X-ray observations in a patient with corpus callosum lipoma associated with frontal encephalocele are reported. The rarity of the lesion and the specific diagnostic criteria on CT are emphasised. (orig.)

  17. Innovative Solar Tracking Concept by Rotating Prism Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become one of the most promising renewable energies and is the most widely used nowadays. In order to achieve an optimum performance, both photovoltaic and solar thermal applications are required to track the position of the sun throughout the day and year in the most effective way possible to avoid a high negative impact on the system efficiency. The present paper attempts to describe a novel semipassive solar tracking concentrator (SPSTC in which, in order to track the sun, two independent arrays of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA prisms are implemented to refract sunlight by rotating said prisms, thus being able to redirect solar radiation as desired. The first set is responsible for eliminating one of the directional components of the solar radiation; the task is achieved by rotating the prisms within the array at a specific angle. The second set deals with another of the sunlight’s directional components, transforming its direction into a completely perpendicular pattern to the array. Having downward vertical radiation makes it possible to implement a stationary Fresnel lens to concentrate the solar radiation for any application desired. The system is designed and validated using simulation software to prove the feasibility of the concept.

  18. Beyond the sniffer: frontal sinuses in Carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Abigail A; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2014-11-01

    Paranasal sinuses are some of the most poorly understood features of mammalian cranial anatomy. They are highly variable in presence and form among species, but their function is not well understood. The best-supported explanations for the function of sinuses is that they opportunistically fill mechanically unnecessary space, but that in some cases, sinuses in combination with the configuration of the frontal bone may improve skull performance by increasing skull strength and dissipating stresses more evenly. We used CT technology to investigate patterns in frontal sinus size and shape disparity among three families of carnivores: Canidae, Felidae, and Hyaenidae. We provide some of the first quantitative data on sinus morphology for these three families, and employ a novel method to quantify the relationship between three-dimensional sinus shape and skull shape. As expected, frontal sinus size and shape were more strongly correlated with frontal bone size and shape than with the morphology of the skull as a whole. However, sinus morphology was also related to allometric differences among families that are linked to biomechanical function. Our results support the hypothesis that frontal sinuses most often opportunistically fill space that is mechanically unnecessary, and they can facilitate cranial shape changes that reduce stress during feeding. Moreover, we suggest that the ability to form frontal sinuses allows species to modify skull function without compromising the performance of more functionally constrained regions such as the nasal chamber (heat/water conservation, olfaction), and braincase (housing the brain and sensory structures). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mind the movement: Frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral motivation, bilateral frontal activation for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Müller, Mathias; Mühlberger, Andreas; Hewig, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry has been investigated over the past 30 years, and several theories have been developed about its meaning. The original theory of Davidson and its diversification by Harmon-Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to relative left frontal brain activity and withdrawal motivation to relative right frontal brain activity. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown. Wacker and colleagues formulated a theory related to the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory by Gray & McNaughton. Here, relative left frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral activation system and behavior, while relative right frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral inhibition system, representing the experience of conflict. These theories were investigated with a newly developed paradigm where participants were able to move around freely in a virtual T maze via joystick while having their EEG recorded. Analyzing the influence of frontal brain activation during this virtual reality task on observable behavior for 30 participants, we found more relative left frontal brain activation during approach behavior and more relative right brain activation for withdrawal behavior of any kind. Additionally, there was more bilateral frontal brain activation when participants were engaged in behavior compared to doing nothing. Hence, this study provides evidence for the idea that frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral approach or avoidance motivation, and bilateral frontal activation stands for behavior. Additionally, observable behavior is not only determined by frontal asymmetry, but also by relevant traits. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Spacing of Imbricated Thrust Faults and the Strength of Thrust-Belts and Accretionary Wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, G.; Regensburger, P. V.; Moore, G. F.

    2017-12-01

    The pattern of imbricated thrust blocks is a prominent characteristic of the large-scale structure of thrust-belts and accretionary wedges around the world. Mechanical models of these systems have a rich history from laboratory analogs, and more recently from computational simulations, most of which, qualitatively reproduce the regular patterns of imbricated thrusts seen in nature. Despite the prevalence of these patterns in nature and in models, our knowledge of what controls the spacing of the thrusts remains immature at best. We tackle this problem using a finite difference, particle-in-cell method that simulates visco-elastic-plastic deformation with a Mohr-Coulomb brittle failure criterion. The model simulates a horizontal base that moves toward a rigid vertical backstop, carrying with it an overlying layer of crust. The crustal layer has a greater frictional strength than the base, is cohesive, and is initially uniform in thickness. As the layer contracts, a series of thrust blocks immerge sequentially and form a wedge having a mean taper consistent with that predicted by a noncohesive, critical Coulomb wedge. The widths of the thrust blocks (or spacing between adjacent thrusts) are greatest at the front of the wedge, tend to decrease with continued contraction, and then tend toward a pseudo-steady, minimum width. Numerous experiments show that the characteristic spacing of thrusts increases with the brittle strength of the wedge material (cohesion + friction) and decreases with increasing basal friction for low (laws that will illuminate the basic physical processes controlling systems, as well as allow researchers to use observations of thrust spacing as an independent constraint on the brittle strength of wedges as well as their bases.

  1. [Dental enamel prisms of Mesopithecus pentelicus Wagner, 1839, compared with recent cercopithecids (Primates: Cercopithecidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, A; Zapfe, H

    1986-01-01

    The dental enamel prisms of Cercopithecidae were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The main task of this study was to show the prism morphology representatives of different genera as well as their comparison with the fossil Mesopithecus pentelicus Wagner, 1839. The method used to show the enamel prisms was to etch the tooth surface with hydrochloric acid. In this way the outlines of the prisms were better contrasted for the descriptive morphology of the prisms than in etching with phosphoric acid. Two types were determined, in accord with the systematic division into subfamilies. In the subfamily Cercopithecinae elongated slender prisms were dominating, some with pointed, others with truncated tops. Most characteristic of this type were Macaca and Cercopithecus. An exception was Papio hamadryas which had broader, rounded prisms. In this way it differed largely from P. anubis whose prisms were short and mostly triangular. A very interesting fact was that very different patterns were found in P. anubis and P. hamadryas, although these two species are regarded as only one species by many authors. The second subfamily, the Colobinae, was characterized by broader prisms with a rounded shape, nearly as long as wide. Exceptions of the 'Colobine type' were at first Colobus with prisms little longer than wide and secondly Nasalis, with mostly parallel sides and truncated tops of the prisms. The prism outlines of Mesopithecus showed the greatest similarity to those of Presbytis which represents the characteristic 'Colobine type'. This fact confirmed the actual systematic position of the fossil Mesopithecus within the subfamily Colobinae. In addition to previously known primitive features of Mesopithecus within the subfamily of Colobinae, we present here a further concrete, common feature with asiatic Colobines.

  2. 3D Printed Prisms with Tunable Dispersion for the THz Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a 3D printed prism for THz waves made out of an artificial dielectric material in which the dispersion can be tuned by external compression. The artificial material consists of thin dielectric layers with variable air spacings which has been produced using a fused deposition molding process. The material properties are carefully characterized and the functionality of the prisms is in a good agreement with the underlying theory. These prisms are durable, lightweight, inexpensive, and easy to produce.

  3. 3D Printed Prisms with Tunable Dispersion for the THz Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Here, we present a 3D printed prism for THz waves made out of an artificial dielectric material in which the dispersion can be tuned by external compression. The artificial material consists of thin dielectric layers with variable air spacings which has been produced using a fused deposition molding process. The material properties are carefully characterized and the functionality of the prisms is in a good agreement with the underlying theory. These prisms are durable, lightweight, inexpensive, and easy to produce.

  4. Frontal cephalometrics: practical applications, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummons, Duane; Ricketts, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    To (1) demonstrate the needs and benefits of three-dimensional diagnostic and treatment applications; (2) illustrate practical clinical applications of anteroposterior images and frontal analysis; and (3) enhance utilization of the Ricketts and Grummons frontal analyses. Frontal analysis methods and applications are specified and integrated into facial, smile, jaw, and occlusal therapies. Asymmetry conditions must be differentially diagnosed and effectively treated. Frontal and related image analysis and tracing steps are detailed. Asymmetry of facial parts is the rule, rather than the exception. Dental and facial midlines, occlusal plane, chin location, and smile esthetics are primarily emphasized. Beautiful facial proportions and smile harmony can be developed despite initial facial dysmorphosis and disproportions. Patients view themselves from the frontal perspective, so this carries priority when assessing problems. It is important to know the etiology of asymmetry to assist others with genetic counseling. Facial harmony and smile beauty are optimal when facial and maxillary dental midlines are aligned. The maxillary dentition width should be sufficiently wide to be in harmony with the individual patient facial morphology. The occlusal plane should be level and the chin centered as much as possible. Best facial development and proportionality exist when the skeletal and dental components are optimized transversely and are symmetric.

  5. PRISM -- A tool for modelling proton energy deposition in semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, M.K.; Underwood, C.I.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a description of, and test results from, a new PC based software simulation tool PRISM (Protons in Semiconductor Materials). The model describes proton energy deposition in complex 3D sensitive volumes of semiconductor materials. PRISM is suitable for simulating energy deposition in surface-barrier detectors and semiconductor memory devices, the latter being susceptible to Single-Event Upset (SEU) and Multiple-Bit Upset (MBU). The design methodology on which PRISM is based, together with the techniques used to simulate ion transport and energy deposition, are described. Preliminary test results used to analyze the PRISM model are presented

  6. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heredero Jung

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid, entre enero de 1990 y diciembre de 2004. Resultados. La edad media de los pacientes revisados es de 34 años. La mayoría son hombres (78% y la causa más frecuente del traumatismo, los accidentes de tráfico. El patrón de fractura más común es el que afecta únicamente a la pared anterior del seno frontal. Las complicaciones descritas son: deformidad estética frontal, sinusitis frontal, mucocele frontal, celulitis fronto-orbitaria, intolerancia al material de osteosíntesis, complicaciones infecciosas del SNC y persistencia de fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Conclusiones. El objetivo ha de estar encaminado a prevenir las complicaciones asociadas a los pacientes con fracturas de seno frontal. Hay que individualizar el protocolo de tratamiento en cada caso. Es recomendable un seguimiento a largo plazo para identificar precozmente las posibles complicaciones.Introduction. Frontal sinus fractures are caused by high velocity impacts. Inappropriate treatment can lead to serious complications, even many years after the trauma. Objectives. To evaluate epidemiological data and associated complications. To standardize the treatment protocol. Materials and methods. the clinical records of 95 patients with frontal sinus fractures treated between January 1990 and December 2004 at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, "12 de Octubre" Hospital (Madrid, Spain, were reviewed. Results. The average age of

  7. Cyclic formation and stabilization of Archean lithosphere by accretionary orogenesis: Constraints from TTG and potassic granitoids, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cawood, Peter A.; Liu, Shuwen; Guo, Rongrong; Bai, Xiang; Wang, Kang

    2017-09-01

    Accretionary orogens are major sites of modern continental growth, yet their role in the development of Archean continental crust remains enigmatic. Diverse granitoid suites from tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) to potassic granitoids appeared during late Archean, representing a period of major continental formation and stabilization. In this study, whole-rock geochemical and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data are reported for Neoarchean granitoid gneisses from the Northern Liaoning Terrane, northeastern North China Craton (NCC). Older granitoid gneisses ( 2592-2537 Ma) define three magmatic zones migrating from southeast to northwest, each showing a common magmatic evolution from high-pressure TTGs to medium-/low-pressure TTGs and potassic granitoids. They have depleted zircon ƐHf(t) of +0.5 to +8.7. Younger 2529-2503 Ma potassic granitoids and TTGs occur throughout the terrane, which are marked by variable zircon ƐHf(t) of -4.7 to +8.1, and are coeval with regional high-grade metamorphism. Petrogenetic modeling and changing Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N of the granitoids suggest that the crust experienced episodic thickening and thinning and became progressively evolved through development of potassic granitoids and sedimentary successions. The metavolcanic basement to the granitoids display tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinities, together with the top-to-the-northwest thrusting and associated volcanogenic massive sulfide-type Cu-Zn deposits, suggesting cyclic crustal formation of Northern Liaoning within an accretionary orogen with a SE-dipping subduction polarity. Cyclic crustal thickening and thinning is related to tectonic switching from advancing to retreating relations between the downgoing and overriding plate. After 2530 Ma, this accretionary system accreted to the ancient continental nucleus of NCC (Anshan-Benxi Terrane), signifying final lithosphere stabilization.

  8. Frontal subregions mediating Elevator Counting task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha S; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2010-10-01

    Deficits in sustained attention may lead to action slips in everyday life as irrelevant action sequences are inappropriately triggered internally or by the environment. While deficits in sustained attention have been associated with damage to the frontal lobes of the brain, little is known about the role of the frontal lobes in the Elevator Counting subtest of the Test of Everyday Attention. In the current study, 55 frontal patients subdivided into medial, orbital and lateral subgroups, 18 patients with posterior lesions and 82 healthy controls performed the Elevator Counting task. The results revealed that patients with medial and left lateral prefrontal lesions were significantly impaired on the task compared to healthy controls. Research suggests that patients with medial lesions are susceptible to competition from task irrelevant schema; whereas the left lateral group in the current study may fail to keep track of the tones already presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The demagnetizing field of a non-uniform rectangular prism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Christensen, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The effect of demagnetization on the magnetic properties of a rectangular ferromagnetic prism under non-uniform conditions is investigated. A numerical model for solving the spatially varying internal magnetic field is developed, validated and applied to relevant cases. The demagnetizing field...... is solved by an analytical calculation and the coupling between applied field, the demagnetization tensor field and spatially varying temperature is solved through iteration. We show that the demagnetizing field is of great importance in many cases and that it is necessary to take into account the non...

  10. Thermal stresses in long prisms by relaxation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J D [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1959-07-15

    A general method is presented for calculating the elastic thermal stresses in long prisms which are producing heat and are not solvable by simple analytical methods. The problem of an inverted lattice i.e. an hexagonal coolant passage surrounded by hexagonal fuel elements is considered and the temperature and principal thermal stress distributions evaluated for the particular case of 20% coolant. The maximum thermal stress for this type of fuel element is about the same as the maximum thermal stress in a cylindrical fuel element surrounded by a sea of coolant assuming the existence of the same maximum temperature drop and material properties. (author)

  11. Thermal stresses in long prisms by relaxation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1959-07-01

    A general method is presented for calculating the elastic thermal stresses in long prisms which are producing heat and are not solvable by simple analytical methods. The problem of an inverted lattice i.e. an hexagonal coolant passage surrounded by hexagonal fuel elements is considered and the temperature and principal thermal stress distributions evaluated for the particular case of 20% coolant. The maximum thermal stress for this type of fuel element is about the same as the maximum thermal stress in a cylindrical fuel element surrounded by a sea of coolant assuming the existence of the same maximum temperature drop and material properties. (author)

  12. Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available in 1962 by Gould et al1 as a means to overcome misalignment problems in optical resonators employing Fabry-Perot cavities, by replacing the end face mirrors with crossed roof prisms. Lasers based on this principle have been developed over the years2... Optronics for the use of their laser and for making experimental data available to us. We would also like to thank Dr Dieter Preussler and Mr Daniel Esser for useful discussions. REFERENCES 1. G. Gould, S. Jacobs, P. Rabinowitz and T. Shultz...

  13. Prism reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-08-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristic and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. 6 refs., 4 figs

  14. PRISM reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristic and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. (author)

  15. Design of a fast runback feature for PRISM control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.K.; Rhow, S.K.; Daniel, W.R.; Dayal, Y.; Gaubatz, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The nine power reactor inherently safe modules (PRISM) are controlled and their operation coordinated by a hierarchical, distributed, digital plant control system (PCS). This paper describes the fast runback features of the PCS. Fast runback consists of PCS directed reactor module shutdown with accompanying reductions of coolant flows. Analyses have shown that the PCS fast runback adequately terminates duty cycle events initiated in the balance of plant and the steam generating system, results in lower thermal shock to the reactor than scram, and reduces the number of scrams by approximately a factor of five

  16. PRISM reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Rosztoczy, Z.; Lane, J.

    1991-01-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristics and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. 6 refs., 4 figs

  17. Injury risk functions for frontal oblique collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andricevic, Nino; Junge, Mirko; Krampe, Jonas

    2018-03-09

    The objective of this article was the construction of injury risk functions (IRFs) for front row occupants in oblique frontal crashes and a comparison to IRF of nonoblique frontal crashes from the same data set. Crashes of modern vehicles from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) were used as the basis for the construction of a logistic injury risk model. Static deformation, measured via displaced voxels on the postcrash vehicles, was used to calculate the energy dissipated in the crash. This measure of accident severity was termed objective equivalent speed (oEES) because it does not depend on the accident reconstruction and thus eliminates reconstruction biases like impact direction and vehicle model year. Imputation from property damage cases was used to describe underrepresented low-severity crashes-a known shortcoming of GIDAS. Binary logistic regression was used to relate the stimuli (oEES) to the binary outcome variable (injured or not injured). IRFs for the oblique frontal impact and nonoblique frontal impact were computed for the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 2+ and 3+ levels for adults (18-64 years). For a given stimulus, the probability of injury for a belted driver was higher in oblique crashes than in nonoblique frontal crashes. For the 25% injury risk at MAIS 2+ level, the corresponding stimulus for oblique crashes was 40 km/h but it was 64 km/h for nonoblique frontal crashes. The risk of obtaining MAIS 2+ injuries is significantly higher in oblique crashes than in nonoblique crashes. In the real world, most MAIS 2+ injuries occur in an oEES range from 30 to 60 km/h.

  18. The frontal method in hydrodynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The frontal solution method has proven to be an effective means of solving the matrix equations resulting from the application of the finite element method to a variety of problems. In this study, several versions of the frontal method were compared in efficiency for several hydrodynamics problems. Three basic modifications were shown to be of value: 1. Elimination of equations with boundary conditions beforehand, 2. Modification of the pivoting procedures to allow dynamic management of the equation size, and 3. Storage of the eliminated equations in a vector. These modifications are sufficiently general to be applied to other classes of problems. ?? 1980.

  19. Frontal lobe atrophy in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, J A; Hudson, A J

    1994-08-01

    Neuronal degeneration in the precentral gyrus alone cannot account for the occurrence of spastic paresis in motor neuron diseases. To look for more extensive cortical atrophy we measured MRIs of the upper parts of the frontal and parietal lobes in 11 sporadic cases of classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), eight patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and an age- and sex-matched group of 49 neurologically normal people. None of the patients had overt dementia or other mental diseases. In PLS there is progressive spastic paresis but in contrast to ALS there is no lower motor neuron degeneration. The surface area of the precentral gyri and the amount of underlying white matter in PLS were consistently approximately 75% of the normal size. By contrast, there was some shrinkage of the precentral gyri in some of the ALS patients but the mean measurements for the group did not differ significantly from the controls. Anterior to the precentral sulci, the cortical surface area in PLS was approximately 85% of that of the controls, with correspondingly reduced white matter. In ALS the cortical surface areas of the anterior frontal lobes did not differ from those of the controls, but the amount of underlying white matter was reduced almost as much in ALS as it was in PLS. The measured changes in the frontal lobes suggest that in PLS there is simultaneous atrophy of the primary, premotor and supplementary motor areas of the cortex, with consequent degeneration of corticospinal and corticoreticular axons descending through the underlying white matter. These changes could account for the progressive upper motor neuron syndrome. In ALS, with no significant frontal cortical atrophy, the shrinkage of the white matter may be due to degeneration of axons projecting to the frontal cortex from elsewhere. Deprivation of afferents could explain the diminution of motor functions of the frontal lobes in ALS and also the changes in word fluency, judgement and attention that

  20. Contrasting styles of sedimentation and deformation in the Chugach Terrane accretionary complex, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, J. M.; Pavlis, T. L.; Worthman, C.; Kochelek, E.; Day, E. M.; Clift, P. D.; Hecker, J.

    2011-12-01

    In southeast Alaska the Chugach terrane represents an accretionary complex associated with several arcs active at 200-65 Ma. This lithostratigraphic unit consists of blueschists with Early Jurassic metamorphic ages and uncertain depositional ages; the Jurassic-Cretaceous McHugh Complex; and the Late Cretaceous Valdez Group. Detrital zircon ages from densely sampled transects reveals patterns in the assembly of the complex. Blueschists are almost totally barren of zircon, suggesting protoliths derived from mafic-intermediate volcanic protoliths far from a continental source. There is an age gap between the blueschists and the McHugh complex interpreted to be caused by an episode of tectonic erosion. The McHugh Complex is two separate units that are lithologically and geochronologically distinct. The older McHugh is a melange is dominated by stratally disrupted volcanic rocks, chert, and argillite. The oldest McHugh rocks have maximum depositional ages (MDA) of 177-150 Ma at Seldovia and 157-145 Ma at Turnagain Arm; the lack of older rocks at Turnagain Arm suggests removal of structural section by faulting. The MDAs of the older McHugh rocks do not decrease progressively away from the arc. There is a 45 m.y. gap in MDA between the older McHugh and the Late Cretaceous McHugh rocks. The younger McHugh rocks are dominated by volcanogenic sandstone and coarse conglomerate and MDA decreases from 100 Ma near the boundary with the older McHugh mesomelange to 85 Ma near the Valdez Group. The Valdez Group consists of coherently bedded turbidites with a MDA range of 85-60 Ma that decreases progressively outboard of the arc source. A sample from the Orca Group of the Prince William terrane is lithologically similar to the Valdez Group and there is no gap in MDA between Valdez and Orca Groups. 55 Ma dikes cut the McHugh and Valdez Groups in the western Chugach and Kenai Mountains. The oldest units of the Chugach terrane are the most deformed, with deformation and metamorphism

  1. Accretionary Tectonics of Rock Complexes in the Western Margin of the Siberian Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, I. I.; Nozhkin, A. D.; Savko, K. A.

    2018-01-01

    The geological, geochemical, and isotope-geochronological evidence of the events at the final stage of the Neoproterozoic history of the Yenisei Range is considered (beginning from the formation of fragments of the oceanic crust in the region and their accretion to the Siberian Craton until the postaccretionary stage of crustal tension and onset of the Caledonian orogeny). Based on an analysis of new data on the petrogeochemical composition, age, and geodynamic nature of the formation of contrasting rocks in the composition of tectonic mélange of the Near-Yenisei (Prieniseiskaya) regional shear zone, we have found the chronological sequence of events that marks the early stages of the Paleoasian Ocean evolution in the zone of its junction with the Siberian Craton. These events are documented by the continental marginal, ophiolitic, and island-arc geological complexes, each of which has different geochemical features. The most ancient structures are represented by fragments of oceanic crust and island arcs from the Isakovka terrane (700-620 Ma). The age of glaucophane-schist metamorphic units that formed in the paleosubduction zone corresponds to the time interval of 640-620 Ma. The formation of high-pressure tectonites in the suture zone, about 600 Ma in age, marks the finishing stage of accretion of the Isakovka block to the western margin of the Siberian Craton. The final events in the early history of the Asian Paleoocean were related to the formation of Late Vendian riftogenic amygdaloidal basalts (572 ± 6.5 Ma) and intrusion of postcollisional leucogranites of the Osinovka massif (550-540 Ma), which intruded earlier fragments of the oceanic crust in the Isakovka terrane. These data allow us to refine the Late Precambrian stratigraphic scheme in the northwestern Trans-Angarian part of the Yenisei Range and the evolutionary features of the Sayan-Yenisei accretionary belt. The revealed Late Neoproterozoic landmarks of the evolution of the Isakovka terrane are

  2. The PRISM (Pliocene Palaeoclimate) reconstruction: Time for a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Foley, Kevin M.; Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Williams, Mark; Riesselman, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Global palaeoclimate reconstructions have been invaluable to our understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, but single-temperature representations of the oceanic mixed layer for data–model comparisons are outdated, and the time for a paradigm shift in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction is overdue. The new paradigm in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction stems the loss of valuable climate information and instead presents a holistic and nuanced interpretation of multi-dimensional oceanographic processes and responses. A wealth of environmental information is hidden within the US Geological Survey's Pliocene Research,Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) marine palaeoclimate reconstruction, and we introduce here a plan to incorporate all valuable climate data into the next generation of PRISM products. Beyond the global approach and focus, we plan to incorporate regional climate dynamics with emphasis on processes, integrating multiple environmental proxies wherever available in order to better characterize the mixed layer, and developing a finer time slice within the Mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, complemented by underused proxies that offer snapshots into environmental conditions. The result will be a proxy-rich, temporally nested, process-oriented approach in a digital format - a relational database with geographic information system capabilities comprising a three-dimensional grid representing the surface layer, with a plethora of data in each cell.

  3. Performance of the prism reactor's passive decay heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Hunsbedt, A.

    1989-01-01

    The PRISM modular reactor concept has a totally passive safety-grade decay heat removal system referred to as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection of air. The system is inherently reliable and is not subject to the failure modes commonly associated with active cooling systems. The thermal performance of RVACS exceeds requirements and significant thermal margins exist. RVACS has been shown to perform its function under many postulated accident conditions. The PRISM power plant is equipped with three methods for shutdown: condenser cooling in conjunction with intermediate sodium and steam generator systems, and auxiliary cooling system (ACS) which removes heat from the steam generator by natural convection of air and transport of heat from the core by natural convection in the primary and intermediate systems, and a safety- grade reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) which removes heat passively from the reactor containment vessel by natural convection of air. The combination of one active and two passive systems provides a highly reliable and economical shutdown heat removal system. This paper provides a summary of the RVACS thermal performance for expected operating conditions and postulated accident events. The supporting experimental work, which substantiates the performance predictions, is also summarized

  4. Formation of forearc basins by collision between seamounts and accretionary wedges: an example from the New Hebrides subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Fisher, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Seabeam data reveal two deep subcircular reentrants in the lower arc slope of the New Hebrides island arc that may illustrate two stages in the development of a novel type of forearc basin. The Malekula reentrant lies just south of the partly subducted Bougainville seamount. This proximity, as well as the similarity in morphology between the reentrant and an indentation in the lower arc slope off Japan, suggests that the Malekula reentrant formed by the collision of a seamount with the arc. An arcuate fold-thrust belt has formed across the mouth of the reentrant, forming the toe of a new accretionary wedge. The Efate reentrant may show the next stage in basin development. This reentrant lies landward of a lower-slope ridge that may have begun to form as an arcuate fold-thrust belt across the mouth of a reentrant. This belt may have grown by continued accretion at the toe of the wedge, by underplating beneath the reentrant, and by trapping of sediment shed from the island arc. These processes could result in a roughly circular forearc basin. Basins that may have formed by seamount collision lie within the accretionary wedge adjacent to the Aleutian trenches. -Authors

  5. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  6. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael, E-mail: gorazd.planinsic@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19 (Slovenia)

    2011-03-15

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  7. Salt-induced square prism Pd microtubes and their ethanol electrocatalysis properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Kunpeng; Ma, Shenghua; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Ying; Han, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is established to fabricate square prism Pd microtubes. • The novel square prism Pd microtubes are based on a salt-induced aggregation event. • The surface of the square prism tubes convert from cataphracted nanosheets to spheres after calcinations treatment. • The square prism pure Pd tubes show excellent electro catalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. - Abstract: The synthesis of square prism tubes are always challenging due to their thermo and dynamical instability. We demonstrated a simple method using Pd"2"+ doped PoPD oligomers as building blocks to assemble into 1D square prism metal-organic microtubes, which consists of cataphracted nanosheets on the surfaces. After high temperature treatment, the microtubes became square prism Pd tubes with a cross section size of 3 μm. The pure Pd microtubes showed excellent catalyzing activity towards the electro oxidation of ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface area is 48.2 m"2 g"−"1, which indicates the square prism Pd tubes have great potential in the field of fuel cell.

  8. Physical optics modeling of modal patterns in a crossed porro prism resonator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A physical optics model is proposed to describe the transverse modal patterns in crossed Porro prism resonators. The model departs from earlier attempts in that the prisms are modeled as non-classical rotating elements with amplitude and phase...

  9. Prism Foil from an LCD Monitor as a Tool for Teaching Introductory Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and…

  10. Salt-induced square prism Pd microtubes and their ethanol electrocatalysis properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Kunpeng; Ma, Shenghua; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Ying; Han, Xiaojun, E-mail: hanxiaojun@hit.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is established to fabricate square prism Pd microtubes. • The novel square prism Pd microtubes are based on a salt-induced aggregation event. • The surface of the square prism tubes convert from cataphracted nanosheets to spheres after calcinations treatment. • The square prism pure Pd tubes show excellent electro catalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. - Abstract: The synthesis of square prism tubes are always challenging due to their thermo and dynamical instability. We demonstrated a simple method using Pd{sup 2+} doped PoPD oligomers as building blocks to assemble into 1D square prism metal-organic microtubes, which consists of cataphracted nanosheets on the surfaces. After high temperature treatment, the microtubes became square prism Pd tubes with a cross section size of 3 μm. The pure Pd microtubes showed excellent catalyzing activity towards the electro oxidation of ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface area is 48.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which indicates the square prism Pd tubes have great potential in the field of fuel cell.

  11. On the relationship between structure, morphology and large coseismic slip: A case study of the Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile 2010 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo; Maksymowicz, Andrei; Lange, Dietrich; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Muñoz-Linford, Pamela; Moscoso, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Subduction megathrust earthquakes show complex rupture behaviour and large lateral variations of slip. However, the factors controlling seismic slip are still under debate. Here, we present 2-D velocity-depth tomographic models across four trench-perpendicular wide angle seismic profiles complemented with high resolution bathymetric data in the area of maximum coseismic slip of the Mw 8.8 Maule 2010 megathrust earthquake (central Chile, 34°-36°S). Results show an abrupt lateral velocity gradient in the trench-perpendicular direction (from 5.0 to 6.0 km/s) interpreted as the contact between the accretionary prism and continental framework rock whose superficial expression spatially correlates with the slope-shelf break. The accretionary prism is composed of two bodies: (1) an outer accretionary wedge (5-10 km wide) characterized by low seismic velocities of 1.8-3.0 km/s interpreted as an outer frontal prism of poorly compacted and hydrated sediment, and (2) the middle wedge (∼50 km wide) with velocities of 3.0-5.0 km/s interpreted as a middle prism composed by compacted and lithified sediment. In addition, the maximum average coseismic slip of the 2010 megathrust event is fairly coincident with the region where the accretionary prism and continental slope are widest (50-60 km wide), and the continental slope angle is low (event, published differential multibeam bathymetric data confirms that coseismic slip must have propagated up to ∼6 km landwards of the deformation front and hence practically the entire base of the middle prism. Sediment dewatering and compaction processes might explain the competent rheology of the middle prism allowing shallow earthquake rupture. In contrast, the outer frontal prism made of poorly consolidated sediment has impeded the rupture up to the deformation front as high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric data have not showed evidence for new deformation in the trench region.

  12. ePRISM: A case study in multiple proxy and mixed temporal resolution integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project, we present the ePRISM experiment designed I) to provide climate modelers with a reconstruction of an early Pliocene warm period that was warmer than the PRISM interval (similar to 3.3 to 3.0 Ma), yet still similar in many ways to modern conditions and 2) to provide an example of how best to integrate multiple-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) data from time series with varying degrees of temporal resolution and age control as we begin to build the next generation of PRISM, the PRISM4 reconstruction, spanning a constricted time interval. While it is possible to tie individual SST estimates to a single light (warm) oxygen isotope event, we find that the warm peak average of SST estimates over a narrowed time interval is preferential for paleoclimate reconstruction as it allows for the inclusion of more records of multiple paleotemperature proxies.

  13. Preservation of Frontal Sinus Anatomy and Outflow Tract Following Frontal Trauma with Dural Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wei Ming Kwek, MBBS, MRCS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Our case report describes a young male mechanic who was hit in his face by a spring while repairing a car, resulting in traumatic injury to the frontal sinus, with fractures of both the anterior and the posterior tables with dural defect and cerebrospinal fluid leak. Current guidelines recommend that comminuted and/or displaced fractures of the posterior table of the frontal sinus with dural defects should be either cranialized or obliterated. In this patient, instead of cranializing or obliterating the frontal sinus, we managed to preserve the frontal sinus anatomy and its outflow tract using a combined open bicoronal and nasoendoscopic approach. This avoids the long-term complications associated with cranialization or obliteration including mucocele formation and frontocutaneous fistula.

  14. Medial frontal cortex and response conflict: Evidence from human intracranial EEG and medial frontal cortex lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Haupt, S.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been implicated in the monitoring and selection of actions in the face of competing alternatives, but much remains unknown about its functional properties, including electrophysiological oscillations, during response conflict tasks. Here, we recorded intracranial

  15. Asymmetric transmission in prisms using structures and materials with isotropic-type dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Funda Tamara; Serebryannikov, Andriy E; Cakmak, A Ozgur; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2015-09-21

    It is demonstrated that strong asymmetry in transmission can be obtained at the Gaussian beam illumination for a single prism based on a photonic crystal (PhC) with isotropic-type dispersion, as well as for its analog made of a homogeneous material. Asymmetric transmission can be realized with the aid of refraction at a proper orientation of the interfaces and wedges of the prism, whereas neither contribution of higher diffraction orders nor anisotropic-type dispersion is required. Furthermore, incidence toward a prism wedge can be used for one of two opposite directions in order to obtain asymmetry. Thus, asymmetric transmission is a general property of the prism configurations, which can be obtained by using simple geometries and quite conventional materials. The obtained results show that strong asymmetry can be achieved in PhC prisms with (nearly) circular shape of equifrequency dispersion contours, in both cases associated with the index of refraction 01. For the comparison purposes, results are also presented for solid uniform non-magnetic prisms made of a material with the same value of n. It is shown in zero-loss approximation that the PhC prism and the ultralow-index material prism (01. Possible contributions of scattering on the individual rods and diffraction on the wedge to the resulting mechanism are discussed. Analogs of unidirectional splitting and unidirectional deflection regimes, which are known from the studies of PhC gratings, are obtained in PhC prisms and solid uniform prisms, i.e. without higher diffraction orders.

  16. Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    for assessing its vulnerability and subsequent listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans (Donaldson et al. 2000, Brown et aL 2001). Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions (Bart et al. 2002). PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approaches to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic andboreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  17. Foreword: Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen; Bart, Jonathan R.; Johnston, Victoria H.

    2012-01-01

    listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans. Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions. PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approached to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic and boreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  18. Carboniferous continental arc in the Hegenshan accretionary belt: Constrains from plutonic complex in central Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruihua; Gao, Yongfeng; Xu, Shengchuan; Santosh, M.; Xin, Houtian; Zhang, Zhenmin; Li, Weilong; Liu, Yafang

    2018-05-01

    The architecture and tectonic evolution of the Hegenshan accretionary belt in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) remains debated. Here we present an integrated study of zircon U-Pb isotopic ages, whole rock major-trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data from the Hegenshan volcanic-plutonic belt in central Inner Mongolia. Field observations and zircon U-Pb ages allow us to divide the intrusive complex into an early phase at 329-306 Ma and a late phase at 304 to 299 Ma. The intrusive bodies belong to two magma series: calc-alkaline rocks with I-type affinity and A-type granites. The early intrusions are composed of granodiorite, monzogranite and porphyritic granite, and the late calc-alkaline intrusions include gabbro though diorite to granodiorite. The calc-alkaline intrusive rocks exhibit a well-defined compositional trend from gabbro to granite, reflecting continuous fractional crystallization. These rocks show obvious enrichment in LILEs and LREEs and relative depletion of HFSEs, typical of subduction-related magma. They also exhibit isotopic characteristics of mantle-derived magmas such as low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7029-0.7053), positive ɛNd(t) values (0.06-4.76) and low radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions ((206Pb/204Pb)I = 17.907-19.198, (207Pb/204Pb)I = 15.474-15.555, (208Pb/204Pb)I = 37.408-38.893). The marked consistency in geochemical and isotopic compositions between the intrusive rocks and the coeval Baoligaomiao volcanic rocks define a Carboniferous continental arc. Together with available regional data, we infer that this east-west trending continental arc was generated by northward subduction of the Hegenshan ocean during Carboniferous. The late alkali-feldspar granites and the high-Si rhyolites of the Baoligaomiao volcanic succession show similar geochemical compositions with high SiO2 and variable total alkali contents, and low TiO2, MgO and CaO. These rocks are characterized by unusually low Sr and Ba, and high abundances of Zr, Th, Nb, HREEs

  19. A VUV prism spectrometer for RICH radiator refractometry

    CERN Document Server

    Moyssides, P G; Fokitis, E

    2000-01-01

    A prism spectrometer has been developed to operate in the VUV wavelength range from 120 to 200 nm. It can be used as a pre- disperser in conjunction with a Fabry-Perot based gas refractometer. This instrument has also been used to measure the refractive index of the liquid radiator C/sub 6/F/sub 14/ in various spectral lines. This radiator is used in the RICH detectors of the DELPHI experiment and has been proposed for ALICE, and LHCb experiments. The spectral resolution of the system is improved as the wavelength decreases and the data are consistent with a wavelength accuracy about 0.4 nm at 140 nm. The results for the dispersion curve of the above liquid are presented. (17 refs).

  20. R&D proposal the prism plastic calorimeter:PPC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Marchand, P; Nédélec, P; Salin, P; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: First Goal_Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC) towers with a new "liquid crystal" type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. Second Goal_ Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector,and list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum amount of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronics being outside the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. The R&D program we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  1. The clustering of quasars from an objective-prism survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.

    1982-01-01

    The positions and redshifts of 108 quasars from the Cerro Tololo objective-prism survey are subjected to Fourier Power Spectrum Analysis in a search for clustering in their spatial distribution. It is found that, on the whole, these quasars are not clustered but are scattered in space independently at random. The sole exception is a group of four quasars at z = 0.37 which has a low probability of being a chance event and which, with a size of about 100 Mpc, may therefore be the largest known structure in the Universe. The conclusions disagree with Arp's analysis of this catalogue: his 'clouds of quasars' ejected by certain low-redshift galaxies, for example, are attributable to sensitivity variations among the different plates of the survey. It is shown that analysis of deeper surveys is likely to show up quasar clusters even at high redshift, and could therefore provide a useful new cosmological probe. (author)

  2. Safety and licensing analysis of 471 MWt PRISM reactor module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Independent analyses of unscrammed events postulated for the 471 MW t PRISM reactor module, as performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, are discussed. Peak fuel, cladding, and sodium temperatures for several postulated events were compared against reference temperatures. In general, BNL could essentially duplicate GE's analytical results, by making GE's assumptions. For the postulated unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF) events, the newly added Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs), have improved the passive shutdown response. With respect to the unscrammed loss of heat sink (ULOHS) event, there was little impact expected from the latest revisions, and little was found. For the unscrammed transient over-power (UTOP) events, uncertainties with respect to the behavior of ternary metal fuel leave unresolved the issue of how large a UTOP initiator (between 20 and 40 cents) may be acceptable. (author)

  3. FDS5 Simulation of PRISME INTEGRAL Test, PRSINT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Seok

    2012-01-01

    The reliance on fire modeling has playing a key role in the risk-informed and performance-based fire protection field. The ability to accurately predict fire behavior using the fire models is of high utility for hazard assessment, investigations and performance based design. Validation is the process of determining the degree of agreement between fire model outputs and real world events for one or more results of interest. The goal of validation is to quantify confidence in the predictive capability of the model. Validation in NUREG-1824 entails comparing the model prediction with full-scale fire experiments and quantifying the results. The objectives of this study, focused on the fire model validation, are to compare the FDS5 prediction results with the PRISME INTEGRAL test data and to validate FDS5 model

  4. Stakeholder theory and reporting information The case of performance prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Nita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explain the stakeholder theory in the context of performance measurement in integrated reporting. Main research methods used in the article include logical reasoning, critical analysis of academic literature, and observation. The principal result of the discussion is included in the statement that the stakeholder theory in the field of accounting is reflected in the so-called integrated reporting. Moreover, among the large variety of performance measurement methods, such as balanced scorecard and others, the concept of performance prism can be considered as the only method that fully takes into account the wide range of stakeholders. The analysis performed leads to the conclusion that development in accounting research takes into account the objectives of an organization in the context of the so-called corporate social responsibility as well as performance reporting oriented towards the communication of the company with its environment and the various stakeholder groups.

  5. Minimally invasive approach for lesions involving the frontal sinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk of future meningitis. The frontal ... Traditional open surgery for frontal sinus pathology and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks is complex and involves a ... sinus. The wound is closed in two layers ... He had noted displacement of his right eye.

  6. Frontal lobe epilepsy and EEG: Neurophysiological approach

    OpenAIRE

    García López, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    La epilepsia del lóbulo frontal es la segunda más frecuente en la mayoría de las series publicadas, después de la epilepsia temporal. Sus características clínicas y electroencefalográficas son muy variadas, lo que hace de su diagnóstico y tratamiento un reto en la práctica clínica. Las crisis frontales suelen aparecen en "clusters", con frecuencia generalizan y el aspecto electroencefalográfico de la actividad intercrítica y crítica suele ser difícil de interpretar por la gran difusión que su...

  7. Confabulation and memory impairments following frontal lobe lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have provided considerable evidence for frontal lobe involvement in memory processing. Memory impairments arc also frequently reported in patients with frontal lobe lesions. However detailed anatomical localisation is rare, making integration of lesion and imaging findings difficult. An investigation of the functional and anatomical contributions of the frontal lobes to memory was conducted in 42 patients with frontal lobe lesions, examining memory processes identified in...

  8. Intraparenchymal schwannoma of the frontal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogaonkar M

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available A 45 year old woman with bifrontal headaches and progressive diminution in vision over 6 months was found to have bilateral papilloedema. CT scan showed large right frontal lesion with surrounding oedema. Right basal frontotemporal craniotomy was performed to excise the multinodular, intraparenchymatous tumor. Hispathology confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Post-operative course was uneventful with disappearance of pre-operative signs and symptoms.

  9. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, J.; Thompson, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence of TLE. In relation to executive impairment, particular focus has been paid to set shifting as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Other discrete executive functions such as decision-making and theory of mind also appear vulnerable but have received little attention. With regard to working memory, the medial temporal lobe structures appear have a more critical role, but with emerging evidence of hippocampal dependent and independent processes. The relative role of underlying pathology and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further. PMID:22100147

  10. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  11. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  12. Jones matrix formulation of a Porro prism laser resonator with waveplates: theoretical and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, L.; Bhardwaj, A.; Pal, S.; Kumar, A.

    2007-11-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed theoretical and experimental analysis carried out on a folded Z-shaped polarization coupled, electro-optically Q-switched laser resonator with Porro prisms and waveplates. The advantages of adding waveplates in a Porro prism resonator have been explored for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching and obtaining variable reflectivity with fixed orientation of Porro prism. Generalized expressions have been derived in terms of azimuth angles and phase shifts introduced by the polarizing elements. These expressions corroborate with known reported results under appropriate substitutions. A specific case of a crossed Porro prism diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. In the feedback arm, a 0.57λ waveplate oriented at 135° completely compensates the phase shift of a fused silica Porro prism and provides better tolerances than a BK-7 prism/0.60λ waveplate combination to stop prelasing. The fused silica prism/0.57λ combination with waveplate at 112° acts like a 100% mirror and was utilized for optimization of free running performance. The effective reflectivity was determined for various orientations of the quarter waveplate in the gain arm to numerically estimate the Q-switched laser pulse parameters through rate equation analysis. Experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis.

  13. Multi-energy CT based on a prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hao; Osher, Stanley; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2011-01-01

    We propose a compressive sensing approach for multi-energy computed tomography (CT), namely the prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM). To further compress the multi-energy image for allowing the reconstruction with fewer CT data and less radiation dose, the PRISM models a multi-energy image as the superposition of a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix (with row dimension in space and column dimension in energy), where the low-rank matrix corresponds to the stationary background over energy that has a low matrix rank, and the sparse matrix represents the rest of distinct spectral features that are often sparse. Distinct from previous methods, the PRISM utilizes the generalized rank, e.g., the matrix rank of tight-frame transform of a multi-energy image, which offers a way to characterize the multi-level and multi-filtered image coherence across the energy spectrum. Besides, the energy-dependent intensity information can be incorporated into the PRISM in terms of the spectral curves for base materials, with which the restoration of the multi-energy image becomes the reconstruction of the energy-independent material composition matrix. In other words, the PRISM utilizes prior knowledge on the generalized rank and sparsity of a multi-energy image, and intensity/spectral characteristics of base materials. Furthermore, we develop an accurate and fast split Bregman method for the PRISM and demonstrate the superior performance of the PRISM relative to several competing methods in simulations. (papers)

  14. Optimization of SPR signals: Monitoring the physical structures and refractive indices of prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Wan Maisarah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR can only be achieved if sufficient energy is provided at the boundary between metal and dielectric. An employment of prism as a light coupler by using Kretschmann configuration is one of the alternative for the production of adequate energy to be generated as surface plasmon polaritons (SPP. This work is carried out to investigate the effect of physical structure of the prism and its refractive index to the excitation of SPPs. A 50nm gold thin metal film with dielectric constant of ɛ=-12.45i+1.3 was deposited on the hypotenuse surface of the prisms. The physical structures of the prisms were varied such as triangular, conical, hemispherical and half cylindrical. These prisms were classified into two types of refractive indices (RI, namely n=1.51(type BK7 and n=1.77(type SF11. Based on SPR curve analyses, we discovered that strong SPR signals which consist of 82.98% photons were excited as SPPs can be obtained by using type-BK7 prism with physical structures of hemispherical or half cylindrical. From the view of selectivity ability as sensors, the usage of type-SF11 prisms (half cylindrical and hemispherical able to enhance this impressive feature in which sharp SPR curves with small FWHM values were obtained. In conclusion, apart from properties of thin film materials, the physical structure of prisms and their RI values play crucial roles to obtain optimum SPR signal. High sensitivity SPR sensor can be established with the appointment of type-BK7 prisms (hemispherical or half cylindrical shape as light couplers.

  15. Optimization of SPR signals: Monitoring the physical structures and refractive indices of prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisarah Mukhtar, Wan; Halim, Razman Mohd; Hassan, Hazirah

    2017-11-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) can only be achieved if sufficient energy is provided at the boundary between metal and dielectric. An employment of prism as a light coupler by using Kretschmann configuration is one of the alternative for the production of adequate energy to be generated as surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). This work is carried out to investigate the effect of physical structure of the prism and its refractive index to the excitation of SPPs. A 50nm gold thin metal film with dielectric constant of ɛ=-12.45i+1.3 was deposited on the hypotenuse surface of the prisms. The physical structures of the prisms were varied such as triangular, conical, hemispherical and half cylindrical. These prisms were classified into two types of refractive indices (RI), namely n=1.51(type BK7) and n=1.77(type SF11). Based on SPR curve analyses, we discovered that strong SPR signals which consist of 82.98% photons were excited as SPPs can be obtained by using type-BK7 prism with physical structures of hemispherical or half cylindrical. From the view of selectivity ability as sensors, the usage of type-SF11 prisms (half cylindrical and hemispherical) able to enhance this impressive feature in which sharp SPR curves with small FWHM values were obtained. In conclusion, apart from properties of thin film materials, the physical structure of prisms and their RI values play crucial roles to obtain optimum SPR signal. High sensitivity SPR sensor can be established with the appointment of type-BK7 prisms (hemispherical or half cylindrical shape) as light couplers.

  16. Highly Sideophile Element Abundance Constraints on the Nature of the Late Accretionary Histories of Earth, Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.; Puchtel, I. S.; Brandon, A. D.; Horan, M. F.; James, O. B.

    2007-01-01

    The highly siderophile elements (HSE) include Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd. These elements are initially nearly-quantitatively stripped from planetary silicate mantles during core segregation. They then may be re-enriched in mantles via continued accretion sans continued core segregation. This suite of elements and its included long-lived radiogenic isotopes systems (Re-187 (right arrow) Os-187; Pt-190 (right arrow) Os-186) can potentially be used to fingerprint the characteristics of late accreted materials. The fingerprints may ultimately be useful to constrain the prior nebular history of the dominant late accreted materials, and to compare the proportion and genesis of late accretionary materials added to the inner planets. The past ten years have seen considerable accumulation of isotopic and compositional data for HSE present in the Earth's mantle, lunar mantle and impact melt breccias, and Martian meteorites. Here we review some of these data and consider the broader implications of the compiled data.

  17. Field guide to the Mesozoic arc and accretionary complex of South-Central Alaska, Indian to Hatcher Pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan M.; Oswald, P.J.; Hults, Chad P.

    2015-01-01

    This field trip traverses exposures of a multi-generation Mesozoic magmatic arc and subduction-accretion complex that had a complicated history of magmatic activity and experienced variations in composition and deformational style in response to changes in the tectonic environment. This Mesozoic arc formed at an unknown latitude to the south, was accreted to North America, and was subsequently transported along faults to its present location (Plafker and others, 1989; Hillhouse and Coe, 1994). Some of these faults are still active. Similar tectonic, igneous, and sedimentary processes to those that formed the Mesozoic arc complex persist today in southern Alaska, building on, and deforming the Mesozoic arc. The rocks we will see on this field trip provide insights on the three-dimensional composition of the modern arc, and the processes involved in the evolution of an arc and its companion accretionary complex.

  18. PRISM software—Processing and review interface for strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher D.; Ng, Peter

    2017-11-28

    Rapidly available and accurate ground-motion acceleration time series (seismic recordings) and derived data products are essential to quickly providing scientific and engineering analysis and advice after an earthquake. To meet this need, the U.S. Geological Survey National Strong Motion Project has developed a software package called PRISM (Processing and Review Interface for Strong-Motion data). PRISM automatically processes strong-motion acceleration records, producing compatible acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series; acceleration, velocity, and displacement response spectra; Fourier amplitude spectra; and standard earthquake-intensity measures. PRISM is intended to be used by strong-motion seismic networks, as well as by earthquake engineers and seismologists.

  19. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  20. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal "executive" dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alopecia frontal fibrosante: una enfermedad en auge

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana-Sancho, A. de; Piris-García, X.; Valle-García, N.; Hierro-Cámara, M.

    2016-01-01

    La alopecia frontal fibrosante (AFF) es un tipo de alopecia cicatricial cuya incidencia está aumentando de forma significativa en nuestro país. Se caracteriza por un retroceso en la línea de implantación del pelo a nivel frontotemporal que afecta mayoritariamente a mujeres postmenopaúsicas, con un impacto negativo en su calidad de vida. Se asocia a menopausia precoz en un 14% de los casos y a hipotiroidismo en un 15%. Con respecto al tratamiento, son los inhibidores de la 5alfa-reductasa, los...

  2. Forward and inverse solutions for Risley prism based on the Denavit-Hartenberg methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Gonzalez, A.; Garcia-Torales, G.; Strojnik, M.; Flores, J. L.; Garcia-Luna, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    In this work forward and inverse solutions for two-element Risley prism for pointing and scanning beam systems are developed. A more efficient and faster algorithm is proposed to make an analogy of the Risley prism system compared with a robotic system with two degrees of freedom. This system of equations controls each Risley prism individually as a planar manipulator arm of two links. In order to evaluate the algorithm we implement it in a pointing system. We perform popular routines such as the linear, spiral and loops traces. Using forward and inverse solutions for two-element Risley prism it is also possible to point at coordinates specified by the user, provided they are within the pointer area of work area. Experimental results are showed as a validation of our proposal.

  3. Accurate geometrical optics model for single-lens stereovision system using a prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyu; Lim, Kah Bin; Guo, Qiyong; Wang, DaoLei

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new method for analyzing the image formation of a prism. The prism was considered as a single optical system composed of some planes. By analyzing each plane individually and then combining them together, we derived a transformation matrix which can express the relationship between an object point and its image by the refraction of a prism. We also explained how to use this matrix for epipolar geometry and three-dimensional point reconstruction. Our method is based on optical geometry and could be used in a multiocular prism. Experimentation results are presented to prove the accuracy of our method is better than former researchers' and is comparable with that of the multicamera stereovision system.

  4. Improvement of Mental Imagery after Prism Exposure in Neglect: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Rode

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that various symptoms of unilateral neglect, including the pathological shift of the subjective midline to the right, may be improved by a short adaptation period to a prismatic shift of the visual field to the right. We report here the improvement of imagined neglect after prism exposure in a patient with a left unilateral neglect. Despite a strong neglect observed for mental images as well as for conventional tests, the mental evocation of left-sided information from an internal image of the map of France map was fully recovered following prism adaptation to the right. This improvement could not be explained by the alteration of visuomotor responses induced by the prism adaptation. Prism adaptation may therefore act not only on sensory-motor levels but also on a higher cognitive level of mental space representation and/or exploration.

  5. Design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel for enhancing solar energy collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, Vinayak; Jiang, Dongyue; Park, Sung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present an arrayed tunable prism panel enabling wide tracking and high solar concentration. • A microfluidic technology allows a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system. • Our prism panel enables high solar concentration up to 2032× factor. • Various liquid prism configurations (stacked prism arrays) and optical materials are considered. • Their impacts on solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration are studied. - Abstract: We present the design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel that enables wide solar tracking and high solar concentration while minimizing energy loss. Each of the liquid prism modules is implemented by a microfluidic (i.e. non-mechanical) technology based on electrowetting for adaptive solar beam steering. Therefore the proposed platform offers a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system while obviating the need for bulky and heavy mechanical moving parts essentially required for a conventional motor-driven solar tracker. In this paper, various liquid prism configurations in terms of design (single, double, triple and quad-stacked prism arrays) as well as optical materials are considered and their impact on optical performance aspects such as solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration is studied. Our system is able to achieve a wide solar tracking covering the whole-day movement of the Sun and a reflection loss below 4.4% with a Rayleigh’s film for a quad-stacked prism configuration. Furthermore, an arrayed prism panel is proposed to increase the aperture area and thus allows for the collection of large amounts of sunlight. Our simulation study based on the optical design software, ZEMAX, indicates that the prism panel is capable of high solar concentration up to 2032× factor even without conventional solar tracking devices. We also deal with dispersion characteristics of the materials and their corresponding effect on

  6. PERANCANGAN DAN IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus pada Hotel X)

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Vanany; Dian Tanukhidah

    2004-01-01

    This article described a result of research design of performance measurement system in hotel business with Performance Prism Model. As long as, performance measurement system at hotel X not yet representatived organization performance according to comprehensif and integrated. Because of needed redesign performance measurement system with new model. From the objective condition of hotel X, Performance Prism model more representative than others. The result of design described that stakeholder...

  7. A study on suppressing transmittance fluctuations for air-gapped Glan-type polarizing prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanfa; Li, Dailin; Zhu, Huafeng; Li, Chuanzhi; Jiao, Zhiyong; Wang, Ning; Xu, Zhaopeng; Wang, Xiumin; Song, Lianke

    2018-05-01

    Light intensity transmittance is a key parameter for the design of polarizing prisms, while sometimes its experimental curves based on spatial incident angle presents periodical fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel method for completely suppressing these fluctuations via setting a glued error angle in the air gap of Glan-Taylor prisms. The proposal consists of: an accurate formula of the intensity transmittance for Glan-Taylor prisms, a numerical simulation and a contrast experiment of Glan-Taylor prisms for analyzing the causes of the fluctuations, and a simple method for accurately measuring the glued error angle. The result indicates that when the setting glued error angle is larger than the critical angle for a certain polarizing prism, the fluctuations can be completely suppressed, and a smooth intensity transmittance curve can be obtained. Besides, the critical angle in the air gap for suppressing the fluctuations is decreased with the increase of beam spot size. This method has the advantage of having less demand for the prism position in optical systems.

  8. Use of yoked prisms in patients with acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Surbhi; Han, Esther; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical practices for prescribing yoked prisms, as well as to assess related patient responses, in a sample of visually-symptomatic patients having acquired brain injury (ABI). The clinical records of individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) that were assessed for yoked prisms were reviewed retrospectively. This query resulted in 60 patient records for analysis between January 2011 and December 2012. The following diagnostic groups were analysed: homonymous hemianopsia (HH)/homonymous quadranopsia, abnormal egocentric localization (AEL) and visual neglect. HH/homonymous quadranopsia (58.3%) was the primary indication to prescribe yoked prisms, followed by visual neglect/unilateral spatial inattention (USI) (40.0%) and AEL (11.7%). The most common favourable patient responses were increased awareness of their blind visual field and improved gait, mobility and balance. The magnitude and direction of prisms prescribed were dependent upon the subjective responses in patients manifesting AEL. In contrast, base direction was dependent upon the direction of visual field loss in patients with HH/homonymous quadranopsia and visual neglect. Two-thirds of the present sample population responded favourably to the yoked prisms. The results of the present study should prove useful to clinicians for the successful prescription of yoked prisms as a treatment modality in patients presenting with the above three diagnoses.

  9. PRISM Software: Processing and Review Interface for Strong‐Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher D.; Ng, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A continually increasing number of high‐quality digital strong‐motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey, as well as data from regional seismic networks within the United States, calls for automated processing of strong‐motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System (AQMS), PRISM automates the processing of strong‐motion records. When used without AQMS, PRISM provides batch‐processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform independent (coded in Java), open source, and does not depend on any closed‐source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a review tool, which is a graphical user interface for manual review, edit, and processing. To facilitate use by non‐NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and review tool) is easy to install and run as a stand‐alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X, and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. All the computing features have been thoroughly tested.

  10. Better without (lateral) frontal cortex? Insight problems solved by frontal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverberi, Carlo; Toraldo, Alessio; D'Agostini, Serena; Skrap, Miran

    2005-12-01

    A recently proposed theory on frontal lobe functions claims that the prefrontal cortex, particularly its dorso-lateral aspect, is crucial in defining a set of responses suitable for a particular task, and biasing these for selection. This activity is carried out for virtually any kind of non-routine tasks, without distinction of content. The aim of this study is to test the prediction of Frith's 'sculpting the response space' hypothesis by means of an 'insight' problem-solving task, namely the matchstick arithmetic task. Starting from Knoblich et al.'s interpretation for the failure of healthy controls to solve the matchstick problem, and Frith's theory on the role of dorsolateral frontal cortex, we derived the counterintuitive prediction that patients with focal damage to the lateral frontal cortex should perform better than a group of healthy participants on this rather difficult task. We administered the matchstick task to 35 patients (aged 26-65 years) with a single focal brain lesion as determined by a CT or an MRI scan, and to 23 healthy participants (aged 34-62 years). The findings seemed in line with theoretical predictions. While only 43% of healthy participants could solve the most difficult matchstick problems ('type C'), 82% of lateral frontal patients did so (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the combination of Frith's and Knoblich et al.'s theories was corroborated.

  11. Asymmetrical effects of adaptation to left- and right-shifting prisms depends on pre-existing attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedert, Kelly M; Leblanc, Andrew; Tsai, Sen-Wei; Barrett, Anna M

    2010-09-01

    Proposals that adaptation with left-shifting prisms induces neglect-like symptoms in normal individuals rely on a dissociation between the postadaptation performance of individuals trained with left- versus right-shifting prisms (e.g., Colent, Pisella, & Rossetti, 2000). A potential problem with this evidence is that normal young adults have an a priori leftward bias (e.g., Jewell & McCourt, 2000). In Experiment 1, we compared the line bisection performance of young adults to that of aged adults, who as a group may lack a leftward bias in line bisection. Participants trained with both left- and right-shifting prisms. Consistent with our hypothesis, while young adults demonstrated aftereffects for left, but not right prisms, aged adults demonstrated reliable aftereffects for both prisms. In Experiment 2, we recruited a larger sample of young adults, some of whom were right-biased at baseline. We observed an interaction between baseline bias and prism-shift, consistent with the results of Experiment 1: Left-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with right-shifting prisms and right-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with left-shifting prisms. These results suggest that previous failures to find generalizable aftereffects with right-shifting prisms may be driven by participants' baseline biases rather than specific effects of the prism itself.

  12. Regulatory behavior and frontal activity: Considering the role of revised-BIS in relative right frontal asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Neal, Lauren B; Threadgill, A Hunter

    2018-01-01

    Essential to human behavior are three core personality systems: approach, avoidance, and a regulatory system governing the two motivational systems. Decades of research has linked approach motivation with greater relative left frontal-cortical asymmetry. Other research has linked avoidance motivation with greater relative right frontal-cortical asymmetry. However, past work linking withdrawal motivation with greater relative right frontal asymmetry has been mixed. The current article reviews evidence suggesting that activation of the regulatory system (revised Behavioral Inhibition System [r-BIS]) may be more strongly related to greater relative right frontal asymmetry than withdrawal motivation. Specifically, research suggests that greater activation of the r-BIS is associated with greater relative right frontal activity, and reduced r-BIS activation is associated with reduced right frontal activity (greater relative left frontal activity). We review evidence examining trait and state frontal activity using EEG, source localization, lesion studies, neuronal stimulation, and fMRI supporting the idea that r-BIS may be the core personality system related to greater relative right frontal activity. In addition, the current review seeks to disentangle avoidance motivation and r-BIS as substrates of relative right frontal asymmetry. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Frontal sinus revision rate after nasal polyposis surgery including frontal recess clearance and middle turbinectomy: A long-term analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhatar, Hakim; Khettab, Idir; Sultanik, Philippe; Laccourreye, Ollivier; Bonfils, Pierre

    2018-08-01

    To determine the frontal sinus revision rate after nasal polyposis (NP) surgery including frontal recess clearance (FRC) and middle turbinectomy (MT), to search for predictive factors and to analyse surgical management. Longitudinal analysis of 153 patients who consecutively underwent bilateral sphenoethmoidectomy with FRC and MT for NP with a minimum follow-up of 7 years. Decision of revision surgery was made in case of medically refractory chronic frontal sinusitis or frontal mucocele. Univariate and multivariate analysis incorporating clinical and radiological variables were performed. The frontal sinus revision rate was 6.5% (10/153). The mean time between the initial procedure and revision surgery was 3 years, 10 months. Osteitis around the frontal sinus outflow tract (FSOT) was associated with a higher risk of frontal sinus revision surgery (p=0.01). Asthma and aspirin intolerance did not increase the risk, as well as frontal sinus ostium diameter or residual frontoethmoid cells. Among revised patients, 60% required multiple procedures and 70% required frontal sinus ostium enlargement. Our long-term study reports that NP surgery including FRC and MT is associated with a low frontal sinus revision rate (6.5%). Patients developing osteitis around the FSOT have a higher risk of frontal sinus revision surgery. As mucosal damage can lead to osteitis, FSOT mucosa should be preserved during initial NP surgery. However, as multiple procedures are common among NP patients requiring frontal sinus revision, frontal sinus ostium enlargement should be considered during first revision in the hope of reducing the need of further revisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Effect of prism adaptation on left dichotic listening deficit in neglect patients: glasses to hear better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin-Courtois, S; Rode, G; Pavani, F; O'Shea, J; Giard, M H; Boisson, D; Rossetti, Y

    2010-03-01

    Unilateral neglect is a disabling syndrome frequently observed following right hemisphere brain damage. Symptoms range from visuo-motor impairments through to deficient visuo-spatial imagery, but impairment can also affect the auditory modality. A short period of adaptation to a rightward prismatic shift of the visual field is known to improve a wide range of hemispatial neglect symptoms, including visuo-manual tasks, mental imagery, postural imbalance, visuo-verbal measures and number bisection. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the beneficial effects of prism adaptation may generalize to auditory manifestations of neglect. Auditory extinction, whose clinical manifestations are independent of the sensory modalities engaged in visuo-manual adaptation, was examined in neglect patients before and after prism adaptation. Two separate groups of neglect patients (all of whom exhibited left auditory extinction) underwent prism adaptation: one group (n = 6) received a classical prism treatment ('Prism' group), the other group (n = 6) was submitted to the same procedure, but wore neutral glasses creating no optical shift (placebo 'Control' group). Auditory extinction was assessed by means of a dichotic listening task performed three times: prior to prism exposure (pre-test), upon prism removal (0 h post-test) and 2 h later (2 h post-test). The total number of correct responses, the lateralization index (detection asymmetry between the two ears) and the number of left-right fusion errors were analysed. Our results demonstrate that prism adaptation can improve left auditory extinction, thus revealing transfer of benefit to a sensory modality that is orthogonal to the visual, proprioceptive and motor modalities directly implicated in the visuo-motor adaptive process. The observed benefit was specific to the detection asymmetry between the two ears and did not affect the total number of responses. This indicates a specific effect of prism adaptation on

  16. Interaction of Structure and Physical Properties in Accretionary Wedges: Examples from the Cascadia and Nankai Trough Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Susanna I.

    Subduction zones are capable of producing large, megathrust earthquakes that are sometimes tsunamigenic. Structure and physical properties in the accretionary wedge play a role in how far rupture can propagate and how the wedge deforms coseismically. In this dissertation, I use seismic reflection data and velocity models from the Cascadia subduction zone and logging data from the Nankai Trough, Japan, to interpret structure, link structure to the broader wedge deformation history, and investigate the material properties at depth. I present a full structural interpretation of newly acquired seismic reflection data in the central Cascadia margin, which is characterized by dominantly landward vergent faulting in the outer wedge, a very low wedge taper angle, and a broad, lightly deformed lower slope terrace. Two decollements are active: an upper decollement within the sedimentary section, and a basal decollement at the sediment-basement interface. These interpretations help delineate the spatial extent of decollements and suggest that supra-wedge sedimentation may influence the development of the wedge, including the formation of the lower slope terrace and out of sequence fault activity. I use velocity models from central Cascadia to estimate excess pore fluid pressure and overpressure ratio at depth, which do not exceed 5 MPa and 0.15, respectively. No excess pore pressure is documented in the underthrust sediment section, but modest overpressure is likely present in the incoming sediment section and the footwalls of thrust sheets. The analysis of pore pressure shows that (1) if the base of the wedge is weak, it is due to mechanical properties of the sediments or a relatively thin underthrust layer and (2) the Cascadia wedge is relatively well-drained, and thus potentially strong, which can lead to a low wedge taper angle. In the Nankai Trough, Japan, I reprocessed sonic log data to obtain P-wave and S-wave velocity values and estimate elastic moduli. The logs

  17. Pott's Puffy Tumor Arising from Frontal Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hyun Koo [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Pott's puffy tumor is an extremely rare and potentially life-threatening complication of frontal sinusitis. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with mild tenderness on the glabellar area and diplopia. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. Following sinus trephination and long-term antibiotic therapy, the patient achieved a complete recovery.

  18. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    by use of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings and is highly nonlinear.

  19. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He dating of teschenite intrusions gives time constraints on accretionary processes and development of planation surfaces in the Outer Western Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danisik, Martin; Frisch, Wolfgang [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences; Panek, Tomas [Ostrava Univ. (Czech Republic). Dept. of Physical Geography and Geoecology; Matysek, Dalibor [Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Engineering; Dunkl, Istvan [Geoscience Center Goettingen (Germany). Sedimentology and Environmental Geology

    2008-09-15

    The age of planation surfaces in the Podbeskydska pahorkatina Upland in the Outer Western Carpathians (OWC, Czech Republic) is constrained by low-temperature thermochronological dating methods for the first time. Our apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He data measured on teschenite intrusions show that planation surfaces in the study area formed in post-Pannonian time (>7.1 Ma) and are therefore younger than traditionally believed. This contradicts the classical concepts, which stipulate that a large regional planation surface of Pannonian age (the so-called ''midmountain level'') developed in the whole Western Carpathians. Geodynamic implications of our data are the following: (i) the investigated Tesin and Godula nappes of the OWC were buried and thermally overprinted in the accretionary wedge in different ways, and consequently experienced different cooling histories. This indicates a dynamic basin setting with an active accretionary process in a subduction zone; (ii) accretionary processes in the OWC were active already during Late Eocene times. (orig.)

  20. Grammatical distinctions in the left frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, K A; Pascual-Leone, A; Mottaghy, F M; Gangitano, M; Caramazza, A

    2001-08-15

    Selective deficits in producing verbs relative to nouns in speech are well documented in neuropsychology and have been associated with left hemisphere frontal cortical lesions resulting from stroke and other neurological disorders. The basis for these impairments is unresolved: Do they arise because of differences in the way grammatical categories of words are organized in the brain, or because of differences in the neural representation of actions and objects? We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress the excitability of a portion of left prefrontal cortex and to assess its role in producing nouns and verbs. In one experiment subjects generated real words; in a second, they produced pseudowords as nouns or verbs. In both experiments, response latencies increased for verbs but were unaffected for nouns following rTMS. These results demonstrate that grammatical categories have a neuroanatomical basis and that the left prefrontal cortex is selectively engaged in processing verbs as grammatical objects.

  1. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  2. Frontal lobe function in chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Majid; Nejati, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players don't have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players don't have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  3. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  4. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benerji, N. S., E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A.; Varshnay, N.; Singh, Bijendra, E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in [Excimer Laser Section, LMPD, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2015-07-15

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  5. Prism adaptation does not alter object-based attention in healthy participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultitude, Janet H.

    2013-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’) is a disabling condition that can follow damage to the right side of the brain, in which patients show difficulty in responding to or orienting towards objects and events that occur on the left side of space. Symptoms of neglect can manifest in both space- and object-based frames of reference. Although patients can show a combination of these two forms of neglect, they are considered separable and have distinct neurological bases. In recent years considerable evidence has emerged to demonstrate that spatial symptoms of neglect can be reduced by an intervention called prism adaptation. Patients point towards objects viewed through prismatic lenses that shift the visual image to the right. Approximately five minutes of repeated pointing results in a leftward recalibration of pointing and improved performance on standard clinical tests for neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Here we examined the effect of prism adaptation on the performance of healthy participants who completed a computerised test of space- and object-based attention. Participants underwent adaptation to leftward- or rightward-shifting prisms, or performed neutral pointing according to a between-groups design. Significant pointing after-effects were found for both prism groups, indicating successful adaptation. In addition, the results of the computerised test revealed larger reaction-time costs associated with shifts of attention between two objects compared to shifts of attention within the same object, replicating previous work. However there were no differences in the performance of the three groups, indicating that prism adaptation did not influence space- or object-based attention for this task. When combined with existing literature, the results are consistent with the proposal that prism

  6. Structures within the oceanic crust of the central South China Sea basin and their implications for oceanic accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weiwei; Sun, Zhen; Dadd, Kelsie; Fang, Yinxia; Li, Jiabiao

    2018-04-01

    Internal structures in mature oceanic crust can elucidate understanding of the processes and mechanism of crustal accretion. In this study, we present two multi-channel seismic (MCS) transects across the northern flank of the South China Sea basin to reveal the internal structures related to Cenozoic tectono-magmatic processes during seafloor spreading. Bright reflectors within the oceanic crust, including the Moho, upper crustal reflectors, and lower crustal reflectors, are clearly imaged in these two transects. The Moho reflection displays varied character in continuity, shape and amplitude from the continental slope area to the abyssal basin, and becomes absent in the central part of the basin where abundant seamounts and seamount chains formed after the cessation of seafloor spreading. Dipping reflectors are distinct in most parts of the MCS data but generally confined to the lower crust above the Moho reflection. These lower crustal reflectors merge downward into the Moho without offsetting it, probably arising from shear zones between the crust and mantle characterized by interstitial melt, although we cannot exclude other possibilities such as brittle faulting or magmatic layering in the local area. A notable feature of these lower crustal reflector events is their opposite inclinations. We suggest the two groups of conjugate lower crustal reflector events observed between magnetic anomalies C11 and C8 were associated with two unusual accretionary processes arising from plate reorganizations with southward ridge jumps.

  7. Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM): A novel visual instrument to measure quality of life in dermatological inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, Beda; Büchi, Stefan; Schmidhauser, Simone; Jenewein, Josef; French, Lars E; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2009-07-01

    To validate the PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) tool, a novel visual instrument, for the assessment of health-related quality of life in dermatological inpatients compared with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and the Skindex-29 questionnaires and to report qualitative information on PRISM. In an open longitudinal study, PRISM and Skindex-29 and DLQI questionnaires were completed and HRQOL measurements compared. Academic dermatological inpatient ward. The study population comprised 227 sequential dermatological inpatients on admission. Patients completed the PRISM tool and the Skindex-29 and DLQI questionnaires at admission and discharge. PRISM Self-Illness Separation (SIS) score; Skindex-29 and DLQI scores; and qualitative PRISM information by Mayring inductive qualitative context analysis. The PRISM scores correlated well with those from the Skindex-29 (rho = 0.426; P quality of life questionnaires to assess changes in the burden of suffering during hospitalization. Inductive qualitative context analysis revealed impairment of adjustment and self-image as major aspects. Patients overall expected symptomatic and functional improvement. In patients with psoriasis and leg ulcers, many expected no treatment benefit. The PRISM tool proved to be convenient and reliable for health-related quality of life assessment, applicable for a wide range of skin diseases, and correlated with DLQI and Skindex-29 scores. With the PRISM tool, free-text answers allow for the assessment of individual information and potentially customized therapeutic approaches.

  8. What makes a frontal area of primate brain the frontal eye field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre ePouget

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The frontal eye field region (FEF of the oculomotor pathways has been intensely studied. The primary goal of this review is to illustrate the phylogenetic displacement of the FEF locus in primate species. The locus is arrayed along the arcuate sulcus in monkeys and abuts into the primary motor strip region in humans. The strengths and limitations of the various functional, anatomical and histological methodologies used to identify such regions are also discussed.

  9. Frontal Fibers Connecting the Superior Frontal Gyrus to Broca Area: A Corticocortical Evoked Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ookawa, Satoshi; Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ochi, Satoko; Akiyama, Yukinori; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Riki; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-11-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using corticocortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). This study enrolled 8 patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language-dominant side. All patients underwent CCEP recordings during tumor resection or during invasive evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Alternating 1-Hz electrical stimuli were delivered to pars opercularis (pO) and pars triangularis (pT), corresponding to Broca area, and SFG via the subdural grid electrodes with intensity of 10 mA. Electrocorticograms from SFG and pO/pT time-locked to 50 stimuli were averaged in each trial to obtain CCEP responses. In all patients, stimulation of pO/pT induced CCEP responses in SFG. CCEP responses were recorded in lateral SFG in 5 patients and in supplementary motor areas in 4 patients. Reciprocality was observed in 7 patients in the stimulation of SFG. CCEP responses were significantly faster at SFG from pO/pT than at pO/pT from SFG (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.028). The present study demonstrated a corticocortical network connecting Broca areas and SFG in a reciprocal manner. Our findings might provide new insight into language and motor integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Frontally confined versus frontally emergent submarine landslides: A 3D seismic characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey-Martinez, Jose; Cartwright, Joe; James, David [3DLab. School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 914, Cardiff CF10 3YE (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data from the continental margin offshore Israel (Eastern Mediterranean) have been used to analyse the compressional structures within the toe regions of two major buried submarine landslides: the ISC and the T20. Both landslides are developed within a Plio-Pleistocene slope succession composed predominately of claystones, limestones and siltstones. The high spatial resolution provided by the seismic data has allowed a detailed analysis of the geometries and deformational structures within the toe regions of the two landslides, and this has been used to develop a mechanical model for their development. Importantly, it has been recognised that submarine landslides may be divided into two main types according to their form of frontal emplacement: frontally confined and frontally emergent. In the former, the landslide undergoes a restricted downslope translation and does not overrun the undeformed downslope strata. In the latter, much larger downslope translation occurs because the landslide is able to ramp up from its original basal shear surface and translate in an unconfined manner over the seafloor. We propose that these two types of submarine landslides are end members of a continuum of gravity-driven slope failure processes, which extends from landslides where the headscarp is completely evacuated, to landslides where the material remains entirely within the headscarp. The differentiation of these two end members is of critical importance as their respective mechanisms of formation, downslope propagation and emplacement are significantly different, and hence need to be taken into consideration when analysing their respective kinematics. (author)

  11. Beyond the sensorimotor plasticity: cognitive expansion of prism adaptation in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eMICHEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor plasticity allows us to maintain an efficient motor behavior in reaction to environmental changes. One of the classical models for the study of sensorimotor plasticity is prism adaptation. It consists of pointing to visual targets while wearing prismatic lenses that shift the visual field laterally. The conditions of the development of the plasticity and the sensorimotor after-effects have been extensively studied for more than a century. However, the interest taken in this phenomenon was considerably increased since the demonstration of neglect rehabilitation following prism adaptation by Rossetti and his colleagues in 1998. Mirror effects, i.e. simulation of neglect in healthy individuals, were observed for the first time by Colent and collaborators in 2000. The present review focuses on the expansion of prism adaptation to cognitive functions in healthy individuals during the last 15 years. Cognitive after-effects have been shown in numerous tasks even in those that are not intrinsically spatial in nature. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of a strong link between low-level sensorimotor plasticity and high-level cognitive functions and raise important questions about the mechanisms involved in producing unexpected cognitive effects following prism adaptation. Implications for the functional mechanisms and neuroanatomical network of prism adaptation are discussed to explain how sensorimotor plasticity may affect cognitive processes.

  12. Porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms for high performance electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianbo; Li, Man; Li, Junru; Wei, Chengzhen; He, Yuyue; Huang, Yixuan; Li, Qiaoling

    2017-12-01

    Porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms have been successfully synthesized via a facile route. The process involves the preparation of nickel-cobalt-manganese acetate hydroxide by a simple co-precipitation method and subsequently the thermal treatment. The as-synthesized Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms had a large surface area (96.53 m2 g-1) and porous structure. As electrode materials for supercapacitors, porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms showed a high specific capacitance of 1623.5 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1. Moreover, the porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms were also employed as positive electrode materials to assemble flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The resulting flexible device had a maximum volumetric energy density (0.885 mW h cm-3) and power density (48.9 mW cm-3). Encouragingly, the flexible device exhibited good cycling stability with only about 2.2% loss after 5000 charge-discharge cycles and excellent mechanical stability. These results indicate that porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms have the promising application in high performance electrochemical energy storage.

  13. Fusional Vergence Detected by Prism Bar and Synoptophore in Chinese Childhood Intermittent Exotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure the changes in fusional vergence in Chinese children with intermittent exotropia (IXT and the association with the control of IXT. Methods. Ninety-two patients with IXT (8–15 years old were compared with 86 controls. Exodeviation control was evaluated using the Revised Newcastle Control Score. Angle of deviation was measured using prism and alternate cover testing at distance and near. Fusional vergence was measured using prism bar and synoptophore. This study was registered with ChiCTR-RCC-13003920. Results. Using prism bar, convergence break points were lower whereas divergence break points were higher in children with IXT at distance (P<0.001 and near (P<0.001 compared with controls. There was no significant difference in mean divergence amplitudes between the two groups when testing using a synoptophore (P=0.53. In children with IXT, the distance between recovery point and break point in both convergence (distance: P=0.02; near: P=0.02 and divergence (distance: P<0.001; near: P<0.001 was larger than controls when detected by prism bar and synoptophore (convergence: P=0.005; divergence: P=0.006. Conclusions. Children with IXT have reduced convergence amplitudes as detected by both prism bar and synoptophore.

  14. Affective three-dimensional brain-computer interface created using a prism array-based display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    To avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we applied a prism array-based display when presenting three-dimensional (3-D) objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli to increase the signal-to-noise ratios of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) because involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanisms can enhance SSVEP amplitudes, thus producing increased interaction efficiency. Ten male and nine female participants voluntarily participated in our experiments. Participants were asked to control objects under three viewing conditions: two-dimension (2-D), stereoscopic 3-D, and prism. The participants performed each condition in a counter-balanced order. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant increases in the positive predictive values in the prism condition compared to the 2-D and 3-D conditions. Participants' subjective ratings of realness and engagement were also significantly greater in the prism condition than in the 2-D and 3-D conditions, while the ratings for visual fatigue were significantly reduced in the prism condition than in the 3-D condition. The proposed methods are expected to enhance the sense of reality in 3-D space without causing critical visual fatigue. In addition, people who are especially susceptible to stereoscopic 3-D may be able to use the affective brain-computer interface.

  15. Is the Frontal Assessment Battery reliable in ALS patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Beeldman, E.; Jaeger, B.; Schmand, B.A.; Berg, L.H. van den; Weikamp, J.G.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Visser, M. de; Haan, R.J. de

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of frontal functions in ALS patients is important because of the overlap with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We investigated the applicability and reliability of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) within a cohort of predominantly prevalent ALS patients.

  16. Non-frontal Model Based Approach to Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-frontal model based approach which ensures that a face recognition system always gets to compare images having similar view (or pose). This requires a virtual suspect reference set that consists of non-frontal suspect images having pose similar to the surveillance

  17. The statistical neuroanatomy of frontal networks in the macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B Averbeck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We were interested in gaining insight into the functional properties of frontal networks based upon their anatomical inputs. We took a neuroinformatics approach, carrying out maximum likelihood hierarchical cluster analysis on 25 frontal cortical areas based upon their anatomical connections, with 68 input areas representing exterosensory, chemosensory, motor, limbic, and other frontal inputs. The analysis revealed a set of statistically robust clusters. We used these clusters to divide the frontal areas into 5 groups, including ventral-lateral, ventral-medial, dorsal-medial, dorsal-lateral, and caudal-orbital groups. Each of these groups was defined by a unique set of inputs. This organization provides insight into the differential roles of each group of areas and suggests a gradient by which orbital and ventral-medial areas may be responsible for decision-making processes based on emotion and primary reinforcers, and lateral frontal areas are more involved in integrating affective and rational information into a common framework.

  18. Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James A; Allen, John J B

    2004-10-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry appears to serve as (1) an individual difference variable related to emotional responding and emotional disorders, and (2) a state-dependent concomitant of emotional responding. Such findings, highlighted in this review, suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry may serve as both a moderator and a mediator of emotion- and motivation-related constructs. Unequivocal evidence supporting frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and/or mediator of emotion is lacking, as insufficient attention has been given to analyzing the frontal EEG asymmetries in terms of moderators and mediators. The present report reviews the frontal EEG asymmetry literature from the framework of moderators and mediators, and overviews data analytic strategies that would support claims of moderation and mediation.

  19. Single-Frequency Nd:YAG Ring Lasers with Corner Cube Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-Ying; Yang, Su-Hui; Zhao, Chang-Ming; Wei, Guang-Hui

    2000-10-01

    We put forward another form of the non-planar ring lasers, in which the corner cube prism is the key element and the Nd:YAG crystal is used as a Porro prism to enclose the ring resonator. The phase shift due to the total internal reflections of the three differently orientated reflection planes of the corner cube prism, Faraday rotation in the Nd:YAG crystal placed in a magnetic field and the different output coupling in S and P polarization form an optical diode and enforce the single-frequency generating power. A round trip analysis of the polarization properties of the resonator is made by the evaluation of Jones matrix.

  20. Laser Oscillator Incorporating a Wedged Polarization Rotator and a Porro Prism as Cavity Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A laser cavity was designed and implemented by using a wedged polarization rotator and a Porro prism in order to reduce the parts count, and to improve the laser reliability. In this invention, a z-cut quartz polarization rotator is used to compensate the wavelength retardance introduced by the Porro prism. The polarization rotator rotates the polarization of the linear polarized beam with a designed angle that is independent of the orientation of the rotator. This unique property was used to combine the retardance compensation and a Risley prism to a single optical component: a wedged polarization rotator. This greatly simplifies the laser alignment procedure and reduces the number of the laser optical components.

  1. Numerical and experimental evaluation of masonry prisms by finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F.R. SANTOS

    Full Text Available Abstract This work developed experimental tests and numerical models able to represent the mechanical behavior of prisms made of ordinary and high strength concrete blocks. Experimental tests of prisms were performed and a detailed micro-modeling strategy was adopted for numerical analysis. In this modeling technique, each material (block and mortar was represented by its own mechanical properties. The validation of numerical models was based on experimental results. It was found that the obtained numerical values of compressive strength and modulus of elasticity differ by 5% from the experimentally observed values. Moreover, mechanisms responsible for the rupture of the prisms were evaluated and compared to the behaviors observed in the tests and those described in the literature. Through experimental results it is possible to conclude that the numerical models have been able to represent both the mechanical properties and the mechanisms responsible for failure.

  2. Os experimentos prismáticos de Goethe Goethe's prismatic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Jordan

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio pretende estimular a realização de experimentos prismáticos com recursos muito simples e, com isso, facilitar o acesso aos fundamentais estudos de Goethe sobre cor, a "Farbenlehre". O encarte anexo contém fotos de um processo prismático complementar, produzido por Imagens-Modelo em Claro-Escuro neutro. Contém ainda fotos de imagens prismáticas produzidas por Imagens-Modelo em cores.The essay intends to stimulate the carrying out of prismatic experiments with very simple resources and, therewith, ease the access to Goethe's fundamental color studies, the "Farbenlehre". The included folder contains photographs of a complementary prismatic process produced by neutral bright-dark Model-Images. It also contains photographs of prismatic images produced by colored Model-Images.

  3. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation-the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex-would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  4. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Z. Ramsøy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  5. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K.; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing. PMID:29662432

  6. Trauma of the Frontal Region Is Influenced by the Volume of Frontal Sinuses. A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srbislav S. Pajic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses. By modifying the reference model, three additional models were generated: a model without sinuses, with hypoplasic, and with hyperplasic sinuses. A 7.7 kN force was applied perpendicularly to the forehead of each model, in order to simulate a frontal impact. The results demonstrated that the distribution of impact stress in frontal region depends on the frontal sinus volume. The anterior sinus wall showed the highest fragility in case with hyperplasic sinuses, whereas posterior wall/inner plate showed more fragility in cases with hypoplasic and undeveloped sinuses. Well-developed frontal sinuses might, through absorption of the impact energy by anterior wall, protect the posterior wall and intracranial contents.

  7. Spherical Lenses and Prisms Lead to Postural Instability in Both Dyslexic and Non Dyslexic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoi; Gaertner, Chrystal; Matheron, Eric

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy as to whether dyslexic children present systematic postural deficiency. Clinicians use a combination of ophthalmic prisms and proprioceptive soles to improve postural performances. This study examines the effects of convergent prisms and spherical lenses on posture. Fourteen dyslexics (13–17 years-old) and 11 non dyslexics (13–16 years-old) participated in the study. Quiet stance posturography was performed with the TechnoConcept device while subjects fixated a target at eye-level from a distance of 1_m. Four conditions were run: normal viewing; viewing the target with spherical lenses of −1 diopter (ACCOM1) over each eye; viewing with −3 diopters over each eye (ACCOM3); viewing with a convergent prism of 8 diopters per eye. Relative to normal viewing, the −1 lenses increased the surface of body sway significantly whereas the −3 diopter lenses only resulted in a significant increase of antero-posterior body sway. Thus, adolescents would appear to cope more effectively with stronger conflicts rather than subtle ones. The prism condition resulted in a significant increase in both the surface and the antero-posterior body sway. Importantly, all of these effects were similar for the two groups. Wavelet analysis (time frequency domain) revealed high spectral power of antero-posterior sway for the prism condition in both groups. In the ACCOM3 condition, the spectral power of antero-posterior sway decreased for non dyslexics but increased for dyslexics suggesting that dyslexics encounter more difficulty with accommodation. The cancelling time for medium range frequency (believed to be controlled by the cerebellum), was shorter in dyslexics, suggesting fewer instances of optimal control. We conclude that dyslexics achieve similar postural performances albeit less efficiently. Prisms and lenses destabilize posture for all teenagers. Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to

  8. Spherical lenses and prisms lead to postural instability in both dyslexic and non dyslexic adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Kapoula

    Full Text Available There is controversy as to whether dyslexic children present systematic postural deficiency. Clinicians use a combination of ophthalmic prisms and proprioceptive soles to improve postural performances. This study examines the effects of convergent prisms and spherical lenses on posture. Fourteen dyslexics (13-17 years-old and 11 non dyslexics (13-16 years-old participated in the study. Quiet stance posturography was performed with the TechnoConcept device while subjects fixated a target at eye-level from a distance of 1_m. Four conditions were run: normal viewing; viewing the target with spherical lenses of -1 diopter (ACCOM1 over each eye; viewing with -3 diopters over each eye (ACCOM3; viewing with a convergent prism of 8 diopters per eye. Relative to normal viewing, the -1 lenses increased the surface of body sway significantly whereas the -3 diopter lenses only resulted in a significant increase of antero-posterior body sway. Thus, adolescents would appear to cope more effectively with stronger conflicts rather than subtle ones. The prism condition resulted in a significant increase in both the surface and the antero-posterior body sway. Importantly, all of these effects were similar for the two groups. Wavelet analysis (time frequency domain revealed high spectral power of antero-posterior sway for the prism condition in both groups. In the ACCOM3 condition, the spectral power of antero-posterior sway decreased for non dyslexics but increased for dyslexics suggesting that dyslexics encounter more difficulty with accommodation. The cancelling time for medium range frequency (believed to be controlled by the cerebellum, was shorter in dyslexics, suggesting fewer instances of optimal control. We conclude that dyslexics achieve similar postural performances albeit less efficiently. Prisms and lenses destabilize posture for all teenagers. Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to

  9. Strategic Planning for Chronic Disease Prevention in Rural America: Looking Through a PRISM Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Amanda A; Wile, Kristina; Dove, Cassandra; Hawkins, Jackie; Orenstein, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Community-level strategic planning for chronic disease prevention. To share the outcomes of the strategic planning process used by Mississippi Delta stakeholders to prevent and reduce the negative impacts of chronic disease in their communities. A key component of strategic planning was participants' use of the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) to project the reduction, compared with the status quo, in deaths and costs from implementing interventions in Mississippi Delta communities. Participants in Mississippi Delta strategic planning meetings used PRISM, a user-friendly, evidence-based simulation tool that includes 22 categories of policy, systems, and environmental change interventions, to pose what-if questions that explore the likely short- and long-term effects of an intervention or any desired combination of the 22 categories of chronic disease intervention programs and policies captured in PRISM. These categories address smoking, air pollution, poor nutrition, and lack of physical activity. Strategic planning participants used PRISM outputs to inform their decisions and actions to implement interventions. Rural communities in the Mississippi Delta. A diverse group of 29 to 34 local chronic disease prevention stakeholders, known as the Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance. Community plans and actions that were developed and implemented as a result of local strategic planning. Existing strategic planning efforts were complemented by the use of PRISM. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance decided to implement new interventions to improve air quality and transportation and to expand existing interventions to reduce tobacco use and increase access to healthy foods. They also collaborated with the Department of Transportation to raise awareness and use of the current transportation network. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance strategic planning process was complemented by the use of PRISM as a tool for strategic planning, which led to the

  10. Instantaneous flow field above the free end of finite-height cylinders and prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostamy, N.; Sumner, D.; Bergstrom, D.J.; Bugg, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PIV measurements of the flow above the free end of finite-height bodies. • Effect of cross-sectional shape of the models on the instantaneous flow. • Small-scale structures generated by the separated shear layer were revealed. • Effect of aspect ratio on the reattachment of the separated flow on the free end. -- Abstract: The flow above the free ends of surface-mounted finite-height circular cylinders and square prisms was studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Cylinders and prisms with aspect ratios of AR = 9, 7, 5, and 3 were tested at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.2 × 10 4 . The bodies were mounted normal to a ground plane and were partially immersed in a turbulent zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer, where the boundary layer thickness relative to the body width was δ/D = 1.6. PIV measurements were made above the free ends of the bodies in a vertical plane aligned with the flow centreline. The present PIV results provide insight into the effects of aspect ratio and body shape on the instantaneous flow field. The recirculation zone under the separated shear layer is larger for the square prism of AR = 3 compared to the more slender prism of AR = 9. Also, for a square prism with low aspect ratio (AR = 3), the influence of the reverse flow over the free end surface becomes more significant compared to that for a higher aspect ratio (AR = 9). For the circular cylinder, a cross-stream vortex forms within the recirculation zone. As the aspect ratio of the cylinder decreases, the reattachment point of the separated flow on the free end surface moves closer to the trailing edge. For both the square prism and circular cylinder cases, the instantaneous velocity vector field and associated in-plane vorticity field revealed small-scale structures mostly generated by the separated shear layer

  11. The application of the right rectangular prism in the process determining the value of terrain correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Oleg R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of topographic masses on gravity were determined for the territory of Serbia by using the digital terrain model with resolution of 1 arch second in both directions. For the effect of distant masses, i.e. masses that are out of the territory of Serbia, a global digital model SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was used. All the topography masses were divided by using a right rectangle prism and classic terrain corrections was applied. Special attention was dedicated to the curvatures of the Earth surface and singularity points, where equations for first partial derivatives of prism gravity potential are not defined.

  12. Evaluation of the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework: evidence from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqil Anwer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound policy, resource allocation and day-to-day management decisions in the health sector require timely information from routine health information systems (RHIS. In most low- and middle-income countries, the RHIS is viewed as being inadequate in providing quality data and continuous information that can be used to help improve health system performance. In addition, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of RHIS strengthening interventions in improving data quality and use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the newly developed Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework, which consists of a conceptual framework and associated data collection and analysis tools to assess, design, strengthen and evaluate RHIS. The specific objectives of the study are: a to assess the reliability and validity of the PRISM instruments and b to assess the validity of the PRISM conceptual framework. Methods Facility- and worker-level data were collected from 110 health care facilities in twelve districts in Uganda in 2004 and 2007 using records reviews, structured interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The analysis procedures include Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency of selected instruments, test-retest analysis to assess the reliability and sensitivity of the instruments, and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques to assess validity of the PRISM instruments and conceptual framework. Results Cronbach's alpha analysis suggests high reliability (0.7 or greater for the indices measuring a promotion of a culture of information, RHIS tasks self-efficacy and motivation. The study results also suggest that a promotion of a culture of information influences RHIS tasks self-efficacy, RHIS tasks competence and motivation, and that self-efficacy and the presence of RHIS staff have a direct influence on the use of RHIS information, a key aspect of RHIS performance

  13. On improvement of the series convergence in the problem of the vibrations of orhotropic rectangular prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashko, A. D.

    2017-11-01

    A new analytical presentation of the solution for steady-state oscillations of orthotopic rectangular prism is found. The corresponding infinite system of linear algebraic equations has been deduced by the superposition method. A countable set of precise eigenfrequencies and elementary eigenforms is found. The identities are found which make it possible to improve the convergence of all the infinite series in the solution of the problem. All the infinite series in presentation of solution are analytically summed up. Numerical calculations of stresses in the rectangular orthotropic prism with a uniform along the border and harmonic in time load on two opposite faces have been performed.

  14. Cirurgia de osteoma de seio frontal Surgery of frontal sinus osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira Fobe

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os osteomas do seio frontal correspondem a 57% dos osteomas dos seios paranasais, com incidência variando de 0,01% a 3%. A remoção cirúrgica nos osteomas frontais é indicada nos pacientes sintomáticos. Nos pacientes assintomáticos pode-se adotar a conduta conservadora ou cirúrgica em todos os pacientes independente da sua localização ou extensão. Cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de osteoma de seio frontal foram operados entre 1995 e 1999. A idade média foi 38,4 anos (extremos de 12 a 55 anos, sendo 3 homens e 2 mulheres. O período de sintomatologia variou de 6 meses a 3 anos com média de 10,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentaram cefaléia. Um paciente apresentou epistaxe. Os exames complementares realizados foram: radiografia simples e tomografia computadorizada de seios paranasais com cortes axiais e coronais. Em dois pacientes o diâmetro do osteoma foi maior que 3 cm, e menor que 3 cm em três. A decisão da técnica cirúrgica entre coronal e supraciliar foi estética, reservando-se a abordagem supraciliar para um paciente com calvície, apesar do tumor ser volumoso com extensão para seio etmoidal. Nenhuma dificuldade técnica intra-operatória foi atribuída à escolha da abordagem. O óstio nasofrontal não foi obstruído no intra-operatório. O seguimento pós-operatório mínimo foi de dois anos. Em todos os casos a remoção foi total sem recidiva ou resíduos tumorais. Os sintomas clínicos, achados radiológicos e abordagens cirúrgicas são discutidos. Não ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias.Frontal sinus osteomas are 57% of all paranasal sinus osteomas, with an incidence of 00.1 to 3%. Surgical removal of the frontal sinus osteomas is done in symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients can be managed conservatively or submitted to surgery in spite of its location or extension. Five patients having the diagnosis of frontal sinus osteoma were operated on between 1995 and 1999. Medium age was 38.4 years (from 12

  15. Numerical modeling of porosity waves in the Nankai accretionary wedge décollement, Japan: implications for aseismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ajit; Appold, Martin S.

    2017-01-01

    Seismic and hydrologic observations of the Nankai accretionary wedge décollement, Japan, show that overpressures at depths greater than ˜2 km beneath the seafloor could have increased to near lithostatic values due to sediment compaction and diagenesis, clay dehydration, and shearing. The resultant high overpressures are hypothesized then to have migrated in rapid surges or pulses called `porosity waves' up the dip of the décollement. Such high velocities—much higher than expected Darcy fluxes—are possible for porosity waves if the porous media through which the waves travel are deformable enough for porosity and permeability to increase strongly with increasing fluid pressure. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that porosity waves can travel at rates (kilometers per day) fast enough to cause aseismic slip in the Nankai décollement. The hypothesis was tested using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the fluid mass conservation equation for elastic porous media. Results show that porosity waves generated at depths of ˜2 km from overpressures in excess of lithostatic pressure can propagate at rates sufficient to account for aseismic slip along the décollement over a wide range of hydrogeological conditions. Sensitivity analysis showed porosity wave velocity to be strongly dependent on specific storage, fluid viscosity, and the permeability-depth gradient. Overpressure slightly less than lithostatic pressure could also produce porosity waves capable of traveling at velocities sufficient to cause aseismic slip, provided that hydrogeologic properties of the décollement are near the limits of their geologically reasonable ranges.

  16. Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM): a graphic instrument to assess suffering in fatigued cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielissen, M.F.M.; Prins, J.B.; Knoop, H.; Verhagen, S.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM) measures in a simple, graphic way the burden of suffering due to illness. The question addressed in this study is whether the PRISM is a valid instrument to measure suffering in cancer survivors experiencing severe fatigue.

  17. Analisis Penyerapan Energi Crash Box Pola Origami pada Pengujian Frontal Impact Posisi Angular Frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redi Bintarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the car, the body structure is designed in such a way so as to transfer and absorb energy. This serves to minimize the result of this accident related to kinetic energy. This needs a system to absorb the kinetic energy maximally, so as a result of a frontal collision events that can be reduced optimally and kinetic energy can be absorbed by a front body structure. Devices used for absorbing kinetic energy in the car is usually called a crash box, which is located between the main structure and bumper. Crash Box generally tubular thin shaped. It has been a lot of research about the crash box. In this study using crash box origami patterns and using methods taguchi orthogonal array L9 (34. AA7003-T7 aluminum material modeled as bilinear isotropic hardening, the loading method is Frontal Impact Frontal Angular Position with impact angles of 5, 15 and 30 degree by using the finite element software simulation methods. The simulation results showed that the crash box in the lowest possible energy absorption were happened at crash box with 5 degree, with 683 153 Joule energy absorbsion. The highest result was happened to crash box number 5 with the results of 3,140.778 Joule. Lowest absorption on impact of 15 degree and 30 degree were happened to crash box number 1 and number 3 with a value of 245 685 Joule and 174 845 Joule, while the highest absorption at mumber 3 with each value 1,708.521 Joule and 1,750.872 Joule.

  18. PRISM: Processing routines in IDL for spectroscopic measurements (installation manual and user's guide, version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes procedures for installing and using the U.S. Geological Survey Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements (PRISM) software. PRISM provides a framework to conduct spectroscopic analysis of measurements made using laboratory, field, airborne, and space-based spectrometers. Using PRISM functions, the user can compare the spectra of materials of unknown composition with reference spectra of known materials. This spectroscopic analysis allows the composition of the material to be identified and characterized. Among its other functions, PRISM contains routines for the storage of spectra in database files, import/export of ENVI spectral libraries, importation of field spectra, correction of spectra to absolute reflectance, arithmetic operations on spectra, interactive continuum removal and comparison of spectral features, correction of imaging spectrometer data to ground-calibrated reflectance, and identification and mapping of materials using spectral feature-based analysis of reflectance data. This report provides step-by-step instructions for installing the PRISM software and running its functions.

  19. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irle, E; Exner, C; Thielen, K

    1998-01-01

    subjects who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy were evaluated clinically and neuropsychologically and compared to seven well comparison OCD subjects without leukotomy. The 16 leukotomized subjects were divided into three groups according to the main lesion sites as determined by current magnetic...... on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Subjects with lesions of the dorsolateral frontal convexity also showed memory problems, attentional slowing, and lower performance IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Restricted ventromedial frontal leukotomy should be discussed as a last-resort treatment for severe and refractory OCD...

  20. Alteraciones de memoria en daño cerebral frontal

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Rodríguez, Irene de la; Noreña, David de

    2007-01-01

    El córtex frontal está implicado en importantes procesos de memoria, pero tiene un papel diferente al de las estructuras temporales y diencefálicas mediales. Mientras que el daño en estas estructuras produce una grave amnesia anterógrada, en el daño frontal se manifiestan una serie de problemas y distorsiones concretas como las fabulaciones, la amnesia de la fuente, el déficit de memoria prospectiva o las alteraciones en el recuerdo libre. El lóbulo frontal no está implicado en el almacenamie...

  1. PRISM, a Novel Visual Metaphor Measuring Personally Salient Appraisals, Attitudes and Decision-Making: Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sensky

    Full Text Available PRISM (the Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure is a novel, simple visual instrument. Its utility was initially discovered serendipitously, but has been validated as a quantitative measure of suffering. Recently, new applications for different purposes, even in non-health settings, have encouraged further exploration of how PRISM works, and how it might be applied. This review will summarise the results to date from applications of PRISM and propose a generic conceptualisation of how PRISM works which is consistent with all these applications.A systematic review, in the form of a qualitative evidence synthesis, was carried out of all available published data on PRISM.Fifty-two publications were identified, with a total of 8254 participants. Facilitated by simple instructions, PRISM has been used with patient groups in a variety of settings and cultures. As a measure of suffering, PRISM has, with few exceptions, behaved as expected according to Eric Cassell's seminal conceptualisation of suffering. PRISM has also been used to assess beliefs about or attitudes to stressful working conditions, interpersonal relations, alcohol consumption, and suicide, amongst others.This review supports PRISM behaving as a visual metaphor of the relationship of objects (eg 'my illness' to a subject (eg 'myself' in a defined context (eg 'my life at the moment'. As a visual metaphor, it is quick to complete and yields personally salient information. PRISM is likely to have wide applications in assessing beliefs, attitudes, and decision-making, because of its properties, and because it yields both quantitative and qualitative data. In medicine, it can serve as a generic patient-reported outcome measure. It can serve as a tool for representational guidance, can be applied to developing strategies visually, and is likely to have applications in coaching, psychological assessment and therapeutic interventions.

  2. Polar Frontal Migration in the Warm Late Pliocene: Diatom Evidence from The Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesselman, C. R.; Taylor-Silva, B.; Patterson, M. O.

    2017-12-01

    The Late Pliocene is the most recent interval in Earth's history to sustain global temperatures within the range of warming predicted for the 21st century. Published global reconstructions and climate models find an average +2° C summer SST anomaly relative to modern during the 3.3-3.0 Ma PRISM interval, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations last reached 400 ppm. Here, we present a new diatom-based reconstruction of Pliocene interglacial sea surface conditions from IODP Site U1361, on the East Antarctic continental rise. U1361 biogenic silica concentrations document the alternation of diatom-rich and diatom-poor lithologies; we interpret 8 diatom-rich mudstones within this sequence to record interglacial periods between 3.8 and 2.8 Ma. We find that open-ocean conditions in the mid-Pliocene became increasingly influenced by sea ice from 3.6-3.2 Ma, prior to the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. This cooling trend was interrupted by a temporary southward migration of the Antarctic Polar Front, bathing U1361 in warmer subantarctic waters during a single interglacial, marine isotope stage KM3 (3.17-3.15 Ma), that corresponds to a maximum in summer insolation at 65°S. Following this interval of transient warmth, interglacial periods became progressively cooler starting at 3 Ma, coinciding with a transition from obliquity to precession as the dominant orbital driver of Antarctic ice sheet fluctuations. Building on the identification of a single outlier interglacial within the PRISM interval, we have revisited older reconstructions to explore the response of the Southern Ocean/cryosphere system to peak late Pliocene warmth. By applying a modern chronostratigraphic framework to those low-resolution "mean interglacial" records, we identify the same frontal migration in 4 other cores in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, documenting a major migration of the polar front during a key interval of warm climate. These new results suggest that increased summer

  3. COMET and PRISM - Search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    The experiment (COMET) at J-PARC to search for a charged-lepton-flavor-violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom is described. Future prospects of an experiment (PRISM) with even higher sensitivity is mentioned. On-going R and D on a highly intense muon source (MuSIC) at Osaka University is presented.

  4. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Ch.E. [GE Nuclear Energy San Jose (United States)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  5. Establishment and correction of an Echelle cross-prism spectrogram reduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Bayanheshig; Li, Xiaotian; Cui, Jicheng

    2017-11-01

    The accuracy of an echelle cross-prism spectrometer depends on the matching degree between the spectrum reduction model and the actual state of the spectrometer. However, the error of adjustment can change the actual state of the spectrometer and result in a reduction model that does not match. This produces an inaccurate wavelength calibration. Therefore, the calibration of a spectrogram reduction model is important for the analysis of any echelle cross-prism spectrometer. In this study, the spectrogram reduction model of an echelle cross-prism spectrometer was established. The image position laws of a spectrometer that varies with the system parameters were simulated to the influence of the changes in prism refractive index, focal length and so on, on the calculation results. The model was divided into different wavebands. The iterative method, least squares principle and element lamps with known characteristic wavelength were used to calibrate the spectral model in different wavebands to obtain the actual values of the system parameters. After correction, the deviation of actual x- and y-coordinates and the coordinates calculated by the model are less than one pixel. The model corrected by this method thus reflects the system parameters in the current spectrometer state and can assist in accurate wavelength extraction. The instrument installation and adjustment would be guided in model-repeated correction, reducing difficulty of equipment, respectively.

  6. COMET and PRISM - Search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    The experiment (COMET) at J-PARC to search for a charged-lepton-flavor-violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom is described. Future prospects of an experiment (PRISM) with even higher sensitivity is mentioned. On-going R and D on a highly intense muon source (MuSIC) at Osaka University is presented.

  7. The Behaviour of Palm Oil Fibre Block Masonry Prism under Eccentric Compressive Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kolop, Roslan; Baizura Hamid, Nor; Kaamin, Masiri; Farhan Rosdi, Mohd; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Sahat, Suhaila

    2017-08-01

    Dry-stacked masonry offers great benefits in constructing masonry buildings. Several examples from previous research show that dry masonry is reasonable alternative to the traditional building system. By addition of fibre, the ductility and the propagation of cracking will be improved. This study investigates the dry stack oil palm fibre block prisms which were subjected to eccentricity compression loads. These concrete blocks were cast using a single mould with suitable fibre-cement composition namely 1:4 (cement: sand) and 0.40 water to the cement ratio based on cement weight. Prisms test using 400 (length) × 150 (width) × 510 (height) mm specimen was carried under eccentric load. There were forty eight (48) prisms built with different configurations based on their volume of fibre. In this study, one types of grout were used namely the fine grout of mix 1:3:2 (cement: sand: aggregate (5mm maximum). Based on the test performed, the failure mechanism and influencing parameters were discussed. From compressive strength test result, it shows that the strength of concrete block decreased with the increase of fibre used. Although the control sample has the higher strength compared to concrete with EFB, it can be seen from mode failure of masonry prism that fibre could extend the cracking time. These results show that the oil palm fibre blocks can improve the failure behaviour and suitable to be used as load bearing wall construction in Malaysia.

  8. Direct AFM observation of an opening event of a DNA cuboid constructed via a prism structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masayuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2011-04-07

    A cuboid structure was constructed using a DNA origami design based on a square prism structure. The structure was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering. The real-time opening event of the cuboid was directly observed by high-speed AFM.

  9. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Ch.E.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  10. Analysis of unscrammed loss of flow and heat sink for PRISM with GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Kennett, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring an advanced liquid-metal reactor design by General Electric Company (GE) called PRISM. The intent is to design a reactor with passively safe responses to many operational and severe accidents. PRISM is under review at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for licensability with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical assistance. Recently, the PRISM design has been modified to include three gas expansion modules (GEMs) on its core periphery. The GEMs were added to quickly reduce the power (by inserting negative reactivity) during loss-of-flow events to curtail peak fuel and clad temperatures predicted in the previous design. The GEM prototypes have been tested at the Fast Flux Test Facility. The significance of the GEMs in PRISM is discussed in this paper through the evaluation of the unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and loss of heat sink using the SSC code. It has been demonstrated in the past that SSC predicts results similar to GE and other liquid-metal reactor codes

  11. Numerical simulation of blast wave propagation in vicinity of standalone prism on flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valger, Svetlana; Fedorova, Natalya; Fedorov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    In the paper, numerical simulation of shock wave propagation in the vicinity of a standalone prism and a prism with a cavity in front of it was carried out. The modeling was based on the solution of 3D Euler equations and Fluent software was used as a main computational tool. The algorithm for local dynamic mesh adaptation to high gradients of pressure was applied. The initial stage of the explosion of condensed explosive was described with the help of "Compressed balloon method". The research allowed describing the characteristic stages of the blast in a semi-closed space, the structure of secondary shock waves and their interaction with obstacles. The numerical approach in Fluent based on combining inviscid gas dynamics methods and "Compressed balloon method" was compared with the method which had been used by the authors earlier with the help of AUTODYN and which is based on the use of the hydrodynamic model of a material to describe state of detonation products. For the problem of shock wave propagation in the vicinity of standalone prism the comparison of the simulation results obtained using both the methods with the experimental data was performed on the dependence of static pressure and effective momentum on time for the characteristic points located on prism walls.

  12. A compact and lightweight off-axis lightguide prism in near to eye display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Cheng, Qijia; Surman, Phil; Zheng, Yuanjin; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2017-06-01

    We propose a method to improve the design of an off-axis lightguide configuration for near to eye displays (NED) using freeform optics technology. The advantage of this modified optical system, which includes an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), a doublet lens, an imaging lightguide prism and a compensation prism, is that it increases optical length path, offers a smaller size, as well as avoids the obstructed views, and matches the user's head shape. In this system, the light emitted from the OLED passes through the doublet lens and is refracted/reflected by the imaging lightguide prism, which is used to magnify the image from the microdisplay, while the compensation prism is utilized to correct the light ray shift so that a low-distortion image can be observed in a real-world setting. A NED with a 4 mm diameter exit pupil, 21.5° diagonal full field of view (FoV), 23 mm eye relief, and a size of 33 mm by 9.3 mm by 16 mm is designed. The developed system is compact, lightweight and suitable for entertainment and education application.

  13. Nonlinear attractor dynamics in the fundamental and extended prism adaptation paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.; Blau, Julia J.C.; Turvey, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation and re-adaptation processes are studied in terms of dynamic attractors that evolve and devolve. In doing so, a theoretical account is given for the fundamental observation that adaptation and re-adaptation processes do not exhibit one-trial learning. Moreover, the emergence of the latent aftereffect in the extended prism paradigm is addressed

  14. Development and application of GIS-based PRISM integration through a plugin approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Seop; Chun, Jong Ahn; Kang, Kwangmin

    2014-05-01

    A PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) QGIS-plugin was developed on Quantum GIS platform in this study. This Quantum GIS plugin system provides user-friendly graphic user interfaces (GUIs) so that users can obtain gridded meteorological data of high resolutions (1 km × 1 km). Also, this software is designed to run on a personal computer so that it does not require an internet access or a sophisticated computer system. This module is a user-friendly system that a user can generate PRISM data with ease. The proposed PRISM QGIS-plugin is a hybrid statistical-geographic model system that uses coarse resolution datasets (APHRODITE datasets in this study) with digital elevation data to generate the fine-resolution gridded precipitation. To validate the performance of the software, Prek Thnot River Basin in Kandal, Cambodia is selected for application. Overall statistical analysis shows promising outputs generated by the proposed plugin. Error measures such as RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) and MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) were used to evaluate the performance of the developed PRISM QGIS-plugin. Evaluation results using RMSE and MAPE were 2.76 mm and 4.2%, respectively. This study suggested that the plugin can be used to generate high resolution precipitation datasets for hydrological and climatological studies at a watershed where observed weather datasets are limited.

  15. Corporate Privacy Policy Changes during PRISM and the Rise of Surveillance Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Disclosure of the NSA’s PRISM program demonstrated that Internet companies have become prime targets of government surveillance. But what role do companies themselves play in putting users’ privacy at risk? By comparing the changes in the privacy policies of ten companies—the nine in PRISM plus Twitter—I seek to understand how users’ privacy shifted. Specifically, I study how company practices surrounding the life cycle of user information (e.g. collection, use, sharing, and retention shifted between the times when companies joined PRISM and when PRISM news broke. A qualitative analysis of the changes in the privacy policies suggests that company disclosure of tracking for advertising purposes increased. I draw on business scholar Shoshana Zuboff’s conceptualization of “surveillance capitalism” and legal scholar Joel Reidenberg’s “transparent citizen” to explain the implications such changes hold for users’ privacy. These findings underscore why public debates about post-Snowden privacy rights cannot ignore the role that companies play in legitimizing surveillance activities under the auspices of creating market value.

  16. Propagation of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beams in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Ma, Haotong; Dong, Li; Ren, Ge; Qi, Bo; Tan, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Limited by the size and weight of prism and optical assembling, Rotational Risley-prism-array system is a simple but effective way to realize high power and superior beam quality of deflecting laser output. In this paper, the propagation of the rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array in atmospheric turbulence is studied in detail. An analytical expression for the average intensity distribution at the receiving plane is derived based on nonparaxial ray tracing method and extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Power in the diffraction-limited bucket is chosen to evaluate beam quality. The effect of deviation angle, propagation distance and intensity of turbulence on beam quality is studied in detail by quantitative simulation. It reveals that with the propagation distance increasing, the intensity distribution gradually evolves from multiple-petal-like shape into the pattern that contains one main-lobe in the center with multiple side-lobes in weak turbulence. The beam quality of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array with lower deviation angle is better than its counterpart with higher deviation angle when propagating in weak and medium turbulent (i.e. Cn2 beam quality of higher deviation angle arrays degrades faster as the intensity of turbulence gets stronger. In the case of propagating in strong turbulence, the long propagation distance (i.e. z > 10km ) and deviation angle have no influence on beam quality.

  17. Family Perspectives: Using a Cultural Prism to Understand Families from Asian Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Hyang; Turnbull, Ann P.; Zan, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Educators can better serve students who come from diverse cultural backgrounds by understanding the differing cultural values of these students and their families. This article explores different cultural perspectives using a cultural prism approach, focused most specifically on the Korean and Chinese cultures. (Contains 2 tables.)

  18. PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission): an extended white paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, Philippe; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Banday, Anthony; Barbosa, Domingos; Barreiro, Belen; Bartlett, James; Bartolo, Nicola; Battistelli, Elia; Battye, Richard; Bendo, George; Benoît, Alain; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bersanelli, Marco; Béthermin, Matthieu; Bielewicz, Pawel; Bonaldi, Anna; Bouchet, François; Boulanger, François; Brand, Jan; Bucher, Martin; Burigana, Carlo; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Camus, Philippe; Casas, Francisco; Casasola, Viviana; Castex, Guillaume; Challinor, Anthony; Chluba, Jens; Chon, Gayoung; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Comis, Barbara; Cuttaia, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Da Silva, Antonio; Davis, Richard; de Avillez, Miguel; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; de Rosa, Adriano; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Désert, François-Xavier; Dickinson, Clive; Diego, Jose Maria; Dunkley, Joanna; Enßlin, Torsten; Errard, Josquin; Falgarone, Edith; Ferreira, Pedro; Ferrière, Katia; Finelli, Fabio; Fletcher, Andrew; Fosalba, Pablo; Fuller, Gary; Galli, Silvia; Ganga, Ken; García-Bellido, Juan; Ghribi, Adnan; Giard, Martin; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Grainge, Keith; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Hall, Alex; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Haverkorn, Marijke; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Herranz, Diego; Jackson, Mark; Jaffe, Andrew; Khatri, Rishi; Kunz, Martin; Lamagna, Luca; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Leahy, Paddy; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Macias-Perez, Juan; Maffei, Bruno; Maino, Davide; Mangilli, Anna; Martinez-Gonzalez, Enrique; Martins, Carlos J. A. P.; Masi, Silvia; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Mennella, Aniello; Mignano, Arturo; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Monfardini, Alessandro; Murphy, Anthony; Naselsky, Pavel; Nati, Federico; Natoli, Paolo; Negrello, Mattia; Noviello, Fabio; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Paci, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Paladino, Rosita; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Paoletti, Daniela; Peiris, Hiranya; Perrotta, Francesca; Piacentini, Francesco; Piat, Michel; Piccirillo, Lucio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Polenta, Gianluca; Pollo, Agnieszka; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Rosset, Cyrille; Rubino-Martin, Jose-Alberto; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Shellard, Paul; Silk, Joseph; Starobinsky, Alexei; Stompor, Radek; Sunyaev, Rashid; Tartari, Andrea; Terenzi, Luca; Toffolatti, Luigi; Tomasi, Maurizio; Trappe, Neil; Tristram, Matthieu; Trombetti, Tiziana; Tucci, Marco; Van de Weijgaert, Rien; Van Tent, Bartjan; Verde, Licia; Vielva, Patricio; Wandelt, Ben; Watson, Robert; Withington, Stafford

    2014-01-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations

  19. Novel laterally pumped by prism laser configuration for compact solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascalu, T; Salamu, G; Sandu, O; Voicu, F; Pavel, N

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new laser configuration in which the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through a prism. The laser medium is square shaped and the prism is attached on one of its lateral sides, near one of the crystal extremities. The diode-laser fiber end is placed close to the prism hypotenuse, the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through the opposite surface of the prism and propagates into the crystal through total internal reflections. This laser geometry is simple to align and permits the realization of compact diode-pumped laser systems, as well as power scaling. A diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielding pulses of 2.1 mJ energy under a pump with pulses of 9.9 mJ is demonstrated. The laser slope efficiency is 0.22. Furthermore, this geometry enables one to obtain passively Q-switched lasers with the saturable absorber crystal placed between the resonator high-reflectivity mirror and the laser crystal. A Nd:YAG laser, passively Q-switched by a Cr 4+ :YAG crystal with initial transmission T 0 = 0.90, delivering laser output with a pulsed energy of 93 μJ, a duration of 26 ns and a pump threshold of 1.9 mJ, is realized in order to prove the concept. (letter)

  20. Pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy : white matter abnormalities and cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, H.M.H.; Vaessen, M.J.; Jansen, J.F.A.; Debeij-van Hall, M.H.J.A.; Louw, de A.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Vles, J.S.H.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Backes, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Its etiology remains unknown. With diffusion tensor imaging, we have studied cerebral white matter properties and associations with cognitive functioning in children with FLE and healthy controls.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with ADNFLE have experienced psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia), behavioral problems, or intellectual disability. It is unclear ... Epilepsy Society Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) GeneReviews (1 link) Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe ...

  2. Challenge-driven attention: interacting frontal and brainstem systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev D S Raizada

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is an unpredictable place, presenting challenges that fl uctuate from moment to moment. However, the neural systems for responding to such challenges are far from fully understood. Using fMRI, we studied an audiovisual task in which the trials' diffi culty and onset times varied unpredictably. Two regions were found to increase their activation for challenging trials, with their activities strongly correlated: right frontal cortex and the brainstem. The frontal area matched regions found in previous human studies of cognitive control, and activated in a graded manner with increasing task diffi culty. The brainstem responded only to the most diffi cult trials, showing a phasic activity pattern paralleling locus coeruleus recordings in monkeys. These results reveal a bridge between animal and human studies, and suggest interacting roles for the brainstem and right frontal cortex: the brainstem may signal that an attentional challenge is occurring, while right frontal cortex allocates cognitive resources in response.

  3. Right-frontal cortical asymmetry predicts increased proneness to nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Nostalgia is often triggered by feelings-such as sadness, loneliness, or meaninglessness-that are typically associated with withdrawal motivation. Here, we examined whether a trait tendency to experience withdrawal motivation is associated with nostalgia proneness. Past work indicates that baseline right-frontal cortical asymmetry is a neural correlate of withdrawal-related motivation. We therefore hypothesized that higher baseline levels of right-frontal asymmetry would predict increased proneness to nostalgia. We assessed participants' baseline levels of frontal cortical activity using EEG. Results supported the hypothesis and demonstrated that the association between relative right-frontal asymmetry and increased nostalgia remained significant when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these findings indicate that individuals with a stronger dispositional tendency to experience withdrawal-related motivation are more prone to nostalgia. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Frontal lobe epilepsy may present as myoclonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Won; Yi, Sang Doe; Motamedi, Gholam K

    2010-04-01

    We describe a patient with seizures arising from right anterior-inferior frontal lobe presenting as myoclonic epilepsy. A 19-year-old man had experienced frequent paroxysmal bilateral myoclonic jerks involving his upper arms, shoulders, neck, and upper trunk since the age of 10. His baseline EEG showed intermittent right frontal spikes, and his ictal EEG showed rhythmic sharp theta discharges in the same area. MRI revealed cortical dysplasia in the right inferior frontal gyrus, and ictal-interictal SPECT analysis by SPM showed increased signal abnormality in this region. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) showed defects in fasciculi in the same area. These findings suggest that frontal lobe epilepsy should be considered in some patients with myoclonic seizures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting The Frontal Lobes (AIEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2012-12-01

    Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting the Frontal Lobes (AIEF) is a relatively recent described entity. This article includes case reports of two patients who had bifrontal involvement during acute febrile encephalopathy. Case 1 describes a 1-y-old boy who presented with hyperpyrexia and dialeptic seizures. Imaging revealed significant bilateral frontal lobe involvement while serology proved presence of Influenza B infection. Over a period of one wk, he recovered with significant cognitive decline and perseveratory behavior. Another 6-y-old boy presented with language and behavioral problems suggestive of frontal dysfunction after recovering from prolonged impairment of consciousness following a convulsive status epilepticus. Bilateral superior frontal lesions with gyral swelling was evident on neuroimaging. These cases are among the very few cases of AIEF described in recent literature and the article also reviews this unique subtype of acute encephalopathy.

  6. Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model (PRISM) For Environmental Remediation and Waste Management - 12097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentz, David L.; Stoll, Ralph H.; Greeves, John T. [Predicus LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Miller, R. Ian [GoldSim Technology Group, LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Nutt, W. Mark [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The PRISM (Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model), a computer model was developed to support the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in its mission to clean up the environmental legacy from the Nation's nuclear weapons materials production complex. PRISM provides a comprehensive, fully integrated planning tool that can tie together DOE-EM's projects. It is designed to help DOE managers develop sound, risk-informed business practices and defend program decisions. It provides a better ability to understand and manage programmatic risks. The underlying concept for PRISM is that DOE-EM 'owns' a portfolio of environmental legacy obligations (ELOs), and that its mission is to transform the ELOs from their current conditions to acceptable conditions, in the most effective way possible. There are many types of ELOs - - contaminated soils and groundwater plumes, disused facilities awaiting D and D, and various types of wastes waiting for processing or disposal. For a given suite of planned activities, PRISM simulates the outcomes as they play out over time, allowing for all key identified uncertainties and risk factors. Each contaminated building, land area and waste stream is tracked from cradle to grave, and all of the linkages affecting different waste streams are captured. The progression of the activities is fully dynamic, reflecting DOE-EM's prioritization approaches, precedence requirements, available funding, and the consequences of risks and uncertainties. The top level of PRISM is the end-user interface that allows rapid evaluation of alternative scenarios and viewing the results in a variety of useful ways. PRISM is a fully probabilistic model, allowing the user to specify uncertainties in input data (such as the magnitude of an existing groundwater plume, or the total cost to complete a planned activity) as well as specific risk events that might occur. PRISM is based on the GoldSim software

  7. Frontal Mucocele following Previous Facial Trauma with Hardware Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan EuDaly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoceles are cysts that can develop after facial bone fractures, especially those involving the frontal sinuses. Despite being rare, mucoceles can result in serious delayed sequelae. We present a case of a frontal mucocele that developed two years after extensive facial trauma following a motor vehicle crash (MVC and review the emergency department (ED evaluation and treatment of mucocele. Early recognition, appropriate imaging, and an interdisciplinary approach are essential for managing these rare sequelae of facial trauma.

  8. Frontal Mucocele following Previous Facial Trauma with Hardware Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    EuDaly, Megan; Kraus, Chadd K.

    2016-01-01

    Mucoceles are cysts that can develop after facial bone fractures, especially those involving the frontal sinuses. Despite being rare, mucoceles can result in serious delayed sequelae. We present a case of a frontal mucocele that developed two years after extensive facial trauma following a motor vehicle crash (MVC) and review the emergency department (ED) evaluation and treatment of mucocele. Early recognition, appropriate imaging, and an interdisciplinary approach are essential for managing ...

  9. Giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matushita, Joao Paulo, E-mail: jpauloejulieta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Matushita, Julieta S.; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem Dr. Matsushita, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Matushita, Cristina S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho; Simoes, Luiz Antonio Monteiro; Carvalho Neto, Lizando Franco de

    2013-06-15

    The authors report the case of a giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus in a 54-year-old male patient. This tumor location is rare, and this is the third case reported in the literature with radiographic documentation and histopathological confirmation. The patient underwent surgery, with curettage of frontal sinus and placement of a prosthesis. He died because a voluntary abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids. (author)

  10. Dissociations in Hippocampal and Frontal Contributions to Episodic Memory Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Joel H.; Rosen, Howard J.; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Hollnagel, Caroline; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Delis, Dean C.

    2005-01-01

    The hippocampus and frontal lobes both contribute to episodic memory performance. In the present study, the authors evaluated the relative contributions of hippocampus, frontal lobes, anterior temporal cortex, and posterior cortex to memory performance in neurodegenerative patients and normal older controls. Subjects (n = 42) were studied with structural MRI and a memory paradigm that measured delayed recall, semantic clustering during recall, recognition discriminability, and recognition res...

  11. Frontal Lobe Tuberculoma: A Clinical and Imaging Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu, Tinsae; Ergete, Wondwossen; Abebe, Workeabeba

    2017-01-01

    Background Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal tuberculoma was made upon a post-operative biopsy. He improved following treatment with anti-tubercular drugs. Conclusion Tuberculosis should be considered in children with a chr...

  12. P-Wave and S-Wave Velocity Structure of Submarine Landslide Associated With Gas Hydrate Layer on Frontal Ridge of Northern Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, T.; Lu, H.; Yelisetti, S.; Spence, G.

    2015-12-01

    The submarine landslide associated with gas hydrate is a potential risk for environment and engineering projects, and thus from long time ago it has been a hot topic of hydrate research. The study target is Slipstream submarine landslide, one of the slope failures observed on the frontal ridges of the Northern Cascadia accretionary margin off Vancouver Island. The previous studies indicated a possible connection between this submarine landslide feature and gas hydrate, whose occurrence is indicated by a prominent bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), at a depth of ~265-275 m beneath the seafloor (mbsf). The OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) data collected during SeaJade (Seafloor Earthquake Array - Japan Canada Cascadia Experiment) project were used to derive the subseafloor velocity structure for both P- and S-wave using travel times picked from refraction and reflection events. The P-wave velocity structure above the BSR showed anomalous high velocities of about 2.0 km/s at shallow depths of 100 mbsf, closely matching the estimated depth of the glide plane (100 ± 10 m). Forward modelling of S-waves was carried out using the data from the OBS horizontal components. The S-wave velocities, interpreted in conjunction with the P-wave results, provide the key constraints on the gas hydrate distribution within the pores. The hydrate distribution in the pores is important for determining concentrations, and also for determining the frame strength which is critical for controlling slope stability of steep frontal ridges. The increase in S-wave velocity suggests that the hydrate is distributed as part of the load-bearing matrix to increase the rigidity of the sediment.

  13. Illusory reversal of causality between touch and vision has no effect on prism adaptation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu eTanaka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc. In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her action. Adaptation to visual displacement induced by prisms is a prime example; the visual error signal associated with the motor output contributes to the recovery of accurate reaching, and a delayed feedback of visual error can decrease the adaptation rate. Subjective feeling of temporal order of action and consequence, however, can be modified or even reversed when her sense of simultaneity is manipulated with an artificially delayed feedback. Our previous study (Tanaka, Homma & Imamizu (2011 Exp Brain Res demonstrated that the rate of prism adaptation was unaffected when the subjective delay of visual feedback was shortened. This study asked whether subjects could adapt to prism adaptation and whether the rate of prism adaptation was affected when the subjective temporal order was illusory reversed. Adapting to additional 100 ms delay and its sudden removal caused a positive shift of point of simultaneity in a temporal-order judgment experiment, indicating an illusory reversal of action and consequence. We found that, even in this case, the subjects were able to adapt to prism displacement with the learning rate that was statistically indistinguishable to that without temporal adaptation. This result provides further evidence to the dissociation between conscious temporal perception and motor adaptation.

  14. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A.

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC's ''Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC's preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant's research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified

  15. Illusory Reversal of Causality between Touch and Vision has No Effect on Prism Adaptation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Homma, Kazuhiro; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is "to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc." In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her action. Adaptation to visual displacement induced by prisms is a prime example; the visual error signal associated with the motor output contributes to the recovery of accurate reaching, and a delayed feedback of visual error can decrease the adaptation rate. Subjective feeling of temporal order of action and consequence, however, can be modified or even reversed when her sense of simultaneity is manipulated with an artificially delayed feedback. Our previous study (Tanaka et al., 2011; Exp. Brain Res.) demonstrated that the rate of prism adaptation was unaffected when the subjective delay of visual feedback was shortened. This study asked whether subjects could adapt to prism adaptation and whether the rate of prism adaptation was affected when the subjective temporal order was illusory reversed. Adapting to additional 100 ms delay and its sudden removal caused a positive shift of point of simultaneity in a temporal order judgment experiment, indicating an illusory reversal of action and consequence. We found that, even in this case, the subjects were able to adapt to prism displacement with the learning rate that was statistically indistinguishable to that without temporal adaptation. This result provides further evidence to the dissociation between conscious temporal perception and motor adaptation.

  16. The personalized reminder information and social management system (PRISM) trial: rationale, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; A Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N

    2015-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date, there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues, we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65-98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Field guide to the Mesozoic accretionary complex along Turnagain Arm and Kachemak Bay, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Kusky, Timothy M.; Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    1997-01-01

    Turnagain Arm, just east of Anchorage, provides a readily accessible, world-class cross section through a Mesozoic accretionary wedge. Nearly continuous exposures along the Seward Highway, the Alaska Railroad, and the shoreline of Turnagain Arm display the two main constituent units of the Chugach terrane: the McHugh Complex and Valdez Group. In this paper we describe seven bedrock geology stops along Turnagain Arm, and two others in the Chugach Mountains just to the north (Stops 1-7 and 9), which will be visited as part of the May, 1997 field trip of the Alaska Geological Society. Outcrops along Turnagain Arm have already been described in two excellent guidebook articles (Clark, 1981; Winkler and others 1984), both of which remain as useful and valid today as when first published. Since the early 1980's, studies along Turnagain Arm have addressed radiolarian ages of chert and conodont ages of limestone in the McHugh Complex (Nelson and others, 1986, 1987); geochemistry of basalt in the McHugh Complex (Nelson and Blome, 1991); post-accretion brittle faulting (Bradley and Kusky, 1990; Kusky and others, 1997); and the age and tectonic setting of gold mineralization (Haeussler and others, 1995). Highlights of these newer findings will described both in the text below, and in the stop descriptions.Superb exposures along the southeastern shore of Kachemak Bay show several other features of the McHugh Complex that are either absent or less convincing along Turnagain Arm. While none of these outcrops can be reached via the main road network, they are still reasonably accessible - all are within an hour by motorboat from Homer, seas permitting. Here, we describe seven outcrops along the shore of Kachemak Bay that we studied between 1989 and 1993 during geologic mapping of the Seldovia 1:250,000- scale quadrangle. These outcrops (Stops 61-67) will not be part of the 1997 itinerary, but are included here tor the benefit of those who may wish to visit them later.

  18. Accretionary history of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: perspectives from granitic zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2014-05-01

    which is likely due to basaltic magma that underplated the lower crust. Our data combined with evidence of the regional geology enable us to conclude that the Gorny Altai and Altai-Mongolian terranes possibly have similar tectonic natures, but represent two separate accretionary systems before Devonian collision. The accretion and amalgamation processes resulted in the Paleozoic granitoid magmatism and caused the two terranes to merge as a composite tectonic domain at the Siberian continental margin.

  19. Transfer of memory trace of cerebellum-dependent motor learning in human prism adaptation: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Soichi; Honda, Takeru; Yamazaki, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that the memory trace of ocular reflex adaptation is initially encoded in the cerebellar cortex, and later transferred to the cerebellar nuclei for consolidation through repetitions of training. However, the memory transfer is not well characterized in the learning of voluntary movement. Here, we implement our model of memory transfer to interpret the data of prism adaptation (Martin, Keating, Goodkin, Bastian, & Thach, 1996a, 1996b), assuming that the cerebellar nuclear memory formed by memory transfer is used for normal throwing. When the subject was trained to throw darts wearing prisms in 30-40 trials, the short-term memory for recalibrating the throwing direction by gaze would be formed in the cerebellar cortex, which was extinguished by throwing with normal vision in a similar number of trials. After weeks of repetitions of short-term prism adaptation, the long-term memory would be formed in the cerebellar nuclei through memory transfer, which enabled one to throw darts to the center wearing prisms without any training. These two long-term memories, one for throwing with normal vision and the other for throwing wearing prisms, are assumed to be utilized automatically under volitional control. Moreover, when the prisms were changed to new prisms, a new memory for adapting to the new prisms would be formed in the cerebellar cortex, just to counterbalance the nuclear memory of long-term adaptation to the original prisms in a similar number of trials. These results suggest that memory transfer may occur in the learning of voluntary movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eu3+-doped Y2O3 hexagonal prisms: Shape-controlled synthesis and tailored luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Errui; Li, Guangshe; Fu, Chaochao; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Xinsong; Xu, Wen; Li, Liping

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach, which involves water at the bottom as aqueous phase and oleylamine in the above as oil phase. With this unique reaction system, precursors of hexagonal prisms Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) were first obtained by simply varying the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. Time-dependent experiments were systematically performed to reveal the growth mechanism of the precursor. After subsequent heat treatment, these precursors transformed to Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled diameters and aspect ratios varying from 4 to 19. Such a transformation is preceded via a topotactic process, as indicated by TG-DTA and mass spectra. Eventually, all Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were found to exhibit an intensive red emission at 611 nm, which corresponds to 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition of Eu 3+ . With varying the aspect ratio of hexagonal prisms and increasing Eu 3+ concentration in Y 2 O 3 , an optimum external quantum efficiency was achieved. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled aspect ratio from 4.4 to 19.3 were synthesized by transformation of the precursor Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) hexagonal prisms from a novel two-phase reaction system. The growth mechanism of the precursor has been systematically investigated, and a topotactic phase transformation from precursors to cubic Y 2 O 3 is for the first time put forward. By the size controlling and aspect ratio adjusting, the luminescence emission intensity as well as external quantum efficiency of Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms is further tailored to show an optimum. - Highlights: • Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach. • Inheriting mechanism of prisms morphology from Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) to Y 2 O 3 was discussed. • Aspect ratio of prisms was tailored by the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. • Luminescence properties were

  1. Recurrent meningitis and frontal encephalocele as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumussoy, Murat; Ugur, Omer; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Uluyol, Sinan

    2014-03-01

    Frontal sinus back table fractures are seen rarely; also, typical presentation of frontal sinus encephalocele as a delayed complication of frontal sinus fracture is seen more rarely. We present a case of frontal encephalocele and recurrent meningitis as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma. Diagnosis, management, and treatment approaches of these complications are discussed.

  2. Frontal lobe atrophy of the brain in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Tomio

    1981-01-01

    Reported here are the CT findings on cerebral atrophic lesion chiefly developed in the frontal lobe in schizophrenics with unusual organic encephalopathy. Encephalopathy was recognized in 84 (73%) of 115 schizophrenics and 13 (33%) of 40 neurotics. In an attempt to exclude the effects of aging on encephalopathy, the ages at CT and at the development of disease, the number of morbid years, subtypical schizophrenia and relation between the clinical severity and the atrophic condition were comparatively studied. As a result, cerebral atrophy tended to increase along with aging, but the findings differed in that atrophia classified by age covered the entire brain in general, whereas atrophia in schizophrenics was found in the frontal lobe. In particular, because of the fact that clinical severity and atrophia in the frontal lobe are high correlated and that severe atrophia is recognized even in young people, schizophrenia and atrophia in the frontal lobe are considered to be closely related to each other. It is therefore suggested that the CT findings are useful to clinicians for finding appropriate methods to deal with the prognosis of schizophrenics in their daily diagnosis and for the therapeutic prevention of encephalatrophy by stimulating the frontal lobe, thereby delaying mental deterioration. (author)

  3. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zlatan; Stojanović, Sanja Vukadinović

    2015-09-01

    Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD) were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024). A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman's r = -0.297; p = 0.001). Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017). Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001). The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  4. Nontraumatic frontal lobe hemorrhages: Clinical-computed tomographic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, LA; Charity Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1988-01-01

    Correlation of lesion location and appearance with clinical sequelae in 25 patients with CT-proven frontal lobe hematomas reveals 10 of 25 hematomas were located above the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles. Nine of the 10 patients were normotensive. All presented with contralateral motor and sensory deficits. Four of 25 hematomas were situated inferior to the frontal horns. All these patients were hypertensive, rapidly became comatose and exhibited hemiplegia, hemianestesia and gaze preference contralateral to the hemiplegia. Five patients had frontal hematomas which extended inward from the interhemispheric fissure or caval-septal region. All were normotensive. All had anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysms on angiography. Four patients had hematomas involving both the frontal and temporal region. All were normotensive with no known cause for hemorrhage. Two patients had bifrontal hematomas; one had butterfly appearance extending across the interhemispheric fissure and the other was midline but had no interhemispheric blood. Both were normotensive. One had an anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysm. (orig.)

  5. Case Report: A Rare Case Report of Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Nouri- Khajavi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The frontal lobe syndrome is a permanent personality change disorder with characteristic clinical pictures, which followed by frontal lobes damage. Clinical picture include: Affective instability, recurrent aggressive behavior, impaired social judgment, apathy and undifferentiating or suspiciousness and paranoid ideations. According DSM-IV classification frontal lobe syndrome named personality change due to head trauma on Axis I. Herein we report a case of 46 years-old man, who has developed behavioral disturbances following head trauma, about 10 years ago. Main clinical figures in this case are apathy, avolition and, undifferentiating. Clinical pictures are constant during these 10 years. The diagnostic approach has been based on patient’s problems history which, has taken from his family, mental status examination, Neurological examination, Brain imaging and Neuropsychological assessments which related to frontal lobes function. Because of rarity & neglection due to mysterious function of frontal lobes, and also considering that personality change from previous level is prominent figure of this syndrome and also brain imaging findings, which compatible with clinical findings, with this aim, we have reported this case.

  6. Frontal and subcortical grey matter reductions in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Daniel C M; Tickell, Ashleigh; Ryder, Will; Chan, Charles; Hermens, Daniel F; Bennett, Maxwell R; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-08-30

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by a range of debilitating psychological, physical and cognitive symptoms. PTSD has been associated with grey matter atrophy in limbic and frontal cortical brain regions. However, previous studies have reported heterogeneous findings, with grey matter changes observed beyond limbic/frontal areas. Seventy-five adults were recruited from the community, 25 diagnosed with PTSD along with 25 healthy and 25 trauma exposed age and gender matched controls. Participants underwent clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. The data-analyses method Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to estimate cortical grey matter volumes. When compared to both healthy and trauma exposed controls, PTSD subjects demonstrated decreased grey matter volumes within subcortical brain regions-including the hippocampus and amygdala-along with reductions in the anterior cingulate cortex, frontal medial cortex, middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, paracingulate gyrus, and precuneus cortex. Significant negative correlations were found between total CAPS lifetime clinical scores/sub-scores and GM volume of both the PTSD and TC groups. GM volumes of the left rACC and right amygdala showed a significant negative correlation within PTSD diagnosed subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Smulders, F T Y; Meyer, T; Peeters, F; Merckelbach, H; Smeets, T

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Accelerated Determination of ASR Susceptibility during Concrete Prism Testing through Nonlinear Resonance Ultrasonic Spectroscopy : TechBrief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The research has been conducted on laboratory-cast concrete prism specimens containing both fine and coarse aggregates obtained from different sources to provide a spectrum of reactivity for assessment through the developed NIRAS technique. The NIRAS...

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Lightweight AAC Masonry Wall Prisms with Ferrocement Layers in Compression and Flexure

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed; Hendam, Ahmed; Fahmy, Ezzat; Abou Zeid, Mohamed; Haroun, Medhat

    2012-01-01

    An experimental program is designed to evaluate the performance of lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete masonry wall strengthened using ferrocement layers, in a sandwich structure, under in-plane compression and out-of-plane bending. The 25 mm thick ferrocement mortar is reinforced with steel welded wire mesh of 1 mm diameters at 15 mm spacing. Different types of shear connectors are used to evaluate their effect on failure loads. The effect of different design parameters on the wall strength are considered including wall thickness, mortar strength, and type and distribution of shear connectors. A total of 20 prisms are tested in compression and 5 prisms are tested under bending. The proposed ferrocement strengthening technique is easy to apply on existing wall system and results in significant strength and stiffness enhancement of the tested wall specimens. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  10. Moving forward with prisms: Sensory-motor adaptation improves gait initiation in Parkinson’s disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Helen Bultitude

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated that the decreased walking speed; small, shuffling steps; and ‘freezing’ shown by patients with Parkinson’s disease could stem from an inability to tilt the body forward enough to provide sufficient forward propulsion. In two repeated-measures studies we examined whether adaptation to upward-shifting prisms, resulting in a downward after-effect, could improve gait initiation in healthy participants and patients with Parkinson’s disease. Faster forward stepping followed a brief (5 min exposure period for patients, and a longer (20 min exposure period for age-matched controls. Backward stepping was unchanged, and adaptation to downward-shifting prisms with control participants showed no effect on forward or backward stepping. These results suggest that adaptation of arm proprioception in the vertical plane may generalise to anterior-posterior postural control, presenting new possibilities for the treatment of gait disturbance in basal ganglia disorders.

  11. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence spectroscopy of 3D-triangular GaN nano prism islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, S K; Shibin Krishna, T C; Singh, Avanish Pratap; Kumar, Pawan; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Gupta, Govind

    2014-08-21

    We report a strategy for fabrication of 3D triangular GaN nano prism islands (TGNPI) grown on Ga/Si(553) substrate at low temperature by N2(+) ions implantation using a sputtering gun technique. The annealing of Ga/Si(553) (600 °C) followed by nitridation (2 keV) shows the formation of high quality GaN TGNPI cross-section. TGNPI morphology has been confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, these nano prism islands exhibit prominent ultra-violet luminescence peaking at 366 nm upon 325 nm excitation wavelength along with a low intensity yellow luminescence broad peak at 545 nm which characterizes low defects density TGNPI. Furthermore, the time-resolved spectroscopy of luminescent TGNPI in nanoseconds holds promise for its futuristic application in next generation UV-based sensors as well as many portable optoelectronic devices.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Lightweight AAC Masonry Wall Prisms with Ferrocement Layers in Compression and Flexure

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    An experimental program is designed to evaluate the performance of lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete masonry wall strengthened using ferrocement layers, in a sandwich structure, under in-plane compression and out-of-plane bending. The 25 mm thick ferrocement mortar is reinforced with steel welded wire mesh of 1 mm diameters at 15 mm spacing. Different types of shear connectors are used to evaluate their effect on failure loads. The effect of different design parameters on the wall strength are considered including wall thickness, mortar strength, and type and distribution of shear connectors. A total of 20 prisms are tested in compression and 5 prisms are tested under bending. The proposed ferrocement strengthening technique is easy to apply on existing wall system and results in significant strength and stiffness enhancement of the tested wall specimens. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  13. Using the accelerated Brazilian concrete prism test (ABCPT to evaluate alkali aggregate reaction (AAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sanchez

    Full Text Available There are many test methods used in the laboratory to detect potential alkali-aggregate reactions (AAR. However, up to now, there is no consensus if they are reliable and efficient. This work presents the development of a new and accelerated concrete prism test called ABCPT (accelerate Brazilian concrete prism test as an attempt to create a reliable and fast test that can analyze and classify the potential reactivity of aggregates in the laboratory. For this research, six aggregates from different lithotypes were used. The methods CPT, ACPT and ABCPT were carried out with all the aggregates and a comparative analysis among all tests was performed. ABCPT seems to have a great potential to analyze and classify aggregates in the laboratory, although it needs further testing with other lithotypes to be confirmed as feasible.

  14. Progress on PRISM, an inherently safe, economic, and testable advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippets, F.E.; Salerno, L.N.; Boardman, C.E.; Kwant, W.; Murata, R.E.; Snyder, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports progress on the design of PRISM (Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module) under the DOE-sponsored innovative reactor program now in its third year at General Electric. The purpose of this program is to develop a design for an inherently safe, reliable, and marketable liquid metal fast reactor power plant. The PRISM design approach includes the following key elements: Compact sodium-cooled pool-type reactor modules that are sized to enable factory fabrication, economical shipment to inland as well as water-side sites, and economical full-scale prototype testing for design certification; Nuclear safety-related envelope limited to the reactor modules and their service systems; Inherent, passive shutdown heat removal for loss-of-cooling events; Inherent, passive reactivity shutdown for failure-to-scram events

  15. Analysis of the applicability of acceleration methods for a triangular prism geometry nodal diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Toichiro; Okumura, Keisuke

    2002-11-01

    A prototype version of a diffusion code has been developed to analyze the hexagonal core as reduced moderation reactor and the applicability of some acceleration methods have been investigated to accelerate the convergence of the iterative solution method. The hexagonal core is divided into regular triangular prisms in the three-dimensional code MOSRA-Prism and a polynomial expansion nodal method is applied to approximate the neutron flux distribution by a cubic polynomial. The multi-group diffusion equation is solved iteratively with ordinal inner and outer iterations and the effectiveness of acceleration methods is ascertained by applying an adaptive acceleration method and a neutron source extrapolation method, respectively. The formulation of the polynomial expansion nodal method is outlined in the report and the local and global effectiveness of the acceleration methods is discussed with various sample calculations. A new general expression of vacuum boundary condition, derived in the formulation is also described. (author)

  16. Watching Nanoscale Self-Assembly Kinetics of Gold Prisms in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyeong; Ou, Zihao; Jones, Matthew R.; Chen, Qian

    We use liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy to watch self-assembly of gold triangular prisms into polymer-like structures. The in situ dynamics monitoring enabled by liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy, single nanoparticle tracking, and the marked conceptual similarity between molecular reactions and nanoparticle self-assembly combined elucidate the following mechanistic understanding: a step-growth polymerization based assembly statistics, kinetic pathways sampling particle curvature dependent energy minima and their interconversions, and directed assembly into polymorphs (linear or cyclic chains) through in situ modulation of the prism bonding geometry. Our study bridges the constituent kinetics on the molecular and nanoparticle length scales, which enriches the design rules in directed self-assembly of anisotropic nanoparticles.

  17. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus di Plaza Hotel Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suliantoro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Selama ini Plaza hotel belum pernah melakukan pengukuran kinerja yang terintegrasi yang terdiri dari aspek finansial dan non finansial. Dilihat dari prosentase tingkat hunian yang tidak memenuhi target yang ditetapkan, maka pengukuran kinerja yang terintegrasi diharapkan mampu memberikan perbaikan kinerja yang diharapkan. Dengan menggunakan performance prism, dilakukan identifikasi kebutuhan dan kontribusi stakeholder secara keseluruhan sehingga didapat indikator kinerja dari kriteria strategi, proses dan kapabilitas yang dijadikan tolok ukur perbaikan kinerja.. tahap pengumpulan data dengan menyebarkan matriks perbandingan berpasangan sebagai dasar penyusunan bobot kepentingan pada AHP dan kuesioner target pencapaian kinerja sebagai dasar penetapan skor aktual pada OMAX. Dari analisis yang dilakukan setelah bobot kepentingan diperoleh dan perhitungan nilai performansi, dilakukan simulasi perbaikan satu-satuan nilai performansi agar didapat kriteria dan elemen apa saja yang mendapat prioritas perbaikan dan rekomendasi perbaikan yang perlu dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kinerja Plaza Hotel Semarang. Kata kunci : Performance Prism, AHP, OMAX, skor aktual

  18. The Refractive Index Measurement Of Silicon Dioxide Thin Film by the Coupling Prism Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, Anwar; Hariyanto, Sigit; Subarkah

    1996-01-01

    Refractive index of silicon dioxide thin film that doped with phosphor (SiO 2 :P) above the pure silicon dioxide substrate has been measured by light coupling prism method. The method principle is focusing the light on coupling prism base so that the light propagates into the waveguide layer while the reflected one forms a mode in the observation plane. The SiO 2 thin film as waveguide layer has a refractive index that give the thick and refractive index relation. The He-Ne laser as light source has the wavelength λ 0,6328 μm. The refractive index measurement of the thin film with the substrate refractive index n sb = 1,47 and the thin film thick d = 2μm gives n g = 1,5534 ± 0,01136. This method can distinguish the refractive index of thin film about 6% to the refractive index of substrate

  19. Lower trait frontal theta activity in mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guaraci Ken Tanaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of mindfulness meditation on theta-band activity are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal theta differences between long- and short-term mindfulness practitioners before, during, and after mindfulness meditation. Twenty participants were recruited, of which 10 were experienced Buddhist meditators. Despite an acute increase in the theta activity during meditation in both the groups, the meditators showed lower trait frontal theta activity. Therefore, we suggested that this finding is a neural correlate of the expert practitioners’ ability to limit the processing of unnecessary information (e.g., discursive thought and increase the awareness of the essential content of the present experience. In conclusion, acute changes in the theta band throughout meditation did not appear to be a specific correlate of mindfulness but were rather related to the concentration properties of the meditation. Notwithstanding, lower frontal theta activity appeared to be a trait of mindfulness practices.

  20. Results of testing the frontal AK-3 extraction unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, N I; Dolinskii, A M; Kolesnikov, M A

    1978-10-01

    From August to November 1970, on site testing of a protype frontal AK excavating rig developed by Giprouglemesh for use on gentle sloping seams was conducted in the Novaya mine of the Kuzbass Ugol Consolidated. The AK-3 consists of a cutting assembly in the form of a ring frontal slicer with two drives, hydraulic operated sectionalized support timbers of the enclosed lift type, conjugated timbering with ventilation and conveyor shafts, personnel elevator and hydraulic and electrical ancillary equipment. The production capacity of the rig in longwalls is 2.2 times greater on the average than by using drillhole blasting methods. Tests demonstrated that the main advantage of the Ak-3 was the single operation, continuous flow mode of coal extraction and remote frontal movement of timber sections, which ensured high capacity loading at the face and the capability of automating all procedures and eliminating all workers from the extraction face.

  1. [Pott's puffy tumor: a rare complication of frontal sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aínsa Laguna, D; Pons Morales, S; Muñoz Tormo-Figueres, A; Vega Senra, M I; Otero Reigada, M C

    2014-05-01

    Pott's puffy tumor is a rare complication of frontal sinusitis characterized by swelling and edema in the brow due to a subperiosteal abscess associated with frontal osteomyelitis. Added complications are cellulitis by extension to the orbit and intracranial infection by posterior extension, with high risk of meningitis, intracranial abscess, and venous sinus thrombosis. Early diagnosis and aggressive medical or surgical treatment are essential for optimal recovery of affected patients. In the antibiotic age it is extremely rare, with very few cases described in the recent literature. A case is presented of a Pott inflammatory tumor in a 7 year-old boy, as a complication of acute pansinusitis who presented with front preseptal swelling and intracranial involvement with thrombosis of ophthalmic and superior orbital veins and frontal epidural abscess extending to the subarachnoid space. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Indirect versus direct feedback in computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    2010-01-01

    Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method in the treatment of the attention disorder neglect (Frassinetti, Angeli, Meneghello, Avanzi, & Ladavas, 2002; Rossetti, et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to investigate whether one session of PAT using a computer-attached touchscreen...... in the aftereffect. The findings have direct implications for future implementations of computer-based methods of treatment of visuospatial disorders and computer-assisted rehabilitation in general....

  3.   Indirect versus direct feedback in computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    2010-01-01

      Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method in the treatment of the attention disorder neglect (Frassinetti, Angeli, Meneghello, Avanzi, & Ladavas, 2002; Rossetti, et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to investigate whether one session of PAT using a computer-attached touchscreen...... have direct implications for future implementations of computer-based methods of treatment of visuospatial disorders and computer-assisted rehabilitation in general....

  4. HEATING OF BLANK IN FORM OF PRISM IN ACCORDANCE WITH TECHNOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kovalevsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on optimum heating control of a blank in the form of prism under complicated conditions of heat-transfer in accordance with criteria of gas consumption minimization, decarburized layer and scaling. Numerical algorithm of the problem solution and examples are given in the paper. A new technology of the flame furnace operation has been developed in the paper. 

  5. Bisecting real and fake body parts: effects of prism adaptation after right brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia eBolognini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The representation of body parts holds a special status in the brain, due to their prototypical shape and the contribution of multisensory (visual and somatosensory-proprioceptive information. In a previous study (Sposito et al., 2010, we showed that patients with left unilateral spatial neglect exhibit a rightward bias in setting the mid-point of their left forearm, which becomes larger when bisecting a cylindrical object comparable in size. This body part advantage, found also in control participants, suggests partly different processes for computing the extent of body parts and objects. In this study we tested 16 right-brain-damaged patients, and 10 unimpaired participants, on a manual bisection task of their own (real left forearm, or a size-matched fake forearm. We then explored the effects of adaptation to rightward displacing prism exposure, which brings about leftward aftereffects. We found that all participants showed prism adaptation and aftereffects, with right-brain-damaged patients exhibiting a reduction of the rightward bias for both real and fake forearm, with no overall differences between them. Second, correlation analyses highlighted the role of visual and proprioceptive information for the metrics of body parts. Third, single-patient analyses showed dissociations between real and fake forearm bisections, and the effects of prism adaptation, as well as a more frequent impairment with fake body parts. In sum, the rightward bias shown by right-brain-damaged patients in bisecting body parts is reduced by prism exposure, as other components of the neglect syndrome; discrete spatial representations for real and fake body parts, for which visual and proprioceptive codes play different roles, are likely to exist. Multisensory information seems to render self bodily segments more resistant to the disruption brought about by right-hemisphere injury.

  6. PRISM [Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module] design concept enhances waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.; Berglund, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    PRISM, a modular advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), has been designed conceptually by GE under the US Department of Energy sponsorship. The concept design and analyses have been primarily focused on passive safety and improved construction and operating costs. Significantly, the unique design of multiple modules and features of PRISM enhance waste management over conventional reactor systems. This paper provides an overview of PRISM of these enhancements. Inherent to the ALMR's, the sodium coolant precludes crud buildup on reactor surfaces and in components and waste for disposal. Preliminary evaluations indicate this fundamental feature results in factors of 2-4 less waste volume and 2-3 orders of magnitude less curies per megawatt-electric for ultimate disposal. For example, the tap designed for sodium cleanup is expected to be exchanged only once every thirty years. Also, inherent to ALMR's, burning waste actinides and selected fission products to preclude their accumulation and burial is very attractive. The hard neutron spectrum of ALMR burns the actinides efficiently and is not poisoned by the actinides and fission products. The modular design of PRISM components (and the fuel cycle equipment) permit replacement without expensive and potentially hazardous volume reduction. For example, the functional components of the reference electromagnetic pump and IHK can be removed intact for waste disposal. Although development of the reference metal fuel is not completed, it is estimated that (low-level) waste from recycle of the fuel will result in significantly less volume than would be generated by aqueous recycle of oxide fuel. 6 refs., 10 figs

  7. Analysis of postulated events for the revised ALMR/PRISM design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The PRISM reactor is presently under pre-application licensing review by the NRC, with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) providing technical assistance. In this paper, the authors describe the latest set of results from their SSC and MINET code calculations. Series of postulated events were analyzed, for the most current PRISM design, to evaluate the system performance under unscrammed conditions. The PRISM reactor utilizes a metal fuel composed of 27% Pu, 10% Zr, and 63% U, based on the fuel developed by Argonne National Laboratory as part of the Integral Fast Reactor program. The fuel has a small power and temperature defect as a result of the high fuel thermal conductivity of metal and a hard neutron spectrum. The reactivity feedbacks of the core are designed to provide a negative response to off-normal, high temperature conditions, by invoking negative responses from the thermal expansion of the fuel, control rods, and core radial dimensions. The core restraint system incorporates the limited free bowing feature, which generates an outward bow of the in-core portion of the fuel assembly when a temperature gradient exits. The core also has three Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs) placed around the periphery, which will remove a combined worth of -69 cents of reactivity when the pumps are tripped from full power conditions. In evaluating this passive shutdown response, in which the PRISM reactor power should decrease significantly in response to overheated conditions, one considers three classes of unscrammed events. These include the unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF), loss of heat sink (ULOHS), and transient over power (UTOP) events

  8. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization.

  9. Role of Prism Decussation on Fatigue Crack Growth and Fracture of Human Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    The role of prism decussation on the crack growth resistance of human enamel is evaluated. Miniature inset Compact Tension (CT) specimens embodying a section of cuspal enamel were subjected to Mode I cyclic or monotonic loads. Cracks were grown in either the forward (from outer enamel inwards) or reverse (from inner enamel outwards) direction and the responses were compared quantitatively. Results showed that the outer enamel exhibits lower resistance to the inception and growth of cracks. Re...

  10. Relative left frontal activity in reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion: Evidence from frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Damee; Sekiya, Takahiro; Minote, Natsumi; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that reappraisal (changing the way that one thinks about emotional events) is an effective strategy for regulating emotion, compared with suppression (reducing emotion-expressive behavior). In the present study, we investigated relative left frontal activity when participants were instructed to use reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion, by measuring frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA). Two electroencephalography (EEG) experiments were conducted; FAA was analyzed while 102 healthy participants (59 men, 43 women) watched negative images after being instructed to perform reappraisal (Experiment 1) and suppression (Experiment 2). Habitual use of reappraisal and suppression was also assessed using the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ). The results of Experiment 1 showed that relative left frontal activity was greater when instructed to use reappraisal of negative images than when normally viewing negative images. In contrast, we observed no difference between conditions of instructed suppression and normal viewing in Experiment 2. In addition, in male participants, habitual use of reappraisal was positively correlated with increased relative left frontal activity for instructed reappraisal, while habitual use of suppression did not show a significant correlation with changes in relative left frontal activity for instructed suppression. These results suggest that emotional responses to negative images might be decreased for instructed reappraisal, but not suppression. These findings support previous reports that reappraisal is an effective emotion regulation strategy, compared with suppression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Conventional frontal radiographs compared with frontal radiographs obtained from cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Metin; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Kilkis, Dogan; Sezgin, Omer Said

    2012-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference between measurements performed on conventional frontal radiographs (FRs) and those performed on FRs obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. This study consisted of conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs obtained from 30 young adult patients. Twenty-three landmarks were identified on both types of cephalometric radiographs. Twenty-one widely used cephalometric variables (14 linear distances, 4 angles, and 3 ratios) were calculated. Paired t-tests were performed to compare the means of corresponding measurements on two cephalometric radiographs of the same patient. Reproducibility of measurements ranged from 0.85 to 0.99 for CBCT-constructed FRs, and from 0.78 to 0.96 for conventional FRs. A statistically significant difference was observed between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for all linear measurements (eurR-eurL, loR-loL, moR-moL, zygR-zygL, lapR-lapL, mxR-mxL, maR-maL, umR-umL, lmR-lmL, agR-agL, me-ans) (P .05). However, no statistically significant differences were noted between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for ratios and angular measurements (P > .05). The hypothesis was rejected. A difference has been noted between measurements performed on conventional FRs and those performed on CBCT-constructed FRs, particularly in terms of linear measurements.

  12. A Concentrator Photovoltaic System Based on a Combination of Prism-Compound Parabolic Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a cost-effective concentrating photovoltaic system composed of a prism and a compound parabolic concentrator (P-CPC. In this approach, the primary collector consists of a prism, a solid compound parabolic concentrator (CPC, and a slab waveguide. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of CPC, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic rims of CPC. Then, the sunlight is reflected at the parabolic rims and concentrated at the focal point of these parabolas. A slab waveguide is coupled at the output aperture of the CPC to collect focused sunlight beams and to guide them to the solar cell. The optical system was modeled and simulated with commercial ray tracing software (LightTools™. Simulation results show that the optical efficiency of a P-CPC can achieve up to 89%. when the concentration ratio of the P-CPC is fixed at 50. We also determine an optimal geometric structure of P-CPC based on simulation. Because of the simplicity of the P-CPC structure, a lower-cost mass production process is possible. A simulation based on optimal structure of P-CPC was performed and the results also shown that P-CPC has high angular tolerance for input sunlight. The high tolerance of the input angle of sunlight allows P-CPC solar concentrator utilize a single sun tracking system instead of a highly precise dual suntracking system as cost effective solution.

  13. Use of the Tax Prism Method When Forming Tax Part of the Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verovska Ludmila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax prism method is developed for the assessment of tax part of the budget as well as for forecasting the influence of tax optimisation on it. There are certain trends in global practice. Developing and transition economies are characterised by low tax burden. Economically developed countries with a high level of social security of population are characterised by high tax burden. The analytical and graphic-analytical research for the purpose of determination of optimum size of the taxation using the tax prism has been conducted. In addition to the concept of ‘tax prism’, concepts such as static and dynamic tax prisms have been introduced, allowing to consider changes in the part of the budget of interest in connection with a possibility of taxation subjects to reduce the size of a tax burden by various methods of tax optimisation, and also to consider the influence of other factors on it. The use of this approach helps effectively to enhance the tax legislation by modelling high-quality and quantitative consequences of one or another changes and innovations.

  14. The PRISM reactor as a possible option to deal with the british civilian plutonium stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichtlscherer, Christopher [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany); ISR, Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Boku) (Austria)

    2017-07-01

    Dealing with stocks of separated weapon-usable plutonium is a big challenge for our modern society. This work focuses on the British civil plutonium stockpiles, which amount to 103.3 tons. One option is seen in irradiating the plutonium in a fast reactor under development, namely the GE PRISM reactor. The PRISM reactor is a small modular, fast reactor which has a thermal power of 840 MW and an electrical output of 311 MW. It is intended to use MOX fuel and proponents claim, that it thus would be possible to produce clean energy, while making the plutonium proliferation resistant. A MCNP model of the reactor is built and depletion calculations with different target burnups of the fuel were conducted to check whether the burned material would fulfil the Spent-Fuel Standard. Particularly it was checked whether the spent fuel is self protecting, meaning that the dose rate does not fall below a limit of 1 Sv/h in 1 meter distance after a cooling period of 30 years. Based on the reactor model calculations the irradiation time to fulfill this limit for the spent fuel is calculated. Based on the needed target burnup, it can be verified, whether it is possible for the PRISM reactor to render the civil plutonium proliferation resistant in only 20 years as is is claimed by its proponents.

  15. The PRISM concept for a safe, economic and testable liquid metal fast reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, R.C.; Salerno, L.N.; Tippets, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    The PRISM project is underway at General Electric as part of an advanced reactor conceptual design program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The PRISM concept emphasizes inherent safety, modular construction, and factory fabrication. These features are intended to improve the basis for public acceptance, reduce cost,improve licensability, and reduce the risk of schedule delays and cost increases during construction. A PRISM power plant comprises a number of reactor modules. The relatively small size of the reactor module facilitates the use of passive, inherent self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features for safe accommodation of accidents. These inherent safety features permit simplification and reduction of conventional safety-related systems in the plant. Testing of a full-size prototype reactor module is planned in the late 1990's to demonstrate these inherent safety characteristics. It is intended that the results of the test be used to obtain certification of the design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission preparatory to use of reactor modules built to this standard design in licensed commercial plants

  16. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Z.; Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A.; Girard, H. A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000-1500 cm-1 spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  17. Neural mechanisms underlying spatial realignment during adaptation to optical wedge prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Heidi L; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Gavrilescu, Maria; Strudwick, Mark W; Loftus, Andrea; Cunnington, Ross; Mattingley, Jason B

    2010-07-01

    Visuomotor adaptation to a shift in visual input produced by prismatic lenses is an example of dynamic sensory-motor plasticity within the brain. Prism adaptation is readily induced in healthy individuals, and is thought to reflect the brain's ability to compensate for drifts in spatial calibration between different sensory systems. The neural correlate of this form of functional plasticity is largely unknown, although current models predict the involvement of parieto-cerebellar circuits. Recent studies that have employed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions associated with prism adaptation have discovered patterns of parietal and cerebellar modulation as participants corrected their visuomotor errors during the early part of adaptation. However, the role of these regions in the later stage of adaptation, when 'spatial realignment' or true adaptation is predicted to occur, remains unclear. Here, we used fMRI to quantify the distinctive patterns of parieto-cerebellar activity as visuomotor adaptation develops. We directly contrasted activation patterns during the initial error correction phase of visuomotor adaptation with that during the later spatial realignment phase, and found significant recruitment of the parieto-cerebellar network--with activations in the right inferior parietal lobe and the right posterior cerebellum. These findings provide the first evidence of both cerebellar and parietal involvement during the spatial realignment phase of prism adaptation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Possibilities of magnet prism β-spectrometer application in on-line experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, K.M.; Arynov, S.

    1996-01-01

    The main attention is paid to works with particle beam in up-to-date nuclear investigations. The application of magnet prism β-spectrometer for works in 'on-line' experiments is considered in this article. The source chamber and detector chamber are distanted from each other on great distance (4 m) and are out of operation field of spectrometer. There is a reliable defence of operating field of device from external parasitic fields by the magnetic screens system. The additional advantage is a factor that source (target) and detector could replacing in specific directions about few centimetres during the device operating. The main β-spectroscopic performances of device are compared with Grenoble spectroscopic complex. The liner depression of prism spectrometer account for from 3,6 up to 6 m; light force - from 2·10 -4 up to 6·10 -4 up to 4π; operating resolving power - 0,02-0,05% by impulse. Investigation range is from several keV up to 3 MeV. There are all opportunities for installing of the on-line magnetic prism spectrometer on the U-150 accelerator and the WWR-K reactor. Spectrometer application in 'on-line' experiments gives possibility to obtain more wide information. 4 refs

  19. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remes, Z., E-mail: remes@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000–1500 cm{sup −1} spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  20. Prism-coupled Cherenkov phase-matched terahertz wave generation using a DAST crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suizu, Koji; Shibuya, Takayuki; Uchida, Hirohisa; Kawase, Kodo

    2010-02-15

    Terahertz (THz) wave generation based on nonlinear frequency conversion is a promising method for realizing a tunable monochromatic high-power THz-wave source. Unfortunately, many nonlinear crystals have strong absorption in the THz frequency region. This limits efficient and widely tunable THz-wave generation. The Cherenkov phase-matching method is one of the most promising techniques for overcoming these problems. Here, we propose a prism-coupled Cherenkov phase-matching (PCC-PM) method, in which a prism with a suitable refractive index at THz frequencies is coupled to a nonlinear crystal. This has the following advantages. Many crystals can be used as THz-wave emitters; the phase-matching condition inside the crystal does not have to be observed; the absorption of the crystal does not prevent efficient generation of radiation; and pump sources with arbitrary wavelengths can be employed. Here we demonstrate PCC-PM THz-wave generation using the organic crystal 4-dimethylamino-N-metyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) and a Si prism coupler. We obtain THz-wave radiation with tunability of approximately 0.1 to 10 THz and with no deep absorption features resulting from the absorption spectrum of the crystal. The obtained spectra did not depend on the pump wavelength in the range 1300 to 1450 nm. This simple technique shows promise for generating THz radiation using a wide variety of nonlinear crystals.

  1. Compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Qiyuan; Rosengarten, Gary; Hawkes, Evatt; Taylor, Robert A

    2017-05-10

    In order to maximize solar energy utilization in a limited space (e.g., rooftops), solar collectors should track the sun. As an alternative to rotational tracking systems, this paper presents a compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array which has been designed, analyzed, and tested for solar applications. The proposed prism array enables a linear concentrator system to remain stationary so that it can integrate with a variety of different solar concentrators, and which should be particularly useful for systems which require a low profile (namely rooftop-mounted systems). A case study of this prism array working within a specific rooftop solar collector demonstrates that it can boost the average daily optical efficiency of the collector by 32.7% and expand its effective working time from 6 h to 7.33 h. Overall, the proposed design provides an alternative way to "follow" the sun for a wide range of solar thermal and photovoltaic concentrator systems.

  2. A novel and compact spectral imaging system based on two curved prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Bin, Xiangli; Zhou, Jinsong; Li, Yang

    2013-09-01

    As a novel detection approach which simultaneously acquires two-dimensional visual picture and one-dimensional spectral information, spectral imaging offers promising applications on biomedical imaging, conservation and identification of artworks, surveillance of food safety, and so forth. A novel moderate-resolution spectral imaging system consisting of merely two optical elements is illustrated in this paper. It can realize the function of a relay imaging system as well as a 10nm spectral resolution spectroscopy. Compared to conventional prismatic imaging spectrometers, this design is compact and concise with only two special curved prisms by utilizing two reflective surfaces. In contrast to spectral imagers based on diffractive grating, the usage of compound-prism possesses characteristics of higher energy utilization and wider free spectral range. The seidel aberration theory and dispersive principle of this special prism are analyzed at first. According to the results, the optical system of this design is simulated, and the performance evaluation including spot diagram, MTF and distortion, is presented. In the end, considering the difficulty and particularity of manufacture and alignment, an available method for fabrication and measurement is proposed.

  3. Perovskite, reaction product of a harzburgite with Jurassic– Cretaceous accretionary wedge fluids (Western Carpathians, Slovakia: evidence from the whole-rock and mineral trace element data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putiš Marián

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite (Prv was discovered in an abyssal harzburgite from a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge of the Western Carpathians (Meliata Unit, Slovakia. Perovskite-1 formation in serpentinized orthopyroxene may be simplified by the mass-balance reaction: Ca2Si2O6 (Ca-pyroxene-member+2Fe2TiO4 (ulvöspinel molecule in spinel+2H2O+O2=2CaTiO3 (Prv+2SiO2+4FeOOH (goethite. Perovskite-2 occurs in a chlorite-rich blackwall zone separating serpentinite and rodingite veins, and in rodingite veins alone. The bulk-rock trace-element patterns suggest negligible differences from visually and microscopically less (“core” to strongly serpentinized harzburgite due to serpentinization and rodingitization: an enrichment in LREE(La,Ce, Cs, ±Ba, U, Nb, Pb, As, Sb, ±Nd and Li in comparison with HREE, Rb and Sr. The U/Pb perovskite ages at ~135 Ma are interpreted to record the interaction of metamorphic fluids with harzburgite blocks in the Neotethyan Meliatic accretionary wedge. Our LA-ICP-MS mineral study provides a complex view on trace element behaviour during the two stages of rodingitization connected with Prv genesis. The positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, Pb, As, Sb, Pr and Nd in Cpx, Opx and Ol are combined with the negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr in these minerals. The similar positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, ±Be, As, Sb found in typical serpentinization and rodingitization minerals, with variable contents of La, Ce and Nd, and negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr suggest involvement of crustal fluids during MP-LP/LT accretionary wedge metamorphism. LA-ICP-MS study revealed strong depletion in LREE from Prv-1 to Prv-2, and a typically negative Eu (and Ti anomaly for Prv-1, while a positive Eu (and Ti anomaly for Prv-2. Our multi-element diagram depicts enrichment in U, Nb, La, Ce, As, Sb, Pr, Nd and decreased Rb, Ba, Th, Ta, Pb, Sr, Zr in both Prv generations. In general, both Prv generations are very close to the

  4. Gaint frontal sinus mucocoele with intracranial extension and Orbital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On avait opéré tout de suite un défaut surgissant à partir d'os frontal à l'aide d'un acier métallique d'une longueur de 0,5mm courbé et attaché en trios couches en traves l'os infecté, l'os frontal par-dessus lequel on avait traité les tissues mou du front à travers l'occlusion primaire sur la sonde d'os (sound bone).

  5. Modeling and simulation of cars in frontal collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deac, S. C.; Perescu, A.; Simoiu, D.; Nyaguly, E.; Crâştiu, I.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Protection of cars, mainly drivers and passengers in a collision are very important issues worldwide. Statistics given by “World Health Organization” are alarming rate of increase in the number of road accidents, most claiming with serious injury, human and material loss. For these reasons has been a continuous development of protection systems, especially car causing three quarters of all accidents. Mathematical modeling and simulation of a car behavior during a frontal collision leads to new solutions in the development of protective systems. This paper presents several structural models of a vehicle during a frontal collision and its behavior is analyzed by numerical simulation using Simulink.

  6. PERANCANGAN DAN IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus pada Hotel X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Vanany

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article described a result of research design of performance measurement system in hotel business with Performance Prism Model. As long as, performance measurement system at hotel X not yet representatived organization performance according to comprehensif and integrated. Because of needed redesign performance measurement system with new model. From the objective condition of hotel X, Performance Prism model more representative than others. The result of design described that stakeholder in hotel X such as: customer, employee, supplier, owner and investor, and regulator and community. From the performance measurement system design are obtained 36 types Key Performance Indicator (KPI such as: 6 KPI of customer, 9 KPI of staff manajerial, 9 KPI of staff operational, 4 KPI of supplier, 3 KPI of investor, and 5 KPI of regulator & community. Result of implementation performance measurement system with scoring system indicates that the amount of scor current performance indicator is 50,75%. Result of measurement can be based management act evaluation and choice planning improvement organization and all Stakeholder requirements must be request. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Artikel ini menguraikan hasil penelitian perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja pada sebuah perusahaan dalam bisnis hotel dengan model Performance Prism. Selama ini, sistem pengukuran kinerja di Hotel X belum merepresentasikan kinerja organisasi secara komprehensif dan integratif. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perancangan kembali sistem pengukuran kinerjanya. Dari kondisi objektif hotel X, model yang tepat digunakan adalah model Performance Prism dibanding model lain. Hasil rancangan menunjukkan bahwa stakeholder hotel X meliputi: konsumen, tenaga kerja, supplier, pemilik/investor, serta pemerintah dan masyarakat sekitar lingkungan hotel. Sistem pengukuran kinerja memuat 36 KPI yang meliputi 6 KPI konsumen, 9 KPI staff manajerial, 9 KPI staff operasional, 4 KPI supplier, 3

  7. Isotopic and chemical evidence for three accretionary magmatic arcs ( 1.79 - 1.42 Ga) in the SW Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Teixeira, Wilson; Schmus, William Randall van

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-one U/Pb ages of granitoids in the SW Amazon craton define three crustal accretionary events during the Paleo-and Mesoproterozoic that represent significant portions of the Rio Negro-Juruena Province and the Rondonian/San Ignacio province. Two events refer to the Rio Negro-Juruena province: The Alto Jauru greenstone belt comprises acid volcanics and tonalite to granite gneisses with U/Pb ages from 1790 to 1750 Ma. Sm/Nd isotopic data (e N -d (t) from +2.6 to +2.2 and T DM from 2.0 to 1.80 Ga) indicate a volcanic arc with juvenile signatures for these units. The second event (Cachoeirinha arc) comprises granites to tonalites with U/Pb ages from 1580 to 1530 Ma. Sm/Nd results. (author)

  8. Basalts and picrites from a plume-type ophiolite in the South Qilian Accretionary Belt, Qilian Orogen: Accretion of a Cambrian Oceanic Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Song, Shuguang; Yang, Liming; Su, Li; Niu, Yaoling; Allen, Mark B.; Xu, Xin

    2017-05-01

    Oceanic plateaus with high-Mg rocks in the present-day oceanic crust have attracted much attention for their proposed mantle-plume origins and abnormally high mantle potential temperatures (Tp). However, equivalent rocks in ancient oceanic environments are usually poorly preserved because of deformation and metamorphism. Here we present petrological, geochronological and geochemical data for pillow lavas from Cambrian ophiolites in the Lajishan and Yongjing regions of the South Qilian Accretionary Belt (SQAB), from the southern part of the Qilian Orogen, northern China. Three rock groups can be identified geochemically: (1) sub-alkaline basalts with enriched mid- ocean ridge basalt (E-MORB) affinity; (2) alkaline basalts with oceanic island basalt (OIB) features, probably derived from partial melting of an enriched mantle source; and (3) picrites with MgO (18-22 wt%). Cr-numbers [Cr# = Cr/(Cr + Al)] of spinels from the picrites suggest 18-21% degree of partial melting at the estimated mantle potential temperature (Tp) of 1489-1600 °C, equivalent to values of Cenozoic Hawaiian picrites (1500-1600 °C). Zircons from one gabbro sample yielded a U-Pb Concordia age of 525 ± 3 Ma, suggesting the oceanic crust formed in the Cambrian. Available evidence suggests that Cambrian mantle plume activity is preserved in the South Qilian Accretionary Belt, and influenced the regional tectonics: "jamming" of the trench by thick oceanic crust explains the emplacement and preservation of the oceanic plateau, and gave rise to the generation of concomitant Ordovician inner-oceanic island arc basalts via re-organisation of the subduction zones in the region.

  9. Neotethyan rifting-related ore occurrences: study of an accretionary mélange complex (Darnó Unit, NE Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Gabriella B.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The geology of the NE Hungarian Darnó Unit is rather complicated, as it is composed mostly of a Jurassic accretionary mélange complex, according to the most recent investigations. The magmatic and sedimentary rock blocks of the mélange represent products of different evolutionary stages of the Neotethys; including Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of marine rifting related origin, Triassic pillow basalt of advanced rifting related origin and Jurassic pillow basalt originated in back-arc-basin environment. This small unit contains a copper-gold occurrence in the Permian marly-clayey limestone, an iron enrichment in the Triassic sedimentary succession, a copper-silver ore occurrence in Triassic pillow basalts and a copper ore indication, occurring both in the Triassic and Jurassic pillow basalts. The present study deals with the Cu(-Ag occurrence in the Triassic basalt and the Fe occurrence in the Triassic sedimentary succession. The former shows significant similarities with the Michigan-type mineralizations, while the latter has typical characteristics of the Fe-SEDEX deposits. All the above localities fit well into the new geological model of the investigated area. The mineralizations represent the different evolutionary stages of the Neotethyan rifting and an epigenetic, Alpine metamorphism-related process and their recent, spatially close position is the result of the accretionary mélange formation. Thus, the Darnó Unit represents a perfect natural laboratory for studying and understanding the characteristic features of several different rifting related ore forming processes.

  10. Frontal-posterior coherence and cognitive function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Jessica I; Kuti, Julia; Brown, Jessica; Mahon, Jessica R; Gayda-Chelder, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The reliable measurement of brain health and cognitive function is essential in mitigating the negative effects associated with cognitive decline through early and accurate diagnosis of change. The present research explored the relationship between EEG coherence for electrodes within frontal and posterior regions, as well as coherence between frontal and posterior electrodes and performance on standard neuropsychological measures of memory and executive function. EEG coherence for eyes-closed resting-state EEG activity was calculated for delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Participants (N=66; mean age=67.15years) had their resting-state EEGs recorded and completed a neuropsychological battery that assessed memory and executive function, two cognitive domains that are significantly affected during aging. A positive relationship was observed between coherence within the frontal region and performance on measures of memory and executive function for delta and beta frequency bands. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed for coherence between frontal and posterior electrode pairs, particularly within the theta frequency band, and performance on Digit Span Sequencing, a measure of working memory. The present research supports a more substantial link between EEG coherence, rather than spectral power, and cognitive function. Continued study in this area may enable EEG to be applied broadly as a diagnostic measure of cognitive ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyclonic entrainment of preconditioned shelf waters into a frontal eddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, J. D.; Macdonald, H.; Baird, M. E.; Humphries, J.; Roughan, M.; Suthers, I. M.

    2015-02-01

    The volume transport of nutrient-rich continental shelf water into a cyclonic frontal eddy (entrainment) was examined from satellite observations, a Slocum glider and numerical simulation outputs. Within the frontal eddy, parcels of water with temperature/salinity signatures of the continental shelf (18-19°C and >35.5, respectively) were recorded. The distribution of patches of shelf water observed within the eddy was consistent with the spiral pattern shown within the numerical simulations. A numerical dye tracer experiment showed that the surface waters (≤50 m depth) of the frontal eddy are almost entirely (≥95%) shelf waters. Particle tracking experiments showed that water was drawn into the eddy from over 4° of latitude (30-34.5°S). Consistent with the glider observations, the modeled particles entrained into the eddy sunk relative to their initial position. Particles released south of 33°S, where the waters are cooler and denser, sunk 34 m deeper than their release position. Distance to the shelf was a critical factor in determining the volume of shelf water entrained into the eddy. Entrainment reduced to 0.23 Sv when the eddy was furthest from the shelf, compared to 0.61 Sv when the eddy was within 10 km of the shelf. From a biological perspective, quantifying the entrainment of shelf water into frontal eddies is important, as it is thought to play a significant role in providing an offshore nursery habitat for coastally spawned larval fish.

  12. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone in a teenager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadom, Nadja; Rushing, Elisabeth J.; Yaun, Amanda; Santi, Mariarita

    2009-01-01

    We report a skull chondromyxoid fibroma with symptomatic intracranial extension causing initial misdiagnosis as a psychiatric disorder in a 14-year-old child. CT performed for work-up of the patient's ''stuffy nose'' revealed a large calcified frontal bone mass with extensive intracranial growth. We present this child with the diagnosis of intracranial chondromyxoid fibroma with detailed neuroimaging and neuropathology correlations. (orig.)

  13. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  14. Anthropometrical Profiles Of The Frontal Sinus In Population Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthropometrical profiles, function and variation of frontal sinus have been poorly understood. Understanding these are important in sinus operation and in paleontology, to understand the puzzle of the meaning of the supra orbital development. In the present study radiographs of 74 males and 46 females of south east ...

  15. The rat frontal cortex serotonin receptors. Influence of supraletal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanez, P.O.; Timmermans, R.; Gerber, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    The density of the frontal cortex serotonin-2 receptors was determined after a supralethal irradiation (20 Gy) in Wistar rat. Using spiperone as ligand, we observed an important decrease in the density of serotonin-2 receptor and an increase in the dissociation constant receptor-ligand, 3 days after exposure [fr

  16. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest that early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present…

  17. Role of Frontal Cortex in Attentional Capture by Singleton Distractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The role of frontal cortex in selective attention to visual distractors was examined in an attentional capture task in which participants searched for a unique shape in the presence or absence of an additional colour singleton distractor. The presence of the additional singleton was associated with slower behavioural responses to the shape target,…

  18. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. Methods. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. Results. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024. A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman’s r = -0.297; p = 0.001. Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017. Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  19. Differences in the neural correlates of frontal lobe tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Kato, Yuka; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin

    2018-01-01

    The Executive Interview (EXIT25), the executive clock-drawing task (CLOX1), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are used to assess executive function at the bedside. These tests assess distinct psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural correlates of the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based on magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-eight subjects (30 with Alzheimer's disease, 10 with mild cognitive impairment, and 18 healthy controls) participated in this study. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the brain regions correlated with the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB scores. Age, gender, and years of education were included as covariates. Statistical thresholds were set to uncorrected P-values of 0.001 at the voxel level and 0.05 at the cluster level. The EXIT25 score correlated inversely with the regional grey matter volume in the left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann areas 6, 9, 44, and 45). The CLOX1 score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11) and the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40). The FAB score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6). The left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 9) and the right lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 46) were identified as common brain regions that showed association with EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based only a voxel-level threshold. The results of this study suggest that the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB may be associated with the distinct neural correlates of the frontal cortex. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  20. Prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM): A new frontier at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Formed by non-covalent interactions and not defined at genetic level, the assemblies of small molecules in biology are complicated and less explored. A common morphology of the supramolecular assemblies of small molecules is nanofibrils, which coincidentally resembles the nanofibrils formed by proteins such as prions. So these supramolecular assemblies are termed as prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM). Emerging evidence from several unrelated fields over the past decade implies the significance of PriSM in biology and medicine. This perspective aims to highlight some recent advances of the research on PriSM. This paper starts with description of the intriguing similarities between PriSM and prions, discusses the paradoxical features of PriSM, introduces the methods for elucidating the biological functions of PriSM, illustrates several examples of beneficial aspects of PriSM, and finishes with the promises and current challenges in the research of PriSM. We anticipate that the research of PriSM will contribute to the fundamental understanding at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology and ultimately lead to a new paradigm of molecular (or supramolecular) therapeutics for biomedicine.

  1. Behaviour of concrete beams reinforced withFRP prestressed concrete prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecova, Dagmar

    The use of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) to reinforce concrete is gaining acceptance. However, due to the relatively low modulus of FRP, in comparison to steel, such structures may, if sufficient amount of reinforcement is not used, suffer from large deformations and wide cracks. FRP is generally more suited for prestressing. Since it is not feasible to prestress all concrete structures to eliminate the large deflections of FRP reinforced concrete flexural members, researchers are focusing on other strategies. A simple method for avoiding excessive deflections is to provide sufficiently high amount of FRP reinforcement to limit its stress (strain) to acceptable levels under service loads. This approach will not be able to take advantage of the high strength of FRP and will be generally uneconomical. The current investigation focuses on the feasibility of an alternative strategy. This thesis deals with the flexural and shear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP prestressed concrete prisms. FRP prestressed concrete prisms (PCP) are new reinforcing bars, made by pretensioning FRP and embedding it in high strength grout/concrete. The purpose of the research is to investigate the feasibility of using such pretensioned rebars, and their effect on the flexural and shear behaviour of reinforced concrete beams over the entire loading range. Due to the prestress in the prisms, deflection of concrete beams reinforced with this product is substantially reduced, and is comparable to similarly steel reinforced beams. The thesis comprises both theoretical and experimental investigations. In the experimental part, nine beams reinforced with FRP prestressed concrete prisms, and two companion beams, one steel and one FRP reinforced were tested. All the beams were designed to carry the same ultimate moment. Excellent flexural and shear behaviour of beams reinforced with higher prestressed prisms is reported. When comparing deflections of three beams designed to have the

  2. Post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small concrete walls reinforced with plant fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Soto

    Full Text Available Structural masonry using concrete blocks promotes the rationalization of construction projects, lowering the final cost of a building through the elimination of forms and the reduction of the consumption of reinforcement bars. Moreover, production of a block containing a combination of concrete and vegetable fiber sisal results in a unit with properties such as mechanical strength, stiffness, flexibility, ability to absorb energy, and post-cracking behavior that are comparable to those of a block produced with plain concrete. Herein are reported the results of a study on the post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small walls reinforced with sisal fibers (lengths of 20 mm and 40 mm added at volume fractions of 0.5% and 1%. Tests were performed to characterize the fibers and blocks and to determine the compressive strength of the units, prisms, and small walls. The deformation modulus of the elements was calculated and the stress-strain curves were plotted to gain a better understanding of the values obtained. The compression test results for the small walls reinforced with fibers were similar to those of the reference walls and better than the blocks and prisms with added fibers, which had resistances lower than those of the corresponding conventional materials. All elements prepared with the addition of sisal exhibited an increase in the deformation capacity (conferred by the fibers, which was observed in the stress-strain curves. The failure mode of the reference elements was characterized by an abrupt fracture, whereas the reinforced elements underwent ductile breakage. This result was because of the presence of the fibers, which remained attached to the faces of the cracks via adhesion to the cement matrix, thus preventing loss of continuity in the material. Therefore, the cement/plant fiber composites are advantageous in terms of their ductility and ability to resist further damage after cracking.

  3. Intravesicular Phosphatase PHOSPHO1 Function in Enamel Mineralization and Prism Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Pandya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The transport of mineral ions from the enamel organ-associated blood vessels to the developing enamel crystals involves complex cargo packaging and carriage mechanisms across several cell layers, including the ameloblast layer and the stratum intermedium. Previous studies have established PHOSPHO1 as a matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase that interacts with matrix vesicles molecules phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine to initiate apatite crystal formation inside of matrix vesicles in bone. In the present study, we sought to determine the function of Phospho1 during amelogenesis. PHOSPHO1 protein localization during amelogenesis was verified using immunohistochemistry, with positive signals in the enamel layer, ameloblast Tomes' processes, and in the walls of ameloblast secretory vesicles. These ameloblast secretory vesicle walls were also labeled for amelogenin and the exosomal protein marker HSP70 using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, PHOSPHO1 presence in the enamel organ was confirmed by Western blot. Phospho1−/− mice lacked sharp incisal tips, featured a significant 25% increase in total enamel volume, and demonstrated a significant 2-fold reduction in silver grain density of von Kossa stained ground sections indicative of reduced mineralization in the enamel layer when compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.001. Scanning electron micrographs of Phospho1−/− mouse enamel revealed a loss of the prominent enamel prism “picket fence” structure, a loss of parallel crystal organization within prisms, and a 1.56-fold increase in enamel prism width (p < 0.0001. Finally, EDS elemental analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in phosphate incorporation in the enamel layer when compared to controls (p < 0.05. Together, these data establish that the matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase PHOSPHO1 is essential for physiological enamel mineralization. Our findings also suggest that intracellular ameloblast secretory

  4. High-performance beam steering using electrowetting-driven liquid prism fabricated by a simple dip-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrico Clement, Carlos; Park, Sung-Yong, E-mail: mpeps@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block EA, #07-08, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore)

    2016-05-09

    A high degree of beam steering is demonstrated using an electrowetting-driven liquid prism. While prism devices have typically relied on complex and expensive laboratory setups, such as high-vacuum facilities for fabrication of dielectric layers, this work utilizes a simple dip-coating method to provide an ion gel layer as a dielectric, offering 2 or 3 orders higher specific capacitance (c ≈ 10 μF/cm{sup 2}) than that of conventional dielectrics. Analytical studies present the effects of liquid selection and arrangement on overall prism performance. For experimental demonstrations of high-performance beam steering, we not only selected two immiscible liquids of water and 1-bromonaphthalene (1-BN) oil which provide the large refractive index difference (n{sub water} = 1.33 and n{sub 1-BN} = 1.65 at λ = 532 nm) between them, but also utilized a double-stacked prism configuration which increases the number of interfaces for incoming light to be steered. At a prism apex angle of φ = 27°, we were able to achieve significantly large beam steering of up to β = 19.06°, which is the highest beam steering performance ever demonstrated using electrowetting technology.

  5. Multisensory and Modality-Specific Influences on Adaptation to Optical Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Calzolari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation to optical prisms displacing the visual scene (prism adaptation, PA is a method used for investigating visuo-motor plasticity in healthy individuals and, in clinical settings, for the rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect. In the standard paradigm, the adaptation phase involves repeated pointings to visual targets, while wearing optical prisms displacing the visual scene laterally. Here we explored differences in PA, and its aftereffects (AEs, as related to the sensory modality of the target. Visual, auditory, and multisensory – audio-visual – targets in the adaptation phase were used, while participants wore prisms displacing the visual field rightward by 10°. Proprioceptive, visual, visual-proprioceptive, auditory-proprioceptive straight-ahead shifts were measured. Pointing to auditory and to audio-visual targets in the adaptation phase produces proprioceptive, visual-proprioceptive, and auditory-proprioceptive AEs, as the typical visual targets did. This finding reveals that cross-modal plasticity effects involve both the auditory and the visual modality, and their interactions (Experiment 1. Even a shortened PA phase, requiring only 24 pointings to visual and audio-visual targets (Experiment 2, is sufficient to bring about AEs, as compared to the standard 92-pointings procedure. Finally, pointings to auditory targets cause AEs, although PA with a reduced number of pointings (24 to auditory targets brings about smaller AEs, as compared to the 92-pointings procedure (Experiment 3. Together, results from the three experiments extend to the auditory modality the sensorimotor plasticity underlying the typical AEs produced by PA to visual targets. Importantly, PA to auditory targets appears characterized by less accurate pointings and error correction, suggesting that the auditory component of the PA process may be less central to the building up of the AEs, than the sensorimotor pointing activity per se. These

  6. The Implementation of Cumulative Learning Theory in Calculating Triangular Prism and Tube Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muklis, M.; Abidin, C.; Pamungkas, M. D.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the application of cumulative learning theory in calculating the volume of a triangular prism and a tube as well as revealing the students’ responses toward the learning. The research method used was descriptive qualitative with elementary school students as the subjects of the research. Data obtained through observation, field notes, questionnaire, tests, and interviews. The results from the application of cumulative learning theory obtained positive students’ responses in following the learning and students’ learning outcomes was dominantly above the average. This showed that cumulative learning could be used as a reference to be implemented in learning, so as to improve the students’ achievement.

  7. Compact surface plasmon resonance biosensor utilizing an injection-molded prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, How-Foo; Chen, Chih-Han; Chang, Yun-Hsiang; Chuang, Hsin-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Targeting at a low cost and accessible diagnostic device in clinical practice, a compact surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with a large dynamic range in high sensitivity is designed to satisfy commercial needs in food safety, environmental bio-pollution monitoring, and fast clinical diagnosis. The core component integrates an optical coupler, a sample-loading plate, and angle-tuning reflectors is injection-molded as a free-from prism made of plastic optics. This design makes a matching-oil-free operation during operation. The disposability of this low-cost component ensures testing or diagnosis without cross contamination in bio-samples.

  8. PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission): an extended white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    André, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bielewicz, Pawel [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Banday, Anthony [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Barbosa, Domingos [Grupo de Radio Astronomia Basic Sciences and Enabling Technologies Instituto de Telecomunicações, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barreiro, Belen [Instituto de Fìsica de Cantabria (CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria) Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Bartlett, James [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris, Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bartolo, Nicola [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei" , Università degli studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Battistelli, Elia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Battye, Richard; Bonaldi, Anna [Jordell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bendo, George [U.K. ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jordell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Benoȋt, Alain [Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Bersanelli, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria, 16, Milano (Italy); Béthermin, Matthieu, E-mail: naselsky@nbi.dk [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations of the sky emission at wavelengths ranging from millimeter-wave to the far-infrared. PRISM's main objective is to explore the distant universe, probing cosmic history from very early times until now as well as the structures, distribution of matter, and velocity flows throughout our Hubble volume. PRISM will survey the full sky in a large number of frequency bands in both intensity and polarization and will measure the absolute spectrum of sky emission more than three orders of magnitude better than COBE FIRAS. The data obtained will allow us to precisely measure the absolute sky brightness and polarization of all the components of the sky emission in the observed frequency range, separating the primordial and extragalactic components cleanly from the galactic and zodiacal light emissions. The aim of this Extended White Paper is to provide a more detailed overview of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible by PRISM, which include: (1) the ultimate galaxy cluster survey using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, detecting approximately 10{sup 6} clusters extending to large redshift, including a characterization of the gas temperature of the brightest ones (through the relativistic corrections to the classic SZ template) as well as a peculiar velocity survey using the kinetic SZ effect that comprises our entire Hubble volume; (2) a detailed characterization of the properties and evolution of dusty galaxies, where the most of the star formation in the universe took place, the faintest population of which constitute the diffuse CIB (Cosmic Infrared Background); (3) a characterization of the B modes from primordial gravity waves generated during

  9. Calculation of gravity and magnetic anomalies of finite-length right polygonal prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An equation is derived for the vertical gravity field due to a homogeneous body with polygonal cross‐section and finite strike‐length. The equation can be separated into the two‐dimensional (2-D) terms of Talwani et al. (1959) and exact terms for the contributions of the ends of the prism. Equations for the magnetic field due to a similar body were derived by Shuey and Pasquale (1973), who coined the term “two‐and‐a‐half dimensional” (2 1/2-D) to describe the geometry. Magnetic intensities are expressed as a vector sum, from which the common dot product formulation can be obtained by binomial expansion.

  10. Note: Using a Kösters prism to create a fringe pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellmann, R F; Bewerunge, J; Platten, F; Egelhaaf, S U

    2017-05-01

    The interference of two crossed laser beams results in a standing wave. Such fringe patterns are exploited in different instruments such as interferometers or laser-Doppler anemometers. We create a fringe pattern in the sample plane of a microscope using a compact apparatus based on a Kösters prism. The fringe pattern is shown to be spatially and temporally very stable, covers a large area, and its spacing is easily tunable. In addition, we exploit it to impose a sinusoidal potential on colloidal particles.

  11. Evaluation of postulated LOF [loss-of-flow] events in PRISM and SAFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, B.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Aronson, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The PRISM and SAFR designs, as currently proposed by DOE, are designed for ''inherent'', as opposed to ''engineered'', safety. Brookhaven National Laboratory is supporting the initial NRC review of these advanced LMR concepts. A loss-of-flow (LOF) accident coupled with a failure of the reactor shutdown system is one of the major safety concerns in the advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) evaluation effort. The analysis discussed here covers: (1) primary pipe break without pump trip, (2) primary coolant pump seizure, and (3) primary coolant pump coastdown. The analytical modelling and the calculated thermal and hydraulic behavior are described in detail

  12. Simplified analysis of PRISM RVACS [Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System] performance without liner spill-over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Simplified analysis of the performance of the PRISM RVACS decay heat removal system under off-normal conditions, i.e., without the liner spill-over, is described. Without the spilling of hot-pool sodium over the liner and the resultant down-flow along the inside of the reactor vessel wall, the RVACS system performance becomes dominated by the radial heat condition and radiation. Simple estimates of the resulting heat conduction and radiation processes support GE's contention that the RVACS performance is not severely impacted by the absence of spillover, and can improve significantly if sodium has leaked into the region between the reactor and containment vessels. 7 refs

  13. The eclipse of CI Cygni in 1980 on the objective prism spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajewska, J.; Mikolajewski, M.

    1982-01-01

    The observations of CI Cyg were carried out with the Torun 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope with the objective prism giving a dispersion of 250 A/mm at H-gamma. Intensity traces of 20 selected spectra, made on the Kodak IIa-O plates, were made. The results were corrected for all instrumental effects and the interstellar extinction. The relative emission lines intensities have been obtained from the tracings after normalization to H-beta = 100. The spectra were typical for the quiet symbiotic star. So, all changes in the spectrum were caused by geometrical effects (eclipse). A preliminary analysis of the obtained spectra is presented. (Auth.)

  14. Global NOAA CoastWatch Chlorophyll Frontal Product from MODIS/Aqua (NCEI Accession 0110333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS/Aqua chlorophyll frontal products: the NOAA Okeanos operational production system produces near real-time chlorophyll frontal products (magnitude and...

  15. Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E E; Jonides, J

    1999-03-12

    The human frontal cortex helps mediate working memory, a system that is used for temporary storage and manipulation of information and that is involved in many higher cognitive functions. Working memory includes two components: short-term storage (on the order of seconds) and executive processes that operate on the contents of storage. Recently, these two components have been investigated in functional neuroimaging studies. Studies of storage indicate that different frontal regions are activated for different kinds of information: storage for verbal materials activates Broca's area and left-hemisphere supplementary and premotor areas; storage of spatial information activates the right-hemisphere premotor cortex; and storage of object information activates other areas of the prefrontal cortex. Two of the fundamental executive processes are selective attention and task management. Both processes activate the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  16. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present much conflicting evidence, little is known about its effects on children's frontal lobe development. Using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), the findings suggest that Spanish-English bilingual children (n=13, ages 7-13) had greater activation in left prefrontal cortex during a non-verbal attentional control task relative to age-matched English monolinguals. In contrast, monolinguals (n=14) showed greater right prefrontal activation than bilinguals. The present findings suggest early bilingualism yields significant changes to the functional organization of children's prefrontal cortex for attentional control and carry implications for understanding how early life experiences impact cognition and brain development. PMID:26743118

  17. Frontal negativity: An electrophysiological index of interpersonal guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bingbing; Wang, Xiangling; Cao, Bihua; Li, Fuhong

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the temporal course and electrophysiological correlates of interpersonal guilt. Human participants were asked to perform multiple rounds of a dot-estimation task with their partners, while event-related potential being recorded. The paired participants were informed that they would win money if both responded correctly; otherwise, both of them would lose money. The feeling of guilt in Self-Wrong condition (SW) was significantly higher than that in Both-Wrong and Partner-Wrong conditions. At approximately 350 ms after the onset of feedback presentation, greater negativities were observed in the frontal regions in the guilt condition (i.e., SW) than those in the non-guilt condition. The guilt-modulated frontal negativity might reflect the interactions of self-reflection, condemnation, and negative emotion.

  18. Neurobehavioral Management of Behavioral Anomalies in Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Sharma, Vibha; Singh, Tej Bahadur

    2009-01-01

    Neurobehavioral approach uses behavioral paradigm towards comprehensive rehabilitation by identifying the neurological or neuropsychological constraints that can interfere with learning and behavior of an individual. The present case study highlights the role of functional skills approach in neurobehavioral management towards cognitive rehabilitation to manage behavioral deficits in a 55-year-old man with nicotine dependence having frontal lobe lesions owing to gliosis of fronto-temporal brai...

  19. Determining the productivity of frontal-selective excavation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baikenzhin, A E; Ermekov, T E

    1979-01-01

    The engineering parameters of the VMF-2 frontal-selective excavation machine are given. Calculation formulae are given for determining the feed speed of the working tool relative to the difference in the motion of the arm of the working tool and the feed speed of the hydraulic jack lifter. A methodology is developed for calculating the productivity of the excavator depending on various engineering conditions, accounting for modifications in its design.

  20. Frontal plane stability following UKA in a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Thomas J; Tucker, Scott M; Rajak, Yogesh; Kia, Mohammad; Lipman, Joseph D; Imhauser, Carl W; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2015-06-01

    Function and kinematics following unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) have been reported to be close to the native knee. Gait, stair climbing and activities of daily living expose the knee joint to a combination of varus and valgus moments. Replacement of the medial compartment via UKA is likely to change the physiologic knee stability and its ability to respond to varus and valgus moments. It was hypothesized that UKA implantation would stiffen the knee and decrease range of motion in the frontal plane. Six fresh frozen cadaver knees were prepared and mounted in a six-degrees-of-freedom robot. An axial load of 200 N was applied with the knee in 15°, 45° and 90° of flexion. Varus and valgus moments were added, respectively, before and after implantation of medial UKA. Tests were than redone with a thicker polyethylene inlay to simulate overstuffing of the medial compartment. Range of motion in the frontal plane and the tibial response to moments were recorded via the industrial robot. The range of motion in the frontal plane was decreased with both, balanced and overstuffed UKA and shifted towards valgus. When exposed to valgus moments, knees following UKA were stiffer in comparison with the native knee. The effect was even more pronounced with medial overstuffing. In UKA, the compressive anatomy is replaced by much stiffer components. This lack of medial compression and relative overstuffing leads to a tighter medial collateral ligament. This drives the trend towards a stiffer joint as documented by a decrease in frontal plane range of motion. Overstuffing should strictly be avoided when performing UKA.

  1. The Association Between Suicidal Behavior, Attentional Control, and Frontal Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Thompson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It can be difficult to identify those at risk of suicide because suicidal thoughts are often internalized and not shared with others. Yet to prevent suicide attempts it is crucial to identify suicidal thoughts and actions at an early stage. Past studies have suggested that deficits in attentional control are associated with suicide, with the argument that individuals are unable to inhibit negative thoughts and direct resources away from negative information. The current study aimed to investigate the association of suicidal behavior with neurological and behavioral markers, measuring attentional bias and inhibition in two Stroop tasks. Fifty-four participants responded to the color of color words in a standard Stroop task and the color of positive, negative, and neutral words in an emotional Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG activity was recorded from frontal areas during each task and at resting. Participants were separated into a low-risk and high-risk group according to their self-reported suicidal behavior. Participants in the high-risk group showed slower response times in the color Stroop and reduced accuracy to incongruent trials, but faster response times in the emotional Stroop task. Response times to the word “suicide” were significantly slower for the high-risk group. This indicates an attentional bias toward specific negative stimuli and difficulties inhibiting information for those with high levels of suicidal behavior. In the emotional Stroop task the high-risk group showed reduced activity in leftward frontal areas, suggesting limitations in the ability to regulate emotional processing via the left frontal regions. The findings support the argument that deficits in attentional control are related to suicidal behavior. The research also suggests that under certain conditions frontal asymmetry may be associated with suicidal behavior.

  2. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  3. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone in a teenager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Washington, DC (United States); Rushing, Elisabeth J. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Yaun, Amanda [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Washington, DC (United States); Santi, Mariarita [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Neuropathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-01-15

    We report a skull chondromyxoid fibroma with symptomatic intracranial extension causing initial misdiagnosis as a psychiatric disorder in a 14-year-old child. CT performed for work-up of the patient's ''stuffy nose'' revealed a large calcified frontal bone mass with extensive intracranial growth. We present this child with the diagnosis of intracranial chondromyxoid fibroma with detailed neuroimaging and neuropathology correlations. (orig.)

  4. The Association Between Suicidal Behavior, Attentional Control, and Frontal Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catherine; Ong, Elsie Li Chen

    2018-01-01

    It can be difficult to identify those at risk of suicide because suicidal thoughts are often internalized and not shared with others. Yet to prevent suicide attempts it is crucial to identify suicidal thoughts and actions at an early stage. Past studies have suggested that deficits in attentional control are associated with suicide, with the argument that individuals are unable to inhibit negative thoughts and direct resources away from negative information. The current study aimed to investigate the association of suicidal behavior with neurological and behavioral markers, measuring attentional bias and inhibition in two Stroop tasks. Fifty-four participants responded to the color of color words in a standard Stroop task and the color of positive, negative, and neutral words in an emotional Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from frontal areas during each task and at resting. Participants were separated into a low-risk and high-risk group according to their self-reported suicidal behavior. Participants in the high-risk group showed slower response times in the color Stroop and reduced accuracy to incongruent trials, but faster response times in the emotional Stroop task. Response times to the word “suicide” were significantly slower for the high-risk group. This indicates an attentional bias toward specific negative stimuli and difficulties inhibiting information for those with high levels of suicidal behavior. In the emotional Stroop task the high-risk group showed reduced activity in leftward frontal areas, suggesting limitations in the ability to regulate emotional processing via the left frontal regions. The findings support the argument that deficits in attentional control are related to suicidal behavior. The research also suggests that under certain conditions frontal asymmetry may be associated with suicidal behavior. PMID:29593586

  5. Frontal and superior temporal auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Edgar, J Christopher; Huang, Mingxiong; Hunter, Michael A; Epstein, Emerson; Howell, Breannan; Lu, Brett Y; Bustillo, Juan; Miller, Gregory A; Cañive, José M

    2013-01-01

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies show superior temporal gyrus (STG) auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia at 50 and 100 ms, EEG and corticography studies suggest involvement of additional brain areas (e.g., frontal areas) during this interval. Study goals were to identify 30 to 130 ms auditory encoding processes in schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) and group differences throughout the cortex. The standard paired-click task was administered to 19 SZ and 21 HC subjects during MEG recording. Vector-based Spatial-temporal Analysis using L1-minimum-norm (VESTAL) provided 4D maps of activity from 30 to 130 ms. Within-group t-tests compared post-stimulus 50 ms and 100 ms activity to baseline. Between-group t-tests examined 50 and 100 ms group differences. Bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity was observed in both groups. HC had stronger bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity than SZ. In addition to the STG group difference, non-STG activity was also observed in both groups. For example, whereas HC had stronger left and right inferior frontal gyrus activity than SZ, SZ had stronger right superior frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus activity than HC. Less STG activity was observed in SZ than HC, indicating encoding problems in SZ. Yet auditory encoding abnormalities are not specific to STG, as group differences were observed in frontal and SMG areas. Thus, present findings indicate that individuals with SZ show abnormalities in multiple nodes of a concurrently activated auditory network.

  6. Byen prisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.; Winther, Mark; Jakobsen, Mikkel Broen

    Aleppo, Mosul, Kobane, Palmyra, Fallujah, Raqqa og Ramadi. Listen over byer, hvor der kæmpes eller er blevet kæmpet i Irak og Syrien, er lang. Kampen mod ISIL og den syriske borgerkrig er væsentlige eksempler på, at krigen og byerne i stigende grad er sammenhængende temaer. Verdens befolkningstal...

  7. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-08-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the visual (area V1) and frontal cortex (area FEF) of monkeys. We devised a new icon-selection task. On each day, the monkeys saw 2 new icons (small pictures) and learned which one was relevant. We rewarded eye movements to a saccade target connected to the relevant icon with a curve. Neurons in visual and frontal cortex coded the monkey's choice, because the representation of the selected curve was enhanced. Learning delayed the neuronal selection signals and we uncovered the cause of this delay in V1, where learning to select the relevant icon caused an early suppression of surrounding image elements. These results demonstrate that the learning of a new rule causes a transition from fast and random decisions to a more considerate strategy that takes additional time and they reveal the contribution of visual and frontal cortex to the learning process. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Frontal glutamate and reward processing in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, Tobias; Lorenz, Robert C; Pöhland, Lydia; Raufelder, Diana; Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Heinz, Andreas; Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    The fronto-limbic network interaction, driven by glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, represents a core mechanism of motivated behavior and personality traits. Reward seeking behavior undergoes tremendous changes in adolescence paralleled by neurobiological changes of this network including the prefrontal cortex, striatum and amygdala. Since fronto-limbic dysfunctions also underlie major psychiatric diseases beginning in adolescence, this investigation focuses on network characteristics separating adolescents from adults. To investigate differences in network interactions, the brain reward system activity (slot machine task) together with frontal glutamate concentration (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC) was measured in 28 adolescents and 26 adults employing functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. An inverse coupling of glutamate concentrations in the ACC and activation of the ventral striatum was observed in adolescents. Further, amygdala response in adolescents was negatively correlated with the personality trait impulsivity. For adults, no significant associations of network components or correlations with impulsivity were found. The inverse association between frontal glutamate concentration and striatal activation in adolescents is in line with the triadic model of motivated behavior stressing the important role of frontal top-down inhibition on limbic structures. Our data identified glutamate as the mediating neurotransmitter of this inhibitory process and demonstrates the relevance of glutamate on the reward system and related behavioral traits like impulsivity. This fronto-limbic coupling may represent a vulnerability factor for psychiatric disorders starting in adolescence but not in adulthood.

  9. Ritidectomía frontal bicoronal subaponeurótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Gálvez Chávez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Para el tratamiento del envejecimiento del tercio superior de la cara se han empleado diversas técnicas quirúrgicas. El abordaje bicoronal ha sido el más utilizado, pero a su vez el que más variantes y modificaciones ha tenido. Con este trabajo los autores se proponen evaluar los resultados de la ritidectomía frontal bicoronal siguiendo un mismo procedimiento dado por la disección subaponeurótica hasta los rebordes orbitarios, sección horizontal múltiple del músculo frontal y prócer, así como disección y sección de los músculos corrugadores. Solo se modificó la localización de la incisión frontal en dependencia de la longitud de la frente. Fueron operados 31 pacientes y se evaluaron los resultados a los 6 meses de la operación. Con la técnica empleada se modificaron las arrugas frontoglabelares hacia el borramiento o la desaparición, la ptosis de las cejas se corrigió de forma armoniosa y las complicaciones fueron escasas y poco relevantes. No se produjo afectación de la mímica frontoglabelar

  10. Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David A; Thaut, Michael H

    2007-02-02

    Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken version of the AVLT or the conventional AVLT word list sung. Learning-related changes in coherence (LRCC) were measured by comparing the EEG during word encoding on correctly recalled trials to the immediately preceding trial on which the same word was not recalled. There were no significant changes in coherence associated with conventional verbal learning. However, musical verbal learning was associated with increased coherence within and between left and right frontal areas in theta, alpha, and gamma frequency bands. It is unlikely that the different patterns of LRCC reflect general performance differences; the groups exhibited similar learning performance. The results suggest that verbal learning with a musical template strengthens coherent oscillations in frontal cortical networks involved in verbal encoding.

  11. Frontal and temporal volumes in Childhood Absence Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Rochelle; Levitt, Jennifer; Siddarth, Prabha; Wu, Keng Nei; Gurbani, Suresh; Sankar, Raman; Shields, W Donald

    2009-11-01

    This study compared frontotemporal brain volumes in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) to age- and gender-matched children without epilepsy. It also examined the association of these volumes with seizure, demographic, perinatal, intelligence quotient (IQ), and psychopathology variables. Twenty-six children with CAE, aged 7.5-11.8 years, and 37 children without epilepsy underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 1.5 Tesla. Tissue was segmented, and total brain, frontal lobe, frontal parcellations, and temporal lobe volumes were computed. All children had IQ testing and structured psychiatric interviews. Parents provided seizure, perinatal, and behavioral information on each child. The CAE group had significantly smaller gray matter volumes of the left orbital frontal gyrus as well as both left and right temporal lobes compared to the age- and gender-matched children without epilepsy. In the CAE group these volumes were related to age, gender, ethnicity, and pregnancy complications but not to seizure, IQ, and psychopathology variables. In the group of children without epilepsy, however, the volumes were related to IQ. These findings suggest that CAE impacts brain development in regions implicated in behavior, cognition, and language. In addition to supporting the cortical focus theory of CAE, these findings also imply that CAE is not a benign disorder.

  12. Distinct frontal regions for processing sentence syntax and story grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirigu, A; Cohen, L; Zalla, T; Pradat-Diehl, P; Van Eeckhout, P; Grafman, J; Agid, Y

    1998-12-01

    Time is a fundamental dimension of cognition. It is expressed in the sequential ordering of individual elements in a wide variety of activities such as language, motor control or in the broader domain of long range goal-directed actions. Several studies have shown the importance of the frontal lobes in sequencing information. The question addressed in this study is whether this brain region hosts a single supramodal sequence processor, or whether separate mechanisms are required for different kinds of temporally organised knowledge structures such as syntax and action knowledge. Here we show that so-called agrammatic patients, with lesions in Broca's area, ordered word groups correctly to form a logical sequence of actions but they were severely impaired when similar word groups had to be ordered as a syntactically well-formed sentence. The opposite performance was observed in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesions, that is, while their syntactic processing was intact at the sentence level, they demonstrated a pronounced deficit in producing temporally coherent sequences of actions. Anatomical reconstruction of lesions from brain scans revealed that the sentence and action grammar deficits involved distinct, non-overlapping sites within the frontal lobes. Finally, in a third group of patients whose lesions encompassed both Broca's area and the prefrontal cortex, the two types of deficits were found. We conclude that sequence processing is specific to knowledge domains and involves different networks within the frontal lobes.

  13. Alcoholism, Korsakoff’s Syndrome and the Frontal Lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Jacobson

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A subset of the diffuse cerebral changes and psychometric deficits found in chronic alcoholics is similar to that seen in the frontal lobe syndrome. Certain features of alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (AKS also point to cortical involvement, and this may have a basis in alcohol neurotoxicity. Twenty-five patients with AKS and 24 non-Korsakoff alcoholic controls were compared using an automated CT brain scan program. In addition to evidence of their diencephalic lesions (wide third ventricles, AKS patients revealed widespread cerebral damage with greater Sylvian and interhemispheric fissure (IHF size than alcoholics. Korsakoffs were also inferior to alcoholics in performance on a category sorting test, in which non-perseverative error scores correlated significantly with IHF size. The principle of distinguishing between selective memory decline and global intellectual decline (GID was applied to 38 patients with AKS. Indices were developed for each type of deficit and much variation found in their distributions. The degree of GID correlated significantly with IHF size, showing similar trends with other cortical measures. These results suggest a cortical substrate for the degree of GID and a frontal substrate for category sorting deficits; with a probable basis in alcohol neurotoxicity rather than thiamine deficiency, which is not known to impair cortical structure. A new model is proposed of the pathophysiology of alcoholic brain damage and AKS which includes recent work on neurotransmitter sources and thalamo-frontal connections.

  14. Frontal Bone Insufficiency in Gsk3β Mutant Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Szabo-Rogers

    Full Text Available The development of the mammalian skull is a complex process that requires multiple tissue interactions and a balance of growth and differentiation. Disrupting this balance can lead to changes in the shape and size of skull bones, which can have serious clinical implications. For example, insufficient ossification of the bony elements leads to enlarged anterior fontanelles and reduced mechanical protection of the brain. In this report, we find that loss of Gsk3β leads to a fully penetrant reduction of frontal bone size and subsequent enlarged frontal fontanelle. In the absence of Gsk3β the frontal bone primordium undergoes increased cell death and reduced proliferation with a concomitant increase in Fgfr2-IIIc and Twist1 expression. This leads to a smaller condensation and premature differentiation. This phenotype appears to be Wnt-independent and is not rescued by decreasing the genetic dose of β-catenin/Ctnnb1. Taken together, our work defines a novel role for Gsk3β in skull development.

  15. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%.

  16. FDS5 Simulation for OECD PRISME Fire Test of DOOR PRSD5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Bok; Park, Jong Seuk

    2009-01-01

    OECD/NEA PRISME Fire Project is an international co-operation project to investigate fire propagation by means of experiments and analyses for nuclear power plant applications. This project focuses on the generation of experimental data for fire and smoke propagation from the fire room to adjacent rooms under various conditions and room configurations. In addition, analyses using computer codes are performed to understand the phenomena of interest and to produce a consistent interpretation of the experimental results. The PRISME Project is composed of series of tests named as SOURCE, DOOR, LEAK and Global Tests. The SOURCE is composed of tests to characterize the fire source, and the DOOR is to study fire and smoke propagation through an open door, while the LEAK is to investigate hot gas leakages through other modes of openings such as holes, a slot, a duct, and a partially opened door. The Global test will be conducted as integral tests on the basis of the results of the previous separate effects tests. In this paper, simulations are performed with FDS5 computer code for the DOOR Test No.5 (PRS D 5) and the calculation results are compared with the corresponding experimental data to study the code capability to predict the phenomena of the hot gas propagation between two rooms

  17. On the Geometrically Nonlinear Elastic Response of Class θ = 1 Tensegrity Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Mascolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables or compression (bars, under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either “standard” or “expanded” configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a “thick” and a “slender” model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  18. Rapid growth of ZnO hexagonal prism crystals by direct microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhenqi; ZHOU Jian; LIU Guizhen; REN Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    ZnO hexagonal prism crystals were synthesized from ZnO powders by microwave heating in a short time (within 20 min) without any metal catalyst or transport agent.Zinc oxide raw materials were made by evaporating from the high-temperature zone in an enclosure atmosphere and crystals were grown on the self-source substrate.The inherent asymmetry in microwave heating provides the temperature gradient for crystal growth.Substrate and temperature distribution in the oven show significant effects on the growth of the ZnO crystal.The morphologies demonstrate that these samples are pure hexagonal prism crystals with maximum 80 μm in diameter and 600 μm in length,which possess a well faceted end and side surface.X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that these samples are pure crystals.The photoluminescence (PL) exhibits strong ultraviolet emission at room temperature,indicating potential applications for short-wave light-emitting photonic devices.

  19. THE PRISM MULTI-OBJECT SURVEY (PRIMUS). II. DATA REDUCTION AND REDSHIFT FITTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard J. [MMT Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics, Siena College, 515 Loudon Rd., Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Burles, Scott M. [D.E. Shaw and Co. L.P, 20400 Stevens Creek Blvd., Suite 850, Cupertino, CA 95014 (United States); Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Mendez, Alexander J. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wong, Kenneth C. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zhu, Guangtun [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bernstein, Rebecca A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCA/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bolton, Adam S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    The PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) is a spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey to z {approx} 1 completed with a low-dispersion prism and slitmasks allowing for simultaneous observations of {approx}2500 objects over 0.18 deg{sup 2}. The final PRIMUS catalog includes {approx}130,000 robust redshifts over 9.1 deg{sup 2}. In this paper, we summarize the PRIMUS observational strategy and present the data reduction details used to measure redshifts, redshift precision, and survey completeness. The survey motivation, observational techniques, fields, target selection, slitmask design, and observations are presented in Coil et al. Comparisons to existing higher-resolution spectroscopic measurements show a typical precision of {sigma}{sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.005. PRIMUS, both in area and number of redshifts, is the largest faint galaxy redshift survey completed to date and is allowing for precise measurements of the relationship between active galactic nuclei and their hosts, the effects of environment on galaxy evolution, and the build up of galactic systems over the latter half of cosmic history.

  20. Designing and researching of the virtual display system based on the prism elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, V. N.; Grimm, V. A.; Romanova, G. E.; Smirnov, S. A.; Bakholdin, A. V.; Grishina, N. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Problems of designing of systems for virtual display systems for augmented reality placed near the observers eye (so called head worn displays) with the light guide prismatic elements are considered. Systems of augmented reality is the complex consists of the image generator (most often it's the microdisplay with the illumination system if the display is not self-luminous), the objective which forms the display image practically in infinity and the combiner which organizes the light splitting so that an observer could see the information of the microdisplay and the surrounding environment as the background at the same time. This work deals with the system with the combiner based on the composite structure of the prism elements. In the work three cases of the prism combiner design are considered and also the results of the modeling with the optical design software are presented. In the model the question of the large pupil zone was analyzed and also the discontinuous character (mosaic structure) of the angular field in transmission of the information from the microdisplay to the observer's eye with the prismatic structure are discussed.

  1. Inventory and review of existing PRISM hydrogeologic data for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS entered into an agreement with the Mauritania Ministry of Mines and Industry to inventory and review the quality of information collected as part of the Project for Strengthening of the Institutions in the Mining Sector (PRISM). Whereas the PRISM program collected geophysical, geochemical, geological, satellite, and hydrogeologic information, this report focuses on an inventory and review of available hydrogeologic data provided to the USGS in multiple folders, files, and formats. Most of the information pertained to the hydrogeologic setting and the water budget of evaporation, evapotranspiration, and precipitation in the Choum-Zouerate area in northwestern Mauritania, and the country of Mauritania itself. Other information about the quantity and quality of groundwater was found in the relational Access database. In its present form, the limited hydrogeologic information was not amenable to conducting water balance, geostatistical, and localized numerical modeling studies in support of mineral exploration and development. Suggestions are provided to remedy many of the data's shortcomings, such as performing quality assurance on all SIPPE2 data tables and sending questionnaires to appropriate agencies, mining and other companies to populate the database with additional meteorology, hydrology, and groundwater data.

  2. Polygonal Prism Mesh in the Viscous Layers for the Polyhedral Mesh Generator, PolyGen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Park, Chan Eok; Kim, Shin Whan

    2015-01-01

    Polyhedral mesh has been known to have some benefits over the tetrahedral mesh. Efforts have been made to set up a polyhedral mesh generation system with open source programs SALOME and TetGen. The evaluation has shown that the polyhedral mesh generation system is promising. But it is necessary to extend the capability of the system to handle the viscous layers to be a generalized mesh generator. A brief review to the previous works on the mesh generation for the viscous layers will be made in section 2. Several challenging issues for the polygonal prism mesh generation will be discussed as well. The procedure to generate a polygonal prism mesh will be discussed in detail in section 3. Conclusion will be followed in section 4. A procedure to generate meshes in the viscous layers with PolyGen has been successfully designed. But more efforts have to be exercised to find the best way for the generating meshes for viscous layers. Using the extrusion direction of the STL data will the first of the trials in the near future

  3. On the geometrically nonlinear elastic response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Ida; Amendola, Ada; Zuccaro, Giulio; Feo, Luciano; Fraternali, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class ϑ=1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables) or compression (bars), under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either 'standard' or 'expanded' configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a 'thick' and a 'slender' model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  4. Development and commissioning of a double-prism spectrometer for the diagnosis of femtosecond electron bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Steffen

    2016-12-15

    Free-electron lasers as accelerator-driven light sources and wakefield-based acceleration in plasmas require the knowledge of the longitudinal extension and the longitudinal current profile of the involved electron bunches. These bunches can yield lengths below 10 μm, or durations shorter than approx. 33 fs, as well as charges less than 30 pC. During this work, transition radiation from relativistic electron bunches was investigated in the mid-infrared wavelength regime. A spectrometer using an arrangement of two consecutive zinc selenide prisms was developed, built and commissioned. The instrument covers the spectral range from 2 μm to 18 μm in a single shot. Measurements with the double-prism spectrometer were conducted at the FEL facilities FLASH at DESY in Hamburg, Germany and FELIX at the Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. The assessment of the spectrometer and comparative studies with established diagnostic devices at FLASH show high signal-to-noise ratios at bunch charges below 10 pC and confirm the obtained results.

  5. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (STUDI KASUS PADA PDAM TIRTA MOEDAL CABANG SEMARANG TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Budi Puspitasari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini menguraikan hasil penelitian perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja pada PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang dengan model Performance Prism. Selama ini PDAM Tirta Moedal belum memiliki sistem pengukuran kinerja. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja. Dari kondisi PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang, model yang tepat digunakan adalah model performance prism  dibanding model lain. Sistem pengukuran kinerja ini memiliki 44 KPI yang meliputi 12 KPI pelanggan, 9 KPI karyawan, 11 KPI pemilik modal, 6 KPI supplier, 6 KPI pemerintah dan masyarakat di sekitar lingkungan. Dari hasil implementasi sistem pengukuran kinerja dengan proses scoring system menggunakan metode OMAX menunjukkan nilai current performance indicator yang telah dicapai oleh PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang adalah sebesar 75,1 %. Hasil pengukuran menjadi landasan pihak manajemen mengevaluasi dan menentukan rencana kerja perbaikan sehingga harapan dari semua stakeholder dapat terpenuhi Kata kunci : Pengukuran Kinerja, Performance Prism, PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang   Abstract This study describes the results of research on the performance measurement system design PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang with model Performance Prism. During this PDAM Tirta Moedal not have a performance measurement system. Therefore, it is necessary to design performance measurement systems. From the condition of PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang, the exact model used is a prism model performance compared to other models. This performance measurement system has 44 KPIs which include 12 customer KPI, KPI 9 employees, 11 KPI owners of capital, supplier KPI 6, KPI 6 governments and communities around the neighborhood. From the results of performance measurement system implementation with the scoring system using the OMAX shows the current performance indicator has been achieved by PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang amounted to 75.1%. The basis of measurement results to evaluate and determine the management

  6. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.

  7. Small female rib cage fracture in frontal sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Greg; Lessley, David; Ash, Joseph; Poplin, Jerry; McMurry, Tim; Sochor, Mark; Crandall, Jeff

    2017-01-02

    The 2 objectives of this study are to (1) examine the rib and sternal fractures sustained by small stature elderly females in simulated frontal crashes and (2) determine how the findings are characterized by prior knowledge and field data. A test series was conducted to evaluate the response of 5 elderly (average age 76 years) female postmortem human subjects (PMHS), similar in mass and size to a 5th percentile female, in 30 km/h frontal sled tests. The subjects were restrained on a rigid planar seat by bilateral rigid knee bolsters, pelvic blocks, and a custom force-limited 3-point shoulder and lap belt. Posttest subject injury assessment included identifying rib cage fractures by means of a radiologist read of a posttest computed tomography (CT) and an autopsy. The data from a motion capture camera system were processed to provide chest deflection, defined as the movement of the sternum relative to the spine at the level of T8.  A complementary field data investigation involved querying the NASS-CDS database over the years 1997-2012. The targeted cases involved belted front seat small female passenger vehicle occupants over 40 years old who were injured in 25 to 35 km/h delta-V frontal crashes (11 to 1 o'clock). Peak upper shoulder belt tension averaged 1,970 N (SD = 140 N) in the sled tests. For all subjects, the peak x-axis deflection was recorded at the sternum with an average of -44.5 mm or 25% of chest depth. The thoracic injury severity based on the number and distribution of rib fractures yielded 4 subjects coded as Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3 (serious) and one as AIS 5 (critical). The NASS-CDS field data investigation of small females identified 205 occupants who met the search criteria. Rib fractures were reported for 2.7% of the female occupants. The small elderly test subjects sustained a higher number of rib cage fractures than expected in what was intended to be a minimally injurious frontal crash test condition. Neither field studies nor

  8. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C Miotto

    Full Text Available Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR, related-non-structured (RNS, and related-structured words (RS, allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and middle frontal gyrus (MFG during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  9. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Eliane C; Balardin, Joana B; Vieira, Gilson; Sato, Joao R; Martin, Maria da Graça M; Scaff, Milberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Junior, Edson Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL) LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR), related-non-structured (RNS), and related-structured words (RS), allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  10. Subduction history of the Paleo-Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian continent: Evidence from Mesozoic igneous rocks and accretionary complex in NE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.

    2015-12-01

    Mesozoic magmatisms in NE China can be subdivided into seven stages, i.e., Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, Middle Jurassic, Late Jurassic, early Early Cretaceous, late Early Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous. Late Triassic magmatisms consist of calc-alkaline igneous rocks in the Erguna Massif, and bimodal igneous rocks in eastern margin of Eurasian continent. The former reveals southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate, the latter reveals an extensional environment (Xu et al., 2013). Early Jurassic magmatisms are composed of calc-alkaline igneous rocks in the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent and the Erguna Massif, revealing westward subduction of the Paleo-pacific plate and southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate (Tang et al., 2015), respectively. Middle Jurassic magmatism only occur in the Great Xing'an Range and the northern margin of the NCC, and consists of adakitic rocks that formed in crustal thickening, reflecting the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk ocean (Li et al., 2015). Late Jurassic and early Early Cretaceous magmatisms only occur to the west of the Songliao Basin, and consist of trackyandesite and A-type of rhyolites, revealing an extensional environment related to delamination of thickened crust. The late Early Cretaceous magmatisms are widespread in NE China, and consist of calc-alkaline volcanics in eastern margin and bimodal volcanics in intracontinent, revealing westward subduction of the Paleo-pacific plate. Late Cretaceous magmatisms mainly occur to the east of the Songliao Basin, and consist of calc-alkaline volcanics in eastern margin and alkaline basalts in intracontinent (Xu et al., 2013), revealing westward subduction of the Paleo-pacific plate. The Heilongjiang complex with Early Jurassic deformation, together with Jurassic Khabarovsk complex in Russia Far East and Mino-Tamba complex in Japan, reveal Early Jurassic accretionary history. Additionally, the Raohe complex with the age of ca. 169 Ma was

  11. Early Cretaceous wedge extrusion in the Indo-Burma Range accretionary complex: implications for the Mesozoic subduction of Neotethys in SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Cai, Fulong; Sein, Kyaing; Naing, Soe

    2017-06-01

    The Indo-Burma Range (IBR) of Myanmar, the eastern extension of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Neotethyan belt of Tibet in China, contains mélanges with serpentinite, greenschist facies basalt, chert, sericite schist, silty slate and unmetamorphosed Triassic sandstone, mudstone and siltstone interbedded with chert in the east, and farther north high-pressure blueschist and eclogite blocks in the Naga Hills mélange. Our detailed mapping of the Mindat and Magwe sections in the middle IBR revealed a major 18 km antiformal isocline in a mélange in which greenschist facies rocks in the core decrease in grade eastwards and westwards symmetrically `outwards' to lower grade sericite schist and silty slate, and at the margins to unmetamorphosed sediments, and these metamorphic rocks are structurally repeated in small-scale imbricated thrust stacks. In the Mindat section the lower western boundary of the isoclinal mélange is a thrust on which the metamorphic rocks have been transported over unmetamorphosed sediments of the Triassic Pane Chaung Group, and the upper eastern boundary is a normal fault. These relations demonstrate that the IBR metamorphic rocks were exhumed by wedge extrusion in a subduction-generated accretionary complex. Along strike to the north in the Naga Hills is a comparable isoclinal mélange in which central eclogite lenses are succeeded `outwards' by layers of glaucophane schist and glaucophanite, and to lower grade greenschist facies sericite schist and slate towards the margins. In the Natchaung area (from west to east) unmetamorphosed Triassic sediments overlie quartzites, sericite schists, actinolite schists and meta-volcanic amphibolites derived from MORB-type basalt, which are in fault contact with peridotite. Olivine in the peridotite has undulatory extinction suggesting deformation at 600-700 °C, similar to the peak temperature of the amphibolite; these relations suggest generation in a metamorphic sole. The amphibolites have U/Pb zircon ages of 119

  12. Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure Revised II (PRISM-RII) - a novel method to assess perceived burden of illness in diabetes patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, S.; Vingerhoets, A.J.M.M.; de, W.M.; Zandbelt, N.; Snoek, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) has been introduced as a visual measure of suffering. We explored the validity of a revised version, the PRISM-RII, in diabetes patients as part of the annual review. Methods: Participants were 308 adult outpatients with

  13. Processing and review interface for strong motion data (PRISM) software, version 1.0.0—Methodology and automated processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher

    2017-02-23

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong-Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the United States, call for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System (AQMS), PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records. When used without AQMS, PRISM provides batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM version 1.0.0 is platform independent (coded in Java), open source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine and a review tool that has a graphical user interface (GUI) to manually review, edit, and process records. To facilitate use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and review tool) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X, and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate new processing techniques. This report provides a thorough description and examples of the record processing features supported by PRISM. All the computing features of PRISM have been thoroughly tested.

  14. Overview of the ANL advanced LMR system thermal-hydraulic test program supporting both GE/PRISM and RI/SAFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Descriptions of the ANL thermal-hydraulic water models of both the PRISM and SAFR reactors are presented, together with results from Phases I and II of the thermal-hydraulic test program. Phenomena discovered during these tests and modeling results are presented. Overall, these efforts demonstrate the acceptable thermal-hydraulic performance of both the PRISM and SAFR concepts

  15. Is the frontal radiograph alone sufficient to evaluate for pneumonia in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Strife, Janet L.; Johnson, Neil D.; Atherton, Harry D.; Kotagal, Uma R.; Pommersheim, William

    2004-01-01

    In our cost- and radiation-conscious environment, the feasibility of performing only a frontal radiograph for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children needs to be reassessed. To determine the diagnostic efficacy of the frontal radiograph alone in comparison to the frontal and lateral combined radiographs for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia in children. Three radiologists retrospectively and independently reviewed the frontal radiographs alone and separately reviewed the frontal and lateral radiographs of 1,268 children referred from the emergency room for chest radiographs. A majority interpretation of at least two radiologists for the frontal views alone was compared with majority interpretation of the frontal and lateral combined views for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia. ''Pneumonia'' was defined as a focus of streaky or confluent lung opacity. For the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity of the frontal view alone were 85% and 98%, respectively. For the confluent lobar type of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 100%. When the frontal view alone yields a diagnosis of confluent lobar pneumonia, this is highly reliable. However, nonlobar types of infiltrates will be underdiagnosed in 15% of patients using the frontal view alone. The clinical impact of these radiographically underdiagnosed pneumonias needs to be assessed prior to implementing the practice of using only frontal radiographs for diagnosing pneumonia. (orig.)

  16. Is the frontal radiograph alone sufficient to evaluate for pneumonia in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Department of Medical Imaging No. 9, Children' s Memorial Hospital, 2300 Children' s Plaza, IL 60614, Chicago (United States); Strife, Janet L.; Johnson, Neil D. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Atherton, Harry D.; Kotagal, Uma R. [Department of Health Policy and Clinical Effectiveness, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Pommersheim, William [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Meads Hall, 2nd Floor, NC 27157, Winston-Salem (United States)

    2004-05-01

    In our cost- and radiation-conscious environment, the feasibility of performing only a frontal radiograph for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children needs to be reassessed. To determine the diagnostic efficacy of the frontal radiograph alone in comparison to the frontal and lateral combined radiographs for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia in children. Three radiologists retrospectively and independently reviewed the frontal radiographs alone and separately reviewed the frontal and lateral radiographs of 1,268 children referred from the emergency room for chest radiographs. A majority interpretation of at least two radiologists for the frontal views alone was compared with majority interpretation of the frontal and lateral combined views for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia. ''Pneumonia'' was defined as a focus of streaky or confluent lung opacity. For the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity of the frontal view alone were 85% and 98%, respectively. For the confluent lobar type of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 100%. When the frontal view alone yields a diagnosis of confluent lobar pneumonia, this is highly reliable. However, nonlobar types of infiltrates will be underdiagnosed in 15% of patients using the frontal view alone. The clinical impact of these radiographically underdiagnosed pneumonias needs to be assessed prior to implementing the practice of using only frontal radiographs for diagnosing pneumonia. (orig.)

  17. Evidence of a Biological Control over Origin, Growth and End of the Calcite Prisms in the Shells of Pinctada margaritifera (Pelecypod, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cuif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistently classified among the references for calcite simple prisms, the microstructural units that form the outer layer of the Pinctada margaritifera have been investigated through a series of morphological, crystallographical and biochemical characterizations. It is often said that the polygonal transverse shape of the prisms result from the competition for space between adjacent crystals. In contrast to this classical scheme the Pinctada prisms appear to be composed of four successive developmental stages from the concentrically growing disks on the internal side of the periostracum to the morphological, structural and compositional changes in both envelopes and mineral components at the end of the prisms. These latest structural and compositional changes predate nacre deposition, so that the end of prism growth is not caused by occurrence of nacre, but by metabolic changes in the secretory epithelium. This sequence makes obvious the permanent biological control exerted by the outer cell layer of the mantle in both organic envelopes and mineralizing organic phases.

  18. Frontal White Matter Damage Impairs Response Inhibition in Children Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipszyc, Jonathan; Levin, Harvey; Hanten, Gerri; Hunter, Jill; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition, the ability to suppress inappropriate cognitions or behaviors, can be measured using computer tasks and questionnaires. Inhibition depends on the frontal cortex, but the role of the underlying white matter (WM) is unclear. We assessed the specific impact of frontal WM damage on inhibition in 29 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (15 with and 14 without frontal WM damage), 21 children with orthopedic injury, and 29 population controls. We used the Stop Signal Task to measure response inhibition, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function to assess everyday inhibition, and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging to identify lesions. Children with frontal WM damage had impaired response inhibition compared with all other groups and poorer everyday inhibition than the orthopedic injury group. Frontal WM lesions most often affected the superior frontal gyrus. These results provide evidence for the critical role of frontal WM in inhibition. PMID:24618405

  19. PRISM, a Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument, Accurately Measures Symptom Change in Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Whitman, Cynthia; Talley, Jennifer; Erder, M Haim; Joseph, Alain; Silberg, Debra G; Spiegel, Brennan

    2017-03-01

    Most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) experience relief following treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (Vakil et al. in Am J Gastroenterol 101:1900-1920, 2006; Everhart and Ruhl in Gastroenterology 136:376-386, 2009). As many as 17-44% of patients, however, exhibit only partial response to therapy. Most extant GERD patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments fail to meet development best practices as described by the FDA (Talley and Wiklund in Qual Life Res 14:21-33, 2005; Van Pinxteren et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 18:CD002095, 2004; El-Serag et al. in Aliment Pharmacol Ther 32:720-737, 2010). To develop and validate a PRO instrument for clinical trials involving patients with GERD who are PPI partial responders. We prepared a systematic literature review, held patient focus groups, convened an expert panel, and conducted cognitive interviews to establish content validity. Eligible participants took PPI therapy for at least 8 weeks, had undergone an upper endoscopy, and scored at least 8 points on the GerdQ [6]. Qualitative data guided development of 26 draft items. Items were reviewed by expert panels and debriefed with patients. The resulting 21-item instrument underwent psychometric evaluation during a Phase IIB trial. During the trial, confirmatory factor analysis (n = 220) resulted in a four-factor model displaying the highest goodness of fit. All domains had a high inter-item correlation (Cronbach's α > 0.8). Test-retest reliability and convergent validity were strong, with highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations between average weekly PRISM scores and severity anchors and significant (p < 0.05) correlations with anchor subscales. Cumulative distribution functions revealed significant differences between responders and non-responders. Analysis in a clinical trial setting demonstrated strong psychometric properties suggesting validity of PRISM. Developed in line with FDA guidance on PROs, PRISM represents an

  20. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rix Brooks

    Full Text Available Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA.Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded.PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test.Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic

  1. Cocaine mummies and the pre-frontal reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Mark Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The scientific community frames its world with facts - facts which have been subjected to tests and apparently proven themselves and are therefore proffered by scientists to mankind as things upon which it can rely to steer it safely through life. However, facts are a moveable feast. Time and fresh minds often prove scientific 'facts' wrong. The cocaine mummies seem to indicate that 2000 years ago the Ancient Egyptians had access to both tobacco and cocaine - something previously believed impossible. One part of the German and British scientific community has proven in laboratory tests that the mummies are telling the truth. The rest of the scientific community disputes that truth'. But if the laboratory tests are right, then humanity has to rewrite its entire history. Nuclear communicators have very little credibility with the general public because they represent scientists, who not only are often proven wrong by time but also cannot agree on the truth. At the same time, there are fundamental facts about the human condition that nuclear communicators ignore - to the detriment of their message. Fact: thinking is a learned skill, not an instinct. Fact: language is a learned skill, not an instinct. For humans to follow the positive nuclear argument they must both think and also understand language. But thinking is not the brain's first choice of operation. Fact: the pre-frontal lobe of the brain is the seat of mankind's primitive emotions, including the instinct of fear and the instinct for life. The pre-frontal lobe dominates the way man thinks and speaks. Therefore, nuclear communicators have to learn the skill of mapping their messages to the pre-frontal human reality. This presentation provides practical points for that learning and message mapping exercise. (author)

  2. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cory T; Thomas, A Wren; Nummela, Samuel U; de la Mothe, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Functional role of frontal alpha oscillations in creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R; Foulser, A Alban; Mellin, Juliann M; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent electroencephalography (EEG) data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a functional role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10 Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40 Hz-tACS was used instead of 10 Hz-tACS to rule out a general "electrical stimulation" effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal 40 Hz stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Representation of cognitive reappraisal goals in frontal gamma oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2014-01-01

    Recently, numerous efforts have been made to understand the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive regulation of emotion, such as cognitive reappraisal. Many studies have reported that cognitive control of emotion induces increases in neural activity of the control system, including the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and increases or decreases (depending upon the regulation goal) in neural activity of the appraisal system, including the amygdala and the insula. It has been hypothesized that information about regulation goals needs to be processed through interactions between the control and appraisal systems in order to support cognitive reappraisal. However, how this information is represented in the dynamics of cortical activity remains largely unknown. To address this, we investigated temporal changes in gamma band activity (35-55 Hz) in human electroencephalograms during a cognitive reappraisal task that was comprised of three reappraisal goals: to decease, maintain, or increase emotional responses modulated by affect-laden pictures. We examined how the characteristics of gamma oscillations, such as spectral power and large-scale phase synchronization, represented cognitive reappraisal goals. We found that left frontal gamma power decreased, was sustained, or increased when the participants suppressed, maintained, or amplified their emotions, respectively. This change in left frontal gamma power appeared during an interval of 1926 to 2453 ms after stimulus onset. We also found that the number of phase-synchronized pairs of gamma oscillations over the entire brain increased when participants regulated their emotions compared to when they maintained their emotions. These results suggest that left frontal gamma power may reflect cortical representation of emotional states modulated by cognitive reappraisal goals and gamma phase synchronization across whole brain regions may reflect emotional regulatory efforts to achieve these goals

  5. Neuronal oscillations form parietal/frontal networks during contour integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Marta; Plöchl, Michael; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz) frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13-30 Hz) phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e., the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites.

  6. Subregions of the human superior frontal gyrus and their connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qin, Wen; Liu, Huaigui; Fan, Lingzhong; Wang, Jiaojian; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2013-09-01

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG) is located at the superior part of the prefrontal cortex and is involved in a variety of functions, suggesting the existence of functional subregions. However, parcellation schemes of the human SFG and the connection patterns of each subregion remain unclear. We firstly parcellated the human SFG into the anteromedial (SFGam), dorsolateral (SFGdl), and posterior (SFGp) subregions based on diffusion tensor tractography. The SFGam was anatomically connected with the anterior and mid-cingulate cortices, which are critical nodes of the cognitive control network and the default mode network (DMN). The SFGdl was connected with the middle and inferior frontal gyri, which are involved in the cognitive execution network. The SFGp was connected with the precentral gyrus, caudate, thalamus, and frontal operculum, which are nodes of the motor control network. Resting-state functional connectivity analysis further revealed that the SFGam was mainly correlated with the cognitive control network and the DMN; the SFGdl was correlated with the cognitive execution network and the DMN; and the SFGp was correlated with the sensorimotor-related brain regions. The SFGam and SFGdl were further parcellated into three and two subclusters that are well corresponding to Brodmann areas. These findings suggest that the human SFG consists of multiple dissociable subregions that have distinct connection patterns and that these subregions are involved in different functional networks and serve different functions. These results may improve our understanding on the functional complexity of the SFG and provide us an approach to investigate the SFG at the subregional level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Connectivity between Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Supplementary Motor Area Predicts After-Effects of Right Frontal Cathodal tDCS on Picture Naming Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosso, Charlotte; Valabregue, R.; Arbizy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right frontal cortex improves language abilities in post-stroke aphasic patients. Yet little is known about the effects of right frontal cathodal tDCS on normal language function. Objective/hypothesis: To explore the catho...

  8. Frontal lobe hypoperfusion in mild cognitive impairment patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, S.Q.; Chung, C.P.; Liao, Y.C.; Wang, P.N.; Lee, Y.C.; Liu, H.C.; Liu, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Mild cognitive impairement (MCI) refers to the clinical state of individuals who are memory impaired subjectively but are functioning well and do not meet the criteria of dementia. MCI subjects have a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is important to detect the earliest evidence of AD for clinicians to recognize the high risk subjects and to implicate the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the early change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in MCI with high risk of AD by SPECT. Methods: Subjects complained of memory impairment with normal cognitive function and intact daily activities were enrolled. Each patient underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT at the time of initial evaluation. Patients were followed for one to five years. The diagnosis of AD was based on the criteria of the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. There were 8 patients (4 males, 4 females; age range, 64-80 yrs; mean, 73.5 yrs) progressing to AD within one year. Ten gender and age matched normal control subjects (NC) were also included. The SPECT images were analyzed by using SPM 99. The image data were transformed into a standard stereotactic space, using a 12-parameter linear and 2x2x2 nonlinear spatial normalization with the template image. Group comparisons of the SPECT images between the 8 rapid AD converters and 10 NCs were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using t test. The t statistics was transformed to a normal statistic yielding a Z score for every voxel. Results: In 8 rapid AD converters, rCBF in the right medial frontal gyms (Brodmann area 10; BA 10), anterior cingulated gyms (BA 32) and middle frontal gyms (BA 46) was significantly lower than in NCs (p<0.001). The neuropsychological performances of these 8 cases revealed decrement in short-term memory, mental manipulation and list-generation frequency. Conclusions: rCBF is decreased in right medial frontal, anterior cingulated and middle frontal gyms in MCI patients who

  9. A strange bone damage of the frontal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwermer, B.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a case in which the patient's own history ('therapy-resistant headaches') and 'autotrepanation of the calotte' alledgedly performed by the patient himself are rather convincing in the light of the X-ray pictures revealing a defect running vertically through the calotte to the lamina interna both in p.a. and in lateral projections. The fact that there were no complications postoperatively suggests that the frontal bone was not penetrated completely, i.e. the dura mater was not injured. (orig./TRV) [de

  10. A model of frontal polymerization using complex initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Goldfeder

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontal polymerization is a process in which a spatially localized reaction zone propagates into a monomer, converting it into a polymer. In the simplest case of free-radical polymerization, a mixture of monomer and initiator is placed in a test tube. A reaction is then initiated at one end of the tube. Over time, a self-sustained thermal wave, in which chemical conversion occurs, is produced. This phenomenon is possible because of the highly exothermic nature of the polymerization reactions.

  11. A Pilot Evaluation of On-Road Detection Performance by Drivers with Hemianopia Using Oblique Peripheral Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R. Bowers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Homonymous hemianopia (HH, a severe visual consequence of stroke, causes difficulties in detecting obstacles on the nonseeing (blind side. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the effects of oblique peripheral prisms, a novel development in optical treatments for HH, on detection of unexpected hazards when driving. Methods. Twelve people with complete HH (median 49 years, range 29–68 completed road tests with sham oblique prism glasses (SP and real oblique prism glasses (RP. A masked evaluator rated driving performance along the 25 km routes on busy streets in Ghent, Belgium. Results. The proportion of satisfactory responses to unexpected hazards on the blind side was higher in the RP than the SP drive (80% versus 30%; P=0.001, but similar for unexpected hazards on the seeing side. Conclusions. These pilot data suggest that oblique peripheral prisms may improve responses of people with HH to blindside hazards when driving and provide the basis for a future, larger-sample clinical trial. Testing responses to unexpected hazards in areas of heavy vehicle and pedestrian traffic appears promising as a real-world outcome measure for future evaluations of HH rehabilitation interventions aimed at improving detection when driving.

  12. Risk of fall (RoF) intervention by affecting visual egocenter through gait analysis and yoked prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Subramanian, Prem; Spurling, April; Jenness, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Following a neurologic event such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and chronic neurological conditions including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy a shift in the visual midline (egocenter) can directly affect posture, balance and spatial orientation. As a consequence, this increases the risk of fall (RoF) and injury that imposes a major financial burden on the public health system. To determine if there is a statistically significant change in balance with the intervention of yoked prisms to reduce the risk of fall in subjects with neurological impairments. Ambulation of thirty-six subjects was evaluated on a pressure sensitive mat before and after intervention with yoked prisms. Changes in gait and balance were analyzed in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) axes during ambulation. T-tests for each measure comparing the difference-of-differences to a zero change at baseline returned statistically significant reductions in both AP (p <  0.0001; 95% CI: 1.368- 2.976) and ML (p = 0.0002; 95% CI: 1.472- 4.173) imbalances using specifically directed yoked prisms to correct the visual midline deviation. These findings demonstrate that yoked prisms have the potential to provide a cost-effective means to restore the visual midline thereby improving balance, reduce RoF and subsequent injury.

  13. The nature of the phenomenon “Event” in the prism of the conception by Gilles Deleuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyugina Elena Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the prism of the “event” conception by G. Deleuze the article explores the ambivalent language and social nature of the event. It analyses references between attributes of the event: sign, meaning, and significance. It also defines the role of "floating signifiers" in the event and implementation of the virulent ideas and names into the system of event.

  14. A 900 electrostatic prism for microparticle beam steering on a 2 MV van der Graaff dust accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.G.; Clarke, C.D.; McDonnell, J.A.M.; Dickason, R.E.; Flavill, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    The design and construction of a 90 0 electrostatic prism is described. The device is used to deflect hypervelocity dust particles produced in a horizontal van der Graaff accelerator to simulate micrometeoroid impacts on dusty lunar and asteroidal surfaces where vertical incidence must be provided. (author)

  15. The influence of hardening conditions on the properties of masonry cement mortar prisms made in brick moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertram, G.; Lourenco, P.B.; Hasseltine, B.A.; Vasconseles, G.

    2014-01-01

    One aspect of our investigation into the spacing of movement joints involved the short and long term deformation of mortar embedded in masonry. In this research the influence of hardening conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of masonry cement mortar [M5] were studied. Mortar prisms

  16. Islamic exorcism and the cinema fist: Analyzing exorcism among Danish Muslims through the prism of film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this article I apply film theory as an analytic prism through which to examine the ritual mechanisms of a particular kind of Islamic exorcism (al-ruqya al-sharʿiyya). I show how these exorcisms operate as a ritual montage that conjures the absent presence of al-ghayb—a hidden world of power...... that only God can see in its totality and to which the possessed patients and the jinn spirits must succumb. These exorcisms thus provide healing, not in the sense of immediate “well-being” or “relief from pain” but in the sense of moral witnessing, an opportunity to testify to the limits of human seeing...

  17. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side. (orig.)

  18. Single-domain versus two-domain configuration in thin ferromagnetic prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, Maria Gloria; Politi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Thin ferromagnetic elements in the form of rectangular prisms are theoretically investigated in order to study the transition from single-domain to two-domain state, with changing the in-plane aspect ratio p. We address two main questions: first, how general is the transition; second, how the critical value p c depends on the physical parameters. We use two complementary methods: discrete-lattice calculations and a micromagnetic continuum approach. Ultrathin films do not appear to split in two domains. Instead, thicker films may undergo the above transition. We have used the continuum approach to analyze recent magnetic force microscopy observations in 30nm-thick patterned permalloy elements, finding a good agreement for p c

  19. Student Analogy Reasons When Solving Area Concepts in Pyramids and Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashuri, A.; Sudjadi, I.; Pramudya, I.; Gembong, S.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the reasoning of students’ analogies in solving the broad concept problem in pyramids and prisms. This research method using descriptive qualitative. Data collection uses analogous reasoning tests and interviews. After that tested to 32 students of Junior High School. Based on the results of the analysis can be concluded that (1) 16% of students solve the problem of source and target problem correctly. (2) 29% of students correctly solve source problems and target problems incorrectly. (3) 55% solve source problems and target problems wrong. This is because students tend to memorize formulas not using analogy reasoning to solve new problems. Finally, the students have difficulties in solving new problems, because students are not accustomed to using the experience they have gained to solve new problems.

  20. Wavelength-tunable prism-coupled external cavity passively mode-locked quantum-dot laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yan-Hua; Jian Wu; Jin Peng; Wang Fei-Fei; Hu Fa-Jie; Wei Heng; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable mode-locked quantum dot laser using an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot gain medium and a discrete semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is demonstrated. A dispersion prism, which has lower optical loss and less spectral narrowing than a blazed grating, is used for wavelength selection and tuning. A wavelength tuning range of 45.5 nm (from 1137.3 nm to 1182.8 nm) under 140-mA injection current in the passive mode-locked regime is achieved. The maximum average power of 19 mW is obtained at the 1170.3-nm wavelength, corresponding to the single pulse energy of 36.5 pJ. (paper)

  1. Testing of seismic isolation bearings for advanced liquid metal reactor prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajirian, F.F.; Kelly, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Seismic isolation can significantly mitigate earthquake loads on liquid metal reactors (LMR), thus reducing the impact of seismic loads on design. This improves plant safety margins for beyond-design basis seismic events and enhances adaptability of a standardized design to a variety of sites, with potential cost benefits. The PRISM (Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module) LMR incorporates a horizontal isolation system which consists of high damping steel laminated rubber bearings. The results of an experimental program to determine the mechanical properties of the rubber compound and the bearing performance under different loading conditions are presented. The test results demonstrate the excellent performance of the bearings and their suitability for isolating compact LMR plants

  2. Astrophysical Information from Objective Prism Digitized Images: Classification with an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratsolis Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellar spectral classification is not only a tool for labeling individual stars but is also useful in studies of stellar population synthesis. Extracting the physical quantities from the digitized spectral plates involves three main stages: detection, extraction, and classification of spectra. Low-dispersion objective prism images have been used and automated methods have been developed. The detection and extraction problems have been presented in previous works. In this paper, we present a classification method based on an artificial neural network (ANN. We make a brief presentation of the entire automated system and we compare the new classification method with the previously used method of maximum correlation coefficient (MCC. Digitized photographic material has been used here. The method can also be used on CCD spectral images.

  3. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF UKRAINE THROUGH THE PRISM OF MEMORY ON CHERNOBYL DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Perga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the research of individual, collective and historical memory — through the prism of environmental disasters. Although they lead not only to physical but also to mental trauma in modern scientific discourse this aspect has not become a subject of special studies. In the example of Chernobyl disaster traumatic experience of 50 residents of Kiev, who received indirect effects of the accident, is analyzed. It is shown the formation a stable distrust of the authorities of the USSR, which is transferred to the present and entails a negative assessment of the environmental policy of independent Ukraine. Factors, which cause such situation and its relationship with the views of respondents on their future, are established. The conclusion of the feasibility of using the questionnaire method for determining the main trends traumatic impact of environmental disasters on individual memory is done. Directions for further in-depth research in this area are proposed.

  5. Two different trichoscopic patterns of mid-frontal scalp in patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia and clinical features of androgenetic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rakowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a primary lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia with progressive frontotemporal hairline recession. In some cases, hair loss in the mid-frontal scalp, similar to female pattern hair loss, may be observed. Objective. Assessment of the trichoscopic pattern of mid-frontal scalp hair loss in patients diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia. Material and methods. The retrospective analysis included 31 women diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia and hair loss in the mid-frontal scalp and 36 women diagnosed with female pattern hair loss. Results . In patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia two different trichoscopic patterns in the mid-frontal scalp were identified. In 68% of patients (21/31 we observed a diffuse fibrotic pattern. It was characterized by irregular arrangement of follicular units with small areas with loss of follicular units, an increased percentage of follicular units with one hair and a decreased percentage of follicular units with three hairs, normal hair shaft thickness and presence of mild perifollicular scaling. The androgenetic alopecia pattern was present in 32% of patients (10/31. It was characterized by hair shaft thickness diversity (20% or more, a percentage of vellus hairs higher than 10%, presence of yellow dots, an increased percentage of follicular units with one hair and a decreased percentage of follicular units with three hairs. Conclusions. In patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia and coexisting mid-frontal scalp hair loss, we identified two different patterns of this area in trichoscopy: the diffuse fibrotic pattern (more common and the androgenetic alopecia pattern. This observation may have therapeutic and prognostic implications.

  6. A couple-focused intervention to prevent postnatal smoking relapse: PRISM study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Brînzaniuc, Alexandra; Mihu, Dan; Iuhas, Cristian Ioan; Stamatian, Florin; Caracostea, Gabriela; Sidor, Alexandra; Alexa, Paula Mădălina; Brînza, Cătălina; Pop, Oana Maria; Cherecheș, Răzvan Mircea

    2015-03-01

    Maternal smoking is one of the most modifiable factors with clear adverse effects for the fetus and the entire family. Addressing the dearth of pregnancy smoking interventions with partner support, PRISM (Prevent Relapse In SMoking) is a partnership between a research institution and the two largest state-owned obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The study will assess the efficacy of a couple-focused telephone-counseling program to prevent smoking relapse among mothers who quit smoking closely before or during pregnancy. The intervention is a program for couples based on motivational interviewing delivered over the phone after birth. The study is an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 250 Romanian women recruited soon after childbirth, who quit smoking in the six months before pregnancy or no later than the end of the first pregnancy trimester and remained abstinent (which was biochemically verified) until delivery. Participants were randomized to: (1) a control arm (usual care); and (2) an intervention arm consisting of up to 4 postnatal counseling calls for mothers and their partners using motivational interviewing to encourage the woman to remain smoke-free and the partner to support her decision. The primary outcome is maternal smoking abstinence at 6 months postpartum (biochemically verified). PRISM has the potential to identify strategies to reduce maternal postnatal relapse and increase partner quitting. If successful, the program may be an effective method to prevent and reduce smoking, which may lead to improved child, mother, and partner health both in the short and the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing Uncertainties Associated With Radioactive Waste Disposal: Task Group 4 Of The IAEA PRISM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

  8. Significance of frontal cortical atrophy in Parkinson's disease: computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Sang; Suh, Jung Ho; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Dong Ik [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    Fifty-five patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated clinically and with brain computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the incidence of frontal cortical and subcortical atrophy. Twenty cases of age-related healthy control group were also scanned. The CT criteria of frontal cortical atrophy that was used in this study were the maximum width of frontal hemispheric cortical sulci and width of anterior interhemispheric fissure between frontal lobes comparing with maximum width of hemispheric cortical sulci except frontal lobes. And the criteria of frontal subcortical atrophy were bifrontal index bicaudate index, and Evans index. The results are as follows: 1. Cortical atrophic changes in Parkinson's disease were more prominent in frontal lobe rather than other causes of cortical atrophy. 2. Frontal cortical and subcortical atrophic changes were also more prominent in Parkinson's disease rather than age-related control group. 3. Subcortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe were always associated with cortical atrophic changes. 4. Changes of basal ganglia were hardly seen in Parkinson's disease. 5. Cortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe must be the one of significant findings in Parkinson's disease.

  9. Significance of frontal cortical atrophy in Parkinson's disease: computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Sang; Suh, Jung Ho; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Dong Ik

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-five patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated clinically and with brain computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the incidence of frontal cortical and subcortical atrophy. Twenty cases of age-related healthy control group were also scanned. The CT criteria of frontal cortical atrophy that was used in this study were the maximum width of frontal hemispheric cortical sulci and width of anterior interhemispheric fissure between frontal lobes comparing with maximum width of hemispheric cortical sulci except frontal lobes. And the criteria of frontal subcortical atrophy were bifrontal index bicaudate index, and Evans index. The results are as follows: 1. Cortical atrophic changes in Parkinson's disease were more prominent in frontal lobe rather than other causes of cortical atrophy. 2. Frontal cortical and subcortical atrophic changes were also more prominent in Parkinson's disease rather than age-related control group. 3. Subcortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe were always associated with cortical atrophic changes. 4. Changes of basal ganglia were hardly seen in Parkinson's disease. 5. Cortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe must be the one of significant findings in Parkinson's disease

  10. Contemporary management of frontal sinus mucoceles: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courson, Andy M; Stankiewicz, James A; Lal, Devyani

    2014-02-01

    To analyze trends in the surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles through meta-analysis. Meta-analysis and case series. A systematic literature review on surgical management of frontal and fronto-ethmoid mucoceles was conducted. Studies were divided into historical (1975-2001) and contemporary (2002-2012) groups. A meta-analysis of these studies was performed. The historical and contemporary cohorts were compared (surgical approach, recurrence, and complications). To study evolution in surgical management, a senior surgeon's experience over 28 years was analyzed separately. Thirty-one studies were included for meta-analysis. The historical cohort included 425 mucoceles from 11 studies. The contemporary cohort included 542 mucoceles from 20 studies. More endoscopic techniques were used in the contemporary versus historical cohort (53.9% vs. 24.7%; P = contemporary). In the historical cohort, higher recurrence was noted in the external group (P = 0.03). Results from endoscopic and open approaches are comparable. Although endoscopic techniques are being increasingly adopted, comparison with our series shows that more cases could potentially be treated endoscopically. Frequent use of open approaches may reflect efficacy, or perhaps lack of expertise and equipment required for endoscopic management. Most contemporary authors favor endoscopic management, limiting open approaches for specific indications (unfavorable anatomy, lateral disease, and scarring). N/A. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Frontal intradiploic epidomoid cyst with orbital and out cerebral extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Latorre, F.; Revert Ventura, A.; Diaz Ramon, C.; Arana, E.; Esteban Masanet, J.M.; Tortosa Giner, A.

    1995-01-01

    We studied six patients with exophthalmos and inferior displacement of the eyeball produced by orbital extension of a frontal intradiploic epidermoid cyst. All the patients were studied by conventional radiography five with CT and three with MR. Plain x-ray disclosed a single, well-defined lytic lesion with sclerosis margin, located in the outer supraorbital region of the frontal bone in all cases. CT revealed the intradiploic site of the lesion, its expansive nature, the state of the bone tables and demonstrated the existence of an intra orbital mass. MR showed a lesion with a greater signal intensity than LCR, similar to the white matter in T1-weighted sequences in two cases and hyperintense in a third. The lesions were hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences. The preoperative presumed diagnosis was established by means of plain radiography on the basis of site and the sclerosis ring surrounding the lesion. CT disclosed the bone structures and confirmed the existence of an intra orbital mass containing soft portions. The basic contribution of MR was in the assessment of the intracranial extension and in ruling out cerebral involvement.(Author)

  12. [Mirror movement due to the medial frontal lobe lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N; Kawamura, M; Hirayama, K

    1995-01-01

    We reported a case with acquired mirror movement in upper limbs due to the lesion of right medial frontal lobe including supplementary motor area, and also discussed a possible mechanism underlying it. A 59-year-old right-handed woman developed left hemiparesis caused by cerebral hemorrhage in the right frontoparietal lobe, on April 5, 1981. She had right hemiparesis and right hemianopsia due to cerebral hemorrhage in the left parieto-occipital lobe, 13 days later. As the patient was recovering from paresis, mirror movement appeared on upper limbs. The features of the mirror movement of this case are summarized as follows: (1) it appeared when using both proximal and distal region of upper limbs; (2) it appeared on left upper limb when the patient intended to move right upper limb or on right upper limb when intended to move left upper limb, while it appeared predominantly in the former; and (3) it was more remarkably found in habitual movement using gesture and pantomimic movement for the use of objects, and it was found in lower degree when actual object was used or when the patient tried to imitate the gesture of the examiner. The lesions in MRI were found in medial region of right frontal lobe (supplementary motor area, medial region of motor area, and cingulate gyrus), right medial parietal lobe, posterior region of right occipital lobe, and medial regions of left parietal and occipital lobes. There was no apparent abnormality in corpus callosum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Associate Directorate for Advanced Reactors and License Renewal

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC`s ``Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants`` (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC`s preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant`s research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified.

  14. Subscales correlations between MSSS-88 and PRISM scales in evaluation of spasticity for patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Patient-reported outcomes have been recognized as an important way of assessing health and well-being of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of the study is to determine the correlation between different subscales of Patient-Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM and Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS-88 scales in the estimation of spasticity influence on different domains Methods. The study is a cross-sectional observational study. MSSS-88 and PRISM scales were analyzed in five domains (body-function domain, activity domain, participation domain, personal factors/wellbeing domain, and hypothesis. For statistical interpretation of the correlation we performed the Spearman’s ρ-test, concurrent validity, divergent validity, and the linear regression model. Results. We found a significant correlation between subscales of evaluated MSSS-88 and PRISM scales for body domains; the highest correlation was between the need for assistance/positioning (NA/P and walking (W. Spasticity has the weakest correlation with the need for intervention (NI. The presence of pain has a negative impact and significant positive correlation between pain discomfort and NI. In the domain of body function for males, there was a non-significant correlation between muscle spasms and NI. The same applies for social functioning and social embarrassment domains, as well as for emotional health and psychological agitation for personal factors / wellbeing domain. The differences between genders of MS patients persist in different domains; muscle spasms are strong predictors for NI, and body movement is a strong predictor versus W for NA/P. Conclusion. MSSS-88 and PRISM scales can be considered reliable in measuring different domains of disability for MS patients with spasticity. Because it is shorter, quicker, and simple to use, it is concluded that the PRISM scale can successfully compete with and replace the MSSS-88 scale in

  15. Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM): a graphic instrument to assess suffering in fatigued cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielissen, Marieke F M; Prins, Judith B; Knoop, Hans; Verhagen, Stans; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2013-06-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM) measures in a simple, graphic way the burden of suffering due to illness. The question addressed in this study is whether the PRISM is a valid instrument to measure suffering in cancer survivors experiencing severe fatigue. Quantitative and qualitative data of a previous randomized controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) especially designed for postcancer fatigue was used to assess convergent validity and sensitivity to change in a sample of 83 cancer survivors. The PRISM, yielding self-illness separation (SIS-fatigue = suffering due to fatigue; SIS-cancer = suffering due to cancer), fatigue severity (Checklist Individual Strength; CIS-fatigue), functional impairment, psychological well-being, quality of life, and coping with the experience of cancer (Impact of Event Scale; IES). Moderate significant correlations were found with the PRISM and the above-mentioned measures. On the basis of SIS scores, the sample was divided into two separate groups: cancer survivors who suffered more because of fatigue and cancer survivors who suffered more because they had cancer in the past. The two groups had different scores on CIS-fatigue and IES, in line with that aspect that caused them the most suffering. The qualitative data confirmed this finding. Participants in the CBT condition demonstrated a significant difference between SIS-fatigue at baseline versus 6 months later compared with those in the waiting list condition. No change of SIS-cancer was found. The PRISM seems to be a valuable tool in fatigue research and clinical practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Promoting Resilience in Stress Management for Parents (PRISM-P): An intervention for caregivers of youth with serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Klein, Victoria; Eaton, Lauren; Wharton, Claire; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2017-09-01

    It is well-known that parental stress and coping impacts the well-being of children with serious illness. The current study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and satisfaction of a novel resilience promoting intervention, the Promoting Resilience in Stress Management Intervention for Parents (PRISM-P) among parents of adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes or cancer. Secondary analyses explored the effect of the PRISM-P on parent-reported resilience and distress. The PRISM-P includes 4 short skills-based modules, delivered in either 2 or 4 separate, individual sessions. English-speaking parents of adolescents with cancer or Type 1 diabetes were eligible. Feasibility was conservatively defined as a completion rate of 80%; satisfaction was qualitatively evaluated based upon parent feedback regarding intervention content, timing, and format. Resilience and distress were assessed pre- and postintervention with the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale and the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale. Twelve of 24 caregivers of youth with diabetes (50%) and 13 of 15 caregivers of youth with cancer (87%) agreed to participate. Nine of 12 (75%) and 9 of 13 (64%) completed all PRISM-P modules, respectively. Among those who completed the intervention, qualitative satisfaction was high. Parent-reported resilience and distress scores improved after the intervention. Effect sizes for both groups indicated a moderate intervention effect. Ultimately, the PRISM-P intervention was well accepted and impactful among parents who completed it. However, attrition rates were higher than anticipated, suggesting alternative or less time-intensive formats may be more feasible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects

  18. Assessing and conceptualizing frontal EEG asymmetry: An updated primer on recording, processing, analyzing, and interpreting frontal alpha asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ezra E; Reznik, Samantha J; Stewart, Jennifer L; Allen, John J B

    2017-01-01

    Frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha asymmetry is widely researched in studies of emotion, motivation, and psychopathology, yet it is a metric that has been quantified and analyzed using diverse procedures, and diversity in procedures muddles cross-study interpretation. The aim of this article is to provide an updated tutorial for EEG alpha asymmetry recording, processing, analysis, and interpretation, with an eye towards improving consistency of results across studies. First, a brief background in alpha asymmetry findings is provided. Then, some guidelines for recording, processing, and analyzing alpha asymmetry are presented with an emphasis on the creation of asymmetry scores, referencing choices, and artifact removal. Processing steps are explained in detail, and references to MATLAB-based toolboxes that are helpful for creating and investigating alpha asymmetry are noted. Then, conceptual challenges and interpretative issues are reviewed, including a discussion of alpha asymmetry as a mediator/moderator of emotion and psychopathology. Finally, the effects of two automated component-based artifact correction algorithms-MARA and ADJUST-on frontal alpha asymmetry are evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Bisulli, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Tassi, Laura; Licchetta, Laura; Mostacci, Barbara; Stipa, Carlotta; Mainieri, Greta; Bernabè, Giorgia; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura. Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime. Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant. This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relation between fluid intelligence and frontal lobe functioning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isingrini, M; Vazou, F

    1997-01-01

    This study reports the relations among normal aging, intelligence, and frontal lobe functioning. Intelligence tasks and frontal lobe functioning tasks were administered to 107 adults from two age groups (25 to 46 years and 70 to 99 years). Intelligence measures were assessed with two crystallized tests (WAIS Vocabulary and Information subtests), one fluid intelligence test (Cattell's Matrices), and one mixed, crystallized and fluid test (WAIS Similarities subtest). Frontal functioning was assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and two tests of verbal fluency. Significant age differences in favor of the young were found on the two intelligence tests with a fluid component and on all measures of frontal lobe functioning. Correlational analyses examining the relationship of intelligence measures to frontal variables indicated that these last measures were significantly correlated with only fluid intelligence tests in the elderly group. The implications for the relations among aging, fluid intelligence, and frontal lobe functioning are discussed.

  1. Carboniferous - Early Permian magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Xinjiang, NW China): Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Guzalnur; Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Zhong, Linglin

    2018-03-01

    The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Chinese North Tianshan) is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated the Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanic and sedimentary sequences of the Daheyan section, southern Bogda Range, and present new zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks. One Carboniferous rhyolite is dated at 298 ± 8 Ma; a Permian basalt yielded many Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts, and its maximum age (∼297 Ma) is constrained by the detrital zircon ages of the sandstone that stratigraphically underlies it. These volcanic rocks belong to calc-alkaline series. We further synthesize previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda Range. The available data indicate that the magmatism occurred continuously from 350 Ma to 280 Ma. A comprehensive analysis allows us to propose that: (1) the Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic rocks of the Bogda Range generally show consistent arc-type features; (2) increasing mantle input through time suggests intra-arc extension in a supra-subduction zone; (3) the localized occurrence of Early Permian alkaline pillow basalts and deep water sediments close to the major shear zone advocate a transtensional crustal thinning during the transition from Carboniferous convergence to Early Permian transcurrent tectonics; (4) occurrence of a large number of Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts in the Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks, and Proterozoic detrital zircons in the coeval clastic sediments suggest a continental or transitional basement of the Bogda Arc; (5) subduction in the Bogda area terminated prior to the deposition of Middle Permian terrestrial sediments.

  2. Linking the southern West Junggar terrane to the Yili Block: Insights from the oldest accretionary complexes in West Junggar, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rong; Han, Bao-Fu; Guan, Shu-Wei; Liu, Bo; Wang, Zeng-Zhen

    2018-06-01

    West Junggar is known to tectonically correlate with East Kazakhstan; however, the tectonic link of the southern West Junggar terrane to adjacent regions still remains uncertain. Here, we examined the oldest accretionary complexes, thus constraining its tectonic evolution and link during the Early-Middle Paleozoic. They have contrasting lithologic, geochemical, and geochronological features and thus, provenances and tectonic settings. The Laba Unit was derived from the Late Ordovician-Early Devonian continental arc system (peaking at 450-420 Ma) with Precambrian substrate, which formed as early as the Early Devonian and metamorphosed during the Permian; however, the Kekeshayi Unit was accumulated in an intra-oceanic arc setting, and includes the pre-Late Silurian and Late Silurian subunits with or without Precambrian sources. Integrated with the regional data, the southern West Junggar terrane revealed a tectonic link to the northern Yili Block during the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, as suggested by the comparable Precambrian zircon age spectra between the southern West Junggar terrane and the micro-continents in the southern Kazakhstan Orocline, the proximal accumulation of the Laba Unit in the continental arc atop the Yili Block, and the sudden appearance of Precambrian zircons in the Kekeshayi Unit during the Late Silurian. This link rejects the proposals of the southern West Junggar terrane as an extension of the northern Kazakhstan Orocline and the Middle Paleozoic amalgamation of West Junggar. A new linking model is thus proposed, in which the southern West Junggar terrane first evolved individually, and then collided with the Yili Block to constitute the Kazakhstan continent during the Late Silurian. The independent and contrasting intra-oceanic and continental arcs also support the Paleozoic archipelago-type evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt.

  3. A history of violence: Insights into post-accretionary heating in carbonaceous chondrites from volatile element abundances, Zn isotopes and water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Brandon; Moynier, Frédéric; Beck, Pierre; Pringle, Emily A.; Siebert, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) may have been the carriers of water, volatile and moderately volatile elements to Earth. Investigating the abundances of these elements, their relative volatility, and isotopes of state-change tracer elements such as Zn, and linking these observations to water contents, provide vital information on the processes that govern the abundances and isotopic signatures of these species in CCs and other planetary bodies. Here we report Zn isotopic data for 28 CCs (20 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), as well as trace element data for Zn, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi in 16 samples (8 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), that display a range of elemental abundances from case-normative to intensely depleted. We use these data, water content data from literature and Zn isotopes to investigate volatile depletions and to discern between closed and open system heating. Trace element data have been used to construct relative volatility scales among the elements for the CM and CR chondrites. From least volatile to most, the scale in CM chondrites is Pb-Sn-Bi-In-Zn-Tl, and for CR chondrites it is Tl-Zn-Sn-Pb-Bi-In. These observations suggest that heated CM and CR chondrites underwent volatile loss under different conditions to one another and to that of the solar nebula, e.g. differing oxygen fugacities. Furthermore, the most water and volatile depleted samples are highly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Zn. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly indicate that heated CM and CR chondrites incurred open system heating, stripping them of water and volatiles concomitantly, during post-accretionary shock impact(s).

  4. Eu{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms: Shape-controlled synthesis and tailored luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Errui [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Guangshe [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Fu, Chaochao; Zheng, Jing [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Xinsong [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Xu, Wen [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Liping, E-mail: lipingli@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2015-10-25

    In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach, which involves water at the bottom as aqueous phase and oleylamine in the above as oil phase. With this unique reaction system, precursors of hexagonal prisms Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) were first obtained by simply varying the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. Time-dependent experiments were systematically performed to reveal the growth mechanism of the precursor. After subsequent heat treatment, these precursors transformed to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms with controlled diameters and aspect ratios varying from 4 to 19. Such a transformation is preceded via a topotactic process, as indicated by TG-DTA and mass spectra. Eventually, all Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were found to exhibit an intensive red emission at 611 nm, which corresponds to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of Eu{sup 3+}. With varying the aspect ratio of hexagonal prisms and increasing Eu{sup 3+} concentration in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, an optimum external quantum efficiency was achieved. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms with controlled aspect ratio from 4.4 to 19.3 were synthesized by transformation of the precursor Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) hexagonal prisms from a novel two-phase reaction system. The growth mechanism of the precursor has been systematically investigated, and a topotactic phase transformation from precursors to cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is for the first time put forward. By the size controlling and aspect ratio adjusting, the luminescence emission intensity as well as external quantum efficiency of Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms is further tailored to show an optimum. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach. • Inheriting mechanism of prisms morphology from Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9

  5. Reconstructed frontal and coronal cuts in computed tomography of the trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fochem, K.; Klumair, J.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison between the original coronally cuts and the reconstructed coronal cuts yielded basic information on the loss of quality by computed reconstruction of images. As for the trunk, only comparisons between the conventional linear tomography and computed frontal of trunk cuts are possible. A few examples will demonstrate that despite a considerable loss of quality, computed frontal cuts will supply additional information in certain cases. It is also shown that the reconstructed frontal cuts cannot replace conventional tomography. (orig.) [de

  6. Recurrent meningitis associated with frontal sinus tuber encephalocele in a patient with tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbabaa, Samer K; Riggs, Angela D; Saad, Ali G

    2011-07-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic neurocutaneous disorder that commonly affects the CNS. The most commonly associated brain tumors include cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). The authors report an unusual case of recurrent meningitis due to a tuber-containing encephalocele via the posterior wall of the frontal sinus. An 11-year-old girl presented with a history of TSC and previous SEGA resection via interhemispheric approach. She presented twice within 4 months with classic bacterial meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures revealed Streptococcus pneumoniae. Computed tomography and MR imaging of the brain showed a right frontal sinus encephalocele via a posterior frontal sinus wall defect. Both episodes of meningitis were treated successfully with standard regimens of intravenous antibiotics. The neurosurgical service was consulted to discuss surgical options. Via a bicoronal incision, a right basal frontal craniotomy was performed. A large frontal encephalocele was encountered in the frontal sinus. The encephalocele was herniating through a bony defect of the posterior sinus wall. The encephalocele was ligated and resected followed by removing frontal sinus mucosa and complete cranialization of frontal sinus. Repair of the sinus floor was conducted with fat and pericranial grafts followed by CSF diversion via lumbar drain. Histopathology of the resected encephalocele showed a TSC tuber covered with respiratory (frontal sinus) mucosa. Tuber cells were diffusely positive for GFAP. The patient underwent follow-up for 2 years without evidence of recurrent meningitis or CSF rhinorrhea. This report demonstrates that frontal tubers of TSC can protrude into the frontal sinus as acquired encephaloceles and present with recurrent meningitis. To the authors' knowledge, recurrent meningitis is not known to coincide with TSC. Careful clinical and radiographic follow-up for frontal tubers in patients with TSC is

  7. Frontal EEG asymmetry in borderline personality disorder is associated with alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasbeck, Vera; Popkirov, Stoyan; Brüne, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry is a widely studied correlate of emotion processing and psychopathology. Recent research suggests that frontal EEG asymmetry during resting state is related to approach/withdrawal motivation and is also found in affective disorders such as major depressive disorder. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show aberrant behavior in relation to both approach and withdrawal motivation, which may arguably be associated with their difficulties in emotion processing. The occurrence and significance of frontal EEG asymmetry in BPD, however, has received little attention. Thirty-seven BPD patients and 39 controls underwent resting EEG and completed several psychometric questionnaires. While there were no between-group differences in frontal EEG asymmetry, in BPD frontal EEG asymmetry scores correlated significantly with alexithymia. That is, higher alexithymia scores were associated with relatively lower right-frontal activity. A subsequent analysis corroborated the significant interaction between frontal EEG asymmetry and alexithymia, which was moderated by group. Our findings reveal that lower right frontal EEG asymmetry is associated with alexithymia in patients with BPD. This finding is in accordance with neurophysiological models of alexithymia that implicate a right hemisphere impairment in emotion processing, and could suggest frontal EEG asymmetry as a potential biomarker of relevant psychopathology in these patients.

  8. Optimal Placement of Cerebral Oximeter Monitors to Avoid the Frontal Sinus as Determined by Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alexander J; Hatem, Muhammed A; Yee, Kevin; Grocott, Hilary P

    2016-01-01

    To determine the optimal location to place cerebral oximeter optodes to avoid the frontal sinus, using the orbit of the skull as a landmark. Retrospective observational study. Academic hospital. Fifty adult patients with previously acquired computed tomography angiography scans of the head. The distance between the superior orbit of the skull and the most superior edge of the frontal sinus was measured using imaging software. The mean (SD) frontal sinus height was 16.4 (7.2) mm. There was a nonsignificant trend toward larger frontal sinus height in men compared with women (p = 0.12). Age, height, and body surface area did not correlate with frontal sinus height. Head circumference was positively correlated (r = 0.32; p = 0.03) to frontal sinus height, with a low level of predictability based on linear regression (R(2) = 0.10; p = 0.02). Placing cerebral oximeter optodes>3 cm from the superior rim of the orbit will avoid the frontal sinus in>98% of patients. Predicting the frontal sinus height based on common patient variables is difficult. Additional studies are required to evaluate the recommended height in pediatric populations and patients of various ethnic backgrounds. The clinical relevance of avoiding the frontal sinus also needs to be further elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Passenger head in impact with frontal airbag in OOP postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu Soica, Adrian; Toganel, George-Radu

    2017-10-01

    Road accidents represent an aspect of road traffic that may lead negative consequences. In order to solve the problems associated with such events, interdisciplinary knowledge is called for, complex teams of engineers, doctors, lawyers, experts working together in order to reduce the severity of such events. Road safety is a continuous concern for both experts and various government organizations with the aim of protecting the lives of the participants in traffic. It has been estimated that the costs of traffic accidents account for 1-3% of a country GDP, depending on the level of country development [26]. In this paper we analyze a particular class of cases of injuries caused to passengers caused by the inflation of the frontal airbag when they are with the passenger out of position. Head kinematics, accelerations, as well as the severity of injuries expressed by HIC, as related to the AIS scale have been analysed.

  10. Adrenergic receptors in frontal cortex in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, R; Raisman, R; Ruberg, M; Agid, Y

    1985-02-05

    The binding of three adrenergic ligands ([3H]prazosin, [3H]clonidine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol) was studied in the frontal cortex of human brain. alpha 1-Receptors, labeled by [3H]prazosin, predominated. [3H]Clonidine bound to two classes of sites, one of high affinity and one of low affinity. Guanosine triphosphate appeared to lower the affinity of [3H]clonidine for its receptor. [3H]Dihydroalprenolol bound to three classes of sites: the beta 1-receptor, the beta 2-receptor and a receptor with low affinity which represented about 40% of the total binding, but which was probably a non-specific site; the beta 1/beta 2 ratio was 1/2.

  11. Dysconnection of right parietal and frontal cortex in neglect syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Martin; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A lesion to the right hemisphere of the brain often leads to perceptual neglect of the left side of the sensorium. The fact that lesions to different cortical regions lead to the same symptoms points to neglect as a dysconnection syndrome that may result from the dysconnection of a distributed...... network, rather than a disruption of computation in any particular brain region. To test this hypothesis, we used Bayesian analysis of effective connectivity based on electroencephalographic recordings in patients with left-sided neglect after a right-hemisphere lesion. While age-matched healthy controls...... connectivity in the left hemisphere when stimuli appeared on their right. Crucially, this parieto-frontal feedback connectivity was aggravated in patients with more severe symptoms. In contrast, patients and controls did not show differences in the local connectivity within regions. These findings suggest...

  12. Lóbulo Frontal y Psicoanálisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Beteta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de establecer mediante una atractiva hipótesis de trabajo, las relaciones entre los lóbulo frontales y las bases neurobiológicas de la teoría freudiana del psicoanálisis. Se presenran y discuten las aproximaciones psicofisiológicas y clínicas, en la interpretación de estas relaciones, llegando al análisis final de las "disoluciones" orgánicas y funcionales del cerebro, pasando revista a los síntomas de la demencia y cuadros clínicos diferenciales, por los cuales se puede llegar a la interpretación freudiana de la psicopatía, la farmacodependencia y el síndrome del terrorismo.

  13. Autism in siblings with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Tomoko; Kumada, Tomohiro; Saito, Keiko; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2013-02-01

    In 1999, Hirose et al. reported a Japanese family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) associated with a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit mutation (S252L). We followed the siblings of this family, and found that the elder brother had Asperger's disorder without mental retardation (MR) and the younger brother had autistic disorder with profound MR. The clinical epileptic features of the siblings were very similar, and both had deficits in socialization, but their cognitive development differed markedly. It thus seems that epilepsy is the direct phenotype of the S252L mutation, whereas other various factors modulate the cognitive and social development. No patients with ADNFLE have previously been reported to have autism spectrum disorder or profound MR. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cholinergic receptor binding in the frontal cortex of suicide victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.

    1986-01-01

    Because there is a high incidence of individuals diagnosed as having an affective disorder who subsequently commit suicide, the author thought it would be of interest to determine QNB binding in the brains of a large sample of suicide victims, and to compare the findings with a well-matched control group. Brain samples were obtained at autopsy from 22 suicide victims and 22 controls. Frontal cortex samples were diseected, frozen, and stored until assayed. Samples of tissue homogenate were incubated in duplicate with 10 concentrations of tritium-QNB. Specific binding was determined with and without atropine. The results confirmed previous studies in which no changes were noted in suicide versus control brains. While the findings neither disprove nor support the cholinergic hypothesis of depression, they do suggest that the neurochemical basis for the in vivo observations of increased responsivity of depressed individuals to muscarinic cholinergic agents might not involve changes in receptors estimated by QNB binding

  15. Structural Evolution of a Warm Frontal Precipitation Band During GCPEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Brian A.; Naeger, Aaron; Molthan, Andrew; Nesbitt, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    A warm frontal precipitation band developed over a few hours 50-100 km to the north of a surface warm front. The 3-km WRF was able to realistically simulate band development, although the model is somewhat too weak. Band genesis was associated with weak frontogenesis (deformation) in the presence of weak potential and conditional instability feeding into the band region, while it was closer to moist neutral within the band. As the band matured, frontogenesis increased, while the stability gradually increased in the banding region. Cloud top generating cells were prevalent, but not in WRF (too stable). The band decayed as the stability increased upstream and the frontogenesis (deformation) with the warm front weakened. The WRF may have been too weak and short-lived with the band because too stable and forcing too weak (some micro issues as well).

  16. Cytoarchitecture, probability maps and functions of the human frontal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, S; Eickhoff, S B; Mohlberg, H; Caspers, S; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Amunts, K

    2014-06-01

    The frontal pole has more expanded than any other part in the human brain as compared to our ancestors. It plays an important role for specifically human behavior and cognitive abilities, e.g. action selection (Kovach et al., 2012). Evidence about divergent functions of its medial and lateral part has been provided, both in the healthy brain and in psychiatric disorders. The anatomical correlates of such functional segregation, however, are still unknown due to a lack of stereotaxic, microstructural maps obtained in a representative sample of brains. Here we show that the human frontopolar cortex consists of two cytoarchitectonically and functionally distinct areas: lateral frontopolar area 1 (Fp1) and medial frontopolar area 2 (Fp2). Based on observer-independent mapping in serial, cell-body stained sections of 10 brains, three-dimensional, probabilistic maps of areas Fp1 and Fp2 were created. They show, for each position of the reference space, the probability with which each area was found in a particular voxel. Applying these maps as seed regions for a meta-analysis revealed that Fp1 and Fp2 differentially contribute to functional networks: Fp1 was involved in cognition, working memory and perception, whereas Fp2 was part of brain networks underlying affective processing and social cognition. The present study thus disclosed cortical correlates of a functional segregation of the human frontopolar cortex. The probabilistic maps provide a sound anatomical basis for interpreting neuroimaging data in the living human brain, and open new perspectives for analyzing structure-function relationships in the prefrontal cortex. The new data will also serve as a starting point for further comparative studies between human and non-human primate brains. This allows finding similarities and differences in the organizational principles of the frontal lobe during evolution as neurobiological basis for our behavior and cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Study of frontal weather system using satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, J.; Ershad, S.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan which is situated in the south Asian sub continent, has a peculiar climatological position. It is one of the few countries in the world, which undergo a complete transformation from summer to winter season. However this project only pertains to the winter weather conditions in Pakistan. During winter, the land masses cool off rapidly as compared to the seas and so high pressure cells are developed over land causing, weak anti-cyclonic circulation over the country. In between these cells of anti-cyclonic flow of wind, there are zones of convergence, which offer a good breeding place for low-pressure waves. The low-pressure waves are similar to the extra tropical depressions and approach and approach Pakistan from west. From the same reason these are locally called the western Disturbances. Consequently the focus of study is on the extra tropical cyclones which originate along the boundary between polar continental and tropical or polar maritime and tropical maritime air masses. The extra tropical cyclones (also called western disturbances and westerly waves.) which are embedded in westerly flow of air move across north of Pakistan are usually originate from the Mediterranean sea. These systems consist of two types of fronts i.e. warm and cold fronts. In fact these systems can be traced right from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. The location of frontal weather is generally associated with the surrounding synoptic situation, geographical position of the westerly wave, location of subtropical jet stream, steering wind level etc. although the satellite imageries are quite helpful for forecasting the frontal weather over our region however the weather charts (both surface and upper air ) and jet maps are also very helpful for this purpose

  18. Reversed Procrastination by Focal Disruption of Medial Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashwani; Diehl, Beate; Scott, Catherine; McEvoy, Andrew W; Nachev, Parashkev

    2016-11-07

    An enduring puzzle in the neuroscience of voluntary action is the origin of the remarkably wide dispersion of the reaction time distribution, an interval far greater than is explained by synaptic or signal transductive noise [1, 2]. That we are able to change our planned actions-a key criterion of volition [3]-so close to the time of their onset implies decision-making must reach deep into the execution of action itself [4-6]. It has been influentially suggested the reaction time distribution therefore reflects deliberate neural procrastination [7], giving alternative response tendencies sufficient time for fair competition in pursuing a decision threshold that determines which one is behaviorally manifest: a race model, where action selection and execution are closely interrelated [8-11]. Although the medial frontal cortex exhibits a sensitivity to reaction time on functional imaging that is consistent with such a mechanism [12-14], direct evidence from disruptive studies has hitherto been lacking. If movement-generating and movement-delaying neural substrates are closely co-localized here, a large-scale lesion will inevitably mask any acceleration, for the movement itself could be disrupted. Circumventing this problem, here we observed focal intracranial electrical disruption of the medial frontal wall in the context of the pre-surgical evaluation of two patients with epilepsy temporarily reversing such hypothesized procrastination. Effector-specific behavioral acceleration, time-locked to the period of electrical disruption, occurred exclusively at a specific locus at the ventral border of the pre-supplementary motor area. A cardinal prediction of race models of voluntary action is thereby substantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Prism Adaptation Alters Electrophysiological Markers of Attentional Processes in the Healthy Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Arévalo, Elisa; Laube, Inga; Koun, Eric; Farnè, Alessandro; Reilly, Karen T; Pisella, Laure

    2016-01-20

    Neglect patients typically show a rightward attentional orienting bias and a strong disengagement deficit, such that they are especially slow in responding to left-sided targets after right-sided cues (Posner et al., 1984). Prism adaptation (PA) can reduce diverse debilitating neglect symptoms and it has been hypothesized that PA's effects are so generalized that they might be mediated by attentional mechanisms (Pisella et al., 2006; Redding and Wallace, 2006). In neglect patients, performance on spatial attention tasks improves after rightward-deviating PA (Jacquin-Courtois et al., 2013). In contrast, in healthy subjects, although there is evidence that leftward-deviating PA induces neglect-like performance on some visuospatial tasks, behavioral studies of spatial attention tasks have mostly yielded negative results (Morris et al., 2004; Bultitude et al., 2013). We hypothesized that these negative behavioral findings might reflect the limitations of behavioral measures in healthy subjects. Here we exploited the sensitivity of event-related potentials to test the hypothesis that electrophysiological markers of attentional processes in the healthy human brain are affected by PA. Leftward-deviating PA generated asymmetries in attentional orienting (reflected in the cue-locked N1) and in attentional disengagement for invalidly cued left targets (reflected in the target-locked P1). This is the first electrophysiological demonstration that leftward-deviating PA in healthy subjects mimics attentional patterns typically seen in neglect patients. Significance statement: Prism adaptation (PA) is a promising tool for ameliorating many deficits in neglect patients and inducing neglect-like behavior in healthy subjects. The mechanisms underlying PA's effects are poorly understood but one hypothesis suggests that it acts by modulating attention. To date, however, there has been no successful demonstration of attentional modulation in healthy subjects. We provide the first

  20. [Shared decision-making and individualized goal setting - a pilot trial using PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) in psychiatric inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchi, S; Straub, S; Schwager, U

    2010-12-01

    Although there is much talk about shared decision making and individualized goal setting, there is a lack of knowledge and knowhow in their realization in daily clinical practice. There is a lack in tools for easy applicable tools to ameliorate person-centred individualized goal setting processes. In three selected psychiatric inpatients the semistructured, theory driven use of PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) in patients with complex psychiatric problems is presented and discussed. PRISM sustains a person-centred individualized process of goal setting and treatment and reinforces the active participation of patients. The process of visualisation and synchronous documentation is validated positively by patients and clinicians. The visual goal setting requires 30 to 45 minutes. In patients with complex psychiatric illness PRISM was used successfully to ameliorate individual goal setting. Specific effects of PRISM-visualisation are actually evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.